WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal dust alters

  1. Coal dust symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This paper gives a report of the paper presented at the symposium held in Hanover on 9 and 10 February 1981. The topics include: the behaviour of dust and coal dust on combustion and explosion; a report on the accidents which occurred at the Laegerdorf cement works' coal crushing and drying plant; current safety requirements at coal crushing and drying plant; and coal crushing and drying. Four papers are individually abstracted. (In German)

  2. COAL DUST EMISSION PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article aims to develop 2D numerical models for the prediction of atmospheric pollution during transportation of coal in the railway car, as well as the ways to protect the environment and the areas near to the mainline from the dust emission due to the air injection installation. Methodology. To solve this problem there were developed numerical models based on the use of the equations of motion of an inviscid incompressible fluid and mass transfer. For the numerical integration of the transport equation of the pollutant the implicit alternating-triangular difference scheme was used. For numerical integration of the 2D equation for the velocity potential the method of total approximation was used. The developed numerical models are the basis of established software package. On the basis of the constructed numerical models it was carried out a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution when transporting bulk cargo by rail when the railway car has the air injection. Findings. 2D numerical models that belong to the class «diagnostic models» were developed. These models take into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dispersion of dust pollution in the atmosphere during transportation of bulk cargo. The developed numerical models make it possible to calculate the dust loss process, taking into account the use of the air injection of the car. They require a small cost of the computer time during practical realization at the low and medium power machines. There were submitted computational calculations to determine pollutant concentrations and the formation of the zone of pollution near the train with bulk cargo in «microscale» scale taking into account the air curtains. Originality. 2D numerical models taking into account the relevant factors influencing the process of dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, and the formation of the zone of pollution during transportation of bulk cargo by

  3. Embryonic exposure to an aqueous coal dust extract results in gene expression alterations associated with the development and function of connective tissue and the hematological system, immunological and inflammatory disease, and cancer in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Wirbisky-Hershberger, Sara E; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; de la Rosa, Jesus; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2018-03-01

    Coal mining is one of the economic activities with the greatest impact on environmental quality. At all stages contaminants are released as particulates such as coal dust. The first aim of this study was to obtain an aqueous coal dust extract and characterize its composition in terms of trace elements by ICP-MS. In addition, the developmental toxicity of the aqueous coal extract was evaluated using zebrafish (Danio rerio) after exposure to different concentrations (0-1000 ppm; μg mL -1 ) to establish acute toxicity, morphology and transcriptome changes. Trace elements within the aqueous coal dust extract present at the highest concentrations (>10 ppb) included Sr, Zn, Ba, As, Cu and Se. In addition, Cd and Pb were found in lower concentrations. No significant difference in mortality was observed (p > 0.05), but a delay in hatching was found at 0.1 and 1000 ppm (p 0.05). Transcriptomic results of zebrafish larvae revealed alterations in 77, 61 and 1376 genes in the 1, 10, and 100 ppm groups, respectively. Gene ontology analysis identified gene alterations associated with the development and function of connective tissue and the hematological system, as well as pathways associated with apoptosis, the cell cycle, transcription, and oxidative stress including the MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, altered genes were associated with cancer; connective tissue, muscular, and skeletal disorders; and immunological and inflammatory diseases. Overall, this is the first study to characterize gene expression alterations in response to developmental exposure to aqueous coal dust residue from coal mining with transcriptome results signifying functions and systems to target in future studies.

  4. 78 FR 28242 - Proposed Information Collection; Cleanup Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts, Loose Coal, and Other Combustibles AGENCY: Mine... collection for developing and updating a cleanup program for accumulations of coal and float coal dusts, loose coal, and other combustibles in underground coal mines. DATES: All comments must be postmarked or...

  5. Study on coal dust wettability measurement using cold briquetting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Xu, H.; Shu, X. [North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Department of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2008-12-15

    Quantitative measuring of coal dust wettability is essential for the research and development of chemical coal dust suppressants in the field of dust control with wetting-agent-added water. The causes of low repeat rate and poor consistency in present lab testing of coal dust wettability are discussed. The influence of different briquetting pressure (from 0 to 6.5108 Pa) on the wet behavior of coal dust is investigated as a new way to quantitatively evaluate coal dust wettability. The study shows that there is a fairly high coincidence between the coal dust wettability data measured by the briquetting technique and the results gained from the lab dust suppression tests using an MCYZ apparatus designed by the authors. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Respirable quartz hazard associated with coal mine roof bolter dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, G.J.; Beck, T.W.; Listak, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis has been reported to be increasing among underground coal miners in the Southern Appalachian Region. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a study to examine the particle size distribution and quartz content of dust generated by the installation of roof bolts in mines. Forty-six bulk samples of roof bolting machine pre-cleaner cyclone dump dust and collector box dust were collected from 26 underground coal mines. Real-time and integrated airborne respirable dust concentrations were measured on 3 mining sections in 2 mines. The real-time airborne dust concentrations profiles were examined to identify any concentration changes that might be associated with pre-cleaner cyclone dust discharge events. The study showed that bolter dust is a potential inhalation hazard due to the fraction of dust less than 10 μm in size, and the quartz content of the dust. The pre-cleaner cyclone dust was significantly larger than the collector box dust, indicating that the pre-cleaner functioned properly in removing the larger dust size fraction from the airstream. However, the pre-cleaner dust still contained a substantial amount of respirable dust. It was concluded that in order to maintain the effectiveness of a roof bolter dust collector, periodic removal of dust is required. Appropriate work procedures and equipment are necessary to minimize exposure during this cleaning task. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Control of harmful dust in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, B; Bower, K; Mitchell, D

    1973-01-01

    This handbook consists of a series of short chapters devoted to: sources of airborne dust; dust standards and methods of sampling; dust prevention on mechanized faces; ventilation and dust extraction; distribution and use of water; dust control on mechanized faces; dust control in drivages and headings; drilling and shotfiring; dust control in transport; some outbye dust control techniques (hygroscopic salts, impingement curtains); water infusion; personal protective equipment. (CIS Abstr.)

  8. Occurrence of trace elements in respirable coal dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Inhalation of fine particles of coal dust contributes significantly to the occurrence of the disease, pneumoconiosis, prevailing in coal mining community. It is not presently known whether only the coal dust or specific chemical compounds or synergistic effects of several compounds associated with respirable coal dust is responsible for the disease, pneumoconiosis. The present paper describes the quantitative determination of ten minor and trace elements in respirable coal dust particles by atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The respirable coal dust samples are collected at the mine atmosphere during drilling in coal scams by using Messrs. Casella's Hexlet apparatus specially designed and fitted with horizontal elutriator to collect the respirable coal dust fraction simulating as near as possible to the lung's retention of the coal miners. After destruction of organic matter by wet oxidation and filtering off clay and silica, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni were determined directly in the resulting solution by atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedures. The results show that the trace metals are more acute in lower range of size spectrum. Correlation coefficient, enrichment factor and linear regression values and their inverse relationship between the slope and EF values suggest that, in general, the trace metals in respirable particulates are likely to be from coal derived source if their concentrations are likewise high in the coal. The trace metal analytical data of respirable particulates fitted well to the linear regressive equation. The results of the studies are of importance as it may throw some light on the respirable lung disease 'pneumoconiosis' which are predominant in coal mining community. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs

  9. Simulation of thermal effectiveness under coal dust burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korabejnikova, V.K.

    2001-01-01

    The simulation equation of polydisperse fuel (coal dust) torch combustion in the definite zones of burning cameras of stream generator and taking into account reactions in kinetic and diffusion areas at distinguishing temperatures of particles and gas are considered. (author)

  10. The causes and consequences of blown-up coal dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrins, E.L.M.; Van Zuylen, E.J.

    1991-11-01

    The goal of the Dutch National Research Program Coal (NOK), which started in 1983, is to eliminate technical, economic and ecological objections, connected with the large-scale use of coal. The Blown-up Coal Dust program, which is completed in 1991, aimed at problems that arise, due to the dispersion of coal dust in the vicinity of coal storage and transshipment areas. The accumulated knowledge is categorized according to the route the dust itself follows, starting with activities that cause the dust and continuing up to the effects, of which nuisance in the neighborhood is the most important. The successive chapters are: Activities, Emission, Concentration, Deposition, Pollution and Nuisance and other effects. Inventories of available knowledge, models and measuring equipment have been carried out for each part. The models describe the connection between the various stages of the progress of the dust, from cause to consequence. Newly developed measuring equipment was tested in practice. Various analysis techniques were used and evaluated, such as gravimetric, chemical and optical analysis. A specific coal dust analysis technique is not available. 15 figs., 23 tabs., 1 appendix, 263 refs

  11. Assessment of respirable dust exposures in an opencast coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, M; Yigit, E

    2009-05-01

    All major opencast mining activities produce dust. The major operations that produce dust are drilling, blasting, loading, unloading, and transporting. Dust not only deteriorates the environmental air quality in and around the mining site but also creates serious health hazards. Therefore, assessment of dust levels that arise from various opencast mining operations is required to prevent and minimize the health risks. To achieve this objective, an opencast coal mining area was selected to generate site-specific emission data and collect respirable dust measurement samples. The study covered various mining activities in different locations including overburden loading, stock yard, coal loading, drilling, and coal handling plant. The dust levels were examined to assess miners' exposure to respirable dust in each of the opencast mining areas from 1994 to 2005. The data obtained from the dust measurement studies were evaluated by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer procedure. The analyses were performed by using Minitab 14 statistical software. It was concluded that, drilling operations produce higher dust concentration levels and thus, drill operators may have higher incidence of respiratory disorders related to exposure to dust in their work environment.

  12. Development of an extended shift exposure limit adjustment factor for coal mine dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiernan, G; Van Zanten, D [SIMTARS (Australia)

    1999-12-31

    Four models for adjusting exposure standards for use during altered work shifts are reviewed. These are the absorbed dose adjustment model; the Brief and Scala model; the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) model; and the pharmacokinetic models of Hockey and Reist and of Stan Roach. The most appropriate model is selected for control of coal mine dusts exposure. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Continuous dust monitoring in headings in underground coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Lebecki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents hazardous conditions of airborne dust based on the results of measurements of dust concentration taken at work-places at a underground rock-coal face drilled by a heading machine with combined ventilation (suction and forced ventilation with dust collector. The measurements were taken using three methods in order to examine and assess the actual conditions within the excavation subject to the study. The measurement results and conclusions show major difficulties in achieving MAC levels. Research conclusions indicate the low efficiency of collective and personal measures applied to protect against dust harmful to health as well as the need to improve them.

  14. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... industries, such as mining, by reducing workplace deaths and improving the health of coal miners. This..., enhanced enforcement, collaborative outreach, and education and training. The initiative will reduce, and... reducing the respirable coal mine dust levels, miners continue to develop black lung. Based on recent data...

  15. Determine the feasibility of techniques for simulating coal dust explosions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirsten, JT

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of reliably simulating the coal dust explosion process taking place in the Kloppersbos tunnel with a computer model. Secondary objectives are to investigate the viability of simulating...

  16. Regulator of Dust and Coal Burner of Power Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wujcik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The papers considers problems concerning introduction of neutron regulator into engineering practice. The regulator makes it possible to regulate CO, N0^ and O2 values with the purpose to optimize ejections into environment. The paper contains scheme of automation control of cyclone dust and coal burner with the help of a neutron regulator.

  17. 78 FR 27442 - Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices; Correction AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: On April 30, 2013, Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) published a notice in the Federal Register...

  18. Dust collection capacity of plants growing in coal mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Plant can act as living filter of dust pollution in coal mining areas, where the amount of suspended particulate matter and dust fall rate is very high. Therefore, plant species growing in coal mining areas are classified as evergreen or deciduous with simple and compound leaf basis. The dust arresting capacity of each leaf is measured and expressed in g/m 2 . The study indicated that evergreen plants with simple, pilose surface, like - Alstonia, Ficus cunea, F. benghalensis and Mangifera indica are good dust catcher than evergreen compound leaves of Cassia siamea, Acacia arabica and Leucaena leucocephala. Deciduous with simple leaves, such as Zizyphus mauritiana, F. religiosa, Psidium guyava are also good dust collectors. Suitable plant species also help in quick reclamation of mined out areas; one practical difficulty for establishment of trees as green belts or reclamation purpose, has been incidence of cattle grazing. This study suggested a systematic way of selecting plant species on the basis of their efficiency in dust control and resistance to cattle grazing. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Characterization of airborne float coal dust emitted during continuous mining, longwall mining and belt transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, M R; Seaman, C E; Beck, T W; Colinet, J F; Mischler, S E

    2017-09-01

    Float coal dust is produced by various mining methods, carried by ventilating air and deposited on the floor, roof and ribs of mine airways. If deposited, float dust is re-entrained during a methane explosion. Without sufficient inert rock dust quantities, this float coal dust can propagate an explosion throughout mining entries. Consequently, controlling float coal dust is of critical interest to mining operations. Rock dusting, which is the adding of inert material to airway surfaces, is the main control technique currently used by the coal mining industry to reduce the float coal dust explosion hazard. To assist the industry in reducing this hazard, the Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health initiated a project to investigate methods and technologies to reduce float coal dust in underground coal mines through prevention, capture and suppression prior to deposition. Field characterization studies were performed to determine quantitatively the sources, types and amounts of dust produced during various coal mining processes. The operations chosen for study were a continuous miner section, a longwall section and a coal-handling facility. For each of these operations, the primary dust sources were confirmed to be the continuous mining machine, longwall shearer and conveyor belt transfer points, respectively. Respirable and total airborne float dust samples were collected and analyzed for each operation, and the ratio of total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust was calculated. During the continuous mining process, the ratio of total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust ranged from 10.3 to 13.8. The ratios measured on the longwall face were between 18.5 and 21.5. The total airborne float coal dust to respirable dust ratio observed during belt transport ranged between 7.5 and 21.8.

  20. Quantitative detection of settled coal dust over green canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Sahar, Nir

    2017-04-01

    The main task of environmental and geoscience applications are efficient and accurate quantitative classification of earth surfaces and spatial phenomena. In the past decade, there has been a significant interest in employing spectral unmixing in order to retrieve accurate quantitative information latent in in situ data. Recently, the ground-truth and laboratory measured spectral signatures promoted by advanced algorithms are proposed as a new path toward solving the unmixing problem in semi-supervised fashion. This study presents a practical implementation of field spectroscopy as a quantitative tool to detect settled coal dust over green canopy in free/open environment. Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, and pulverizing of coal. Since the inelastic nature of coal, coal dust can be created during transportation, or by mechanically handling coal. Coal dust, categorized at silt-clay particle size, of particular concern due to heavy metals (lead, mercury, nickel, tin, cadmium, mercury, antimony, arsenic, isotopes of thorium and strontium) which are toxic also at low concentrations. This hazard exposes risk on both environment and public health. It has been identified by medical scientist around the world as causing a range of diseases and health problems, mainly heart and respiratory diseases like asthma and lung cancer. It is due to the fact that the fine invisible coal dust particles (less than 2.5 microns) long lodge in the lungs and are not naturally expelled, so long-term exposure increases the risk of health problems. Numerus studies reported that data to conduct study of geographic distribution of the very fine coal dust (smaller than PM 2.5) and related health impacts from coal exports, is not being collected. Sediment dust load in an indoor environment can be spectrally assessed using reflectance spectroscopy (Chudnovsky and Ben-Dor, 2009). Small amounts of particulate pollution that may carry a signature

  1. Gastric cancer in coal miners: an hypothesis of coal mine dust causation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, T M; Whong, W Z; Ames, R G

    1983-10-01

    An hypothesis is proposed to explain the elevated incidence of gastric cancer among coal miners. Inhaled coal mine dust, especially the larger particles, is cleared from the lung and tracheobronchial tree by mucociliary function, swallowed, and introduced into the stomach. Organic and/or inorganic materials in the dust can undergo intra-gastric nitrosation and/or interaction with exogenous chemicals to form carcinogenic compounds which in turn may lead to precancerous lesions, which may subsequently develop into gastric cancer. This sequence of events, however, depends upon occupational exposures as well as life-style features and individual genetic predisposition.

  2. Coal dust darkens the bargaining table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, A.H.

    1978-04-24

    Reverberations from the lengthy winter 1978 coal strike are sure to have effects on other unions--teamsters, postal workers, trainmen, steel workers--the author says. This debacle in the coal fields obliges Americans to recognize that, bad as union dictatorship undoubtedly is, union anarchy is potentially more destructive. Miners showed that anarchy pays; they demonstrated that the rank-and-file with control over a vital source can get a better deal by spurning the settlements made by their elected leaders and defying court back-to-work orders. President Carter's encouragement of defiance is discussed. The U.M.W. precedent may encourage all rebel groups in unions to demand a seat at the bargaining table. (MCW)

  3. Mice housed on coal dust-contaminated sand: A model to evaluate the impacts of coal mining on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Coal dust is the most important air pollutant in coal mining in regards to producing deleterious health effects. It permeates the surrounding environment threatening public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects associated with exposure to sand contaminated with coal dust particles below 38 μm in diameter, obtained from a mineral sample collected in the largest coal mine in South America, La Loma, Cesar, Colombia. Sterilized sand was spiked with coal dust to obtain concentrations ranging from zero to 4% coal dust. To model natural exposure, mice were housed for eight weeks in boxes containing this mixture as bedding after which, they were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Real time PCR analysis revealed an increase in Cyp1A1 mRNA for living on sand with coal dust concentrations greater than 2% compared to mice living on sand without coal dust. Unexpectedly, for mice on coal dust-polluted sand, Sod1, Scd1 and Nqo1 hepatic mRNA were downregulated. The Comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in blood smears, showed a significant potential genotoxic effect only at the highest coal dust concentration. Histopathological analysis revealed vascular congestion and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs. A dose-response relationship for the presence of hepatic steatosis, vacuolization and nuclei enlargements was observed in the exposed animals. The data suggest living on a soil polluted with coal dust induces molecular, cellular and histopathological changes in mice. Accordingly, the proposed model can be used to identify deleterious effects of exposure to coal dust deposited in soils that may pose health risks for surrounding wildlife populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ...; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: 60-Day... mines. CPDMs must be designed and constructed for coal miners to wear and operate without impeding their... related to Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices. MSHA is particularly interested in comments that: Evaluate...

  5. Disposal of coal and hematite dusts inhaled successively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heppleston, A G

    1958-01-01

    Rabbits and rats were exposed in a chamber to coal (20,000 and 10,000 particles/ml) and hematite (20,000 and 37,000 particles/ml) in succession to follow deposition and clearance by color. Exposures were 5 days/wk, 20 hr/day. Generally, there was dust widely but not uniformly distributed in peripheral alveoli, tending to aggregate and clump in more proximal alveoli with time. There was initial nonuniform distribution more uniform with exposure time. Aggregation mostly through phagocyte activities and more evident in rabbits than rats was observed. There was eventual mixing of two dusts inhaled up to 7 months apart. Dust deposited last is cleared first because of less tortuous route.

  6. Mice housed on coal dust-contaminated sand: A model to evaluate the impacts of coal mining on health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina, E-mail: kcaballerog@unicartagena.edu.co; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus, E-mail: joliverov@unicartagena.edu.co

    2016-03-01

    Coal dust is the most important air pollutant in coal mining in regards to producing deleterious health effects. It permeates the surrounding environment threatening public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects associated with exposure to sand contaminated with coal dust particles below 38 μm in diameter, obtained from a mineral sample collected in the largest coal mine in South America, La Loma, Cesar, Colombia. Sterilized sand was spiked with coal dust to obtain concentrations ranging from zero to 4% coal dust. To model natural exposure, mice were housed for eight weeks in boxes containing this mixture as bedding after which, they were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Real time PCR analysis revealed an increase in Cyp1A1 mRNA for living on sand with coal dust concentrations greater than 2% compared to mice living on sand without coal dust. Unexpectedly, for mice on coal dust-polluted sand, Sod1, Scd1 and Nqo1 hepatic mRNA were downregulated. The Comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in blood smears, showed a significant potential genotoxic effect only at the highest coal dust concentration. Histopathological analysis revealed vascular congestion and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs. A dose–response relationship for the presence of hepatic steatosis, vacuolization and nuclei enlargements was observed in the exposed animals. The data suggest living on a soil polluted with coal dust induces molecular, cellular and histopathological changes in mice. Accordingly, the proposed model can be used to identify deleterious effects of exposure to coal dust deposited in soils that may pose health risks for surrounding wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Mice were exposed to coal dust-contaminated sand. • mRNA Markers for PAH exposure, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress increased. • ALT activity in plasma increased at the highest exposure to coal dust. • Liver tissues of exposed

  7. A systematic review of occupational exposure to coal dust and the risk of interstitial lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Christiane; Kolstad, Henrik A; Søndergaard, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to coal dust can cause interstitial lung disease (ILD), but whether this is due to pure coal or to the contents of quartz in coal is less clear. Here, we systematically reviewed the relation between 'pure coal' and ILD. Methods: In a systematic review based on PRISMA criteria...

  8. A systematic review of occupational exposure to coal dust and the risk of interstitial lung diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, Christiane; Kolstad, Henrik A; Søndergaard, Klaus; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Heederik, Dick; Olsen, Karen E; Omland, Øyvind; Petsonk, Edward; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sherson, David L; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to coal dust can cause interstitial lung disease (ILD), but whether this is due to pure coal or to the contents of quartz in coal is less clear. Here, we systematically reviewed the relation between 'pure coal' and ILD. Methods: In a systematic review based on PRISMA criteria

  9. Accuracy criteria recommended for the certification of gravimetric coal-mine-dust samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.; Bartley, D.L.; Breuer, G.M.; Doemeny, L.J.; Murdock, D.J.

    1984-07-01

    Procedures for testing bias and precision of gravimetric coal-mine-dust sampling units are reviewed. Performance criteria for NIOSH certification of personal coal-mine dust samplers are considered. The NIOSH criterion is an accuracy of 25% at the 95% confidence interval. Size distributions of coal-mine-dust are discussed. Methods for determining size distributions are described. Sampling and sizing methods are considered. Cyclone parameter estimation is discussed. Bias computations for general sampling units are noted. Recommended procedures for evaluating bias and precision of gravimetric coal mine dust personal samplers are given. The authors conclude that when cyclones are operated at lower rates, the NIOSH accuracy criteria can be met

  10. Coal dust contiguity-induced changes in the concentration of TNF- and NF- B p65 on the ocular surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.Y.; Hong, J.; Liu, Z.Y.; Jin, X.D.; Gu, C.H. [China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2009-07-01

    To observe the influence of coal dust on ocular surface of coal miners and rabbits with coal dust contiguity on expression TNF- and NF- Bp65 and dry eye occurrence. Expression TNF- and NF- Bp65 in ocular surface were determined. Results showed tear production, BUT and lysozyme decreased for coal miners and rabbits with coal dust contiguity. Coal dust exposure was linked to development of xerophthalmia, and induced a higher expression of NF- B p65 and TNF- perhaps as a mechanism to resist coal dust ocular surface injury.

  11. Investigation of coal dust explosion hazard at the Nikola Tesla-A thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubovic, D

    1987-10-01

    Reports on investigations into coal dust explosion hazards in working places with high coal dust exposure, done in the Tesla-A thermal power station by Mining Institute of Belgrade specialists. Settled and floating coal dust concentrations were monitored for six months and samples analyzed for explosibility under lab conditions. Samples from transport and preparation facilities and the power station boiler house were taken. The entire plant was divided into 4 zones, depending on intensity of dust settlement and ventilation system. Coal dust generation varied from 0.3-65 g/min. Daily dust settlement ranged between 40 and 300 g/m/sup 2/. Total quantity of accumulated coal dust in the power plant ranged from 0.8-650 kg/day; 250 g/m/sup 3/ of coal dust may cause an explosion. Thus, a dangerous amount of coal dust, depending on work-site, will settle in 3.3.-21.8 days. Disturbance of settled dust may create explodable clouds. Details of measurements taken and data evaluation are included. 4 refs.

  12. Coal Mine Dust Desquamative Chronic Interstitial Pneumonia: A Precursor of Dust-Related Diffuse Fibrosis and of Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav M Jelic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diseases associated with coal mine dust continue to affect coal miners. Elucidation of initial pathological changes as a precursor of coal dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema, may have a role in treatment and prevention. Objective: To identify the precursor of dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema. Methods: Birefringent silica/silicate particles were counted by standard microscope under polarized light in the alveolar macrophages and fibrous tissue in 25 consecutive autopsy cases of complicated coal worker's pneumoconiosis and in 21 patients with tobacco-related respiratory bronchiolitis. Results: Coal miners had 331 birefringent particles/high power field while smokers had 4 (p<0.001. Every coal miner had intra-alveolar macrophages with silica/silicate particles and interstitial fibrosis ranging from minimal to extreme. All coal miners, including those who never smoked, had emphysema. Fibrotic septa of centrilobular emphysema contained numerous silica/silicate particles while only a few were present in adjacent normal lung tissue. In coal miners who smoked, tobacco-associated interstitial fibrosis was replaced by fibrosis caused by silica/silicate particles. Conclusion: The presence of silica/silicate particles and anthracotic pigment-laden macrophages inside the alveoli with various degrees of interstitial fibrosis indicated a new disease: coal mine dust desquamative chronic interstitial pneumonia, a precursor of both dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema. In studied coal miners, fibrosis caused by smoking is insignificant in comparison with fibrosis caused by silica/silicate particles. Counting birefringent particles in the macrophages from bronchioalveolar lavage may help detect coal mine dust desquamative chronic interstitial pneumonia, and may initiate early therapy and preventive measures.

  13. 30 CFR 74.5 - Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units... Personal Sampler Unit § 74.5 Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units. (a) The National Institute for... tests and evaluations to determine whether the pump unit of a CMDPSU that is submitted for approval...

  14. 77 FR 38323 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration... Sampling'' to more accurately reflect the type of information that is collected. Chronic exposure to... dust levels since 1970 and, consequently, the prevalence rate of black lung among coal miners, severe...

  15. Coal Mine Dust Desquamative Chronic Interstitial Pneumonia: A Precursor of Dust-Related Diffuse Fibrosis and of Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Estalilla, Oscar C; Sawyer-Kaplan, Phyllis R; Plata, Milton J; Powers, Jeremy T; Emmett, Mary; Kuenstner, John T

    2017-07-01

    Diseases associated with coal mine dust continue to affect coal miners. Elucidation of initial pathological changes as a precursor of coal dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema, may have a role in treatment and prevention. To identify the precursor of dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema. Birefringent silica/silicate particles were counted by standard microscope under polarized light in the alveolar macrophages and fibrous tissue in 25 consecutive autopsy cases of complicated coal worker's pneumoconiosis and in 21 patients with tobacco-related respiratory bronchiolitis. Coal miners had 331 birefringent particles/high power field while smokers had 4 (pcoal miner had intra-alveolar macrophages with silica/silicate particles and interstitial fibrosis ranging from minimal to extreme. All coal miners, including those who never smoked, had emphysema. Fibrotic septa of centrilobular emphysema contained numerous silica/silicate particles while only a few were present in adjacent normal lung tissue. In coal miners who smoked, tobacco-associated interstitial fibrosis was replaced by fibrosis caused by silica/silicate particles. The presence of silica/silicate particles and anthracotic pigment-laden macrophages inside the alveoli with various degrees of interstitial fibrosis indicated a new disease: coal mine dust desquamative chronic interstitial pneumonia, a precursor of both dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema. In studied coal miners, fibrosis caused by smoking is insignificant in comparison with fibrosis caused by silica/silicate particles. Counting birefringent particles in the macrophages from bronchioalveolar lavage may help detect coal mine dust desquamative chronic interstitial pneumonia, and may initiate early therapy and preventive measures.

  16. Final report on dust monitoring near Kellingley coal mine, North Yorkshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallack, H.W.

    1992-06-01

    Dust deposition was monitored at a residential location near Kellingley Coal Mine over two four-weekly periods (November/December 1991 and March/April 1992) using a wet Frisbee dust deposit gauge. The mean rates of dust deposition for both periods (696.4 and 415.5 mg m -2 day -1 respectively) were well in excess of a proposed acceptable upper limit (195 mg m -2 day -1 ) for residential conditions. Mean estimated coal dust content during both periods (80.9 and 49.7 per cent) was also high. It is concluded that coal dust from Kellingley Coal Mine gave rise to excessively high levels of dust deposition at the monitoring site, especially during the first four-weekly period. The situation would appear to have deteriorated since a similar monitoring exercise was carried out in 1989. 4 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  17. From explosions to black lung: a history of efforts to control coal mine dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, J L

    1993-01-01

    Highlights in the history of efforts to prevent occupational lung disease among coal miners in the United States are reviewed. The Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 is summarized, and the sources and effects of its provisions to prevent coal workers' pneumoconiosis are examined. Descriptions follow of the identification of coal workers' pneumoconiosis as a disease, identification of respirable coal mine dust as its cause, and establishment and enforcement of an exposure limit. The development of prevention efforts focusing on surveillance of both exposure and outcome and of enforcement of dust control methods is examined.

  18. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  19. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2005-11-01

    Prolonged exposure to airborne respirable coal dust is responsible for coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), commonly called black lung. Health research studies have identified that the prevalence and severity of CWP are directly related to both the amount of dust exposure and the coal rank. The amount of airborne respirable dust (ARD) smaller than 10 micrometers generated from breakage of different coals varies widely. To investigate the cause, researchers for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted experiments to identify the causes of airborne respirable dust liberation. Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals from eight mines. The results indicate that the proximate analysis of a coal sample can provide a very good indicator of the potential for a dust problem. For application to the coal mining, processing, and utilization industries, data from 977 US coal seams compiled by the Department of Energy (DoE) has been used to calculate this dust generation potential from an equation based on the NIOSH measured data. A simple procedure for this calculation is provided. 1 fig.

  20. Increasing the dust separation efficiency by water spray during the operation of coal combines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feskov, M I; Kurdyukov, A N

    1974-08-01

    Possibilities of efficient wet dust separation around coal combines and their working members are described. The water consumption for dust separation around working members ranges from 0.3 to 1 l/cu m dust-laden air. The working member can be isolated from his surroundings by plastic walls or shields, while water or air curtains are rather unreliable. Such isolation requires a considerable increase in the water expenditure to improve the wettability of the coal particles by humidifying the air. Laboratory experiments revealed improved wettability and sedimentability of coal particles in humid air.

  1. Oxydative stress in rats caused by coal dust plus cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Kania

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal dust and cigarette smoke are pollutants found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress, the effects of which on blood malondialdehyde (MDA level and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD level are still unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of coal dust and cigarette smoke on levels of MDA and SOD in rats. An experimental study was done on Wistar male rats divided into the following groups: control (C, coal dust exposure (14 days (CDE, cigarette smoke exposure (14 days (CSE, coal dust exposure (7 days followed by cigarette smoke exposure (7 days (CDE+CSE, cigarette smoke exposure (7 days followed by coal dust exposure (7 days (CSE+CDE. All exposures increased MDA levels and decreased SOD activity significantly between groups (p=0.000. All exposure groups had significantly increased blood MDA levels, compared to the control group, although there was no difference between CSE + CDE and CDE + CSE. For SOD levels, all exposure groups had significantly decreased the SOD levels compared to control. But there were no significant differences between CSE vs CDE and CDE + CSE vs CSE + CDE. We conclude that exposure to cigarette smoke significantly increases blood MDA level and decreases serum SOD activity, which was not found in exposure to coal dust. Combined exposures also increase blood MDA level and decrease serum SOD activity significantly.

  2. Oxydative stress in rats caused by coal dust plus cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Kania

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal dust and cigarette smoke are pollutants found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress, the effects of which on blood malondialdehyde (MDA level and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD level are still unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of coal dust and cigarette smoke on levels of MDA and SOD in rats. An experimental study was done on Wistar male rats divided into the following groups: control (C, coal dust exposure (14 days (CDE, cigarette smoke exposure (14 days (CSE, coal dust exposure (7 days followed by cigarette smoke exposure (7 days (CDE+CSE, cigarette smoke exposure (7 days followed by coal dust exposure (7 days (CSE+CDE. All exposures increased MDA levels and decreased SOD activity significantly between groups (p=0.000. All exposure groups had significantly increased blood MDA levels, compared to the control group, although there was no difference between CSE + CDE and CDE + CSE. For SOD levels, all exposure groups had significantly decreased the SOD levels compared to control. But there were no significant differences between CSE vs CDE and CDE + CSE vs CSE + CDE. We conclude that exposure to cigarette smoke significantly increases blood MDA level and decreases serum SOD activity, which was not found in exposure to coal dust. Combined exposures also increase blood MDA level and decrease serum SOD activity significantly.

  3. Decreased sialidase activity in alveolar macrophages of guinea pigs exposed to coal mine dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzidis-Trabelsi, H; Lefèvre, J P; Bignon, J; Lambré, C R

    1992-01-01

    The origin of immune dysfunctions that are observed in pneumoconiotic miners still remains unknown. There is evidence that the carbohydrate moiety of membrane glycoconjugates is of primary importance in many functions of immunocompetent cells. The glycosylation, and especially the sialylation level of membrane components of various lymphocyte and macrophage subsets, vary depending on the state of cellular differentiation and activation. Sialidases, which may regulate the amount of sialic acids exposed on the cell membrane, can thus be considered as immunoregulatory enzymes. In this report, the sialidase activity has been measured in alveolar macrophages (AM) and in cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from guinea pigs exposed for 4 months to coal mine dust at a concentration of 300 mg/m3. The samples were collected by bronchoalveolar lavage 2 months after cessation of exposure. The sialidase activity in the cell-free fluid and in the purified alveolar macrophages showed a 10-fold decrease (p less than 0.001). Kinetic parameters of the enzyme such as Km and optimum pH did not change. This changed activity was specific for sialidase, as two other lysosomal glycosidases, beta-galactosidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase, showed unchanged activities. These results suggest the possibility that, by inducing a decreased sialidase activity, exposure to coal mine dust may lead to a modified expression of AM membrane-associated sialic acids giving rise to altered immune functions (i. e., phagocytosis, antigen processing, response to cytokines, etc.). PMID:1396442

  4. The evaluation and quantification of respirable coal and silica dust concentrations: a task-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grové, T; Van Dyk, T; Franken, A; Du Plessis, J

    2014-01-01

    Silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis are serious occupational respiratory diseases associated with the coal mining industry and the inhalation of respirable dusts containing crystalline silica. The purpose of this study (funded by the Mine Health and Safety Council of South Africa) was to evaluate the individual contributions of underground coal mining tasks to the respirable dust and respirable silica dust concentrations in an underground section by sampling the respirable dust concentrations at the intake and return of each task. The identified tasks were continuous miner (CM) cutting, construction, transfer of coal, tipping, and roof bolting. The respirable dust-generating hierarchy of the tasks from highest to lowest was: transfer of coal > CM right cutting > CM left cutting > CM face cutting > construction > roof bolting > tipping; and for respirable silica dust: CM left cutting > construction > transfer of coal > CM right cutting. Personal exposure levels were determined by sampling the exposures of workers performing tasks in the section. Respirable dust concentrations and low concentrations of respirable silica dust were found at the intake air side of the section, indicating that air entering the section is already contaminated. The hierarchy for personal respirable dust exposures was as follows, from highest to lowest: CM operator > cable handler > miner > roof bolt operator > shuttle car operator, and for respirable silica dust: shuttle car operator > CM operator > cable handler > roof bolt operator > miner. Dust control methods to lower exposures should include revision of the position of workers with regard to the task performed, positioning of the tasks with regard to the CM cutting, and proper use of the line curtains to direct ventilation appropriately. The correct use of respiratory protection should also be encouraged.

  5. Comparison of coarse coal dust sampling techniques in a laboratory-simulated longwall section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patts, Justin R; Barone, Teresa L

    2017-05-01

    Airborne coal dust generated during mining can deposit and accumulate on mine surfaces, presenting a dust explosion hazard. When assessing dust hazard mitigation strategies for airborne dust reduction, sampling is done in high-velocity ventilation air, which is used to purge the mining face and gallery tunnel. In this environment, the sampler inlet velocity should be matched to the air stream velocity (isokinetic sampling) to prevent oversampling of coarse dust at low sampler-to-air velocity ratios. Low velocity ratios are often encountered when using low flow rate, personal sampling pumps commonly used in underground mines. In this study, with a goal of employing mine-ready equipment, a personal sampler was adapted for area sampling of coarse coal dust in high-velocity ventilation air. This was done by adapting an isokinetic nozzle to the inlet of an Institute of Occupational Medicine (Edinburgh, Scotland) sampling cassette (IOM). Collected dust masses were compared for the modified IOM isokinetic sampler (IOM-MOD), the IOM without the isokinetic nozzle, and a conventional dust sampling cassette without the cyclone on the inlet. All samplers were operated at a flow rate typical of personal sampling pumps: 2 L/min. To ensure differences between collected masses that could be attributed to sampler design and were not influenced by artifacts from dust concentration gradients, relatively uniform and repeatable dust concentrations were demonstrated in the sampling zone of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health experimental mine gallery. Consistent with isokinetic theory, greater differences between isokinetic and non-isokinetic sampled masses were found for larger dust volume-size distributions and higher ventilation air velocities. Since isokinetic sampling is conventionally used to determine total dust concentration, and isokinetic sampling made a difference in collected masses, the results suggest when sampling for coarse coal dust the IOM-MOD may

  6. Biological action of coal dust formed during excavation of seams after physicochemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V; Gadzhiev, G P

    1982-03-01

    Destruction of the self-cleansing function of lungs by dust is important in the development of pneumoconiosis. It is expedient to study the influence of chemical substances, injected into coal seams to prevent methane bursts and reduce dust formation, on the physiologic mechanisms for the protection of the lungs from dust (macrophageal reaction of lungs, function of mucociliary transport). An investigation using 15, 24 and 50% solutions of binder KM/SUB/2 modified by polyvinyl alcohol, and 3% hydrochloric acid solution was conducted on 200 white rats. Reaction of rats treated with solutions of binder in different concentrations proved that accumulation of dust in lungs and lymph nodes was directly related to the strength of the solution. Three percent hydrochloric acid solution diminished dust accumulation in paratracheal lymph nodes and content of lipids and collagen in the lungs. Inhalation of dust treated with a 50% solution of binder KM/SUB/2 increases the deposit of dust in the lungs and increases fiber production. Therefore, solutions of more than 24% binder should not be used to treat coal. Solutions of 15% and 24% do not significantly affect the process of dust accumulation in the lungs. A 3% solution of hydrochloric acid reduces the dust-forming capacity of the coal mass. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  7. Investigations into detonations of coal dust suspensions in oxygen-nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.; Fearnley, P.; Nettleton, M.

    1987-03-01

    The effect of particle size (practically monodispersed), volatile content and composition of gaseous oxygen-nitrogen mixtures on initiating flame acceleration rates in coal dust suspensions is investigated experimentally. Description is given of apparatus, material used and experiments carried out. The authors discusses: microwave interferograms, pressure oscillograms for various oxygen-nitrogen mixtures; development of ionization front speed in relation to distance from diaphragm; effect of composition on shock wave advance rates. It is concluded that: microwave interferometry can successfully be used in recording initiation of coal dust suspension detonations; ignition of confined coal dust suspensions by shock waves originated by detonation front in stoichiometric oxyacetylene mixtures can be explained by heating of coal particles in shock compression stream to ignition temperature (1000 K) by combined convection and radiation heat transfer. 16 refs.

  8. The theory and technology of enclosure dust-laying model in speeded advance of coal road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Min Cheng; Xiang-Sheng Liu; Guo-Qiang Ruan; Yun-Xiang Guo; Gang Wang [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China). Key Laboratory of Mine Disaster Prevention and Control

    2009-02-15

    In order to solve the problem of high dust concentration caused by the rapid advance of coal roadways using the ABM20 development machine, a method suitable for the rapid advance of coal roadways in China was proposed. By using the mathematic model method to contrast the wind current field and dust field of the drivage face under different drivage velocities, an optimized drivage velocity of the fully-mechanized development machine was obtained. The theories were tested in an industry experiment. Analysis of the data indicates that the proposed enclosure dust-laying system can significantly lower the dust concentration at the heading face. It also has some advantages in accomplishing the effective advance of coal mines. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Assessment of nitrogen oxide emission for designing boilers fired with coal dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Gusev, L.N.; Babii, V.I.

    1983-09-01

    A method for forecasting emission of nitrogen oxides from steam boilers fired with coal is described. The method produces accurate results when nitrogen oxide emission from furnaces with straight-flow burners and turbulent-type burners fired with coal dusts is forecast. Oxides formed by decomposition of chemical compounds in coal (so-called 'fuel' nitrogen oxides) and nitrogen oxides formed by oxidation of molecular nitrogen by atomic oxygen (so-called 'thermal' nitrogen oxides) are evaluated. Zones in which the two types of nitrogen oxide are formed in flames are characterized. Factors which influence formation of nitrogen oxides in a furnace are evaluated: excess air, flue gas recirculation, design of a furnace and burners, movement of air and coal dust mixture in a furnace, temperature, methods for coal dust preparation, coal dust properties. Equations for forecasting emission of nitrogen oxides from furnaces are derived. Nomograms for easy calculation of emission are also given. Examples of using the method for forecasting emission of nitrogen oxides from furnaces fired with coal from the Kuzbass, the Donbass and Ehkibastuz are discussed. Comparisons of emission of nitrogen oxides calculated on the basis of the method and emission determined experimentally show that forecasting accuracy is high and errors do not exceed 10%. 5 references.

