WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal conversion utilization

  1. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-01-01

    The Sixth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 13-15, 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the National Bureau of Standards. Fifty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; four papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  2. Fourth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The fourth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 9 to 11, 1979, at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Department of Energy, and the Gas Research Institute. The papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  3. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, D.A. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  4. Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor heat source for coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher, R.W. Jr.; Lewis, A.C.

    1992-09-01

    In the industrial nations, transportable fuels in the form of natural gas and petroleum derivatives constitute a primary energy source nearly equivalent to that consumed for generating electric power. Nations with large coal deposits have the option of coal conversion to meet their transportable fuel demands. But these processes themselves consume huge amounts of energy and produce undesirable combustion by-products. Therefore, this represents a major opportunity to apply nuclear energy for both the environmental and energy conservation reasons. Because the most desirable coal conversion processes take place at 800 degree C or higher, only the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) have the potential to be adapted to coal conversion processes. This report provides a discussion of this utilization of HTGR reactors

  5. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary. [using coal or coal derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A data base for the comparison of advanced energy conversion systems for utility applications using coal or coal-derived fuels was developed. Estimates of power plant performance (efficiency), capital cost, cost of electricity, natural resource requirements, and environmental intrusion characteristics were made for ten advanced conversion systems. Emphasis was on the energy conversion system in the context of a base loaded utility power plant. All power plant concepts were premised on meeting emission standard requirements. A steam power plant (3500 psig, 1000 F) with a conventional coal-burning furnace-boiler was analyzed as a basis for comparison. Combined cycle gas/steam turbine system results indicated competitive efficiency and a lower cost of electricity compared to the reference steam plant. The Open-Cycle MHD system results indicated the potential for significantly higher efficiency than the reference steam plant but with a higher cost of electricity.

  6. Low severity conversion of activated coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  7. An overview of coal preparation initiatives with application to coal conversion in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, C.F.; Bunt, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Coal has for many years been the most important energy resource in South Africa and has contributed to more than 70 % of South Africa's energy needs in 1998. The large in-situ coal deposits (in excess of 120 x 10 9 t) and relatively large recoverable reserves (about 33.5 x 10 9 t) will ensure that coal will for many a year still be South Africa's single biggest energy resource. Biomass burning consumes approximately 11 Mt/a of which 8 Mt/a is natural wood. This equals natural wood production. The use of firewood is considered to be unsustainable. Of the 225 Mt/a of coal extracted in South Africa in 1998, 67.0 Mt/a was exported. Of this, 62.9 Mt/a were exported as steam coal, 2.1 Mt/a as metallurgical coal, and the rest as anthracite. Current exports are conducted via the Richards Bay terminal (63.6 Mt/a), Durban (2.0 Mt/a) and a small amount via Maputo. The Richards Bay terminal is to be expanded to 72 Mt/a by 1999. It is also very important to note that most of the coal resources possess calorific values of below 25 MJ/kg, which limits its utilization to power generation (Eskom) and processes such as fixed bed dry bottom gasification (Sasol). A break-down of production and usage of coal by the various controlling groups in South Africa shows that Sasol (54.2 Mt/a) and Escom (91.0 Mt/a) are major consumers of coal. It has been proposed earlier by Horsfall (1993) that for power generation and coal conversion, the in-situ quality is generally regarded as satisfactory for use. All that is required in the way of processing is crushing to an appropriate top size and, for conversion, screening of the unwashed coal. Most other consumers require some degree of beneficiation, which generally entails the removal of stone/shale and low quality coal. More recently, the introduction of destoning plants at Duvha Colliery (Larcodems) and New Vaal Colliery (Drewboy washers) has significantly reduced the abrasiveness content of these local thermal coals, together with an increase

  8. Brayton Point coal conversion project (NEPCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W.F. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    The New England Power Company (NEPCO) recently converted Brayton Point Power Station Units 1, 2, and 3 from oil to coal. The coal conversion project is the largest coal conversion project in the nation to date. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) was hired as the engineer/constructor for the project. Units 1 and 2 are 250-MW Combustion Engineering boilers, and Unit 3 is a 650-MW Babcock and Wilcox boiler. All three units were originally designed to burn pulverized coal but were converted to oil during the years of low oil prices. Studies performed by NEPCO and SWEC indicated that the areas discussed in the following paragraphs required upgrading before the units could efficiently burn coal and meet Federal and State environmental requirements. All units have been converted and are operating. This paper discusses design modifications required to burn coal, startup, and initial operating problems, and solutions.

  9. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  10. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  11. Energy conservation in coal conversion. Final report, September 15, 1977--September 1, 1978. Selected case studies and conservation methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcupile, J.C.

    1978-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the methodologies developed in the Energy Conservation in Coal Conversion August, 1977 Progress Report - Contract No. EY77S024196 - to an energy efficient, near-term coal conversion process design, and to develop additional, general techniques for studying energy conservation and utilization in coal conversion processes. The process selected for study was the Ralph M. Parsons Company of Pasadena, California ''Oil/Gas Complex, Conceptual Design/Economic Analysis'' as described in R and D Report No. 114 - Interim Report No. 4, published March, 1977, ERDA Contract No. E(49-18)-1975. Thirteen papers representing possible alternative methods of energy conservation or waste heat utilization have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  12. The Zimmer nuclear to coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, R.H.; Pfund, E.M.; Buchmueller, D.P.; Fletcher, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the control, protection and monitoring systems employed on the world's first nuclear-to-coal power plant conversion, the philosophies utilized to guide the engineering of these systems and the implementation of those philosophies. Extensive use is made of programmable electronic systems to provide a state-of-the-art plant which does not compromise the proven operating interfaces and philosophies associated with AEP's six operating 1300 MW units. The technologies employed include two distributed digital control systems, a fiber optic-based network of programmable logic controllers, a distributed microprocessor-based annunciator and sequence of events system, and a plant operations computer which accesses each of the preceding systems

  13. Low severity conversion of activated coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  14. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  15. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  16. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Environmental monitoring handbook for coal conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; DeCicco, S.G. (eds.)

    1978-05-01

    The primary objectives of the Department of Energy's (DOE) coal conversion program are to demonstrate the environmental acceptability, technical feasibility, and economic viability of various technologies for gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels from coal. The Environmental Monitoring Handbook for Coal Conversion Facilities will help accomplish the objective of environmental acceptability by guiding the planning and execution of socioeconomic and environmental monitoring programs for demonstration facilities. These programs will provide information adequate to (1) predict, insofar as is possible, the potential impacts of construction and operation of a coal conversion plant, (2) verify the occurrence of these or any other impacts during construction and operation, (3) determine the adequacy of mitigating measures to protect the environment, (4) develop effluent source terms for process discharges, and (5) determine the effectiveness of pollution control equipment. Although useful in a variety of areas, the handbook is intended primarily for contractors who, as industrial partners with DOE, are building coal conversion plants. For the contractor it is a practical guide on (1) the methodology for developing site- and process-specific environmental monitoring programs, (2) state-of-the-art sampling and analytical techniques, and (3) impact analyses.To correspond to the phases of project activity, the subject matter is divided into four stages of monitoring: (1) a reconnaissance or synoptic survey, (2) preconstruction or baseline, (3) construction, and (4) operation, including process monitoring (prepared by Radian Corp., McLean, Va.). For each stage of monitoring, guidelines are given on socioeconomics, aquatic and terrestrial ecology, air quality and meteorology, surface and groundwater quality, geohydrology and soil survey, and surface water hydrology.

  18. Coal conversion process by the United Power Plants of Westphalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-08-01

    The coal conversion process used by the United Power Plants of Westphalia and its possible applications are described. In this process, the crushed and predried coal is degassed and partly gasified in a gas generator, during which time the sulfur present in the coal is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which together with the carbon dioxide is subsequently washed out and possibly utilized or marketed. The residual coke together with the ashes and tar is then sent to the melting chamber of the steam generator where the ashes are removed. After desulfurization, the purified gas is fed into an external circuit and/or to a gas turbine for electricity generation. The raw gas from the gas generator can be directly used as fuel in a conventional power plant. The calorific value of the purified gas varies from 3200 to 3500 kcal/cu m. The purified gas can be used as reducing agent, heating gas, as raw material for various chemical processes, or be conveyed via pipelines to remote areas for electricity generation. The conversion process has the advantages of increased economy of electricity generation with desulfurization, of additional gas generation, and, in long-term prospects, of the use of the waste heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for this process.

  19. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  20. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States) Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  1. Possible improvements of efficiency by the use of new coal conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieb, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Following a comparison of the efficiencies of conventional steam power processes, the gas fuel cell and the combined gas steam turbine processes are introduced as new coal utilization technologies. Coal conversion processes which can be coupled to combined gas-steam turbine processes such as the fluidized-bed firing, the solid bed gasification, the dust part-gasification and the fluidized-bed gasification are more closely mentioned and their coupling efficiencies discussed. The decoupling of third energy, such as low-temperature heat, high-temperature heat and chemical energy are briefly dealt with as third possibility for the improvement of the efficiency. (GG/LH) [de

  2. Monitoring coal conversion processes by IR-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobert, H.; Kempe, J.; Stephanowitz, H. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-01-01

    Explains application of infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis by an on-line computer system for assessing coal quality and suitability of brown coal for conversion processes. Coal samples were pelletized under addition of KBr and analyzed using an IRF 180 Fourier transform spectrometer in the spectral range of 400 to 2,000 cm{sup -1}. Components of spectra are presented; the oil yield from coal hydrogenation is calculated by regression analysis. Covariance spectra of carbon, organic hydrogen and sulfur are shown. It is concluded that the field of application for the method includes industrial coal liquefaction, gasification as well as briquetting and coking. 8 refs.

  3. Biogenic coal-to-methane conversion efficiency decreases after repeated organic amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katherine J.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Fields, Matthew W.; Gerlach, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Addition of organic amendments to coal-containing systems can increase the rate and extent of biogenic methane production for 60–80 days before production slows or stops. Understanding the effect of repeated amendment additions on the rate and extent of enhanced coal-dependent methane production is important if biological coal-to-methane conversion is to be enhanced on a commercial scale. Microalgal biomass was added at a concentration of 0.1 g/L to microcosms with and without coal on days 0, 76, and 117. Rates of methane production were enhanced after the initial amendment but coal-containing treatments produced successively decreasing amounts of methane with each amendment. During the first amendment period, 113% of carbon added as amendment was recovered as methane, whereas in the second and third amendment periods, 39% and 32% of carbon added as amendment was recovered as methane, respectively. Additionally, algae-amended coal treatments produced ∼38% more methane than unamended coal treatments and ∼180% more methane than amended coal-free treatments after one amendment. However, a second amendment addition resulted in only an ∼25% increase in methane production for coal versus noncoal treatments and a third amendment addition resulted in similar methane production in both coal and noncoal treatments. Successive amendment additions appeared to result in a shift from coal-to-methane conversion to amendment-to-methane conversion. The reported results indicate that a better understanding is needed of the potential impacts and efficiencies of repeated stimulation for enhanced coal-to-methane conversion.

  4. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  5. Conversion of metallurgical coke and coal using a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Siwei; Bayham, Samuel; Zeng, Liang; McGiveron, Omar; Chung, Elena; Majumder, Ankita; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accumulated more than 300 operation hours were accomplished for the moving bed reducer reactor. • Different reactor operation variables were investigated with optimal conditions identified. • High conversions of sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were achieved without flow problems. • Co-current and counter-current contact modes were tested and their applicability was discussed. - Abstract: The CLC process has the potential to be a transformative commercial technology for a carbon-constrained economy. The Ohio State University Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process directly converts coal, eliminating the need for a coal gasifier oran air separation unit (ASU). Compared to other solid-fuel CLC processes, the CDCL process is unique in that it consists of a countercurrent moving bed reducer reactor. In the proposed process, coal is injected into the middle of the moving bed, whereby the coal quickly heats up and devolatilizes, splitting the reactor roughly into two sections with no axial mixing. The top section consists of gaseous fuel produced from the coal volatiles, and the bottom section consists of the coal char mixed with the oxygen carrier. A bench-scale moving bed reactor was used to study the coal conversion with CO 2 as the enhancing gas. Initial tests using metallurgical cokefines as feedstock were conducted to test the effects of operational variables in the bottom section of the moving bed reducer, e.g., reactor temperature, oxygen carrier to char ratio, enhancer gas CO 2 flow rate, and oxygen carrier flow rates. Experiments directly using coal as the feedstock were subsequently carried out based on these test results. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and Illinois #6 coal were tested as representative sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, respectively. Nearly complete coal conversion was achieved using composite iron oxide particles as the oxygen carriers without any flow problems. The operational results demonstrated that a

  6. Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gray, D. [Mitre Corp, McLean, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

  7. Research on novel coal conversion technology for energy and environment in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Takarada [Gunma University (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    In the 21st century, more efficient coal conversion technology will be needed. In this paper, novel gasification, pyrolysis and desulfurization processes using active catalysts are introduced. In particular, the application of ion-exchanged metals in brown coal to coal conversion technology is featured in this study. Other topics discussed include: Catalysis of mineral matter in coal; Catalytic effectiveness of Ni and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for various coals; Direct production of methane from steam gasification; Preparation of active catalysts from NaCl and KCl using brown coal; Gasification of high rank coal by mixing K-exchanged brown coal; Recovery of sulfur via catalytic SO{sub 2} gasification of coal char; Research on novel coal conversion technology BTX production by hydropyrolysis of coal in PPFB using catalyst; High BTU gas production by low-temperature catalytic hydropyrolysis of coal; and Ca-exchanged brown coal as SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S sorbents. 12 refs., 17 figs.

  8. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  9. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  10. Critical paths to coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, G R

    1977-01-01

    The present dilemma of energy producers, converters, and policy decision makers is presented. The consequences of environmental control regulations, coupled with the need for conservation and energy, and of energy resources on the increased utilization of coal, are discussed. Several recent technical accomplishments that make possible increased utilization of coal for power generation are described. Groundwork is laid for discussion of the technical development that must occur if the United States is to retain its energy viability.

  11. Assessment of Research Needs for Coal Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1983-08-01

    The Coal Combustion and Applications Working Group (CCAWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on coal combustion and utilization. The important topical areas of coal gasification and coal liquefaction have been deliberately excluded because R and D needs for these technologies were reviewed previously by the DOE Fossil Energy Research Working Group. The CCAWG studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect prospects for augmented coal utilization. In this report, we summarize the findings and research recommendations of CCAWG.

  12. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  13. COAL CONVERSION WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY CATALYTIC OXIDATION IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip E. Savage

    1999-01-01

    Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, we examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO(sub 2), bulk TiO(sub 2), and CuO supported on Al(sub 2) O(sub 3). We used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which we can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO(sub 2) yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that we could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, we performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO(sub 2) and TiO(sub 2) catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO(sub 2) formation rates during SCWO. MnO(sub 2) does not affect the selectivity to CO(sub 2), or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO(sub 2) are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO(sub 2) , which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of

  14. Biological conversion of coal gas to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-08-01

    Biological conversion of low-Btu coal synthesis gas to higher Btu methane was demonstrated using both pure co-cultures and/or adapted-mixed anaerobic bacteria. Peptostreptococcus productus metabolized coal gas to mainly acetate and CO/sub 2/. The co-cultures containing methanogens converted these products to methane. In mixed culture studies, CH/sub 4/ and small amounts of acetate were produced. Reactor studies using stirred-tank and immobilized cell reactors exhibited excellent potential to convert CO, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ to methane at higher gas flow rates. Gas retention times ranging from 0.7 to 2 hours and high agitation were required for 90 percent CO conversion in these systems. This paper also illustrates the potential of biological methanation and demonstrates the need for good mass transfer in converting gas phase substrates. 21 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. Group separation of coal components and new ideas of coal utilization as petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-hong Qin; Cui-li Hou; Juan Chen; Li-ying Zhang; Jie-qiong Ma [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-09-15

    Four different groups of components were separated from coal under mild conditions of extraction and stripping process. Within these groups, and with pre-separation, individual utilization of all coal components can be realized, similar to petroleum components and enhance the inherent value and utilization value of coal, as well as increase environmental benefits. The characteristics of each component were analyzed with measurements by FTIR, GC/MS, TEM and the establishment of caking properties. The results show that coal can be separated into residues, ultra-pure coal, asphaltene components and light components by adding solvents for stripping into the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed extraction solution. Those four groups of components present great differences in the presence of carbon and hydrogen elements, in the structure of functional groups, in their macroscopic structure and micro-morphology and caking properties. Every component possesses its own inherent values and approaches. A new idea of coal processes and utilization, similar to the use of petroleum is proposed. 11 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Ninth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Over 200 papers are presented under the following headings: coal preparation; Clean Coal Technology Program status; pre- and post-utilization processing; advanced conversion technologies; integrated gasification combined cycle; indirect liquefaction; advanced liquefaction process development; conversion processes; coal - from a user's perspective; issues associated with coal use in heat engines; fundamentals of combustion; advanced combustion systems; low quality fuel applications/fluidised beds; combustion systems; ash and sludge disposal/utilization; developing SO 2 /NO x control technologies; technical overview of air toxics; scientific, economic and policy perspectives on global climate change; Clean Air Act compliance strategies; environmental policy/technology; spontaneous combustion; and special topics

  17. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  18. Thermal coal utilization for the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A selection of papers is presented originating from talks to coal utilization workshops for the ASEAN region in 1981. The papers cover: planning aspects - economic and technical aspects of coal usage, long term planning for fuel coal needs, planning and coal selection for coal-fired power plants, coal availability and marketing, and economic aspects of coal usage in developing countries; combustion and plant - changing from coal to oil, principles and problems of coal combustion, use of indigenous and imported coals and their effects on plant design, coal pulverizing mills, ash and dust disposal, environmental aspects of coal combustion, industrial sized coal-fired boilers; transport and storage -ocean shipment, coal receival facilities and associated operations, shipping and rail transport, coal handling and transport, environmental issue in the transport and handling of coal, coal preparation and blending; testing and properties - coal types, characterization properties and classification; training power plant operators; the cement industry and coal, the Australian black coal industry.

  19. Coal's sleeping market: non-utility generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, R.L.; Knutson, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    The article briefly profiles the coal market for non-utility generation (NUG). Coal consumption by NUGs, currently estimated at around 6.1 million tons, is projected to reach nearly 13.6 million tons by 1995 and 21.2 million tons by 2000. If the projected growth is achieved the NUG market may become one of the strongest market segments for the coal industry into the next century. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. 14 MeV INAA nitrogen determination in coal conversion liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Khalil, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Fast neutron activation analysis has been used for the direct determination of nitrogen in coal conversion liqui-ds. In our previous work on coals, solid standards such as N-1-napthylacetamide, NBS SRM 912 urea and NBS SRM 148 nicotinic acid were used for nitrogen determinations. In this work, a set of organic liquids was selected and evaluated for use as nitrogen standards in the analysis of coal-derived liquids. The use of the liquid standards minimizes problems associated with maintaining uniform irradation and counting geometries and self absorption differences related to varying matrix densities. The standard liquids were selected using criteria of high boiling point, well-defined stoichiometry, high-purity, non-hygroscopic nature and simple C-H-N elemental compositions. Excellent agreement between the 14 MeV INAA data and calculated stoichiometric values has been demonstrated for liquids with nitrogen contents from 1.89 to 39.95%. The liquid standards have been used to determine nitrogen in a set of typical coal conversion liquids and several international standards. (author)

  1. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion contractors review conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 55 papers presented at the conference. They are divided into the following topical sections: Direct liquefaction; Indirect liquefaction; Gas conversion (methane conversion); and Advanced research liquefaction. Papers in this last section deal mostly with coprocessing of coal with petroleum, plastics, and waste tires, and catalyst studies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, W. A.; Slade, E. C.

    1978-06-01

    A survey of the industrial capabilities of the valve and valve-actuator industry to supply large, high-pressure stop valves for the future coal conversion industry is presented in this report. Also discussed are development and testing capabilities of valve and valve-actuator manufacturers and anticipated lead times required to manufacture advanced design valves for the most stringent service applications. Results indicate that the valve and valve-actuator industry is capable of manufacturing in quantity equipment of the size and for the pressure and temperature ranges which would be required in the coal conversion industry. Valve manufacturers do not, however, have sufficient product application experience to predict the continuing functional ability of valves used for lock-hopper feeders, slurry feeders, and slag-char letdown service. Developmental and testing efforts to modify existing valve designs or to develop new valve concepts for these applications were estimated to range from 1 to 6 years. A testing facility to simulate actuation of critical valves under service conditions would be beneficial.

  3. Microbial conversion of higher hydrocarbons to methane in oil and coal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Martin; Beckmaann, Sabrina; Siegert, Michael; Grundger, Friederike; Richnow, Hans [Geomicrobiology Group, Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, oil production has increased enormously but almost half of the oil now remaining is heavy/biodegraded and cannot be put into production. There is therefore a need for new technology and for diversification of energy sources. This paper discusses the microbial conversion of higher hydrocarbons to methane in oil and coal reservoirs. The objective of the study is to identify microbial and geochemical controls on methanogenesis in reservoirs. A graph shows the utilization of methane for various purposes in Germany from 1998 to 2007. A degradation process to convert coal to methane is shown using a flow chart. The process for converting oil to methane is also given. Controlling factors include elements such as Fe, nitrogen and sulfur. Atmospheric temperature and reservoir pressure and temperature also play an important role. From the study it can be concluded that isotopes of methane provide exploration tools for reservoir selection and alkanes and aromatic compounds provide enrichment cultures.

  4. Analysis of ecological environment impact of coal exploitation and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoliu; Luo, Hong; Lv, Lianhong; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Baoshi

    2018-02-01

    Based on the theory of life cycle assessment, the ecological and environmental impacts of coal mining, processing, utilization and transportation will be analyzed, with analysing the status of china’s coal exploitation and utilization as the basis, it will find out the ecological and environmental impact in the development and utilization of coal, mainly consist of ecological impact including land damage, water resource destructionand biodiversity loss, etc., while the environmental impact include air, water, solid waste pollutions. Finally with a summary of the ecological and environmental problems, to propose solutionsand countermeasures to promote the rational development and consumption of coal, as well as to reduce the impact of coal production and consumption on the ecological environment, finally to achieve the coordinated development of energy and the environment.

  5. Geology in coal resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  6. Pocess for the conversion of coal into benzine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, S M; Kuo, J C.W.; Wise, J J; Garwood, W E

    1976-10-21

    The effective conversion of coal into liquid hydrocarbon benzine with a high octane number is described in the claimed method for coal enrichment. The coal is converted with O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O at about 788 to 982/sup 0/C giving a synthesis product (containing CO, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/). The conversion of the carbon oxides and hydrogen to a product containing H/sub 2/O, C/sup -//sub 4/gas and C/sup +//sub 5/ aromatic benzine is catalyzed with a catalyst consisting of a crystalline alumino silicate zeolite with a SiO/sub 2//AlO/sub 2/ ratio of at least 12 and a forced index of 1 to 12. The C/sup -//sub 4/gas is separated into a C/sup -//sub 2/residual gas (CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) and alkylation material (saturated and unsaturated C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons), the latter alkylated with strong acid at about 232/sup 0/C, 35.2Kg/cm/sup 2/ pressure, the C/sub 7//C/sub 8/ product is mixed with the aromatic benzine, the C/sup -//sub 2/residual gas steam reformed to an auxiliary synthesis gas and converted into a synthetic natural gas by methanation catalysts.

  7. Chemical coal conversion yesterday, today, and tomorrow; Der Chemierohstoff Kohle: gestern, heute und morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbiersky, J. [UCP Chemicals AG, Wien (Austria)

    2007-01-15

    Shortage in mineral oil and gas as well as a high price level have caused a renaissance in coal conversion technologies, at the end of the 70's. Today we have a similar situation. Now coal coversion technologies will be in the focus again but hopefully as a longterm strategy. The most important coal conversion technologies as liquefaction, gasification, coking and calcium carbide synthesis are discussed regarding their use for the production of chemicals. The most important source for aromatic chemicals from coal is till now coal tar with an availability of 22 Mio. t/a. The manufacturing of coal tar is discussed as an example for making aromatic products from a complex feed stock that you get by the fixed bed gasification, coal liquefaction and coking. Also the special marketing strategy that is necessary to be competitive against products from the petroindustry. It can be expected, that coal gasification as a source for synthesis gas will become more and more important. Synthesis gas is the access to aliphatic hydrocarbons by Fischer Tropsch synthesis and to methanol, a chemical with a high synthetic potential. Also the new hydrothermal carbonization of biomass to synthetic coal is mentioned. (orig.)

  8. The Czech base of hard coal, problems, possibilities for utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, T.; Roubicek, V.

    1993-01-01

    The Czech coal and power engineering base is in a deep restructuring period now. The basic problems represents the changeover from the system of the centrally planned state economy to the market model of the energy resources mining, production and consumption. The Czech economy will have to face to up to now unknown competitive forces on the coal market in Europe where American, Canadian, Australian and South African coals compete. The paper discusses historical aspects of the development of the coal mining industry in the Czechoslavakia, the present coal preparation techniques for coking coals, the coking industry, and the utilization of brown coal. How to utilize the domestic coal base and coal generally is closely connected with the global restructuralization of the Czech economy. The most difficult step of this process is undoubtedly the adaptation of the Czech fuel and energy base to the market economy conditions

  9. Coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Gui, G.

    1997-01-01

    Shanxi Province is abundant in coal reserve. Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation is a large sized union enterprise engaged in comprehensive use of coal in Shanxi province, and significant economic, social, environmental benefits have been brought forth with it. This leads people to believe that coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province in the fields of improvement of environment and development of economy

  10. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)]|[Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  11. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  12. Proceedings of the third annual underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Annual Underground Coal Conversion Symposium was held at Fallen Leaf Lake, CA, June 6--9, 1977. It was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and hosted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Forty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; ten papers had been entered previously from other sources. The papers cover the in-situ gasification of lignite, subbituminous coal and bituminous coal, in flat lying seams and a steeply dipping beds, at moderate and at greater depths, and describe various technologies of (borehole linking, well spacings, gasifying agents (air, oxygen, steam, hydrogen, including mixtures). Measuring instruments for diagnostic and process control purposes are described. Environmental impacts (ground subsidence and possible groundwater pollution) are the subject of several papers. Finally, mathematical modelling and projected economics of the process are developed. (LTN)

  13. Empirical prediction of ash deposition propensities in coal-fired utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.

    1997-01-01

    This report contain an outline of some of the ash chemistry indices utilized in the EPREDEPO (Empirical PREdiction of DEPOsition) PC-program, version 1.0 (DEPO10), developed by Flemming Frandsen, The CHEC Research Programme, at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. DEPO10 is a 1st generation FTN77 Fortran PC-programme designed to empirically predict ash deposition propensities in coal-fired utility boilers. Expectational data (empirical basis) from an EPRI-sponsored survey of ash deposition experiences at coal-fired utility boilers, performed by Battelle, have been tested for use on Danish coal chemistry - boiler operational conditions, in this study. (au) 31 refs.