  10. Contributions of dust exposure and cigarette smoking to emphysema severity in coal miners in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, E.D.; Wheeler, M.W.; Smith, R.J.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F.H.Y. [NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Previous studies have shown associations between dust exposure or lung burden and emphysema in coal miners, although the separate contributions of various predictors have not been clearly demonstrated. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust, cigarette smoking, and other factors on emphysema severity. The study group included 722 autopsied coal miners and nonminers in the United States. Data on work history, smoking, race, and age at death were obtained from medical records and questionnaire completed by next-of-kin. Emphysema was classified and graded using a standardized schema. Job-specific mean concentrations of respirable coal mine dust were matched with work histories to estimate cumulative exposure. Relationships between various metrics of dust exposure (including cumulative exposure and lung dust burden) and emphysema severity were investigated in weighted least squares regression models. Emphysema severity was significantly elevated in coal miners compared with nonminers among ever- and never-smokers (P < 0.0001). Cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust or coal dust retained in the lungs were significant predictors of emphysema severity (P < 0.0001) after accounting for cigarette smoking, age at death, and race. The contributions of coal mine dust exposure and cigarette smoking were similar in predicting emphysema severity averaged over this cohort. Coal dust exposure, cigarette smoking, age, and race are significant and additive predictors of emphysema severity in this study.

  11. Open-air sprays for capturing and controlling airborne float coal dust on longwall faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T.W.; Seaman, C.E.; Shahan, M.R.; Mischler, S.E.

    2018-01-01

    Float dust deposits in coal mine return airways pose a risk in the event of a methane ignition. Controlling airborne dust prior to deposition in the return would make current rock dusting practices more effective and reduce the risk of coal-dust-fueled explosions. The goal of this U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health study is to determine the potential of open-air water sprays to reduce concentrations of airborne float coal dust, smaller than 75 µm in diameter, in longwall face airstreams. This study evaluated unconfined water sprays in a featureless tunnel ventilated at a typical longwall face velocity of 3.6 m/s (700 fpm). Experiments were conducted for two nozzle orientations and two water pressures for hollow cone, full cone, flat fan, air atomizing and hydraulic atomizing spray nozzles. Gravimetric samples show that airborne float dust removal efficiencies averaged 19.6 percent for all sprays under all conditions. The results indicate that the preferred spray nozzle should be operated at high fluid pressures to produce smaller droplets and move more air. These findings agree with past respirable dust control research, providing guidance on spray selection and spray array design in ongoing efforts to control airborne float dust over the entire longwall ventilated opening. PMID:29348700

  12. Open-air sprays for capturing and controlling airborne float coal dust on longwall faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T W; Seaman, C E; Shahan, M R; Mischler, S E

    2018-01-01

    Float dust deposits in coal mine return airways pose a risk in the event of a methane ignition. Controlling airborne dust prior to deposition in the return would make current rock dusting practices more effective and reduce the risk of coal-dust-fueled explosions. The goal of this U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health study is to determine the potential of open-air water sprays to reduce concentrations of airborne float coal dust, smaller than 75 µm in diameter, in longwall face airstreams. This study evaluated unconfined water sprays in a featureless tunnel ventilated at a typical longwall face velocity of 3.6 m/s (700 fpm). Experiments were conducted for two nozzle orientations and two water pressures for hollow cone, full cone, flat fan, air atomizing and hydraulic atomizing spray nozzles. Gravimetric samples show that airborne float dust removal efficiencies averaged 19.6 percent for all sprays under all conditions. The results indicate that the preferred spray nozzle should be operated at high fluid pressures to produce smaller droplets and move more air. These findings agree with past respirable dust control research, providing guidance on spray selection and spray array design in ongoing efforts to control airborne float dust over the entire longwall ventilated opening.

  13. Role of bioavailable iron in coal dust-induced activation of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor of activated T cells: difference between Pennsylvania and Utah coal dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Xi

    2002-11-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) are two important transcription factors responsible for the regulation of cytokines, which are involved in cell proliferation and inflammation. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an occupational lung disease that may be related to chronic inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In the present study, we demonstrate that coal from the Pennsylvania (PA) coalmine region, which has a high prevalence of CWP, can activate both AP-1 and NFAT in JB6 mouse epidermal cells. In contrast, coal from the Utah (UT) coalmine region, which has a low prevalence of CWP, has no such effects. The PA coal stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 MAPK but not c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinases, as determined by the phosphorylation assay. The increase in AP-1 by the PA coal was completely eliminated by the pretreatment of cells with PD98059, a specific MAPK kinase inhibitor, and SB202190, a p38 kinase inhibitor, further confirming that the PA coal-induced AP-1 activation is mediated through ERKs and p38 MAPK pathways. Deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator, synergistically enhanced the PA coal-induced AP-1 activity, but inhibited NFAT activity. For comparison, cells were treated with ferrous sulfate and/or DFO. We have found that iron transactivated both AP-1 and NFAT, and DFO further enhanced iron-induced AP-1 activation but inhibited NFAT. These results indicate that activation of AP-1 and NFAT by the PA coal is through bioavailable iron present in the coal. These data are in agreement with our previous findings that the prevalence of CWP correlates well with levels of bioavailable iron in coals from various mining regions.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Coal Dust Wettability Based on Surface Contact Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wettability is one of the key chemical properties of coal dust, which is very important to dedusting. In this paper, the theory of liquid wetting solid was presented firstly; then, taking the gas coal of Xinglongzhuang coal mine in China as an example, by determination of critical surface tension of coal piece, it can be concluded that only when the surface tension of surfactant solution is less than 45 mN/m can the coal sample be fully wetted. Due to the effect of particle dispersity, compared with the contact angle of milled coal particle, not all the contact angles of screened coal powder with different sizes have a tendency to increase. Furthermore, by the experiments of coal samples’ specific surface areas and porosities, it can be achieved that the volume of single-point total pore decreases with the gradual decreasing of coal’s porosity, while the ultramicropores’ dispersities and multipoint BET specific surface areas increase. Besides, by a series of contact angle experiments with different surfactants, it can be found that with the increasing of porosity and the decreasing of volume percentage of ultramicropore, the contact angle tends to reduce gradually and the coal dust is much easier to get wetted.

  15. Dust control in Belgian coal mines. Position at the beginning of 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preat, B; Vanstraelen, M

    1975-01-01

    A general view is given of dust control in Belgian coal mines at the beginning of 1975. The statistical data received from the mines are presented in tabular form. The length and the output of coal faces treated by the classical methods of pre-spraying of the wall, wet cutting, water infusion and wet pneumatic picks are given separately; in some cases two or more of these techniques are used together on the same coalface. The number of rock headings in which different methods of dust control are used is also given.

  16. Detonation limits of clouds of coal dust in mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.H.; Fearnley, P.J.; Nettleton, M.A.

    1987-09-01

    Ignition and the subsequent acceleration of flame in clouds of coal dust dispersed in mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen have been studied. Two coal sizes, 24 and 54 ..mu..m, in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.22 kg/m/sup 3/ were employed. Flame acceleration and the approach to transition to a stable detonation were monitored by a combination of microwave interferometry and pressure measurements. Flame and shock velocities up to 1.85 km/sec were observed. Ignition distances were found to be independent of the concentrations of dust and oxygen and particle size.

  17. PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter C. Van Metre; Barbara J. Mahler; Jennifer T. Wilson [U.S. Geological Survey, Austin, TX (USA)

    2009-01-15

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U.S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of {Sigma}PAHs associated with sealcoat. Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U.S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U.S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2.1 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U. S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U. S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U. S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2. 1 and 0. 8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

  19. Quantification of Inherent Respirable Dust Generation Potential (IRDGP) of South African Coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phillips, H

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Advisory Committee Project Summary Project Title: Inherent Respirable Dust Generation Potential (IRDGP) of South African Coals-SIM020604 Author(s): H.R.Phillips and B. K. Belle Agency: University of Witwatersrand Report Date: July2003... Related Projects: Health 607, Sim 02-06-03 Category: Occupational Health Applied Research Occupational Hygiene Summary Project SIM020604 was formulated to determine the Inherent Respirable Dust Generation Potential (IRDGP) of various South...

  20. Phytotoxicity assessment of a methanolic coal dust extract in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-Posada, Nadia; Cabarcas-Montalvo, Maria; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2013-09-01

    Coal mining generates negative effects on environment, human health, hydrodynamics of mining areas and biodiversity. However, the impacts of this activity are less known in plants. Lemna minor is one of the most commonly used plants in aquatic toxicity tests due to its ubiquitous distribution in ponds and lakes, culture conditions and the free-floating habitat that exposes it to hydrophobic as well as dissolved compounds. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of a methanolic coal dust extract on L. minor. Macrophytes were exposed to six different concentrations of coal extract (from 7.81 to 250 mg/L) for 5 days, following the OECD test guideline 221. The coal extract had a half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 99.66 (184.95-54.59) mg/L for the number of fronds. Several signs of toxicity such as chlorosis, reduction in the size of the fronds, abscission of fronds and roots, and the presence of necrotic tissues were observed at concentrations lower than the IC50. Preliminary Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis of the coal dust extract revealed the presence of several compounds, including, among others, alkanes, carboxylic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), these lasts, may be responsible for some of the observed effects. These results demonstrated that coal dust has phytotoxic effects and should not be considered as an inert material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The fate of injectant coal in blast furnaces: The origin of extractable materials of high molecular mass in blast furnace carryover dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S.N.; Wu, L.; Paterson, N.; Herod, A.A.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [University of London Imperial College of Science & Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the work was to investigate the fate of injectant coal in blast furnaces and the origin of extractable materials in blast furnace carryover dusts. Two sets of samples including injectant coal and the corresponding carryover dusts from a full sized blast furnace and a pilot scale rig have been examined. The samples were extracted using 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent and the extracts studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The blast furnace carryover dust extracts contained high molecular weight carbonaceous material, of apparent mass corresponding to 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} u, by polystyrene calibration. In contrast, the feed coke and char prepared in a wire mesh reactor under high temperature conditions did not give any extractable material. Meanwhile, controlled combustion experiments in a high-pressure wire mesh reactor suggest that the extent of combustion of injectant coal in the blast furnace tuyeres and raceways is limited by time of exposure and very low oxygen concentration. It is thus likely that the extractable, soot-like material in the blast furnace dust originated in tars is released by the injectant coal. Our results suggest that the unburned tars were thermally altered during the upward path within the furnace, giving rise to the formation of heavy molecular weight (soot-like) materials.

  2. Pentoxifylline does not alter the response to inhaled grain dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielo, P J; Watt, J L; Quinn, T J; Knapp, H R; Schwartz, D A

    1997-05-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) has been shown to reduce sepsis-induced neutrophil sequestration in the lung and inhibit endotoxin-mediated release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Previously, we have shown that endotoxin appears to be the principal agent in grain dust causing airway inflammation and airflow obstruction following grain dust inhalation. To determine whether PTX affects the physiologic and inflammatory events following acute grain dust inhalation, 10 healthy, nonsmoking subjects with normal airway reactivity were treated with PTX or placebo (PL) followed by corn dust extract (CDE) inhalation (0.08 mL/kg), using a single-blinded, crossover design. Subjects received PTX (1,200 mg/d) or PL for 4 days prior to CDE inhalation and 400 mg PTX or PL on the exposure day. Both respiratory symptoms and declines in FEV1 and FVC occurred following CDE exposure in both groups, but there were no significant differences in the frequency of symptoms or percent declines from baseline in the FEV1 and FVC at any of the time points measured in the study. Elevations in peripheral blood leukocyte and neutrophil concentrations and BAL total cell, neutrophil, TNF-alpha, and interleukin-8 concentrations were measured 4 h following exposure to CDE in both the PTX- and PL-treated subjects, but no significant differences were found between treatment groups. These results suggest that pretreatment with PTX prior to inhalation of CDE, in the doses used in this study, does not alter the acute physiologic or inflammatory events following exposure to inhaled CDE.

  3. Improving the effectiveness of boiler units with coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.

    2007-09-01

    Problems pertinent to controlling the load of steam boilers and coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators are analyzed. A comprehensive set of patented technical solutions for these problems is presented. A formula for determining the ventilation output of mill-ventilators as a function of the fuel charge is proposed.

  4. 75 FR 57849 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... correlation between higher job risk and higher wages, suggesting that employees demand monetary compensation... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB76 Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health...

  5. Ignition of Coal Dust from the Tomsk Region Talovsky Deposit by Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebochakova Diana A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the experimental studies of the ignition characteristics of brown coal dust particles from the Tomsk region Talovsky deposit under the conditions of convective heating. The boundary conditions of combustion initiation have been established. The approximation dependence of ignition delay time from the temperature of a heat source has been found.

  6. Method of burning highly reactive strongly slagging coal dust in a chamber furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protsaylo, M.Ya.; Kotler, V.R.; Lobov, G.V.; Mechev, V.P.; Proshkin, A.V.; Zhuravlev, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    In the chamber furnace in order to reduce slagging, it is proprosed that, above the coal dust burners, nozzles be installed with inclination downwards through which air is fed in a mixture with flue gases. Under the influence of this flue gas-air mixture, the coal dust flame is deviated downwards. In this case there is an increase in the length of the flame and degree of filling of the volume of the furnace with the flame. This increases the effectiveness of dust burning. The input into the furnace of fuel jointly with the air and flue gases (optimally 10-15% of the total quantity of gases formed during fuel combustion) makes it possible to reduce the temperature in the furnace and the probability of slagging of the furnace walls.

  7. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mikania laevigata Extract on DNA Damage Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Heuser, V.D.; Tavares, P.; Leffa, D.D.; da Silva, G.A.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.R.T.; Pinho, R.A.; Streck, E.L.; Andrade,V.M. [University of Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.

  8. A Standard Characterization Methodology for Respirable Coal Mine Dust Using SEM-EDX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sellaro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A key consideration for responsible development of mineral and energy resources is the well-being of workers. Respirable dust in mining environments represents a serious concern for occupational health. In particular, coal miners can be exposed to a variety of dust characteristics depending on their work activities, and some exposures may pose risk for lung diseases like CWP and silicosis. As underscored by common regulatory frameworks, respirable dust exposures are generally characterized on the basis of total mass concentration, and also the silica mass fraction. However, relatively little emphasis has been placed on other dust characteristics that may be important in terms of identifying health risks. Comprehensive particle-level analysis to estimate chemistry, size, and shape distributions of particles is possible. This paper describes a standard methodology for characterization of respirable coal mine dust using scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX. Preliminary verification of the method is shown based several dust samples collected from an underground mine in Central Appalachia.

  9. The effects of coal dust on photosynthetic performance of the mangrove, Avicennia marina in Richards Bay, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, G.; Chirkoot, D.

    2004-01-01

    Richards Bay, on the northern KwaZulu-Natal coast, is the largest coal exporting port in South Africa. The coal is stored at the Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) prior to export. Dust from coal operations is a major problem in the Richards Bay area. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that coal dust adversely affects photosynthetic performance of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh., the dominant mangrove species in the harbour. Photosynthetic performance was determined on 10 trees by measuring carbon dioxide uptake and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters at two elevation sites and on upper and lower leaf surfaces that were covered or uncovered with coal dust. Measurements were made on five clear, sunny days at saturating light (>1000 μmol m -2 s -1 ) and high temperature (28-30 deg. C). Coal dust significantly reduced carbon dioxide exchange of upper and lower leaf surfaces by 17-39%, the reduction being generally greater on the lower leaf surface that is covered by a dense mat of trichomes and salt glands. The reduction in carbon dioxide exchange by coal dust was higher at the high elevation site that supported isolated dwarfed trees. The chlorophyll fluorescence data indicated that leaves coated with dust exhibited significantly lower photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield, lower electron transport rate (ETR) through PSII and reduced quantum efficiency of PSII (F v F m ). The chlorophyll fluorescence data supported the gas exchange measurements and are consistent with reduced photosynthetic performance of leaves coated with coal dust. - Coal dust reduced photosynthetic performance of the mangrove, Avicennia marina

  10. 75 FR 17511 - Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... base and free to oscillate at its narrow or free end on which the collection filter is mounted... coal mines from power stations, electric motors and remote control transmitters. The final rule... electromagnetic interference. The FCC is an independent Federal agency that regulates radiofrequency emitting...

  11. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F. H. Y.

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  12. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.D. Kuempel; V. Vallyathan; F.H.Y. Green [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV{sub 1}, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m{sup 3} x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79). 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, E D [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Education and Information Division, Risk Evaluation Branch, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Vallyathan, V [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Effects Laboratory Division, Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Green, F H Y, E-mail: ekuempel@cdc.go [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV{sub 1}, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV{sub 1} <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m{sup 3} x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  14. Results of dust precipitation and airborne dust measurements in the Rhineland Brown Coal Mining Area in 1991 and 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respondek, A.; Stein, W.

    1994-01-01

    In the Rhineland brown coal mining area the immission value of IW 1 = 0.35 g/(m 2 xd), as stipulated in the Technical Specifications for Air Pollution Control, was not reached anywhere in the entire above-mentioned measured area in 1991. The maximum monthly pollution load, i.e. I 2 = 0.52 g/(m 2 xd), was less than the immission value IW 2 = 0.65 g/(m 2 xd). In the measured areas under review, Rheinschiene South and Rheinschiene Centre, the values for airborne dust immission I 1 in 1991 were also less than 50% of the IW 1 value of 0.15 mg/m 3 . In view of these results and also - the measurements carried out by the LIS (State Pollution Control Authority) over many years in the townships of Kerpen, Frechen-Bachem, Huerth-Hermuelheim, Horrem, Frechen and Pulheim. - A special measurement carried out by the LIS in the Erft district and in the south of the Neuss district in 1983, and - the measurements carried out in accordance with the specifications for the licensing and development plan procedures, as well as - the results of the special measurement programme carried out in the community of Elsdorf in 1988 and 1989, there is no reason to fear that harmful effects on the environment will be caused by brown coal opencast mines and coal processing plants as a result of airborne dust. The dust precipitation measurements carried out at the request of the Cologne Mines Inspectorate revealed that in 1992 none of the values measured exceeded the IW 1 value. The highest measured I 1 value was 0.21 g/(m 2 xd), i.e. 60% of the IW 1 value. The average pollution load was 0.13 g/(m 2 xd), i.e. 37%. (orig./MSK) [de

  15. Miners' lung: a history of dust disease in British coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur McIvor; Ronald Johnston

    2007-02-15

    The authors explore the experience of coal miners' lung diseases and the attempts at voluntary and legal control of dusty conditions in British mining from the late nineteenth century to the present. In this way, the book addresses the important issues of occupational health and safety within the mining industry. The authors examine the prevalent diseases, notably pneumoconiosis, emphysema and bronchitis, and evaluate the roles of key players such as the doctors, management and employers, the state and the trade unions. Contents are: General editor's preface; Introduction. Part 1 Interpretations and Context: Methodology and historiography; Work and the body in coalmining. Part 2 Advancing Medical Knowledge on Dust Disease: Coal workers' pneumoconiosis: discovery and denial; Social medicine and pioneering epidemiology; The last gasp: bronchitis and emphysema. Part 3 The Industrial Politics of Miners' Lung: 'Enlightened management'? The NCB, the state and dust; The trade unions and dust. Part 4 Miners' Testimonies: Dust and Disability Narratives: Workplace culture: risk and masculinity; Breathless men: living and dying with dust disease. Conclusion. 3 figs., 10 tabs., 1 app.

  16. Ablation and chemical alteration of cosmic dust particles during entry into the earth`s atmosphere

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Dey, S.; Plane, J.M.C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sanchez, J.D.; Fernandes, D.

    Most dust-sized cosmic particles undergo ablation and chemical alteration during atmospheric entry, which alters their original properties. A comprehensive understanding of this process is essential in order to decipher their pre...

  17. Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Wright, I.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1995-11-01

    The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of Carboniferous materials in a gasifier is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials can occur. The objective of this task was to establish the potential risks of carbon deposition and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes by examining the current state of knowledge regarding these phenomena, making appropriate thermochemical calculations for representative coal gasifiers, and addressing possible mitigation methods. The paper discusses carbon activities, iron-based phase stabilities, steam injection, conditions that influence kinetics of carbon deposition, and influence of system operating parameters on carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  18. The effects of ambient conditions on the passive dust sampler when used in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemingway, M.; Thorpe, A.

    1998-09-01

    A previous feasibility study of the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) electret-based passive dust sampler carried out during site sampling in coal mines showed that the measurements made with the passive sampler and those made with the MRE sampler correlated well in each of two mines, but the ratios of samples obtained with the passive sampler and the MRE sampler in the two mines were different. This means the passive sampler would need a separate calibration for each coal mine in which it was used. Laboratory tests and further underground trials were carried out to quantify the possible effects of temperature and humidity on ratios. The passive dust samplers used at Maltby Colliery in the UK were found to pass the acceptance criteria according to the CEN standard for the assessment of the performance of instruments for the measurement of airborne particles, provided that samplers exposed when coal was not being cut were not included in the analysis. Temperature and relative humidity slightly affected the behaviour of the passive sampler during laboratory trials and relative humidity was found to possibly affect the behaviour during field trials. Ventilation rates had no effect on the passive sampler behaviour but the orientation of the passive dust sampler with respect to air flow affected the behaviour during laboratory trials. Further work is needed to quantify effects. 7 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Determination of combustible volatile matter in coal mine roadway dusts by backscatter of x-rays from a radioisotope source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ailwood, C.R.; Bunch, K.; Fookes, R.A.; Gravitis, V.L.; Watt, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The combustible volatile matter in coal mine roadway dusts (CVM) has been determined using x-ray backscatter techniques. The correlation between x-ray and chemical techniques is reasonably good for the 92 samples from collieries on the Bulli seam, and the maximum error expected at the maximum level of 11.5 weight per cent CVM permitted in the N.S.W. Coal Mines Regulation Act, 1912, as amended, is about +- 2.5 weight per cent. This x-ray technique can be used only when the combustible volatile content of the coal matter (CVM) varies within a limited range, and a separate calibration is required for each coal seam. Portable equipment based on a radioisotope x-ray source and digital ratemeter makes possible simple and rapid analysis, and with adaptation to use in coal mines should lead to much more comprehensive testing of roadways and hence improved overall prevention of coal dust explosions. (author)

  20. Estimation of respirable dust exposure among coal miners in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Rajen; Seixas, Noah; Robins, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    The use of retrospective occupational hygiene data for epidemiologic studies is useful in determining exposure-outcome relationships, but the potential for exposure misclassification is high. Although dust sampling in the South African coal industry has been a legal requirement for several decades, these historical data are not readily adequate for estimating past exposures. This study describes the respirable coal mine dust levels in three South African coal mines over time. Each of the participating mining operations had well-documented dust sampling information that was used to describe historical trends in dust exposure. Investigator-collected personal dust samples were taken using standardized techniques from the face, backbye (underground jobs not at the coal face), and surface from 50 miners at each mine, repeated over three sampling cycles. Job histories and exposure information was obtained from a sample of 684 current miners and 188 ex-miners. Linear models were developed to estimate the exposure levels associated with work in each mine, exposure zone, and over time using a combination of operator-collected historical data and investigator-collected samples. The estimated levels were then combined with work history information to calculate cumulative exposure metrics for the miner cohort. The mean historical and investigator-collected respirable dust levels were within international norms and South African standards. Silica content of the dust samples was also below the 5% regulatory action level. Mean respirable dust concentrations at the face, based on investigator-collected samples, were 0.9 mg/m(3), 1.3 mg/m(3), and 1.9 mg/m(3) at Mines 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The operator-collected samples showed considerable variability across exposure zones, mines, and time, with the annual means at the face ranging from 0.4 mg/m(3) to 2.9 mg/m(3). Statistically significant findings were found between operator- and investigator-collected dust samples. Model

  1. Systems to limit coal dust and methane explosions in coal mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JJL

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for enhanced precautionary measures to safeguard mine workers in collieries from the consequences of methane ignitions in a heading, the coal mining industry has expressed the desire for the development and testing of active...

  2. Increased occupational coal dust toxicity in blood of central heating system workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluce, Yasin; Ozkol, Halil; Koyuncu, Ismail; Ine, Hatice

    2011-02-01

    Coal dust causes lung diseases in occupational exposure. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of its toxicity. In this study, serum enzymes, lipid profile and other biochemical values with oxidant/antioxidant status in whole blood and serum of central heating system workers (CHSW; the persons responsible for heating the apartment with coal) were determined to reflect the cell injury. Blood samples were obtained from CHSW (n = 25) and healthy individuals (n = 25). All values were measured in whole blood and serum. ANOVA was used for the estimation of statistical data. In the group of CHSW, creatinine, ferritin, alanin aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities as well as triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein, protein carbonyl and malondialdehide were significantly higher, while transferrin, high density lipoprotein and catalase (CAT) activities were lower than the group of healthy individuals. This result is consistent with hypothesis that respirable coal dust generates lipid and protein oxidation and induces leakage of serum enzymes by cell damage. It also leads to imbalance in antioxidant defense system, lipid profile and other biochemical parameters.

  3. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuempel, E D; Vallyathan, V; Green, F H Y

    2009-01-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV 1 , as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV 1 3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  4. Investigation into the potential for dust and gas explosions in underground coal mines with reference to pick tip geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, Albert D.

    2011-01-01

    In underground coal mines, methane gas, if present in sufficient concentration, may be ignited by sparks from hot spots on the picks of coal cutting machines striking hard bands of rock. During the coal cutting, wear-flat areas develop on the trailing side of the tips of picks. As pick wear progresses, the generation of frictional heat and coal dust increases and the development of hot spots at the cutting tips may lead to an explosion of methane gas. Field experience and research work over the last few years have facilitated excellent cutting performance for certain picks through the optimisation of the cutting parameters. Such performance improvements show great promise in preventing the incidence of gas or dust explosions occurring at the coal face area. This study sets out some of the fundamentals of pick geometry and cutting parameters and the methods which have been employed to achieve improvements in reducing the hazards of gas or dust explosions. It is based on the comparative trial results of two types of picks with different designs and on a range of available research information on the subject. My investigation looked at the fundamentals of pick geometry and cutting parameters and the current suppression techniques in place to control the dust and gas explosions on the coal operating face.

  5. Research into properties of dust from domestic central heating boiler fired with coal and solid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczyński Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the content and composition of the pollutants emitted by domestic central heating boilers equipped with an automatic underfeed fuel delivery system for the combustion chamber. The comparative research was conducted. It concerned fuel properties, flue gas parameters, contents of dust (fl y ash and gaseous substances polluting the air in the flue gases emitted from a domestic CH boiler burning bituminous coal, pellets from coniferous wood, cereal straw, miscanthus, and sunflower husks, coniferous tree bark, and oats and barley grain. The emission factors for dust and gaseous air pollutants were established as they are helpful to assess the contribution of such boilers in the atmospheric air pollution. When assessing the researched boiler, it was found out that despite the development in design and construction, flue gases contained fly ash with a significant EC content, which affected the air quality.

  6. The cost of respirable coal mine dust: an analysis based on new black lung claims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.; Lichtman, K. [US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of the Interior

    1997-12-01

    The article provides summation of the monetary costs of new compensation claims associated with levels of unmitigated respirable coal mine dust and the resultant lung disease known as black lung and compares these compensation costs to the cost of dust control technology research by the US Bureau of Mines. It presents an analysis of these expenditures and projects these costs over the period from 1991 to 2010, based on projected future new claims which are assumed to be approved for federal and state benefit payment. Since current and future dust control research efforts cannot change past claim histories, a valid comparison of future research spending with other incurred costs must examine only the cost of future new claims. The bias of old claim costs was eliminated in this analysis by examining only claims since 1980. The results estimate that for an expected 339 new approved claims annually from 1991 to 2010, the Federal Trust Fund costs will be 985 million dollars. During this same period, state black lung compensation is estimated to be 18.2 billion dollars. The Bureau of Mines dust control research expenditures are estimated as 0.44% of the projected future black lung-related costs. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Field trials of an electret based passive dust sampler in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemingway, M.A.; Brown, R.C.; Arthur, J. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    An electret-based passive dust sampler has been developed by the Health and Safety Laboratory, UK. The device consists of a small disc of electret (polymer holding a permanent electric charge) held between earthen plates, and it acts by attaching charged dust particles to itself. The device does not require a pump and its rate of sampling is independent of external air velocity, provided that the velocity exceeds a low limiting value. Experiments have been carried out in two coal mines. In each experiment two passive sampler were mounted alongside an MRE sampler at the statutory sampling point in the return roadway. Both passive samplers were mounted vertically but in one the plane of the electret was parallel to the air flow and in the other it was perpendicular. The result obtained from the first mine showed a good correlation between gravimetric estimates of dust concentration obtained with the passive samplers and respirable dust concentrations obtained with MRE. The correlation between the two sets of results at the second mine was not quite as good as those of the first, but was reasonable. In no instance was any significant difference observed between samples obtained from pairs of passive samples in different orientations. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Battling coal and rock dust in mines. Bor'ba s ugol'noi i porodnoi pyl'yu v shakhtakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, P.M.; Grodel, G.S.; Korenev, A.P.; Krivokhizha, B.M.; Kul' bachnyi, A.N.; Lyubimova, A.I.; Medvedev, E.N.; Yaremachenko, P.P.; Zhilyaev, N.I.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of comprehensive removal of dust from the atmosphere in mines are discussed. Physical and pnysicochemical properties of mine dust are described, which are important for estimating the processes of its formation, spread, and suppression. Presented are the results of theoretical and natural studies of dust aerodynamics of mines. Modern methods for battling coal and rock dust in mines, as well as means of monitoring the dust level of the air are outlined. Technical descriptions are given for new instruments for changing the dust level of the air. Brief reports are given on the preliminary wetting of coal in the massif, and theoretical and practical problems are discussed concerning hydrological methods of dust removal, dust suppression by foam, and dust trapping during the operation of mining equipment, and also on removal of dust from the air at the surface complex of a mine.

  10. Evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for measurement of silica on filter samples of coal dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipe, Christopher B; Miller, Arthur L; Brown, Jonathan; Guevara, Edward; Cauda, Emanuele

    2012-11-01

    Airborne silica dust (quartz) is common in coal mines and represents a respiratory hazard that can lead to silicosis, a potentially fatal lung disease. With an eye toward developing a portable monitoring device for rapid analysis of silica dust, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to quantify quartz in coal dust samples collected on filter media. Pure silica (Min-U-Sil™ 5), Georgia kaolin, and Pittsburgh-4 and Illinois-6 coal dusts were deposited separately and at multiple mass loadings onto 37-mm polyvinylchloride (PVC) filters. LIBS-generated silicon emission was monitored at 288.16 nm, and non-silica contributions to that signal from kaolinite were removed by simultaneously detecting aluminum. Measurements of the four samples were used to calculate limits of detection (LOD) for silicon and aluminum of approximately 0.08 μg/cm(2) and 0.05 μg/cm(2), respectively (corresponding to 0.16 μg/cm(2) and 0.20 μg/cm(2) for silica and kaolinite, respectively). Relative errors of prediction are around 10%. Results demonstrate that LIBS can dependably quantify silica on filter samples of coal dust and confirm that accurate quantification can be achieved for very lightly loaded samples, which supports the potential application of LIBS for rapid, in-field monitoring.

  11. A Computer-Controlled SEM-EDX Routine for Characterizing Respirable Coal Mine Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Johann-Essex

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent resurgence in coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (or “black lung” and concerns over other related respiratory illnesses have highlighted the need to elucidate characteristics of airborne particulates in occupational environments. A better understanding of particle size, aspect ratio, or chemical composition may offer new insights regarding causal factors of such illnesses. Scanning electron microscopy analysis using energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX can be used to estimate these particle characteristics. If conducted manually, such work can be very time intensive, limiting the number of particles that can be analyzed. Moreover, potential exists for user bias in interpretation of EDX spectra. A computer-controlled (CC routine, on the other hand, can allow similar analysis at a much faster rate, increasing total particle counts and reproducibility of results. This paper describes a CCSEM-EDX routine specifically developed for analysis of respirable dust samples from coal mines. The routine is verified based on reliability of results obtained on samples of known materials, and reproducibility of results obtained on a set of 10 dust samples collected in the field. The characteristics of the field samples are also discussed with respect to mine occupational environments.

  12. Hygienic evaluation of new technology for control of methane and dust in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadzhiev, G P; Deynega, V G; Sukhanov, V V; Levshina, I M; Yarym, N T; Petrenko, G A

    1977-07-01

    Exploitation of available new technology for mining is hindered by the dangers of gas evolution, and the need for maintenance of hygienic standards. The Moscow Mining Institute has developed, and proposed for industrial introduction, a new process for control of methane and dust in mine shafts; the method will help to raise significantly the productivity of excavating machines in high gas factor shafts. The process to combat methane and dust consists essentially in drilling boreholes from the side of the gallery, or from the outer surface, into the coal-bearing stratum. These boreholes are injected with a 24% solution of urea-formaldehyde resin (binder M/sub 2/), with 1% solution of ammonium chloride hardener. After several months this plastic is removed. The new technology involves the escape of toxic substances into the air, hence the need for hygienic testing. Additional study must estimate the danger of accidents, e.g., shaft fires, toxicity of combustion products of coal or binder. Study is also needed on pathologies which might occur to miners engaged in removal of the plastic with the new technology.

  13. Effect of coal mine dust and clay extracts on the biological activity of the quartz surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, V.; Jones, R.; Rollo, K.; Duffin, R.; Donaldson, K.; Brown, D.M. [Napier University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Life Science

    2004-04-01

    Modification of the quartz surface by aluminum salts and metallic iron have been shown to reduce the biological activity of quartz. This study aimed to investigate the ability of water soluble extracts of coal mine dust (CMD), low aluminum clays (hectorite and montmorillonite) and high aluminum clays (attapulgite and kaolin) to inhibit the reactivity of the quartz surface. DQ12 induced significant haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes in vitro and inflammation in vivo as indicated by increases in the total cell numbers, neutrophil cell numbers, MIP-2 protein and albumin content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Treatment of DQ12 with CMD extract prevented both haemolysis and inflammation. Extracts of the high aluminum clays (kaolin and attapulgite) prevented inhibition of DQ12 induced haemolysis, and the kaolin extract inhibited quartz driven inflammation. DQ12 induced haemolysis by coal mine dust and kaolin extract could be prevented by pre-treatment of the extracts with a cation chellator. Extracts of the low aluminum clays (montmorillonite and hectorite) did not prevent DQ12 induced haemolysis, although the hectorite extract did prevent inflammation. These results suggest that CMD, and clays both low and rich in aluminum, all contain soluble components (possibly cations) capable of masking the reactivity of the quartz surface.

  14. Experimental coal dust suppression system installed at the Nikola Tesla thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzijan, D [Rudarski Institut, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Zavod za Ventilaciju i Tehnicku Zastitu

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project conducted at the Nikola Tesla thermal power plant by the Mining Institute of Belgrade to reduce the high levels of dust concentrations in overloading stations on coal conveyors and hoppers. A mathematical model was developed to determine the ventilation capacity required at each of the 18 overloading stations with the hoppers considered successively: empty, 1/3 full, 2/3 full and completely full. Shows how this model enabled an efficient dust suppression system to be developed and subsequently installed by the Termovent company in Belgrade using 4 axial ventilators supplied by the Ventilator Company in Zagreb. The ventilators were powered by means of 5.5 kW electric motors and provided 440 Pa pressure at 950 rpm. Gives the result of dust concentration measurements indicating that the installed system achieved the results predicted by the mathematical model and that the levels were well below the statutory limit. A description of the complete installation is included. 3 refs.

  15. Coal fly ash as a source of iron in atmospheric dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A; Scherer, Michelle M; Grassian, Vicki H

    2012-02-21

    Anthropogenic coal fly ash (FA) aerosol may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made that compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report here an investigation of iron dissolution for three FA samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust (AZTD), a reference material for mineral dust. The effects of pH, simulated cloud processing, and solar radiation on iron solubility have been explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provides the predominant component of dissolved iron. Iron solubility of FA is substantially higher than of the crystalline minerals comprising AZTD. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in FA particles. Iron is continuously released into the aqueous solution as FA particles break up into smaller fragments. These results suggest that the assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes and their effect on the biogeochemistry at the ocean surface should be constrained by the source, environmental pH, iron speciation, and solar radiation.

  16. Dust pollution of the atmosphere in the vicinity of coal-fired power plant (Omsk City, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, Anna V.; Raputa, Vladimir F.; Litay, Victoriya V.; Yazikov, Egor G.; Yaroslavtseva, Tatyana V.; Mikhailova, Kseniya Y.; Parygina, Irina A.; Lonchakova, Anna D.; Tretykova, Mariya I.

    2015-11-01

    The article shows the results of dust pollution level of air in the vicinity of coal-fired power plant of Omsk city on the base of study snow cover pollution. The samples were collected west-, east- and northeastwards at a distance of 0,75-6 km from the chimney for range-finding of dust emission transfer. The research findings have shown the dust load changes from 53 till 343 mg•(m2·day)-1 in the vicinity of power plant. The ultimate dust load was detected at a distance of 3-3,5 km. On the basis of asymptotics of equation solution for impurity transfer, we have made numerical analysis of dust load rate. With the usage of ground-based facilities and satellites we have determined the wind shifts in the atmospheric boundary layer have a significant impact on the field forming of long-term dustfall.

  17. Acute respiratory effects of the inhalation of coal-dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, M

    1962-01-01

    Volunteers were exposed to 8 to 50 mg/m/sup 3/ (< 7 ..mu..m) coal dust clouds from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Controls showed a 10% decrease in airway resistance (R/sub a/) during this time. Those exposed to 8 or 9 mg/m/sup 3/ showed no change in R/sub a/, whereas those exposed to 19, 33, or 50 mg/m/sup 3/ showed increases in R/sub a/ that were correlated with the weight of particles between 3.6 and 7 ..mu..m. There was large individual variation. Increased respiratory rate and dyspnea were measured at heaviest loading. R/sub a/ decreased, but not to normal values, 1 hr after the exposure.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of coal mine dust using gamma-ray backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of particulate material, particularly coal mine dust, include placing a sample of the particulate material in a container to define a pair of angularly oriented surfaces of the sample, directing an incident gamma-ray beam from a radiation source at one surface of the sample and detecting gamma-ray backscatter from the other surface of the sample with a radiation detector having an output operating a display to indicate incombustible content of the sample. The positioning of the source and detector along different surfaces of the sample permits the depth of the scattering volume defined by intersection of the incident beam and a detection cone from the detector to be selected such that variations in scattered radiation produced by variations in density of the sample are compensated by variations in the attenuation of the incident beam and the gamma-ray backscatter. 17 claims 5 figures

  19. Numerical research of reburning-process of burning of coal-dust torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchenko, Alexey; Paramonov, Aleksandr; Kadyrov, Marsel; Koryabkin, Aleksey

    2017-10-01

    This work is dedicated to numerical research of ecological indicators of technological method of decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxides at combustion of solid fuel in coal-dust torch to improve the energy efficiency of steam boilers. The technology of step burning with additional input in zone of the maximum concentration of pollutant of strongly crushed fuel for formation of molecular nitrogen on surface of the burning carbon particles is considered. Results of modeling and numerical researches of technology, their analysis and comparison with the experimental data of the reconstructed boiler are given. Results of work show that input of secondary fuel allows to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides by boiler installation without prejudice to its economic indicators.

  20. Cause-specific mortality in British coal workers and exposure to respirable dust and quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; MacCalman, L. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    In the 1950s the Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was set up to study the health of British coal workers. Studies included regular health surveys, an intensive characterisation of workers' individual exposures, and entry to a cohort followed up to the present for cause-specific mortality. This study reports on analyses of cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18 000 men from 10 British collieries. External analyses used standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), comparing observed mortality with reference rates from the regions in which the collieries were situated. Causes investigated include lung and stomach cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular endpoints. Internal analyses used Cox regression models with time-dependent exposures adjusting for the confounding effects of age, smoking, cohort entry date and regional differences in population mortality rates. Several causes showed evidence of a healthy worker effect early in the follow-up, with a deficit in the SMR diminishing over time. For most of the causes there was a significant excess in the latter part of follow-up. Internal analyses found evidence of an association between increased risks of lung cancer and increased quartz exposure, particularly at a lag of 15 years. Risks of mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease showed increases with increased exposure to respirable dust. This paper adds to the evidence on the long-term effects of exposure to coalmine dust on mortality from respiratory diseases.