  14. Biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Corder, R E; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1987-09-01

    High temperatures and pressures are required, and therefore, high costs incurred during catalytic upgrading of coal synthesis gas to methane. Thus, the feasibility of biological reactions in converting synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in mixed and pure cultures. Complete conversion has been achieved in 2 hours with a mixed culture, and 45 minutes to 1.5 hours in pure cultures of P. productus and Methanothrix sp.. Typical sulfur levels involved during the process are found not to inhibit the bacteria and so sulfur does not have to be removed prior to biomethanation. Preliminary economic analyses indicate that coal gas may be biologically methanated for 50-60 cents/million Btu. Further studies with pure culture bacteria and increased pressure are expected to enhance biomethanation economics.

  15. Nitrogen conversion during rapid pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke in a high-frequency furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Shuai; Zhou, Zhi-jie; Li, Jun; Wang, Fu-chen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Use a high-frequency furnace to study N-conversion during rapid pyrolysis of coal. ► Scarcely reported N-conversion during rapid pyrolysis of petroleum coke was studied. ► Both of NH 3 and HCN can be formed directly from coal during rapid pyrolysis. ► NH 3 –N yields are higher than HCN–N yields in most conditions. ► NH 3 –N yields of petroleum coke increase with temperature and no HCN detected. -- Abstract: Rapid pyrolysis of three typical Chinese coals, lignite from Inner Mongolia, bituminous from Shenfu coalfield, and anthracite from Guizhou, as well as a petroleum coke were carried out in a drop-style high-frequency furnace. The reactor was induction coil heated and had a very small high-temperature zone, which could restrain secondary conversions of nitrogen products. The effects of temperature and coal rank on conversions of fuel-N to primary nitrogen products (char-N, HCN–N, NH 3 –N and (tar + N 2 )–N) have been investigated. The results showed that, the increasing temperature reduced the yields of char-N and promoted the conversion of fuel-N to N 2 . Char-N yields increased, while volatile-N yields decreased as the coal rank increased. In most of the conditions, NH 3 –N yields were higher than HCN–N yields during rapid pyrolysis of coal. In the case of petroleum coke, NH 3 –N yields increased gradually with the increasing temperature, but no HCN was detected. We argue that NH 3 –N can be formed directly through the primary pyrolysis without secondary reactions. Although volatile-N yields of lignite were higher than those of bituminous, yields of (HCN + NH 3 )–N in volatile-N of lignite were lower than those of bituminous. While the (HCN + NH 3 )–N yields of anthracite were the lowest of the three coals. Both of the (HCN + NH 3 )–N yields and (HCN + NH 3 )–N proportions in volatile-N of petroleum coke were lower than the three coals.

  16. Proceedings of the international symposium on coal - science, technology, industry, business, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, K.S.; Sen, S. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Papers were presented which covered the areas of coal science, advanced coal preparation, coal utilization, coal chemicals and the environment. These included carbon aromaticity, mineral studies, utilization of low rank coals, bioconversion of methane, swelling of coals, photocatalytic activity, flotation and effects of oxidation, microbial desulfurization, deashing, briquetting, commercial scale conversion of coal to fuels and chemicals, role of coal in iron and steel making, coal-water mixtures, dyes and chemical products, nitrogen oxides emissions and pollution control. 45 papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Phase 1 Results from the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). [coal utilization for electric power plants feasibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Ten advanced energy conversion systems for central-station, based-load electric power generation using coal and coal-derived fuels which were studied by NASA are presented. Various contractors were selected by competitive bidding to study these systems. A comparative evaluation is provided of the contractor results on both a system-by-system and an overall basis. Ground rules specified by NASA, such as coal specifications, fuel costs, labor costs, method of cost comparison, escalation and interest during construction, fixed charges, emission standards, and environmental conditions, are presented. Each system discussion includes the potential advantages of the system, the scope of each contractor's analysis, typical schematics of systems, comparison of cost of electricity and efficiency for each contractor, identification and reconciliation of differences, identification of future improvements, and discussion of outside comments. Considerations common to all systems, such as materials and furnaces, are also discussed. Results of selected in-house analyses are presented, in addition to contractor data. The results for all systems are then compared.

  18. Comparison of coal reactivity during conversion into different oxidizing medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkikh, A G; Slyusarskiy, K V; Larionov, K B; Osipov, V I

    2016-01-01

    Acoal conversion process of different coal samples into three different types of oxidizing medium (argon, air and steam) were studied by means of thermogravimetry. Two coal types with different metamorphism degree (lignite and bituminous coal) were used. The experimental procedure was carried out in non-isothermal conditions in temperature range from 373 K to 1273 K with 20 K/min heating rate. Purge gas consisted of argon and oxidizer with volumetric ratio 1:24 and had 250 ml/min flow rate.The ignition and burnout indexes were calculated to evaluate sample reactivity at different oxidizing mediums. The highest reactivity coefficient values in same atmosphere were obtained for lignite. It was caused by higher particle special surface area and volatile matter content. (paper)

  19. Coal and energy: a southern perspective. Regional characterization report for the National Coal Utilization Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boercker, F. D.; Davis, R. M.; Goff, F. G.; Olson, J. S.; Parzyck, D. C.

    1977-08-01

    This publication is the first of several reports to be produced for the National Coal Utilization Assessment, a program sponsored by the Assistant Administrator for Environment and Safety through the Division of Technology Overview of ERDA. The purpose of the report is to present the state and regional perspective on energy-related issues, especially those concerning coal production and utilization for 12 southern states. This report compiles information on the present status of: (1) state government infrastructure that deals with energy problems; (2) the balance between energy consumption and energy production; (3) the distribution of proved reserves of various mineral energy resources; (4) the major characteristics of the population; (5) the important features of the environment; and (6) the major constraints to increased coal production and utilization as perceived by the states and regional agencies. Many energy-related characteristics described vary significantly from state to state within the region. Regional and national generalizations obscure these important local variations. The report provides the state and regional perspective on energy issues so that these issues may be considered objectively and incorporated into the National Coal Utilization Assessment. This Assessment is designed to provide useful outputs for national, regional, and local energy planners.

  20. Characterization of coal blends for effective utilization in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh Raaj, S.; Arumugam, S.; Muthukrishnan, M.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Anantharaman, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This work will assist utilities to decide on the choice of coals for blending. • Conventional and advanced analytical techniques were used for characterization. • Fuel ratio, burnout profile, ash chemistry and carbon burnout are key factors. • Basic properties were additive while carbon burnout was non additive for the blends. - Abstract: This paper deals with the characterization of coal blends using various conventional and advanced analytical techniques. There has been an increasing trend in utilizing imported coals for power generation in India and utilities are resorting to blended coal firing for various reasons, both financially as well as technically. Characterization studies were carried out on 2 combinations of Indian and imported coal blends. Conventional characterization such as proximate and ultimate analysis and determination of calorific value were carried out for the raw coals and blends as per ASTM standards. Following this thermal and mineral analysis of the samples were carried out using thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and computer controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM). Combustion experiments were also conducted using drop tube furnace (DTF) to determine the burnout of the raw coals and blends. The selection of technically suitable coal combination for blending, based on these characterization studies, has been detailed.

  1. Pyrolysis and liquefaction of acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin swelled Mukah Balingian Malaysian sub-bituminous coal-The effect on coal conversion and oil yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Pauzi Abdullah; Mohd Azlan Mohd Ishak; Khudzir Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The effect of swelling on Mukah Balingian (MB) Malaysian sub-bituminous coal macrostructure was observed by pyrolysing the swelled coal via thermogravimetry under nitrogen at ambient pressure. The DTG curves of the pyrolyzed swelled coal samples show the presence of evolution peaks at temperature ranging from 235 - 295 degree Celsius that are due to releasing of light molecular weight hydrocarbons. These peaks, however, were not present in the untreated coal, indicating some changes in the coal macrostructure has occurred in the swelled coal samples. The global pyrolysis kinetics for coal that follows the first-order decomposition reaction was used to evaluate the activation energy of the pyrolyzed untreated and swelled coal samples. The results thus far have shown that the activation energy for the acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin-swelled coal samples exhibit lower values than untreated coal, indicating less energy is required during the pyrolysis process due to the weakening of the coal-coal macromolecular interaction network. Moreover, liquefaction on the swelled coal samples that was carried out at temperatures ranging from 360 to 450 degree Celsius at 4 MPa of nitrogen pressure showed the enhancement of the coal conversion and oil yield at temperature of 420 degree Celsius, with retrogressive reaction started to dominate at higher temperature as indicated by decreased and increased in oil yield and high molecular weight pre-asphaltene, respectively. These observations suggest that the solvent swelling pre-treatment using acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin can improve the coal conversion and oil yields at less severe liquefaction condition. (author)

  2. Overview of Turkey's coal necessity, reserves and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Ahmet Mahmut; Kilic, Ozen

    2006-10-15

    This article deals with overview of Turkey's coal necessity, reserves and utilization. Turkey is rapidly growing in terms of both its economy and its population. In parallel, its demand for energy, particularly for electricity, is increasing. Turkey possesses fossil fuel resources of hard coal (HC) and lignite (LG) have the greatest importance in energy production and for the national economy. The hard coal and lignite reserves of Turkey are 1.126 and 8.375 millions tons(Mt), respectively. Coal, the major fuel source for Turkey utilized mainly for electric power, steel manufacturing and cement production, amounts to 31% of total energy consumption in Turkey. To sum up, providing the total consumption is taken into account in the Middle East, the coal consumption rate of Turkey is approximately 90% of the consumption in this region.

  3. Research program for an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility studies are conducted on the introduction of an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system into the Filipino electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector. The studies cover the current status of economy and energy in that country, supply and demand of coal, environmental protection and Government's policy, study of the above-said system relative to its application to the fields of electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector, and a study about the effective utilization of Filipino domestic coal by the use of the system. Imported coal is used in the electric power industry because of its cost and quality. It is learned after research, however, that domestic coal will be able to compete against imported coal when some technologies are resorted to, such as those pertinent to denitrification in the furnace, novel low-NOx burner, coal pulverization, and combustion diagnosis. As for the treatment of flue gas, it is concluded that the simplified wet lime/gypsum process will be suitable. It is inferred that the CWM (coal-water mixture) process technology will be effective for the utilization of domestic low-grade coal. (NEDO)

  4. Research program for an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility studies are conducted on the introduction of an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system into the Filipino electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector. The studies cover the current status of economy and energy in that country, supply and demand of coal, environmental protection and Government's policy, study of the above-said system relative to its application to the fields of electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector, and a study about the effective utilization of Filipino domestic coal by the use of the system. Imported coal is used in the electric power industry because of its cost and quality. It is learned after research, however, that domestic coal will be able to compete against imported coal when some technologies are resorted to, such as those pertinent to denitrification in the furnace, novel low-NOx burner, coal pulverization, and combustion diagnosis. As for the treatment of flue gas, it is concluded that the simplified wet lime/gypsum process will be suitable. It is inferred that the CWM (coal-water mixture) process technology will be effective for the utilization of domestic low-grade coal. (NEDO)

  5. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, Gregory D.; Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration

  6. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-05

    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  7. Radiation-thermal processes of conversion in the coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafaev, I.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The brief review, history, modern condition and bibliographic data on research of radiation-stimulated processes in coals are adduced in the report. Results of new researches of influence of gamma - radiation and accelerated electrons on pyrolysis, gasification, desulphurization, paramagnetism, adsorption and optical properties of coals in wide intervals of change of absorbed dose, dose rate, temperature, radiation type and other parameters of processes are stated. As object of researches Turkish (Yeni koy, Yatagan) and Russian (Siberia) coals were used. Specific peculiarities of influence of ionizing radiations on fossil fuels, bringing in change of their reactivity as result of destruction and polycondensation processes are considered. a)Pyrolysis: Under action of gamma-radiation and accelerated electrons the rate of thermal (t) pyrolysis grows and the ratio of radiation-thermal (rt) and thermal (t) processes: Wrt/ Wt depends on dose rate and temperature. By increase of dose rate the radiation effects grows, and at increase of temperature this effect is reduced. The influence of high rate heating of coals under pulls action of accelerated electrons on conversion degree and product composition has been established. The investigation regularities of formation liquid and gas products is resulted at radiation - thermal processing of mixtures of lignites with fuel oil. These experiments were conducted in flowing conditions in the interval of temperature T=350-500 degrees centigrade, power of the pulls accelerated electrons P=30-50 W, flow velocity of fuel oil 0,2-2 ml/minute. As a index of process were controlled conversion degree of coals, overall yield, contents and characteristic of liquid and gas products. The products of thermal treatment of these mixtures and also radiation-thermal treatment of separate components significantly less than radiation-thermal conversion of binary mixtures. It has been established that radiation effect has a positive

  8. A Reduced Reaction Scheme for Volatile Nitrogen Conversion in Coal Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Saaby; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    In pulverised coal flames, the most important volatile nitrogen component forming NOx is HCN. To be able to model the nitrogen chemistry in coal flames it is necessary to have an adequate model for HCN oxidation. The present work was concerned with developing a model for HCN/NH3/NO conversion based...... that the CO/H-2 chemistry was described adequately, the reduced HCN/NH3/NO model compared very well with the detailed model over a wide range of stoichiometries. Decoupling of the HCN chemistry from the CO/H-2 chemistry resulted in over-prediction of the HCN oxidation rate under fuel rich conditions, but had...... negligible effect on the CO/H-2 chemistry. Comparison with simplified HCN models from the literature revealed significant differences, indicating that these models should be used cautiously in modelling volatile nitrogen conversion....

  9. Proceedings of the 5th underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The 5th underground coal conversion symposium was held at Alexandria, Virginia, June 18--21, 1979. Thirty-three papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Seven papers were also abstracted for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. Seven papers had been entered previously from other sources. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Extraction. (LTN)

  10. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-first quarterly report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  11. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. 19th quarterly report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  12. Process for complete conversion of coal oils, shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P

    1911-07-08

    A process is described for complete conversion of mineral coal oil, shale oil, and other similar oils in pitch, characterized by these oils being mixed with a nonvolatile substance with a boiling point on the average higher than the boiling point of the oil to be treated, and then being heated under pressure with the introduction of air, whereby the heating is interrupted if necessary on account of the known exothermic reaction and the conversion of the oil in the pitch or its distillation can be carried out without further heating.

  13. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  14. Coal conversion and the HTR - basic elements of novel power supply concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    A meeting under this title was held in Dortmund on 16 to 19 September, 1985, jointly by the VGB Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber e.V., Essen, and the Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG (VEW), Dortmund. The meeting was held in two sections: 'Gersteinwerk power plant - the combination unit K and the KUV coal conversion system' and '7th International conference on HTR technology'. Three technologies were discussed that will have a significant role on the future energy market, i.e., the HTR reactor line (first applied in the Hamm-Uentrop THTR reactor), the new generation of coal-fired power plants with combined gas/steam turbines, and the coal gasification technology. All three systems will make more efficient and less-polluting use of domestic coal by using HTR process heat, by converting coal to widen its range of applications, and by providing more efficient combination units for power plants. (orig./UA) [de

  15. Effect of ultrafine iron and mineral matter on conversion of nitrogen and carbon during pyrolysis and gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Furimsky, E. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Reaction Science

    1995-01-01

    A subbituminous coal was used to determine the distribution of N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN during slow rate heating pyrolysis in He and gasification in 10% CO{sub 2} + He balance. During pyrolysis, the N{sub 2} was the major product followed by NH{sub 3} and HCN. During gasification, the N{sub 2} yields were significantly enhanced and those of NH{sub 3} and HCN decreased. Partial demineralization of coal resulted in a decrease in carbon and nitrogen conversion. This effect was also evident by comparing the nitrogen and carbon conversions of chars prepared at 500{degree}C from the fresh and demineralized coals. The addition of ultrafine Fe to coal increased conversion of carbon and nitrogen to N{sub 2} during gasification but had little effect during pyrolysis. Thus, during the former more than 80% of the coal nitrogen was released as N{sub 2}. Also, in the presence of Fe the temperature of N{sub 2} release was decreased by about 100{degree}C both during pyrolysis and gasification. During gasification of chars prepared at 1000{degree}C, the conversion of the coal nitrogen to N{sub 2} was much lower than that of carbon. 16 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Why do electricity utilities cooperate with coal suppliers? A theoretical and empirical analysis from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Lyon, Thomas P.; Wang Feng; Song Cui

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetry of Chinese coal and electricity pricing reforms leads to serious conflict between coal suppliers and electricity utilities. Electricity utilities experience significant losses as a result of conflict: severe coal price fluctuations, and uncertainty in the quantity and quality of coal supplies. This paper explores whether establishing cooperative relationships between coal suppliers and electricity utilities can resolve conflicts. We begin with a discussion of the history of coal and electricity pricing reforms, and then conduct a theoretical analysis of relational contracting to provide a new perspective on the drivers behind the establishment of cooperative relationships between the two parties. Finally, we empirically investigate the role of cooperative relationships and the establishment of mine-mouth power plants on the performance of electricity utilities. The results show that relational contracting between electricity utilities and coal suppliers improves the market performance of electricity utilities; meanwhile, the transportation cost savings derived from mine-mouth power plants are of importance in improving the performance of electricity utilities. - Highlights: ► We discuss the history of coal and electricity pricing reforms. ► The roots of conflicts between electricity and coal firms are presented. ► We conduct a theoretical analysis of relational contracting. ► The role of mine-mouth power plants on the performance of power firms is examined.

  17. Environmental impact of coal utilization (from raw material to waste resources): Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, K.C.

    1991-10-01

    The proceedings contains 27 papers presented at the conference on environmental impact of coal utilization from raw material to waste resources which was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, during 14-15 January 1991. The conference was held as a follow-up of the research project to study the impact of coal utilization. The project was undertaken jointly by the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay and the University of Western Ontario, Canada. The project was funded by the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa (Canada). The principle themes of the conference were : occurrence of trace elements in coal, fate of trace elements during combustion of coal, characterisation of fly ash and its properties and utilization, and environmental impact of ash disposal. (M.G.B.)

  18. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 2: Materials considerations. [materials used in boilers and heat exchangers of energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies are presented which were carried out on materials behavior in nine advanced energy conversion systems employing coal and coal-derived fuels. The areas of materials behavior receiving particular attention in this regard are: (1) fireside corrosion and erosion in boiler and heat exchanger materials, (2) oxidation and hot corrosion of gas turbine materials, (3) liquid metal corrosion and mass transport, (4) high temperature steam corrosion, (5) compatability of materials with coal slag and MHD seed, (6) reaction of materials with impure helium, (7) allowable stresses for boiler and heat exchanger materials, (8) environmental effects on mechanical properties, and (9) liquid metal purity control and instrumentation. Such information was then utilized in recommending materials for use in the critical components of the power systems, and at the same time to identify materials problem areas and to evaluate qualitatively the difficulty of solving those problems. Specific materials recommendations for critical components of the nine advanced systems under study are contained in summary tables.

  19. Comparative analysis of large biomass & coal co-utilization units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, M.; Nowak, G.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Favrat, D.; Marechal, F.

    2010-01-01

    The co-utilization of coal and biomass in large power units is considered in many countries (e.g. Poland) as fast and effective way of increasing renewable energy share in the fuel mix. Such a method of biomass use is especially suitable for power systems where solid fuels (hard coal, lignite) are

  20. Promotive study on preparation of basis for foreign coal import. Study on coal renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Yoji [Japan Economic Research Institute, Tokyo

    1988-09-16

    This is an interim report on the coal renaissance study carried out in 1987 as a part of the Promotive Study on Preparation of Basis for Foreign Coal Import. The background and ideology of coal renaissance, future aspect of demand for coal, problems pertaining to the expansion of application, and a proposal for the expansion of coal usage are described in order. The role of coal expected as an alternate fuel for petroleum, development of new application fields for coal, conversion to coal, contribution of Japan to the stablization of international coal supply are outlined. Coal renaissance aims, based on technology, at stimulation of coal demand, change in the image of coal, and the utilization of the accumulated abundant knowhow. The aspect of coal demand in 2000, solution and current status of various restricting factors relating to the use of coal in general industry, and the remaining problems are discussed. 6 figures, 10 tables.

  1. Analysis of mineral phases in coal utilizing factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscoe, B.A.; Hopke, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    The mineral phase inclusions of coal are discussed. The contribution of these to a coal sample are determined utilizing several techniques. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction with coal washability studies have produced some information on the general trends of elemental variation in the mineral phases. These results have been enhanced by the use of various statistical techniques. The target transformation factor analysis is specifically discussed and shown to be able to produce elemental profiles of the mineral phases in coal. A data set consisting of physically fractionated coal samples was generated. These samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and then their elemental concentrations examined using TTFA. Information concerning the mineral phases in coal can thus be acquired from factor analysis even with limited data. Additional data may permit the resolution of additional mineral phases as well as refinement of theose already identified

  2. Coal utilization, the environment, and the role of geologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutcher, L.A.F.; Dutcher, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    The United States has demonstrated reserves (coal potentially minable with current technology) sufficient to meet demand for at least 300 yrs (Illinois Coal Association, 1990, p. 5) at the 1990 production rate of 930,900,000 tonnes (1,024,000,000 tons) (Energy Information Administration, 1991, p. 6). These deposits, underlying about 13% of the country's land area, are the energy equivalent of about 2,000,000,000,000 bbl of crude oil - more than triple the world's known oil reserves. About 85% of coal used in the nation goes to the electric utility industry to generate 55% of the electricity produced in the US. The remaining buyers include steel, other industrial facilities, and retail dealers to a limited extent. Future increases in demand will depend upon economic growth of domestic and foreign markets and the price of competing fuels. However, future demand especially will depend upon the scope of government regulation and the progress of research and technology development in reducing environmental impacts resulting from mining and utilization and in advancing clean coal-burning technologies

  3. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, R.; Findling, B.; Klein-Vielhauer, S.; Nieke, E.; Paschen, H.; Tangen, H.; Wintzer, D.

    1991-01-01

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Computational fluid dynamic simulations of coal-fired utility boilers: An engineering tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efim Korytnyi; Roman Saveliev; Miron Perelman; Boris Chudnovsky; Ezra Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study was to develop an engineering tool by which the combustion behavior of coals in coal-fired utility boilers can be predicted. We presented in this paper that computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes can successfully predict performance of - and emission from - full-scale pulverized-coal utility boilers of various types, provided that the model parameters required for the simulation are properly chosen and validated. For that purpose we developed a methodology combining measurements in a 50 kW pilot-scale test facility with CFD simulations using the same CFD code configured for both test and full-scale furnaces. In this method model parameters of the coal processes are extracted and validated. This paper presents the importance of the validation of the model parameters which are used in CFD codes. Our results show very good fit of CFD simulations with various parameters measured in a test furnace and several types of utility boilers. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of the present methodology as an effective tool for optimization coal burning in full-scale utility boilers. 41 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Critical evaluation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors applicable to coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; DeStefano, J.R.; Delene, J.G.

    1975-12-01

    A critical review is presented of the technology and costs of very high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs) applicable to nuclear coal conversion. Coal conversion processes suitable for coupling to reactors are described. Vendor concepts of the VHTR are summarized. The materials requirements as a function of process temperature in the range 1400 to 2000 0 F are analyzed. Components, environmental and safety factors, economics and nuclear fuel cycles are reviewed. It is concluded that process heat supply in the range 1400 to 1500 0 F could be developed with a high degree of assurance. Process heat at 1600 0 F would require considerably more materials development. While temperatures up to 2000 0 F appear to be attainable, considerably more research and risk were involved. A demonstration plant would be required as a step in the commercialization of the VHTR

  6. The effects of coal quality on NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout in pulverised coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, M. [National Power plc, Swindon (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    A comprehensive study is reported on the impact of coal quality on nitrogen oxides emissions and carbon burnout in utility boilers, with the aim of assessing their relationship and developing predictive tools for assessing coals. Experimental work was carried out on various laboratory-scale apparatus and on single burner test facilities ranging from 160 kW{sub th} to 40 MW{sub th} in size and measurements were obtained from full-scale 500 MW{sub e} utility boiler trials. This data and basic coal data were then used to develop mathematical models to predict full-scale boiler performance with respect to NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout. Power station trials demonstrated that coal quality effects nitrogen oxides and burnout. The variability in boiler conditions also impacted on these factors. Lower nitrogen and higher volatile coals generally produced less NO{sub x}. Volatile content was the most important generic coal property for predicting burnout. Modelling rig tests, using data from advanced laboratory-scale tests, were found to be just as successful as using rig tests for predicting NO{sub x} performance of different coals. Laboratory-scale tests were found to be successful in providing accurate predictions of burnout for the coals studied. Mathematical models, however, were found to be less successful in this area and further work to develop this is required. A major achievement was CFD solutions of full-scale utility boiler furnaces in a single mesh. 32 refs., 15 figs., 33 tabs., 2 apps.

  7. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  8. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  9. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  10. Synergistic Effect of Co-utilization of Coal and Biomass Char: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiman, M. E. S.; Hamzah, N. S.; Idris, S. S.; Rahman, N. A.; Ismail, K.

    2018-05-01

    Global concerns on impact of greenhouse gases emission, mostly released from coal-fired power plant, and the depletion of fossil fuel particularly coal, has led the production of electricity from alternatives resources such as co-utilization technologies. Previous studies proved that the co-utilization of coal and biomass/biomass chars has significantly reduced the emission of greenhouse gases either during the pyrolysis, combustion or gasification process in laboratories, pilots as well as in the industrial scales. Interestingly, most of the studies reported the presence of synergistic effect during the co-utilization processes particularly between coal and biomass char while some are not. Biomass chars were found to have porous and highly disorder carbon structure and belong to the class of most reactive carbon material, resulting to be more reactive than those hard coal and lignite. Up to date, microwave assisted pyrolysis is one of the best and latest techniques employed to produce better quality of biomass chars and it is also reduce the processing cost. Lot of works has been done regarding on the existence of synergistic effects during its co-utilization. However, the knowledge is limited to thermal and product characteristics so far. Even so, the specific reasons behind its existence are yet to understand well. Therefore, in this paper, the emphasis will be given on the synergistic effects on emission characteristics of co-utilization of coal and biomass chars so that it can be apply in energy-based industries to help in reduction of the greenhouse gases emission.