  1. Cause-specific mortality in British coal workers and exposure to respirable dust and quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian G Miller; Laura MacCalman [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    In the 1950s the Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was set up to study the health of British coal workers. Studies included regular health surveys, an intensive characterisation of workers' individual exposures, and entry to a cohort followed up to the present for cause-specific mortality. This study reports on analyses of cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18?000 men from 10 British collieries. External analyses used standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), comparing observed mortality with reference rates from the regions in which the collieries were situated. Causes investigated include lung and stomach cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular endpoints. Internal analyses used Cox regression models with time-dependent exposures adjusting for the confounding effects of age, smoking, cohort entry date and regional differences in population mortality rates. Several causes showed evidence of a healthy worker effect early in the follow-up, with a deficit in the SMR diminishing over time. For most of the causes there was a significant excess in the latter part of follow-up. Internal analyses found evidence of an association between increased risks of lung cancer and increased quartz exposure, particularly at a lag of 15 years. Risks of mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease showed increases with increased exposure to respirable dust. This paper adds to the evidence on the long-term effects of exposure to coalmine dust on mortality from respiratory diseases.

  2. Saharan dust inputs and high UVR levels jointly alter the metabolic balance of marine oligotrophic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, Marco J.; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; González-Olalla, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel; Carrillo, Presentación

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic balance of the most extensive bioma on the Earth is a controversial topic of the global-change research. High ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels by the shoaling of upper mixed layers and increasing atmospheric dust deposition from arid regions may unpredictably alter the metabolic state of marine oligotrophic ecosystems. We performed an observational study across the south-western (SW) Mediterranean Sea to assess the planktonic metabolic balance and a microcosm experiment in two contrasting areas, heterotrophic nearshore and autotrophic open sea, to test whether a combined UVR × dust impact could alter their metabolic balance at mid-term scales. We show that the metabolic state of oligotrophic areas geographically varies and that the joint impact of UVR and dust inputs prompted a strong change towards autotrophic metabolism. We propose that this metabolic response could be accentuated with the global change as remote-sensing evidence shows increasing intensities, frequencies and number of dust events together with variations in the surface UVR fluxes on SW Mediterranean Sea. Overall, these findings suggest that the enhancement of the net carbon budget under a combined UVR and dust inputs impact could contribute to boost the biological pump, reinforcing the role of the oligotrophic marine ecosystems as CO2 sinks.

  3. Increasing Severity of Pneumoconiosis Among Younger Former US Coal Miners Working Exclusively Under Modern Dust-Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Judith M; Harris, Gerald; Almberg, Kirsten S; Rose, Cecile S; Petsonk, Edward L; Cohen, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) steadily declined among US miners following dust control regulations in 1970. In 2000, severe forms of this disease reemerged among young miners, and are well described among working-but not former-miners. Black lung benefits program (BLBP) data (2001 to 2013) were used to estimate respiratory disease burden among former miners including: (1) CWP (simple; advanced CWP, and progressive massive fibrosis [CWP/PMF]); and (2) respiratory impairment (FEV1 percent reference: mild, moderate, ≥moderately-severe). Among 24,686 claimants, 8.5% had advanced CWP/PMF; prevalence was highest among younger (less than or equal to 56 years: 10.8%) and older (greater than 70 years: 8.4%) miners and those who began work after versus before 1970 (8.3% vs. 4.0%). BLBP claims provide potentially useful data for monitoring the burden and severity of coal mine dust lung disease, and assessing efficacy of protective regulations.

  4. Comparison of the CAS-POL and IOM samplers for determining the knockdown efficiencies of water sprays on float coal dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Clara E; Shahan, Michael R; Beck, Timothy W; Mischler, Steven E

    2018-03-01

    Float coal dust, generated by mining operations, is distributed throughout mine airways by ventilating air designed to purge gases and respirable dust. Float coal dust poses an explosion hazard in the event of a methane ignition. Current regulation requires the application of inert rock dust in areas subjected to float coal dust in order to mitigate the hazard. An alternate method using water sprays, which have been effective in controlling respirable dust hazards, has been proposed as a way to control float coal dust generated on longwall faces. However, the knockdown efficiency of the proposed water sprays on float coal dust needs to be verified. This study used gravimetric isokinetic Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) samplers alongside a real-time aerosol monitor (Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer with polarization; CAS-POL) to study the effects of spray type, operating pressure, and spray orientation on knockdown efficiencies for seven different water sprays. Because the CAS-POL has not been used to study mining dust, the CAS-POL measurements were validated with respect to the IOM samplers. This study found that the CAS-POL was able to resolve the same trends measured by the IOM samplers, while providing additional knockdown information for specific particle size ranges and locations in the test area. In addition, the CAS-POL data was not prone to the same process errors, which may occur due to the handling of the IOM filter media, and was able to provide a faster analysis of the data after testing. This study also determined that pressure was the leading design criteria influencing spray knockdown efficiency, with spray type also having some effect and orientation having little to no effect. The results of this study will be used to design future full-scale float coal dust capture tests involving multiple sprays, which will be evaluated using the CAS-POL.

  5. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L. [University Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

  6. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J. [University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375{sup o}C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  7. Biological effects of chronic inhalation of coal mine dust and/or diesel engine exhaust in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagianes, M.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Stuart, B.O.; Zwicker, G.M.; Teats, D.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were killed at 4, 8, 16, and 20 mo after the start of exposures to inhaled high-CWP bituminous coal mine dust separately and combined with unscrubbed exhaust fumes from a diesel engine operated under load-rpm cycling. General health and hematologic parameters were normal. Lung lesions and accumulations of particulate matter increased with length and type of exposure; however, no animals have developed lung tumors or precancerous tissue changes up to 16 mo postexposure

  8. Modeling of the flame propagation in coal-dust- methane air mixture in an enclosed sphere volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krainov, A Yu; Moiseeva, K M

    2016-01-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of the flame front propagation in coal-dust- methane-air mixture in an enclosed volume with the ignition source in the center of the volume are presented. The mathematical model is based on a dual-velocity two-phase model of the reacting gas-dispersion medium. The system of equations includes the mass-conversation equation, the impulse-conversation equation, the total energy-conversation equation of the gas and particles taking into account the thermal conductivity and chemical reactions in the gas and on the particle surface, mass-conversation equation of the mixture gas components considering the diffusion and the burn-out and the particle burn-out equation. The influence of the coal particle mass on the pressure in the volume after the mixture burn out and on the burn-out time has been investigated. It has been shown that the burning rate of the coal-dust methane air mixtures depends on the coal particle size. (paper)

  9. Control of coal-dust in mines. Second edition. Bor'ba s ugol'noi i porodnoi pyl'yu v shakhtakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemrukhin, P.M.; Grodel, G.S.; Zhilyaev, N.I.; Korenev, A.P.; Krivokhizha, B.M.; Kul' bachnyi, A.N.; Lyubimoba, A.I.; Medvedev, E.N.; Yaremachenko, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    An examination is made of problems concerned with over-all removal of dust from the air in mines. A description is given of physical and physico-chemical properties of ore mine dust that are of importance to evaluating processes in the formation, propagation and suppression of dust. Results are given for theoretical and on-site studies of dust aerodynamics in mines. A presentation is made of contemporary measures for controlling coal and rock dust in mines as well as means and methods of controlling air dust-level. Technical characteristics are given for new instruments for measuring air dust level. Brief data are given on preliminary wetting of coal in a massif, and a discussion is made of theoretical and practical problems related to hydro-dedusting, dust suppression, and dust removal during the operation of mining machinery as well as instruments for dedusting air on the surface complex of a mine. The book is intended for engineering-technical personnel in coal mines, design-planning and scientific-research institutes. 52 references, 61 tables.

  10. Respirable coal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms in South-African coal miners: A comparison of current and ex-miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Seixas, N.; Lalloo, U.G.; Becklake, M. [University of KwaZuluNatal, Congella (South Africa). Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine

    2006-06-15

    Dose-response associations between respirable dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and between symptoms and spirometry outcomes among currently employed and formerly employed South-African coal miners were investigated. Work histories, interviews, and spirometry and cumulative exposure were assessed among 684 current and 212 ex-miners. Results: Lower prevalences of symptoms were found among employed compared with ex-miners. Associations with increasing exposure for symptoms of phlegm and past history of tuberculosis were observed, whereas other symptom prevalences were higher in the higher exposure categories. Symptomatic ex-miners exhibited lower lung-function compared to the nonsymptomatic. Compared with published data, symptoms rates were low in current miners but high in ex-miners. Although explanations could include the low prevalence of smoking and/or reporting/selection bias, a 'Survivor' and/or a 'hire' effect is more likely, resulting in an underestimation of the dust-related effect.

  11. Production of brown coal fuel dust as a high value and effective energy carrier for substituting heating oil, natural gas and black coal in the cement and metallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubasch, A.

    1985-01-01

    Poduction and industrial use of brown coal dust in the German Democratic Republic are reviewed. Dust production in 14 brown coal briquetting plants increased from 818.4 kt in 1980 to 2064 kt in 1984 and will exceed 4000 kt in 1990. Quality parameters of dusts according to the TGL 15380 industrial standard are listed. The railroad car loading and shipping technology is explained with the example of modern facilities of the Schwarze Pumpe briquetting plant: dust bunkers of 200 t storage capacity, pneumatic feeding and telescope discharge systems with nitrogen gas inertization, fire prevention, and railroad car cleaning equipment, rail track heating for improved winter loading conditions, etc. Since 1979 the Deuna, Karsdorf and Bernburg cement plants have been converted to brown coal dust combustion after installation of new fuel dust shipping, storage and combustion equipment. Substitution of heating oil and gas in metallurgical blast furnaces by brown coal dust is further described. Techogical advantages of the pneumatic KOSTE fuel feeding method are enumerated.

  12. Identifying sources of respirable quartz and silica dust in underground coal mines in southern West Virginia, western Virginia, and eastern Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzel, Steven J. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, 626 Cochrans Mill Road, PO Box 18070, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Prior research has suggested that the source of respirable silica dust in underground coal mines is typically the immediate top or bottom lithology adjacent to the mined seam, not mineral matter bound within the mined coal bed. Geochemical analyses were applied in an effort to identify the specific source rock of respirable quartz dust in coal mines. The analyses also demonstrate the compositional changes that take place in the generation of the respirable dust fraction from parent rock material. All six mine sites were mining coal with relatively low mineral matter content, although two mines were operating in the Fire Clay coal bed which contains a persistent tonstein. Interpretations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, and K concentrations strongly suggest that the top strata above the mined seam is the primary source of mineral dust produced during mining. One site indicates a mixed or bottom source, possibly due to site specific conditions. Respirable dust compositional analyses suggest a direct relationship between the quantity of mineral Si and the quantity of quartz Si. A similar relationship was not found in either the top or bottom rocks adjacent to the mined seam. An apparent loss of elemental Al was noted in the respirable dust fraction when compared to potential parent rock sources. Elemental Al is present in top and bottom rock strata within illite, kaolinite, feldspar, and chlorite. A possible explanation for loss of Al in the respirable dust samples is the removal of clays and possibly chlorite minerals. It is expected that removal of this portion of the Al bearing mineral matter occurs during rock abrasion and dust transport prior to dust capture on the samplers. (author)

  13. Research of Dust Field Optimization Distribution Based on Parameters Change of Air Duct Outlet in Fully Mechanized Excavation Face of Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Yan; Xia, Zhi-Xin; Wu, Yue; Mo, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Yi

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the problem of dust accumulation and pollution risk rising sharply in fully mechanized excavation face, which caused by the unreasonable air duct outlet airflow under the long distance driving, this paper proposes a new idea to optimize the distribution of dust by changing the angle, caliber and the front and rear distance of air duct outlet. Taking the fully mechanized excavation face of Ningtiaota coal mine which located in Shaanxi province as the research object, the numerical simulation scheme of dust field was established, the safety hazard of the distribution of original dust field was simulated and analyzed, the numerical simulation and optimization analysis of the dust distribution by changing the angle, caliber and the front and rear distance of air duct outlet was carried out, and the adjustment scheme of the optimized dust distribution was obtained, which provides a theoretical basis for reducing the probability of dust explosion and the degree of pollution.

  14. Postsedimentary Alterations of Coal-bearing Rocks and New Factors Affecting their Quality and Ingredient Composition as Exemplified by the Akhaltsikhe Brown Coal Deposit (Georgia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghalashvili, G.

    2008-01-01

    It has been established that in the case when coal-bearing rocks are represented by bentonitic clays, coal undergoes significant alterations, for the bentonitic clays, as a strong absorbent, absorb from the coal under conditions of natural humidity part of organics (humic acids, gums and other moving composite substances) thus depleting the coal, increasing its ash content and accordingly decreasing its calorific capacity. In this case it is expedient to exploit the coal and ''black'' or organics-saturated rocks selectively. It has also been established that the organics-saturated ''black'' bentonite is an excellent organic and mineral fertilizer that has been tested by the autor in the patented man-made soil. At the same time, in the case of coal briquetting, it may be used as a bonding material. (author)

  15. Characterization of dust samples from a coal strip mine using a resuspension chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Civiš

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A metallic cylindrical resuspension chamber (V = 0.437 m3, S = 0.35 m2, S/V = 8.38 was constructed to disperse samples of soil and various kinds of dust. The chamber allows on-line determination of number/mass size distribution of aerosol particles formed by dispersion and subsequent sampling of size-segregated particles on filter media. The samples tested were lignite, power plant flue ash and overburden soil from the Nastup coal strip mine in Northern Bohemia. About 20 mg of the individual samples were pneumatically dispersed by 0.5 liter of pressurized air inside the chamber under defined temperature and humidity conditions. Then the dynamics of aerosol size distributions was recorded using an aerodynamic particle sizer with a frequency of 5 seconds. The lignite and flue ash contributed most to the mass of atmospheric aerosol particles smaller than 10/2.5 micrometer – PM10/ PM2.5. The re-suspended mass of the samples varied between 0.001% for overburden soil and 0.32% for mine road soil. The aerosolized lignite and flue ash samples, sampled by a Harvard Impactor and a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler, revealed that the ash contained higher amounts of fine particles than the lignite and subsequent chemical analyses, carried out using SEM-EDX, reveals that the PM2.5 fraction formed by dispersion of the ash samples had the highest content of sulphur, and PM10 was dominated by Si. PM10 was closest to mullite, while the PM2.5 fraction contained sulphides, pyrites, pyrrhotites and polytypes of sulphide. The PM1 fraction was dominated by quartz glass. The fractions of sizes 2.5–1 μm and 0.5–0.25 μm were dominated by Si and S, respectively.

  16. Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar hyperplasia and decreases MUC5AC expression in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Nia; Setiawan, Bambang; Widjadjanto, Edi; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Widodo, M Aris; Kusuma, H M S Chandra

    2014-10-01

    Coal dust is a pollutant found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress and inflammation, but the effects on lung metaplasia as an early step of carcinogenesis remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PM10 coal dust on lung histology, MUC5AC expression, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. An experimental study was done on male Wistar rats, which were divided into the following groups: control groups exposed to coal dust for 14 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)), and the groups exposed to coal dust for 28 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)). EGF expressions in rat lungs were measured by ELISA. EGFR and MUC5AC were measured by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The bronchoalveolar epithelial image of the group exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed a epithelial rearrangement, hyperplastic (metaplastic) goblet cells, and scattered massive inflammatory cells. The pulmonary parenchymal image of the group of exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed scattered inflammatory cells filling up the pulmonary alveolar networks, leading to an appearance of thickened parenchymal alveoli until emphysema-like structure. There was no significant difference in MUC5AC, EGF, and EGFR expressions for 14-d exposure (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in EGF and EGFR expressions for 28-d exposure (p>0.05), but there was a significant difference in MUC5AC expression (phyperplasia and rearrangement of epithelial cells which accompanied by decrease expression MUC5AC in male rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. [Dust concentration analysis in non-coal mining. Exposure evaluation based on measurements performed by occupational hygiene laboratories in the years 2001-2005 in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak-Pietrek, Stella; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Non-coal mining includes the extraction of materials for construction (stone, gravel, sand and clay), chemical industry (salt and sulfur), metallurgy (metal ores, uranium and thorium) and other mining and quarrying. Regardless of the type of mining company one of the most common health hazards in this sector is exposure to high concentrations of dust occurring during the extraction of materials. Such activities as drilling, use of blasting agents, processing of raw material, its transportation and loading are the source of large amounts of dust containing crystalline silica. Data on exposure to dust, collected by industrial hygiene laboratories on the basis of dust concentration measurements in the work environment, were obtained from the sanitary inspection service. The analysis of dust concentrations at workplaces in non-coal mining covered the years 2001-2005. The average concentration of inhalable and respirable dust and the degree of results dispersion at workposts in different branches of non-coal mining (according to NACE rev1.1) were evaluated. Also there was estimated the percentage of surveys indicating dust concentrations above hygiene standards. Almost 5000 measurements of dust concentrations were performed in the years under study. The highest concentration of inhalable dust was noted for the production of salt (5.51 mg/m3), other mining and quarrying (4.30 mg/m3) and quarrying of slate (3.77 mg/m3). For respirable dust the highest concentrations were noted in other mining and quarrying (1.10 mg/m3), quarrying of slate (1.09 mg/m3) and quarrying of stone (0.81 mg/m3). Exposure to high concentrations of dust during the extraction of non-carbon is still an important hazard to human health. Almost for all workposts under study the excess of hygiene standards were observed.

  18. Alcohol Exposure Alters Mouse Lung Inflammation in Response to Inhaled Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Poole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC, elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability

  19. Thermal alterations of organic matter in coal wastes from Upper Silesia, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misz-Kennan, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Self-heating and self-combustion are currently taking place in some coal waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, e.g. the dumps at Rymer Cones, Starzykowiec, and the Marcel Coal Mine, all in the Rybnik area. These dumps are of similar age and self-heating and combustion have been occurring in all three for many years. The tools of organic petrography (maceral composition, rank, etc.), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and proximate and ultimate analysis are used to investigate the wastes. Organic matter occurs in quantities up to 85 vol.%, typically a few to several vol.%, in the wastes. All three maceral groups (vitrinite, liptinite, and inertinite) are present as unaltered and variously-altered constituents associated with newly-formed petrographic components (bitumen expulsions, pyrolytic carbon). The predominant maceral group is vitrinite with alterations reflected in the presence of irregular cracks, oxidation rims and, rarely, devolatilisation pores. In altered wastes, paler grey-vitrinite and/or coke dominates. The lack of plasticity, the presence of paler-coloured particles, isotropic massive coke, dispersed coked organic matter, and expulsions of bitumens all indicate that heating was slow and extended over a long time. Macerals belonging to other groups are present in unaltered form or with colours paler than the colours of the parent macerals. Based on the relative contents of organic compounds, the most important groups of these identified in the wastes are n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, phenol and its derivatives. These compounds occur in all wastes except those most highly altered where they were probably destroyed by high temperatures. These compounds were generated mainly from liptinite-group macerals. Driven by evaporation and leaching, they migrated within and out of the dump. Their presence in some wastes in which microscopically visible organic matter is

  20. 76 FR 35968 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... entries or belt entries, run continuously. Wet/Slurry--more coverage per pound of dust, good adherence to... per year. MSHA also studied explosions and ignitions resulting in non-fatal injuries that occurred... resulted in at least 4 non-fatal injuries in which rock dusting conditions and practices contributed to the...

  1. Apoptosis and Bax expression are increased by coal dust in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-exposed lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, M.M.; Battelli, L.A.; Mercer, R.R.; Scabilloni, J.F.; Kashon, M.L.; Ma, J.Y.C.; Nath, J.; Hubbs, A.F.

    2006-09-15

    Miners inhaling respirable coal dust (CD) frequently develop coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Many coal miners are also exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of diesel engine exhaust and cigarette smoke, which may contribute to lung disease in these workers. Recently, apoptosis was reported to play a critical role in the development of another pneumoconiosis of miners, silicosis. In addition, CID was reported to suppress cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) induction by PAHs. We exposed rats intratracheally to 0.0, 2.5, 10.0, 20.0, or 40.0 mg/rat CD and, 11 days later, to intraperitoneal P-naphthoflavone (BNF), a PAH. In another group of rats exposed to CD and BNF, caspase activity was inhibited by injection of the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPH (quinoline-Val-Asp (OMe)-CH{sub 2}-OPH). In rats exposed to BNF, CD exposure increased alveolar expression of the proapoptotic mediator Bax but decreased CYP1A1 induction relative to BNF exposure alone. Pan-caspase inhibition decreased CD-associated Bax expression and apoptosis but did not restore CYP1A1 activity. Further, CD-induced lung inflammation and alveolar epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia were not suppressed by caspase inhibition. It is concluded that combined BNF and CD exposure increased Bax expression and apoptosis in the lung, but Bax and apoptosis were not the major determinants of early lung injury in this model.

  2. Alteration of Organic Compounds in Small Bodies and Cosmic Dusts by Cosmic Rays and Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Obayashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Sarker, Palash K.; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Okabe, Takuto; Eto, Midori; Kanda, Kazuhiro

    2012-07-01

    A wide variety of complex organic compounds have been detected in extraterrestrial bodies like carbonaceous chondrites and comets, and their roles in the generation of terrestrial life are discussed. It was suggested that organics in small bodies were originally formed in ice mantles of interstellar dusts in dense cloud. Irradiation of frozen mixture of possible interstellar molecules including CO (or CH _{3}OH), NH _{3} and H _{2}O with high-energy particles gave complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights [1]. Such complex organic molecules were taken in planetesimals or comets in the early solar system. In prior to the generation of the terrestrial life, extraterrestrial organics were delivered to the primitive Earth by such small bodies as meteorites, comets and space dusts. These organics would have been altered by cosmic rays and solar radiation (UV, X-rays) before the delivery to the Earth. We examined possible alteration of amino acids, their precursors and nucleic acid bases in interplanetary space by irradiation with high energy photons and heavy ions. A mixture of CO, NH _{3} and H _{2}O was irradiated with high-energy protons from a van de Graaff accelerator (TIT, Japan). The resulting products (hereafter referred to as CAW) are complex precursors of amino acids. CAW, amino acids (dl-Isovaline, glycine), hydantoins (amino acid precursors) and nucleic acid bases were irradiated with continuous emission (soft X-rays to IR; hereafter referred to as soft X-rays irradiation) from BL-6 of NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility (Univ. Hyogo). They were also irradiated with heavy ions (eg., 290 MeV/u C ^{6+}) from HIMAC accelerator (NIRS, Japan). After soft X-rays irradiation, water insoluble materials were formed. After irradiation with soft X-rays or heavy ions, amino acid precursors (CAW and hydantoins) gave higher ratio of amino acids were recovered after hydrolysis than free amino acids. Nucleic acid bases showed higher stability than free

  3. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  4. Role of Bioavailable Iron in Coal Dust-Induced Activation of Activator Protein-1 and Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Xi

    2010-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) are two important transcription factors responsible for the regulation of cytokines, which are involved in cell proliferation and inflammation. Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an occupational lung disease that may be related to chronic inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In the present study, we demonstrate that coal from the Pennsylvania (PA) coalmine region, which has a high prevalence of CWP, can activate both AP-1 and NFAT in JB6 mouse epidermal cells. In contrast, coal from the Utah (UT) coalmine region, which has a low prevalence of CWP, has no such effects. The PA coal stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 MAPK but not c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinases, as determined by the phosphorylation assay. The increase in AP-1 by the PA coal was completely eliminated by the pretreatment of cells with PD98059, a specific MAPK kinase inhibitor, and SB202190, a p38 kinase inhibitor, further confirming that the PA coal-induced AP-1 activation is mediated through ERKs and p38 MAPK pathways. Deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator, synergistically enhanced the PA coal-induced AP-1 activity, but inhibited NFAT activity. For comparison, cells were treated with ferrous sulfate and/or DFO. We have found that iron transactivated both AP-1 and NFAT, and DFO further enhanced iron-induced AP-1 activation but inhibited NFAT. These results indicate that activation of AP-1 and NFAT by the PA coal is through bioavailable iron present in the coal. These data are in agreement with our previous findings that the prevalence of CWP correlates well with levels of bioavailable iron in coals from various mining regions. PMID:12397016

  5. Deposition Uniformity of Coal Dust on Filters and Its Effect on the Accuracy of FTIR Analyses for Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur L; Drake, Pamela L; Murphy, Nathaniel C; Cauda, Emanuele G; LeBouf, Ryan F; Markevicius, Gediminas

    Miners are exposed to silica-bearing dust which can lead to silicosis, a potentially fatal lung disease. Currently, airborne silica is measured by collecting filter samples and sending them to a laboratory for analysis. Since this may take weeks, a field method is needed to inform decisions aimed at reducing exposures. This study investigates a field-portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) method for end-of-shift (EOS) measurement of silica on filter samples. Since the method entails localized analyses, spatial uniformity of dust deposition can affect accuracy and repeatability. The study, therefore, assesses the influence of radial deposition uniformity on the accuracy of the method. Using laboratory-generated Minusil and coal dusts and three different types of sampling systems, multiple sets of filter samples were prepared. All samples were collected in pairs to create parallel sets for training and validation. Silica was measured by FTIR at nine locations across the face of each filter and the data analyzed using a multiple regression analysis technique that compared various models for predicting silica mass on the filters using different numbers of "analysis shots." It was shown that deposition uniformity is independent of particle type (kaolin vs. silica), which suggests the role of aerodynamic separation is negligible. Results also reflected the correlation between the location and number of shots versus the predictive accuracy of the models. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the models when predicting mass of validation samples was 4%-51% depending on the number of points analyzed and the type of sampler used, which affected the uniformity of radial deposition on the filters. It was shown that using a single shot at the center of the filter yielded predictivity adequate for a field method, (93% return, CV approximately 15%) for samples collected with 3-piece cassettes.

  6. Dust suppression in Belgian coal mines. Situation at the beginning of 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preat, B; Vanstraelen, M

    1978-01-01

    Gives a general view of dust control in Belgian mines. Statistical data are presented in tables. Prior spraying, wet cutting, and water infusion and pneumatic drills with sprays are used; in some cases, two or more of these techniques are used together in the same face. (In French and In Dutch)

  7. ABLATION AND CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF COSMIC DUST PARTICLES DURING ENTRY INTO THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D. [National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D., E-mail: rudra@nio.org [School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    Most dust-sized cosmic particles undergo ablation and chemical alteration during atmospheric entry, which alters their original properties. A comprehensive understanding of this process is essential in order to decipher their pre-entry characteristics. The purpose of the study is to illustrate the process of vaporization of different elements for various entry parameters. The numerical results for particles of various sizes and various zenith angles are treated in order to understand the changes in chemical composition that the particles undergo as they enter the atmosphere. Particles with large sizes (> few hundred μ m) and high entry velocities (>16 km s{sup −1}) experience less time at peak temperatures compared to those that have lower velocities. Model calculations suggest that particles can survive with an entry velocity of 11 km s{sup −1} and zenith angles (ZA) of 30°–90°, which accounts for ∼66% of the region where particles retain their identities. Our results suggest that the changes in chemical composition of MgO, SiO{sub 2}, and FeO are not significant for an entry velocity of 11 km s{sup −1} and sizes <300 μ m, but the changes in these compositions become significant beyond this size, where FeO is lost to a major extent. However, at 16 km s{sup −1} the changes in MgO, SiO{sub 2}, and FeO are very intense, which is also reflected in Mg/Si, Fe/Si, Ca/Si, and Al/Si ratios, even for particles with a size of 100 μ m. Beyond 400 μ m particle sizes at 16 km s{sup −1}, most of the major elements are vaporized, leaving the refractory elements, Al and Ca, suspended in the troposphere.

  8. ABLATION AND CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF COSMIC DUST PARTICLES DURING ENTRY INTO THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Most dust-sized cosmic particles undergo ablation and chemical alteration during atmospheric entry, which alters their original properties. A comprehensive understanding of this process is essential in order to decipher their pre-entry characteristics. The purpose of the study is to illustrate the process of vaporization of different elements for various entry parameters. The numerical results for particles of various sizes and various zenith angles are treated in order to understand the changes in chemical composition that the particles undergo as they enter the atmosphere. Particles with large sizes (> few hundred μ m) and high entry velocities (>16 km s −1 ) experience less time at peak temperatures compared to those that have lower velocities. Model calculations suggest that particles can survive with an entry velocity of 11 km s −1 and zenith angles (ZA) of 30°–90°, which accounts for ∼66% of the region where particles retain their identities. Our results suggest that the changes in chemical composition of MgO, SiO 2 , and FeO are not significant for an entry velocity of 11 km s −1 and sizes <300 μ m, but the changes in these compositions become significant beyond this size, where FeO is lost to a major extent. However, at 16 km s −1 the changes in MgO, SiO 2 , and FeO are very intense, which is also reflected in Mg/Si, Fe/Si, Ca/Si, and Al/Si ratios, even for particles with a size of 100 μ m. Beyond 400 μ m particle sizes at 16 km s −1 , most of the major elements are vaporized, leaving the refractory elements, Al and Ca, suspended in the troposphere.

  9. Carbon Formation and Metal Dusting in Hot-Gas Cleanup Systems of Coal Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, Peter F.; Judkins, Roddie R.; DeVan, Jackson H.; Wright, Ian G.

    1995-12-31

    There are several possible materials/systems degradation modes that result from gasification environments with appreciable carbon activities. These processes, which are not necessarily mutually exclusive, include carbon deposition, carburization, metal dusting, and CO disintegration of refractories. Carbon formation on solid surfaces occurs by deposition from gases in which the carbon activity (a sub C) exceeds unity. The presence of a carbon layer CO can directly affect gasifier performance by restricting gas flow, particularly in the hot gas filter, creating debris (that may be deposited elsewhere in the system or that may cause erosive damage of downstream components), and/or changing the catalytic activity of surfaces.

  10. Investigations of co-combustion of plastics in a coal dust furnace; Untersuchungen zur Mitverbrennung von Kunststoffen in einer Kohlestaubfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, T.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD); Christill, M.; Kicherer, A.; Seifert, H. [BASF AG, Verfahrenstechnik-ZET/EH-L544, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In a cooperation project of the Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant TEchnology (IVD) at the University of Stuttgart and the BASF AG, investigations of co-combustion of plastic material in a coal dust furnace were carried out. The central question of the research work was the ignition and burnout of the particles in dependence of the residence time in the hot part of the furnace. Particle sizes were varied with the aim to define the largest possible particle size in order to minimize the cost of fuel preparation by grinding. On the other hand, tests were made with pure materials and synthetic mixtures of these in order to characterize the influence of different types of plastic. The investigations showed that plastics are suited as fuels for coal dust furnaces, and that the cost of fuel preparation can be reduced to an acceptable level. With polyethylene, which is difficult to ignite, an upper particle size limit of 1.25 to 1.5 mm was reached in the IVD test stand. In industrial applications with a different burner arrangement, even better results may be expected. (orig/AKB) [Deutsch] In einer Zusammenarbeit zwischen dem Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) der Universitaet Stuttgart und der BASF AG wurden Versuche zur Coverbrennung von Kunststoffen in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung durchgefuehrt. Im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchungen standen Zuendung und Abbrand der Kunststoffpartikel in Abhaengigkeit von der Verweilzeit im heissen Bereich der Brennkanner. Variiert wurden hierzu zum einen die Partikelgroessen mit dem Ziel, den Aufbereitungsaufwand durch Zerkleinerung zu minimieren. Zur Charakterisierung der Einfluesse verschiedener Kunststoffarten wurden die Versuche mit unterschiedlichen Reinkunststoffen und synthetischen Mischungen durchgefuehrt. Die Versuche zeigen, dass sich Kunststoffe mit vertretbarem Mahlaufwand in der Staubfeuerung einsetzen lassen. Am Beispiel des Polyethylen, eines der thermogravimetrischen Analyse nach relativ

  11. Investigations of co-combustion of plastics in a coal dust furnace; Untersuchungen zur Mitverbrennung von Kunststoffen in einer Kohlestaubfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, T; Spliethoff, H; Hein, K R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD); Christill, M; Kicherer, A; Seifert, H [BASF AG, Verfahrenstechnik-ZET/EH-L544, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    In a cooperation project of the Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant TEchnology (IVD) at the University of Stuttgart and the BASF AG, investigations of co-combustion of plastic material in a coal dust furnace were carried out. The central question of the research work was the ignition and burnout of the particles in dependence of the residence time in the hot part of the furnace. Particle sizes were varied with the aim to define the largest possible particle size in order to minimize the cost of fuel preparation by grinding. On the other hand, tests were made with pure materials and synthetic mixtures of these in order to characterize the influence of different types of plastic. The investigations showed that plastics are suited as fuels for coal dust furnaces, and that the cost of fuel preparation can be reduced to an acceptable level. With polyethylene, which is difficult to ignite, an upper particle size limit of 1.25 to 1.5 mm was reached in the IVD test stand. In industrial applications with a different burner arrangement, even better results may be expected. (orig/AKB) [Deutsch] In einer Zusammenarbeit zwischen dem Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) der Universitaet Stuttgart und der BASF AG wurden Versuche zur Coverbrennung von Kunststoffen in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung durchgefuehrt. Im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchungen standen Zuendung und Abbrand der Kunststoffpartikel in Abhaengigkeit von der Verweilzeit im heissen Bereich der Brennkanner. Variiert wurden hierzu zum einen die Partikelgroessen mit dem Ziel, den Aufbereitungsaufwand durch Zerkleinerung zu minimieren. Zur Charakterisierung der Einfluesse verschiedener Kunststoffarten wurden die Versuche mit unterschiedlichen Reinkunststoffen und synthetischen Mischungen durchgefuehrt. Die Versuche zeigen, dass sich Kunststoffe mit vertretbarem Mahlaufwand in der Staubfeuerung einsetzen lassen. Am Beispiel des Polyethylen, eines der thermogravimetrischen Analyse nach relativ

  12. Comparative study of two co-combustion concepts for sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces; Vergleich zweier Mitverbrennungskonzepte fuer Klaerschlamm in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spliethoff, H.; Gerhardt, T.; Ruediger, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    1996-12-31

    Processes for thermal use of sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces were investigated at the Institute of Chemical Engineering and Boiler Technology (IVD) of Stuttgart university. Direct co-combustion of sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces is a simple concept, but it is useful provided that co-combustion has no negative effects in terms of performance, emissions and residue disposal. Externally dried sewage sludge has a residual water content in the same range as coal dust. The effects of co-combustion are discussed, and the experimentally determined effect in terms of emissions and residues is presented. Pyrolysis of the sewage sludge and use of the resulting gas as a reduction agent for denitrification may reduce negative effects of co-combustion on performance, emissions and residues.(orig) [Deutsch] Am Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) der Universitaet Stuttgart werden an Versuchsanlagen verschiedene Verfahren zur thermischen Nutzung von Klaerschlaemmen in Verbindung mit Kohlenstaufeuerungen untersucht. Die direkte Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm in Kohlestaubfeuerungen ist ein einfaches Konzept, das dann sinnvoll ist, wenn die Mitverbrennung keine negativen Auswirkungen auf Betrieb, Emissionen und Verwertung der Rueckstaende mit sich bringt. Bei einer externen Trockung weist der Klaerschlamm einen aehnlichen Wassergehalt wie der Auslegungsbrennstoff von Steinkohlenstaubfeuerungen auf. Die moeglichen Auswirkungen der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm werden diskutiert und der im Versuch ermittelte Einfluss auf Emissionen und Reststoffe vogestellt. Durch Vorschaltung einer Pyrolyse des Klaerschlamms und Nutzung des erzeugten Gases als Reduktionsmittel zur Entsticklung kann die Auswirkung der Mitverbrennung auf Betrieb, Emissionen und Reststoffe der Feuerungsanlage vermindert werden. (orig)

  13. Comparative study of two co-combustion concepts for sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces; Vergleich zweier Mitverbrennungskonzepte fuer Klaerschlamm in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spliethoff, H; Gerhardt, T; Ruediger, H; Hein, K R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    1997-12-31

    Processes for thermal use of sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces were investigated at the Institute of Chemical Engineering and Boiler Technology (IVD) of Stuttgart university. Direct co-combustion of sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces is a simple concept, but it is useful provided that co-combustion has no negative effects in terms of performance, emissions and residue disposal. Externally dried sewage sludge has a residual water content in the same range as coal dust. The effects of co-combustion are discussed, and the experimentally determined effect in terms of emissions and residues is presented. Pyrolysis of the sewage sludge and use of the resulting gas as a reduction agent for denitrification may reduce negative effects of co-combustion on performance, emissions and residues.(orig) [Deutsch] Am Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) der Universitaet Stuttgart werden an Versuchsanlagen verschiedene Verfahren zur thermischen Nutzung von Klaerschlaemmen in Verbindung mit Kohlenstaufeuerungen untersucht. Die direkte Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm in Kohlestaubfeuerungen ist ein einfaches Konzept, das dann sinnvoll ist, wenn die Mitverbrennung keine negativen Auswirkungen auf Betrieb, Emissionen und Verwertung der Rueckstaende mit sich bringt. Bei einer externen Trockung weist der Klaerschlamm einen aehnlichen Wassergehalt wie der Auslegungsbrennstoff von Steinkohlenstaubfeuerungen auf. Die moeglichen Auswirkungen der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm werden diskutiert und der im Versuch ermittelte Einfluss auf Emissionen und Reststoffe vogestellt. Durch Vorschaltung einer Pyrolyse des Klaerschlamms und Nutzung des erzeugten Gases als Reduktionsmittel zur Entsticklung kann die Auswirkung der Mitverbrennung auf Betrieb, Emissionen und Reststoffe der Feuerungsanlage vermindert werden. (orig)

  14. Influenza virus-induced alterations of cytochrome P-450 enzyme activities following exposure of mice to coal and diesel particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovsky, J; Judy, D J; Rodak, D J; Petersen, M

    1986-06-01

    We have investigated a relationship between two detoxication systems, metabolic detoxication through the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) pathway and resistance to infection through interferon (IFN), in mice infected with influenza virus following exposure to coal dust (CD) and diesel exhaust (DE) particulates. Mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered air (FA; control), CD, or DE for 1 month and then inoculated intranasally (IN) with influenza virus. During infection, 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase (7ECdeEt'ase) and ethylmorphine demethylase (EMdeMe'ase) (monooxygenases), and NADPH cytochrome c reductase (NADPH c red'ase) were measured in liver microsomes. Temporal patterns of enzyme activities were observed with control animals. EMdeMe'ase and NADPH c red'ase exhibited peak values at Day 4 postinfection (27.6 and 482 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively), compared to initial activities (9.1 and 307 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively). 7ECdeEt'ase activity decreased between Days 1-3 postvirus infection and thereafter returned to the original value (1.7 nmole/min/mg protein). When the mice were first exposed to CD or DE particulates for 1 month prior to influenza infection, changes in enzyme temporal patterns were observed. The increased EMdeMe'ase activity at Day 4 was not observed in mice exposed to CD and was reduced in mice exposed to DE. Preexposure to either particulate resulted in the abolition of the increased Day 4 activity of NADPH c red'ase. The 7ECdeEt'ase postinfection temporal pattern was not affected by a preexposure to either particulate. Estimates of the enzyme activities after the 1-month exposure to FA, CD, or DE but before virus infection indicated no changes due to particulate exposure alone. Under these conditions of particulate exposure and virus infection, serum IFN levels in the mice used in this study peaked at Days 4-5 and were unaffected by the 1-month preexposure to CD or DE (Hahon et al., (1985). The data suggest the relationship that exists

  15. Use of pyrolysis gases from biogenic fuels as reductionfuels in coal dust furnaces; Einsatz von Pyrolysegasen aus biogenen Brennstoffen als Reduktionsbrennstoff in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruediger, H.; Greul, U.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion of refuse-derived fuels in the form of pyrolysis gases, with coal as primary fuel, has advantages in terms of fuel ash separation and nitric oxide emissions. Biomass or sewage sludge is degassed in a pyrolysis reactor, and the gas is used as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace. The authors investigated the influence of reaction temperature, fuel moisture and reaction atmosphere in the pyrolysis stage on the product fractions gas, tar, and residual fuel, as well as the suitability of the resulting pyrolysis gas as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace for the purpose of reducing nitric oxide emissions. (orig) [Deutsch] Ein am IVD betriebenes Konzept der Mitverbrennung von Brennstoffen in Form von Pyrolysegasen bietet Vorteile bezueglich der Trennung der Brennstoffaschen und Stickoxidemissionen bei der Feuerung des Primaerbrennstoffes Steinkohle. Biomasse oder Klaerschlamm wird hierbei in einem Pyrolysereaktor engast und gasfoermig als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung eingesetzt. Untersuchungsschwerpunkte in der Pyrolysestufe des Prozesses waren die Einfluesse von Reaktionstemperatur, Brennstofffeuchte und Reaktionsatmosphaere auf die Produktfraktionen Gas, Teer und Restbrennstoff sowie die Eignung des erzeugten Pyrolysegases als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung zur Senkung derKohlendioxidemissione. (orig)

  16. Use of pyrolysis gases from biogenic fuels as reductionfuels in coal dust furnaces; Einsatz von Pyrolysegasen aus biogenen Brennstoffen als Reduktionsbrennstoff in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruediger, H; Greul, U; Spliethoff, H; Hein, K R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1997-12-31

    Co-combustion of refuse-derived fuels in the form of pyrolysis gases, with coal as primary fuel, has advantages in terms of fuel ash separation and nitric oxide emissions. Biomass or sewage sludge is degassed in a pyrolysis reactor, and the gas is used as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace. The authors investigated the influence of reaction temperature, fuel moisture and reaction atmosphere in the pyrolysis stage on the product fractions gas, tar, and residual fuel, as well as the suitability of the resulting pyrolysis gas as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace for the purpose of reducing nitric oxide emissions. (orig) [Deutsch] Ein am IVD betriebenes Konzept der Mitverbrennung von Brennstoffen in Form von Pyrolysegasen bietet Vorteile bezueglich der Trennung der Brennstoffaschen und Stickoxidemissionen bei der Feuerung des Primaerbrennstoffes Steinkohle. Biomasse oder Klaerschlamm wird hierbei in einem Pyrolysereaktor engast und gasfoermig als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung eingesetzt. Untersuchungsschwerpunkte in der Pyrolysestufe des Prozesses waren die Einfluesse von Reaktionstemperatur, Brennstofffeuchte und Reaktionsatmosphaere auf die Produktfraktionen Gas, Teer und Restbrennstoff sowie die Eignung des erzeugten Pyrolysegases als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung zur Senkung derKohlendioxidemissione. (orig)

  17. Application of paste technology to mitigate the dust emissions from handling of fly and bottom ash at coal fired power plant : CGTEE in Candiota, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Marques, M.E. [Golder Associates Peru, Lima (Peru); Lima, H. [Golder Associates Brazil, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mandl, B.; Francoeur, R.; Palkovits, F. [Golder Paste Technology Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Blois, R. [Companhia de Geracao Termica de Energia Electrica, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a method developed to reduce dust emissions generated in a fly ash handling procedure used at a thermal power plant located in the south of Brazil. The fly ash is collected in dry form at several locations in the plant and pneumatically conveyed to storage silos, where it is moistened with water in a mixer, loaded into dump trucks and deposited in a disposal area near a surface coal mine. The new solution created low density fly ash slurry in localized mixing tanks within the power plant. The low density slurry is pumped to an ash conditioning plant where the slurry is then mixed with the bottom ash, dewatered, and densified. The densified slurry is then pumped to an adjacent coal mine disposal site in order to be used as backfill in mined areas. The proposed method will significantly reduce dust emissions both inside and outside the plant, and will substantially reduce truck traffic at the mine. The method will reduce the environmental impacts associated with fly ash dust emissions in the region. 8 figs.

  18. Use of clay-mineral alteration patterns to define syntectonic permeability of joints (cleat) in Pennsylvania anthracite coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, E.J.; Marshak, S.; Altaner, S.P. [Chevron Oil Field Research Company, La Habra, CA (United States)

    1996-10-15

    Joints (cleat) in Pennsylvania anthracite contain two distinct clay-mineral assemblages, both of which formed by alteration of preexisting kaolinite at peak metamorphic conditions during the Alleghanian orogeny. The first assemblage, NH{sub 4} - illite or pyrophyllite {+-} quartz, formed by reaction of kaolinite with methane-rich fluids derived from within the coal. The second assemblage, sudoite {+-} tosudite {+-} rectorite {+-} berthierine, formed by the reaction of kaolinite with ferromagnesian-bearing hydrothermal fluids which must have come from outside the coal. In an earlier paper, the authors suggested that the first assemblage indicated clay diagenesis in low-permeability environments, and that the second assemblage indicated clay diagenesis in high-permeability environments. If this premise is correct, then the distribution of clay-mineral alteration assemblages serves to define syntectonic permeability variations in coal cleat. The first assemblage dominates in the coal matrix itself, in isolated cleat, in cleat that parallel the regional trend of Alleghanian folds, and in the mirror portions of cleat oriented perpendicular to the fold trends, suggesting that these regions are low-permeability environments. The second assemblage dominates in the hackle fringe of interconnected cleat that trend perpendicular to the strike of the Appalachian orogen, suggesting that these regions are high-permeability environments. These results emphasize that syntectonic cleat permeability is a function of cleat orientation, macroscopic cleat interconnetivity and orientation, as well as microscopic cleat-surface morphology.

  19. Fresh gasoline emissions, not paved road dust, alter cardiac repolarization in ApoE-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campen, Matthew J; McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D; Seagrave, Jeanclare

    2006-01-01

    Fresh vehicular emissions potentially represent a ubiquitous environmental concern for cardiovascular health. We compared electrocardiographic effects of fresh gasoline engine emissions with resuspended paved road dust in a mouse model of coronary insufficiency. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice on a high fat diet were exposed by whole-body inhalation to either gasoline emissions at 60 microg/m3 particulate matter (PM), an equivalent atmosphere with particles filtered out of the whole exhaust, or paved road dust at 0.5 and 3.5 mg /m3 for 6 h/d for 3 d. Radiotelemetry recordings of electrocardiogram (ECG) were analyzed for changes in T-wave morphology (QT interval, T-wave amplitude, and T-wave Area). Following exposures, lung lavage and blood samples were obtained to assay for markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. No exposure induced significant changes in heart rate and only the high concentration of road dust induced signs of pulmonary inflammation. T-wave area exhibited significant deviation from baseline values during exposure to gasoline exhaust particulates, but not to either concentration of road dust or gasoline emissions sans particulates. Gasoline-exposed mice demonstrated elevated plasma endothelin-1, but did not cause systemic inflammation. These data support the hypothesis that freshly-generated engine emissions, as opposed to resuspended paved road dust, may drive cardiac effects that have been observed at road-sides in the environment. The absence of ECG effects for both very high concentrations of road dust PM and equivalent concentrations of the vapor/gas phase of gasoline engine exhaust further indicate the specific risk conferred by fresh vehicular PM.

  20. Direct-on-Filter α-Quartz Estimation in Respirable Coal Mine Dust Using Transmission Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and Partial Least Squares Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur L; Weakley, Andrew Todd; Griffiths, Peter R; Cauda, Emanuele G; Bayman, Sean

    2017-05-01

    In order to help reduce silicosis in miners, the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) is developing field-portable methods for measuring airborne respirable crystalline silica (RCS), specifically the polymorph α-quartz, in mine dusts. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of end-of-shift measurement of α-quartz using a direct-on-filter (DoF) method to analyze coal mine dust samples deposited onto polyvinyl chloride filters. The DoF method is potentially amenable for on-site analyses, but deviates from the current regulatory determination of RCS for coal mines by eliminating two sample preparation steps: ashing the sampling filter and redepositing the ash prior to quantification by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. In this study, the FT-IR spectra of 66 coal dust samples from active mines were used, and the RCS was quantified by using: (1) an ordinary least squares (OLS) calibration approach that utilizes standard silica material as done in the Mine Safety and Health Administration's P7 method; and (2) a partial least squares (PLS) regression approach. Both were capable of accounting for kaolinite, which can confound the IR analysis of silica. The OLS method utilized analytical standards for silica calibration and kaolin correction, resulting in a good linear correlation with P7 results and minimal bias but with the accuracy limited by the presence of kaolinite. The PLS approach also produced predictions well-correlated to the P7 method, as well as better accuracy in RCS prediction, and no bias due to variable kaolinite mass. Besides decreased sensitivity to mineral or substrate confounders, PLS has the advantage that the analyst is not required to correct for the presence of kaolinite or background interferences related to the substrate, making the method potentially viable for automated RCS prediction in the field. This study demonstrated the efficacy of FT-IR transmission spectrometry for silica determination in

  1. Cooperation in simulating a pressurized coal dust reactor with different simulation programs; Kooperation bei der Simulation eines Druckkohlenstaubreaktors mit unterschiedlichen Simulationsprogrammen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayar, A.; Hecken, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Waermeuebertragung und Klimatechnik; Mohr, M.; Murza, S. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik; Richter, S.; Stroehle, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    1999-09-01

    The contribution presents the results of a cooperative project of three different universities - Department of Heat Transfer and Air Conditioning Engineering (WUeK) of RWTH Aachen, Department of Power Sytems Engineering (LEAT) of Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institute of Chemical Engineering and Steam Boiler Engineering (IVD) of Stuttgart University - which involved modellilng a benchmark flame of the pressurized coal dust reactor of the Departmentof Heat Transfer and Air Conditioning Engineering. The conditions of the benchmark flame reflect a real firnace condition which so far has never been investigated experimentally. The contribution compares the results of the three different simulation programs and presents an outlook to the necessary further developments of the programs for modelling plants for pressurized coal dust combustion. [Deutsch] Es werden die Ergebnisse der Zusammenarbeit der drei beteiligten Institute - Lehrstuhl fuer Waermeuebertragung und Klimatechnik (WUeK) der RWTH Aachen, Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik (LEAT) der Ruhr-Uni Bochum und Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) der Uni Stuttgart - bei der Modellierung einer Benchmarkflamme des Druckkohlenstaubreaktors am Lehrstuhl fuer Waermeuebertragung und Klimatechnik dargestellt. Diese Bedingungen fuer diese Benchmarkflamme sind einem realen, bis dato noch nicht experimentell untersuchten Feuerungszustand nachempfunden. Der Beitrag beinhaltet den Vergleich der mit drei unterschiedlichen Simulationsprogrammen erzielten Ergebnisse und gibt einen Ausblick auf die notwendigen Weiterentwicklungen der Programme hinsichtlich der Modellierung druckkohlenstaubgefeuerter Anlagen. (orig.)

  2. The chosen needs of Polish restructured coal mines concerning the ventilation and struggling against gas, dust and air-conditioning dangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuszewski, K. [Rudzka Coal Company (Poland)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper the selected needs of Polish coal mines with regard to their ventilation, minimisation of gas, dust and air-shortage dangers are presented. As far as ventilation is concerned: the need to broaden the use of the synchronic inverter cascades for speed regulation of main fans and the delivery of ventilation air duct to ensure a delivery of 11,117 m{sup 3}/s (6,5011,000 m{sup 3}/min) has been shown. As far as gas dangers are concerned there exists a need for the dissemination of dispatcher's help systems, training safety personnel in use of so called synoptic display table, a supply of 0,8311,67 m{sup 3}/s (501,100 m{sup 3}/min) of nitrogen in gaseous state for fire prevention as well as the use of modern mineral and chemical means have been mentioned. In order to help to reduce the dust danger the projected need for a modern generation of dry or wet dust collectors enabling a reduction in dustiness to NDS standards and equipping all longwalls with cutting machines with permanent and working installations of internal sprinklers have been postulated. In the case of air conditioning, the need to install 300 kW movable coolers with 300 kW single gear fans for the supply of 10 m{sup 3}/s (600 m{sup 3}/min) and an overall air pressure increase from 1600 to 2000 Pa has been presented. In the most dangerous coal mines attention has been drawn to the need for the installation and application of stationery coolers operating intermittently. 6 refs.

  3. Research into methods of dust prevention in mechanised winning in thin coal seams. Investigacion de metodos de prevencion del polvo, en el arranque mecanizado de capas estrechas de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fidalgo, M.; Alvarez Santullano, L.; Eguidazu Pujades, J.L.; Gonzalez del Valle, S.; Cordera Fernandez, J.V.; De Arriba de la Iglesia, J. (Instituto Nacional de Silicosis (Spain))

    1989-09-01

    Concerns the research work carried out jointly by HUNOSA and the National Institute of Silicosis regarding dust prevention on mechanised faces in thin coal seams using shearers with a drum diameter of less than 600 mm. This work was supported by the Directorate General for mines and Ocicarbon. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Dust removal in power plant. Practical experiences with textile filter media in the flue gas purification coal-fired plants; Entstaubung von Kraftwerken. Praxiserfahrungen mit textilen Filtermedien in der Rauchgasreinigung von kohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnig, Joachim [BWF Envirotec, Offingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Beside carbon dioxide, coal-fired power plants also produce particle emissions which have to be removed by filtering units from the flue gas. In the Federal Republic of Germany, this is enabled by means of electrostatic filters. In South Africa, the bag filter is the preferential method of dust removal. In the People's Republic of China, already large power plants with bag filters are dedusted. With regard to the cost structure, no significant differences between bag filters and electrostatic filters appear. Suitable measures can prevent the destruction of bag filters by an excess temperature in the case of disturbances of operation. Bag filters offer a higher efficiency of separation with fine dust and very fine dust. Using a professional conception of a filter plant, an operation of bag filters for the dedusting of coal-fired power plants is possible without problems. A service life of several years can be achieved.

  5. Thermal coal utilization for the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A selection of papers is presented originating from talks to coal utilization workshops for the ASEAN region in 1981. The papers cover: planning aspects - economic and technical aspects of coal usage, long term planning for fuel coal needs, planning and coal selection for coal-fired power plants, coal availability and marketing, and economic aspects of coal usage in developing countries; combustion and plant - changing from coal to oil, principles and problems of coal combustion, use of indigenous and imported coals and their effects on plant design, coal pulverizing mills, ash and dust disposal, environmental aspects of coal combustion, industrial sized coal-fired boilers; transport and storage -ocean shipment, coal receival facilities and associated operations, shipping and rail transport, coal handling and transport, environmental issue in the transport and handling of coal, coal preparation and blending; testing and properties - coal types, characterization properties and classification; training power plant operators; the cement industry and coal, the Australian black coal industry.

  6. Combined basal cell carcinoma and Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the scrotum in a patient with occupational exposure to coal tar and dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izikson, L.; Vanderpool, J.; Brodsky, G.; Mihm, M.C.; Zembowicz, A. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (US). Massachusetts General Hospital

    2004-09-01

    The patient was a 77-year-old male former smoker, with history of several basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in sun-protected areas around the waistline, who presented with another small ulceration on the anterior right upper scrotum near the base of the penis. BCC was suspected clinically and the lesion was treated with cryosurgery. The tumor recurred, became raised, and began to bleed. An excisional biopsy was performed. It showed nodular BCC surrounded by a cellular proliferation of round histiocytic cells with convoluted, lobulated and reniform nuclei and abundant cytoplasm . The patient had no history of exposure to ionizing radiation, chemotherapy, immunosuppressive medications, prior lymphoma or other malignancy. However, he spent 4 years on a ship loading coal into the furnace of a steam engine, during which he slept in adjacent quarters that were covered with coal dust. Additionally, he had a several-year history of occupational skin exposure to machine oil, oil refinery waste, sulfur waste, hydraulic fluid, and asbestos. He also reported a history of nude sunbathing. The scrotal lesion was re-excised and the patient remains disease-free more than 1 year after the diagnosis.

  7. A novel method of fuzzy fault tree analysis combined with VB program to identify and assess the risk of coal dust explosions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetang Wang

    Full Text Available Coal dust explosions (CDE are one of the main threats to the occupational safety of coal miners. Aiming to identify and assess the risk of CDE, this paper proposes a novel method of fuzzy fault tree analysis combined with the Visual Basic (VB program. In this methodology, various potential causes of the CDE are identified and a CDE fault tree is constructed. To overcome drawbacks from the lack of exact probability data for the basic events, fuzzy set theory is employed and the probability data of each basic event is treated as intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. In addition, a new approach for calculating the weighting of each expert is also introduced in this paper to reduce the error during the expert elicitation process. Specifically, an in-depth quantitative analysis of the fuzzy fault tree, such as the importance measure of the basic events and the cut sets, and the CDE occurrence probability is given to assess the explosion risk and acquire more details of the CDE. The VB program is applied to simplify the analysis process. A case study and analysis is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of this proposed method, and some suggestions are given to take preventive measures in advance and avoid CDE accidents.

  8. Reduction of the safety and health risk associated with the generation of dust on strip coal mine haul roads.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thompson, RJ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available mine haul roads. This would be used to identify suitable spray-on or mix-in surface treatments to reduce the generation of dust, within the constraints of cost effectiveness and maintainability, through consideration of wearing course material type...

  9. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Dust on Foliage Pigments and Pollution Resistances of Plants Grown Nearby Coal Based Thermal Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Manisha; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2018-01-01

    Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category. Observed AQI was greater than 100 in the surrounding area of TPP. The mean dust load on plant foliage was significantly greater in the polluted site compared with the control site: 4.45 ± 1.96 versus 1.38 ± 0.41 mg cm -2 . Nearby, TPP highest and lowest dust load were founded in F. benghalensis (7.58 ± 0.74) and F. religiosa (2.25 ± 0.12 mg cm -2 ) respectively. Analysis revealed the strong negative correlation between dust load and essential pigments of foliage, such as chlorophyll content, carotenoids, pH of foliage extract, and relative water content. Conversely, strong positive correlation was observed with the ascorbic acid content of plant species. Correlation and percentage change analysis in ascorbic acid content for the polluted site against the control site showed the adverse impact on plants due to dust load. Based on their responses to dust pollution, A. scholaris, P. longifolia, and M. indica were observed as most suitable plant species. Estimation of DRC, chlorophyll a/b ratio, APTI and API revealed the A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica as the most suitable plant species for green belt formation. The high gradation was obtained in A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica for opted parameters and showed their most suitability for green belt formation. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidences to estimate the

  10. A Model for Generation of Martian Surface Dust, Soil and Rock Coatings: Physical vs. Chemical Interactions, and Palagonitic Plus Hydrothermal Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.; Murchie, S.; Pieters, C.; Zent, A.

    1999-01-01

    This model is one of many possible scenarios to explain the generation of the current surface material on Mars using chemical, magnetic and spectroscopic data from Mars and geologic analogs from terrestrial sites. One basic premise is that there are physical and chemical interactions of the atmospheric dust particles and that these two processes create distinctly different results. Physical processes distribute dust particles on rocks, forming physical rock coatings, and on the surface between rocks forming soil units; these are reversible processes. Chemical reactions of the dust/soil particles create alteration rinds on rock surfaces or duricrust surface units, both of which are relatively permanent materials. According to this model the mineral components of the dust/soil particles are derived from a combination of "typical" palagonitic weathering of volcanic ash and hydrothermally altered components, primarily from steam vents or fumeroles. Both of these altered materials are composed of tiny particles, about 1 micron or smaller, that are aggregates of silicates and iron oxide/oxyhydroxide/sulfate phases. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Petrological and geochemical characteristics of Palaeogene low-rank coal on the Faroe Islands: Restricted effects of alteration by basaltic lava flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuboušková, S.; Krmíček, Lukáš; Coufalík, Pavel; Pokorný, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 165, AUG (2016), s. 157-172 ISSN 0166-5162 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-18482S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Faroe Island * coal composition * alteration Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 4.783, year: 2016

  12. New method of reducing emission of nitrogen oxides at coal-dust burning thermal power plants in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1987-05-01

    New method of suppressing nitrogen oxide formation in the combustion process makes use of SGR- or PM-burners in the combustion chamber, augmented with auxiliary burners positioned higher in the chamber for secondary fuel with insufficient air and nozzles above the latter for tertiary air. A description of laboratory experiments on the reduction of nitrogen oxides using the above burner configuration as well as a description of the reaction process taking place during combustion are presented. Results of industrial testing of the three-stage combustion of high-nitrogen Australian black coal in a cylindrical combustion chamber developed by Hitachi-Zosen are presented.

  13. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  14. RELATIONSHIP OF LIPID PROFILE AND IMMUNE STATUS IN THE DYNAMICS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO COAL-ROCK DUST ON THE BODY (EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анастасия Сергеевна Казицкая

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject. The relationship between lipid metabolism and immune reactivity in the dynamics of long-term exposure to coal-rock dust (CRD on the body. Objective. In the experiment to examine the impact of the changes in the lipid profile on immune status under the conditions of long-term exposure to CRD on the body. Methods. The experiments were carried out on 110 white male rats weighing 200-250 g. The inhalation method was used for modeling that best fits the conditions of coal-mine production. Animals were divided into 2 groups: the control (n = 30; the experiment (n = 80, that are the rats who inhaled CRD with a particle size of up to 5 microns in an average concentration of 50 mg/m3 for 4 hours daily for 12 weeks. Main results. Early terms of the CRD impact are characterized by the activation of the immune system against the background of metabolic shifts as well as by morphological changes of the immune nature in the bronchopulmonary system and liver of the rats that can be regarded as compensatory-adaptive. Prolonged exposure to the dust factor leads to an increase in dyslipidemia, which contributes to the development of immune imbalance as well as morphological changes that are indicative of the chronic inflammation and disturbance of compensatory mechanisms. Field of application. The results of the conducted experimental studies broaden the fundamental ideas about the mechanisms of immune body defense. The detection of pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the formation and course of occupational diseases allows assessing the functional state of the organism at the stage of pre-existing disease, revealing the initial signs of developing pathology and determining the ways of their correction. Conclusions. CRD intake is characterized by the development of metabolic changes, which are closely related to immune reactivity. An integrated approach to the study of occupational and industrially-caused pathology makes it possible to assess the

  15. Does variation in mineral composition alter the short-wave light scattering properties of desert dust aerosol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Andrew J.A.; Grainger, Roy G.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral dust aerosol is a major component of natural airborne particulates. Using satellite measurements from the visible and near-infrared, there is insufficient information to retrieve a full microphysical and chemical description of an aerosol distribution. As such, refractive index is one of many parameters that must be implicitly assumed in order to obtain an optical depth retrieval. This is essentially a proxy for the dust mineralogy. Using a global soil map, it is shown that as long as a reasonable refractive index for dust is assumed, global dust variability is unlikely to cause significant variation in the optical properties of a dust aerosol distribution in the short-wave, and so should not greatly affect retrievals of mineral dust aerosol from space by visible and near-infrared radiometers. Errors in aerosol optical depth due to this variation are expected to be ≲1%. The work is framed around the ORAC AATSR aerosol retrieval, but is equally applicable to similar satellite retrievals. In this case, variations in the top-of-atmosphere reflectance caused by mineral variation are within the noise limits of the instrument. -- Highlights: • Global variation in dust aerosol refractive index is quantified using soil maps. • Resulting visible light scattering properties have limited variability. • Satellite aerosol retrievals do not need to account for varying dust refractive indices

  16. Study on Reduction Kinetics of Briquettes of Hematite Fines with Boiler Grade Coal and Coke Dust in Two Different Forms: Intermixing and Multilayered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Gopal Ghosh; Sarkar, Bitan Kumar; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh; Mitra, Manoj Kumar; Dey, Rajib

    2017-10-01

    An attempt has been made to utilise hematite ore fines in the form of briquettes with two different form of mixing i.e. intermixing and multilayered by means of carbothermal reduction along with boiler grade coal and coke dust. The influence of reduction temperature (1323, 1373 and 1423 K) and reduction time (10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 min) has been investigated in detail and the reduced briquettes are characterised by XRD, SEM analyses. The reducibility of intermixing briquettes is found to be higher for multilayered briquettes. In addition, isothermal kinetic study has also been carried out for both intermixing and multilayered briquettes. The activation energy for intermixing briquettes are evaluated to be 125.88 kJ/mol for the initial stage of reaction (CG3 controlled mechanism) and 113.11 kJ/mol for the later part of reaction (D3 controlled mechanism), respectively. In case of multilayered briquettes, the corresponding activation energy is found to be 235.59 kJ/mol for reaction (CG3 controlled mechanism). These results corroborate the observed better reducibility of the intermixing briquettes over multilayered briquettes.

  17. Preparation and co-combustion of whole plants in a coal dust furnace; Aufbereitung und Mitverbrennung von Ganzpflanzen mit Steinkohle in einer Staubfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegle, V.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion is a favourable and simple way of utilizing biomass. Owing to the high energy density of grains, whole plants must be ground very thoroughly for use in a coal dust furnace. This can be done with low energy consumption in a hammer mill. In addition, multifuel swirl burners permit selective supply of fuel and low-NO{sub x} combustion. The fuel with the highest nitrogen content should be blown into the inner recirculation zone. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung von Biomasse ist eine guenstige und schnell zu realisierende Moeglichkeit, Biomasse in grossem Umfang zu nutzen. Um Ganzpflanzen in einer Staubfeuerung mitverbrennen zu koennen, muessen diese aufgrund der hohen Energiedichte der Koerner sehr fein aufgemahlen werden. Dies ist mit einer Hammermuehle mit geringem Energieeinsatz moeglich. Durch eine geeignete Sichtung muss diese jedoch noch weiter optimiert werden. Mit Multi-Fuel-Drallbrennern ist eine stickoxidarme Verbrennung moeglich. Der Brennstoff, der den groesseren Stickstoffeintrag in die Flamme bewirkt, soltle in die innere Rezirkulationszone eingeblasen werden. (orig)

  18. Preparation and co-combustion of whole plants in a coal dust furnace; Aufbereitung und Mitverbrennung von Ganzpflanzen mit Steinkohle in einer Staubfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegle, V; Spliethoff, H; Hein, K R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1997-12-31

    Co-combustion is a favourable and simple way of utilizing biomass. Owing to the high energy density of grains, whole plants must be ground very thoroughly for use in a coal dust furnace. This can be done with low energy consumption in a hammer mill. In addition, multifuel swirl burners permit selective supply of fuel and low-NO{sub x} combustion. The fuel with the highest nitrogen content should be blown into the inner recirculation zone. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung von Biomasse ist eine guenstige und schnell zu realisierende Moeglichkeit, Biomasse in grossem Umfang zu nutzen. Um Ganzpflanzen in einer Staubfeuerung mitverbrennen zu koennen, muessen diese aufgrund der hohen Energiedichte der Koerner sehr fein aufgemahlen werden. Dies ist mit einer Hammermuehle mit geringem Energieeinsatz moeglich. Durch eine geeignete Sichtung muss diese jedoch noch weiter optimiert werden. Mit Multi-Fuel-Drallbrennern ist eine stickoxidarme Verbrennung moeglich. Der Brennstoff, der den groesseren Stickstoffeintrag in die Flamme bewirkt, soltle in die innere Rezirkulationszone eingeblasen werden. (orig)

  19. Mortality over an extended follow-up period in coal workers exposed to respirable dust and quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; MacCalman, L.; Hutchison, P.A.

    2009-10-15

    In the 1950s the Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was set up to study the health of British coalworkers. Studies included regular health surveys, an intensive characterisation of workers' individual exposures, and entry to a cohort followed up to the present for cause-specific mortality. This study reports on analyses of cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18,000 men from 10 collieries. External analyses used standardised mortality ratios, comparing observed mortality with reference rates from the regions in which the pits were situated. Causes investigated include lung and stomach cancers, nonmalignant respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular endpoints. Internal analyses used Cox regression models with time-dependent exposures adjusting for the confounding effects of age, smoking, cohort entry date and regional differences in population mortality rates. Several causes showed evidence of a healthy worker effect early in the follow-up, with a deficit in the SMR diminishing over time. For most of the causes there was a significant excess in the latter part of follow-up. Internal analyses found evidence of an association between increased risks of lung cancer and increased quartz exposure, particularly at a lag of 15 years. Risks of mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease, and specifically chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis, showed increases with increased exposure to respirable dust. 60 refs.

  20. Influenza virus-induced alterations of cytochrome P-450 enzyme activities following exposure of mice to coal and diesel particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabovsky, J.; Judy, D.J.; Rodak, D.J.; Petersen, M.

    1986-06-01

    We have investigated a relationship between two detoxication systems, metabolic detoxication through the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) pathway and resistance to infection through interferon (IFN), in mice infected with influenza virus following exposure to coal dust (CD) and diesel exhaust (DE) particulates. Mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered air (FA; control), CD, or DE for 1 month and then inoculated intranasally (IN) with influenza virus. During infection, 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase (7ECdeEt'ase) and ethylmorphine demethylase (EMdeMe'ase) (monooxygenases), and NADPH cytochrome c reductase (NADPH c red'ase) were measured in liver microsomes. Temporal patterns of enzyme activities were observed with control animals. EMdeMe'ase and NADPH c red'ase exhibited peak values at Day 4 postinfection (27.6 and 482 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively), compared to initial activities (9.1 and 307 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively). 7ECdeEt'ase activity decreased between Days 1-3 postvirus infection and thereafter returned to the original value (1.7 nmole/min/mg protein). When the mice were first exposed to CD or DE particulates for 1 month prior to influenza infection, changes in enzyme temporal patterns were observed. The increased EMdeMe'ase activity at Day 4 was not observed in mice exposed to CD and was reduced in mice exposed to DE. Preexposure to either particulate resulted in the abolition of the increased Day 4 activity of NADPH c red'ase. The 7ECdeEt'ase postinfection temporal pattern was not affected by a preexposure to either particulate. Estimates of the enzyme activities after the 1-month exposure to FA, CD, or DE but before virus infection indicated no changes due to particulate exposure alone. Under conditions of particulate exposure and virus infection, serum IFN levels peaked at Days 4-5 and were unaffected by the 1-month preexposure to CD or DE.

  1. House dust mite-specific immunotherapy alters the basal expression of T regulatory and FcεRI pathway genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevec, Branko; Radulovic Pevec, Mira; Stipic Markovic, Asja; Batista, Irena; Rijavec, Matija; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja; Korosec, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells and IgE-mediated signaling pathways could play important roles in the induction of allergen tolerance during house dust mite-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (HDM-SCIT). Our aim was to compare the basal expression levels of Treg, T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 transcription factors and components involved in IgE-mediated signaling in healthy subjects with those in HDM-allergic patients both untreated and successfully treated with HDM-SCIT. Thirty-nine HDM-allergic patients who completed a 3- to 5-year course of mite extract SCIT, 20 mite-allergic controls and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. The efficacy of SCIT was monitored using skin-prick tests (SPTs), total immunoglobulin E (tIgE), specific IgE (sIgE), sIgG(4), nasal challenge and visual analog scale (VAS) scores at several time points. The mRNA levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), T-BET, GATA-3, FcεRI, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP) were quantified by real-time RT-PCR using nonstimulated whole blood samples. Decreased wheal sizes and VAS scores, negative challenges and increased sIgG(4) levels indicated that SCIT was effective in the treated patients. Basal expression levels of FOXP3 and GATA-3 decreased and T-BET levels increased in both treated patients and in healthy controls compared to untreated patients. The IgE-mediated pathway kinases Syk and PI3K exhibited reduced expression, whereas SHIP phosphatase levels were elevated in both treated patients and healthy controls relative to untreated patients. The expression levels of FcεRI were not significantly altered. Immunotherapy using HDM extracts results in a modification of the basal expression levels of several IgE-related signaling factors and induces a highly significant upregulation of Th1-response and downregulation of Th2-response transcription factors. Interestingly, this therapy also appears to reduce the basal

  2. Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage-sludge, saw-dust and refuse derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof; Weber, Roman [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology

    2008-07-01

    Blends of a South African bituminous ''Middleburg'' coal and three alternative fuels (a municipal sewage-sludge, a saw-dust and a refuse derived fuel) have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on slagging propensity of the mixtures. Two kinds of deposition probes have been used, un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes. Distinct differences in physical and chemical structures of the deposits collected using the un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes have been observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on un-cooled ceramic deposition probes were characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage-sludge with coal. Porous, sintered (not molten) but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probe during co-firing of coal/saw-dust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower surface temperatures (550-700 C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher temperatures (1100-1300 C) since the higher temperature ash agglomerated and sintered much faster than the low temperature deposit. (orig.)

  3. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  4. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  5. 75 FR 81165 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ..., face or ribs and coal or rock bursts. Sec. 75.220(a)(1). Each mine operator shall develop and follow a... materials, ventilation and roof control plans, and maintenance of incombustible content of rock dust are the... the mine * * *. Sec. 75.400. Coal dust, including float coal dust deposited on rock-dusted surfaces...

  6. Development of basic engineering to investigate dust prevention methods in the mechanised winning of thin coal seams. Proyecto de desarrollo de la ingenieria basica para la investigacion de metodos de prevencion del pulvo en el arranque mecanizado de capas estrechas de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fidalgo, M; Alvarez Santullano, L; Eguidazu Pujades, J L; Gonzalez del Valle, S; Cordera Fernandez, J V; Arriba de la Iglesia, J.

    1990-02-01

    The article concerns research work carried out jointly by HUNOSA and the National Institute of Silicosis on dust prevention on mechanised faces where thin seams are cut by shearers with a drum diameter of less than 600 mm. Under these conditions, it is not possible to use the conventional dust suppression systems employed for high-output shearers with larger drum diameters where the large quantities of sprayed water are easily absorbed by the coal. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A dust-free dock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrion, D. [E & F Services Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    This paper describes the process of unloading coal, petcoke and other dusty products in environmentally-sensitive areas. It presents a case study of the deepwater Port of Foynes on the west coast of Ireland which imports animal feed, fertiliser, coal and cement clinker, where dockside mobile loaders (DMLs) have eliminated spillage and controlled dust, and a record case study of the Humber International Terminal in the UK, where air curtinas, dust suppression grids and EFFEX{reg_sign} filters overcome the dust problems. 2 photos.

  8. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  9. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    Energi, Haesselbyverket, has now invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping wastes of rubber are mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1997 was 370 SEK/ton or 10 per cent higher than in 1996. For the world, the average import price fell to 46 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1998 as a result of the crisis in Asia. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO 2 -removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, Vaesteraas, has newly invested in a ca talytic NO x -cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO x -burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 800 tons in 1997, a minor increase compared to 1996. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1.7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimize the

  10. 78 FR 45566 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coal Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices,'' to the Office of Management...) determine the concentration of respirable dust in coal mines. CPDMs must be designed and constructed for...

  11. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Alteration in Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells Induced by Asian Sand Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Yoon Young; Park, Moo Kyun; Kwon, Jee Young; Seo, Young Rok; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the gene expression profile of Asian sand dust (ASD)-treated human middle ear epithelial cell (HMEEC) using microarray analysis. The HMEEC was treated with ASD (400 µg/mL) and total RNA was extracted for microarray analysis. Molecular pathways among differentially expressed genes were further analyzed. For selected genes, the changes in gene expression were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A total of 1,274 genes were differentially expressed by ASD. Among them, 1,138 genes were 2 folds up-regulated, whereas 136 genes were 2 folds down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were mainly involved in cellular processes, including apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Down-regulated genes affected cellular processes, including apoptosis, cell cycle, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. The 10 genes including ADM, CCL5, EDN1, EGR1, FOS, GHRL, JUN, SOCS3, TNF, and TNFSF10 were identified as main modulators in up-regulated genes. A total of 11 genes including CSF3, DKK1, FOSL1, FST, TERT, MMP13, PTHLH, SPRY2, TGFBR2, THBS1, and TIMP1 acted as main components of pathway associated with 2-fold down regulated genes. We identified the differentially expressed genes in ASD-treated HMEEC. Our work indicates that air pollutant like ASD, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of otitis media.

  12. Physical Alteration of Martian Dust Grains, Its Influence on Detection of Clays and Identification of Aqueous Processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Drief, Ahmed; Dyar, Darby

    2003-01-01

    Clays, if present on Mars, have been illusive. Determining whether or not clay minerals and other aqueous alteration species are present on Mars provides key information about the extent and duration of aqueous processes on Mars. The purpose of this study is to characterize in detail changes in the mineral grains resulting from grinding and to assess the influence of physical processes on clay minerals on the surface of Mars. Physical alteration through grinding was shown to greatly affect the structure and a number of properties of antigorite and kaolinite. This project builds on an initial study and includes a combination of SEM, HRTEM, reflectance and M ssbauer spectroscopies. Grain size was found to decrease, as expected, with grinding. In addition, nanophase carbonate, Si-OH and iron oxide species were formed.

  13. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Design and development of a dust dispersion chamber to quantify the dispersibility of rock dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Inoka E; Sapko, Michael J; Harris, Marcia L; Zlochower, Isaac A; Weiss, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Dispersible rock dust must be applied to the surfaces of entries in underground coal mines in order to inert the coal dust entrained or made airborne during an explosion and prevent propagating explosions. 30 CFR. 75.2 states that "… [rock dust particles] when wetted and dried will not cohere to form a cake which will not be dispersed into separate particles by a light blast of air …" However, a proper definition or quantification of "light blast of air" is not provided. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has, consequently, designed a dust dispersion chamber to conduct quantitative laboratory-scale dispersibility experiments as a screening tool for candidate rock dusts. A reproducible pulse of air is injected into the chamber and across a shallow tray of rock dust. The dust dispersed and carried downwind is monitored. The mass loss of the dust tray and the airborne dust measurements determine the relative dispersibility of the dust with respect to a Reference rock dust. This report describes the design and the methodology to evaluate the relative dispersibility of rock dusts with and without anti-caking agents. Further, the results of this study indicate that the dispersibility of rock dusts varies with particle size, type of anti-caking agent used, and with the untapped bulk density. Untreated rock dusts, when wetted and dried forming a cake that was much less dispersible than the reference rock dust used in supporting the 80% total incombustible content rule.

  15. Effects of Heavy Metals from Soil and Dust Source on DNA Damage of the Leymus chinensis Leaves in Coal-Mining Area in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Zhang, Minjie; Lu, Zhongming; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Mumbengegwi, Dzivaidzo; Crittenden, John

    2016-01-01

    Air and soil pollution from mining activities has been considered as a critical issue to the health of living organisms. However, few efforts have been made in distinguishing the main pathway of organism genetic damage by heavy metals related to mining activities. Therefore, we investigated the genetic damage of Leymus chinensis leaf cells, the air particulate matter (PM) contents, and concentrations of the main heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg) in soil and foliar dust samples collected from seven experiment points at the core mining area and one control point 20 kilometers away from the core mining area in Inner Mongolia in 2013. Comet assay was used to test the genetic damage of the Leymus chinensis leaf cells; the Tail DNA% and Tail Moment were used to characterize the genetic damage degree of the plant cells. The comet assay results showed that the cell genetic damage ratio was up to 77.0% in experiment points but was only 35.0% in control point. The control point also had the slight Tail DNA% and Tail Moment values than other experiment groups. The cell damage degree of the control group was 0.935 and experiment groups were 1.299-1.815. The geo-accumulation index and comperehensive pollution index(CPI) were used to characterize heavy metal pollution in foliar dust samples, and single factor pollution index and CPI were used to characterize the heavy metal pollution in soil samples. The CPIfoliar dust of control group was 0.36 and experiment groups were 1.45-2.57; the CPIsoil of control group was 0.04 and experiment groups were 0.07-0.12. The results of correlation analyze showed that Air Quality Index (AQI) -CPIfoliar dust(r = 0.955**)>Damage degree-CPIfoliar dust(r = 0.923**)>Damage degree-AQI(r = 0.908**)>Damage degree-CPIsoil (r = 0.824*). The present research proved that mining activity had a high level of positive correlation with organism genetic damage caused by heavy metals through comparing with the control point; soil and atmosphere were both the

  16. Dust characterisation for hot gas filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dockter, B.; Erickson, T.; Henderson, A.; Hurley, J.; Kuehnel, V.; Katrinak, K.; Nowok, J.; O`Keefe, C.; O`Leary, E.; Swanson, M.; Watne, T. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC)

    1998-03-01

    Hot gas filtration to remove particulates from the gas flow upstream of the gas turbine is critical to the development of many of the advanced coal-fired power generation technologies such as the Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC), a hybrid gasification combined cycle being developed in the UK. Ceramic candle filters are considered the most promising technology for this purpose. Problems of mechanical failure and of `difficult-to-clean` dusts causing high pressure losses across the filter elements need to be solved. The project investigated the behaviour of high-temperature filter dusts, and the factors determining the ease with which they can be removed from filters. The high-temperature behaviour of dusts from both combustion and gasification systems was investigated. Dust samples were obtained from full-scale demonstration and pilot-scale plant operating around the world. Dust samples were also produced from a variety of coals, and under several different operating conditions, on UNDEERC`s pilot-scale reactor. Key factors affecting dust behaviour were examined, including: the rates of tensile strength developing in dust cakes; the thermochemical equilibria pertaining under filtration conditions; dust adhesivity on representative filter materials; and the build-up and cleaning behaviour of dusts on representative filter candles. The results obtained confirmed the importance of dust temperature, dust cake porosity, cake liquid content, and particle size distribution in determining the strength of a dust cake. An algorithm was developed to indicate the likely sticking propensity of dusts as a function of coal and sorbent composition and combustion conditions. This algorithm was incorporated into a computer package which can be used to judge the degree of difficulty in filter cleaning that can be expected to arise in a real plant based on operating parameters and coal analyzes. 6 figs.

  17. Forecasting safe duration of working time at coal face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses methods of evaluating pneumoconiosis hazard for coal miners, depending on factors which influence disease development. Some theories developed in the USSR, according to which the critical mass of coal dust in miner's lungs can amount to 20 g, are criticized. It is noted that this amount of dust causes an acute form of pneumoconiosis. Using regression analysis an equation was developed which describes dependence of pathologic changes in a miner's lung on the following factors: number of shifts characterized by contact with dust, dust concentration, volume of pulmonary ventilation in dust air (m3/min), miner's age, coal rank (described by volatile matter content), and a correction factor. On the basis of the described equation it has been calculated that a safe concentration of coal dust which practically excludes pneumoconiosis risk for a miner with 35 years of service ranges from 2 to 9 mg/m/sup 3/ for coals with volatile matter content from 2 to 44%.