  11. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  12. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability analyses of utility boilers are performed. • Natural gas fired boilers have the least CO_2 emissions in fossil fueled boilers. • Solar boilers rank last with an emergy yield ratio of 1.2. • Biomass boilers have the best emergy sustainability index. - Abstract: A significant amount of global electric power generation is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. Steam boilers are one of the most important components for steam and electricity production. The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the sustainability analysis of a utility boiler. These analyses can be used by decision-makers to diagnose and optimize the sustainability of a utility boiler. Seven utility boiler systems are analyzed using energy and embodied solar energy (emergy) principles in order to evaluate their environmental efficiencies. They include a subcritical coal fired boiler, a supercritical coal fired boiler, an oil fired boiler, a natural gas fired boiler, a concentrating solar power boiler utilizing a tower configuration, a biomass boiler, and a refuse derived fuel boiler. Their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the natural gas boiler has significantly lower CO_2 emission than an equivalent coal or oil fired boiler. The refuse derived fuel boiler has about the same CO_2 emissions as the natural gas boiler. The emergy sustainability index of a utility boiler system is determined as the measure of its sustainability from an environmental perspective. Our analyses results indicate that the natural gas boiler has a relatively high emergy sustainability index compared to other fossil fuel boilers. Converting existing coal boilers to natural gas boilers is a feasible option to achieve better sustainability. The results also show that the biomass boiler has the best emergy sustainability index and it will remain a means to utilize the renewable energy within the Rankine steam cycle. Before

  13. Low temperature coal depolymerization-liquefaction: conversion of a North Dakota lignite to a light hydrocarbon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabtai, J.; Yuan Zhang (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Fuels Engineering)

    1989-10-01

    A new low temperature method of coal liquefaction is described which includes intercalation of the coal with FeCl{sub 3}, depolymerization under supercritical conditions, and hydroprocessing of the depolymerized product. Results indicate a high yield conversion of lignites to light hydrocarbon oils. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in Indonesia; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indonesia ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the coal of Indonesia, where the expansion of the use of coal as a substitute for petroleum/plant fuel is aimed at, the paper grasped the situation of coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental problems, and analyzed the situation of the coal utilization/spread by industry including the commercial/residential use. The purpose of the survey is to work out a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation for introducing the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system to Indonesia. Coal utilization systems, the introduction of which Indonesia should study in future, were picked up, according to the surveys in fiscal 1993 and 1994. In commercial/residential and small-scale industry sectors, needed is improvement of carbonization technology for production of coal carbonization briquette. Moreover, the introduction of bio-briquette should be studied in the future. In the power generation sector, studies should be made on the introduction of technology for SOx/NOx reduction and technology for coal ash treatment including the effective use of coal ash. For the introduction of coal boilers, the combustion mixed with bagasse, which is abundant in amount, is also necessary. In the coal production sector, coal preparation technology is studied, and a method to select the optimum process was proposed through the simulation. 76 figs., 43 tabs.

  15. Study for recovery and utilization of coal mine gas in Russia (Kuznetsk coal basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions in line with the Joint Implementation, a study was conducted on recovery/utilization of methane gas emitted from the Chertinskaya coal mine in the Kuznetsk coal basin area. According to the survey, the methane gas emitted from the Chertinskaya coal mine into the atmospheric air is 26 million to 36 million tons on the levels of the annual coal production between 0.7 million and 1 million tons. However, the monthly gas recovery amount and concentration largely fluctuate, and therefore, the use method to cope with this was studied. The study was now under way, and the electric power production using gas engine was regarded as the best. In this project, only the Chertinskaya mine can generate power of 34,721 MWh. In the whole Kuznetsk coal basin, approximately 200 million m{sup 3} of gas is needed to be removed for safety of the mine. The use of this will probably bring energy substitution of about 128,000 tons/year and CO2 reduction of 2.8 million tons/year. (NEDO)

  16. Conversion of coal mining regions of France. La reconversion de la mineria del carbon en Francia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, A.

    1990-08-01

    This programme of drastic reduction in coal mining in France has been made possible by the Economic Conversion Plan for the Coalfields. The Plan takes account of all areas of work affected by the reduction in coal mining and will assist in maintaining or even increase economic activity in the areas involved.

  17. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  18. NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  19. Report of National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources for fiscal 1979. Research on conversion of coal to petroleum, research on coal liquefaction, high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal by continuous test equipment, and manufacture of coal chemicals; 1979 nendo sekitan no yuka no kenkyu / sekitan no ekika no kenkyu / renzoku shiken sochi ni yoru sekitan no koatsu ekiso suisoka bunkai / coal chemicals no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    Research was conducted on conversion of coal to petroleum for the purpose of securing substitute liquid fuel. Recovery of hydrogen from the waste gas from the conversion process was explained, as were the conversion results from various coals produced in Japan. In coal liquefaction researches with the aim of manufacturing artificial petroleum, a report was made on each of the researches, i.e., the experiment results of coal liquefaction using various catalysts, manufacture of hydrogen by water gas reaction, catalytic action against coal paste, action of mixed oil and pressure against coal paste, result of hydrogen adding test for coal paste using an intermediate scale device, test result of secondary hydrogen addition for coal liquefied oil, and the test result of continuous secondary hydrogen addition for the liquefied oil. In the manufacture of fuel oil by hydro-cracking of coal or tar, a report was made on high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal using a continuous testing device. Aromatic chemicals useful as chemical materials are supposed to be obtained by cutting inter-polymerized-unit bonding to make low molecules from the chemical structure of coal, removing surrounding radicals and simplifying it. A report was also made on the experiment of manufacturing coal chemicals by combination of high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation and hydro-dealkylation. (NEDO)

  20. Complete biocycle for solar energy conversion, storage, fuel and power generation, and coal conservation for future use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    A complete carbon biocycle has been described, starting from coal in in situ condition in coal seams underground. Various steps involved are: (i) Biogasification of coal to methane, using a consortia of bacteria, has been reported. A group of bacteria degrades complex structure of coal to simpler structure. This simpler structure of coal, is then converted to methane by methanogens; (ii) Biophotolysis of methane and associated biodegradation, results in products, such as hydrogen and oxygen for use in fuel cells for power generation; (iii) Bioconversion of products so obtained is carried out to produce methanol or methane that could be used as fuel or recycled; (iv) In complete biocycle some methane is converted to biomass. In order to replace this methane, coal is converted to methane using group of bacteria, only to the extent methane has been converted to biomass; (v) The biomass so produced could be dumped underground from where coal has been gasified. Alternatively it could be burnt as fuel or else used as substitute of protein in animal food. Detailed concept of proposed technology for: (a) an alternative to conventional coal mining, (b) generation of power using products of bioconversion in fuel cell, and (c) conversation of solar energy for generation of alternative source of fuel and power, has been discussed. Possibility of developing a biofuel cell for conversion of solar energy through bioelectrochemical route has been suggested. (author). 48 refs., 3 figs

  1. Coal utilization in the twenty-first century: How much and for how long?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluskoter, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is projected that coal usage in the US will increase at approximately the historic rate as electricity consumption increases. Because the life expectancy of powerplants and coal mines is in the tens of years, the electricity to be produced from coal in 2001 will be generated in plants currently on line or under construction, and almost all of the coal consumed will come from existing mines. Coal produces two-thirds of the world's electricity and, on a worldwide basis, will continue to be a major source of energy for the remainder of this century and for some time to come. It is the longer term projections of coal utilization, beyond the next few decades, that remain much more difficult to predict. Fossil fuels are present in the Earth in finite amounts and are not renewable on the human scale of existence. Therefore, a shift to other sources of energy must occur eventually. A doubling of population will create a demand for greatly increased energy production. Historically, a 1% increase in world domestic product has been accompanied by a 1% increase in energy consumption. In most regions of the world, coal could supply a major portion of the increased energy and could do so without requiring major technological advances in coal mining and coal utilization technologies. The large, extensive, and accessible resources of coal, the ability to utilize it, and the demand pressures from an expanding population all bode well for the future of coal. However, there are also factors that may contribute to limiting the future use of coal. They include environmental concerns (acid rain, air toxics, and global warming) and the rate at which nonfossil-fuel sources (perhaps solar and nuclear) are developed. Although many of the decisions that will influence the future use of coal will be based on economic and environmental considerations, it is more than likely that politics will also play an important role in all of those decisions

  2. Basic study for promoting joint implementation and others. Feasibility study on the recovery and utilization of coal mine methane of an Upper Silesian Coal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Having the Mining Industry Restructuring Public Corporation located in the city of Katowice, Poland as the counterpart, a feasibility study has been executed on a project to utilize coal bed gas for power generation. Selected for the study are the 'Budryk coal mine' owned by KWK 'Budryk' Coal Company and the 'Pniowek coal mine' owned by Jastrzebie Coal Company. Since the Pniowek coal mine can utilize the whole quantity of recovered methane by 2001, the Budryk coal mine was selected as the object of the project. As a result of the trial calculation on the economy when the new gas power plant is installed in the Budryk coal mine, the energy substitution effect was found to equal to a power amount at transmission terminal of 6 MWh/year. Furthermore, when proliferation effect is taken into consideration, an enormous effect can be expected if new coal mines are developed and the existing cola mines will go further deeper, because the Silesian coal mine presently has the coal resource quantity of 57 billion tons and the annual gas discharge quantity of 750 million m{sup 3}. Therefore, if the technologies to recover, manage and utilize the gas are established at the Budryk coal mine, a large effect leading to an aspiration would be expected under the current situation of the structural reorganization under which the Polish coal companies are placed. (NEDO)

  3. Enrichment of reactive macerals in coal: its characterization and utilization in coke making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Debjani; Kopparthi, P.; Dash, P. S.; Saxena, V. K.; Chandra, S.

    2018-01-01

    Macerals in coal are of different types: reactive and inert. These macerals are differ in their physical and chemical properties. Column flotation method has been used to separate the reactive macerals in a non-coking coal. The enriched coal is then characterized in order to understand the changes in the coking potential by different techniques. It is then used in making of metallurgical coke by proper blending with other coals. Enriched coal enhance the properties of metallurgical coke. This shows a path of utilization of non-coking coal in metallurgical coke making.

  4. Basic studies on coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of research and development of coal liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992, regarding the coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products. For the fundamental study on coal liquefaction reaction, were investigated effect of asphaltene in petroleum residue on coprocessing, pretreatment effect in coprocessing of Taiheiyo coal and tarsand bitumen using oil soluble catalyst, solubilization and liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal at mild conditions with the aid of super acid, and flash hydropyrolysis of finely pulverized swollen coal under high hydrogen pressure. On the other hand, for the study on hydrotreatment of coal derived liquid, were investigated catalytic hydroprocessing of Wandoan coal liquids, production of gasoline from coal liquids by fluid catalytic cracking, solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from coal liquids, and separation of hetero compounds in coal liquid by means of high pressure crystallization. Further progress in these studies has been confirmed. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Basic study for promoting joint implementation and others. Feasibility study on the recovery and utilization of coal mine methane of an Upper Silesian Coal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Having the Mining Industry Restructuring Public Corporation located in the city of Katowice, Poland as the counterpart, a feasibility study has been executed on a project to utilize coal bed gas for power generation. Selected for the study are the 'Budryk coal mine' owned by KWK 'Budryk' Coal Company and the 'Pniowek coal mine' owned by Jastrzebie Coal Company. Since the Pniowek coal mine can utilize the whole quantity of recovered methane by 2001, the Budryk coal mine was selected as the object of the project. As a result of the trial calculation on the economy when the new gas power plant is installed in the Budryk coal mine, the energy substitution effect was found to equal to a power amount at transmission terminal of 6 MWh/year. Furthermore, when proliferation effect is taken into consideration, an enormous effect can be expected if new coal mines are developed and the existing cola mines will go further deeper, because the Silesian coal mine presently has the coal resource quantity of 57 billion tons and the annual gas discharge quantity of 750 million m{sup 3}. Therefore, if the technologies to recover, manage and utilize the gas are established at the Budryk coal mine, a large effect leading to an aspiration would be expected under the current situation of the structural reorganization under which the Polish coal companies are placed. (NEDO)

  6. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  7. National coal utilization assessment. An integrated assessment of increased coal use in the Midwest: impacts and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, L. John

    1977-10-01

    This study was performed as a part of the Argonne National Laboratory Regional Studies program, which is sponsored by the Department of Energy. The purpose is to assess the impacts and consequences associated with alternative energy options on a regional basis, and to identify and analyze alternative mitigation and solution strategies for increasing the acceptability of these options. The National Coal Utilization Assessment is being conducted as a part of the Regional Studies Program. This particular study is focusing on impacts and constraints on increased coal utilization. In addition, a major focal point for the study is the identification and analysis of alternative solution strategies applicable to these constraints and problems.

  8. Clean utilization of low-rank coals for low-cost power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondreal, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Despite the unique utilization problems of low-rank coals, the ten US steam electric plants having the lowest operating cost in 1990 were all fueled on either lignite or subbituminous coal. Ash deposition problems, which have been a major barrier to sustaining high load on US boilers burning high-sodium low-rank coals, have been substantially reduced by improvements in coal selection, boiler design, on-line cleaning, operating conditions, and additives. Advantages of low-rank coals in advanced systems are their noncaking behavior when heated, their high reactivity allowing more complete reaction at lower temperatures, and the low sulfur content of selected deposits. The principal barrier issues are the high-temperature behavior of ash and volatile alkali derived from the coal-bound sodium found in some low-rank coals. Successful upgrading of low-rank coals requires that the product be both stable and suitable for end use in conventional and advanced systems. Coal-water fuel produced by hydrothermal processing of high-moisture low-rank coal meets these criteria, whereas most dry products from drying or carbonizing in hot gas tend to create dust and spontaneous ignition problems unless coated, agglomerated, briquetted, or afforded special handling

  9. Conversion of different ash content brown coal in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, P.; Chernyavskiy, N.; Ryzhkov, A.; Remenuk, A. [Ural Federal Univ., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Dept. of Thermal Power Plants; Dulienko, S. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Coal Energy Technology Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Available equations used to determine combustion specific rate of coal-derived cokes describe the burning of carbon particles well enough but are not accurate in case of ash-containing coke particles combustion. This study is an attempt to account for the influence of both initial ash content and its increase in the course of carbon conversion in specific rate calculations. The results of experimental study of burn-out dynamics of Volchanskiy field (North Urals) brown coal and its coke with different ash content under conditions of fluidized bed combustion at impulse-type non-gradient reactor RSC-1 and dynamic installation Pyrolysis-M are summarized. Diffusion and heterogeneous (kinetic) components of carbon combustion rate are identified separately by using diffusion and kinetics equation with correction for carbon mass fraction in particles. Burning particle overheating values and heterogeneous combustion rate constants at different temperatures are estimated.

  10. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the coal of the Philippines, where the expansion of the use of coal as a substitute for petroleum/plant fuel is aimed at, the paper grasped the situation of coal production/development, the trend of coal import and domestic distribution, the coal utilization trend, and environmental problems, and analyzed the situation of coal utilization/spread by industry including the commercial/residential use. The purpose of the survey is to draw up a master plan for the introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. As to the use of environmentally-friendly coal technology which should be adopted to the coal mining industry and commercial/residential sector, cited are the introduction of coal preparation technology and power transmission technology, and the development/spread of briquette as a firewood substituting fuel. In the electric power sector, the problem is the treatment of ash after combustion and the effective use. Relating to the treatment of flue gas, there is no installation at all of desulfurization facilities and denitrification facilities. In the cement industry sector, they wish to return fuel from heavy oil to coal. For it, it is necessary to study dust preventive measures. In the other sectors, coal hasn`t been used very much. An increase in coal demand is not expected also in the future, and big problems concerning coal haven`t occurred. 42 figs., 64 tabs.

  11. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  12. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  13. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, D.R.; Stoner, D.L.; Dugan, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  14. The future of coal-fired generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G. [Sherritt International Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The 3 features that will ensure coal's place as a primary energy source are its affordability, availability and its abundance. Coal reserves represent more than 200 years of supply. Graphs depicting coal consumption in North America, Central and South America, Western Europe, Easter Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia show that coal use is expected to grow 1.5 per cent annually. Asia is the greatest consumer of coal, while the consumption of coal in Eastern Europe is steadily declining. About half of the electricity supply in the United States will continue to be generated by coal and non-electrical utilization is also expected to grow. Emerging technologies that are promoting efficiency of coal utilization include combustion technology, clean coal technology, conversion technology and emissions technology. These technologies also address environmental concerns regarding coal combustion, such as removal of carbon dioxide through sequestration and reduction in nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and particulates. Mercury mitigation technologies are also being developed. It was noted that the use of coal is mitigated by other available supply such as nuclear, natural gas and hydro which provide the base load generation. Renewable energy supply can meet up to 20 per cent of the base load, while coal can fill be gap between base load and peak loads. It was noted that the use of coal in direct industrial processes allows for synergies such as syngas for bitumen upgrading, coal as a chemical feedstock with electricity as a by-product, combined heat and power and cogeneration. tabs., figs.

  15. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  16. Coal conversion processes. Quarterly report, December 13, 1983-March 12, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Biloen, P.; Holder, G.D.; Klinzing, G.E.; Tierney, J.W.

    1984-05-01

    Experimental work is continuing on four separate projects related to coal conversion processes. The direct digital control of exothermic multiphase reactions is being studied in an experimental adiabatic flow reactor. The existence of two stable steady states for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction network at the same temperature and feed condition has been verified and quantified. Various absorbents for SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub X/ are being studied. The absorption of NO/sub 2/ by methanol and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone has been extensively examined. Preliminary data have been obtained with triethylene-tetraamine. Hindered amines will be studied next. Procedures for the preparation of liquid membranes have been tested and the incorporation of hindered amines in them will now be examined. Isotopic switching is being used to study the way in which promoters affect supported metal catalysts. With improved resolution from the mass spectrometer, early quantitative results give indications of three different surface species and of non-statistical ingrowth of /sup 13/C into the product molecules. A program for the study of the extraction of coal and oil shale using supercritical fluids is being carried out. The effect of the presence of piperidine on the amount of toluene solubles produced by supercritical extraction of coal with toluene/piperidine mixture has been determined. A new kinetic model for the extraction/liquefaction of coal by supercritical toluene and THF has been developed and proven satisfactory. Bruceton coal and Hi Na lignite have been extracted with supercritical water. 3 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States-Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzek, Tad W.; Croft, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    The United States has the world's largest coal reserves and Montana the highest potential for mega-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create a major source of domestic transportation fuels from coal, and some prominent Montanans want to be at the center of that effort. We calculate that the energy efficiency of the best existing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process applied to average coal in Montana is less than 1/2 of the corresponding efficiency of an average crude oil refining process. The resulting CO 2 emissions are 20 times (2000%) higher for CTL than for conventional petroleum products. One barrel of the FT fuel requires roughly 800 kg of coal and 800 kg of water. The minimum energy cost of subsurface CO 2 sequestration would be at least 40% of the FT fuel energy, essentially halving energy efficiency of the process. We argue therefore that CTL conversion is not the most valuable use for the coal, nor will it ever be, as long as it is economical to use natural gas for electric power generation. This finding results from the low efficiency inherent in FT synthesis, and is independent of the monumental FT plant construction costs, mine construction costs, acute lack of water, and the associated environmental impacts for Montana

  18. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  19. Proceedings of the symposium on assessing the industrial hygiene monitoring needs for the coal conversion and oil shale industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, O. Jr. (ed.)

    1979-03-01

    This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, Analysis and Assessment Program, through the Safety and Environmental Protection Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The symposium program included presentations centering around the themes: Recognition of Occupational Health Monitoring Requirements for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries and Status of Dosimetry Technology for Occupational Health Monitoring for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries. Sixteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; six had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  20. Hydrothermal conversion of South African coal fly ash into pure phase Zeolite Na-P1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gitari, MW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South African coal combustion power utilities generate huge amounts of coal fly ash that can be beneficiated into zeolitic products. This chapter reports on the optimization of the presynthesis and synthesis conditions for a pure-phase zeolite Na-P1...

  1. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Malaysia Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This survey arranged the status of coal utilization technology and the status of coal production, supply, etc. in Malaysia and Vietnam, examined/studied coal utilization systems in both countries, and finally assessed feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. As a country of primary energy source which is abundant in crude oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, coal, etc., Malaysia now depends on crude oil and natural gas for 80% of its energy, and places emphasis on exploration of natural gas and oil refining. In electric power and cement industries where coal is consumed, effectiveness and environmental issues in association with coal utilization are future subjects. In Vietnam, the north is abundant in hydroelectric power and anthracite, and the south in oil and gas resource, but the north and central districts are in a state of undevelopment. Coal is used for coal thermal power generation, cement industry, and residential/commercial fuel. In the future, effective coal utilization and environmental issues will be subjects. 16 refs., 38 figs., 75 tabs.

  2. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in India); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Indo ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was conducted of the present situation of coal utilization and the present coal situation such as the environmental state of India which is a coal producing/consuming country next to China in Asia. The paper studied a feasibility of the introduction of the environmental friendly type coal utilization system` to be planned in India. The items for survey are the present situation of economy and energy and the future trend, environmental problems on coal utilization, the present status of the coal distribution system and study subjects, the present status of coal utilization by field and study subjects, a possibility of briquette use, a possibility of coal fluidization, electric power development plans and coal combustion technology in each industry, etc. The subjects are the obligation of coal preparation to coal thermal power plants 1000 km away from coal mines starting 2001, measures taken for effective ash use, measures taken for superannuated gas furnaces, etc. Based on the results of these site surveys and reports of the investigation under consignment from CMPDI, the paper studied/analyzed possibilities of introducing the coal utilization system having actual introduction results in Japan to India, and made an investigational report. 39 refs., 12 figs., 56 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  4. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  5. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Grasping the present situation of coal utilization technology in the Philippines, the paper proposed a feasibility study of introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system which seems to be needed in the future. (1) Introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the electric power generation sector: there are only four full-scale running coal thermal power plants in the Philippines. In the future, several coal thermal plants are planned to be constructed by 2005, but for the new installation, it is desirable to adopt fluidized bed boilers with wide application to coal kinds. In case of 0.3-1.0 million MW class plants, it is planned to adopt high grade import coals, and it will be natural to fire pulverized coal. For the processing of flue gas, it is a must to install desulfurization facilities and smoke/soot removal devices. (2) Utilization/development of domestic low grade coals: at the mine-mouth generating plant, it is necessary to investigate the economically minable amount of coal, confirm productivity, survey coal quality, etc., and select boiler. As to coal briquetting technology, it is necessary to examine coal quality for tests and make a thorough study of what technology is most suitable. 50 figs., 78 tabs.

  6. Current status of U.S. coal utilization and non-fuel uses of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.S.; Schobert, H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the current situation is important for projecting the future direction of coal utilization. The world's annual consumption of coal in 1995 was 5104.01 million short tons (MST, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric ton). Coal plays a very important role in the US energy supply; US coal production in 1995 totaled 1033 MST, including 611.1 MST of bituminous coal, 328.4 MST of subbituminous coal, 86.1 MST of lignite, and 4.1 MST of anthracite. US coal consumption totaled 940.6 MST, with 88.1% in electric utilities, 3.5% in coke plants, 7.8% for other industrial uses, and only 0.6% in the residential and commercial sectors. The amount of fossil resources used for non-fuel purposes accounted for 8.4% of the total annual consumption in 1995. Non-fuel uses of fossil fuels particularly coal may become more important in the future. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world are large enough for consumption for over 220 years at the 1995 level, while proven oil reserves are only about 40 times the world's 1995 consumption level. Coal has several positive attributes when considered as a feedstock for aromatic chemicals, specialty chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Existing nonfuel uses of coals include (1) high temperature carbonization of bituminous and subbituminous coals to make metallurgical coke; (2) gasification of coal to make synthesis gases and other chemicals; (3) use of coal in manufacturing other materials such as activated carbons, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and production of phosphorus (phosphoric acid); (4) the use of coal tars from carbonization and gasification for making aromatic and phenolic chemicals; (5) the use of coal tar pitch for making carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers; and (6) other non-fuel products derived from coal including combustion by-products. Coal may become more important both as an energy source and as the source of chemical feedstocks in the 21st century

  7. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 1: Introduction and summary and general assumptions. [energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal - feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    Nine advanced energy conversion concepts using coal or coal-derived fuels are summarized. They are; (1) open-cycle gas turbines, (2) combined gas-steam turbine cycles, (3) closed-cycle gas turbines, (4) metal vapor Rankine topping, (5) open-cycle MHD; (6) closed-cycle MHD; (7) liquid-metal MHD; (8) advanced steam; and (9) fuel cell systems. The economics, natural resource requirements, and performance criteria for the nine concepts are discussed.

  8. CEZ utility's coal-fired power plants: towards a higher environmental friendliness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindl, V.; Spilkova, T.; Vanousek, I.; Stehlik, J.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental efforts of the major Czech utility, CEZ a.s., are aimed at reducing air pollution arising from electricity and heat generating facilities. There are 3 main kinds of activity in this respect: phasing out of coal fired power plants; technological provisions to reduce emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides from those coal fired units that are to remain in operation after 1998; and completion of the Temelin nuclear power plant. In 1995, emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide from CEZ's coal fired power plants were 19%, 79%, 59%, and 60%, respectively, with respect to the situation in 1992. The break-down of electricity generation by CEZ facilities (in GWh) was as follows in 1995: hydroelectric power plants 1673, nuclear power plants 12230, coal fired power plants without desulfurization equipment 30181, and coal fired power plants with desulfurization equipment 2277. Provisions implemented to improve the environmental friendliness of the individual CEZ's coal fired power plants are described in detail. (P.A.). 5 tabs., 1 fig

  9. National Coal Utilization Assessment. An integrated assessment of increased coal use in the Midwest: impacts and constraints. [14 states Midwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This study examines the impacts and constraints to increased coal production and use for a 14-state Midwestern region. The assessment considers technology characteristics, energy supply and demand trends, siting constraints, impacts on water availability and coal reserves, impacts on air and water quality, and ecosystems, effects of trace elements, social and economic impacts, and health risks. The significant air quality constraints to coal use are related to the short-term National Ambient Air Quality Standards, PSD standards, and exposure to sulfates. In general, cumulative water supply in the 14-state region is adequate to satisfy foreseeable energy requirements; however, on a localized basis significant water shortages may develop which could constrain a smaller portion of the energy development. Water quality impacts are primarily restricted to areas with insufficient water resources. Coal mining will continue to have significant effects on water quality in smaller streams draining the major coal regions unless strict control practices are maintained. Coal-conversion plants may cause localized water quality problems; however, the effluent characteristics of these plants are not well-known. A significant amount of the coal development is anticipated to occur in counties with high susceptibility to social and economic impacts. The timing, magnitude, and nature of these impacts could be mitigated by the development of effective management strategies.

  10. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems in sectors except the coal industry in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sekitan kogyo igai no bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of working out a comprehensive master plan for application of the coal utilization system, the paper surveyed and studied the coal utilization system in terms of environmental measures and efficiency improvement in the utilization of coal. As a result of the discussion with NEDO and the National Planning Committee of China, Liaoning Province (the whole China) and Shenyang City were selected as a model area and a model city for the survey and study. As energy conservation measures taken in the former, desirable are intensifying/capacity-increase of boilers, kilns, etc. and adoption of new-type/high-efficient equipment. Also expected are reinforcement of combustion control and improvement of efficiency by using coal preparation, industrial use coal briquette, etc. Measures taken in the latter are the same as those taken in the whole China. As SOx reduction measures for Liaoning Province, desirable is installation of dry-type desulfurization equipment and simple desulfurization equipment. As dust prevention measures for it, desirable is installation of electrostatic precipitators or high-functional bag filters. SOx reduction measures for Shenyang City are the same as those taken in the whole China. SOx can be reduced by using coal-prepared low-sulfur coal and industrial use coal briquette added with desulfurizing agent. 88 figs., 163 tabs.

  11. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Huang, W.J.; Shridharani, K.

    1981-04-01

    Results from screening studies showed that the pyrite samples separated from various coal seams had similar catalytic activity. The addition of all the pyrite samples to feed slurry increased conversion of coal and production of oil. A sample of fusinite was also tested for its liquefaction behavior with and without added pyrite. The addition of pyrite increased the conversion of fusinite and production of oil. These results show that pyrite catalyzes the conversion of fusinite and therefore improves overall coal conversion. Conversion of coal and oil production increased by impregnating coal with iron and molybdenum compounds. Coal conversion and oil production also increased with increasing concentration of both iron and molybdenum impregnated on coal. Addition of various transition metal sulfides increased coal conversion and oil production. Dramatic improvements were noted with nickel, vanadium, and tin sulfides. Addition of transition metal naphthenates produced mixed results; some of them improved coal conversion and others had no effect. The effect of metal concentration on coal conversion was also not clear. Deep cleaning of coal did not affect coal conversion, but it significantly reduced oil production. Addition of pyrite separated from coal to deep cleaned coal sample regained the oil production to the original value, i.e., oil produced from liquefaction of raw coal.Coal cleaned by oil agglomeration gave highest coal conversion and oil production. Basic and non-basic nitrogen compounds reduced the naphthalene hydrogenation activity of both Co-Mo-Al and sulfided Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Sulfided Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was inactive for denitrogenation of quinoline, and the reaction product mainly consisted of hydrogenated and hydrocracked quinoline. On the contrary, Co-Mo-Al was active for denitrogenation of quinoline, resulting in lower quinoline poisoning.

  12. The Research of Utilization Hours of Coal-Fired Power Generation Units Based on Electric Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.

  13. Studies of the fate of sulfur trioxide in coal-fired utility boilers based on modified selected condensation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Jiang, Wu; Chen, Chien-Wei; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2010-05-01

    The formation of sulfur trioxide (SO(3)) in coal-fired utility boilers can have negative effects on boiler performance and operation, such as fouling and corrosion of equipment, efficiency loss in the air preheater (APH), increase in stack opacity, and the formation of PM(2.5). Sulfur trioxide can also compete with mercury when bonding with injected activated carbons. Tests in a lab-scale reactor confirmed there are major interferences between fly ash and SO(3) during SO(3) sampling. A modified SO(3) procedure to maximize the elimination of measurement biases, based on the inertial-filter-sampling and the selective-condensation-collecting of SO(3), was applied in SO(3) tests in three full-scale utility boilers. For the two units burning bituminous coal, SO(3) levels starting at 20 to 25 ppmv at the inlet to the selective catalytic reduction (SCR), increased slightly across the SCR, owing to catalytic conversion of SO(2) to SO(3,) and then declined in other air pollutant control device (APCD) modules downstream to approximately 5 ppmv and 15 ppmv at the two sites, respectively. In the unit burning sub-bituminous coal, the much lower initial concentration of SO(3) estimated to be approximately 1.5 ppmv at the inlet to the SCR was reduced to about 0.8 ppmv across the SCR and to about 0.3 ppmv at the exit of the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The SO(3) removal efficiency across the WFGD scrubbers at the three sites was generally 35% or less. Reductions in SO(3) across either the APH or the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in units burning high-sulfur bituminous coal were attributed to operating temperatures being below the dew point of SO(3).

  14. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems

  15. Numerical investigation of heat transfer characteristics in utility boilers of oxy-coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yukun; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air-coal and oxy-coal combustion in an industrial scale PF boiler were simulated in ANSYS FLUENT. • The O 2 concentration of 33 vol% in the oxy-coal combustion case matches the air-coal combustion case most closely. • The moisture in the flue gas has little impact on flame temperature, but positive impact on surface incident radiation. - Abstract: Oxy-coal combustion has different flue gas composition from the conventional air-coal combustion. The different composition further results in different properties, such as the absorption coefficient, emissivity, and density, which can directly affect the heat transfer in both radiation and convection zones of utility boilers. This paper numerically studied a utility boiler of oxy-coal combustion and compares with air-coal combustion in terms of flame profile and heat transferred through boiler side walls in order to understand the effects of different operating conditions on oxy-coal boiler retrofitting and design. Based on the results, it was found that around 33 vol% of effective O 2 concentration ([O 2 ] effective ) the highest flame temperature and total heat transferred through boiler side walls in the oxy-coal combustion case match to those in the air-coal combustion case most; therefore, the 33 vol% of [O 2 ] effective could result in the minimal change for the oxy-coal combustion retrofitting of the existing boiler. In addition, the increase of the moisture content in the flue gas has little impact on the flame temperature, but results in a higher surface incident radiation on boiler side walls. The area of heat exchangers in the boiler was also investigated regarding retrofitting. If boiler operates under a higher [O 2 ] effective , to rebalance the load of each heat exchanger in the boiler, the feed water temperature after economizer can be reduced or part of superheating surfaces can be moved into the radiation zone to replace part of the evaporators

  16. Utilization of brown coal in FRG power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1985-07-01

    FRG methods are studied for utilizing brown coal in view of the development of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal deposits. The use of brown coal in FRG power plants has increased from 15% in 1950- 1960 to 85% (total output) in 1982, providing 79.4 TWh of electrical energy. The remainder was used for briquetting, pulverization and breeze coke. In 1982 nearly 100 million tons of brown coal were burned by six large power stations (rated capacity 11,400 MW) to produce nearly 80 billion kWh of energy. Measures are discussed taken to reduce slagging and to remove excessive moisture content. Problems are analyzed associated with increased contamination of the atmosphere in areas with high population density (412/km/sup 2/) and cost of suppression is reviewed. According to available data, the cost of preventive measures taken by FRG, USA, Japan and the Netherlands is equal to 30% of the total cost of the energy. The most critical problem is suppression of sulfur dioxide, either by dry or wet scrubbers or by the addition of dry dolomite or lime to the furnace (75% of all SO/sub 2/ emissions in FRG comes from power stations). A method is described developed by RWE based on a series of distribution headers in the upper part of combustion chambers. At best, 70-80% reduction can be achieved. 14 references.

  17. The role of clean coal technologies in a deregulated rural utility market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.W. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The nation`s rural electric cooperatives own a high proportion of coal-fired generation, in excess of 80 percent of their generating capacity. As the electric utility industry moves toward a competitive electricity market, the generation mix for electric cooperatives is expected to change. Distributed generation will likely serve more customer loads than is now the case, and that will lead to an increase in gas-fired generation capacity. But, clean low-cost central station coal-fired capacity is expected to continue to be the primary source of power for growing rural electric cooperatives. Gasification combined cycle could be the lowest cost coal based generation option in this new competitive market if both capital cost and electricity production costs can be further reduced. This paper presents anticipated utility business scenarios for the deregulated future and identifies combined cycle power plant configurations that might prove most competitive.

  18. Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, M; Fink, J K [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

  19. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  20. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, T.M.; Melick, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama and Jim Walter Resources, has been awarded a DOE contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler with a coal-water slurry firing system. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the principle concern when firing slurry in fire-tube boilers, EER has focused the program on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. This paper reports on the program which consists of five tasks. Task 1 provides for the design and retrofit of the host boiler to fire coal-water slurry. Task 2 is a series of optimization tests that will determine the effects of adjustable parameters on boiler performance. Task 3 will perform about 1000 hours of proof-of-concept system tests. Task 4 will be a comprehensive review of the test data in order to evaluate the economics of slurry conversions. Task 5 will be the decommissioning of the test facility if required

  1. Clean Coal Technologies in China: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the dominant primary energy source in China and the major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. To facilitate the use of coal in an environmentally satisfactory and economically viable way, clean coal technologies (CCTs are necessary. This paper presents a review of recent research and development of four kinds of CCTs: coal power generation; coal conversion; pollution control; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. It also outlines future perspectives on directions for technology research and development (R&D. This review shows that China has made remarkable progress in the R&D of CCTs, and that a number of CCTs have now entered into the commercialization stage.

  2. Chemical and Pyrolytic Thermogravimetric Characterization of Nigerian Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of new coal deposits in Nigeria presents solutions for nation’s energy crises and prospects for socioeconomic growth and sustainable development. Furthermore, the quest for sustainable energy to limit global warming, climate change, and environmental degradation has necessitated the exploration of alternatives using cleaner technologies such as coal pyrolysis. However, a lack of comprehensive data on physico-chemical and thermal properties of Nigerian coals has greatly limited their utilization. Therefore, the physico-chemical properties, rank (classification, and thermal decomposition profiles of two Nigerian bituminous coals – Afuze (AFZ and Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ – were examined in this study. The results indicate that the coals contain high proportions of C, H, N, S, O and a sufficiently high heating value (HHV for energy conversion. The coal classification revealed that the Afuze (AFZ coal possesses a higher rank, maturity, and coal properties compared to the Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ coal. A thermal analysis demonstrated that coal pyrolysis in both cases occurred in three stages; drying (30-200 °C, devolatilization (200-600 °C, and char decomposition (600-1000 °C. The results also indicated that pyrolysis at 1000 °C is not sufficient for complete pyrolysis. In general, the thermochemical and pyrolytic fuel properties indicate that the coal from both places can potentially be utilized for future clean energy applications.

  3. The clean coal technologies for lignitic coal power generation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Raza, Z.; Aziz-ur-Rehman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Pakistan contains huge reserves of lignitic coals. These are high sulphur, high ash coals. In spite of this unfortunate situation, the heavy demand for energy production, requires the development utilization of these indigenous coal reserves to enhance energy production. The central of the environmental pollution caused by the combustion of these coals has been a major hindrance in their utilization. Recently a substantial reduction in coal combustion emissions have been achieved through the development of clean coal technologies. Pakistan through the transfer and adaptation of the advanced clean coal technologies can utilize incurring the high sulphur coals for energy production without incurring the environmental effects that the developed countries have experienced in the past. The author discusses the recently developed clean coal utilization technologies, their applications economies and feasibility of utilization with specific reference to Pakistan''s coal. (author)

  4. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  6. Solids throttling valves for coal conversion and utilization development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sine, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    A complete test system to test, evaluate, and develop control valves for slurry letdown service in coal liquefaction plants is needed. The site identified for the test system was the SRC II Pilot Plant located at Ft. Lewis, Washington. The US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, requested a test system design that would enable testing of various configuration letdown valves that would be compatible with the existing facility and have minimum impact on Pilot Plant operations. Drawings and specifications for such a test system were prepared, coordinated with Ft. Lewis personnel, revised to reflect Ft. Lewis operating personnel comments, and approved for use by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. These drawings and specifications will enable the test system to be built, installed, and integrated with the existing facility by a general contractor.

  7. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, June 1, 1980-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D; Givens, E N; Schweighardt, F K; Clinton, J H; Tarrer, A R; Guin, J A; Curtis, C W; Huang, W J; Shridharani, K

    1980-09-01

    Additional data on the pyrite catalysis of liquefaction of Elkhorn number 3 coal are presented. The liquefaction of Elkhorn number 3 coal was significantly catalyzed by the presence of pyrite. Coal conversion, oil yield and preasphaltene conversion all increased when pyrite was added. An increase in hydrocarbon gas make accompanied by a higher hydrogen consumption were also observed. The higher activity in the presence of pyrite could be utilized by running the liquefaction step at milder conditions which would mean a lower gas make. Although we had heard reports that sulfur elimination from the SRC was improved by use of pyrite, our data showed only very small changes. Nitrogen removal from the solvent, however, was definitely observed. At 850/sup 0/F nitrogen in the oil product went from 1.61 to 1.12 on adding pyrite. This increased nitrogen removal was also seen in the added ammonia yields. Kentucky number 9 coal also responded very well to the presence of pyrite. Conversions and oil yields increased while the hydrocarbon yields decreased at both temperatures that were tested, i.e., 825 and 850/sup 0/F. Hydrogen consumptions also increased. In the screening program the results from testing a number of materials are reported. None of the zeolites gave any significant improvement over coal itself. The iron, molybdenum, nickel, and cobalt rich materials had significant activity, all 85 to 90% conversion with high oil yields.Among materials specifically reported this period the clays failed to show any significant catalytic effect.

  8. Chemical analysis of coal by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence utilizing artificial standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Accurate determinations of the elemental composition of coal by classical methods can be quite difficult and are normally very time consuming. X-ray fluorescence utilizing the powder method, however, has the ability of providing accurate and rapid analyses. Unfortunately, well characterized standards, although available, are not plentiful. In addition, the durability of stability of ground and pelletized coal samples is poor resulting in deterioration with time. As a result, artificial coal standards were prepared from certified geological materials by fusing in lithium tetraborate in percentages approximating expected ash contents and compositions in coal. Since the lithium tetraborate comprises about the same percentage of the standard as does the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in coal, the ground and pelletized coal sample can be assayed against the fused calibration curves by compensating for the differences in the mass absorption coefficients of the two matrices. 5 figures, 4 tables

  9. Contribution to determination of coal grindability using Hardgrove method

    OpenAIRE

    Tichánek, František

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with determination of grindability of coal using Hardgrove method. Some non-availabilities of determination are mentioned as well as factors affecting grindability and relations for conversion of Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) values to Bond Work Index (Wi). Paper also provides information on utilization of Hardgrove method in Czech Republic and indicates HGI values for coal from OKD-Karvina region. Příspěvek se zabývá stanovením melitelnosti uhlí pomocí metody Hardgrov...

  10. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  11. Feasibility study on recovery and utilization of coal mine gas (CMG) at Donetsk Coal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of getting petroleum substitution energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, an investigational study was carried out of the project for methane gas recovery/utilization at the Donbassa coal mine in Ukraine. At the Donbassa coal mine, degassing by test boring is being conducted to reduce the gas emission at coal face for safety, but most of the gas is discharged into the air. In this project, the following were studied: degassing boring/gas induction from bore hole/measurement in gas induction pipe, gas recovery system combined with gas induction in flyash, and installation/operation of gas engine power generation facilities (1,710kW x 7 units) with exhaust heat recovery boiler using the recovered methane gas as fuel. The results obtained were the petroleum substitution amount of 31,000 toe/y and the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction of 480,000 t/y. In the economical estimation, the initial investment amount was 3 billion yen, the profitability of the total investment used was 2.9%, and the internal earning rate was 6.5%. (NEDO)

  12. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  13. Variations in the stable isotope ratios of specific aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons from coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, C.; Snape, C.E.; Fallick, A.E. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1998-07-01

    To establish the scope for applying gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry ({sup {delta}-13}C GC-IRMS) to molecular recognition problems in coal utilisation, {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotope ratios were determined for n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a function of coal rank and process conditions. Six coals ranging from a lignite to a low volatile bituminous coal were subjected to chloroform extraction, fixed-bed pyrolysis under hydrogen pressure (hydropyrolysis) and fluidised-bed (flash) pyrolysis. No significant variations in the stable isotope ratios of n-alkanes were evident as a function of either rank or conversion regime. In contrast, the isotope ratios of PAHs show large variations with those for hydropyrolysis (-23 to -25 parts per thousand) being similar to the bulk values of the initial coals and being isotopically heavier (less negative) than their fluidised-bed pyrolysis counterparts by 2-3 parts per thousand. However, the PAHs from fluidised-bed pyrolysis, which resemble closely those obtained from high temperature coal carbonization, are still heavier (by 2-3 parts per thousand) than those from diesel particulates and coal gasification and combustion residues. This provides a firm basis for the source apportionment of airborne PAHs in the proximity of coking plants, particularly with no major variations in the PAH isotope ratios being found as a function of rank.

  14. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  15. Monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion processes via ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A. C.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    1980-02-01

    The state of the art of instrumentation for monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion systems is examined. The instrumentation types studied include thermocouples, radiation pyrometers, and acoustical thermometers. The capabilities and limitations of each type are reviewed. A feasibility study of the ultrasonic thermometry is described. A mathematical model of a pulse-echo ultrasonic temperature measurement system is developed using linear system theory. The mathematical model lends itself to the adaptation of generalized correlation techniques for the estimation of propagation delays. Computer simulations are made to test the efficacy of the signal processing techniques for noise-free as well as noisy signals. Based on the theoretical study, acoustic techniques to measure temperature in reactors and combustors are feasible.

  16. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology; Dai 6 kai sekitan riyo gijutsu kaigi koenshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The paper compiled the papers presented in the 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology held in September 1996. With relation to the fluidized bed boiler, reported were Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant and Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Regarding the coal reformation, Development of advanced coal cleaning process, Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process, etc. Concerning the combustion technology, Study of the O2/CO2 combustion technology, Development of pressurized coal partial combustor, etc. About the CWM, Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology, Technique of CWM distribution system, etc. Relating to the coal ash, Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash, Employment of fluidized bed ash as a basecourse material, On-site verification trials using fly ash for reclamation behind bulkheads, Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash, Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation, Practical use technology of coal ash (POZ-O-TEC), etc

  18. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey in Malaysia and Vietnam (Malaysia); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In this survey, the coal utilization status in individual consumption sectors and coal distribution status in Malaysia are summarized as basic data for the introduction of environmentally acceptable coal utilization systems. In this fiscal year, the status of existing coal utilization technology and environmental issues in Malaysia are summarized as basic data for the introduction of above-mentioned systems on the basis of data and information collected by basic research and site survey in FY 1996. Malaysia is one of the rich countries producing the primary resources with crude petroleum, natural gas, hydro-power, and coal. The coal demand will be realized after saturating LNG development since 2000. The major coal consumption industries are power generation sector and cement industry sector. As expected increase in the future coal consumption, efficiency of coal utilization and environmental issues are problems in the future. Based on the FS results of this survey, the survey will be continued for planning and conducting the model project required from Malaysia. 8 figs., 34 tabs.

  19. Clean Coal Day '94 Hokkaido International Seminar; Clean coal day '94 Hokkaido kokusai seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The lectures given at the seminar were 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Clean coal technology in the United Kingdom, and 3) How clean coal should be in Australia. In lecture 1), remarks are made on the importance of coal and its future, coal that protects forest, whether coal is a dirty fuel, coal combustion tests started relative to environmental pollution, acid rain in China and coal combustion, briquets effective in energy conservation, etc. In lecture 2), remarks are made on the importance of coal utilization in the United Kingdom, current state of coal utilization in power generation, problems related to gasification furnaces, problems related to combustors, problems related to high-temperature gas cleaning, function of cleaning filters, advantages of high-temperature gas treatment, actualities of gas combustors, studies of gas combustors, etc. In lecture 3), remarks are made on Australia's coal situation, problems related to clean coal technology, problems related to coal preparation technology, potentialities of Australian brown coal, coal utilization in power generation, need of new technology development, current state of coal utilization in Australia, coal utilization in metal-making industry, international cooperation on technology, etc. (NEDO)

  20. Coal supplier perspective on the future of the utility-coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, G.J. [Kennecott Energy Company, Gillette, WY (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Kennecott Energy is the largest producer within Rio Tinto Energy, in turn owned by Rio Tinto, and has grown by 260% since 1993. However, coal's performance in the world trade market is currently suffering for reasons such as regulatory uncertainty. The presentation looked at how the company is striving to improve coal's future, for example by enhancing coal's value through beneficiation like K-fuels, enhancing pollution control through research efforts like Zero Emissions Coal Alliance and by supporting public outreach and legislation efforts. Coal's future is summed up under headings: earnings, efficiency, environment, education and e-commerce. 17 overheads/viewgraphs outline the presentation.

  1. Potential to cofire high-sulfur coal and MSW/RDF in Illinois utility boilers: A survey and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The disposal of refuse is of ever-increasing concern for municipalities and other organizations and agencies throughout the United States. Disposal in landfills is becoming more costly, and new landfills are more difficult to site because of stricter environmental regulations. Mass burning incinerators for municipal solid wastes (MSW) have also met with increased public resistance due to excessive emissions. Nevertheless, increased awareness of the need for alternative disposal techniques has led to a new interest in cofiring MSW with coal. In addition to solid waste concerns, the requirements to reduce SO 2 and NO x emissions from coal-fired utility boilers in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, present an opportunity to cofire MSW/RDF with coal as an emission control measure. These issues were the impetus for a 1992 study (conducted by ANL for the Illinois Clean Coal Institute) to examine the potential to cofire coal with MSW/RDF in Illinois utility boilers. This paper will provide a synopsis of the ANL/ICCI report. It will summarize (1) the combustibility and emission characteristics of high-sulfur coal and MSW/RDF; (2) the facilities firing RDF and/or producing/selling RDF, together with their combustion and emissions experience; (3) the applicable emissions regulations in Illinois; and (4) the analysis of candidate utility boilers in Illinois capable of cofiring, together with the effect on coal consumption and SO 2 and NO x emissions that would result from 20% cofiring with RDF/MSW

  2. Parametric utility comparison of coal and nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, K.M.

    1977-02-01

    The advantages and limitations of an explicit quantitative model for decision making are discussed. Several different quantitative models are presented, noting that the use of an expected utility maximization decision rule allows both the direct incorporation of multidimensional descriptions of the possible outcomes, and considerations of risk averse behavior. A broad class of utility functions, characterized by linear risk tolerance, was considered and extended to a multidimensional form. Choosing a multivariate risk neutral extension, using constant absolute risk aversion utility functions for monetary effects and for increased mortality, the author indicated how the parameters of this utility function can be selected to represent the decision maker's preferences, and suggest a reasonable range of values for the parameters. After describing an illustrative set of data on the risks inherent in coal burning and nuclear electricity generation facilities, the author used the chosen utility model to compare the overall risks associated with each technology, observing the effect of variations in the utility parameters and in the risk distributions on the implied preferences

  3. Reaction of methane with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K.; Batts, B.D.; Wilson, M.A.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Maa, P.S.; Long, M.A.; He, S.J.X.; Attala, M.I. [Macquarie University, Macquarie, NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    A study of the reactivities of Australian coals and one American coal with methane or methane-hydrogen mixtures, in the range 350-400{degree}C and a range of pressures (6.0-8.3 MPa, cold) is reported. The effects of aluminophosphates (AIPO) or zeolite catalysts, with and without exchanged metals, on reactivity have also been examined. Yields of dichloromethane extractable material are increased by using a methane rather than a nitrogen atmosphere and different catalysts assist dissolution to various extends. It appears that surface exchanged catalysts are effective, but incorporating metals during AIPO lattice formation is detrimental. Aluminium phosphate catalysts are unstable to water produced during coal conversion, but are still able to increase extraction yields. For the American coal, under methane-hydrogen and a copper exchanged zeolite, 51.5% conversion was obtained, with a product selectivity close to that obtained under hydrogen alone, and with only 2% hydrogen consumption. The conversion under methane-hydrogen was also to that obtained under hydrogen alone, while a linear dependence of conversion on proportion of methane would predict a 43% conversion under methane-hydrogen. This illustrates a synergistic effect of the methane-hydrogen atmosphere for coal liquefaction using this catalyst systems. 31 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Feasibilities of a Coal-Biomass to Liquids Plant in Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); DVallance, David [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Henthorn, Greg [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Grushecky, Shawn [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This project has generated comprehensive and realistic results of feasibilities for a coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) plant in southern West Virginia; and evaluated the sensitivity of the analyses to various anticipated scenarios and parametric uncertainties. Specifically the project has addressed economic feasibility, technical feasibility, market feasibility, and financial feasibility. In the economic feasibility study, a multi-objective siting model was developed and was then used to identify and rank the suitable facility sites. Spatial models were also developed to assess the biomass and coal feedstock availabilities and economics. Environmental impact analysis was conducted mainly to assess life cycle analysis and greenhouse gas emission. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also investigated in this study. Sensitivity analyses on required selling price (RSP) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of CBTL fuels were conducted according to feedstock availability and price, biomass to coal mix ratio, conversion rate, internal rate of return (IRR), capital cost, operational and maintenance cost. The study of siting and capacity showed that feedstock mixed ratio limited the CBTL production. The price of coal had a more dominant effect on RSP than that of biomass. Different mix ratios in the feedstock and conversion rates led to RSP ranging from $104.3 - $157.9/bbl. LCA results indicated that GHG emissions ranged from 80.62 kg CO2 eq to 101.46 kg CO2 eq/1,000 MJ of liquid fuel at various biomass to coal mix ratios and conversion rates if carbon capture and storage (CCS) was applied. Most of water and fossil energy were consumed in conversion process. Compared to petroleum-derived-liquid fuels, the reduction in GHG emissions could be between -2.7% and 16.2% with CBTL substitution. As for the technical study, three approaches of coal and biomass to liquids, direct, indirect and hybrid, were considered in the analysis. The process models including

  5. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  6. National Coal Utilization Assessment: a preliminary assessment of coal utilizaton in the South. [Southern USA to 2020; forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L. B.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Boercker, F. D.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the major problems and issues related to coal development and use in the South are identified and assessed assuming a base-case energy scenario for the next 45 years. This scenario assumes a midrange of coal use and a relatively high rate of nuclear use over the forecast period. The potential impacts from coal development and use are significant, particularly in the 1990-2020 time period. Practically all available sites suitable for power plant development in the assessment will be utilized by 2020. Overall, sulfur dioxide will be well below the annual primary standard; however, several local hot-spot areas were identified. In addition, sulfate concentrations will be increased significantly, particularly over Virginia, West Virginia, and northern Kentucky. Coal mining is expected to affect 6 of the 12 major ecological regions. Coal mining will lead to increased average suspended sediment concentrations in some river basins, and special measures will be required to control acid discharges from active mines in pyritic regions. The increased mining of coal and subsequent sulfur dioxide increases from its combustion may also give rise to a land-use confrontation with food and fiber production. Potential health effects from exposure to sulfur dioxide and sulfates are expected to increase rapidly in several areas, particularly in parts of Kentucky, Maryland, District of Columbia, and Georgia. Regional social costs should be relatively low, although some site-specific costs are expected to be very high. Alternative energy technologies, careful siting selection, and deployment of environmental control technologies and operating policies will be required to reduce or mitigate these potential impacts.

  7. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jayesh [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Hess, Fernando [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Horzen, Wessel van [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Williams, Daniel [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Peevor, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Dyer, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Frankel, Louis [Canonsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and

  8. Illustrative comparison of one utility's coal and nuclear choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L.; Sicherman, A.

    1983-01-01

    The technology choices facing an individual utility are complex decision problems. The paper illustrates a method designed to assist an individual utility company in making the choices in a logically consisnt manner. The resulting evaluation model, based on the principles of decision analysis, explicitly addresses the complexity to provide a basis for decision making and support for defending the decision before reviewers. The model, which incorporates economic, environmental, social, safety, and regulatory effects, is demonstrated using a coal/nuclear choice which may be faced by Utah Power and Light Company in the near future. This analysis is meant to be illustrative; more effort would be needed to gather information to support a policy decision

  9. Characterization of Rare Earth Element Minerals in Coal Utilization Byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montross, Scott N. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Verba, Circe A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Research Innovation Center; Collins, Keith [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Research Innovation Center

    2017-07-17

    The United States currently produces over 100 million tons of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) per year in the form of fly ash, bottom ash, slag, and flue gas (American Coal Ash Association (ACCA), 2015). But this “waste material” also contains potentially useful levels of rare earth elements (REE). Rare earth elements are crucial for many existing and emerging technologies, but the U.S. lacks a domestic, sustainable REE source. Our project explored the possibility of developing a supply of REEs for U.S. technologies by extracting REEs from CUBs. This work offers the potential to reduce our dependence on other countries for supply of these critical elements (NETL, REE 2016 Project Portfolio). Geologic and diagenetic history, industrial preparation methods, and the specific combustion process all play major roles in the composition of CUB. During combustion, inorganic mineral phases of coal particles are fluidized at temperatures higher than 1400oC, so inorganic mineral materials are oxidized, fused, disintegrated, or agglomerated into larger spherical and amorphous (non-crystalline) particles. The original mineralogy of the coal-containing rock and heating/cooling of the material significantly affects the composition and morphology of the particles in the combustion byproduct (Kutchko and Kim, 2006). Thus, different types of coal/refuse/ash must be characterized to better understand mineral evolution during the combustion process. Our research focused on developing a working model to address how REE minerals behave during the combustion process: this research should help determine the most effective engineering methods for extracting REEs from CUBs. We used multimodal imaging and image processing techniques to characterize six rock and ash samples from different coal power plants with respect to morphology, grain size, presence of mineral phases, and elemental composition. The results of these characterization activities provided thresholds for realizing the

  10. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1998-01-01

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and

  11. Coal conversion. 1977 technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The status and progress in US DOE's projects in coal gasification, liquefaction, and fluidized-bed combustion are reviewed with financing, flowsheets, history, progress and status of each (57 projects). (LTN)

  12. Processing woody debris biomass for co-milling with pulverized coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Bob Rummer

    2007-01-01

    The USDA, Forest Service, Forest Products Lab funds several grants each year for the purpose of studying woody biomass utilization. One selected project proposed removing small diameter stems and unmerchantable woody material from National Forest lands and delivering it to a coal-fired power plant in Alabama for energy conversion. The Alabama Power Company...