  18. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  19. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  20. Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring drifted dust near coal transhipment in the harbour of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Meten aan verwaaiend stof bij kolenoverslag in het Amsterdams havengebied

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weijers, E.P.; Rodink, R.; Hensen, A. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    For two months, particulate matter measurements were performed at the Rietlanden coal terminal in the Africa harbour in Amsterdam. At eight places around the coal terminal particulate matter concentrations were measured with relatively simple (and relatively inexpensive) optical sensors (which have been further developed by ECN). The primary purpose of the measurement campaign was to determine the performance and robustness of the sensors 'in the field'. After the satisfactory performance, the feasibility of a monitoring c.q. alarm system were studied and an estimate was made of particulate matter emissions from the terminal with a dispersion model during the measurement period [Dutch] Gedurende twee maanden zijn bij de Rietlanden kolenterminal in de Afrikahaven te Amsterdam fijnstofmetingen uitgevoerd. Op een achttal plaatsen rondom het bedrijf zijn fijnstofconcentraties gemeten met relatief eenvoudige (en relatief goedkope) optische sensoren (die door ECN verder zijn ontwikkeld). In de eerste plaats had de meetcampagne ten doel de prestatie en robuustheid van de sensoren 'in het veld' vast te stellen. Na gebleken geschiktheid is de haalbaarheid van een monitoring- c.q. alarmeringssysteem bestudeerd en is de fijnstofemissie afkomstig van de terminal geschat voor de periode van de metingen met een verspreidingsmodel.

  2. Control of dust hazards in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V

    1981-09-01

    This paper analyzes health hazards associated with air pollution by respirable coal dust which causes pneumoconioses. The following directions in pneumoconioses prevention are discussed: improved protective systems (e.g. respirators), mining schemes optimized from a health hazards point of view, correct determination of the maximum permissible level of respirable dusts, reducing working time. Safety regulations in the USSR on the critical amount of coal dust in the miner respiratory system are insufficient as the 20 g limit is too high and does not guarantee safety. Using regression analysis influence of the factors which cause pneumoconioses is analyzed. This influence is described by an equation which considers the following factors: number of shifts associated with contact of a miner with coal dusts, dust concentration in mine air, amount of air with coal dust being respirated, miner's age, years as miner, coal rank. It is stated that use of the proposed equation (derived by computer calculations) permits the safe working time to be correctly determined considering all factors which cause pneumoconioses.

  3. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  4. Increase the use of the stone dust bagged barrier enhancing its application for differing conditions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JJL

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available This report summarises the results of work on bagged stone dust barrier for stopping the flame propagation of a coal dust explosion in the 200m GP badenhorst test gallery at the kloppersbos research facility....

  5. 78 FR 79010 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... coal requires more heat to combust; (3) anthracite dust does not propagate an explosion; and (4) there... to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... updated the coal mine rescue team certification criteria. The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response...

  6. Pathological study of the prevalence of silicosis among coal miners in Iran: A case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Naghadehi, Masoud; Sereshki, Farhang; Mohammadi, F.

    2014-02-01

    One of the most hazardous diseases that is commonly associated with the coal mining industry is Silicosis which caused by dust inhalation. This disease occurs as a result of prolonged breathing of dust containing silica (quartz). The generation of coal mine dust during underground and surface coal mining is the most significant source of coal dust exposure. Silica dust develops scar tissue inside the lungs which reduces the lungs ability to extract oxygen from the air. All miners working in underground and surface coal mines are at risk of being exposed to mine dust containing silica. In this study, cases with pathologic diagnosis of silicosis during seven years period between 2000 and 2007 were retrieved, from the pathologic file of Department of Pathology, Massih Daneshvary Hospital in Iran. Results of this case study showed the great effects of dust exposure and inhalation from the viewpoint of symptoms especially between the miners.

  7. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the pressurized coal dust furnace of RWTH Aachen; Experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchungen an der Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung der RWTH Aachen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Waermeuebertragung und Klimatechnik

    1999-09-01

    The contribution presents first results and activities funded by the BMBF, the MSWWF of Nordrhein-Westfalen, and the RWTH Aachen. The main component of the Dorsten plant is the pressure chamber which was designed and constructed in close cooperation with Messrs. L. und C. Steinmueller. The combustion chamber was installed inside the pressure vessel of the former pressurized fluidized bed steam generator of the heating power station of the RWTH Aachen. The combustion chamber is designed for a thermal power of 400 kW, corresponding to a coal mass flow of about 50 kg/h, at a pressure of 12 bar and temperatures up to 1700 degrees centigrade in melting chamber operation. It is vertical, with an inner diameter of about 400 mm, an axially movable roof burner, and four points for optical access. [Deutsch] Die Auslegung des Brenners un der Brennkammer fuer die Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung (DKSF) in Hinblick auf eine vollstaendige und stabile Verbrennung bei moeglichst geringen Emissionen an Schadgasen und Aschepartikeln war dagegen nicht primaeres Ziel des Verbundvorhabens in Dorsten. Dieses Thema wird in enger Abstimmung mit den Dorstener Aktivitaeten an einer Versuchsanlage der RWTH Aachen angegangen. Ueber die ersten Ergebnisse und die geplanten Arbeiten, die vom BMBF, vom MSWWF des Landes NRW und der RWTH Aachen gefoerdert werden, soll im Beitrag berichtet werden. Die Hauptkomponente der DKSF-Anlage ist die Druckkammer, die in enger Zusammenarbeit mit der Firma L. und C. Steinmueller ausgelegt und aufgebaut wurde. Die Aufstellung der Brennkammer im Druckbehaelter des ehemaligen Druckwirbelschicht-Dampferzeugers im Heizkraftwerk der RWTH Aachen wird aufgezeigt. Die Brennkammer ist fuer eine thermische Leistung von 400 kW, entsprechend einem Kohlenmassestrom von etwa 50 kg/h, bei einem Druck von 12 bar und fuer Temperaturen bis zu 1.700 C bei Schmelzkammerbetrieb ausgelegt. Sie ist als stehender Druckbehaelter mit einem Innendurchmesser von ca. 400 mm, einem axial

  8. Radiation- and self-ignition induced alterations of Permian uraniferous coal from the abandoned Novátor mine waste dump (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, Ivana; Kříbek, B.; Havelcová, Martina; Machovič, Vladimír; Špaldoňová, Alexandra; Lapčák, L.; Knésl, I.; Blažek, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 168, NOV (2016), s. 162-178 ISSN 0166-5162. [Annual Meeting of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology /67./ – Symposium on Coal &Organic Petrology - New perspectives and Applications: atribute to Marlies Teichmüller (1914 – 2000). Potsdam, 05.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11674S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : coal wastes * organic matter * uranium * mineralization * self-heating * biomarkers Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.783, year: 2016

  9. Health impacts of coal and coal use: Possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Orem, W.; Castranova, V.; Tatu, C.A.; Belkin, H.E.; Zheng, B.; Lerch, H.E.; Maharaj, S.V.; Bates, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Coal will be a dominant energy source in both developed and developing countries for at least the first half of the 21st century. Environmental problems associated with coal, before mining, during mining, in storage, during combustion, and postcombustion waste products are well known and are being addressed by ongoing research. The connection between potential environmental problems with human health is a fairly new field and requires the cooperation of both the geoscience and medical disciplines. Three research programs that illustrate this collaboration are described and used to present a range of human health problems that are potentially caused by coal. Domestic combustion of coal in China has, in some cases, severely affected human health. Both on a local and regional scale, human health has been adversely affected by coals containing arsenic, fluorine, selenium, and possibly, mercury. Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an irreversible kidney disease of unknown origin, has been related to the proximity of Pliocene lignite deposits. The working hypothesis is that groundwater is leaching toxic organic compounds as it passes through the lignites and that these organics are then ingested by the local population contributing to this health problem. Human disease associated with coal mining mainly results from inhalation of particulate matter during the mining process. The disease is Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis characterized by coal dust-induced lesions in the gas exchange regions of the lung; the coal worker's "black lung disease". ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cometary Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Agarwal, Jessica; Cottin, Hervé; Engrand, Cécile; Flynn, George; Fulle, Marco; Gombosi, Tamas; Langevin, Yves; Lasue, Jérémie; Mannel, Thurid; Merouane, Sihane; Poch, Olivier; Thomas, Nicolas; Westphal, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    This review presents our understanding of cometary dust at the end of 2017. For decades, insight about the dust ejected by nuclei of comets had stemmed from remote observations from Earth or Earth's orbit, and from flybys, including the samples of dust returned to Earth for laboratory studies by the Stardust return capsule. The long-duration Rosetta mission has recently provided a huge and unique amount of data, obtained using numerous instruments, including innovative dust instruments, over a wide range of distances from the Sun and from the nucleus. The diverse approaches available to study dust in comets, together with the related theoretical and experimental studies, provide evidence of the composition and physical properties of dust particles, e.g., the presence of a large fraction of carbon in macromolecules, and of aggregates on a wide range of scales. The results have opened vivid discussions on the variety of dust-release processes and on the diversity of dust properties in comets, as well as on the formation of cometary dust, and on its presence in the near-Earth interplanetary medium. These discussions stress the significance of future explorations as a way to decipher the formation and evolution of our Solar System.

  11. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  12. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Production of blast furnace coke from soft brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, G.; Wundes, H.; Schkommodau, F.; Zinke, H.-G. (VEB Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    Reviews experimental production and utilization of high quality brown coal coke in the GDR during 1985 and 1986. The technology of briquetting and coking brown coal dust is described; the superior parameters of produced coke quality are listed in comparison to those of regular industrial coke made from brown and black coal. Dust emission from high quality brown coal coke was suppressed by coke surface treatment with dispersion foam. About 4,200 t of this coke were employed in black coal coke substitution tests in a blast furnace. Substitution rate was 11%, blast furnace operation was positive, a substitution factor of 0.7 t black coal coke per 1 t of brown coal coke was calculated. Technology development of high quality brown coal coke production is regarded as complete; blast furnace coke utilization, however, requires further study. 8 refs.

  14. Lung disease and coal mining: what pulmonologists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Leonard H T; Krefft, Silpa D; Cohen, Robert A; Rose, Cecile S

    2016-03-01

    Coal mine workers are at risk for a range of chronic respiratory diseases including coal workers' pneumoconiosis, diffuse dust-related fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The purpose of this review is to describe coal mining processes and associated exposures to inform the diagnostic evaluation of miners with respiratory symptoms. Although rates of coal workers' pneumoconiosis declined after regulations were enacted in the 1970s, more recent data shows a reversal in this downward trend. Rapidly progressive pneumoconiosis with progressive massive fibrosis (complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis) is being observed with increased frequency in United States coal miners, with histologic findings of silicosis and mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. There is increasing evidence of decline in lung function in individuals with pneumoconiosis. Multiple recent cohort studies suggest increased risk of lung cancer in coal miners. A detailed understanding of coal mining methods and processes allows clinicians to better evaluate and confirm chronic lung diseases caused by inhalational hazards in the mine atmosphere.

  15. Development of a ceramic heat exchanger for a combined cycle plant with pressurized coal dust combustion. Final report; Entwicklung eines keramischen Waermeaustauschers fuer eine Kombianlage mit Kohlenstaubdruckfeuerung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leithner, R.; Ehlers, C.

    2001-12-01

    State of Research: The Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion Combined Cycle (PPCCCC) with a directly fired gas turbine can reach electrical efficiencies beyond 50%. The required gas quality upstream the gas turbine has not been reached yet at temperatures above 1000 C. One approach tested is the precipitation of ash and alkalines at temperatures above the ash melting point. This principle contains problems concerning the remaining content of ash and alkalines in the flue gas and damages to the refractory materials due to corrosion. Goal of the Investigation: An alternative process had to be investigated in which the flue gas is cleaned according to the state of the art, i.e. below the ash fusion temperature. This principle requires cooling down the flue gas and heating it up again after cleaning in a high temperature heat exchanger. Method: A ceramic tube-and-shell heat exchanger in a model scale was designed and was operated at realistic conditions in an atmospheric test plant in connection with a high temperture precipitation. Result: The heat exchanger showed a good performance concerning design and material. The expected temperatures were not reached totally because of untight joints. Clogging occurred in the tube entrances at high temperatures because of sintered ash agglomerates. First tests to clean the entrances during operation showed positive results. The ash precipitation by means of a cyclone and ceramic filter candles was performed without difficulties. Conclusion: Avoiding and improving joints will help to achieve higher temperatures. A process of cleaning the tubes in-line has to be introduced to prevent the clogging effects. If this is successfully done for high temperatures, an attractive principle for a PPCCCC-process is available which reaches the gas purity required. (orig.) [German] Derzeitiger Stand der Forschung: Der Kohlenstaubdruckfeuerungs-Kombiprozess mit direkt befeuerter Gasturbine verspricht elektrische Wirkungsgrade ueber 50%. Die

  16. Basic terminology in the field of mine dusts:Q1 noxious to the health of miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskorska-Kalisz, Z; Gruszka, J

    1979-07-01

    Forty five basic terms concerning mine dusts and fighting mine dusts are presented. The terms define various kinds of mine dusts (among others, coal dust), dustiness in underground mines, prediction and measurement of dustiness, composition of mine dusts and grain size distribution of mine dusts and fighting coal dust by spraying water mixed with chemical agents (wetting agents). It is noted that the precise definition of the basic terms in Poland is necessary for clarity. The basic terms have been explained in various publications. The last Encylopaedic Dictionary of Mining was published in Poland in 1955. (In Polish)

  17. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  18. Coal 95; Kol - 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    1996-12-31

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO{sub 2} removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO{sub x} cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO{sub x} burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs.

  19. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  20. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.305 Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. Respiratory equipment approved by...

  1. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  2. Evaluation study on rationalization of coal handling in snowy area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suesada, Yasuhiko; Yamagata, Keisuke; Kuwahara, Mitsuhiro

    1987-09-25

    The adhesion of coal to the coal handling facilities in large cool-fired power plants in the snowy area was investigated for siting them in the future. The amount of water derived from melted snow in addition to that from the rain fall were measured and the statistical amounts of rain and snow falls for the past ten years were examined. Then the amount of water derived from melted snow was calculated by regression. The result indicates that the amount of rain fall in summer is larger than that from melted snow. The moisture content of coal in a coal yard reaches the moisture content at which the coal readily adheres to the facilities after snow fall and it penetrates the pile of coal to the bottom with the lapse of time. The penetrating rate of it largely depends upon the particle distribution of coal as well as the ranks of coal. The adhesion of coal to the coal handling facilities is caused mainly by the amount of dust coal and the moisture content of coal. The amount of adhered coal estimated from the shear properties qualitatively agrees with the experimental result using a model of chute. Adding the dusting inhibitor exceeding the normal value increases the amount of of adhesion of coal. (13 figs, 3 tabs)

  3. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  4. Bagged stone dust barrier evaluations in a bord and pillar mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JJL

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available at LLEM . . 20 5 Program of work . . . . . . 21 5.1 Description of methane tests (Phase I) . . . 22 5.2 Description of coal dust explosion tests (Phase II) . 29 6 5.2.1 First coal dust baseline explosion: LLEM test #389 . . 30 5.2.2 Second coal dust...: LLEM test #394 . . . . 36 5.3 Evaluation methodology . . . . . 37 5.3.1 Methane tests evaluation methods . . . . 37 5.3.2 Barrier evaluation criteria . . . . . . 40 6 Test barrier . . . . . . . 41 6.1 Proposed distributed bagged stone dust barrier...

  5. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies

  6. Research and development in dust and silicosis suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, H

    1975-08-21

    MAK values of 4 mg/m/sup 3/ for respirable dust containing quartz and 0.15 mg/m/sup 3/ for respirable quartz dust have been established for 5 years' exposure in West German hard coal mines. Routine gravimetric measurements were introduced in 1974 and these are supplemented by the digital Tyndallometer which indicates short-term variations. Gravimetric measurements have indicated the main sources of dust and improved dust suppression measures have considerably reduced respirable dust concentrations in some cases, e.g., by seam infusion, by spraying of the face machine path and at crushers, and by dedusters on heading machines.

  7. Dissolution of heavy metals from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coal based sponge iron industries in India generate considerable quantity of solid waste, 40% of which is flue dust produced from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) connected to rotary kiln. This paper reports the dissolution of Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn and Fe from the ESP dust using three fungal species, Aspergillus niger, ...

  8. Coal, energy of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.; Guezel, J.Ch.

    2006-01-01

    Coal is no longer considered as a 'has been' energy source. The production and demand of coal is growing up everywhere in the world because it has some strategic and technological advantages with respect to other energy sources: cheap, abundant, available everywhere over the world, in particular in countries with no geopolitical problems, and it is independent of supplying infrastructures (pipelines, terminals). Its main drawback is its polluting impact (dusts, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, mercury and CO 2 ). The challenge is to develop clean and high efficiency coal technologies like supercritical steam power plants or combined cycle coal gasification plants with a 50% efficiency, and CO 2 capture and sequestration techniques (post-combustion, oxy-combustion, chemical loop, integrated gasification gas combined cycle (pre-combustion)). Germany, who will abandon nuclear energy by 2021, is massively investing in the construction of high efficiency coal- and lignite-fired power plants with pollution control systems (denitrification and desulfurization processes, dust precipitators). (J.S.)

  9. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  10. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    2000-07-01

    in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO{sub 2}-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NO{sub x}-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO{sub x}- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO{sub x}-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong

  11. Gallium-67 citrate imaging in underground coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanner, R.E.; Barkman, H.W. Jr.; Rom, W.N.; Taylor, A.T. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-two underground coal workers with 27 or more years of coal dust exposure were studied with gallium-67 citrate (Ga-67) imaging. Radiographic evidence of coal workers indicates that pneumoconiosis (CWP) was present in 12 subjects. The Ga-67 scan was abnormal in 11 of 12 with, and 9 of 10 without, CWP. The Ga-67 uptake index was significantly correlated with total dust exposure (p less than 0.01) and approached significant correlation with the radiographic profusion of the nodules (0.10 greater than p greater than 0.05). There was no correlation between Ga-67 uptake and spirometric function, which was normal in this group of patients; furthermore, increased lung uptake of gallium did not indicate a poor prognosis in subjects no longer exposed to coal dust. While coal dust exposure may be associated with positive Ga-67 lung scan in coal miners with many years of coal dust exposure, the scan provided no information not already available from a careful exposure history and a chest radiograph. Since Ga-67 scanning is a relatively expensive procedure the authors would recommend that its use in subjects with asymptomatic CWP be limited to an investigative role and not be made part of a routine evaluation

  12. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  13. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  14. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  15. Losses in the coal supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This report examines the way coal can change as it passes along the coal chain. A great deal of the change is intended, through separation and sizing, to ensure the coal being mined matches the specification demanded by the customer. This report attempts to identify these changes and presents some of the issues faced by the coal supplier and user. Much of the change leads to a loss of mass in the coal. Some of the coal is left in the ground (intentionally and unintentionally), while elsewhere, full extraction might occur with the addition of non-coal materials from the surrounding rocks. In both cases, the mined coal often requires further processing. Coal processing by separation at preparation plants refines coal further and is where most of the mass loss occurs. Value is added by reducing ash content and improving heating value, thus providing a much more saleable product for the market. As soon as the coal leaves the mine, mass loss can occur either through natural deterioration of the fuel, through spillage or dust, or in extreme cases theft. In all cases measuring the amount of coal as it passes through the supply chain is required to verify that the coal reaching the consumer is of satisfactory quality and quantity. This can be done crudely by measuring stockpiles, to more sophisticated weighing systems at various points along the supply chain, and even measuring the volume held in a ship. Measurement is subject to error which must be minimised. Biomass needs to be processed in much the same way as coal, such as removing mineral matter and taking care in avoiding contamination.

  16. SPIROMETRIC EVALUATION OF LUNG FUNCTION OF COAL WORKERS WORKING AT MACH (BOLAN DISTRICT)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Sarwar, Muhammad Younis, Shafi Muhammad, Tanzeel Ahmed*, Muhammad Siddique, Bashir Ahmed, Munir Ahmed, Jahanzaib

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the coal dust effect on lung function among coal workers and non-coal workers. This was case-control study. The 144 male coal workers and non-coal workers, 20-50 years more than one year of working skill were selected. Study was carried out in the Mach, Bolan district in Balochistan, Pakistan. The Spirometer and selfdesigned survey form were used. The interview was accompanied and information was documented in the survey form and Spirometry was done for coal workers and non-coal w...

  17. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  18. Retort for distilling coal oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbon, J

    1865-12-20

    The construction of a retort for extracting or distilling coal oil or other products from cannel coal, shale, or schist, and more particularly of small coal or dust technically called slack, consists in applying self-acting feed and discharge apparatus to a revolving cylindrical wrought or cast iron retort, and constructing the inner surface of the cylindrical retort with a projecting ridge which encircles the interior of the retort in a spiral manner, the same as the interior of a female screw, and the ridge may be either cast upon or riveted on the internal surface, and is so arranged to cause the material to be operated upon to advance from one end of the retort to the other, as the retort revolves by following the course of the spiral screw or worm formed by the projecting ridge.

  19. Experience with dust suppression in mining a thick, dirty seam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siepmann, D; Kohlhauer, H

    1975-11-20

    Dust suppression measures used when mining a thick, dirty seam are described. Dust sprays inside and outside the shearer drum helped to reduce coarse dust, but the resulting increase in moisture content of the coal limits the extent to which this method can be used. The shields were also fitted with sprays. Because of the dirt in the seam, continuous, remotely controlled deep infusion was used. This reduced the dust concentration from more than 10 mg/m/sup 3/ to between 3.9 and 6.6 mg/m/sup 3/.

  20. Simulated coal spill causes mortality and growth inhibition in tropical marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L E; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-05-13

    Coal is a principal fossil fuel driving economic and social development, and increases in global coal shipments have paralleled expansion of the industry. To identify the potential harm associated with chronic marine coal contamination, three taxa abundant in tropical marine ecosystems (the coral Acropora tenuis, the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the seagrass Halodule uninervis) were exposed to five concentrations (0-275 mg coal l(-1)) of suspended coal dust (coal exposure can cause considerable lethal effects on corals, and reductions in seagrass and fish growth rates. Coral survivorship and seagrass growth rates were inversely related to increasing coal concentrations (≥38 mg coal l(-1)) and effects increased between 14 and 28 d, whereas fish growth rates were similarly depressed at all coal concentrations tested. This investigation provides novel insights into direct coal impacts on key tropical taxa for application in the assessment of risks posed by increasing coal shipments in globally threatened marine ecosystems.

  1. Preventing performance drops of coal mills due to high moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Mataji, B.

    2007-01-01

    Coal mills pulverize and dry the coal dust before it is blown into the furnace in coal-fired power plants. The coal mills can only deliver the requested coal flow if certain conditions are fulfilled. These are normally considered as constraints on individual variables. However, combinations of more...... than one variable might cause problems even though these individually variables are in an acceptable region. This paper deals with such a problem. The combination of a high load of the power plant, a large load change and high moisture content in the coal, can force the coal mill into a state where...... coal is accumulated instead of being blown into the furnace. This paper suggests a simple method for preventing the accumulation of the coal in the mill, by limiting the requested coal flow considering the coal moisture content and the temperature outside the mill.  ...

  2. Integrative Analysis of Desert Dust Size and Abundance Suggests Less Dust Climate Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jasper F.; Ridley, David A.; Zhou, Qing; Miller, Ron L.; Zhao, Chun; Heald, Colette L.; Ward, Daniel S.; Albani, Samuel; Haustein, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Desert dust aerosols affect Earths global energy balance through interactions with radiation, clouds, and ecosystems. But the magnitudes of these effects are so uncertain that it remains unclear whether atmospheric dust has a net warming or cooling effect on global climate. Consequently, it is still uncertain whether large changes in atmospheric dust loading over the past century have slowed or accelerated anthropogenic climate change, and the climate impact of possible future alterations in dust loading is similarly disputed. Here we use an integrative analysis of dust aerosol sizes and abundance to constrain the climatic impact of dust through direct interactions with radiation. Using a combination of observational, experimental, and model data, we find that atmospheric dust is substantially coarser than represented in current climate models. Since coarse dust warms global climate, the dust direct radiative effect (DRE) is likely less cooling than the 0.4 W m superscript 2 estimated by models in a current ensemble. We constrain the dust DRE to -0.20 (-0.48 to +0.20) W m superscript 2, which suggests that the dust DRE produces only about half the cooling that current models estimate, and raises the possibility that dust DRE is actually net warming the planet.

  3. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  4. Coal Mine Health and Safety Regulation 2006 under the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-22

    The aim of the Act is to secure the health, safety and welfare of people in connection with coal operations (which include all places of work where coal is mined and certain other places). The Regulation contains provisions about the following matters: (a) places of work to which the Act does not apply, (b) duties relating to health, welfare and safety at coal operations, including the following: (i) the nomination of the operator of a coal operation and the provision of health and safety information for incoming operators, (ii) the contents of health and safety management systems for coal operations, (iii) major hazards and the contents of major hazard management plans for coal operations, (iv) duties relating to contractors, (v) the contents of management structures and emergency management systems for coal operations, escape and rescue plans and fire fighting plans and high risk activities, (c) notifications, including (i) notification of incidents, (ii) inquiries, (iii) notification of other matters to the Chief Inspector), (d) aspects of safety at coal operations, including the following: (i) controlled materials, plants and practices, (ii) coal dust explosion prevention and suppression, (iii) ventilation at coal operations, (iv) escape from coal operations, (v) the operation of transport at coal operations, (vi) surveys and certified plans, (vii) employment at coal operations, (e) the licensing of certain activities, (f) competence standards, (g) the Coal Competence Board, (h) check inspectors, (i) exemptions from provisions of this Regulation, (j) the following miscellaneous matters concerning coal mine health and safety: (i) the keeping of records and reporting, (ii) penalties, the review of decisions by the Administrative Decisions Tribunal, fees and charges, consultation, information and other miscellaneous matters, (k) savings and transitional provisions.

  5. Adaptation of the DP 50 dust meter for measuring dust content under isokinetic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitek, J.; Novak, L.

    1985-03-01

    The DP 50 dust meter, developed by the Scientific Coal Research Institute Ostrava-Radvanice, is used for measuring dust content in the air in underground coal mines. Two versions of the system are used: a type developed in 1970 which is placed in a vertical position and used to measure the content of respirable coal particles in the air; and a type developed in 1983 for isokinetic measurement of dust content in the air. The latter is equipped with 8 cone-shaped adapters (with differing size and dimensions of the cone inlet adjusted to air flow rates from 0.25 to 8.00 m/s). Specifications of the 8 adapters are given in a table. The 1983 version of the DP 50 is placed in a horizontal position with the dust meter axis parallel to the direction of air flow ventilating a mine working. Recommendations for installation of dust meters in underground workings and effects of installation on measurement accuracy are discussed. 16 references.

  6. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  7. Dust settles at Dalrymple Bay Terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    With an annual loading capacity approaching 60Mt, Queensland's Dalrymple Bay Coal Terminal is one of the largest and most efficient coal export facilities in Australia. Each day, DBCT handles thousands of tonnes of coal transported directly from the Bowen Basin via an electrified railway and bound, ultimately, for out-loading onto bulk carrier ships. It is little wonder then that dust control and an accurate knowledge of coal moisture content are key priorities for DBCT. In early 2004, these priorities, together with an undertaking to the Co-ordinator General to reduce dust emissions, saw DBCT investigate the CSIRO-developed Low Frequency Microwave (LFM) Moisture Analyser. The LFM Analyser is specifically designed to deliver accurate, online measurements of moisture in continuous on-conveyor applications. At this stage, it was already enjoying significant success in the iron ore market with BHP Billiton Iron Ore investing in multiple units as part of its moisture control strategy for the Marra Mamba ore-types. The LFM Analysers, now being commercialised by spin-out company Intalysis, were commissioned in July 2004. Babcock and Brown Infrastructure (BBI), the company that holds the long-term leasehold of DBCT, was heavily involved in the analyser's commissioning. BBI's electrical supervisor Doug Mitchell says the analyser offers the means for DBCT to meet the environmental conditions of the terminal license while at the same time enabling it to meet its individual contract obligations with the terminal customers. 'This basically involves ensuring the moisture content for each coal type does not exceed that which has been agreed upon with terminal customer,' Mitchell says. DBCT has installed two analysers on the in loading conveyors, each about 100m from the coal discharge hoppers. They are fitted to steel cord belts at a nominal speed of around 6m/sec that carry the coal to either 4250tph or 5500tph yard stacking machines, depending on the string selected for

  8. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  9. High temperature and dust load in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V; Bolonova, L N; Donets, I K; Mukhina, K Sh

    1989-02-01

    Presents results of study of combined load on the human system of heat and dust as encountered in deep coal mines in the Donbass. Groups of coal miners were studied to ascertain the state of their lungs, particularly the presence of free silica, dust, collagen, etc. The sickness records for a number of Donbass mining associations for the past 25 years were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis of the data obtained led to curves relating the number of shifts worked to dust levels, pulmonary ventilation (0.01 and 0.04 m/sup 3//min) and maximum admissible dust concentrations (2, 4, 6 and 10 mg/m/sup 3/). In the 25-35 C temperature range a rise of 1 C is accompanied by increases of 9.9% in dust mass, 15.4% in silica content, 10.7% in mineral impurities and 2.3% in pathomorphological changes in the lungs. An adjustment to the maximum admissible concentration correction coefficient of 10% for every 1 C over 26 C is recommended. 1 ref.

  10. Review : Pollution due to Coal Mining Activity and its Impact on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Arif Setiawan; Dedik Budianta; Dwi Putro Priadi; Suheryanto

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of natural resources in the form of coal mines has a positive impact on economic and energy development, in addition to coal mining activities have a negative impact on the environment that result in environmental pollution in soil, water, and air. Pollution begins when clearing land, taking exploitation, transporting, stockpile and when the coal is burned. When land clearing causes damage to forest ecosystems. At the time of exploitation impact on air pollution by coal dust parti...

  11. Basic investigations to improve the refinement process of coal. Grundlagenuntersuchungen zur Erhoehung des Veredlungsverhaltens von Kohlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, H; Naundorf, W; Trommer, D

    1985-01-01

    In the four articles in this issue, variants of the process for the effective use and improved refinement of brown coal are described. There are reports on the manufacture of special briquettes from briquette coal slack and on the briquetting behaviour of dry brown coal dust and the briquetting and coking behaviour of hard foreign brown coal containing a lot of ash. The four articles are dealt with separately. With 52 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Correlation between Yellow Dust and Radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AIZaabia, Mouza A [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Jik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In East Asia, yellow dust or Asian Dust (AD) outbreaks are among the largest contributors of wind-blown dust that carry natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and subsequently alter their concentration and distribution throughout the environment. Although the Korean Peninsula has been experiencing AD events since ancient times, the research has tended to focus on the transport routes and characteristics of AD, rather than on its impact on radionuclide activity levels. This paper examines the relationship between radionuclide concentration in the air and the frequency of dusty days in South Korea during AD intrusion events. It also investigates whether increased radionuclide concentration is a function of either more mass or more dust contamination. In this study, significant linear correlations of gamma-emitting radionuclides were found with mass of dust and occurrence frequency of AD. Regardless of the source origin of the dust, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 7}Be concentration primarily depended on dust mass in the filter. Nonetheless, the correlations were greatly distorted in 2011 and in the spring season, particularly the correlations with AD days that were far below that of the correlations obtained for the whole study period. A possible explanation of these conflicting results is that a change in the dust source could appreciably alter the concentration, deposition, and distribution of airborne radionuclides.

  13. Correlation between Yellow Dust and Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIZaabia, Mouza A; Kim, Byoung-Jik

    2015-01-01

    In East Asia, yellow dust or Asian Dust (AD) outbreaks are among the largest contributors of wind-blown dust that carry natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and subsequently alter their concentration and distribution throughout the environment. Although the Korean Peninsula has been experiencing AD events since ancient times, the research has tended to focus on the transport routes and characteristics of AD, rather than on its impact on radionuclide activity levels. This paper examines the relationship between radionuclide concentration in the air and the frequency of dusty days in South Korea during AD intrusion events. It also investigates whether increased radionuclide concentration is a function of either more mass or more dust contamination. In this study, significant linear correlations of gamma-emitting radionuclides were found with mass of dust and occurrence frequency of AD. Regardless of the source origin of the dust, 137 Cs and 7 Be concentration primarily depended on dust mass in the filter. Nonetheless, the correlations were greatly distorted in 2011 and in the spring season, particularly the correlations with AD days that were far below that of the correlations obtained for the whole study period. A possible explanation of these conflicting results is that a change in the dust source could appreciably alter the concentration, deposition, and distribution of airborne radionuclides

  14. Assessment of pneumoconiosis hazards associated with mining operations in coal mines. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V; Menyailo, N I; Petul' ko, S N

    1984-07-01

    Methods are discussed for evaluating hazards of pneumoconiosis in underground coal mines. Pneumoconiosis hazards are decisively influenced by: content of respirable dusts in mine air at a working place, dust composition, temperature and time of a miner's contact with dusts. The following classification of pneumoconiosis hazards is used in the USSR: low hazards when a miner is endangered by pneumoconiosis after 20 years or more, medium hazards when pneumoconiosis may occur after 10 to 20 years, high pneumoconiosis hazards when a miner is endangered by pneumoconiosis after less than 10 years of contact with dusts. High air temperature in deep coal mines increases pneumoconiosis hazards: when temperature exceeds 26 C a temperature increase of 1 C causes a 10% increase in dust chemical activity. Safety standards which describe the maximum permissible dust level in coal mine air in the USSR, the FRG, France and Poland are compared.

  15. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  16. Dust collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahourin, H.

    1988-03-22

    This invention relates to a dust collector or filter which may be used for large volume cleaning air for gases or for separating out industrial byproducts such as wood chips, sawdust, and shavings. It relies on filtration or separation using only a uniquely configured medium. A primary, but not exclusive, purpose of the invention is to enable very large throughput, capable of separating or filtering of gases containing up to three or more tons of byproduct with a minimum pressure-drop across the device. No preliminary cycloning, to remove major particulates is necessary. The collector generally comprises a continuous and integral filter medium which is suspended from a plurality of downwardly extending frames forming a series of separate elements having a triangular cross-section, each element being relatively wide at the top and narrow at the bottom to define, between adjacent elements, a divergent collecting space which is wide at the bottom. 11 figs.

  17. Major breakthrough in personal dust protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    2004-09-15

    With new studies highlighting one in every 20 miners developing 'black lung', USA labour, industry and government have joined forces to develop a solution. The rapid advance in Personal Dust Monitor (PDM) technology is a perfect example. The article reports a PDM, which is developed by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, working in the partnership with the United Mine Workers of America, the Bituminous Coal Operators Association and the National Mining Association.

  18. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, D.R.; Stoner, D.L.; Dugan, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  19. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-01-01

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 (micro)m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics

  20. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  1. Comparison of the physical and chemical characteristics of fine road dust at different urban sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Yul; Batmunkh, Tsatsral; Joo, Hung Soo; Park, Kihong

    2018-04-18

    The size distribution and chemical components of a fine fraction (road dust collected at urban sites in Korea (Gwangju) and Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar) where distinct urban characteristics exist were measured. A clear bimodal size distribution was observed for the resuspended fine road dust at the urban sites in Korea. The first mode peaked at 100-110 nm, and the second peak was observed at 435-570 nm. Ultrafine mode (~30 nm) was found for the fine road dust at the Mongolia site, which was significantly affected by residential coal/biomass burning. The contribution of the water-soluble ions to the fine road dust was higher at the sites in Mongolia (15.8-16.8%) than at those in Korea (1.2-4.8%). Sulfate and chloride were the most dominant ionic species for the fine road dust in Mongolia. As (arsenic) was also much higher for the Mongolian road dust than the others. The sulfate, chloride, and As mainly come from coal burning activity, suggesting that coal and biomass combustion in Mongolia during the heating season should affect the size and chemical components of the fine road dust. Cu (copper) and Zn (zinc), carbonaceous particles (organic carbon [OC] and elemental carbon [EC]) increased at sites in Korea, suggesting that the fine road dust at these sites was significantly affected by the high volume of traffic (engine emission and brake/tire wear). Our results suggest that chemical profiles for road dust specific to certain sites should be applied to more accurately apportion road dust source contributing to the ambient particulate matter. Size and chemical characteristics of fine road dust at sites having distinct urban characteristics were examined. Residential coal and biomass burning and traffic affected physiochemical properties of the fine road dust. Different road dust profiles at different sites should be needed to determine the ambient PM2.5 sources more accurately.

  2. Lead in Chinese villager house dust: Geographical variation and influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Liu, Jinling; Han, Zhixuan; Yang, Wenlin

    2015-01-01

    House dust has been recognized as an important contributor to Pb exposure of children. Here we conducted a comprehensive study to investigate geographical variation of Pb in Chinese villager house dust. The influences of outdoor soil Pb concentrations, dates of construction, house decoration materials, heating types, and site specific pollution on Pb concentrations in house dust were evaluated. The concentrations of Pb in 477 house dust samples collected from twenty eight areas throughout China varied from 12 to 2510 mg/kg, with a median concentration of 42 mg/kg. The median Pb concentrations in different geographical areas ranged from 16 (Zhangjiakou, Hebei) to 195 mg/kg (Loudi, Hunan). No correlations were found between the house dust Pb concentrations and the age of houses, as well as house decoration materials. Whereas outdoor soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution may be potential Pb sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that elemental compositions of the house dust were controlled by both anthropogenic and geogenic sources. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the Pb bearing particles in the house dust were also studied. - Highlights: • Geographical variation in house dust Pb concentrations were observed. • Dust Pb concentrations were not associated with house age and decoration materials. • Soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution were potential Pb sources. • Pb bearing particles were identified by SEM-EDX. - The variations of Pb in Chinese villager house dust were controlled by outdoor soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution sources.

  3. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  4. 30 CFR 90.209 - Respirable dust samples; transmission by operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.209 Respirable dust samples; transmission by operator. (a) The operator shall transmit within 24 hours after the end of the sampling shift all samples...

  5. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A

    1996-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  6. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1995-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  7. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass- fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of operational safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  8. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  9. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  10. Case cluster of pneumoconiosis at a coal slag processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Kathleen M; Cropsey, Erin B; Armstrong, Jenna L

    2015-05-01

    During an inspection by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of a small coal slag processing plant with 12 current workers, four cases of pneumoconiosis were identified among former workers. The OSHA investigation consisted of industrial hygiene sampling, a review of medical records, and case interviews. Some personal sampling measurements exceeded the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for total dust exposures of 15 mg/m(3), and the measured respirable silica exposure of 0.043 mg/m(3), although below OSHA's current PEL for respirable dust containing silica, was above the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' Threshold Limit Value (TLV). Chest x-rays for all four workers identified small opacities consistent with pneumoconiosis. This is the first known report of lung disease in workers processing coal slag and raises concerns for workers exposed to coal slag dust. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  12. Coal-peat compositions for co-combustion in local boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Михайлов

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In article results of experiments on creation of coal and peat fuel compositions for burning in solid-fuel boilers are described. The main objective of research consisted in development of combination of coal dust and natural peat without binding additives. The role of peat consists that it increases efficiency of process of granulation, being natural binding. The method of granulation allows to utilize waste of the coal industry. Joint burning of two types of fuel – coal dust and peat reduces emission of sulfur dioxides. The cost of peat raw materials is lower, than artificial binding, applied to briquetting of coal dust. The composition of mix of coal dust and peat varied in the ratio 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 in volume ratio at humidity of mix before extrusion of 65 %. In the course of preparatory operations of coal raw materials its crushing and sifting through sieve of 24 mesh (0,707 mm was carried out. Procedure of hashing of samples of coal and peat was carried out before receiving homogeneous mixture. After hashing mix was located in piston press for receiving granules. Coal dust and wet peat pass semifixed extrusion on piston press with formation of cylindrical granules with a diameter of 16 mm. After extrusion of granule are dried to operational humidity of 25 %. Coal and peat fuel granules showed sufficient mechanical strength for transportation and power feed in solid-fuel boilers. Burning of coal and peat fuel granules in vitro at temperature of 800 °C does not lead to ashes agglomeration. The conducted preliminary researches showed prospects of utilization of coal waste by granulation method in mix with natural peat.

  13. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  14. Oxidation and carbonisation of coals: a case study of coal fire affected coals from the Wuda coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Jolanta; Meyer, Uwe; Ma, Jianwei; Chen-Brauchler, Dai

    2010-05-01

    regime in the coal fire zone 18. The occurrence of various thermal alteration products indicates temperatures in the range of 500-700°C.