  13. Clean Coal Day '94 Hokkaido International Seminar; Clean coal day '94 Hokkaido kokusai seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The lectures given at the seminar were 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Clean coal technology in the United Kingdom, and 3) How clean coal should be in Australia. In lecture 1), remarks are made on the importance of coal and its future, coal that protects forest, whether coal is a dirty fuel, coal combustion tests started relative to environmental pollution, acid rain in China and coal combustion, briquets effective in energy conservation, etc. In lecture 2), remarks are made on the importance of coal utilization in the United Kingdom, current state of coal utilization in power generation, problems related to gasification furnaces, problems related to combustors, problems related to high-temperature gas cleaning, function of cleaning filters, advantages of high-temperature gas treatment, actualities of gas combustors, studies of gas combustors, etc. In lecture 3), remarks are made on Australia's coal situation, problems related to clean coal technology, problems related to coal preparation technology, potentialities of Australian brown coal, coal utilization in power generation, need of new technology development, current state of coal utilization in Australia, coal utilization in metal-making industry, international cooperation on technology, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Coal development potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M N; Pelofsky, A H [eds.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented, and covered the following topics: the current situation in Pakistan with respect to development and utilization of coal resources; the policies that have been responsible for the development and utilization of coal resources in Pakistan; coal development and utilization in other developing nations e.g. Indonesia, Greece, Philippines, China, Thailand and Haiti; and technological developments in coal exploration; extraction, handling, transport and utilization which could accelerate future development of Pakistan's coal resources. Specific subjects covered include the use of coal in the cement industry of Pakistan; the production of briquettes for domestic use, development and training of personnel for the coal industry; and sources of finance for coal development projects. Particular emphasis is given throughout the conference to the Lakhra coal mine/power plant project which aims to develop and effectively utilize the lignite reserves of Sind Province. 47 papers have been abstracted separately.

  15. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  16. Thermocatalytical processing of coal and shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the questions of thermocatalytical conversion of organic mass of coal (OMC, it is shown that in the absence of a catalyst process is carried out by a radical process. Accumulated data on the properties for radicals of different structure and therefore different reaction capacity enables us to understand and interpret the conversion of OMC. Thermal conversion of OMC regarded as a kind of depolymerization, accompanied by decomposition of the functional groups with the formation of radicals, competing for hydrogen atom. Catalyst can change the direction and conditions of the process. Modern catalysts can reduce the process pressure up to 50 atm., with a high degree of coal conversion. We consider examples of simultaneous conversion of coal and shale, shale and masut, shale and tar.

  17. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  18. The increase of the efficiency for comprehensive utilization of the fuel and energetic resources (The use coal enterprises of Kazakhstan as example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satova, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    In Kazakhstan during the period of transition to the market economy in the condition of reduction of coal production and increasing expenditures in coal branch, the problem of of the rational utilization of coal resources becomes the most vital issue. In the thesis theoretical and methodological aspects of socio-economic efficiency of utilization of the fuel and energetic resources are investigated. Different fields of usage of coal and coal wastes are studied, economic evaluation of mechanic and thermo-chemical methods of producing coal in process of bringing resources saving technologies; the national efficiency of using products in the quantity of technological raw and energetic fuel is brought out; the influence refining for the widening of the raw-base of industry, promoting the economic results of production and the lowering environmental pollution. It was estimated that the extracted coal of the region includes 1020 thousand tonne of aluminium oxide and 996 thousand tonne of sulphur; in the course of extracting and coal processing 3650 thousand tonne of firm wastes appeared; during the extracting of Ehkibastuz coal - 90970 thousand tonne, and the Karaganda coal - 40040 thousand tonne.The coal components and wastes mentioned above should be considered not only as source of environment pollution but also as potential resource for the production of industrial goods according to their qualitative characteristics and the availability of technical ideas of the processing. The implementation of the mentioned pre-sup-positions in the conditions of the forming market economy will allow to use the organic part of coal more competently, to involve the other useful components of coal in the sphere of production consumption, to utilize gaseous and firm wastes and to gain of the basis the expansion of resource base of same branches of industry and the reduction of environment pollution. It will be also accompanied by the needs in capital investments for the industrial

  19. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  20. Superacid Catalyzed Depolymerization and Conversion of Coals. Final Technical Report. [HF:BF{sub 2}/H{sub 2}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G.

    1980-01-01

    We were interested in applying superacid catalyzed cleavage-depolymerization and ionic hydrogenation low temperature conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbon, as well as obtaining information about the reactions involved and the structure of intermediates of the coal liquefaction process. In order to show the feasibility of our proposed research we have carried out preliminary investigation in these areas. Preceding our work there was no practical application of a superacid system to coal liquefaction. We carried out an extensive study of the potential of the HF:BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system for coal hydroliquefaction. Under varying conditions of reactant ratio, reaction time and temperature, we were able to obtain over 95% pyridine extractible product by treating coal in HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system at approx. 100 degrees C for 4 hours. The coal to acid ratio was 1:5 and FB{sub 3} at 900 psi and H{sub 2} at 500 psi were used. These are extremely encouraging results in that the conditions used are drastically milder than those used in any known process, such as Exxon donor solvent and related processes. The cyclohexane extractibility of the treated coal was as high as 27% and the yield of liquid distillate at 400 degrees C/5 x 10{sup -3}/sup torr/ was approx. 30%. The infrared spectrum of product coal, extracts and distillates were distinctly different from the starting coal and show a significant increase in the amount of saturates. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of cyclohexane extract of the treated coal shows essentially all aliphatic photons. The spectra of other treated coal extracts show increased amounts and types of aliphatic protons as well as significant amounts of protons bound to unsaturated sites. This again indicates that the HF-BF{sub 3} system is depolymerizing the coal to small fragments which are soluble in non-polar solvents.

  1. Basic research program for innovated coal utilization in Japan. BRAIN-C program; Sekitan riyo kiban gijutsu kaihatsu. BRAIN-C program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, M [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper introduces the circumstances and purpose of establishing the Basic Research Associate for Innovated Coal Utilization (BRAIN-C) Program started in October 1995, and the summary of the results therefrom in fiscal 1995. Although development of coal utilization technologies has been implemented over a number of years, there are many problems still requiring solutions. Early realization has been urged on diversification of coal utilization, acceleration of technological development and diversification of coal types. In order to achieve these goals, the necessity was recognized afresh on not only the hardwares, but also on basic technologies in terms of software which can identify properties of coals, systematize different reactions, and estimate reactions, fluidity and heat transmission of coals. Therefore, receiving a subsidy from the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, a research and development program to be implemented jointly by industries, administrative agencies and academic societies had been started with a five-year plan for the time being. With the activities for the program such as collecting 50 to 100 types of coals and supplying them to researchers, the program had been accelerated in fiscal 1995 on a large number of themes and results therefrom, including fundamental properties and thermo-chemical reactions. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Fiscal 1995 coal production/utilization technology promotion subsidy/clean coal technology promotion business/regional model survey. Study report on `Environmental load reduction measures: feasibility study of a coal utilization eco/energy supply system` (interim report); 1995 nendo sekitan seisan riyo gijutsu shinkohi hojokin clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa. `Kankyo fuka teigen taisaku: sekitan riyo eko energy kyokyu system no kanosei chosa` chosa hokokusho (chukan hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The coal utilization is expected to make substantial growth according to the long-term energy supply/demand plan. To further expand the future coal utilization, however, it is indispensable to reduce environmental loads in its total use with other energies, based on the coal use. In this survey, a regional model survey was conducted as environmental load reduction measures using highly cleaned coal which were taken in fiscal 1993 and 1994. Concretely, a model system was assumed which combined facilities for mixed combustion with coal and other energy (hull, bagasse, waste, etc.) and facilities for effective use of burned ash, and potential reduction in environmental loads of the model system was studied. The technology of mixed combustion between coal and other energy is still in a developmental stage with no novelties in the country. Therefore, the mixed combustion technology between coal and other energy is an important field which is very useful for the future energy supply/demand and environmental issues. 34 refs., 27 figs., 48 tabs.

  3. Energy and exergy analysis of alternating injection of oxygen and steam in the low emission underground gasification of deep thin coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Wolf, Karl Heinz; Rogut, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that by coupling the underground coal gasification (UCG) with the carbon capture and storage (CCS), the coal energy can be economically extracted with a low carbon footprint. To investigate the effect of UCG and CCS process parameters on the feasibility of the UCG-CCS pr....... Additionally, we show that the zero-emission conversion of unmineable deep thin coal resources in a coupled UCG-CCS process, that is not practical with the current state of technology, can be realized by increasing the energy efficiency of the carbon dioxide capture process.......-CCS process, we utilize a validated mathematical model, previously published by the same authors, that can predict the composition of the UCG product, temperature profile, and coal conversion rate for alternating injection of air and steam for unmineable deep thin coal layers. We use the results of the model...

  4. Geochemical database of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from five power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Ronald H.; Groves, Steve; Betterton, William J.; William, Benzel; Conrad, Kelly L.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Clough, James G.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Kolker, Allan; Hower, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The principal mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) is to (1) understand the processes critical to the formation, accumulation, occurrence, and alteration of geologically based energy resources; (2) conduct scientifically robust assessments of those resources; and (3) study the impacts of energy resource occurrence and (or) their production and use on both the environment and human health. The ERP promotes and supports research resulting in original, geology-based, non-biased energy information products for policy and decision makers, land and resource managers, other Federal and State agencies, the domestic energy industry, foreign governments, non-governmental groups, and academia. Investigations include research on the geology of oil, gas, and coal, and the impacts associated with energy resource occurrence, production, quality, and utilization. The ERP's focus on coal is to support investigations into current issues pertaining to coal production, beneficiation and (or) conversion, and the environmental impact of the coal combustion process and coal combustion products (CCPs). To accomplish these studies, the USGS combines its activities with other organizations to address domestic and international issues that relate to the development and use of energy resources.

  5. Firing a sub-bituminous coal in pulverized coal boilers configured for bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Spitz; R. Saveliev; M. Perelman; E. Korytni; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2008-07-15

    It is important to adapt utility boilers to sub-bituminous coals to take advantage of their environmental benefits while limiting operation risks. We discuss the performance impact that Adaro, an Indonesian sub-bituminous coal with high moisture content, has on opposite-wall and tangentially-fired utility boilers which were designed for bituminous coals. Numerical simulations were made with GLACIER, a computational-fluid-dynamic code, to depict combustion behavior. The predictions were verified with full-scale test results. For analysis of the operational parameters for firing Adaro coal in both boilers, we used EXPERT system, an on-line supervision system developed by Israel Electric Corporation. It was concluded that firing Adaro coal, compared to a typical bituminous coal, lowers NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions, lowers LOI content and improves fouling behavior but can cause load limitation which impacts flexible operation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. A novel solar energy integrated low-rank coal fired power generation using coal pre-drying and an absorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Cheng; Bai, Pu; Xin, Tuantuan; Hu, Yue; Xu, Gang; Yang, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An improved solar energy integrated LRC fired power generation is proposed. •High efficient and economic feasible solar energy conversion is achieved. •Cold-end losses of the boiler and condenser are reduced. •The energy and exergy efficiencies of the overall system are improved. -- Abstract: A novel solar energy integrated low-rank coal (LRC) fired power generation using coal pre-drying and an absorption heat pump (AHP) was proposed. The proposed integrated system efficiently utilizes the solar energy collected from the parabolic trough to drive the AHP to absorb the low-grade waste heat of the steam cycle, achieving larger amount of heat with suitable temperature for coal’s moisture removal prior to the furnace. Through employing the proposed system, the solar energy could be partially converted into the high-grade coal’s heating value and the cold-end losses of the boiler and the steam cycle could be reduced simultaneously, leading to a high-efficient solar energy conversion together with a preferable overall thermal efficiency of the power generation. The results of the detailed thermodynamic and economic analyses showed that, using the proposed integrated concept in a typical 600 MW LRC-fired power plant could reduce the raw coal consumption by 4.6 kg/s with overall energy and exergy efficiencies improvement of 1.2 and 1.8 percentage points, respectively, as 73.0 MW th solar thermal energy was introduced. The cost of the solar generated electric power could be as low as $0.044/kW h. This work provides an improved concept to further advance the solar energy conversion and utilisation in solar-hybrid coal-fired power generation.

  7. Fiscal 1997 feasibility survey of an environment friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environment friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam (case of Vietnam); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Vietnam ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the state of coal utilization by coal consumption field, the state of coal physical flow in Vietnam, etc., surveyed/studied a possibility of introducing the environment friendly type coal utilization system, and assessed the possibility. As to energy resources, the north is abundant in hydroelectric and coal (mainly anthracite) resources, and the south in oil and natural gas resources. Coal production in fiscal 1997 is planned to be 10 million tons. Coal preparation technique presently available is only grain size sieving. Accordingly, it is necessary to study for heightening efficiency of facilities and modernizing facilities in accordance with the introduction of the environment friendly type coal utilization technology. During the study, it is possible to propose improvement on coal processing technology (coal preparation technology). Assessment and study are made especially of the coal selection system, fine coal recovery system and waste water treatment system. For the plan on new coal-fired power plants (300MWtimes4), there is left much necessity of proposing studying models considered of the anthracite combustion technology and environmental improvement and of assessing/studying them. 60 figs., 117 tabs.

  8. Science of coal-to-oil conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, W D

    1944-01-01

    A general review is given of the principles of the most important commercial processes for obtaining oil from coal, and of the yields obtained by, and special features of each process. The composition of typical tars obtained by the low-temperature carbonization of coal, yields of products other than tar, estimated costs of running a plant of 700 tons daily capacity and annual British statistics on the industry from 1930 through 1938 are tabulated. The text is chiefly concerned with the various types of retorts, which have been developed for use in this process. Economics and cost of production are discussed.

  9. Bioassays for risk assessment of coal conversion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacht, S.; Sinder, C.; Pfeifer, F.; Klein, J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Traditional as well as biotechnological processing coal leads to complex mixtures of products. Besides chemical and physical characterization, which provides the information for product application, there is a need for bioassays to monitor properties that are probably toxic, mutagenic or cancerogenic. Investigations carried out focused on the selection, adaptation and validation of bioassays for the sensitive estimation of toxic effects. Organisms like bacteria, Daphnia magna and Scenedesmus subspicatus, representing different complexities in the biosphere, were selected as test systems for ecotoxicological and mutagenicity studies. The results obtained indicate that bioassays are, in principle, suitable tools for characterization and evaluation of coal-derived substances and bioconversion products. Using coal products, coal-relevant model compounds and bioconversion products, data for risk assessment are presented. (orig.)

  10. Preparation, Characterization, and Activation of Co-Mo/Y Zeolite Catalyst for Coal Tar Conversion to Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Dwi Anggoro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of many efforts to convert coal tar into alternative liquid fuel is by hydrocracking. This research aims to determine the impregnation of Co-Mo/Y zeolite, its characteristics, the effect of impregnation temperature and time, and also the best Co-Mo/Y zeolite impregnation condition for the conversion of coal tar. This research was conducted in several steps, impregnating Co from Co(NO32.6H2O and Mo from (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O into Zeolite Y in liquid media, drying at 100 °C for 24 hours, and calcination at 550 °C for 3 hours. Coal tar was then reacted with hydrogen gas (as a reactant, and Co-Mo/Zeolite Y (as a catalyst was conducted at 350 °C. Characteristic analysis showed that Co and Mo had impregnated into the Y zeolite, as well as it made no change of catalyst’s structure and increased the total acidity. The higher of impregnation temperature was increased the catalyst crystallinity, total acidity, and yield of gasoline. The longer impregnation time was reduced crystallinity value, but total acidity and yield were increased. GC analysis showed that products included into the gasoline product (C8, C9, and C10. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 13rd November 2016; Revised: 12nd February 2017; Accepted: 16th February 2017 How to Cite: Anggoro, D.D., Buchori, L., Silaen, G.C., Utami, R.N. (2017. Preparation, Characterization, and Activation of Co-Mo/Y Zeolite Catalyst for Coal Tar Conversion to Liquid Fuel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 219-226 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.768.219-226 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.768.219-226

  11. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Thailand; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Tai ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The paper surveyed the present situation and future trend of economy, energy supply/demand, coal production/distribution/utilization and the environmental effects in Thailand. The survey on the coal utilization and its environmental effects was partially requested of the environmental research institute in Thailand. The amount of coal utilization in Thailand rapidly increased to nearly four times as large as that ten years ago mainly in terms of domestic lignite under the government`s policy on expansion of the domestic energy use. However, most of this domestic lignite is low-grade coal with low calories and high sulfur content, and the use of it was rapidly increased mostly in power generation sector without no adequate environmental measures taken. This caused an environmental problem on air pollution due to sulfur oxides at Mae Moh power plant in the north several years ago, and the damages to the regional residents, etc. were given much publicity by journalism and developed the social problem. Accordingly, Thai people are now critical of the coal resource exploration and the coal use expansion. Under the circumstances, the Ministry of Industry and the energy related ministries/offices are obliged to review their development/promotion plans. 84 figs., 99 tabs.

  12. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  13. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  14. Ninth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Papers are grouped under the following sessions: compliance technology; high-efficiency preparation; characterization; advanced technologies; alternative fuels; coal utilization; industrial/commercial combustor development; combustion; superclean emission systems; carbon dioxide recovery and reuse; air toxics and fine particulates; air toxics sampling and analysis workshop; and combined poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO 2 control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  16. In Situ Catalytic Pyrolysis of Low-Rank Coal for the Conversion of Heavy Oils into Light Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem Amin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lighter tars are largely useful in chemical industries but their quantity is quite little. Catalytic cracking is applied to improve the yield of light tars during pyrolysis. Consequently, in situ upgrading technique through a MoS2 catalyst has been explored in this research work. MoS2 catalyst is useful for the conversion of high energy cost into low energy cost. The variations in coal pyrolysis tar without and with catalyst were determined. Meanwhile, the obtained tar was analyzed using simulated distillation gas chromatograph and Elemental Analyzer. Consequently, the catalyst reduced the pitch contents and increased the fraction of light tar from 50 to 60 wt.% in coal pyrolysis tar. MoS2 catalyst increased the liquid yield from 18 to 33 (wt.%, db and decreased gas yield from 27 to 12 (wt.%, db compared to coal without catalyst. Moreover, it increased H content and hydrogen-to-carbon ratio by 7.9 and 3.3%, respectively, and reduced the contents of nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen elements by 8.1%, 15.2%, and 23.9%, respectively, in their produced tars compared to coal without catalyst.

  17. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  18. Effect of pre-swelling of coal on its liquefaction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Meixia Cao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The effects of pre-swelling of Shenhua coal on its liquefaction property were studied in this paper. It was found that pre-swelling treatments of Shenhua coal in three solvents, i.e toluene (TOL), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and tetralin (THN) increased its liquefaction conversion, and the liquefied product distributions were also quite different. Removal of the pre-swelling solvent from the swollen coals further increased the liquefaction conversion compared to that of the swollen coals with the swelling solvent existed in them. It was found that oil and gas yields for the liquefaction of swollen coals in NMP and TOL with swelling solvent existed dramatically decreased. Pre-swelling in THN at 120{sup o}C gave the highest liquefaction conversion, however the liquefaction conversion decreased with the increase of pre-swelling temperature in the case of NMP. TG and FTIR analyses of raw coal, the swollen coals and liquefied products were carried out and the mechanism of the effects of pre-swelling of coal on its extraction and liquefaction behaviors were probed in the paper. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  20. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  1. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  2. Bio-coal briquettes using low-grade coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiaty, L. M.; Fatimah, D.; Widodo

    2018-02-01

    The technology in using briquettes for fuel has been widely used in many countries for both domestic and industrial purposes. Common types of briquette used are coal, peat, charcoal, and biomass. Several researches have been carried out in regards to the production and the use of briquettes. Recently, researches show that mixing coal and biomass will result in an environmentally friendly briquette with better combustion and physical characteristics. This type of briquette is known as bio-coal briquettes. Bio-coal briquettes are made from agriculture waste and coal, which are readily available, cheap and affordable. Researchers make these bio-coal briquettes with different aims and objectives, depending on the issues to address, e.g. utilizing agricultural waste as an alternative energy to replace fossil fuels that are depleting its reserves, adding coal to biomass in order to add calorific value to bio-coal briquette, and adding biomass to coal to improve its chemical and physical properties. In our research, biocoal briquettes are made to utilize low grade coal. The biomass we use, however, is different from the ones used in past researches because it has undergone fermentation. The benefits of using such biomass are 1. Fermentation turns the hemi cellulose into a simpler form, so that the burning activation energy decreases while the calorific value increases. 2. Enzym produced will bind to heavy metals from coal as co-factors, forming metals that are environmentally friendly.

  3. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO{sub 2} control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Plant concept of heat utilization of high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Co-generation and coal-gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonogouchi, M.; Maeda, S.; Ide, A.

    1996-01-01

    In Japan, JAERI is now constructing the High temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) and the new era is coming for the development and utilization of HTR. Recognizing that the heat utilization of HTR would mitigate problems of environment and resources and contribute the effective use and steady supply of the energy, FAPIG organized a working group named 'HTR-HUC' to study the heat utilization of HTR in the field other than electric power generation. We chose three kinds of plants to study, 1) a co-generation plant in which the existing power units supplying steam and electricity can be replaced by a nuclear plant, 2) Coal gasification plant which can accelerate the clean use of coal and contribute stable supply of the energy and preservation of the environment in the world and 3) Hydrogen production plant which can help to break off the use of the new energy carrier HYDROGEN and will release people from the dependence of fossil energy. In this paper the former two plants, Co-generation chemical plant and Coal-gasification plant are focussed on. The main features, process flow and safety assessment of these plants are discussed. (J.P.N.)

  5. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  6. Challenges of coal conversion for decarbonized energy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciazko, Marek; Jalosinski, Krzysztof; Majchrzak, Henryk; Michalski, Mieczyslaw; Tymowski, Henryk; Witos, Tadeusz; Wroblewska, Elzbieta

    2010-09-15

    Carbon dioxide is considered to be the main challenge for the coal-based power generation as well as for any other industrial application of coal. Poland's energy sector is primarily based on coal combustion that covers almost 90% of demand. Future development of that sector depends on the restriction on value of carbon dioxide emission or trading allowances. There are two main technological approaches to development of new coal based generation capacity, namely: gasification and pre-combustion capture; supercritical combustion and post-combustion capture. The current situation in development of three this type projects in Poland is presented.

  7. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ''major'' sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ''an ample margin of safety,'' the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country's economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern

  8. The role of coal in the US energy economy: Interfuel competition, environmental concerns, and the impact of utility restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raschke, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the role coal plays in the US energy economy and its competition with nuclear power, and then in greater detail the impact of environmental regulation, changes in utility regulation, and inter fuel competition on the future of coal. The US as the world's number two coal producer, shares many of the same problems and concerns as China, the world's number one coal producer. The use of coal in electric generation has been and will continue to be the only growth sector for the coal industry. The steel industry remains in permanent long-term decline. Forecasts vary, but there are indications that even in conservative forecasts, there is more down side risk than upside potential. Poor performance in the nuclear power sector can be expected to favorably impact coal consumption in the long term. Continued escalation of operating costs could erode any cost advantage that nuclear plants currently enjoy. However, environmental concerns could also escalate operating costs for coal fired plants. Also, concern over the greenhouse effect may lead policy makers to reexamine the nuclear option of inherently safe reactors. The greatest challenge to expanded use of coal comes from environmental concerns. Acid rain is a complex political, economic, and scientific issue. Clean coal technologies are seen by many as the answer to the threat posed by various forms of clean air legislation and regulation. Significant changes in the regulatory environment for electric and gas utilities and technological developments are likely in the 1990's to alter the nature of the electric generation industry

  9. Computational Humour : Utilizing Cross-Reference Ambiguity for Conversational Jokes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinholt, Hans Wim; Nijholt, Anton; Masulli, Francesco; Mitra, Sushmita; Pasi, Gabriella

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a computer implementation that utilizes cross-reference ambiguity in utterances for simple conversational jokes. The approach is based on the SSTH. Using a simple script representation, it is shown that cross-reference ambiguities always satisfy the SSTH requirement for script

  10. New coal-based energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1986-01-01

    Conversion of coal into liquid fuels or into coal gas is considered and the use of high temperature nuclear reactors whose waste heat can be used for remote (district) heating mentioned. The use of high temperature reactors as energy source for coal gasification is also examined and, finally, the extraction of heat from combined coal, steel and high temperature nuclear reactors is suggested. (G.M.E.)

  11. Utilization of HSC-ROSE residue as coking aid for the production of high quality coke from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlmann, D.; Limmer, H.; Naundorf, W.; Hood, R.L.; Washimi, K. (VEB Petrolchemisches Kombinat, Schwedt (German Democratic Republic))

    1989-04-01

    Evaluates suitability of HSC-ROSE petroleum pitch as binder for production of brown coal coke. This pitch has been available in the GDR since installation in 1988 of a 750 kt/a HSC (high conversion soaker cracking) plant, which processes 360 C visbreaker residue from Soviet crude oil, and the building of a ROSE (residue oil supercritical reaction) plant. Laboratory as well as semi-industrial experiments were carried out at the Freiberg Academy, GDR on pulverizing, briquetting and coking various brown coal types with HSC-ROSE pitch. Briquetting and coking results are shown in tables. Experiments showed that the resulting coke has 124% higher compression strength and 100% higher abrasion strength than regular brown coal coke without HSC-ROSE binder. The high quality coke is adequate for use as metallurgical blast furnace coke. An economic assessment of modifying an existing brown coal coking plant to process 2 Mt/a brown coal with 10% pitch binder is made. Required investment amounts to 54 million US dollars, estimated annual profits based on 1987 prices are 19.5 million US dollars. 4 refs.