  15. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  16. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  17. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  18. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  19. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  20. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  1. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  2. REDUCING THE INTENSITY OF TAKEAWAY PULVERIZED COAL BY USING SPECIAL SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed: 1 to develop the coal coating solution in open railway cars or to cover coal piles to minimize the coal dust losses; 2 creating a mathematical model of the process of the solution feeding to the surface of coal. Methodology. To solve this problem, it was developed a special solution containing cheap industrial wastes and semiproducts of chemical industries. It was conducted a physical experiment to assess the intensity of coal dust loss when using the developed solution. A mathematical model based on the use of the motion equations of the ideal fluid and mass transfer was developed. The developed numerical models are the basis of the application program package created for assessing the quality of processing the coal surface by special solution. Findings. The results of the conducted physical experiment to assess the magnitude of the coal dust loss on the model of the coal pile in the processing of its surface with a special solution and without processing are presented in the article. It is shown that the application of the proposed solution for surface processing of coal can significantly reduce the coal dust loss. This makes it possible to reduce the amount of economic losses and reduce the level of air dust pollution in work areas. The results of computational experiments carried out on the basis of the constructed numerical models are presented in the article. Originality. Authors proposed a new solution for the coal surface processing in order to minimize the removal of pulverized coal from the coal pile, which substantially reduces the coal losses. There were created numerical models to take into account the relevant factors influencing the solution dispersion process in the atmosphere from coal processing in gondola cars. Practical value. Solution, proposed in the article has a low price, because it can be created on the basis of industrial production wastes. Application of this solution can significantly

  3. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  4. Performance of diamond and point attack coal cutter picks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [CSIRO, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Division of Exploration and Mining

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents results of laboratory experiments and field trials of PDC (Polycrystalline Diamond Compact) and PA (Point Attack) coal cutter picks. Laboratory cutting tests included linear rock and coal cutting and turning rock cutting. The following parameters were measured to assess performance of PDC and PA cutter picks: cutting force, normal force, specific energy consumption, yield, dust generation and ignitional characteristics (temperature rise). Field trials were conducted on a longwall shearer. Performance of both types of pick interims of pick life and dust generation were assessed. 3 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Utilization coke dust as fuel in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Utilization of coke dust available from coal carbonization plants, as a fuel in the cement industry has been undertaken and discussed in this research paper. The parameters studied include physical and chemical evaluation of the coke dust and its economic feasibility/ suitability as fuel for the cement plants. Detailed studies have been carried out on the above referred parameters. In addition a comparative study has been done to access its suitability in comparison to other fuels especially imported coal. It has been found that the coke dust contained about 66% fixed carbon, 29% ash, 4% volatile matter, 1% moisture and 0.48% sulphur. It gross calorific value was found to be 5292 Kcal/kg. The detailed analysis of coke dust ash was also performed to determine as to how its constituents will compare with the cement constituents. Keeping in view the experimental results/ data generated on the coke dust, it has been concluded that it can be quite a good substitute for imported coal. In doing so a substantial financial saving can be achieved which ranges 40-45%. (author)

  6. Dust prevention in bulk material transportation and handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, A. V.; Kuznetsov, A. L.; Pogodin, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    The environmental problem of territory and atmosphere pollution caused by transportation and handling of dust-generating bulk cargo materials is quite common for the whole world. The reducing of weight of fine class coal caused by air blowing reaches the level of 0.5-0.6 t per railcar over the 500 km transportation distance, which is equal to the loss of 1 % of the total weight. The studies showed that all over the country in the process of the railroad transportation, the industry loses 3-5 metric tonnes of coal annually. There are several common tactical measurers to prevent dust formation: treating the dust-producing materials at dispatch point with special liquid solutions; watering the stacks and open handling points of materials; frequent dust removing and working area cleaning. Recently there appeared several new radical measures for pollution prevention in export of ore and coal materials via sea port terminals, specifically: wind-dust protection screens, the container cargo handling system of delivery materials to the hold of the vessels. The article focuses on the discussion of these measures.

  7. Coal statistics 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statistical Office of the European Communities

    1978-01-01

    Presents tables of data relating to the coal market in the European Community in 1977. The tables cover hard coal production, supply and trade; briquettes; cokes; lignite, brown coal briquettes and peat; and mines and coke ovens.

  8. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  9. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  10. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  11. Emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, L.H.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Coal mining remains a major industry that has workers at risk for developing chronic lung disease. Aside from simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis, the development of emphysema and obstructive lung disease independent of smoking may be underappreciated. This article reviews more recent studies that may help rectify this faulty view. Cumulative exposure to coal dust is a significant risk factor for the development of emphysema and has an additive effect to smoking. Increased coal dust exposure is associated with increased risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In newly employed coal miners, bronchitic symptoms are associated with a rapid decline in lung function within 2 years after starting work. In evaluating impairment, the chest radiograph may be helpful as a marker of exposure but the diffusing capacity is most correlated with dyspnea, whereas the emphysema computed tomography score has good association with expiratory flow limitation. Latest studies further support the association of emphysema and COPD with coal dust exposure. Increased cumulative exposure may also increase risk of death from these diseases.

  12. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  13. Health status of anthracite surface coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amandus, H.E.; Petersen, M.R.; Richards, T.B.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984-1985, medical examinations consisting of a chest radiograph, spirometry test, and questionnaire on work history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history were administered to 1,061 white males who were employed at 31 coal cleaning plants and strip coal mines in the anthracite coal region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of International Labour Office (ILO) category 1 or higher small opacities was 4.5% in 516 men who had never been employed in a dusty job other than in surface coal mining. Among these 516 workers, all 4 cases of ILO radiographic category 2 or 3 rounded opacities and 1 case of large opacities had been employed as a highwall drill operator or helper. The prevalence of category 1 or higher opacities increased with tenure as a highwall drill operator or helper (2.7% for 0 y, 6.5% for 1-9 yr, 25.0% for 10-19 y, and 55.6% for greater than or equal to 20 y drilling). Radiographic evidence of small rounded opacities, dyspnea, and decreases in FEV1.0, FVC, and peak flow were significantly related to tenure at drilling operations after adjusting for age, height, cigarette smoking status, and exposures in dusty jobs other than in surface coal mining. However, tenure in coal cleansing plants and other surface coal mine jobs were not related to significant health effects. The apparent excess prevalence of radiographic small rounded opacities in anthracite surface coal mine drillers suggests that quartz exposures have been increased. Average respirable quartz concentrations at surface coal mine drilling operations should be evaluated to determine whether exposures are within existing standards, and dust exposures should be controlled

  14. LADEE LUNAR DUST EXPERIMENT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft....

  15. Construction dust amelioration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Dust produced on seasonal road construction sites in Alaska is both a traffic safety and environmental concern. Dust emanating from : unpaved road surfaces during construction severely reduces visibility and impacts stopping sight distance, and contr...

  16. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  17. Experimental study of reduce of nitrogen oxides emission in the Environment at the Ekibastuz coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korabejnikova, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    For revealing conditions decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxide in an environment at three-stage burning of coal dust Ekibastuz coal with use two-line burners (on were the experimental research of test on fiery the stand as a result of which acknowledgement of theoretical results is received. (author)

  18. 1982 Australian coal conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  19. Physics of interstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Krugel, Endrik

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric permeability; How to evaluate grain cross sections; Very small and very big particles; Case studies of Mie calculus; Particle statistics; The radiative transition probability; Structure and composition of dust; Dust radiation; Dust and its environment; Polarization; Grain alignment; PAHs and spectral features of dust; Radiative transport; Diffuse matter in the Milky Way; Stars and their formation; Emission from young stars. Appendices Mathematical formulae; List of symbols.

  20. Dust as a surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A M; Schram, P P J M; Trigger, S A

    2003-01-01

    We argue that dust immersed in a plasma sheath acts as a surfactant. By considering the momentum balance in a plasma sheath, we evaluate the dependence of the plasma surface pressure on the dust density. It is shown that the dust may reduce the surface pressure, giving rise to a sufficiently strong tangential force. The latter is capable of confining the dust layer inside the sheath in the direction perpendicular to the ion flow

  1. Coal handling/storage in a sensitive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-01

    A leading Italian manufacturer Bedeschi has designed and built a coal handling plant for its Outao cement plant in an environmentally sensitive national park in Portugal, Setubal National Park. The receiving station is completely enclosed, to control dusts. The main 80 m{sup 3} hopper can receive several types of truck and an automatic dour seals off the receiving section as soon as the truck has left. Coals tend to be blended according to kiln requirements. A bucket-type reclaimer is used due to the sticky nature of the coal. 2 photos.

  2. The certification of the surface density (kg/m sub 2 ) of BCR CRM 038 ('fly ash from pulverised coal') comprised in methyl cellulose films simulating dust charged filters. BCR 128

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griepink, B; Marchandise, H; Colinet, E; Dams, R

    1988-01-01

    BCR CRM 38 ('Fly Ash') has been embedded in a stable methylcellulose foil of about 10{mu}m thickness. This has been done by making a slurry of fly ash and methylcellulose in water and spiking it with {sup 42}K as a radioactive tracer. The slurry was spread over glass plates and allowed to dry. 'Filters' of uniform size were punched out of the foil. The surface density (e.g. {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) of the fly ash was calculated for each individual 'filter' by comparing the {sup 42}K-activity of the filter with that of the initial suspension. The uncertainties in the so obtained surface density of random and of systematic origin have been estimated. The total relative uncertainty in the surface density of every element certified in BCR 38 is 4-6%. Studies of stability and homogeneity have revealed that this material is well suited for the verification of the results of non-destructive analytical techniques for dust components.

  3. Ultravitrinite coals from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapo, A.V.; Letushova, I.A.

    1979-03-01

    Chemical and petrographic analysis was conducted on coals from the Anadyrya and Bukhti Ugol'noi deposits. Characteristics of the most prevalent type of vitrinite coals in both regions are presented here. Anadyrya coals belong to a transitional phase between brown coal and long flame. Ultravitrinite coals predominate. Gas coals from Bukti Ugol'noi have a higher carbon content than Anadyrya coals. They also have a higher hydrogen content and yield of initial resin. In several cases there was also a higher yield of volatile substances. Chukotka coals are characterized by a 10 percent higher initial resin yield than equally coalified Donetsk coals, other indicators were equal to those of Donetsk coals. Because of this, Chukotka coals are suitable for fuel in power plants and as raw materials in the chemical industry. (15 refs.) (In Russian)

  4. Organosilicon fluid for cooling coal combine motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donets, I K; Dmitrenko, Yu N; Kovalev, Ye B; Sukhanov, V V; Tsingarelli, Ye P

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of toxicological evaluation of the polymer organosilicon fluid FM-5.6AP which should be used as the cooling agent of the electric motors of coal combines. It was established that fluid FM-5.6AP belongs to the low-toxic substances that do not have skinresorptive, skin-damaging and cumulative effect, do not have a significant influence on phagocytosis of the coal dust, in depositing in the lungs and elimination. During experimental industrial tests of the motor using the fluid FM-5.6AP, no toxic effect of it on the body was revealed. The possibility is shown of using organosilicon fluid FM-5.6AP for cooling electric motors of coal combines.

  5. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  6. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dust emitted from circulating fluidized bed boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozielska, B; Konieczyńiski, J

    2008-11-01

    Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in granulometric fractions of dust emitted from a hard coal fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was investigated. The dust was sampled with the use of a Mark III impactor. In each fraction of dust, by using gas chromatography (GC), 16 selected PAHs and total PAHs were determined and the toxic equivalent B(a)P (TE B(a)P) was computed. The results, recalculated for the standard granulometric fractions, are presented as concentrations and content of the determined PAHs in dust. Distributions of PAHs and their profiles in the granulometric dust fractions were studied also. The PAHs in dust emitted from the CFB boiler were compared with those emitted from mechanical grate boilers; a distinctly lower content of PAHs was found in dust emitted from the former.

  7. Simulation of the dust suppression process with foam in the areas of belt conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespalov Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the analysis of the physical essence and simulation of the process of dust retention with foam in the air of working zones of belt conveyors transporting sand, crushed stone, gravel, coal, grain. In accordance with the proposed physical-energy concept of simulation of the process of dust control its physical essence is in a deliberate sequential action on the dust particles with previously prepared by the parameters external (additional dispersed systems. Use of dust retention technology foam method provides high efficiency of reducing the concentration of dust in the air of working areas of belt conveyors, which varies in the range of 85.0–99.0 %, which provides the standard level of dust contamination (MPC in air of working areas of listed industrial sources of formation and emission of dust.

  8. Polymers for combatting sudden outbursts in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadzhiev, G P; Sukhanov, V V

    1988-02-01

    Describes investigations in coal mines in the Donetsk basin (hazardous because of the high methane presence, the risk of outbursts of coal and gas, underground fires and the high dust levels) with the aim of studying the toxic emissions of formaldehyde and methanol produced when a urea formaldehyde resin binder is applied to the coal seam. The measurements taken led to the following recommendations: the amount of free formaldehyde in the binder should be limited to 0.5%; the use of concentrated (50%) solutions should be limited to 10 l per ton of coal in areas where there are geologic faults; underground workings need ventilation of at least 200 m/sup 3//min; the binder should be introduced to the borehole separately from the water and hardener; individual protection measures and wet dusting should be used during coal extraction; a period of not less than 4 months should elapse between application of the resin and commencement of coal extraction; there should be at least 80 m between the point where the binder is applied and the coal face.

  9. Altered state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Mahoney, H.

    1998-09-01

    An overview is given for France`s port industry which quotes from a new report by ATIC Services on the world coal industry. Tables are included of French coal imports and of coal imports via French ports for 1994 to 1997. Port Autonome du Havre had a 39% increase in coal traffic during the first six months of this year compared to 1997. Port Autonome de Dunkerque (PAD), France`s largest coal port, estimate an extra 0.5 Mt of coal will be handled in 1998. Port of Sete is modernising its dry bulk terminal giving particular attention to ore, agricultural products and coal. The steel industry is dependent on imported iron ore, through such ports as PAD and Marseille. Other important dry goods handled are grain and sugar. Le Havre how faces a challenge from Rouen`s new 60,000 tonne storage facility which was opened in April 1997. 2 tabs., 2 photos.

  10. Record coking coal settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  11. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  12. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  13. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  14. Pulmonary inflammation and crystalline silica in respirable coal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    This study demonstrates dose-response relationships between respirable crystalline silica in coal mine dust and pulmonary inflammation, antioxidant production, and radiographic small opacities. [Kuempel E D, Attfield M D, Vallyathan V, Lapp N L, Hale J M, Smith R J and Castranova V 2003 Pulmonary inflammation and ...

  15. Coal information 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive reference book on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects to 2010. It contains an in-depth analysis of the 1995 international coal market covering prices, demand, trade, supply and production capacity as well as over 450 pages of country specific statistics on OECD and key non-OECD coal producing and consuming countries. The book also includes a summary of environmental policies on climate change and on coal-related air quality issues as well as essential facts on coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions, on coal ports world-wide and on emission standards for coal-fired boilers in OECD countries. Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Oil and Gas Information and Electricity Information. Coal Information 1995 is published in July 1996. (author)

  16. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  17. Innovation Developments of Coal Chemistry Science in L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical-Organic Chemistry and Coal Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shendrik, T.G.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents short historical review and innovation developments of Coal Chemistry Department of L.M. Litvinenko Institute, NAS of Ukraine connected with coal mine exploitation problems, search for decisions toward prevention of spontaneous combustion, dust control in mines, establishing structural chemical features of coal with different genesis and stages of metamorphism with the aim to develop new methods of their modification and rational use. The methods of obtaining inexpensive sorbents from Ukrainian raw materials (including carbon containing waste are proposed. The problems of modern coal chemistry science in IPOCC of NAS of Ukraine are outlined.

  18. Molecular analysis of p53 and K-ras in lung carcinomas of coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, F.H.; Li, Y.W.; Vallyathan, V. [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States). School of Medicine, Dept. of Pathology

    2001-10-01

    Thirty-three cases of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) from the archives of National Coal Workers' Autopsy Study were studied for mutational alterations in p53 and K-ras using PCR-SSCP, DNA sequencing and PCR-oligonucleotide probe hybridization techniques. Mutations of the p53 were observed in 4 smokers (19%) and one in a never smoker (8%). Two polymorphisms in smokers were detected at codon 213, a common site for sequence variation. Among the smokers the p53 mutations were in the heavy smokers. In never smokers there was only a single p53 mutation and two K-ras mutations. In never smokers the frequency of K-ras mutations was similar (17%) in smokers, but one never smoker had two K-ras mutations. Mutations of p53 were more frequent in adenocarcinomas (27%) and they were AT-GC transitions. There were two large cell undifferentiated carcinomas with p53 mutation and one with a K-ras mutation. Two of the 16 squamous cell carcinomas were positive for p53 mutation, while no K-ras mutations were found in this group. The results of these preliminary studies indicate a moderately different mutational spectrum of p53 and K-ras in coal miners independent of cigarette smoking. The mutational spectrum observed in this study of coal miners with heavy cigarette smoking history suggest a protective effect of coal mine dust in preventing abnormal mutations induced by chemical carcinogens in cigarette smoke or reactive oxygen species.

  19. Occurrence of lead, copper, zinc, and arsenic compounds in atmospheric dusts, and the sources of these impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J T; Bloxam, H C.L.

    1933-06-30

    The authors indicate that the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal for industrial and electrical power causes the deposition of zinc, arsenic, copper, and lead which are then found in the dust and soots of most urban areas. They express the fear that these dusts, if not poisonous, may be expected to be injurious to the health of man, animals, and plants.

  20. 30 CFR 71.700 - Inhalation hazards; threshold limit values for gases, dust, fumes, mists, and vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gases, dust, fumes, mists, and vapors. 71.700 Section 71.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... limit values for gases, dust, fumes, mists, and vapors. (a) No operator of an underground coal mine and... limit values adopted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists in “Threshold...

  1. Anatomy of an intruded coal, I: Effect of contact metamorphism on whole-coal geochemistry, Springfield (No. 5) (Pennsylvanian) coal, Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmer, Susan M. [Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Yoksoulian, Lois E. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    If time and heating rate are important agents in coal maturation, one might expect to see differences in chemical changes in response to maturation depending on the means of increased rank. Using a suite of samples obtained from an intruded Pennsylvanian-age coal in southern Illinois, we present whole-coal chemical data. Comparing these data to extant geochemical data for coals that have undergone normal burial maturation, we evaluated the hypothesis that if coal alteration occurs rapidly (due to intrusion) rather than gradually (burial maturation), then different relationships are seen in chemical composition (proximate and ultimate analyses) and vitrinite reflectance. The Pennsylvanian-age (Asturian [Westphalian D]) Springfield (No. 5) coal is mined at the Big Ridge Mine, near Eldorado, southern Illinois. This high volatile B bituminous coal was intruded by an ultramafic igneous intrusion during the early Permian. Alteration occurs out to {proportional_to} 1.2 x dike thickness and includes an increase in random vitrinite reflectance (R{sub m}) from levels {proportional_to} 0.7% to over 5.3%, loss of liptinites, and formation of devolatilization vacuoles and fine mosaic texture. Decreases in volatile matter (VM) and increases in fixed carbon (FC) appear to be less than would be expected for the level of reflectance seen within the alteration halo. Carbonate minerals have a major influence on proximate analyses but even following the removal of carbonates, the decrease in VM is still less than would be seen in coals of similar vitrinite reflectance that were altered by normal burial maturation. Carbonate mineralization also contributes to variability in ultimate analysis values approaching the intrusion, particularly for %C and %O. After carbonate removal, data for these coals do not appear to follow the normal burial coalification tracks when plotted on a van Krevelen diagram and on a Seyler chart. These differences suggest that a slightly different maturation

  2. Coal mine subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmody, R.G.; Hetzler, R.T.; Simmons, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Longwall coal mining in southern Illinois occurs beneath some of the best agricultural land in the U.S. This region is characterized by highly productive, nearly level, and somewhat poorly drained soils. Subsidence from longwall mining causes changes in surface topography which alters surface and subsurface hydrology. These changes can adversely affect agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas that can be deleterious to crop production. While most subsided areas show little impact from subsidence, some areas experience total crop failure. Coal companies are required by law to mitigate subsidence damage to cropland. The objective of this paper is to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring grain yields to their pre-mined levels. The research was conducted on sites selected to represent conventional mitigation techniques on the predominate soils in the area. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max.(L.) Merr] yields in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 from mitigated areas were compared to yields from nearby undisturbed areas

  3. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1993 on development of a jet flow bed gasification electric power plant. Investigative research on a technology to treat coals used for coal gasification (investigation for coal type selection); 1993 nendo funryusho gas ka hatsuden plant kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan gas kayotan no shori gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (tanshu sentei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1993 in the investigation for coal type selection. The investigation is purposed to elucidate the status of existence and resources of coals as the raw material for coal gasification and liquefaction, the coal quality features, and the gasification and liquefaction characteristics. The results will be used as the fundamental materials for technological development. Discussions will also be given on the coal applicability to the composite gasification power generation system in which liquefied residue generated in the process are mixed with the supplied coal. Coal quality analysis and a liquefaction test under the standard condition were completed on 389 test samples composed of 136 kinds of coals produced in Canada, Australia, the U.S.A., China and Indonesia. Coal types were enumerated according to the oil yield. A gasification test was performed on the specific gravity separated coals of Chinese coals to discuss the effect of change in the ash amount on the gasification characteristics. A partial coal combustion test revealed that fuel ratio, oxygen partial pressure, and oxygen molar fraction parameters affect the combustion characteristics. The micro-gravity field is effective in discussing the combustion characteristics of particulate groups of dust coal. A coal oxidizing test was performed, wherein oxidizing characteristics and spontaneous ignition performance were estimated successfully from temperature rise of heat stored in coal. The coal type matrix data were prepared. (NEDO)

  4. ACR coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference document on production, exports, prices and demand of coal in world markets. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is provided. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, Canada, Indonesia, China, C.I.S. and Colombia. A very comprehensive coal quality specification for nearly all the coal brands exported from Australia, as well as leading non-Australian coal brands, is included.

  5. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  6. The Lunar Dust Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  7. Characteristics of coal mine ventilation air flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shi; Chen, Hongwei; Teakle, Philip; Xue, Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a greenhouse gas but also a wasted energy resource if not utilised. Underground coal mining is by far the most important source of fugitive methane emissions, and approximately 70% of all coal mining related methane is emitted to the atmosphere through mine ventilation air. Therefore, research and development on mine methane mitigation and utilisation now focuses on methane emitted from underground coal mines, in particular ventilation air methane (VAM) capture and utilisation. To date, most work has focused on the oxidation of very low concentration methane. These processes may be classified based on their combustion kinetic mechanisms into thermal oxidation and catalytic oxidation. VAM mitigation/utilisation technologies are generally divided into two basic categories: ancillary uses and principal uses. However, it is possible that the characteristics of ventilation air flows, for example the variations in methane concentration and the presence of certain compounds, which have not been reported so far, could make some potential VAM mitigation and utilisation technologies unfeasible if they cannot cope with the characteristics of mine site ventilation air flows. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows. Moreover, dust, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, and other possible compounds emitted through mine ventilation air into the atmosphere are also pollutants. Therefore, this paper presents mine-site experimental results on the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows, including methane concentration and its variations, dust loadings, particle size, mineral matter of the dust, and other compounds in the ventilation air flows. The paper also discusses possible correlations between ventilation air characteristics and underground mining activities.

  8. Characterization of Aluminum(III) Complexes in Coal Organic Matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), s. 378-394 ISSN 2156-8251 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : aluminium * complex * 27Al MAS NMR * coal * lignite * altered coal Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry http://www.scirp.org/journal/AJAC/

  9. Experimental study on effects of drilling parameters on respirable dust production during roof bolting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Luo, Yi; McQuerrey, Joe

    2018-02-01

    Underground coalmine roof bolting operators exhibit a continued risk for overexposure to airborne levels of respirable coal and crystalline silica dust from the roof drilling operation. Inhaling these dusts can cause coal worker's pneumoconiosis and silicosis. This research explores the effect of drilling control parameters, specifically drilling bite depth, on the reduction of respirable dust generated during the drilling process. Laboratory drilling experiments were conducted and results demonstrated the feasibility of this dust control approach. Both the weight and size distribution of the dust particles collected from drilling tests with different bite depths were analyzed. The results showed that the amount of total inhalable and respirable dust was inversely proportional to the drilling bite depth. Therefore, control of the drilling process to achieve proper high-bite depth for the rock can be an important approach to reducing the generation of harmful dust. Different from conventional passive engineering controls, such as mist drilling and ventilation approaches, this approach is proactive and can cut down the generation of respirable dust from the source. These findings can be used to develop an integrated drilling control algorithm to achieve the best drilling efficiency as well as reducing respirable dust and noise.

  10. Dust Devil Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  11. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  12. Presence and HRCT quantification of bronchiectasis in coal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, R.; Savranlar, A.; Kart, L.; Mahmutyazicioglu, K.; Ozdemir, H.; Akdag, B.; Gundogdu, S. [Zonguldak Karalmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of bronchiectasis in coal workers with or without coal worker pneumoconiosis (CWT) and to assess the extent of bronchiectasis, severity of bronchial wall dilatation and thickening by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The patient group consisted of 78 patients (43 CWP; 35 non-CWP). Pneumoconiosis profusions of CWP workers were between p0/1 and p2/2 according to ILO 1980 chest X-ray classification. HRCT examinations of all subjects were evaluated for the presence, extent, dilatation and thickness of bronchiectasis. The diagnosis of bronchiectasis was put on 19 of 43 CWP (44.1 %) and 7 of 35 non-CWP workers (20.0 %). There were statistically significant differences between bronchiectasis positive and negative coal workers with CWP concerning age and exposure duration (P = 0.012 and 0.009, respectively). Then, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to define exact risk factors. Exposure duration was only found to be related with presence of bronchiectasis ((odds ratio) OR = 1.494, 95 % confidence interval 1.168-1.912). The data from the present study shows that bronchiectasis is frequent and severe in CWP workers than without. Bronchiectasis is influenced by coal dust exposure. Thus, coal dust protection measures must be controlled efficiently to prevent bronchiectasis in coal workers.

  13. Presence and HRCT quantification of bronchiectasis in coal workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, Remzi; Savranlar, Ahmet; Kart, Levent; Mahmutyazicioglu, Kamran; Ozdemir, Huseyin; Akdag, Beyza; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of bronchiectasis in coal workers with or without coal worker pneumoconiosis (CWP) and to assess the extent of bronchiectasis, severity of bronchial wall dilatation and thickening by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Materials and methods: The retrospective study consisted of HRCT archives of 93 coal workers. The coal workers with previous diagnosis of COPD (six), asthma (one) and tuberculosis (three) were excluded. Five coal workers with progressive massive fibrosis were not included into the study. The resulting patient group consisted of 78 patients (43 CWP; 35 non-CWP). Pneumoconiosis profusions of CWP workers were between p0/1 and p2/2 according to ILO 1980 chest X-ray classification. HRCT examinations of all subjects were evaluated for the presence, extent, dilatation and thickness of bronchiectasis. Analysis of extent, dilatation and thickness were performed according to established criteria. Results: The diagnosis of bronchiectasis was put on 19 of 43 CWP (44.1%) and 7 of 35 non-CWP workers (20.0%). There were statistically significant differences between bronchiectasis positive and negative coal workers with CWP concerning age and exposure duration (P = 0.012 and 0.009, respectively). Then, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to define exact risk factors. Exposure duration was only found to be related with presence of bronchiectasis [(odds ratio) OR = 1.494, 95% confidence interval 1.168-1.912]. Conclusions: The data from the present study shows that bronchiectasis is frequent and severe in CWP workers than without. Bronchiectasis is influenced by coal dust exposure. Thus, coal dust protection measures must be controlled efficiently to prevent bronchiectasis in coal workers

  14. Dust and smoke pollution monitoring in industrial unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsi, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Dust and smoke are the two most commonly emitted industrial pollutants which are visible to the naked eye. Cement plants and power generation plants, based on coal and fuel oil etc. are the most common examples of industry emitting these pollutants. In this article these pollutants have been briefly described and some monitoring instruments for dust and smoke emissions have been specific. These instruments are especially suitable for power station and the cement industry etc. Automotive in urban areas. However, this paper does not include equipment for automotive exhaust pollution. (author)

  15. Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road runoff, dust, rain and canopy throughfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shucai; Wan, Chao; Yue, Dapan; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2008-06-01

    Diagnostic ratios and multivariate analysis were utilized to apportion polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sources for road runoff, road dust, rain and canopy throughfall based on samples collected in an urban area of Beijing, China. Three sampling sites representing vehicle lane, bicycle lane and branch road were selected. For road runoff and road dust, vehicular emission and coal combustion were identified as major sources, and the source contributions varied among the sampling sites. For rain, three principal components were apportioned representing coal/oil combustion (54%), vehicular emission (34%) and coking (12%). For canopy throughfall, vehicular emission (56%), coal combustion (30%) and oil combustion (14%) were identified as major sources. Overall, the PAH's source for road runoff mainly reflected that for road dust. Despite site-specific sources, the findings at the study area provided a general picture of PAHs sources for the road runoff system in urban area of Beijing.

  16. Whither Cometary Dust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey M.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper I will discuss recent findings that have important implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of primitive solar system dust, including: - Nesvorny et al. (2010), following up on their dynamical analyses of the zodiacal dust bands as sourced by the breakup of the Karin (5Mya) and Veritas (8Mya) asteroid families, argue that over 90% of the interplanetary dust cloud at 1 AU comes from JFC comets with near-circularized, low inclination orbits. This implies that the noted IPD collections of anhydrous and hydrous dust particles are likely to be from Oort cloud and JFC comets, respectively, not from asteroids and comets as thought in the past. Hydrous dust particles from comets like 85P/Wild2 and 9P/Tempel 1 would be consistent with results from the STARDUST and Deep Impact experiments. - Estimates of the dust particle size distributions (PSDs) in the comae of 85P/Wild2 (Green et al. 2004, 2007) and 73P/SW-3 (Sitko et al. 2010, Vaubaillon & Reach 2010) and in the trails of comets (Reach et al. 2007) have broken power law structure, with a plateau enhancement of particles of 1 mm - 1 cm in size. This size is also the size of most chondritic inclusions, and the predicted size range of the "aggregational barrier", where collisions between dust particles become destructive. - Studies of the albedo and polarization properties of cometary dust (Kolokolova et al. 2007) suggest there are 2 major groupings, one with low scattering capability and one with high. While these families could possibly have been explained by systematics in the PSDs of the emitted dust, independent work by Lisse et al. (2008) on the mineralogy of a number of highly dusty comets has shown evidence for one family of comets with highly crystalline dust and another with highly amorphous dust.

  17. Communication plan for windblown dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Windblown dust events occur in Arizona, and blowing dust has been considered a contributing factor to serious crashes on the : segment of Interstate 10 (I10) between Phoenix and Tucson, as well as on other Arizona roadways. Arizonas dust events...

  18. Environmental Policy Induced Input Substitution? The Case of Coking and Steam Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Lange

    2007-01-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 initiated a tradable permit program for emissions of sulfur dioxide from coal-fired power plants. The effect of this enlightened policy on the coal industry was a large increase in consumption of low-sulfur bituminous and subbituminous coals. Low-sulfur bituminous coal is most attractive to coal-fired power plants as they have higher heat content and require less alteration to the boiler to burn as effectively the coal previously in use. However, low-sulfur bituminou...

  19. Recent mergers and acquisitions changes face of RSA coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    During the last two years, the South African coal industry has altered dramatically, with several major mergers and acquisitions taking place affecting production and Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) entitlement. This article summarises the current position, as it happened. Events discussed include: the merger of Trans-Natal and Randcoal; Sasol becoming a member of RBCT; Tavistock`s Shell acquisition; the Duiker Mining-Lonrho acquisition; Amcoal`s purchase of Gold Fields Coal; the sale of Welgedacht Exploration Company to the Kangra Group and the formation of New Coal by Amcoal and Ingwe. 2 tabs., 2 photos.

  20. Trends in Japanese coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, S

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses 1) the latest forecast for coal demand in Japan; 2) trends in Japanese steam coal demand, with breakdown by industry; 3) the organization of steam coal supply, with details of the distribution network and of the new coal cartridge system; 4) the demand for metallurgical coal. Other topics outlined include the current status of Japanese coal production, Japanese coal trade, and the development of overseas coal resources. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  1. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  2. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The author's review concentrates on theoretical aspects of dust in planetary nebulae (PN). He considers the questions: how much dust is there is PN; what is its composition; what effects does it have on the ionization structure, on the dynamics of the nebula. (Auth.)

  3. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnarsson, D.; Carpenter, J.; Fubini, B.; Gerde, P.; Loftus, D.; Prisk, K.; Staufer, U.; Tranfield, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of

  4. Combustible dust tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  5. Development of brown coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilmann, W

    1985-01-01

    The significance of brown coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany for the development of opencast technology and the power industry is discussed with emphasis on mining in the Rhineland Area. In 1984, 126.7 mt of brown coal were produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the development of high-performance equipment it is essential that the efficiency of the bucket-wheel excavator is increased. Trains and conveyors are mainly used for mine transport in the Federal Republic of Germany. A high moral commitment is linked to land claims, recultivation and environmental issues on the part of brown coal mining. In 1984 the percentage share of brown coal supplied to the public power stations was 83.6%, corresponding to 105.9 mt. The installed capacity of all brown coal power stations amounted to 12,764 MW at the end of 1984, providing around one quarter of overall public power output. Charge coal for coal refining has become more important and the production of brown coal dust and brown coal coke has also increased. The share of brown coal in domestic primary energy production is currently around 24% of 151 mt hard-coal units or around 10% of 376.5 mt hard-coal units in terms of energy consumption. 12 references.

  6. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  7. Determination of road dust loadings and chemical characteristics using resuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongjie; Ren, Lihong

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of fugitive dust from traffic to air pollution can no longer be ignored in China. In order to obtain the road dust loadings and to understand the chemical characteristics of PM(10) and PM(2.5) from typical road dust, different paved roads in eight districts of Beijing were selected for dust collection during the four seasons of 2005. Ninety-eight samples from 28 roads were obtained. The samples were resuspended using equipment assembled to simulate the rising process of road dust caused by the wind or wheels in order to obtain the PM(10) and PM(2.5) filter samples. The average road dust loading was 3.82 g m(-2), with the highest of 24.22 g m(-2) being in Hutongs in the rural-urban continuum during winter. The road dust loadings on higher-grade roads were lower than those on lower-grade roads. Attention should be paid to the pollution in the rural-urban continuum areas. The sums of element abundances measured were 16.17% and 18.50% for PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust. The average abundances of OC and EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust were 11.52%, 2.01% and 12.50%, 2.06%, respectively. The abundance of elements, water-soluble ions, and OC, EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) resuspended from road dust did not change greatly with seasons and road types. The soil dust, construction dust, dust emitted from burning coal, vehicle exhaust, and deposition of particles in the air were the main sources of road dust in Beijing. Affected by the application of snow-melting agents in Beijing during winter, the amount of Cl( - ) and Na( + ) was much higher during that time than in the other seasons. This will have a certain influence on roads, bridges, vegetations, and groundwater.

  8. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Coal marketing manual 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  10. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  11. Characterizing the Variable Dust Permeability of Planet-induced Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Philipp; Benítez-Llambay, Pablo; Gressel, Oliver; Krapp, Leonardo; Pessah, Martin E.

    2018-02-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that dust grains in protoplanetary disks will drift radially inward on comparatively short timescales. In this context, it has long been known that the presence of a gap opened by a planet can significantly alter the dust dynamics. In this paper, we carry out a systematic study employing long-term numerical simulations aimed at characterizing the critical particle size for retention outside a gap as a function of particle size, as well as various key parameters defining the protoplanetary disk model. To this end, we perform multifluid hydrodynamical simulations in two dimensions, including different dust species, which we treat as pressureless fluids. We initialize the dust outside of the planet’s orbit and study under which conditions dust grains are able to cross the gap carved by the planet. In agreement with previous work, we find that the permeability of the gap depends both on dust dynamical properties and the gas disk structure: while small dust follows the viscously accreting gas through the gap, dust grains approaching a critical size are progressively filtered out. Moreover, we introduce and compute a depletion factor that enables us to quantify the way in which higher viscosity, smaller planet mass, or a more massive disk can shift this critical size to larger values. Our results indicate that gap-opening planets may act to deplete the inner reaches of protoplanetary disks of large dust grains—potentially limiting the accretion of solids onto forming terrestrial planets.

  12. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Coal. [1987 and 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    Despite increases in recently negotiated coal prices in US dollar terms, unit export returns for Australian coal are expected to rise only marginally in 1988-89 due to the anticipated appreciation of the Australian dollar. Australian coal production is expected to recover in 1988-89, after falling in 1987-88. A table summarising coal statistics in 1985-87 is presented. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Review biodepyritisation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, C.; Sukla, L.B.; Misra, V.N. [Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a detailed summary of the recent and past research activities in the area of biodesulfurisation of coal. It provides information about microorganisms important for biodesulfurisation of coal, with the emphasis on Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The review presents an insight into various methods of desulfurisation of coal combining physical and biological methods. Also, there are discussions on coal structure, distribution, mechanism and kinetics of pyrite oxidation and jarosite precipitation. Finally, areas requiring further research are identified.

  15. Coal world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  16. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  17. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the coal of the Philippines, where the expansion of the use of coal as a substitute for petroleum/plant fuel is aimed at, the paper grasped the situation of coal production/development, the trend of coal import and domestic distribution, the coal utilization trend, and environmental problems, and analyzed the situation of coal utilization/spread by industry including the commercial/residential use. The purpose of the survey is to draw up a master plan for the introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. As to the use of environmentally-friendly coal technology which should be adopted to the coal mining industry and commercial/residential sector, cited are the introduction of coal preparation technology and power transmission technology, and the development/spread of briquette as a firewood substituting fuel. In the electric power sector, the problem is the treatment of ash after combustion and the effective use. Relating to the treatment of flue gas, there is no installation at all of desulfurization facilities and denitrification facilities. In the cement industry sector, they wish to return fuel from heavy oil to coal. For it, it is necessary to study dust preventive measures. In the other sectors, coal hasn`t been used very much. An increase in coal demand is not expected also in the future, and big problems concerning coal haven`t occurred. 42 figs., 64 tabs.

  18. Prevention and protection against propagation of explosionsin underground coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Пейч

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, the coal mining industry experienced a large number of explosions leading to a considerable loss of life. The objective of this study is preventing the propagation of methane and/or coal dust explosions through the use of passive water barriers and its implementation to the Spanish coal mining industry. Physical and chemical properties, flammability and explosibility parameters of typical Spanish coals are presented. In this paper,   a flexible approach to meet the requirements of the EN-14591-2:2007 standard is presented for the very specific local conditions, characterized by small cross-sections galleries, vertical seem, use of explosives, etc. Authors have proven the viability of standard requirements to the typical roadway from Spanish underground mines, considering realistic roadway lengths as well as available cross-sections taking into account ubiquitous obstacles such as: locomotives, conveyor belt, ventilation ducts, etc.

  19. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  20. Coal economics and taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain opening remarks, the luncheon and dinner addresses, list of delegates and the papers presented at the four sessions on Coal Mines cost money - for what.; Coal mines cost money - Where the money comes from; taxation and royalty policies; and the coal industry view on operating costs. Sixteen papers are abstracted separately.

  1. Reducing dust and allergen exposure in bakeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J Mason

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bakers have a continuing high incidence of occupational allergic asthma. In factory bakeries they are exposed not only to flour dust containing allergens, but also improvers whose ingredients enhance the strength and workability of the dough and its speed of rising. Improvers are flour-based but can contain added soya, fungal or bacterial enzymes that are also allergenic, as well as vegetable oil, calcium sulphate/silicate and organic esters. This study investigated the dustiness of the components used in factory bakeries and whether altering improver ingredients could reduce dust and allergen exposure. A standardised rotating drum test was employed on the individual components, as well as a representative improver and three practicable improver modifications by decreasing calcium sulphate, calcium silicate or increasing oil content. Levels of dust, the allergens wheat flour amylase inhibitor (WAAI and soya trypsin inhibitor (STI were measured in the generated inhalable, thoracic and respirable sized fractions. A “scooping and pouring” workplace simulation was also performed. Initial tests showed that dustiness of several wheat flours was relatively low, and even lower for soya flour, but increased in combination with some other improver components. All three improver modifications generally reduced levels of dust, STI and WAAI, but increasing oil content significantly decreased dust and STI in comparison to the standard improver and those improvers with reduced calcium silicate or sulphate. The simulation demonstrated that increased oil content reduced inhalable levels of gravimetric dust, STI and WAAI. Changing improver formulation, such as increasing oil content of flour by a small amount, may represent a simple, practical method of reducing bakery workers’ exposure to dust and allergens where improvers are used. It may be a useful adjunct to engineering control, changes to work practices and appropriate training in reducing the risk to

  2. Characterization of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) Variant Activation by Coal Fly Ash Particles and Associations with Altered Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) Expression and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Stockmann, Chris; Romero, Erin G; Lu, Zhenyu; Shapiro, Darien; Stone, Bryan L; Fassl, Bernhard; Nkoy, Flory; Uchida, Derek A; Ward, Robert M; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2016-11-25

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated by environmental particulate materials. We hypothesized that polymorphic variants of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) would be uniquely responsive to insoluble coal fly ash compared with the prototypical soluble agonist capsaicin. Furthermore, these changes would manifest as differences in lung cell responses to these agonists and perhaps correlate with changes in asthma symptom control. The TRPV1-I315M and -T469I variants were more responsive to capsaicin and coal fly ash. The I585V variant was less responsive to coal fly ash particles due to reduced translation of protein and an apparent role for Ile-585 in activation by particles. In HEK-293 cells, I585V had an inhibitory effect on wild-type TRPV1 expression, activation, and internalization/agonist-induced desensitization. In normal human bronchial epithelial cells, IL-8 secretion in response to coal fly ash treatment was reduced for cells heterozygous for TRPV1-I585V. Finally, both the I315M and I585V variants were associated with worse asthma symptom control with the effects of I315M manifesting in mild asthma and those of the I585V variant manifesting in severe, steroid-insensitive individuals. This effect may be due in part to increased transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) expression by lung epithelial cells expressing the TRPV1-I585V variant. These findings suggest that specific molecular interactions control TRPV1 activation by particles, differential activation, and desensitization of TRPV1 by particles and/or other agonists, and cellular changes in the expression of TRPA1 as a result of I585V expression could contribute to variations in asthma symptom control. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Quantifying Anthropogenic Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Pierre, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change, including local environmental disturbances, moderate rates of wind-driven soil erosion and dust emission. These human-dust cycle interactions impact ecosystems and agricultural production, air quality, human health, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. While the impacts of land use activities and land management on aeolian processes can be profound, the interactions are often complex and assessments of anthropogenic dust loads at all scales remain highly uncertain. Here, we critically review the drivers of anthropogenic dust emission and current evaluation approaches. We then identify and describe opportunities to: (1) develop new conceptual frameworks and interdisciplinary approaches that draw on ecological state-and-transition models to improve the accuracy and relevance of assessments of anthropogenic dust emissions; (2) improve model fidelity and capacity for change detection to quantify anthropogenic impacts on aeolian processes; and (3) enhance field research and monitoring networks to support dust model applications to evaluate the impacts of disturbance processes on local to global-scale wind erosion and dust emissions.

  4. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  5. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  6. Radiographic outcomes among South African coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Rajen N; Robins, Thomas G; Solomon, A; White, Neil; Franzblau, Alfred

    2004-10-01

    This study, the first to document the prevalence of pneumoconiosis among a living South African coal mining cohort, describes dose-response relationships between coal workers' pneumoconiosis and respirable dust exposure, and relationships between pneumoconiosis and both lung function deterioration and respiratory symptoms. A total of 684 current miners and 188 ex-miners from three bituminous-coal mines in Mpumalanga, South Africa, was studied. Chest radiographs were read according to the International Labour Organization (ILO) classification by two experienced readers, one an accredited National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) "B" reader. Interviews were conducted to assess symptoms, work histories (also obtained from company records), smoking, and other risk factors. Spirometry was performed by trained technicians. Cumulative respirable dust exposure (CDE) estimates were constructed from historical company-collected sampling and researcher-collected personal dust measurements. kappa-Statistics compared the radiographic outcomes predicted by the two readers. An average profusion score was used in the analysis for the outcomes of interest. Because of possible confounding by employment status, most analyses were stratified on current and ex-miner status. The overall prevalence of pneumoconiosis was low (2%-4%). The degree of agreement between the two readers for profusion was moderate to high (kappa=0.58). A significant association (Pminers only. A significant (Pminers with pneumoconiosis than among those without. Logistic regression models showed no significant relationships between pneumoconiosis and symptoms. The overall prevalence of pneumoconiosis, although significantly associated with CDE, was low. The presence of pneumoconiosis is associated with meaningful health effects, including deterioration in lung function. Intervention measures that control exposure are indicated, to reduce these functional effects.

  7. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  8. Spirit Feels Dust Gust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1149 (March 28, 2007) of its mission, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit caught a wind gust with its navigation camera. A series of navigation camera images were strung together to create this movie. The front of the gust is observable because it was strong enough to lift up dust. From assessing the trajectory of this gust, the atmospheric science team concludes that it is possible that it passed over the rover. There was, however, no noticeable increase in power associated with this gust. In the past, dust devils and gusts have wiped the solar panels of dust, making it easier for the solar panels to absorb sunlight.

  9. Evaluate fundamental approaches to longwall dust control. Phase III report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babbitt, C.; Bartlett, P.; Kelly, J.; Ludlow, J.; Mangolds, A.; Rajan, S.; Ruggieri, S.; Varga, E.

    1984-03-31

    The overall objective of the contract is to evaluate the effectiveness of available dust control technology for double-drum shearer longwall sections in a coordinated, systematic program at a few longwall test sections and to make the results available to the entire coal mining industry. This program is investigating nine different dust control techniques. These nine subprograms encompass a broad range of dust control measures ranging from administrative controls to new hardware. They span not only presently employed methods but also those recently adopted in the United States and those proposed for the future. This report documents the Phase III effort on each of the subprograms. For clarity, the report is divided in sections by subprogram as follows: Section 2, Subprogram A - passive barriers/spray air movers for dust control; Section 3, Subprogram B - practical aspects of deep cutting; Section 4, Subprogram C - stage loader dust control; Section 5, Subprogram D - longwall automation technology; Section 6, Subprogram E - longwall application of ventilation curtains; Section 7, Subprogram F - reversed drum rotation; Section 8, Subprogram G - reduction of shield generated dust; Section 9, Subprogram H - air canopies for longwalls; and Section 10, Subprogram I - mining practices. 43 figures, 11 tables.

  10. Mine haul road fugitive dust emission and exposure characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.J.; Visser, A.T. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-03-01

    Excessive dust generation from mine haul roads is a problem common to most surface coal mining operations. Optimal wearing course material selection parameters reduce, but do not toally eliminate the potential to produce dust. For existing operations, which may not have optimally designed and maintained roads, the problem of identifying the haul road dust defect, quantifying its impact on both safety and health and assigning priorities within the constraints of limited capital and manpower is problematic. This is reflected in the fact that most surface mine operators agree dust-free roads are desirable, but find it difficult to translate this into cost-effective betterment activities. The aim of this paper is to describe fugitive dust emission and exposure characteristics associated with ultra-heavy mine haul trucks running on unpaved mine haul roads. Models are described which enable mines to assess the likely dustiness of their chosen haul road material as a function of surface loading of fines, traffic types and volume, together with various material parameters. By combining these models with the results of quantitative exposure profiling, a mine can, in conjunction with the assessment, determine the most cost- and safety-effective haul road dust management strategy. 18 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Polish apparatus for the measurement of dust content in the air of a mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzystolik, P; Piskorska-Kalisz, Z

    1981-01-01

    Some characteristics are presented of the apparatus for the control of the dust content of air in coal mines, developed by the main Polish Institute of Mining Affairs. The Barbara 3 A gravitational dust meter has: volumetric velocity of suction of air of 5 cubic decimeters per minute; the mass is 5.8 kilograms; the range of the determined concentration of dust is from 0.5 to 1 grams per cubic meters; the length of the operation with the supply from four silver-zinc accumulator elements is eight hours; the selector of dust particles is a platy elutriator or a microcyclone; a membrane type of filter, an explosively danger actuation. The Barbar 4 gravitation dust meter has: volumetric velocity of air suction of 10, 20, 50, or 100 cubic decimeters per minute; supply from the network of compressed air; the mass is about eight kilograms; the selector of dust particles is a microcyclone; the filter is a membrane or is in the form of a layer of salicylic acid, placed between two nets. Both dust meters are designated for the determination of dust content as well as the content of finely dispersed dust particles. The mass of the selected specimen of dust is adequate also for the determination of the content of silica, as well as for other special analyses.

  12. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  13. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  14. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  15. Washability of Australian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, R L

    1979-06-01

    Australian coals tend to be young in geological age and high in ash by world standards; preparation of the coal before marketing is almost universal. On the basis of float and sink data from 39 locations in the eastern Australian coalfields, the coals are place in four categories representing increasing difficulty in their washability characteristics. These seem to be related neither to the geological age nor the geographical position of the deposit and Hunter Valley coals, for example, span all categories. The influence of crushing on the washability of Australian coals is briefly considered and from limited data it is concluded to be appreciably smaller than for British or North American coals. A strategy for the float and sink analysis of Australian coals is proposed and the influence of washability characteristics on current trends in the selection of separating processes for coking and steaming products is discussed.

  16. On interaction of large dust grains with fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Smirnov, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    So far the models used to study dust grain-plasma interactions in fusion plasmas neglect the effects of dust material vapor, which is always present around dust in rather hot and dense edge plasma environment in fusion devices. However, when the vapor density and/or the amount of ionized vapor atoms become large enough, they can alter the grain-plasma interactions. Somewhat similar processes occur during pellet injection in fusion plasma. In this brief communication the applicability limits of the models ignoring vapor effects in grain-plasma interactions are obtained.

  17. Screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    This publication resulted from a World Health Organisation initiated project to investigate the harmonisation of definitions, approaches and methodologies for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust. The first part of the book provides definitions of screening and surveillance and describes the main elements of such programmes. The second part discusses the practical aspect of the screening and surveillance of working populations exposed to crystalline silica, coal mine dust and asbestos. Although no single set of guidelines is applicable to the development and implementation of a programme for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust, the recommendations, together with certain caveats, should provide a useful starting point. Annexes provide examples of existing programmes in various countries and environments and discuss the use and interpretation of questionnaires, lung spirometry and chest radiography. Overall the book should be of interest to occupational health professionals.

  18. Simulated coal spill causes mortality and growth inhibition in tropical marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L. E.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-05-01

    Coal is a principal fossil fuel driving economic and social development, and increases in global coal shipments have paralleled expansion of the industry. To identify the potential harm associated with chronic marine coal contamination, three taxa abundant in tropical marine ecosystems (the coral Acropora tenuis, the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the seagrass Halodule uninervis) were exposed to five concentrations (0-275 mg coal l-1) of suspended coal dust (<63 μm) over 28 d. Results demonstrate that chronic coal exposure can cause considerable lethal effects on corals, and reductions in seagrass and fish growth rates. Coral survivorship and seagrass growth rates were inversely related to increasing coal concentrations (≥38 mg coal l-1) and effects increased between 14 and 28 d, whereas fish growth rates were similarly depressed at all coal concentrations tested. This investigation provides novel insights into direct coal impacts on key tropical taxa for application in the assessment of risks posed by increasing coal shipments in globally threatened marine ecosystems.

  19. Galactic dust and extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngaa, G.

    1979-01-01

    The ratio R between visual extinction and colour excess, is slightly larger than 3 and does not vary much throughout our part of the Galaxy. The distribution of dust in the galactic plane shows, on the large scale, a gradient with higher colour excesses towards l=50 0 than towards l=230 0 . On the smaller scale, much of the dust responsible for extinction is situated in clouds which tend to group together. The correlation between positions of interstellar dust clouds and positions of spiral tracers seems rather poor in our Galaxy. However, concentrated dark clouds as well as extended regions of dust show an inclined distribution similar to the Gould belt of bright stars. (Auth.)

  20. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  1. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  2. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  3. Radioisotope dust pollution monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szepke, R.; Harasimczuk, J.; Dobrowiecki, J.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring principles and specification of two dust monitors: station-type AMIZ and portable-type PIK-10 for ambient air pollution are presented. The first one, a fully automatic instrument is destined for permanent monitoring of air pollution in preset sampling time from .25 to 24 hours. The second one was developed as a portable working model. Both instruments display their results in digital form in dust concentration units. (author)

  4. Dust devil generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G Onishchenko, O; A Pokhotelov, O; Horton, W; Stenflo, L

    2014-01-01

    The equations describing axi-symmetric nonlinear internal gravity waves in an unstable atmosphere are derived. A hydrodynamic model of a dust devil generation mechanism in such an atmosphere is investigated. It is shown that in an unstably stratified atmosphere the convective plumes with poloidal motion can grow exponentially. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that these convective plumes in an atmosphere with weak large scale toroidal motion are unstable with respect to three-dimensional dust devil generation. (papers)

  5. All the coal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessen, N.

    1993-01-01

    Unless this giant nation embraces a new strategy for producing and using energy. Its fast-growing economy could overwhelm international efforts to control greenhouse warming. Carbon emissions in China have increased 65% in the past decade, largely due to a sharp rise in coal burning. China's growing economy, low energy prices, and government policies are fueling the increase in coal use. China's leaders dismiss the notion that concern over global warming should alter their energy strategy. However, the important question is not whether the Chinese have the right to follow a carbon-intensive energy path, but whether it is in their interest to do so. Raising energy efficiency is essential to boost living standards; more efficient industrial processes, maintainance, operating procedures, and energy efficient construction all are needed. In the long run China will need to develop its own alternatives to coal;natural gas, solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energy all have enormous potential. Price adjustments, international support, and education will all be needed in the long run

  6. Impact of Dust Radiative Forcing upon Climate. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; Knippertz, Peter; Perez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Perlwitz, Jan P.; Tegan, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Dust aerosols perturb the atmospheric radiative flux at both solar and thermal wavelengths, altering the energy and water cycles. The climate adjusts by redistributing energy and moisture, so that local temperature perturbations, for example, depend upon the forcing over the entire extent of the perturbed circulation. Within regions frequently mixed by deep convection, including the deep tropics, dust particles perturb the surface air temperature primarily through radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Many models predict that dust reduces global precipitation. This reduction is typically attributed to the decrease of surface evaporation in response to dimming of the surface. A counterexample is presented, where greater shortwave absorption by dust increases evaporation and precipitation despite greater dimming of the surface. This is attributed to the dependence of surface evaporation upon TOA forcing through its influence upon surface temperature and humidity. Perturbations by dust to the surface wind speed and vegetation (through precipitation anomalies) feed back upon the dust aerosol concentration. The current uncertainty of radiative forcing attributed to dust and the resulting range of climate perturbations calculated by models remain a useful test of our understanding of the mechanisms relating dust radiative forcing to the climate response.

  7. Seasonal provenance changes in present-day Saharan dust collected in and off Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Friese

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saharan dust has a crucial influence on the earth climate system and its emission, transport and deposition are intimately related to, e.g., wind speed, precipitation, temperature and vegetation cover. The alteration in the physical and chemical properties of Saharan dust due to environmental changes is often used to reconstruct the climate of the past. However, to better interpret possible climate changes the dust source regions need to be known. By analysing the mineralogical composition of transported or deposited dust, potential dust source areas can be inferred. Summer dust transport off northwest Africa occurs in the Saharan air layer (SAL. In continental dust source areas, dust is also transported in the SAL; however, the predominant dust input occurs from nearby dust sources with the low-level trade winds. Hence, the source regions and related mineralogical tracers differ with season and sampling location. To test this, dust collected in traps onshore and in oceanic sediment traps off Mauritania during 2013 to 2015 was analysed. Meteorological data, particle-size distributions, back-trajectory and mineralogical analyses were compared to derive the dust provenance and dispersal. For the onshore dust samples, the source regions varied according to the seasonal changes in trade-wind direction. Gibbsite and dolomite indicated a Western Saharan and local source during summer, while chlorite, serpentine and rutile indicated a source in Mauritania and Mali during winter. In contrast, for the samples that were collected offshore, dust sources varied according to the seasonal change in the dust transporting air layer. In summer, dust was transported in the SAL from Mauritania, Mali and Libya as indicated by ferroglaucophane and zeolite. In winter, dust was transported with the trades from Western Sahara as indicated by, e.g., fluellite.

  8. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  9. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  10. Exploitation examination of reliability of coal dust systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dojchinovski, Ilija; Trajkovski, Kole

    1997-01-01

    Designers and operators wish is, long, failure free operation at designed parameters of every system. Always we know the system start up time, but we don't know how long this system will operate successfully. Because of that in this article is given a method how, step by step, to determine the reliability of the system. Reliability parameters are obtained from experimental and operational data. When reliability parameters are determined then it is very easy to compare reliability of similar systems, for example excavators, or different systems, such as truck and rubber band transport system. Practical use of the theory of reliability is by purchasing of the systems when manufacturers have to have and present reliability parameters and on this way we can decide which system satisfies our needs regarding the quality-price-reliability. Reliability can be practically used in system operation where: 1) system reliability is maintained with proper start, use and shutdown of the system; 2) a system reliability is maintained with good maintenance organization; 3) a system reliability is maintained with innovations and improvements with final purpose removing of the imperfections experienced through the operation. Reliability is very important parameter in power generation plants. (Author)

  11. Coal acid mine drainage treatment using cement kiln dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Alberto Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sulfuros están presentes en distintas rocas. Durante las actividades mineras y el proceso de remoción de sulfuros se pueden producir Drenajes Ácidos de Minería (DAM, con iones de sulfato (SO4-2. Los DAMs son fuente de polución en las actividades mineras y en Colombia su descarga en los cuerpos de agua debe cumplir las regulaciones nacionales (pH entre 5 y 9. Polvo de horno cementero (CKD, con carbonato de calcio principalmente, de una planta de Cementos Argos S.A. fue usado para neutralizar un DAM generado en la biodesulfurización de carbón. Los DAMs neutralizados tuvieron pHs entre 7,72 y 8,05 y la eliminación de sulfatos entre 67% a 70%. El precipitado se secó y analizó para determinar su composición química y mineralógica. Se encontró humedad entre 69% y 81%; yeso con un 50% de pureza aproximadamente y carbonato de calcio. Esta composición lo hace adecuado para uso en la producción de cemento.

  12. Debilitating lung disease among surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Cara N; Reed, William R; Joy, Gerald J; Colinet, Jay F; Rider, James P; Petsonk, Edward L; Abraham, Jerrold L; Wolfe, Anita L; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner's lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor.

  13. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  14. A breakthrough in the technical dust abatement in the mining operations of RAG; Durchbruch in der technischen Staubbekaempfung der RAG-Abbaubetriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Klaus-Peter [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Gelsenkrichen (Germany). Dezernat 62; Suedhofer, Frank [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Bottrop (Germany). Servicebereich Belegschaft - BB S1 Ergonomie/Umgebungseinfluesse

    2010-02-15

    In the years 2005 to 2007, the dust abatement in the mining operations of RAG AG (Bottrop, Federal Republic of Germany) fundamentally is regulated and standardised without a distinction between primary and secondary measures. In the contribution under consideration the authors report on measures and effects of the optimization of dust abatement in workings of the German coal mining. Positive developments of the dust load for the employees are stated on the basis of operational data.

  15. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  16. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  17. Cuttability of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1978-01-01

    The process of cutting dull M, dull bright MB, bright dull BM, and bright B coal under various compressive stress conditions was studied in laboratory tests. The efficiency of ploughs depends much more on the natural mining conditions than does that of shearer-loaders. For seams of medium workability, it is difficult to forecast whether ploughs will be successful. Cuttability tests are a good way of determining whether ploughs can be used. The effort necessary to cut coal in a stressed condition depends not only on such properties as the workability defined by the Protodyakonov index or compressive strength, but also, and mainly, on the petrographic structure and elastic properties of the coal. In bright coals with high elastic strain, and with BM and MB coals, a much greater increment of effort is necessary with increase in compressive stresses. The cuttability of dull coals from difficult mines was not very different.

  18. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  19. Coal-to-liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  20. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  1. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  2. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourillon, C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  3. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  4. Sahara Dust Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Dust Particles Click on the image for Quicktime movie from 7/15-7/24 A continent-sized cloud of hot air and dust originating from the Sahara Desert crossed the Atlantic Ocean and headed towards Florida and the Caribbean. A Saharan Air Layer, or SAL, forms when dry air and dust rise from Africa's west coast and ride the trade winds above the Atlantic Ocean. These dust clouds are not uncommon, especially during the months of July and August. They start when weather patterns called tropical waves pick up dust from the desert in North Africa, carry it a couple of miles into the atmosphere and drift westward. In a sequence of images created by data acquired by the Earth-orbiting Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ranging from July 15 through July 24, we see the distribution of the cloud in the atmosphere as it swirls off of Africa and heads across the ocean to the west. Using the unique silicate spectral signatures of dust in the thermal infrared, AIRS can detect the presence of dust in the atmosphere day or night. This detection works best if there are no clouds present on top of the dust; when clouds are present, they can interfere with the signal, making it much harder to detect dust as in the case of July 24, 2005. In the Quicktime movie, the scale at the bottom of the images shows +1 for dust definitely detected, and ranges down to -1 for no dust detected. The plots are averaged over a number of AIRS observations falling within grid boxes, and so it is possible to obtain fractional numbers. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Total Water Vapor in the Atmosphere Around the Dust Cloud Click on the image for Quicktime movie The dust cloud is contained within a dry adiabatic layer which originates over the Sahara Desert. This Saharan Air Layer (SAL) advances Westward over the Atlantic Ocean, overriding the cool, moist air nearer the surface. This burst of very dry air is visible in the AIRS retrieved total water

  5. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  6. 30 CFR 90.210 - Respirable dust samples; report to operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.210 Respirable dust samples; report to operator. (a) The Secretary shall... for voiding any samples; and, (7) The Social Security Number of the part 90 miner. (b) Upon receipt...

  7. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  8. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  9. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Shih, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  10. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  11. Australian coal year book 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This yearbook presents a review of the Australian coal industry during the 1984-85 financial year. Included are details on mines, future prospects, coal export facilities and ports, annual cost statistics and a index of coal mine owners.

  12. Cross sectional and longitudinal study on selenium, glutathione peroxidase, smoking, and occupational exposure in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadif, R.; Oryszczyn, M.P.; Fradier-Dusch, M.; Hellier, G.; Bertrand, J.P.; Pham, Q.T.; Kauffmann, F. [INSERM, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Faculty of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the variations of selenium (Se) concentration relative to changes in occupational exposure to coal dust, taking into account age and changes in smoking habits in miners surveyed twice, in 1990 and 1994. It was found that selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activities (GSH-Px) activities were significantly lower in active than in retired miners. Moreover, Se concentration was lower in miners exposed to high compared with those exposed to low dust concentrations. In miners exposed to high dust concentrations, Se concentration was significantly lower whereas erythrocyte GSH-Px activity was significantly higher in the subgroup with estimated cumulative exposure {gt} 68 mg/m{sup 3}.y. In all miners, plasma GSH-Px activity was correlated with Se concentration. The 4 year Se changes were negatively related to exposure to high dust concentrations and positively related to change in exposure from high to retirement and to change from smoker to ex-smoker. The variations of Se concentration in relation to changes in occupational exposure to coal dust and in smoking habits, and the close correlation found between plasma Se concentration and GSH-Px activity suggest that both are required in antioxidant defence. These results agree well with the hypothesis that the decrease in Se concentration reflects its use against reactive oxygen species generated by exposure to coal mine dust and by smoking.

  13. Natural radioactivity of airbone particulates in coal-ash disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masanori; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made on the actual concentrations of U, Th and Po in air-borne dust and soil around coal power stations, to study the effect of coal-ash disposal site on natural radioactivity of environmental samples. Samples were collected at a coal-ash disposal and its reference places. The results obtained are summaried as follows; (1) Concentrations of U, Th and Po in air-borne dust at the disposal place was nealy equal to those at the reference place. (2) Origin of those α-emitting elements in the dust was successfully deduced, on the basis of correlating concentrations of Sc and Cl elements in the dust. (3) It was inferred that elements of both U and Po in the dust at disposal site came from soil by about 80% and artificial origin such as exhausted gas by remainder. Almost all Th element were from soil. It was therefore concluded that effect of disposal site on radioactivity concentrations of dusts was negligible. (author)

  14. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  15. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  16. Physical properties and component contents of brown coal tars obtained in semicoking with a solid heat transfer semicoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, V I; Bobrova, A A

    1955-01-01

    Tar obtained in low-temperature carbonization of brown coals with brown-coal semicoke as a heat-transfer medium contains more water and dust, has a lower drop point, and a higher specific gravity, and contains more asphaltene and less paraffin than does tar from the same coal produced in rotating retorts or in shaft kilns. The brown-coal semicoke used as a heat-transfer medium produces partial thermal cracking of the fuel and polymerization of the products of secondary decompositions. The yield of asphaltenes is lowered when the carbonization temperature is raised.

  17. Clean utilization of low-rank coals for low-cost power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondreal, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Despite the unique utilization problems of low-rank coals, the ten US steam electric plants having the lowest operating cost in 1990 were all fueled on either lignite or subbituminous coal. Ash deposition problems, which have been a major barrier to sustaining high load on US boilers burning high-sodium low-rank coals, have been substantially reduced by improvements in coal selection, boiler design, on-line cleaning, operating conditions, and additives. Advantages of low-rank coals in advanced systems are their noncaking behavior when heated, their high reactivity allowing more complete reaction at lower temperatures, and the low sulfur content of selected deposits. The principal barrier issues are the high-temperature behavior of ash and volatile alkali derived from the coal-bound sodium found in some low-rank coals. Successful upgrading of low-rank coals requires that the product be both stable and suitable for end use in conventional and advanced systems. Coal-water fuel produced by hydrothermal processing of high-moisture low-rank coal meets these criteria, whereas most dry products from drying or carbonizing in hot gas tend to create dust and spontaneous ignition problems unless coated, agglomerated, briquetted, or afforded special handling

  18. Australian black coal statistics 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  19. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  20. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  1. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1980-01-01

    A two-component dust model is suggested to explain the infrared emission from planetary nebulae. A cold dust component located in the extensive remnant of the red-giant envelope exterior to the visible nebula is responsible for the far-infrared emission. A ward dust component, which is condensed after the formation of the planetary nebula and confined within the ionized gas shell, emits most of the near- and mid-infrared radiation. The observations of NGC 7027 are shown to be consisten with such a model. The correlation of silicate emission in several planetary nebulae with an approximately +1 spectral index at low radio frequencies suggests that both the silicate and radio emissions originate from the remnant of the circumstellar envelope of th precursor star and are observable only while the planetary nebula is young. It is argued that oxygen-rich stars as well as carbon-rich stars can be progenitors of planetary nebulae

  2. Interstellar dust and extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is noted that the term interstellar dust refers to materials with rather different properties, and that the mean extinction law of Seaton (1979) or Savage and Mathis (1979) should be replaced by the expression given by Cardelli et al. (1989), using the appropriate value of total-to-selective extinction. The older laws were appropriate for the diffuse ISM but dust in clouds differs dramatically in its extinction law. Dust is heavily processed while in the ISM by being included within clouds and cycled back into the diffuse ISM many times during its lifetime. Hence, grains probably reflect only a trace of their origin, although meteoritic inclusions with isotopic anomalies demonstrate that some tiny particles survive intact from a supernova origin to the present. 186 refs

  3. Dust control for draglines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grad, P.

    2009-09-15

    Monitoring dust levels inside draglines reveals room for improvement in how filtration systems are used and maintained. The Australian firm BMT conducted a field test program to measure airflow parameters, dust fallout rates and dust concentrations, inside and outside the machine house, on four draglines and one shovel. The study involved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The article describes how the tests were made and gives results. It was not possible to say which of the two main filtration systems currently used on Australian draglines - Dynavane or Floseps - performs better. It would appear that more frequent maintenance and cleaning would increase the overall filtration performance and systems could be susceptible to repeat clogging in a short time. 2 figs., 1 photos.

  4. DustEM: Dust extinction and emission modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiègne, M.; Verstraete, L.; Jones, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Boulanger, F.; Flagey, N.; Le Bourlot, J.; Paradis, D.; Ysard, N.

    2013-07-01

    DustEM computes the extinction and the emission of interstellar dust grains heated by photons. It is written in Fortran 95 and is jointly developed by IAS and CESR. The dust emission is calculated in the optically thin limit (no radiative transfer) and the default spectral range is 40 to 108 nm. The code is designed so dust properties can easily be changed and mixed and to allow for the inclusion of new grain physics.

  5. Evaluation and modelling of haul road dust palliatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.J.; Visser, A.T.

    2000-07-01

    Excessive dust generation from mine haul roads is a problem common to most surface coal mining operations. Optimal warning course material selection parameters reduce, but do not totally eliminate the potential to produce dust. For existing operations, which may not have optimally designed and maintained roads, the problem of identifying existing deficiencies, quantifying their impact and assigning priorities within the constraints of limited capital and manpower is problematic. This is reflected in the fact that most surface mine operators agree dust-free roads are desirable, but find it difficult to translate this into cost-effective betterment activities. This paper describes a dust palliative evaluation, management and costing strategy. Models are described which enable mines to assess the likely dustiness of their chosen wearing course materials as a function of surface loading of fines, traffic types and volume, together with various material parameters. These models are then combined with palliative suppression performance models to enable predictions to be made concerning the suppression- and cost-efficiency of various dust palliation options. 13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannis, A.; Roussos, D.; Menegaki, M.; Damigos, D.

    2014-01-01

    During the last three decades, several studies have been conducted in order to assess the external costs of electricity production from fossil fuels, especially coal and lignite. Nevertheless, these studies usually ignore the impacts generated by the upstream mining works. This paper contributes to existing literature and attempts to fill this gap by exploring the externalities of lignite mining owing to the emission of suspended particulate matter. To this end, a ‘bottom-up’ approach is implemented, using as case study the largest operational lignite surface mine at the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia (Greece). The results indicate that annual air pollution externalities of lignite mining are of the order of 3€/ton of lignite, which corresponds to around 5.0 €/MW h. The estimated costs are significantly lower, i.e. up to 80%, when dust deposition is considered in air dispersion models. In any case, these findings should be seen as a starting point for discussion owing to the lack of specific emission rates for Greek lignite mines. - Highlights: • Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions are 3 €/t of lignite. • Externalities of mining correspond to around 5.0 €/MW h. • Externalities are significantly lower, up to 80%, if dust deposition is considered. • There is lack of specific dust emission rates for lignite mining. • There are high discrepancies in existing dust emission rates for lignite mining

  7. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  8. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our theoretical research under this grant over the past 3 years was to develop new understanding in a range of topics in the physics of dust-plasma interactions, with application to space and the laboratory. We conducted studies related to the physical properties of dust, waves and instabilities in both weakly coupled and strongly coupled dusty plasmas, and innovative possible applications. A major consideration in our choice of topics was to compare theory with experiments or observations, and to motivate new experiments, which we believe is important for developing this relatively new field. Our research is summarized, with reference to our list of journal publications.

  9. Prevention of trace and major element leaching from coal combustion products by hydrothermally-treated coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnadjevic, B.; Popovic, A.; Mikasinovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    The most important structural components of coal ash obtained by coal combustion in 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant located near Belgrade (Serbia) are amorphous alumosilicate, alpha-quartz, and mullite. The phase composition of coal ash can be altered to obtain zeolite type NaA that crystallizes in a narrow crystallization field (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2}; H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O ratios). Basic properties (crystallization degree, chemical composition, the energy of activation) of obtained zeolites were established. Coal ash extracts treated with obtained ion-exchange material showed that zeolites obtained from coal ash were able to reduce the amounts of iron, chromium, nickel, zinc, copper, lead, and manganese in ash extracts, thus proving its potential in preventing pollution from dump effluent waters.

  10. MATADOR 2002: A pilot field experiment on convective plumes and dust devils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renno, N.O.; Abreu, V.J.; Koch, J.; Smith, P.H.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Debruin, H.A.R.; Burose, D.; Delory, G.T.; Farrell, W.M.; Watts, C.J.; Garatuza, J.; Parker, M.; Carswell, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research suggests that mineral dust plays an important role in terrestrial weather and climate, not only by altering the atmospheric radiation budget, but also by affecting cloud microphysics and optical properties. In addition, dust transport and related Aeolian processes have been

  11. Dry piston coal feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  12. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  13. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  14. Black coal. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R

    1973-01-01

    Statistics are given for the Australian black coal industry for 1970-3 (production, value, employment, wages and salaries, productivity, trade, stocks, consumption, export contracts, exploration, etc.). In less detail, world coal trade is reviewed and coke production is mentioned briefly. (LTN )

  15. Exposure levels and determinants of inhalable dust exposure in bakeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, I; Teschke, K; Kennedy, S M

    1997-12-01

    The study's objectives were to measure full-shift exposure to inhalable dust in bakeries and define the determinants of full-shift exposure. Inhalable dust was measured gravimetrically. Ninety-six bakery workers, employed in seven different bakeries, participated in the study. Two side-by-side full-shift inhalable dust samples were obtained from each study participant on a single occasion. Samples were collected on 18 days selected at random. During the entire sampling period, bakers were observed and information on 14 different tasks was recorded at 15 min intervals. Other production characteristics were also recorded for each sampling day. These task and production variables were used in statistical modelling to identify significant predictors of exposure. The mean full-shift inhalable dust exposure was 8.2 mg/m3 (range: 0.1-110 mg/m3). A regression model explained 79% of the variability in exposure. The model indicated that tasks such as weighing, pouring and operating dough-brakers and reversible sheeters increased the exposure, while packing, catching and decorating decreased the exposure. Bread and bun production lines were associated with increased full-shift inhalable dust exposure, while cake production and substitution of dusting with the use of divider oil were associated with decreased exposure. Production tasks and characteristics are strong predictors of personal full-shift exposures to flour dust among bakers; these can be altered to reduce exposure levels.

  16. On the Role of Dust in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. G.

    2004-05-01

    This article is a personal discourse on the various aspects of dust in the universe, its so-called role. My conclusion is that dust does make a difference. It directly alters the way we view the universe. It also changes the nature of the universe that we see. Finally, it is woven into the big picture of our own place in the universe and our understanding and responses. In arriving at this conclusion I explore a range of topics: the curse of extinction, dust as a photon converter, diversity, Galactic ecology, and a cosmic bawdy house. I also reflect on dust and (in)humanity. I argue that we must advance the post-Copernican enlightenment, so that a coherent understanding of our place in the universe, the big picture, becomes widely held, to provide a basis for improving life here and now, bringing humans into harmony with one another, other living fauna and flora, and the shared environment. Countering pernicious trends to the contrary will require a social revolution to accompany the scientific, through ``ideas transfer.'' This is much more challenging than propagating technology. Astronomers, particularly those versed in the beauties and multiple dimensions of dust in the universe, have an opportunity to participate, indeed to intervene. Since ``dust is us,'' this too is a role of dust in the universe, arguably the most profound if it is accepted that continued human existence has any importance.

  17. [Occupational exposure to silica dust by selected sectors of national economy in Poland based on electronic database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak-Pietrek, Stella; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena; Stroszejn-Mrowca, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposure to dusts, the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź, in collaboration with the Chief Sanitary Inspectorate, has developed the national database to store the results of routine dust exposure measurements performed by occupational hygiene and environmental protection laboratories in Poland in the years 2001-2005. It was assumed that the collected information will be useful in analyzing workers' exposure to free crystalline silica (WKK)-containing dusts in Poland, identyfing exceeded hygiene standards and showing relevant trends, which illustrate the dynamics of exposure in the years under study. Inhalable and respirable dust measurement using personal dosimetry were done according to polish standard PN-91/Z-04030/05 and PN-91/Z-04030/06. In total, 148 638 measurement records, provided by sanitary inspection services from all over Poland, were entered into the database. The database enables the estimation of occupational exposure to dust by the sectors of national economy, according to the Polish Classification of Activity (PKD) and by kinds of dust. The highest exposure level of inhalable and respirable dusts was found in coal mining. Also in this sector, almost 60% of surveys demonstrated exceeded current hygiene standards. High concentrations of both dust fractions (inhalable and respirable) and a considerable percentage of measurements exceeding hygiene standards were found in the manufacture of transport equipment (except for cars), as well as in the chemical, mining (rock, sand, gravel, clay mines) and construction industries. The highest percentage of surveys (inhalable and respirable dust) showing exceeded hygiene standards were observed for coal dust with different content of crystalline silica, organic dust containing more than 10% of SiO2, and highly fibrosis dust containing more than 50% of SiO2.

  18. Dust evolution in protoplanetary disks

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez , Jean-François; Fouchet , Laure; T. Maddison , Sarah; Laibe , Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    6 pages, 5 figures, to appear in the Proceedings of IAU Symp. 249: Exoplanets: Detection, Formation and Dynamics (Suzhou, China); International audience; We investigate the behaviour of dust in protoplanetary disks under the action of gas drag using our 3D, two-fluid (gas+dust) SPH code. We present the evolution of the dust spatial distribution in global simulations of planetless disks as well as of disks containing an already formed planet. The resulting dust structures vary strongly with pa...

  19. Respirable versus inhalable dust sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondros, J.

    1987-01-01

    The ICRP uses a total inhalable dust figure as the basis of calculations on employee lung dose. This paper was written to look at one aspect of the Olympic Dam dust situation, namely, the inhalable versus respirable fraction of the dust cloud. The results of this study will determine whether it is possible to use respirable dust figures, as obtained during routine monitoring to help in the calculations of employee exposure to internal radioactive contaminants

  20. Paleo-dust insights onto dust-climate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, S.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust emissions are affected by changing climate conditions, and in turn dust impacts the atmospheric radiation budget, clouds and biogeochemical cycles. Climate and public health dust-related issues call for attention on the fate of the dust cycle in the future, and the representation of the dust cycle is now part of the strategy of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 4 and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (PMIP4-CMIP6). Since mineral aerosols are one of the most important natural aerosols, understanding past dust responses to climate in the paleoclimate will allow us to better understand mineral aerosol feedbacks with climate and biogeochemistry in the Anthropocene. Modern observations and paleoclimate records offer the possibility of multiple, complementary views on the global dust cycle, and allow to validate and/or constrain the numerical representation of dust in climate and Earth system models. We present our results from a set of simulations with the Community Earth System Model for different climate states, including present and past climates such as the pre-industrial, the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum. A set of simulations including a prognostic dust cycle was thoroughly compared with a wide set of present day observations from different platforms and regions, in order to realistically constrain the magnitude of dust load, surface concentration, deposition, optical properties, and particle size distributions. The magnitude of emissions for past climate regimes was constrained based on compilations of paleodust mass accumulation rates and size distributions, as well as based on information on dust provenance. The comparison with a parallel set of simulations without dust allows estimating the impacts of dust on surface climate. We analyze impacts of dust on the mean and variability of surface temperature and precipitation in each climate state, as well as the impacts that changing dust emissions had

  1. Ecofriendly bricks elaborated from coal waste of Moroccan Jerrada Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ez-zaki H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste generated during mining is one of the major environmental problems associated with this industrial activity. The best solution to overcome the environmental impact of this waste is to find recycling facilities in mass-produced products that can absorb the large quantities of these available byproducts. The present study shows the feasibility of using the coal waste of Moroccan Jerrada mining in the production of ecological brick. The first step consists of consecutive stages of crushing, grinding and heating at 650°C of the coal waste with a small amount of lime in order to promote the reactive products of elaborated binders. The second step of the process consists of mixing treated coal waste with a small amount of marble dust, sand, gravel, and water, then pressed and dried at room temperature to manufacture a laboratory ecofriendly bricks. The mechanical strength and thermal conductivity are investigated.

  2. Safety and welfare of Australian black coal mine employees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azia, N.I.; Cram, K. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The paper outlines the status of Australian coal mining industry with respect to safety and welfare of the mine employee. The impact of the longer shift hours and compressed working week are discussed in relation to workers safety and employment levels. Longer shift hours and compressed works have been shown to be a benefit to miners, both in safety and socially. The paper also examines the role of each of government organisations, the mining and manufacturing industries on the issue and goes on to describe the various environmental control measures introduced to the Australian coal mines to ensure that high safety standards are maintained. Dust monitoring and control, noise pollution control, and diesel particulate control measures have been targeted vigorously and as a result there has been a continued drop in the coal mine related diseases as well as a decline in the workers lost time injury claims. 11 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Development of a fire detector for underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemingway, M.A.; Walsh, P.T.; Hunneyball, S.R.; Williams, M.; Jobling, S.; Pell, B.; West, N.G. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Buxton (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Current fire detectors in use in UK coal mines, based on semiconductor sensors which detect gaseous products of combustion, are under-utilised, are not user-friendly, have performance limitations due to interferences and are obsolete. A joint research project was therefore instigated to develop an improved fire detector. This paper describes tests performed in an experimental mine roadway on various types of sensor. The sensors were exposed to smouldering conveyor belt, coal, wood, oil and grease, and diesel exhaust fume. A potential advanced detector is based on the combination of blue and infrared optical smoke sensors which distinguish fires and diesel exhaust from coal dust, nitric oxide or nitrogen dioxide sensors to distinguish smoulderi8ng fires form diesel exhaust, and carbon monoxide sensors for general body monitoring. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Chronic interstitial pneumonia with honeycombing in coal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brichet, A.; Tonnel, A.B.; Brambilla, E.; Devouassoux, G.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Copin, M.C.; Wallaert, B. [A. Calmette Hospital, Lille (France)

    2002-10-01

    Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) results from coal mine dust inhalation. The paper reports the presence of a chronic interstitial pneumonia (CIP) with honeycombing in 38 cases of coal miners, with or without CWP. The 38 patients were selected on the basis of clinical criteria which are unusual in CWP, i.e. fine inspiratory crackles and severe dyspnea. There were 37 men and one woman; mean age was 67.5 {+-} 9.1 years. Thirty-two were smokers. Duration of exposure was 26.7 {+-} 9.9 years. All the patients had clinical examination, chest radiography, computed tomography (CT), lung function, laboratory investigations, wedged fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In eight cases, lung specimens were obtained. Seventeen out of 38 had finger clubbing. 17 had radiological signs of CWP limited to the upper lobes or diffusely distributed. CT showed honeycombing (36 cases), and/or ground glass opacities (30 cases) with traction bronchiectasis (8 cases) predominant in the lower lobes. BAL analysis demonstrated an increased percentage of neutrophils (9.4% {+-} 6). Lung function showed a restrictive pattern associated with a decreased DLCO and hypoxemia. Lung specimens demonstrated in 2 cases a homogenous interstitial fibrosis of intra-alveolar septum with an accumulation of immune and inflammatory cells without temporal variation and with obvious honeycombing. The 6 other cases showed features of usual interstitial pneumonia. These cases, should alert other clinicians to a possible association between CIP with honeycombing and coal dust exposure, with or without associated CWP.