  12. Evaluation of a Compact Coaxial Underground Coal Gasification System Inside an Artificial Coal Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-qiang Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground Coal Gasification (UCG system is a clean technology for obtaining energy from coal. The coaxial UCG system is supposed to be compact and flexible in order to adapt to complicated geological conditions caused by the existence of faults and folds in the ground. In this study, the application of a coaxial UCG system with a horizontal well is discussed, by means of an ex situ model UCG experiment in a large-scale simulated coal seam with dimensions of 550 × 600 × 2740 mm. A horizontal well with a 45-mm diameter and a 2600-mm length was used as an injection/production well. During the experiment, changes in temperature field and product gas compositions were observed when changing the outlet position of the injection pipe. It was found that the UCG reactor is unstable and expands continuously due to fracturing activity caused by coal crack initiation and extension under the influence of thermal stress. Therefore, acoustic emission (AE is considered an effective tool to monitor fracturing activities and visualize the gasification zone of coal. The results gathered from monitoring of AEs agree with the measured data of temperatures; the source location of AE was detected around the region where temperature increased. The average calorific value of the produced gas was 6.85 MJ/Nm3, and the gasification efficiency, defined as the conversion efficiency of the gasified coal to syngas, was 65.43%, in the whole experimental process. The study results suggest that the recovered coal energy from a coaxial UCG system is comparable to that of a conventional UCG system. Therefore, a coaxial UCG system may be a feasible option to utilize abandoned underground coal resources without mining.

  13. A collaborative project on the effects of coal quality on NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout in pulverised coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, H.A.; O`Connor, M.; Stephenson, P.L.; Whitehouse, M.; Richards, D.G.; Hesselmann, G.; MacPhail, J.; Lockwood, F.C.; Williamson, J.; Williams, A.; Pourkashanian, M. [ETSU, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a UK Department of Trade and Industry-supported collaborative project entitled `The Effects of Coal Quality on Emission of Oxides of Nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and Carbon Burnout in Pulverised Coal-fired Utility Boilers`. The project involved extensive collaboration between the UK power generators, boiler and burner manufacturers and research groups in both industry and academia, together with several of the world`s leading computational fluid dynamics (CFD) `software houses`. The prime objectives of the project were to assess the relationship between NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout and to develop and validate predictive tools for assessing coals. Experimental work was carried out on various laboratory-scale apparatus and on single burner test facilities ranging from 160 kW{sub th} to 40 MW{sub th} in size and measurements were obtained from full-scale 500 MW{sub e} utility boiler trials. This data and basic coal data were then used to develop mathematical models to predict full-scale boiler performance with respect to NO{sub x} emissions and carbon-in-ash. Results showed good correlations for NO{sub x} and carbon burnout when comparing data from full-scale and large-scale rig trials. Laboratory-scale tests were found to be useful but the influence of burner aerodynamics was more difficult to quantify. Modelling showed that predicted NO{sub x} emissions were encouragingly close to measured emissions but predicting carbon burnout was less successful. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Coal: the future in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The whole issue is devoted to the future of coal in South Africa, and includes articles on the Petrick report, coal conversion research in South Africa, the activities of the Fuel Research Institute (on beneficiation, briquetting, carbonization, fluidized bed combustion), Sasol's production of chemical feedstocks from coal, mining methods, and the coal requirements of the electric and chemical industries.

  15. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association, is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  16. Prediction method of unburnt carbon for coal fired utility boiler using image processing technique of combustion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Sugano, A.; Kimura, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a method predicting unburnt carbon in a coal fired utility boiler developed using an image processing technique. The method consists of an image processing unit and a furnace model unit. temperature distribution of combustion flames can be obtained through the former unit. The later calculates dynamics of the carbon reduction from the burner stages to the furnace outlet using coal feed rate, air flow rate, chemical and ash content of coal. An experimental study shows that the prediction error of the unburnt carbon can be reduced to 10%

  17. Coal devolatilization and char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker Degn; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    have been carried out in an electrically heated entrained flow reactor that is designed to simulate the conditions in a suspension fired boiler. Coal devolatilized in N2 and CO2 atmospheres provided similar results regarding char morphology, char N2-BET surface area and volatile yield. This strongly......The aim of the present investigation is to examine differences between O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres during devolatilization and char conversion of a bituminous coal at conditions covering temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K and inlet oxygen concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The experiments...

  18. Economic and environmental aspects of coal preparation and the impact on coal use for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    Australia is the world's largest coal exporter, and coal is the nation's largest export and dominant revenue earner. The future competitiveness of coal will be maintained through improved preparation of coal for traditional markets, by upgrading for new markets, and via coal utilization processes that are more efficient and environmentally acceptable. Australia is also a niche supplier of technologies and services with the potential to expand. This potential extends to the increasing vertical integration of coal supplies (whether Australian, indigenous or blended) with downstream utilization such as power generation. Technological advancement is a key element of industry strategy and coal preparation research and development, and clean coal technologies are critical aspects. This paper summarizes these issues, linking the economic and environmental aspects across the coal production and utilization chain. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs

  19. Fiscal 2000 operation report. Fiscal 2000 model project for promoting advanced utilization of coal (Survey on data control system for advanced utilization of coal in Japan); 2000 nendo sekitan kodo riyo shuishin moderu jigyo gyomu hokokusho. Nihon no sekitan kodo riyo ni kakawaru data kanri system chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of contributing to the drafting of, for example, measures for securing coal resources for Japan and strategies for developing coal utilization technologies from the standpoint of the world climate of the coal supply/demand in the future, database was built concerning coal information such as coal-related supply/demand trend, technological development and utilization status in Japan and foreign countries, with the results of fiscal 2000 reported. In the preparation of related applications, a jump function in the case of pages unregistered with related subjects was added to the coal information retrieval system completed last year, as were a subdividing function of retrieval conditions and a link function to pages of a technical term dictionary. In the arrangement of the database classified by the fields, programs were prepared on 14 tables primarily in relation to supply and demand, with the collection, processing and registration of the data performed. In addition, in order to deal with the clarification of the patent licensing of GIF related technologies, there was developed a graph display program using a general-purpose language, Java. (NEDO)

  20. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report concerns our research on base-catalyzed coal solubilization and a new approach for hydrogen addition. The work on base-catalyzed, chemical solubilization is continuing. this report is focused on the hydrogenation research. Specifically it deals with the use of arene chromium carbonyl complexes as reagents for the addition of dideuterium to coal molecules. In one phase of the work, he has established that the aromatic hydrocarbons in a representative coal liquid can be converted in very good yield to arene chromium carbonyl compounds. In a second phase of the work directly related to our objective of improved methods for catalytic hydrogenation, he has established that the aromatic constituents of the same coal liquid add dideuterium in the presence of added napththalene chromium carbonyl.

  1. Engineering sugar utilization and microbial tolerance toward lignocellulose conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth M. Nieves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through a fermentation-based manufacturing process that uses renewable feedstock such as lignocellulosic biomass is a desirable alternative to petrochemicals. Although it is still in its infancy, synthetic biology offers great potential to overcome the challenges associated with lignocellulose conversion. In this review, we will summarize the identification and optimization of synthetic biological parts used to enhance the utilization of lignocellulose-derived sugars and to increase the biocatalyst tolerance for lignocellulose-derived fermentation inhibitors. We will also discuss the ongoing efforts and future applications of synthetic integrated biological systems used to improve lignocellulose conversion.

  2. Use of continuous mercury monitors at coal-fired utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, Dennis L.; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Pavlish, John H. [Energy and Environmental Research Center, PO Box 9018, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, PO Box 10940 MS 922-273C, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 (United States); Chu, Paul [EPRI, 3412 Hillview Avenue, PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, CA 94303 (United States)

    2004-06-15

    In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice of its determination that regulation of coal-fired utilities for mercury is appropriate and necessary as part of the hazardous air pollutant emission regulation for electric utility steam-generating units. To aid in the determination of mercury emissions from these sources, on-line mercury semicontinuous emission monitors (Hg SCEMs) have been developed and tested in recent years. Although Hg SCEMs have shown promise during these previous tests, rigorous field or long-term testing has not been done. In the past year, commercially available and prototype Hg SCEMs have been used by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and others at several power plants. As part of the EERC work, Hg SCEMs were operated at a range of conditions and locations. In addition, the Hg SCEMs were operated for up to 1 month. The use of Hg SCEMs at these plants allowed for near-real-time data to be collected under changing plant conditions, as well as during normal ranges of operating conditions. Mercury emission data were obtained from different plants with different configurations. The plant configurations incorporated various pollution control technologies, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective noncatalytic reduction, ammonium sulfate injection for flue gas conditioning, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The particulate control devices included electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), a fabric filter (FF), and a venturi scrubber. The testing at these sites included the operation of Hg SCEMs before and after particulate control devices, in wet and dry stack conditions, and at high temperatures (343 C). The results from these field measurements have provided data that have been evaluated to determine the reliability, variability, biases, and overall capability of Hg SCEMs for monitoring mercury at coal-fired utilities. Even under the best conditions, operation of Hg SCEMs is by no

  3. The effect of temperature and oxygen content on coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Milenkova; A.G. Borrego; D. Alvarez; J. Xiberta; R. Menendez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    In this study chars from six coals differing in rank and maceral composition have been prepared at 1100 and 1300{sup o}C in a drop tube reactor using four oxygen concentrations (0, 2.5, 10 and 21% oxygen). Char burnout, reactivity, morphology and optical texture have been considered in an attempt to understand the effect of temperature and oxygen concentration in relation to coal characteristics. Temperature has shown to have a different effect on conversion depending on coal rank. The high volatile coals showed similar conversions at 1100 and 1300{sup o}C at the various atmospheres tested, whereas higher rank coals showed higher conversions at 1300 than at 1100{sup o}C. The presence of oxygen in the reacting gas appears to have two opposite effects on coal combustion. On the one hand it prevents swelling and devolatilisation and on the other it enhances combustion. The burnout will depend on which process dominates. In addition, this effect appears to be temperature dependant and the inhibiting effect of oxygen on coal devolatilisation has shown to be higher at higher temperature, since at low temperature it only affects the lowest ranked coals. The presence of oxygen also affects the structure of carbonaceous material since the lower the oxygen concentration the higher the anisotropy development. The difference in temperature separating the two series of experiments (1000 and 1300{sup o}C) did not have a positive effect on the conversion of coals yielding highly porous chars whereas for coals yielding more dense structures higher conversions were achieved at higher temperatures. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Fiscal 2000 survey report on project for promoting international cooperation. Survey on coal utilization in APEC region (Coal note); 2000 nendo kokusai kyoryoku suishin jigyo chosa hokokusho. APEC iki nai ni okeru sekitan riyo jokyo tou chosa (Koru note)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of contributing to the infrastructure for promoting clean coal technology (CCT), there were compiled as the 'coal note' various kinds of coal-related information in China, Indonesia, Philippine, Thailand and Vietnam among APEC countries. Concerning China, for example, economic growth and energy supply/demand in the category of the energy outline were described in detail; as were the guiding principle. individual guidance plan, and specific energy policy of the 10th five year plan, in the category of the energy policy; coal deposits, geological summary, coal quality in each coal forming period, and the status quo of development, in the category of the coal mines and development; coal supply/demand, production, consumption, and export, in the category of the present status of the coal industry; producers, sales, quality of product coal, distribution, and price, in the category of the domestic supply; present state of environmental problems relating to coal, and environmental measures intended for coal, in the category of the coal-related environmental issues; and development, production, coal cleaning, quality control, safety control, and utilization (combustion, liquefaction and gasification), in the category of coal utilization technology, respectively. (NEDO)

  5. The 3R anthracite clean coal technology: Economical conversion of brown coal to anthracite type clean coal by low temperature carbonization pre-treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someus Edward

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the "end-of-the-pipe" post treatment solutions. The "3R" (Recycle-Reduce-Reuse integrated environment control technology provides preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels, such as brown coal and contaminated solid fuels to achieve high grade cleansed fuels with anthracite and coke comparable quality. The goal of the 3R technology is to provide cost efficient and environmentally sustainable solutions by preventive pre-treatment means for extended operations of the solid fuel combustion power plants with capacity up to 300 MWe power capacities. The 3R Anthracite Clean Coal end product and technology may advantageously be integrated to the oxyfuel-oxy-firing, Foster Wheeler anthracite arc-fired utility type boiler and Heat Pipe Reformer technologies in combination with CO2 capture and storage programs. The 3R technology is patented original solution. Advantages. Feedstock flexibility: application of pre-treated multi fuels from wider fuel selection and availability. Improved burning efficiency. Technology flexibility: efficient and advantageous inter-link to proven boiler technologies, such as oxyfuel and arcfired boilers. Near zero pollutants for hazardous-air-pollutants: preventive separation of halogens and heavy metals into small volume streams prior utilization of cleansed fuels. >97% organic sulphur removal achieved by the 3R thermal pre-treatment process. Integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS programs: the introduction of monolitic GHG gas is improving storage safety. The 3R technology offers significant improvements for the GHG CCS conditions. Cost reduction: decrease of overall production costs when all real costs are calculated. Improved safety: application of preventive measures. For pre-treatment a specific purpose designed, developed, and patented pyrolysis technology used, consisting of a horizontally arranged externally

  6. Clean coal technologies in Japan: technological innovation in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This brochure reviews the history clean coal technologies (CCT) in Japan and systematically describes the present state of CCT insofar. The brochure contains three parts. Part 1. CCT classifications; Part 2. CCT overview; and Part 3. Future outlook for CCT. The main section is part 2 which includes 1) technologies for coal resources development; 2) coal-fired power generation technologies - combustion technologies and gasification technologies; 3) iron making and general industry technologies; 4) multi-purpose coal utilization technologies - liquefaction technologies, pyrolysis technologies, powdering, fluidization, and co-utilisation technologies, and de-ashing and reforming technologies; 5) Environmental protection technologies - CO{sub 2} recovery technologies; flue gas treatment and gas cleaning technologies, and technologies to effectively use coal has; 6) basic technologies for advanced coal utilization; and 7) co-production systems.

  7. Cofiring of rice straw and coal in a coal-fired utility boiler: thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Cofiring combustion of biomass and coal is a near-term, low cost alternative for reduction fossil greenhouse gas emissions in coal fired power plants. Recent reviews identified over 288 applications in over 16 countries with promising results for different coal and biomass combinations. In Brazil, there is no previous experience of cofiring biomass and coal, resulting in new challenges to fuel handling and boiler operation. A first experience is now proposed into an existing coal power plant, using rice straw as biomass fuel. A thermodynamic model was developed in order to predict operating and emissions data, which should be used in cofiring system design. For 10% of biomass input, the total CO{sub 2} emission is expected to slightly increase. However, considering only the coal CO{sub 2} emission, it is expected to decrease in about 10%. Also, the corresponding SO{sub 2} emission decreases in about 8%. (author)

  8. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  9. Understanding the effects of sulfur on mercury capture from coal-fired utility flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Morita, K.; Jia, C.Q. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Coal combustion continues to be a major source of energy throughout the world and is the leading contributor to anthropogenic mercury emissions. Effective control of these emissions requires a good understanding of how other flue gas constituents such as sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) may interfere in the removal process. Most of the current literature suggests that SO{sub 2} hinders elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation by scavenging oxidizing species such as chlorine (Cl2) and reduces the overall efficiency of mercury capture, while there is evidence to suggest that SO{sub 2} with oxygen (O{sub 2}) enhances Hg{sup 0} oxidation by promoting Cl2 formation below 100{sup o}C. However, studies in which SO{sub 2} was shown to have a positive correlation with Hg{sup 0} oxidation in full-scale utilities indicate that these interactions may be heavily dependent on operating conditions, particularly chlorine content of the coal and temperature. While bench-scale studies explicitly targeting SO{sub 3} are scarce, the general consensus among full-scale coal-fired utilities is that its presence in flue gas has a strong negative correlation with mercury capture efficiency. The exact reason behind this observed correlation is not completely clear, however. While SO{sub 3} is an inevitable product of SO{sub 2} oxidation by O{sub 2}, a reaction that hinders Hg{sup 0} oxidation, it readily reacts with water vapor, forms sulfuric acid (H{sub 2 }SO{sub 4}) at the surface of carbon, and physically blocks active sites of carbon. On the other hand, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on carbon surfaces may increase mercury capacity either through the creation of oxidation sites on the carbon surface or through a direct reaction of mercury with the acid. However, neither of these beneficial impacts is expected to be of practical significance for an activated carbon injection system in a real coal-fired utility flue gas.

  10. Reactivity of mechanical activated coals for special utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcaniova, L.; Kadarova, J.; Imrich, P.; Liptaj, T.; Vidlar, J.; Vasek, J.; Foldyna, F.; Sitek, J.; Balaz, P. [Slovak Academy of Science, Kosice (Slovakia). Inst. of Geotechnology

    2004-09-01

    The paper presents the coal activation effect as disintegration in the nano-submicron range and destruction carbon structure. The Slovak brown coal activated in planetary mill is characterised by destruction of organic structure of coal. The biggest activation effect connected with the destruction of C-C bonds of sp{sup 3} carbons has been confirmed by {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy in the chemical structure of humic acids extracted from the coal sample activated for a period of 60 min. The specific surface of humic acids is much smaller then that of mechanically activated sample from which they were extracted. The black Czech coal was activated by two stage disintegration. In the first stage of mechanochemical activation using Grinding Aqueous Caustic Leaching, GACL method, a fine dispersed semiproduct is formed with the size of particles from 2.5 to 9000 nm. The additional disintegration using water jet increases the effect of disintegration in the submicron area of the coal product. The volume distribution maximum achieves in this stage about 60 wt% of 750 nm grains.

  11. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Thailand; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Tai ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper investigated and studied the present situation and future trend of coal utilization and distribution in Thailand, and the present situation of environmental effects and the measures taken for environmental protection. Around 2010, coal will probably be produced only at EGAT`s Mae Moh (MM) coal mine. Demand for overseas coal is expected to be 40-50 million tons in 2011, and preparation of the coal center becomes a subject. For general industry use coal, pretreatment such as coal preparation, coal blending and briquetting is needed, considering coal quality, usage, transport distance and environmental effects. Brown coal of MM coal mine is a lignite with high sulfur, high ash content and low heating value. Wide spread of its use can be expected if upgrading is possible such as desulfurization, deashing, increasing heating value. In the electric power generation field, the absorber was installed at the existing boiler of the mine-mouth generating plant to conduct a verification test on high grade desulfurization of ultra-high sulfur lignite. In the industry field, the circulating fluidized bed boiler was adopted. In the residential/commercial field, introduction of briquette was proposed. 80 refs., 84 tabs.

  12. Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-megawatt utility boiler in Taiwan firing bituminous coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsia; Hwang, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-MW tangential-fired utility boiler in Taiwan burning Australian and Chinese bituminous coal blends was investigated. Flue gases were simultaneously sampled at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) inlet, the SCR outlet, the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, and the stack. Samplings of coal, lime, bottom ash/slag, fly ash, and gypsum slurry were also conducted. Results indicated that flue gases at the inlet to SCR contained a great potion of particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)), 59-92% of the total mercury. Removal of mercury was not observed for the SCR system. However, repartitioning of mercury species across the SCR occurred that significantly increased the portion of elemental mercury (Hg0) to up to 29% and oxidized mercury (Hg2+) to up to 33% in the SCR outlet gas. Overreporting of Hg(p) at the inlet of SCR may cause the observed repartitioning; the high ammonia/nitric oxide circumstance in the SCR unit was also speculated to cause the mercury desorption from ash particles and subsequent reentrance into the gas phase. ESP can remove up to 99% of Hg(p), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can remove up to 84% of Hg2+. Mercury mass balances were calculated to range between 81 and 127.4%, with an average of 95.7% wherein 56-82% was in ESP fly ash, 8.7-18.6% was retained in the FGD gypsum, and 6.2-26.1% was emitted from the stack. Data presented here suggest that mercury removal can be largely enhanced by increasing the conversion of Hg0 into Hg(p) and Hg2+.

  13. Ambitious coal to gasoline plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, P

    1979-06-20

    A design study carried out by Badger Energy concludes that the first US commercial gasoline from coal facility could be completed in eight years. The cost of gasoline would be 1.09 US dollars/gal. in 1990 with coal at 25 US dollars/ton. The process involves oxygen-blown coal gasification, conversion to methanol by the Mobil process, gas fractionation and HF alkylation.

  14. The Nanticoke conversion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    A study was conducted to assess the conversion of the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant to cleaner burning natural gas combined-cycle gas turbines. The Nanticoke Generating Station on Lake Erie is responsible for more than 50 per cent of Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) coal-fired electricity production. The OPG is proposing to work towards compliance with the newly signed Ozone Annex to the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement which will require fossil-fueled power plants in southern Ontario to reduce their smog-causing nitrogen oxides emissions by about 50 per cent by 2007. This study assessed the emission reduction benefits and financial costs of conversion compared to continuing to operate Nanticoke as a coal-fired plant. The analysis includes a base case set of data on fuel prices, retrofit costs, fuel efficiencies, annual capacity factors and other parameters. It was determined that conversion would cost the average household less than $3 per month on their electricity bill. Conversion would also reduce emissions nitrogen oxide, a major smog pollutant, by 83 per cent and the particulates that form the most health-threatening portion of smog would be reduced by 100 per cent. 15 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Utilization potentiality of coal as a reductant for the production of sponge iron. [5 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, H P

    1976-10-01

    With the ambitious plan of the Government of India to produce about 70 million tonnes of steel per annum towards the end of the century, the requirement of coal would be enormous. This calls for judicious planning and conservation of coal. Modern trend in steel plant practice is to use blast furnaces of capacity 10,000 to 12,000 t/day requiring superior quality coke of low ash content which will become scarce. Concerted efforts should be made to by-pass blast furnace technique by adopting direct reduction for the production of metallized iron ore, that is sponge iron, and using this as feed stock in electric furnaces. Experience has shown that the use of sponge iron as feed stock for electric arc furnaces instead of the scrap available from various fabrication and steel works results in better production of alloy steels. The use of non-coking coal as reductant for production of sponge iron will help conserve coking coal for bigger steel plants. In the solid state reduction process the technological design of the sponge iron plant has to be tailored to the type of feed stock to be used, particularly iron ore and coal. In India, non-coking coal is available at close proximity to the iron ore mines containing high grade iron ore. Planning for sponge iron, utilizing large reserves of non-coking coal as feed stock therefore has considerable potentiality. India has vast reserves of high grade iron ore and comparatively meager amount of coking coal. This calls for planning for sponge iron using non-coking coal as feed stock.

  16. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  17. Thar coal exploration : a radical view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan needs a manpower intensive technology to utilize its immense human resource. This human resource, however, has low literacy rate and thus lower skills and therefore there is a requirement of visualizing an employment technique compatible with the human resource. The vast coal deposits at Thar Coal Field provide an opportunity for development of low cost coal mining technique utilizing this manpower. Our history is filled with examples of effective utilization of human resources in the recent past. 300 years ago a few Muslim Emperors of the subcontinents constructed 40 meters deep wells, by utilizing human power only, to reach drinking water deep down, now in 2000 AD, can we go down 120 meters to dig the coal in Thar Coal Field by utilizing much enlarged manpower? (author)

  18. Co-firing straw and coal in a 150-MWe utility boiler: in situ measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. F.B.; Andersen, Karin Hedebo; Wieck-Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    A 2-year demonstration program is carried out by the Danish utility I/S Midtkraft at a 150-MWe PF-boiler unit reconstructed for co-firing straw and coal. As a part of the demonstration program, a comprehensive in situ measurement campaign was conducted during the spring of 1996 in collaboration...... with the Technical University of Denmark. Six sample positions have been established between the upper part of the furnace and the economizer. The campaign included in situ sampling of deposits on water/air-cooled probes, sampling of fly ash, flue gas and gas phase alkali metal compounds, and aerosols as well...... deposition propensities and high temperature corrosion during co-combustion of straw and coal in PF-boilers. Danish full scale results from co-firing straw and coal, the test facility and test program, and the potential theoretical support from the Technical University of Denmark are presented in this paper...

  19. Utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning based on GIS-based optimization method : study case at PT Adaro coal mine in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Anis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining activities may cause a series of environmental and socio-economic issues in communities around the mining area. Mining can become an obstacle to environmental sustainability and a major hidden danger to the security of the local ecology. Therefore, the coal mining industry should follow some specific principles and factors in achieving sustainable development. These factors include geological conditions, land use, mining technology, environmental sustainability policies and government regulations, socio-economic factors, as well as sustainability optimization for post-mining land use. Resources of the remains of the coal which is defined as the last remaining condition of the resources and reserves of coal when the coal companies have already completed the life of the mine or the expiration of the licensing contract (in accordance with government permission. This research uses approch of knowledge-driven GIS based methods mainly Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Fuzzy logic for utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning. The mining area selected for this study belongs to a PKP2B (Work Agreement for Coal Mining company named Adaro Indonesia (PT Adaro. The result shows that geologically the existing formation is dominated by Coal Bearing Formation (Warukin Formation which allows the presence of remains coal resource potential after the lifetime of mine, and the suitability of rubber plantation for the optimization of land use in all mining sites and also in some disposal places in conservation areas and protected forests.

  20. Environmental problems in Russian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.; Oumnov, V.

    1996-01-01

    The state of the Russian coal industry is complicated both economically and environmentally. Most mines are unprofitable. Several coal mines are intended to be closed. So, under existing conditions, coal mines are unable to give much attention to environmental protection problems. At the same time, coal mining is one of the most polluting industries. The main trends in this industry's negative influence upon the environment are: land spoilage and immobilization to lay out open-pit mines and mineral waste dump areas and tailing piles as well as with industrial waste water runoff; atmospheric pollution with the air coming from underground and substances blown off from dumps, hydrogeological regime intervention in coal mining areas, etc. One way to solve environmental problems in coal mining is a more rational utilization of the accompanying natural coal resources. Such measures make it possible to obtain complementary profits not only at the expense of reducing environmental destruction but producing new kinds of goods or services as well. Examples of similar solutions are solid mineral wastes utilization, underground space utilization, coal gas utilization and other issues

  1. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  2. Development of world coal reserves, their registration and their utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, H

    1979-10-01

    This paper examines statistics on world coal production and world coal reserves with figures from 1860 to 1974 provided in tables and graphs. Eighty percent of the total world coal reserves (92% of world brown coal reserves) lie in the USA and USSR. The recent increase in total coal reserve estimates is due to exploration in western USA and in the USSR east of the Urals. Depth and thickness of the world's coal seams are shown in graphs and variations in coal quality are discussed. Problems associated with the anticipated substantial increase in coal production up to the year 2000 are considered. Encouraging higher coal production is the successful development of highly mechanized underground mining techniques and highly productive heavy surface mining equipment which allows excavation at increased depths. Surface mining is expected to make up 50% of total world mining operations in the near future. More complete deposit exploitation also contributes to higher coal production. Low international ship freight rates would facilitate future world coal trade. Obstacles are seen as: high, long term investments due to the fact that coal reserves lie far from populated and industrialized areas; opening new mines; transportation costs and infrastructure development.

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  4. Coal liquefaction still a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overberg, H

    1982-03-19

    Liquefaction of coal is not profitable in West Germany and will not be so far some time to coal. This is true for West German and imported coal. The result may be improved but not changed by combined conversion of coal and top residues of distilleries. These are the main statements of a study carried out by Messrs. Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen, on behalf of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. The results of the study are presented in 20 volumes.