  5. A method for producing a water and coal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutase, T.; Khongo, T.; Minemura, N.; Nakai, S.; Ogura, K.; Savada, M.

    1983-08-30

    Coal dust (100 parts with a 95 to 99 percent content of particles with a size of 7 to 150 micrometers) is loaded into a mixture of hydrocarbon oil (1 to 20 parts) and water (300 to 1,000 parts) and mixed for 3 to 5 minutes at a rotation frequency of 1,800 to 1,500 per minute. The agglomerates of the coal dust and hydrocarbon (Uv) (100 parts) produced in this manner are then mixed with water (25 to 60 parts), an anion surfacant (PAV) (from 0.1 to 2 parts) which has high dispersion activity and a nonionogenic surfacant (0.1 to 2 parts) which has an HLB indicator of from 7 to 17 (preferably 13) to ensure a high consistency of the aqueous suspension of high quality coal, characterized by high fluidity (dynamic viscosity from 0.5 to 1.4 pascals times seconds). It is preferable to use a heavy oil fraction, kerosene, residue from oil distillation or an anthracite coal resin as the hydrocarbon oil. Separation of the ash from the suspension is increased by adding the surfacants and a water soluble inorganic salt which provides for an alkalinity of the aqueous solution (a pH of 7). It is recommended that a salt of alkylbenzolsulfo acid, a sodium salt of polyoxyethylenalkylphenolsulfo acid, sodium laurylsulfate, ammonium lauryl sulfate polyoxyethylensorbitantristearate, polyoxyethylenlaurylic acid, polyoxyethylennonylphenol ether or polyoxyethyllauric ether be used as the surfacant.

  6. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  7. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernikau, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  8. Methane of the coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the transformation process of the vegetable material to the coal (Carbonization), the products that are generated include CH 4, CO2, N2 and H2. The methane is generated by two mechanisms: below 50 centigrade degree, as product of microbial decomposition, the methanogenic is generated; and above 50 centigrade degree, due to the effects of the buried and increase of the range of the coal, the thermogenic methane is detachment, as a result of the catagenic. The generated methane is stored in the internal surfaces of the coal, macro and micro pores and in the natural fractures. The presence of accumulations of gas of the coal has been known in the entire world by many years, but only as something undesirable for its danger in the mining exploitation of the coal

  9. China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  10. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  11. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  12. Coal in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sore, J.C.; Coiffard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Mediterranean countries are not traditionally coal producers. In France, the main mines were located in the North and East, and belonged to the great coal fields of northern Europe. Spain is a modest producer (ten million tonnes), as is Turkey with its three million tonnes. The only way most of these mines can stand up to international competition is by an array of protectionistic measures and subsidies. This state of affairs has marked events of quite another nature, as it relates to energy economics. That is, coal has taken on increasing importance in the energy supplies of all the countries of the Mediterranean zone over the past twenty years. In this article, we set out by describing coke supply for the Mediterranean ensemble, and then go on to analyze the development aspects of coal for electrical production, the future of Mediterranean lignite, and the supply of imported coal. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  14. Life cycle assessment of opencast coal mine production: a case study in Yimin mining area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Jinman; Feng, Yu

    2018-03-01

    China has the largest coal production in the world due to abundant resource requirements for economic development. In recent years, the proportion of opencast coal mine production has increased significantly in China. Opencast coal mining can lead to a large number of environmental problems, including air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste occupation. The previous studies on the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production were focused on a single production process. Moreover, mined land reclamation was an important process in opencast coal mine production; however, it was rarely considered in previous research. Therefore, this study attempted to perform a whole environmental impact analysis including land reclamation stage using life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The Yimin opencast coal mine was selected to conduct a case study. The production of 100 tons of coal was used as the functional unit to evaluate the environmental risks in the stages of stripping, mining, transportation, processing, and reclamation. A total of six environmental impact categories, i.e., resource consumption, acidification, global warming, solid waste, eutrophication, and dust, were selected to conduct this assessment. The contribution rates of different categories of environmental impacts were significantly different, and different stages exhibited different consumption and emissions that gave rise to different environmental effects. Dust was the most serious environmental impact category, and its contribution rate was 36.81%, followed by global warming and acidification with contribution rates of 29.43% and 22.58%, respectively. Both dust and global warming were mainly affected in mining stage in Yimin opencast coal mine based on comprehensive analysis of environmental impact. Some economic and feasible measures should be used to mitigate the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production, such as water spraying, clean transportation, increasing processing

  15. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  16. CALCULATION OF POLLUTION DYNAMICS NEAR RAILWAY TERRITORY DURING COAL TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to develop 3D numerical model for the prediction of atmospheric pollution during transportation of bulk cargo in the railway car. Methodology.To solve this problem, it was developed three-dimensional numerical model, based on the use of the transport equation of dust pollution in the air by the wind and atmospheric turbulent diffusion. For the numerical integration of the simulating equation of the dust transport the implicit difference scheme was used. When constructing a difference scheme, it was carried out prior splitting of the original transport equation into the sequence of solutions of three equations. The first of them takes into account the transport of dust in paths, the second equation – dust transport under the influence of atmospheric turbulent diffusion, and the third equation –change of the dust concentration in the air due to its emissions from the cars.Unknown value of the pollutant concentration at every step of splitting is determined by the explicit scheme – the method of running account, which provides a simple numerical implementation of splitting equations. The developed numerical model is the basis for specialized computer program. On the basis of the constructed numerical model we carried out a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution at the railway station during the motion of train with coal. Findings. Authors developed 3D numerical model, which belongs to the class of «screening models». This model takes into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dispersion of dust pollution in the atmosphere during coal transportation. The proposed numerical model requires low cost of computer time in the practical implementation on small and medium-power computers. This model can be used for rapid calculations of the dynamics of air pollution when transporting coal by rail. Calculations to determine the pollutant concentration and formation of the

  17. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... be appropriate to use on a short-term basis. 13. The proposed rule addresses (1) which occupations... suggested alternative timeframes, particularly in light of the CPDM's limited memory capacity of about 20... the risk that they will suffer material impairment of health or functional capacity over their working...

  18. Erosion of dust aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seizinger, A.; Krijt, S.; Kley, W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple

  19. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Marelene

    2005-01-01

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  20. From dust to life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    After initially challenging the dirty-ice theory of interstellar grains, Fred Hoyle and the present author proposed carbon (graphite) grains, mixtures of refractory grains, organic polymers, biochemicals and finally bacterial grains as models of interstellar dust. The present contribution summarizes this trend and reviews the main arguments supporting a modern version of panspermia.

  1. Coal mine safety achievements in the USA and the contribution of NIOSH research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterhuizen, G.S.; Gurtunca, R.G. [NIOSH, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Over the past century coal miner safety and health have seen tremendous improvements: the fatality and injury rates continue to decrease while productivity continues to increase. Many of the hazards that plagued miners in the past, such as coal bumps, methane and coal dust explosions, ground fall accidents and health issues have been significantly reduced. The contribution of NIOSH research includes products for prevention and survival of mine fires, methane control measures, design procedure for underground coal mines, methods for excavation surface controls, methods and procedures for blasting, laser usage in underground mines and prevention of electrocution from overhead power lines that have reduced accidents and injuries in underground coal mines. Health research has produced products such as the personal dust monitor, noise abating technologies and ergonomic solutions for equipment operators. Research priorities at NIOSH are set by considering surveillance statistics, stakeholder inputs and loss control principles. Future research in coal mining is directed towards respiratory diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, repetitive musculoskeletal injuries, traumatic injuries, falls of ground and mine disasters. The recent spate of accidents in coal mines resulted in the Miner Act of 2006, which includes a specific role for NIOSH in future mine safety research and development. The mine safety achievements in the USA reflect the commitment of industry, labour, government and research organizations to improving the safety of the mine worker.

  2. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics showed a dust load decrease in the vicinity of coal and gas-fired thermal power plant due to upgrading of the existing dust collecting systems. During the monitoring period the high dust load in the vicinity of brickworks did not change. The lowest value of the dust load on snow cover was detected in the vicinity of the petrochemical plant and concrete product plants. The near and far zones of dust load on snow cover were determined with the reference to the location of the studied plants.

  3. Foam property tests to evaluate the potential for longwall shield dust control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W R; Beck, T W; Zheng, Y; Klima, S; Driscoll, J

    2018-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine properties of four foam agents for their potential use in longwall mining dust control. Foam has been tried in underground mining in the past for dust control and is currently being reconsidered for use in underground coal longwall operations in order to help those operations comply with the Mine Safety and Health Administration's lower coal mine respirable dust standard of 1.5 mg/m 3 . Foams were generated using two different methods. One method used compressed air and water pressure to generate foam, while the other method used low-pressure air generated by a blower and water pressure using a foam generator developed by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Foam property tests, consisting of a foam expansion ratio test and a water drainage test, were conducted to classify foams. Compressed-air-generated foams tended to have low expansion ratios, from 10 to 19, with high water drainage. Blower-air-generated foams had higher foam expansion ratios, from 30 to 60, with lower water drainage. Foams produced within these ranges of expansion ratios are stable and potentially suitable for dust control. The test results eliminated two foam agents for future testing because they had poor expansion ratios. The remaining two foam agents seem to have properties adequate for dust control. These material property tests can be used to classify foams for their potential use in longwall mining dust control.

  4. GPK helmets protecting from gas and dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' inskii, Eh.G.; Kogan, Yu.A.; Mazanenko, V.P.

    1983-08-01

    The GPK protective helmet with an integrated respirator system protecting a miner's respiratory system and eyes from gases and dusts is described. The system uses compressed air from the mine compressed air system. Air is supplied to the respirator by an elastic rubber pipe to 30 m long. The air cools the miner's head under the helmet and passes between a protective shield and the miner's face protecting eyes and the respiratory system. Air supply ranges from 100 to 150 l/min. The air supplied to the respirator is cleaned by a filter. The GPK system weighs 1.2 kg. The system has been tested under laboratory conditions and in two coal mines under operational conditions at longwall faces and during mine drivage. Tests showed that the GPK guarantees efficient cooling and protection from dust. Design of the GPK helmet with a respirator is shown in two schemes. Technical specifications of the system are given.

  5. James Craufurd Gregory, 19th century Scottish physicians, and the link between occupation as a coal miner and lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, K; Wallace, W A; Elliot, T A; Henry, C

    2017-09-01

    By the mid-19th century about 200,000 miners were employed in a UK coal mining industry still growing with the advances of the Industrial Revolution. Coal miners were long known to suffer poor health but the link to inhaling dust in the mines had not been made. In 1813 George Pearson was the first to suggest that darkening of lungs seen in normal individuals as they aged was caused by inhaled soot from burning oil, candles and coal, which were the common domestic sources of heat and light. In 1831 Dr James Craufurd Gregory first described black pigmentation and disease in the lungs of a deceased coal miner and linked this to pulmonary accumulation of coal mine dust. Gregory hypothesised that the black material seen at autopsy in the collier's lungs was inhaled coal dust and this was confirmed by chemical analysis carried out by Professor Sir Robert Christison. Gregory suggested that coal dust was the cause of the disease and warned physicians in mining areas to be vigilant for the disease. This first description of what came to be known as 'coal worker's pneumoconiosis' sparked a remarkable intellectual effort by physicians in Scotland, culminating in a large body of published work that led to the first understandings of this disease and its link to coalblackened lungs. This paper sets out the history of the role of Scottish physicians in gaining this understanding of coal worker's pneumoconiosis. It describes Gregory's case and the lung - recently discovered in the pathology collection of the Surgeons' Hall Museums, Edinburgh, where it has lain unnoticed for over 180 years - on which Gregory based his landmark paper.

  6. Modelling dust transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.D.; Martin, J.D.; Bacharis, M.; Coppins, M.; Counsell, G.F.; Allen, J.E.; Counsell, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The DTOKS code, which models dust transport through tokamak plasmas, is described. The floating potential and charge of a dust grain in a plasma and the fluxes of energy to and from it are calculated. From this model, the temperature of the dust grain can be estimated. A plasma background is supplied by a standard tokamak edge modelling code (B2SOLPS5.0), and dust transport through MAST (the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak) and ITER plasmas is presented. We conclude that micron-radius tungsten dust can reach the separatrix in ITER. (authors)

  7. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  8. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  9. Coal: Less than lackluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  10. Coal in competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manners, G

    1985-06-01

    During the past decade world coal consumption has expanded by about 26% whilst energy demands overall have grown by only 17%. This is because of the increased price of oil products, plus a period during which the costs of mining coal in many parts of the world have been moderately well contained. Over-ambitious forecasts of coal demand have encouraged the considerable over-investment in coalmining capacity that exists today. Costs of winning coal and transporting it are low, but sales depend on the rate of growth of a country's demand for energy. Some countries are more successful at marketing coal than others. Amongst the major factors that influence the rate of substitution of one source of energy for another is the nature and age of the boiler stock. The outcome of the developing environmental debate and calls for reduction in SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions from coal-fired boilers is going to affect coal's fortunes in the 1990's.

  11. A coal combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlachovsky, I; Bartos, J

    1980-02-15

    A design is presented for a coal combine, equipped with two drum operational units, on whose both ends of the upper surface of the body, two coal saws are mounted with the help of a lever system. These saws, found in an operational position, form a gap in the block of the coal block, which is not embraced by the drum operational unit. The coal block, found between the gap and the support, falls down onto the longwall scraper conveyor. The lever system of each coal saw is controlled by two hydraulic jacks. One of the jacks is mounted vertically on the facial wall of the body of the combine and is used for the hoisting for the required height of the horizontal arm of the lever, reinforced by one end in the hinge on the body of the combine. On the ''free'' end of that lever, a coal saw is mounted in a hinge-like fashion and which is connected by the hydraulic jack to the horizontal arm of the lever system. This hydraulic jack is used for the clamping of the coal saw to the face.

  12. The natural radioactivity in vicinity of the brown coal mine Tusnica - Livno, BiH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saracevic, L.; Samek, D.; Mihalj, A.; Gradascevic, N.

    2009-01-01

    Coal mine Tusnica is located in South-West part of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the municipality Livno. Coal mine Tusnica consists of two surface coal mines. The first one is brown coal surface deposit called Drage and second one is lignite deposit called Table. The brown coal deposit shows increased levels of natural radionuclides. The highest absorbed dose rate is recorded in the center of the surface coal mine Tusnica-Drage (500 nGy h -1 ) as result of the increased content of uranium and radium in coal (average specific activity of U-238 is 623 ± 23 Bq kg -1 and Ra-226 is 1191 ± 5 Bq kg -1 ). Levels of natural radionuclides in the vicinity of the surface deposit Drage in agricultural soil (about 3 km of the centre mine) are slightly increased due to the use of the coal ash and coal dust for fertilization of the land (U-238 is 142 ± 11 Bq kg -1 and Ra-226 is 197 ± 2 Bq kg -1 ). Obtained results in soil-plant-animal products chain does not show significantly increased levels of natural radionuclides due to the fact that mentioned radionuclides, in general, have a low transfer factors in soil-plant-animal products chain. (author)

  13. Environmental indicators of the combustion of prospective coal water slurry containing petrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Nyashina, Galina S; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2017-09-15

    Negative environmental impact of coal combustion has been known to humankind for a fairly long time. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are considered the most dangerous anthropogenic emissions. A possible solution to this problem is replacing coal dust combustion with that of coal water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Coal processing wastes and used combustible liquids (oils, sludge, resins) are promising in terms of their economic and energy yield characteristics. However, no research has yet been conducted on the environmental indicators of fuels based on CWSP. The present work contains the findings of the research of CO, CO2, NOx, SOx emissions from the combustion of coals and CWSPs produced from coal processing waste (filter cakes). It is demonstrated for the first time that the concentrations of dangerous emissions from the combustion of CWSPs (carbon oxide and dioxide), even when combustible heavy liquid fractions are added, are not worse than those of coal. As for the concentration of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, it is significantly lower for CWSPs combustion as compared to coals. The presented research findings illustrate the prospects of the wide use of CWSPs as a fuel that is cheap and beneficial, in terms of both energy output and ecology, as compared to coal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  15. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  16. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  17. Economic outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis Casey.

    1997-01-01

    Coal still a fundamental component of two major industries in New South Wales- electricity production and steel making. Its future will be shaped by its ability to meet expected international increases in demand for thermal coal, and by profitability and possible impact of greenhouse strategy decisions. By 2002 the demand for the State's coal is estimated at a total of 116 million tons and it expected to play an increased role in the fuel mix for electricity generation because of its competitive price, established technologies and abundant supply

  18. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  19. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  20. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  1. Increase of efficiency of a hard coal dust fired 450 MW{sub e}l block by means of a most modern low NO{sub x} combustion concept; Effizienzsteigerung eines steinkohlenstaubgefeuerten 450 MW{sub el} Blockes durch modernste Low-NO{sub x}-Feuerungskonzeption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierbach, H.U. [Steinmueller Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Haas, B.; Sabel, T.; Kaess, M. [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Braecker, R. [Balcke-Duerr GmbH, Ratingen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In the year 2007, EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) announced the modernization of the combustion of a hard coal-fired 450 MW{sub e}l block with district heating de-coupling in order to exhaust the existing potential of optimization in the plant operation. Considering the existing boundary conditions and an economical solution, a system dependent concept was compiled. During the order processing, apart from the operational experiences and conventional methods of interpretation extensive CFD simulations at the burner and for the entire combustion space were used for the optimization of the concept. Based on existing simulation results and an extensive trial programme during the start-up, the operation of the plant was optimized for most different qualities of coal. After more than one year, the operational experiences show that the agreed characteristics of profile are kept surely at all qualities of coal.

  2. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  3. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  4. Coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals to solve problems of air pollution by coal thermal power stations and boiler plants: An introductory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    This introductory study presents the analysis of the environmental, economic and energy performance indicators of burning high-potential coal water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP) instead of coal, fuel oil, and natural gas at typical thermal power stations (TPS) and a boiler plant. We focus on the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions of coal power industry: sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The research findings show that these emissions may be several times lower if coal and oil processing wastes are mixed with water as compared to the combustion of traditional pulverized coal, even of high grades. The study focuses on wastes, such as filter cakes, oil sludge, waste industrial oils, heavy coal-tar products, resins, etc., that are produced and stored in abundance. Their deep conversion is very rare due to low economic benefit. Effective ways are necessary to recover such industrial wastes. We present the cost assessment of the changes to the heat and power generation technologies that are required from typical power plants for switching from coal, fuel oil and natural gas to CWSPs based on coal and oil processing wastes. The corresponding technological changes pay off after a short time, ranging from several months to several years. The most promising components for CWSP production have been identified, which provide payback within a year. Among these are filter cakes (coal processing wastes), which are produced as a ready-made coal-water slurry fuel (a mixture of flocculants, water, and fine coal dust). These fuels have the least impact on the environment in terms of the emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as fly ash. An important conclusion of the study is that using CWSPs based on filter cakes is worthwhile both as the main fuel for thermal power stations and boiler plants and as starting fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  6. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  7. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  8. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  9. Coal industry - memoranda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains 41 memoranda submitted to the UK House of Commons Energy Committee containing views on the UK coal industry and responses to questions from the Select Committee. The following organizations are represented: Department of Energy; National Coal Board; APEX; BACM; NACODS; NUM; UDM; TUC; CEGB; Electricity Council; Northern Ireland Electricity Service; SSEB; British Gas Corporation; BP; Conoco (UK) Ltd.; Costain Mining Ltd.; Shell UK Ltd.; BSC; ICI; Boots; CBI; PSA; Solid Fuel Advisory Service; Domestic Coal Consumers Council; Associated Heat Services; Association of Shell Boilermakers; Babcock Power Ltd.; GEC; Foster Wheeler Power Products; ABMEC; British Longwall Mining Association; Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors; Federation of Small Mines of Great Britain; Chamber of Coal Traders; Coalfield Communities Campaign; Nottinghamshire County Council; Federation of Self-Employed and Small Businesses; the Colombian, Belgian and Netherlands Embassies; and Plaid Cymru.

  10. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  11. Reconstruction of the aero-mixture channels of the pulverized coal plant of the 100MW power plant unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovic Vladan B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the last revitalization of thermal power block of 100 MW in TPP “Kostolac A”, made in the year 2004, during the operation of the plant, pulverized coal deposition often occurred in horizontal sections of the aero-mixture channels. Deposition phenomenon manifested itself in places ahead of spherical compensators in the direction of flow of pulverized coal to the burners, due to unfavorable configuration of these channels. Coal dust deposited in the channels dried and spontaneously combusted, causing numerous damage to channels and its isolation as well as the frequent stoppage of the operation for necessary interventions. The paper presents the original solution of reconstruction of aero-mixture channels which prevented deposition of coal dust and its eventual ignition. In this way the reliability of the mill plant is maximized and higher availability of boiler and block as a whole is achieved.

  12. Dust acoustic shock wave at high dust density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Sarkar, Susmita; Khan, Manoranjan; Avinash, K.; Gupta, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Dust acoustic (DA) shock wave at high dust density, i.e., the dust electroacoustic (DEA) or dust Coulomb (DC) shock wave has been investigated incorporating the nonadiabatic dust charge variation. The nonlinear DEA (DC) shock wave is seen to be governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burger equation, in which the Burger term is proportional to the nonadiabaticity generated dissipation. It is seen that the shock strength decreases but after reaching minimum, it increases as the dust space charge density |q d n d | increases and the shock strength of DA wave is greater than that of DEA (DC) wave. Moreover the DEA (DC) shock width increases appreciably with increase mass m i of the ion component of the dusty plasma but for DA shock wave the effect is weak

  13. Clinical forms of chronic dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, A.I.; Blokhina, L.M.

    1984-08-01

    Clinical study of 837 coal miners with chronic dust-induced bronchitis reveals three different forms of the disease: emphysematous, asthmatic and infectious. From development of clinical manifestations different etiologies of the disease are apparent. In early stages, three different types of chronic dust-induced bronchitis (CDB) are clearly distinguishable. With progression of condition differences are obliterated. Formulation of a diagnosis must reflect the form of illness, stage of respiratory insufficiency and status of blood exchange. Discrimination of different varieties of CDB has significant practical value in determining tactics for treating patients. Emphysematous CDB is treated by improvement of draining function of bronchi and elimination of respiratory insufficiency by prescribing respiratory gymnastics, broncholytic preparations and oxygen therapy. Treatment of asthmatic form of CDB is directed at restoring disturbances of bronchial passability by use of broncholytics and expectorants. In inflammatory form of CDB in addition to restoring the draining function of the lungs, active antibacterial therapy is introduced. 5 references.

  14. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  15. Nanometre-sized pores in coal: Variations between coal basins and coal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurovs, Richard; Koval, Lukas; Grigore, Mihaela; Sokolava, Anna; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2018-01-01

    We have used small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate the differences in methane and hexane penetration in pores in bituminous coal samples from the U.S., Canada, South Africa, and China, and maceral concentrates from Australian coals. This work is an extension of previous work that showed consistent differences between the extent of penetration by methane into 10–20 nm size pores in inertinite in bituminous coals from Australia, North America and Poland.In this study we have confirmed that there are differences in the response of inertinite to methane and hexane penetration in coals sourced from different coal basins. Inertinite in Permian Australian coals generally has relatively high numbers of pores in the 2.5–250 nm size range and the pores are highly penetrable by methane and hexane; coals sourced from Western Canada had similar penetrability to these Australian coals. However, the penetrability of methane and hexane into inertinite from the Australian Illawarra Coal Measures (also Permian) is substantially less than that of the other Australian coals; there are about 80% fewer 12 nm pores in Illawarra inertinite compared to the other Australian coals examined. The inertinite in coals sourced from South Africa and China had accessibility intermediate between the Illawarra coals and the other Australian coals.The extent of hexane penetration was 10–20% less than CD4 penetration into the same coal and this difference was most pronounced in the 5–50 nm pore size range. Hexane and methane penetrability into the coals showed similar trends with inertinite content.The observed variations in inertinite porosity between coals from different coal regions and coal basins may explain why previous studies differ in their observations of the relationships between gas sorption behavior, permeability, porosity, and maceral composition. These variations are not simply a demarcation between Northern and Southern Hemisphere coals.

  16. Coal flotation technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, N. [C. Clarkson & Associates Pty. Ltd., Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    The Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) recently commissioned a study into the status of flotation in coal preparation, in order to direct limited funds to areas of maximum benefit. The primary purpose of the study was the assessment of new flotation technologies, including those commercially available and those still under development. Technologies examined included: the Jameson Cell, Microcel, and Ekof cell. Problems and advantages are discussed, with suggestions for future areas of research. 3 figs.

  17. Parameterizing the interstellar dust temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocuk, S.; Szűcs, L.; Caselli, P.; Cazaux, S.; Spaans, M.; Esplugues, G. B.

    2017-08-01

    The temperature of interstellar dust particles is of great importance to astronomers. It plays a crucial role in the thermodynamics of interstellar clouds, because of the gas-dust collisional coupling. It is also a key parameter in astrochemical studies that governs the rate at which molecules form on dust. In 3D (magneto)hydrodynamic simulations often a simple expression for the dust temperature is adopted, because of computational constraints, while astrochemical modelers tend to keep the dust temperature constant over a large range of parameter space. Our aim is to provide an easy-to-use parametric expression for the dust temperature as a function of visual extinction (AV) and to shed light on the critical dependencies of the dust temperature on the grain composition. We obtain an expression for the dust temperature by semi-analytically solving the dust thermal balance for different types of grains and compare to a collection of recent observational measurements. We also explore the effect of ices on the dust temperature. Our results show that a mixed carbonaceous-silicate type dust with a high carbon volume fraction matches the observations best. We find that ice formation allows the dust to be warmer by up to 15% at high optical depths (AV> 20 mag) in the interstellar medium. Our parametric expression for the dust temperature is presented as Td = [ 11 + 5.7 × tanh(0.61 - log 10(AV) ]χuv1/5.9, where χuv is in units of the Draine (1978, ApJS, 36, 595) UV field.

  18. Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road runoff, dust, rain and canopy throughfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Zhang Shucai; Wan Chao; Yue Dapan; Ye Youbin; Wang Xuejun

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic ratios and multivariate analysis were utilized to apportion polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sources for road runoff, road dust, rain and canopy throughfall based on samples collected in an urban area of Beijing, China. Three sampling sites representing vehicle lane, bicycle lane and branch road were selected. For road runoff and road dust, vehicular emission and coal combustion were identified as major sources, and the source contributions varied among the sampling sites. For rain, three principal components were apportioned representing coal/oil combustion (54%), vehicular emission (34%) and coking (12%). For canopy throughfall, vehicular emission (56%), coal combustion (30%) and oil combustion (14%) were identified as major sources. Overall, the PAH's source for road runoff mainly reflected that for road dust. Despite site-specific sources, the findings at the study area provided a general picture of PAHs sources for the road runoff system in urban area of Beijing. - Urban road runoff and road dust, canopy throughfall and rain were considered as a system for diagnostics of PAH sources

  19. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Shridharani, K.; Huang, W.J.

    1981-02-01

    The effects of minerals and inexpensive ores or by-products (pyrites, red mud, flue dust, speculites, zinc sulfides, calcium oxide, dolomites, mica, molybdenite) in catalysing coal liquefaction or the hydrogenation of process solvents was studied with different cokes and solvents. Improved results were obtained in several cokes and th results are given in terms of oil fields, hydrogen consumption, desulfurization of SRC, etc. The addition of pyrite resulted in increased production of oils and increased conversion of coal; however, the effects varied from coal to coal. Dolomite, mica and molybdenite had insignificant catalytic activity. The reduction of pyrite, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ at process conditions was studied. (LTN)

  20. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  1. Coal mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, L J

    1981-12-01

    In 1959 black coal production in Australia totalled some 21.9 million tonnes per annum, 70% of this being produced from underground mines in the coalfields of New South Wales. By 1980 output levels had increased by nearly 350% to 75.4 million tonnes per annum (54% of which was exported) compared with 5% some 20 years earlier. Because it is blessed with large reserves of coal and other forms of energy, it is inevitable that the Australian coal mining industry will be required to play a major role in the development of the international coal market through to the end of the present century. Experts now predict a need for the black coal output in Australia to be developed from its present level to a minimum of 293 million tonnes per annum by the year 2000. This paper examines the present circumstances in the Australian coal industry and attempts to outline the development which has to be undertaken in order to meet the needs of an energy hungry world.

  2. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  3. Comparison of Methane Control Methods in Polish and Vietnamese Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Marek; Kuczera, Zbigniew

    2018-03-01

    Methane hazard often occurs in hard coal mines and causes very serious accidents and can be the reason of methane or methane and coal dust explosions. History of coal mining shows that methane released from the rock mass to the longwall area was responsible for numerous mining disasters. The main source of methane are coal deposits because it is autochthonous gas and is closely related with carbonification and forming of coal deposits. Degree of methane saturation in coal deposits depends on numerous factors; mainly on presence or lack of insulating layers in cover deposit that allow or do not on degasification and easily methane outflow into surroundings. Hence in coal mining there are coal deposits that contain only low degree of methane saturation in places where is lack of insulating layers till high in methane coal deposits occurring in insulating claystones or in shales. Conducting mining works in coal deposits of high methane hazard without using of special measures to combat (ventilation, methane drainage) could be impossible. Control of methane hazard depends also on other co-occuring natural dangers for which used preventive actions eliminate methane hazard. Safety in mines excavating coal deposits saturated with methane depends on the correct estimation of methane hazard, drawn up forecasts, conducted observations, hazard control as well as undertaken prevention measures. Methane risk prevention includes identification and control methods of methane hazards as well as means of combating the explosive accumulation of methane in longwall workings. The main preventive actions in underground coal mines are: effective ventilation that prevents forming of methane fuses or placed methane accumulation in headings ventilated by airflow created by main fans and in headings with auxiliary ventilation, methane drainage using drain holes that are drilled from underground headings or from the surface, methanometry control of methane concentration in the air; location

  4. Comparison of Methane Control Methods in Polish and Vietnamese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowski Marek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane hazard often occurs in hard coal mines and causes very serious accidents and can be the reason of methane or methane and coal dust explosions. History of coal mining shows that methane released from the rock mass to the longwall area was responsible for numerous mining disasters. The main source of methane are coal deposits because it is autochthonous gas and is closely related with carbonification and forming of coal deposits. Degree of methane saturation in coal deposits depends on numerous factors; mainly on presence or lack of insulating layers in cover deposit that allow or do not on degasification and easily methane outflow into surroundings. Hence in coal mining there are coal deposits that contain only low degree of methane saturation in places where is lack of insulating layers till high in methane coal deposits occurring in insulating claystones or in shales. Conducting mining works in coal deposits of high methane hazard without using of special measures to combat (ventilation, methane drainage could be impossible. Control of methane hazard depends also on other co-occuring natural dangers for which used preventive actions eliminate methane hazard. Safety in mines excavating coal deposits saturated with methane depends on the correct estimation of methane hazard, drawn up forecasts, conducted observations, hazard control as well as undertaken prevention measures. Methane risk prevention includes identification and control methods of methane hazards as well as means of combating the explosive accumulation of methane in longwall workings. The main preventive actions in underground coal mines are: effective ventilation that prevents forming of methane fuses or placed methane accumulation in headings ventilated by airflow created by main fans and in headings with auxiliary ventilation, methane drainage using drain holes that are drilled from underground headings or from the surface, methanometry control of methane concentration in

  5. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  6. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  7. Workability of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Fels, M; Soltysik, K

    1978-04-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation on workability of coal seams of stratigraphic groups from 100 to 700 in the: Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Analyzed are 2900 petrographic logs taken in the longwall workings and in narrow openings as well as about 9000 individual samples. Workability of coal seams, floors and partings is determined. Workability is described by the indicator f, (according to the Protodyakonov shatter method) and the indicator U, (compression strength of the unshaped test samples). The mean percentage content of indivi dual petrographic groups of coal as well as the mean workability indicator, f, of coals in the stratigraphic groups of coal seams in Upper Silesia are also determined.

  8. Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O' Connor, J.T.

    2000-07-01

    peat-forming mire. Dissolution and alteration of these minerals occurred either in the peat-forming sate or during coalification/diagenesis contributing to the authigenic mineral suite. Additionally, detrital mineral input and epigenetic ground-water flow may have affected the geochemistry of the feed coal.

  9. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dust in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been contemplating returning astronauts to the moon for long-duration habitation and research and using it as a stepping-stone to Mars. Other spacefaring nations are planning to send humans to the moon for the first time. The surface of the moon is covered by a layer of fine dust. Fine terrestrial dusts, if inhaled, are known to pose a health risk to humans. Some Apollo crews briefly exposed to moon dust that adhered to spacesuits and became airborne in the Lunar Module reported eye and throat irritation. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle or outpost would inevitably become contaminated with lunar dust. To assess the health risks of exposure of humans to airborne lunar dust, we evaluated the toxicity of Apollo 14 moon dust in animal lungs. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally first done by intratracheal instillation (ITI) of aqueous suspensions of the test dust into the lungs of rodents. If a test dust is irritating or cytotoxic to the lungs, the alveolar macrophages, after phagocytizing the dust particles, will release cellular messengers to recruit white blood cells (WBCs) and to induce dilation of blood capillary walls to make them porous, allowing the WBCs to gain access to the alveolar space. The dilation of capillary walls also allows serum proteins and water entering the lung. Besides altering capillary integrity, a toxic dust can also directly kill the cells that come into contact with it or ingest it, after which the dead cells would release their contents, including lactate dehydrogenase (a common enzyme marker of cell death or tissue damage). In the treated animals, we lavaged the lungs 1 and 4 weeks after the dust instillation and measured the concentrations of these biomarkers of toxicity in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluids to determine the toxicity of the dust. To assess whether the inflammation and cellular injury observed in the biomarker study would lead to persistent or progressive histopathological

  10. The Southern Kalahari: a potential new dust source in the Southern Hemisphere?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattachan, Abinash; D’Odorico, Paolo; Baddock, Matthew C; Zobeck, Ted M; Okin, Gregory S; Cassar, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Most sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the Northern Hemisphere. The lower dust emissions in the Southern Hemisphere in part limit the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity. Climate and land use change can alter the current distribution of dust source regions on Earth. Can new dust sources be activated in the Southern Hemisphere? Here we show that vegetation loss and dune remobilization in the Southern Kalahari can promote dust emissions comparable to those observed from major contemporary dust sources in the Southern African region. Dust generation experiments support the hypothesis that, in the Southern Kalahari, aeolian deposits that are currently mostly stabilized by savanna vegetation are capable of emitting substantial amounts of dust from interdune areas. We show that dust from these areas is relatively rich in soluble iron, an important micronutrient for ocean productivity. Trajectory analyses show that dust from the Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean and could therefore enhance its productivity. (letter)

  11. PHOTOPHORETIC LEVITATION AND TRAPPING OF DUST IN THE INNER REGIONS OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, Colin P. [Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); McClure, Melissa K., E-mail: cmcnally@nbi.dk, E-mail: mmcclure@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    In protoplanetary disks, the differential gravity-driven settling of dust grains with respect to gas and with respect to grains of varying sizes determines the observability of grains, and sets the conditions for grain growth and eventually planet formation. In this work, we explore the effect of photophoresis on the settling of large dust grains in the inner regions of actively accreting protoplanetary disks. Photophoretic forces on dust grains result from the collision of gas molecules with differentially heated grains. We undertake one-dimensional dust settling calculations to determine the equilibrium vertical distribution of dust grains in each column of the disk. In the process we introduce a new treatment of the photophoresis force which is consistent at all optical depths with the representation of the radiative intensity field in a two-stream radiative transfer approximation. The levitation of large dust grains creates a photophoretic dust trap several scale heights above the mid-plane in the inner regions of the disk where the dissipation of accretion energy is significant. We find that differential settling of dust grains is radically altered in these regions of the disk, with large dust grains trapped in a layer below the stellar irradiation surface, where the dust to gas mass ratio can be enhanced by a factor of a hundred for the relevant particles. The photophoretic trapping effect has a strong dependence on particle size and porosity.

  12. Comparison of Respirable Mass Concentrations Measured by a Personal Dust Monitor and a Personal DataRAM to Gravimetric Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halterman, Andrew; Sousan, Sinan; Peters, Thomas M

    2017-12-15

    In 2016, the Mine Safety and Health Administration required the use of continuous monitors to measure respirable dust in mines and better protect miner health. The Personal Dust Monitor, PDM3700, has met stringent performance criteria for this purpose. In a laboratory study, respirable mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and a photometer (personal DataRam, pDR-1500) were compared to those measured gravimetrically for five aerosols of varying refractive index and density (diesel exhaust fume, welding fume, coal dust, Arizona road dust (ARD), and salt [NaCl] aerosol) at target concentrations of 0.38, 0.75, and 1.5 mg m-3. For all aerosols except coal dust, strong, near-one-to-one, linear relationships were observed between mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and gravimetrically (diesel fume, slope = 0.99, R2 = 0.99; ARD, slope = 0.98, R2 = 0.99; and NaCl, slope = 0.95, R2 = 0.99). The slope deviated substantially from unity for coal dust (slope = 0.55; R2 = 0.99). Linear relationships were also observed between mass concentrations measured with the pDR-1500 and gravimetrically, but one-to-one behavior was not exhibited (diesel fume, slope = 0.23, R2 = 0.76; coal dust, slope = 0.54, R2 = 0.99; ARD, slope = 0.61, R2 = 0.99; NaCl, slope = 1.14, R2 = 0.98). Unlike the pDR-1500, mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 appear independent of refractive index and density, suggesting that it could have applications in a variety of occupational settings. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  13. Coal development potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M N; Pelofsky, A H [eds.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented, and covered the following topics: the current situation in Pakistan with respect to development and utilization of coal resources; the policies that have been responsible for the development and utilization of coal resources in Pakistan; coal development and utilization in other developing nations e.g. Indonesia, Greece, Philippines, China, Thailand and Haiti; and technological developments in coal exploration; extraction, handling, transport and utilization which could accelerate future development of Pakistan's coal resources. Specific subjects covered include the use of coal in the cement industry of Pakistan; the production of briquettes for domestic use, development and training of personnel for the coal industry; and sources of finance for coal development projects. Particular emphasis is given throughout the conference to the Lakhra coal mine/power plant project which aims to develop and effectively utilize the lignite reserves of Sind Province. 47 papers have been abstracted separately.

  14. Dust in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, S.

    1977-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that H II regions may contain dust: 1) the continuum light scattered by dust grains (O'Dell and Hubbard, 1965), 2) thermal radiation from dust grains at infrared wavelengths (Ney and Allen, 1969), 3) the abnormal helium abundance in some H II regions (Peimbert and Costero, 1969), etc. Although observations of the scattered continuum suggest that the H II region cores may be dust-free, dust grains and gas must be well mixed in view of the infrared observations. This difficulty may be solved by introducing globules with sizes approximately 0.001 pc. These globules and the molecular clouds adjacent to H II regions are the main sources supplying dust to H II regions. (Auth.)

  15. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Hensley, R.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 v has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  16. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingshi; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Binbin; Li Shehong; Wu Daishe; Hu Jun

    2006-01-01

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  17. Photoelectric charging of dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Photoemission from the surface of a dust grain in vacuum is considered. It is shown that the cutoff in the energy spectrum of emitted electrons leads to the formation of a steady-state electron cloud. The equation describing the distribution of the electric potential in the vicinity of a dust grain is solved numerically. The dust grain charge is found as a function of the grain size.

  18. Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Chronic Lunar Dust Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to millennia of meteorite impact with virtually no erosive effects, the surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of ultra-fine, reactive Lunar dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of Lunar dust on human physiology. Given the size and electrostatic characteristics of Lunar dust, countermeasures to ensure non-exposure of astronauts will be difficult. To ensure astronaut safety during any future prolonged Lunar missions, it is necessary to establish the effect of chronic pulmonary Lunar dust exposure on all physiological systems. Methods: This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and system immune system parameters. Rats were exposed to 0, 20.8, or 60.8 mg/m3 of lunar dust (6h/d; 5d/wk) for up to 13 weeks. Sacrifices occurred after exposure durations of 1day, 7 days, 4 weeks and 13 weeks post-exposure, when both blood and lung lavage fluid were collected for analysis. Lavage and blood assays included leukocyte distribution by flow cytometry, electron/fluorescent microscopy, and cytokine concentration. Cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation were performed on whole blood only. Results: Untreated lavage fluid was comprised primarily of pulmonary macrophages. Lunar dust inhalation resulted in an influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although the percentage of lymphocytes increased, the T cell CD4:CD8 ratio was unchanged. Cytokine analysis of the lavage fluid showed increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa. These alterations generally persisted through the 13 week sampling. Blood analysis showed few systemic effects from the lunar dust inhalation. By week 4, the peripheral granulocyte percentage was elevated in the treated rats. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged in all treated rats compared to controls. Peripheral blood analysis showed an increased granulocyte percentage and altered cytokine production profiles consisting of increased in IL-1b and IL-6, and decreased IL-2

  19. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  20. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.