  5. Effects of fractal pore on coal devolatilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongli; He, Rong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cao, Liyong [Dongfang Electric Corporation, Chengdu (China). Centre New Energy Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Coal devolatilization is numerically investigated by drop tube furnace and a coal pyrolysis model (Fragmentation and Diffusion Model). The fractal characteristics of coal and char pores are investigated. Gas diffusion and secondary reactions in fractal pores are considered in the numerical simulations of coal devolatilization, and the results show that the fractal dimension is increased firstly and then decreased later with increased coal conversions during devolatilization. The mechanisms of effects of fractal pores on coal devolatilization are analyzed.

  6. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  7. Characterization of solid residues from coal liquefaction processes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; McDougall, W.M.; Kybett, B.D.; Neufeld, C.

    1981-01-01

    Various coal liquefaction and beneficiation processes are being investigated by independent research groups sponsored by the Canadian Federal Government. These processes include the co-processing of heavy oils and bitumen with coal, oxygen removal and hydrogenation of coal and supercritical gas extraction of coal. The end products, gaseous and liquid fuels and insoluble organic residues, vary with the experimental conditions. The physical properties and origin of the insoluble residue may influence such factors as degree of conversion, efficiency of the process, and ultimately, gaseous and liquid yields. One of the most suitable methods of assessing the nature of the insoluble residues is the use of petrography. This report deals with petrographic assessment of the coals and residues from various coal conversion processes; attempts were made to characterize the solid phases in the residues; to assess them in a quantitative manner and where possible; to correlate the results with experimental data; and to assess their effects on conversion. (30 refs.)

  8. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  9. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  10. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

  11. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1,000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  12. Opportunities for Decarbonizing Existing U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants via CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Ou, Yang; Rubin, Edward S

    2015-07-07

    This study employs a power plant modeling tool to explore the feasibility of reducing unit-level emission rates of CO2 by 30% by retrofitting carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) to existing U.S. coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). Our goal is to identify feasible EGUs and their key attributes. The results indicate that for about 60 gigawatts of the existing coal-fired capacity, the implementation of partial CO2 capture appears feasible, though its cost is highly dependent on the unit characteristics and fuel prices. Auxiliary gas-fired boilers can be employed to power a carbon capture process without significant increases in the cost of electricity generation. A complementary CO2 emission trading program can provide additional economic incentives for the deployment of CCS with 90% CO2 capture. Selling and utilizing the captured CO2 product for enhanced oil recovery can further accelerate CCUS deployment and also help reinforce a CO2 emission trading market. These efforts would allow existing coal-fired EGUs to continue to provide a significant share of the U.S. electricity demand.

  13. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  14. Fast fluid bed coal gasification for conversion of existing oil-fired boilers - an investigation of conditions precedent for commercial realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-06-01

    The syndicate Nordisk Fluidbaeddfoergasning which is made up of the following Scandinavian companies. A. Ahlstroem o/y Burmeister and Wain AB, Svenska Maskinverken AB and Svenska Cellulosa AB has been working with the development of a gas generator which makes it possible for the oil-fired boilers to use coal. The report describes a pre-project and presents the calculation of costs and the estimation of the market potential. The following appraisements have been made: (i) a commercially functioning plant can be erected (ii) the energy cost can be lower than the corresponding cost of conversion to coal powder fuel or competing gasifiers, and (iii) the size of the market is sufficiently large.

  15. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskinazi, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Tavoulareas, E.S. [Energy Technologies Enterprises Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  16. Utilization of coal ash/coal combustion products for mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolence, R.C.; Giovannitti, E.

    1997-01-01

    Society's demand for an inexpensive fuel, combined with ignorance of the long term impacts, has left numerous scars on the Pennsylvania landscape. There are over 250,000 acres of abandoned surface mines with dangerous highwalls and water filled pits. About 2,400 miles of streams do not meet water quality standards because of drainage from abandoned mines. There are uncounted households without an adequate water supply due to past mining practices. Mine fires and mine subsidence plague many Pennsylvania communities. The estimated cost to reclaim these past scars is over $15 billion. The beneficial use of coal ash in Pennsylvania for mine reclamation and mine drainage pollution abatement projects increased during the past ten years. The increase is primarily due to procedural and regulatory changes by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). Prior to 1986, DEP required a mining permit and a separate waste disposal permit for the use of coal ash in backfilling and reclaiming a surface mine site. In order to eliminate the dual permitting requirements and promote mine reclamation, procedural changes now allow a single permit which authorize both mining and the use of coal ash in reclaiming active and abandoned pits. The actual ash placement, however, must be conducted in accordance with the technical specifications in the solid waste regulations

  17. Fiscal 1995 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Investigation on the policy of coal demand stabilization using low grade coal; 1995 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban sokushin chosa. Teihin`itan riyo ni yoru sekitan jukyu anteika hosaku ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper investigated the trend of and the needs for low grade coal utilization and the seeds of low grade coal utilization technology and studied usability of low grade coal in the future. Importance of low grade coal utilization was described in consideration of features of the Asia/Pacific area in the world coal market, and the trend of production/utilization of low grade coal was examined mostly in countries holding main low grade coals in the Asia/Pacific area. The trend of the technical development contributing to the low grade coal utilization was studied to make it contribute to the extraction of technologies which are regarded as effective in the Asia/Pacific area. A study was made of applicability of the low grade coal utilization technology corresponding to the needs for low grade coal utilization, and at the same time, a study was made of the effect on the coal supply/demand in the Asia/Pacific area in case the low grade coal utilization is promoted helped by the study. Focusing on technical cooperation relating to clean coal technology, a study was conducted of the trend of international cooperation in Japan and various overseas countries and the trend of new cooperation in private sectors, and a discussion was made on how Japan should act toward promotion of low grade coal utilization. 12 figs., 91 tabs.

  18. Ecological aspects of coal combustion - utilization of CO2 from flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markoš Jozef

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Slovakia belongs to the group of twenty worst polluters throughout the world, releasing 10 - 12 tons of carbon dioxide per capita, whereas the worldwide average value is about 5 tons. It is known that the big electric and thermal power stations produce only 25 % of the overall production of carbon dioxide in Slovakia, whereas the biggest producer of carbon dioxide is the industry by 31%. The aim of the present contribution is to show possibilities of the further chemical conversion of the separated carbon dioxide from flue gas as a chemical raw material. We focused our attention to the feasibility of the conversion of carbon dioxide into carbon oxide or synthesis gas and its further conversion into methanol. The production of synthesis gas from carbon dioxide, coke (coal and natural gas was assumed. On the basis of our studies we can claim that the fulfilment of the national target of the Slovak Republic set up for 2005, i.e., the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 20 % against 1988 by the chemical transformation of carbon dioxide from the electric power stations flue gas is not realistic. In our opinion a profound reduction of carbon dioxide emission can be reached by lower demands for energy produced by burning fossil fuels or by the substitution of these fuels by alternative energy sources.

  19. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  20. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger

    2017-01-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  1. Analysis of oxy-fuel combustion power cycle utilizing a pressurized coal combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Gazzino, Marco; Hong, Jongsup; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson II, John G; Field, Randall; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new technology in which fuels are burned in an environment of oxygen and recycled combustion gases. In this paper, an oxy-fuel combustion power cycle that utilizes a pressurized coal combustor is analyzed. We show that this approach recovers more thermal energy from the flue gases...

  2. Manufacture of lightweight aggregates utilizing coal fly ash. Sekitan bai riyo ni yoru jinko keiryo kotsuzai seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1990-11-20

    Processing of a large amount of coal ash is a serious problem in considering the locational conditions of coal firing power generation plants. 46% of the coal ash was effectively used in 1985, and the remaining 54% was disposed at landfills on land and sea. Positive promotion of the effective use of coal ash is the necessity. A production method for an artificial lightweight aggregate utilizing coal ash was established by a joint research. The history of the research and development of this artificial lightweight aggregate (brand name: FA-lIGHT), outline of the manufacturing facilities, physical properties and result of use are introduced. The lightweight aggregates are used not only for the construction of multistoried buildings but also used as most suitable aggregates for making lightweight large scale panels and concrete secondary products such as lightweight blocks. FA-LIGHT is most suitable for use in the production of concrete lightweight aggregates, and can be used for hydroponic agriculture and for the improvement of drainage of land. Spread of its use is expected. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Issues and prospects for coal utilization in Zimbabwe's rural households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    The increasing shortage of traditional fuels in Zimbabwe has prompted government to consider seriously the use of coal in rural households. In this regard, both government and the privately owned coal industry have begun pilot projects in selected rural areas to initiate the introduction of coal stoves and coal fuels. These efforts by government and the coal industry need to be informed by knowledge of the financial and economic dimensions of coal diffusion to rural economies, the environmental implications of widespread coal use in rural households, and the general acceptability of coal as a fuel to households with a long tradition of free fuels. This paper summarizes the results of a study undertaken to provide such background information. Conducted over six months during 1988, the study included field surveys of four districts in Zimbabwe: Murewa, Shurugwi, Mberengwa, and Mazoe Citrus Estates. All but the Mazoe district are rural settings with severe shortages of fuelwood. Mazoe Citrus Estates is a semi-urban plantation community which has had over twenty years' experience with coal use in households under a company-sponsored programme which supplies both fuels and stoves free of charge

  4. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  5. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada

  6. Survey report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Dispatch of engineers; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (senmonka haken)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this survey is to improve the coal utilization technology and to contribute to the environmental protection. Through long-term dispatch of experts for the coal utilization technology, coal utilization facilities are surveyed at the sites, advises for coal utilization technology and environmental protection technology are given, and useful information for the cooperation with the partner country are exchanged. In this fiscal year, experts were dispatched to Thailand in addition to China, to conduct cooperative surveys, technical exchanges and seminars with both countries. Experts for desulfurization technology, circulating fluidized bed boilers, effective coal ash utilization technology, and coal preparation technology were dispatched to various places in China. Among various model projects conducted in China, examples of model projects for simplified desulfurizer introduction, circulating fluidized bed boiler introduction, and briquette production facility introduction were presented at seminars held at two cities in China. Experts for briquette production technology and circulating fluidized bed boiler technology were dispatched to Thailand, to conduct cooperative surveys and technical exchanges. 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Dispersed-phase catalysis in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, B.R.; Cugini, A.V.; Frommell, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the specific reaction (activation) conditions for the conversion of catalyst precursors to unsupported catalyst have a direct effect on the catalytic activity and dispersion. The importance of reaction intermediates in decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and the sensitivity of these intermediates to reaction conditions, were studied in coal liquefaction systems. Recent results indicate that optimization of activation conditions facilitates the formation of a highly dispersed and active form of molybdenum disulfide for coal liquefaction. The use of the catalyst precursors ammonium heptamolybdate, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum trisulfide for the conversion of coal to soluble products will be discussed. The use of an unsupported dispersed-phase catalyst for direct coal liquefaction is not a novel concept and has been employed in may studies with varying success. Dispersed-phase catalysts soluble and oil-soluble salts, and as finely divided powders. While some methods of catalyst introduction give higher dispersion of the catalyst and greater activity for the liquefaction of coal, all of the techniques allow the formation of a finely dispersed inorganic phase

  8. Coal transportation research and information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, R.W. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown); Hui, C.Y.

    1978-09-01

    This paper examines some of the existing and emerging issues of interest to engineers and planners dealing with coal transportation. One conclusion is that any research or data collection efforts in this field must be of a multidisciplinary nature. Not only must transportation planners, highway engineers, maintenance engineers, and soils engineers work together but, in addition, engineers will need to work with geologists, economists, and marketing specialists for effective planning, design, and operation of the coal transportation system. Earlier sections of this paper may have given the erroneous impression that all future research should concentrate on problems of transporting coal by truck. Although the West Virginia coal conversion study documented information deficiencies relative to the highway transportation of coal, research efforts involving railroads and waterways should continue. There is a serious need for research and information relative to the interactions between modes. For example, in order to predict the impact of local coal conversions on rail and barge systems that serve retailers, it is necessary to have a knowledge of the typical volumes that would be required by retail facilities, frequency of delivery to retail yards, and transportation distances involved mine and retailer. This paper deals with relatively short-term planning, however, information is required on the long-range future of the coal industry. Decision makers involved with providing an adequate coal transportation system must have information on the future role that coal will play in United States energy policy. (MCW)

  9. Gc/ms analysis of coal tar composition produced from coal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coal pyrolysis is one of the significant approaches for the comprehensive utilization ... planigraphy-GC/MS; therefore a satisfactory analytical result obtained, which .... Among the aliphatic group of the coal tar, the proportion of alkene is larger ...

  10. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  11. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Clean coal technology model project seminar held in Thailand; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Tai ni okeru clean coal technology model jigyo seminar no kaisai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, the desulfurization seminar diffusing the demonstration project of simplified desulfurizer introduction was held at the site in Thailand. The purpose is to reduce the environmental pollutants and contribute to the effective utilization of energy with coal utilization in Thailand. Invitation letters were sent to users of coal and heavy oil boilers through the Department of Factories, Ministry of Industry, Thailand, to call participation in the seminar. Inspection of the desulfurizer introduced in the factory of Thai Union Paper Public was included in the seminar for diffusing the project. The inspection site is in the demonstration project site of simplified desulfurizer introduction. There were a lot of participants from Thai users and from Japan. The seminar included the presentations from NEDO, JETRO, FTI, and MOSTE, introduction of general technology for processes of ENAA desulfurizer, introduction of demonstration unit plan by IHI, and introduction of operation of demonstration unit by TUP. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Annual Report (fiscal 1995, No. 10) of Research Laboratory of Carbonaceous Resources Conversion Technology, Kyoto University; Kyoto Daigaku Kogakubu jushitsu tanso shigen tenkan kogaku jikken shisetsu nenpo (19995 nendo No. 10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The report covers Laboratory research activities and a decision that the Laboratory, established in April 1986, will be abolished as scheduled in April 1996. Important coal-related achievements of the Laboratory include the development of a rapid pyrolytic process, studies on coal gasification, propositions for enabling coal to dissolve into general-purpose solvents and for a liquid phase oxidation process, manufacture of advanced-function carbon materials from heavy-weight carbonaceous resources (development of next-generation coke production techniques and of various element techniques for the clean use of coal), etc. As for its activities both domestic and international, the Laboratory, engaged in Education Ministry-financed high-priority scientific research projects, represented the general affairs division in a study titled 'Utilization of various energy resources,' and represented groups participating in other projects titled 'Development of new coal-gasification process' and 'Development of integral conversion process aiming at comprehensive coal utilization.' Furthermore, the Laboratory led the 'Japan-Canada cooperative scientific research relating to the development of technologies for effective coal utilization.' (NEDO)

  13. Annual Report (fiscal 1995, No. 10) of Research Laboratory of Carbonaceous Resources Conversion Technology, Kyoto University; Kyoto Daigaku Kogakubu jushitsu tanso shigen tenkan kogaku jikken shisetsu nenpo (19995 nendo No. 10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The report covers Laboratory research activities and a decision that the Laboratory, established in April 1986, will be abolished as scheduled in April 1996. Important coal-related achievements of the Laboratory include the development of a rapid pyrolytic process, studies on coal gasification, propositions for enabling coal to dissolve into general-purpose solvents and for a liquid phase oxidation process, manufacture of advanced-function carbon materials from heavy-weight carbonaceous resources (development of next-generation coke production techniques and of various element techniques for the clean use of coal), etc. As for its activities both domestic and international, the Laboratory, engaged in Education Ministry-financed high-priority scientific research projects, represented the general affairs division in a study titled 'Utilization of various energy resources,' and represented groups participating in other projects titled 'Development of new coal-gasification process' and 'Development of integral conversion process aiming at comprehensive coal utilization.' Furthermore, the Laboratory led the 'Japan-Canada cooperative scientific research relating to the development of technologies for effective coal utilization.' (NEDO)

  14. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  15. Analysis of coals and biomass pyrolysis using the distributed activation energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Chen, Zhichao; Qian, Juan; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Qunyi

    2009-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of coals and biomass was studied using thermogravimetric analysis with the distributed activation energy model. The integral method resulted in Datong bituminous coal conversions of 3-73% at activation energies of 100-486 kJ/mol. The corresponding frequency factors were e(19.5)-e(59.0)s(-1). Jindongnan lean coal conversions were 8-52% at activation energies of 100-462 kJ/mol. Their corresponding frequency factors were e(13.0)-e(55.8)s(-1). The conversion of corn-stalk skins were 1-84% at activation energies of 62-169 kJ/mol with frequency factors of e(10.8)-e(26.5)s(-1). Datong bituminous coal, Jindongnan lean coal and corn-stalk skins had approximate Gaussian distribution functions with linear ln k(0) to E relationships.

  16. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  17. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and project numbered 60. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1994, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 13 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well at wood processing industry as at power plants. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. Possibilities to produce agrofibre in investigated at a laboratory study

  18. Predicted coal production trends in Kentucky: The results of available coal resources, coal quality demands, and regulatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors affect the viability of regional coal production markets including (1) coal quality and recoverable tonnage, (2) coal mining cost, (3) the regional and time varying patterns of coal demand growth, (4) regulations and other institutional constraints that affect coal demand and utilization, and (5) the regional array of coal transport modes and rates. This analysis integrates these factors into an assessment of coal production prospects (separately) for eastern and western Kentucky coal producing counties for the decade of the 90's. The integration indicates that eastern Kentucky coal production will peak and begin to decline by the end of the decade whereas western Kentucky coal production will continue to grow. No single factor explains these trends. There is plenty of available minable coal. The combination of changes in environmental regulations, some increase in coal mining costs, and the mining-out of low sulfur reserves are the main factors that account for the production trends

  19. Panel reports of the first session of the workshop on coal for California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Karen R.

    1980-05-01

    The panel reports are the result of a five-day workshop held at the Pajaro Dunes Conference Center, Watsonville, California, October 1-6, 1978. The workshop was conducted by JPL, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission. The purpose of the exercise was to assay the opinions of a broad range of groups in order to identify what people perceive to be the problems associated with increased coal use in California. Representatives from utilities, industry, mining companies, citizens groups, and the academic community were divided into seven panels, each of which prepared a report. Representatives of government agencies attended as observers. The panels examined end-uses of coal in California, mine-mouth conversion, advanced concepts and use of Alaskan coal, environmental effects, public acceptance, finance, and legislation and regulation.

  20. Coal tar pitch. Interrelations between properties and utilization of coal tar pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, G; Koehler, H [Ruetgerswerke A.G., Duisburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-06-01

    Coal tar pitch is won as a highly aromatic, thermoplastic residue by destillating coal tar. In this paper the structure as well as the chemical and physical data of this pitch are introduced. In addition to this the actual as well as possible applications are indicated. For example, the pitch can be used for the production of binders, e.g. for electrodes and road construction as well as in combination with plastics for the production of insulating material and corrosion protection material.

  1. Planning new coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benesch, W.A. [STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    When considering fossil energy sources, it can be seen that natural gas and oil will become much scarcer than coal. Therefore, one practical option is to investigate and further develop coal-based energy supplies for the future. However, the existing coal stocks must be used very sparingly. Consequently, the conversion efficiency of the chemically-bonded energy in power and heat needs to be improved. By these means, and also by modern environmental engineering, power can be generated from coal without harming the environment. (orig.)

  2. Mode conversion and its utilization of degenerating surface wave modes on a plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.; Akao, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Both mode conversion at degenerating points of dispersion relations for surface wave modes on a discharge plasma column and the methods for their detection and utilization are presented. Mode conversions at three degenerating points become observable by using a surface wave resonator when an azimuthal inhomogeneity of plasma is produced by a static magnetic field of about 1 G applied perpendicular to the column axis. Two of the three detected degenerating points can be utilized for an easy and exact determination of the electron density and its distribution in the discharge tube

  3. When is the liquefaction of coal economic. [Including safe and secure supplies, low interest, multiplier effect of money spent inside the country, employment, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Usually the commercialization of a technology is determined by the economic viability. However, looking at coal conversion we recognize that there is also a strategic factor to be considered. Before entering into what is almost a political debate about the strategic value of coal conversion, let us look at the economic data. Table 2 shows specific cost numbers for coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electricity from coal. When the total cost of the different fuels is calculated with capital charges as would be required by private industry, one would arrive at indeed high figures, high compared to the present day cost of liquid energy. However, in the capital intensive electricity industry, capital can be accounted for on a capital charge basis of 7 to 17%. If this type of soft financing is applied to coal, coal liquids and coal gas, the figures already become much more attractive. Money internally spent within a country will turnover a few times. This is described by economists as the effect of the multiplier. To even further improve the prospects of home-made liquids one can add the value of avoiding unemployment. A labor intensive industry like the coal gasification and liquefaction industry may give a boost to the number of jobs and as a result have even another additional value to the country involved. Such an analysis leads to the conclusion that coal gasification and liquefaction could develop as a utility type industry under rather tight Government control. This has its strategic advantages with respect to stability and security of supply. On the other hand it may discourage private industry from getting involved in this business. Much will therefore depend on the political decision making process and that maybe is one of the biggest unknowns left in answer to the question when coal conversion will become of economic significance.

  4. Changes in brown coal structure caused by coal-solubilizing microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiers, H.; Koepsel, R.; Weber, A.; Winkelhoefer, M.; Grosse, S. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen

    1997-12-31

    The phenomenon of coal solubilization caused by microorganisms has been explained by various mechanisms: extraction of non-covalently bonded polar components of the coal substance by biogenic agents (chelating agents, alkaline substances) and enzyme-catalyzed cleavage of covalent bonds by extracellular enzyme systems. For this it is assumed that bond cleavage occurs on the aliphatic carbon (methylene groups, aliphatic bridges or on ester groups). As the coal has usually been treated with oxidizing agents such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or HNO{sub 3} before bioconversion, there is a possibility that the result of bioconversion is overlaid with the effect of the chemical treatment. We therefore studied the structural changes in the organic coal substance during pre-oxidation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, treatment with MnP and conversion using the fungal strains of Trichoderma and Fusarium oxysporum. (orig.)

  5. Challenges And Opportunities For Coal Gasification In Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-01

    Coal gasification for chemicals, gaseous and liquid fuels production can fulfil an important strategic need in those developing countries where coal is the primary fuel source and oil and gas energy security is an issue. At the same time, the establishment of major projects in such countries can be problematical for a number of technical and economic reasons, although it is encouraging that some projects appear to be moving forward. There are two developing countries where coal conversion projects to produce chemicals, gaseous and liquid fuels have been taken forward strongly. The first is South Africa, which established the world's only commercial-scale coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals facilities at Secunda and Sasolburg respectively. The other is China, where there is a major gasification-based coal conversion development and deployment programme that is set to become a significant, large-scale commercial element in the nation's energy development plans. This will provide further major opportunities for the deployment of large-scale coal gasification technologies, various syngas conversion units and catalysts for the subsequent production of the required products. The role of China is likely to be critical in the dissemination of such technologies to other developing countries as it can not only provide the technical expertise but also financially underpin such projects, including the associated infrastructure needs.

  6. Clean coal use in China: Challenges and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xu; Snowden, Simon; McLellan, Benjamin C.; Höök, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption in China is currently dominated by coal, a major source of air pollution and carbon emissions. The utilization of clean coal technologies is a likely strategic choice for China at present, however, although there have been many successes in clean coal technologies worldwide, they are not widely used in China. This paper examines the challenges that China faces in the implementation of such clean coal technologies, where the analysis shows that those drivers that have a negative bearing on the utilization of clean coal in China are mainly non-technical factors such as the low legal liability of atmospheric pollution related to coal use, and the lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal use in China. Policies for the development of clean coal technologies are in their early stages in China, and the lack of laws and detailed implementation requirements for clean coal require resolution in order to accelerate China's clean coal developments. Currently, environmental pollution has gained widespread attention from the wider Chinese populace and taking advantage of this opportunity provides a space in which to regain the initiative to raise people’s awareness of clean coal products, and improve enterprises’ enthusiasm for clean coal. - Highlights: • Clean coal is not widely used in China due to many management issues. • Legal liability of pollution related with coal utilization is too low in China. • China is lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal utilization. • It is difficult to accelerate clean coal utilization by incentive subsidies alone.

  7. Coal-related research, organic chemistry, and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Coal chemistry research topics included: H exchange at 400 0 C, breaking C-C bonds in coal, molecular weight estimation using small-angle neutron scattering, 13 C NMR spectra of coals, and tunneling during H/D isotope effects. Studies of coal conversion chemistry included thermolysis of bibenzyl and 1-naphthol, heating of coals in phenol, advanced indirect liquefaction based on Koelbel slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor, and plasma oxidation of coal minerals. Reactions of PAHs in molten SbCl 3 , a hydrocracking catalyst, were studied. Finally, heterogeneous catalysis (desulfurization etc.) was studied using Cu, Au, and Ni surfaces. 7 figures, 6 tables

  8. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  9. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  10. The application of the coal grain analysis method to coal liberation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Adair, B. [CSIRO Earth Science & Resource Engineering Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Emerging coal markets such as the use of coal for conversion to liquid fuels and its use in fuels cells and as coal water slurries in diesel engines require coal products with different coal quality specifications than those applicable to traditional coal markets of coke making and conventional power generation. As well as quantifying coals in terms of their chemical and physical properties, detailed knowledge of the mineral inclusions within the coal particles is required to identify coals that are suited to economically produce the low-ash value coals required for these markets. After mining and processing, some particles can consist of essentially pure components of a single maceral or mineral phase whilst others are composite particles that are comprised of varying amounts of macerals and minerals. The proportion of particles that are present as pure components or as composites will be a function of the characteristics of the coal and the particle size. In general, it is considered that size reduction will result in liberation and hence increased yield. The amount of liberation that occurs during crushing or grinding a coal is however coal specific. Particle characterization information provided by an optical microscopic-imaging method, Coal Grain Analysis, was used to identify coals that might benefit from additional crushing to improve recovery of clean coal by new density separation techniques and by flotation. As expected, the results of these studies suggest that the degree of liberation that is obtained is coal specific, and, hence, yield improvements are also coal specific. Hence a quantitative method of investigating this issue is required.

  11. Steam coal processing technology: handling, high-order processing, COM, meth-coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, H.; Onodera, J.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: various handling techologies (overland and marine transport, storage, water removal, drying, comminution and sizing); various coal processing technologies (gravity concentration, magnetic separation, multi-stage flotation, liquid-phase pelletizing, chemical processing); production methods for coal-oil mixtures (COM), their physical properties, stability, storage, transport, advantages, plus recent trends in research and development; production of coal-methanol slurry (meth-coal), its stability, storage, transport, utilization and environmental problems, plus latest trends in research and development. (In Japanese)

  12. Computer-aided planning of brown coal seam mining in regard to coal quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, R.; Lehmann, A.; Rabe, H.; Richter, S.

    1988-09-01

    Discusses features of the geologic SORVER software developed at the Freiberg Fuel Institute, GDR. The program processes geologic data from exploratory wells, petrographic characteristics of a coal seam model, technological mining parameters and coal quality requirements of consumers. Brown coal reserves of coking coal, gasification coal, briquetting coal and steam coal are calculated. Vertical seam profiles and maps of seam horizon isolines can be plotted using the program. Coal quality reserves along the surface of mine benches, mining block widths and lengths for excavators, maximum possible production of individual coal qualities by selective mining, and coal quality losses due to mining procedures are determined. The program is regarded as a means of utilizing deposit reserves more efficiently. 5 refs.

  13. Effect of Recycle Solvent Hydrotreatment on Oil Yield of Direct Coal Liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shansong Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the recycle solvent hydrotreatment on oil yield of direct coal liquefaction were carried out in the 0.18 t/day direct coal liquefaction bench support unit of National Engineering Laboratory for Direct Coal Liquefaction (China. Results showed that the hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent improved and the hydrogen consumption of solvent hydrotreatment was increased by decreasing liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 and increasing reaction pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent was enhanced, thus promoting the oil yield and coal conversion of the liquefaction reaction. The coal conversion and distillates yield of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.74% to 88.82% and from 47.41% to 49.10%, respectively, with the increase in the solvent hydrotreatment pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The coal conversion and distillates of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.82% to 89.27% and from 49.10% to 54.49%, respectively, when the LHSV decreased from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 under the solvent hydrotreatment pressure of 19.0 MPa.

  14. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  15. Fiscal 1999 report on results of joint demonstrative project for environmentally benign coal utilization system. Demonstrative project concerning coal preparation technology (China); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo seika hokokusho. Sentan gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho jigyo (Chugoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the demonstrative project for coal preparation technology, as a part of the measures against environmental pollution due to the structuring of demonstration and dissemination basis for clean coal technologies in China, The results for fiscal 1999 is reported. In the utilization of coal in China, a problem of urgency is the highly efficient selection and removal of sulfur contents in raw coal. Coal production in Chongquing City is yearly 30 million tons, of which 90% contains sulfur contents of 3% or higher. At Jinjia Colliery of Panjiang Coal and Electric Co. Ltd., Guizhou Province, a site for the present project, a number of coal seams are unsuitable for single utilization because of high sulfur contents. The coal preparation technologies to be introduced are expected to improve coal preparation efficiency and desulfurization ratio in terms of both the washability of raw coal and the accuracy of the coal washer. This is the third year of the project, with the following activities performed, namely, research/design, manufacturing/procurement of equipment, design for construction work, training of operators or the like, and documentation. The manufacturing and procurement are for such equipment as vacuum disk filter with accessories, waste water thickener, pressure filter for tailings with accessories, flocculant pump/piping, slurry tank/pump, high-shear mixer with accessories, and electric instrumentation. All the equipment arrived at the site in January, 2001. (NEDO)

  16. Study on denitration technology of coal char reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie FU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to more effectively control NO emissions in coal-fired flue gas, the denitration reaction is carried out with simulated industrial boiler flue gas in a fixed bed reactor. The influence of char types, reaction conditions, the composition of flue gas and other factors on the conversion rate of NO are discussed. The result shows that the industrial semi-coke is the most suitable experimental coal in the three coals studied, and the industrial semi-coke particle size of 0.6 ~ 10 mm is relatively suitable; The conversion rate of NO increases gradually with the increase of temperature, and when the reaction temperature is 700 ℃ and the space velocity is 10 000 h-1, the conversion rate of NO can reach 99%; the conversion rate of NO decreases gradually as airspeed increases, but the airspeed change has no effect on the conversion rate of NO at 700 ℃; under anaerobic conditions,the change of NO concentration has no effect on the conversion rate of NO; at the same temperature, NO conversion rate is higher at the presence of oxygen compared with that at anaerobic situation, and the conversion rate of NO is the highest when O2 concentration is 4%; under aerobic conditions, the concentration change of SO2 and CO2 has no effect on the conversion rate of NO.

  17. The release of nitrogen in coal combustion and pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varey, J.E.; Hindmarsh, C.J.; Thomas, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental aspects of coal utilization are a major concern. Recent advances in the development of low NO x burners and the emerging technologies of fluidized bed combustion have led to the identification of coal char nitrogen as the major contributor to the nitrogen oxides released during combustion. The temperature programmed combustion and pyrolysis of a series of coals covering a wide range of rank have been investigated. In addition, maceral concentrates have been investigated to assess the variation in the combustion behavior and the release of nitrogen in the pyrolysis and combustion of macerals. This investigation has involved the use of thermogravimetric analysis - mass spectrometry (TG-MS) with two sampling options: (1) ∼1cm from the sample and (2) at the exit of the TG. The former allows reactive species to be identified in the combustion of the coals. These temperature programmed combustion results have been compared with similar measurements carried out at the exit of the TG where the products are at equilibrium. In addition, pyrolysis studies have been carried out under similar conditions. The results show that reactive intermediate species such as HCN, (CN) 2 , COS etc. can be detected in the combustion products. The evolution of these species during combustion are compared with the pyrolysis products of the coal. The results are discussed in relation to the structure of the coals and the conversion of volatile species and char nitrogen to nitrogen oxides

  18. The importance of coal in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Guven

    2006-01-01

    An 87% of the total energy requirement of the world is supplied by fossil fuels such as coal, fuel oil, and natural gas, while the rest comes from the other sources, like hydroelectric and nuclear power plants. Coal, as a fuel oil equivalent, has the greatest reserves (70%) among the fossil fuels and is very commonly found in the world. While the share of coal in the production of electricity was 39% in 2004 it is expected to rise to 48% in 2020. In the direction of sustainable development, the utilization of coal in energy production is constantly increasing and related researches are continuing. Today, the development and economics of hybrid electricity production; gas, fluid fuel, and hydrogen production from coal are being investigated and their industrial applications are slowly emerging. The surprisingly sharp increase in fuel oil and natural gas prices proves the defectiveness of the energy strategies of Turkey in effect since the 1990. Turkey should turn to coal without wasting more time, accept the utilization of clean coal in energy production, and determine her road-map. Increasing the efficiency of thermal power plants which utilize coal; hybrid technology; and gas, fluid fuel, and hydrogen production technologies from coal are investigated in this paper and suggestions are made.

  19. Fuel production from coal by the Mobil Oil process using nuclear high-temperature process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two processes for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are presented: Direct conversion of coal into fuel (coal hydrogenation) and indirect conversion of coal into fuel (syngas production, methanol synthesis, Mobil Oil process). Both processes have several variants in which nuclear process heat may be used; in most cases, the nuclear heat is introduced in the gas production stage. The following gas production processes are compared: LURGI coal gasification process; steam reformer methanation, with and without coal hydrogasification and steam gasification of coal. (orig./EF) [de

  20. Studies on the catalysts for coal liquefaction. ; Rheological studies of coal liquefaction process. Sekitan ekikayo shokubai ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Sekitan ekika process no rheology teki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, T; Oda, H; Yokokawa, C [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-11-07

    Hydrogenolysis of different rank coals as Taiheiyo coal (75.7C%) and Pittston coal (85.4C%) were conducted in the presence of four kinds of catalysts (CuCrO4, Fe2O3+S, MoO3-TiO2 and MoS3-Al2O3) with an addition of tetralin as vehicle. The variation in viscosity in every reaction system was traced in the initial stage of the reaction by a torque meter attached to an autoclave. As a result, in every system, the torque decreased in the initial stage of temperature rise because of reduction of a solvent viscosity. The torque subsequently increased with temperature indicating two peaks before the following gradual decrease. In Taiheiyo coal, both peaks were low, and its coal conversion was more than 85%, while in Pittston coal, both peaks were sharp and high, and both subsequent torque reduction and coal conversion were smaller than those of Taiheiyo coal. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Study of the Korean anthracite for utilization and the coal mine data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petrographic study of the Korean anthracite for utilization (5): This research was initiated for the development of filtering materials those can be used in waste water treatment sites The small scale of filtration tester was built on the waste water treatment site of Chungjoo electric Co. to use waste water processed by purifying system for the feasibility study. (2) Study of the closed coal mine data management: Underground maps about 1700 adits of 100 coal mines, and related graphic data have been collected in the database. And all those data were entered into the database in vectorial form, coordinates obtaining from the digitizing tablet. Detailed works are described in the other report, including the discussions of graphic database and data handling of graphical mine data. Comments about the GIS is also provided in the volume. (author). 25 refs., 45 figs., 50 tabs., 3 maps.

  2. Synthesis of beta-sialon from coal gangue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.Y.; Sun, J.L.; Deng, C.J.; Hong, Y.R. [Beijing University Science & Technology, Beijing (China)

    2003-01-01

    It is worth studying the synthesis of beta-Sialon from coal gangue, because coal gangue is a waste of coal production and is a high quality kaolin contained carbon which is a perfect raw material of contained reducer itself for synthesis of beta-sialon. The study showed that a high conversion rate of 95% from coal gangue to beta-Sialon could be obtained by using process of carbothermal reduction nitridation when strictly controlling the thermodynamic conditions of synthesis. For controlling the synthesis conditions, the details of the effects of p(CO), P-O{sub 2} and T on the conversion rate of beta-sialon are discussed and the phase diagrams of oxygen pressure vs composition for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-A{sub l}N-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} system at 1350, 1500, and 1600{sup o}C are constructed.

  3. Microbial transformation of coal and coal relevant structures - presentation of a BMBF joint research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinder, C.; Schacht, S.; Pfeifer, F.; Klein, J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Investigations in the joint research project `Microbial transformation of coal and coal relevant structures` supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) of the Federal Republic of Germany and coordinated by the DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH (DMT) are focussed on research and development of biotechnological coal conversion processes. Up to now investigations carried out in the project lead to a number of important results. During work on the project a great number of different microorganisms was found able to degrade or solubilize coal or lignite. Enzymatic as well as regulation mechanisms of the microbial depolymerization processes have been characterized successfully. (orig.)

  4. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  5. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  7. Competitive edge of western coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  8. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2014-09-01

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co-produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  9. Low-temperature catalytic conversion of carbonaceous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laws of the rate of carbon conversion in steam atmosphere at a temperature in modes of the catalytic low-temperature treatment of peat, brown coal, semi-coke from peat and brown coal are obtained by experiments. Increasing of the rate of carbon conversion in temperature range up to 500 °C is achieved by using of catalysts. The possibility of using results is associated with the burners, a working zone of which is porous filling from carbonaceous particles.

  10. Gas core reactors for coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, H.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of using a gas core reactor to produce hydrogen directly from coal and water is presented. It is shown that the chemical equilibrium of the process is strongly in favor of the production of H 2 and CO in the reactor cavity, indicating a 98 percent conversion of water and coal at only 1500 0 K. At lower temperatures in the moderator-reflector cooling channels the equilibrium strongly favors the conversion of CO and additional H 2 O to CO 2 and H 2 . Furthermore, it is shown the H 2 obtained per pound of carbon has 23 percent greater heating value than the carbon so that some nuclear energy is also fixed. Finally, a gas core reactor plant floating in the ocean is conceptualized which produces H 2 , fresh water and sea salts from coal

  11. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A VORTEX CONTAINMENT COMBUSTOR FOR COAL COMBUSTION SYTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the development of a vortex containment combustor (VCC) for coal combustion systems, designed to solve major problems facing the conversion of oil- and gas-fired boilers to coal (e.g., derating, inorganic impurities in coal, and excessive formation of NOx and...

  13. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO(sub x) in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO(sub x) emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames-particularly under low NO(sub x) conditions. A CO/H(sub 2)/O(sub 2)/N(sub 2) flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state(sup 13)C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  14. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. W(h)ither the coal industry? The long-term view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobert, H.H.; Rusinko, F. Jr.; Mathews, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Global warming--real or imaginary, friend or foe, carbon dioxide emissions a threat to the planet, benign, or good for agriculture--while the debate rages on, the debaters occasionally seem to pause long enough to agree on one point: coal is the bad guy. There is little doubt that coal combustion must continue as a major contributor to the energy economy for the near to mid-term future. It is likely, though, those environmental pressures on conventional processes for coal utilization will only intensify. This factor alone makes questionable the long-term future. Environmental issues also severely impact the metallurgical coke industry. The traditional coal industry and coal markets of the 20th century are under increasingly intense assault. But why waste coal by burning it? Steady progress is being made in two directions for using coal as a valuable hydrocarbon resource. On the one hand, continuous improvements in computer-based structural modeling, which now include the ability to calculate not only a molecular structure that is consistent with chemical facts, but also some of the physical properties and even the incorporation of water. The increasing reasonableness of such structures places one on the verge of being able to do rational organic chemistry on coals, that is, deliberately to select coals as starting materials for certain desired chemical transformations that will produce high-value chemical products in good yields. This opens a route to chemicals from coal that does not rely on by-product coal tars as the feedstock. On the other hand, excellent opportunities also exist for coals as precursors to high-value carbon materials. Anthracites in particular represent an under-exploited, and as yet poorly explored, opportunity for conversion to graphitic materials. Taking coal in both directions high-value chemicals and premium carbon products represent profitable opportunities for innovation, leadership, and new directions for the coal industry in the 21st

  16. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  17. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry.

  18. FY1995 development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; 1995 nendo teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new efficient desulfurization technique using a Ca ion-exchanged coal prepared from low rank coal and calcium raw material as a SO{sub 2} sorbent. Ion-exchange of calcium was carried out by soaking and mixing brown coal particles in milk of lime or slurry of industrial waste from concrete manufacture process. About 10wt% of Ca was easily incorporated into Yallourn coal. The ion-exchanged Ca was transformed to ultra-fine CaO particles upon pyrolysis of coal. The reactivity of CaO produced from Ca-exchanged coal to SO{sub 2} was extraordinary high and the CaO utilization of above 90% was easily achieved, while the conversion of natural limestone was less than 30% under the similar experimental conditions. High activity of Ca-exchanged coal was appreciably observed in a pressurized fluidized bed combustor. Ca-exchanged coal was quite effective for the removal of hydrogen sulfide. (NEDO)

  19. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, Samudra; DeCarolis, Joseph F.; Srivastava, Ravi K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology cost and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO x control configurations on a large subset of the existing coal-fired, utility-owned boilers in the US. The resultant data are used to create technology-specific marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) and also serve as input to an integer linear program, which minimizes system-wide control costs by finding the optimal distribution of NO x controls across the modeled boilers under an emission constraint. The result is a single optimized MACC that accounts for detailed, boiler-specific information related to NO x retrofits. Because the resultant MACCs do not take into account regional differences in air-quality standards or pre-existing NO x controls, the results should not be interpreted as a policy prescription. The general method as well as NO x -specific results presented here should be of significant value to modelers and policy analysts who must estimate the costs of pollution reduction.

  20. Advances in coal chemistry, 1950--1970. [21 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J D

    1971-12-01

    During the 20 years under review, considerable advances were made at centers of coal research throughout the world in the determination of the chemical structure and reactions of coals. Important contributions came from the CSIRO group in Sydney. Activity was greatest during the first decade of the period under review and declined progressively during the second, as evidence of the extreme complexity of coal structures made it clear that further chemical research would be less rewarding. Some overseas investigations were related mainly to chemical processes for the conversion of coals to liquid and gaseous fuels, and to possible direct chemical utilization; but in Australia, because of the relatively small size of the potential market and the widely dispersed centers of population, such studies were not relevant to the current situation. Much of the Australian research in this field was related to carbonization processes and to the chemical and physical processes involved in the thermal treatment of coals. The high-light was perhaps the investigation, begun in 1960, which showed how coals, pitch, and bitumen resolidify during heating to form coke. Determinations were also made of the chemical composition of tars and pitches produced both industrially and in the laboratory and efforts were made to develop local outlets for these by-products of gas-making and of steelworks coke ovens. The pattern of Australian fuel consumption changed considerably during the 20-year period, and in particuar there was considerable development in the use of petroleum by-products for gas-making. Research on the manufacture of metallurgical coke was established within the steel industry, and in response to these factors basic work by CSIRO in bituminous coal chemistry had virtually ceased by the end of 1966.

  1. Rational Design of Mixed-Metal Oxides for Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal via Coupled Computational-Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Amit [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Li, Fanxing [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Santiso, Erik [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-09-18

    Energy and global climate change are two grand challenges to the modern society. An urgent need exists for development of clean and efficient energy conversion processes. The chemical looping strategy, which utilizes regenerable oxygen carriers (OCs) to indirectly convert carbonaceous fuels via redox reactions, is considered to be one of the more promising approaches for CO2 capture by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). To date, most long-term chemical looping operations were conducted using gaseous fuels, even though direct conversion of coal is more desirable from both economics and CO2 capture viewpoints. The main challenges for direct coal conversion reside in the stringent requirements on oxygen carrier performances. In addition, coal char and volatile compounds are more challenging to convert than gaseous fuels. A promising approach for direct conversion of coal is the so called chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) technique. In the CLOU process, a metal oxide that decomposes at the looping temperature, and releases oxygen to the gas phase is used as the OC. The overarching objective of this project was to discover the fundamental principles for rational design and optimization of oxygen carriers (OC) in coal chemical looping combustion (CLC) processes. It directly addresses Topic Area B of the funding opportunity announcement (FOA) in terms of “predictive description of the phase behavior and mechanical properties” of “mixed metal oxide” based OCs and rational development of new OC materials with superior functionality. This was achieved through studies exploring i) iron-containing mixed-oxide composites as oxygen carriers for CLOU, ii) Ca1-xAxMnO3-δ (A = Sr and Ba) as oxygen carriers for CLOU, iii) CaMn1-xBxO3-δ (B=Al, V, Fe, Co, and Ni) as oxygen carrier for CLOU and iv) vacancy creation energy in Mn-containing perovskites as an indicator chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling.

  2. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing

  3. Report of base consolidation promotion survey of overseas coal import in FY 1993. Feasibility survey of effective utilization of coal ash; 1993 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Sekitanbai yuko riyo jigyo no feasibility chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the effective utilization of coal ash discharged from general industry (general industry ash) as improving material of construction waste soil and deodorant for poultry industry. Coal ash is characterized by the pozzolan and self-hardening properties which are not shown in soil and sand. Coal ash having a large amount of free CaO in its composition has stronger such properties. Coal ash generated from fluidized bed combustor which is a kind of combustor of coal contains a large amount of free CaO, especially, resulting in the stronger such properties. On the other hand, coal ash has water and oil absorbing property due to its porous structure. To utilize these properties, the improving material of soft construction waste soil and deodorant for poultry industry have been selected. As a result of laboratory and field tests for the former, it was found that sufficient supporting force can be obtained. Since the protection of powder splash is required at the site, a humidification system has been developed, which can protect the splash by the humidification of 5%. The price between 500 and 1,000 yen/ton is suitable for the improving material of construction waste soil. The maximum price of the deodorant for poultry industry is 10 yen/kg. 14 refs., 40 figs., 49 tabs.

  4. GC/MS analysis of coal tar composition produced from coal pyrolysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coal tar is a significant product generated from coal pyrolysis. A detailed analytical study on its composition and chemical structure will be of great advantage to its further processing and utilization. Using a combined method of planigraphy-gas chromatograph/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), this work presents a composition ...

  5. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-01-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference

  6. Development of upgraded brown coal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, N.; Sugita, S.; Deguchi, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Makino, E. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). Coal and Energy Project Department

    2004-07-01

    Half of the world's coal resources are so-called low rank coal (LRC) such as lignite, subbituminous coal. Utilization of such coal is limited due to low heat value and high propensity of spontaneous combustion. Since some of LRCs have advantages as clean coal, i.e. low ash and low sulfur content, LRC can be the excellent feedstock for power generation and metallurgy depending on the upgrading technology. The UBC (upgraded brown coal) process introduced here converts LRC to solid fuel with high heat value and less propensity of self-heating. Various world coals, such as Australian, Indonesian and USA LRC, were tested using the Autoclave and Bench Scale Unit, and the process application to LRC of wide range is proven. The R & D activities of the UBC process are introduced including a demonstration project with a 5 ton/day test plant in progress in Indonesia, expecting near future commercialisation in order to utilize abundant LRC of clean properties. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Coal in Europe: what future?: prospects of the coal industry and impacts study of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudianto, E.

    2006-12-01

    From the industrial revolution to the 1960's, coal was massively consumed in Europe and its utilization was constantly raised. In the aftermath of World War II, coal had also an important part in reconstruction of Western Europe's economy. However, since the late 1960's, its demand has been declining. There is a (mis)conception from a number of policy makers that saying coal mining and utilizations in Europe is unnecessary. Therefore in the European Union (EU) Green Paper 2000, coal is described as an 'undesirable' fuel and the production of coal on the basis of economic criteria has no prospect. Furthermore, the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol in reducing greenhouse gases emission has aggravated this view. Faced with this situation, the quest for the future of coal industry (mining and utilization) in the lines of an energy policy is unavoidable. This dissertation did a profound inquiry trying to seek answers for several questions: Does the European Union still need coal? If coal is going to play a part in the EU, where should the EU get the coal from? What should be done to diminish negative environmental impacts of coal mining and utilization? and finally in regard to the CO 2 emission concerns, what will the state of the coal industry in the future in the EU? To enhance the analysis, a system dynamic model, called the Dynamics Coal for Europe (the DCE) was developed. The DCE is an Energy-Economy-Environment model. It synthesizes the perspectives of several disciplines, including geology, technology, economy and environment. It integrates several modules including exploration, production, pricing, demand, import and emission. Finally, the model emphasizes the impact of delays and feed-back in both the physical processes and the information and decision-making processes of the system. The calibration process for the DCE shows that the model reproduces past numbers on the scale well for several variables. Based on the results of this calibration process, it can

  8. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  9. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of

  10. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Joint verification project on environmentally friendly coal utilization systems. Joint verification project on the water-saving coal preparation system; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo. Shosuigata sentan system kyodo jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In this verification project, clean technology which should be spread in China was verified and the base structure for its spread was prepared for the purpose of controlling emissions of environmental pollutants associated with the coal utilization in China and of contributing to secure energy acquisition of Japan. As joint verification projects, a general rehabilitation type coal preparation system was installed in the Wangfenggang coal preparation plant, and a central control coal preparation system was installed in the Qingtan coal preparation plant. In the former, a system is verified in which optimum operation, water-saving, high quality, and heightening of efficiency can be obtained by introducing two computing systems for operation control and quality control, various measuring instruments, and analyzers to coal preparation plants where analog operation is conducted helped by Russia and Porland and have problems about quality control. In the latter, a central control system achieving water saving is verified by introducing rapid ash meters, scales, desitometers and computers to coal preparation plants having zigzag or heavy-fluid cyclon and connecting various kinds of information through network. For fiscal 1994, investigation and study were conducted. 51 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  13. Quantitative feasibility study of magnetocaloric energy conversion utilizing industrial waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuarnoz, D.; Kitanovski, A.; Gonin, C.; Borgeaud, Y.; Delessert, M.; Meinen, M.; Egolf, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model magnetic energy conversion machine for the use of industrial waste heat. ► Efficiencies and masses of the system are evaluated by a numerical model. ► Excellent potential of profitability is expected with large low-exergy heat sources. -- Abstract: The main objective of this theoretical study was to investigate under which conditions a magnetic energy conversion device (MECD) – utilizing industrial waste heat – is economically feasible. Furthermore, it was evaluated if magnetic energy conversion (MCE) has the potential of being a serious concurrent to already existing conventional energy conversion technologies. Up-today the availability of magnetocaloric materials with a high Curie temperature and a high magnetocaloric effect is rather limited. Therefore, this study was mainly focused on applications with heat sources of low to medium temperature levels. Magnetic energy conversion machines, containing permanent magnets, are numerically investigated for operation conditions with different temperature levels, defined by industrial waste heat sources and environmental heat sinks, different magnetic field intensities and different frequencies of operation (number of thermodynamic cycles per unit of time). Theoretical modeling and numerical simulations were performed in order to determine thermodynamic efficiencies and the exergy efficiencies as function of different operation conditions. From extracted data of our numerical results, approximate values of the total mass and total volume of magnetic energy conversion machines could be determined. These important results are presented dependent on the produced electric power. An economic feasibility study supplements the scientific study. It shows an excellent potential of profitability for certain machines. The most important result of this article is that the magnetic energy conversion technology can be economically and technically competitive to or even beat conventional energy

  14. Coal and sustainable development: utilities and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Reflecting its continuing focus on coal and sustainable development, the CIAB surveyed its Members about their attitudes to sustainable development and to obtain information on sustainable development activities within their organisations. The survey revealed that awareness of the importance of sustainable development has increased significantly in the past three years, with a clear majority of respondents seeing it as aligning with their commercial objectives. Reducing emissions from coal use is seen as the key priority, although the importance of this relative to other priorities varies on a regional basis depending on local circumstances. While a large majority of respondents recognised the importance of sustainable development and its increasing influence on decision-making within the coal industry, there was a wide range in the extent of activities. Some organisations have embarked on broad initiatives to better align their practices to sustainable development priorities. The range of activities suggests an evolutionary process - one that commences with a sole internal focus on economic priorities for the business, and then broadens to include local environmental issues and the community. Leading organisations are now moving to look more at global issues, to recognise and share the responsibility for the social and environmental impacts of producing and using their products, and to better engage stakeholders. 4 figs.

  15. FY 1999 report on the potential survey of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Potential survey of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines; 1999 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowa gata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Firipin ni okeru kankyo chowa gata system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to working out a master plan for the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines, analysis was made of the state of coal use/the state of spread by industry mostly including the electric power industry, cement industry and residential/commercial use fuel sector. In the Philippines, the amount of coal use has rapidly been increasing since coal-fired power plants started operation. For the promotion of the use of domestic coals, it is important to reform low grade coal. Moreover, the technology is required which copes with the reinforced regulation against SOx emissions. In the cement industry, coal and coal ash have not yet been effectively used. Therefore, the following measures should be taken to increase the competitive force: energy conservation measures, reinforcement of environmental measures such as dust prevention, and effective use of the fly ash emitted from power plants. In general households and small-/medium-sized industries such as tobacco drying, they still use a large amount of charcoals and firewood, which is approximately 86% of the residential/commercial use energy. There is a growing tendency for the development/spread of coal briquette as substituting energy. (NEDO)

  16. An experimental study on the hazard assessment and mechanical properties of porous concrete utilizing coal bottom ash coarse aggregate in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Bum; Jang, Young Il; Lee, Jun; Lee, Byung Jae

    2009-07-15

    This study evaluates quality properties and toxicity of coal bottom ash coarse aggregate and analyzes mechanical properties of porous concrete depending on mixing rates of coal bottom ash. As a result, soundness and resistance to abrasion of coal bottom ash coarse aggregate were satisfied according to the standard of coarse aggregate for concrete. To satisfy the standard pertaining to chloride content, the coarse aggregates have to be washed more than twice. In regards to the result of leaching test for coal bottom ash coarse aggregate and porous concrete produced with these coarse aggregates, it was satisfied with the environment criteria. As the mixing rate of coal bottom ash increased, influence of void ratio and permeability coefficient was very little, but compressive and flexural strength decreased. When coal bottom ash was mixed over 40%, strength decreased sharply (compressive strength: by 11.7-27.1%, flexural strength: by maximum 26.4%). Also, as the mixing rate of coal bottom ash increased, it was confirmed that test specimens were destroyed by aggregate fracture more than binder fracture and interface fracture. To utilize coal bottom ash in large quantities, it is thought that an improvement method in regards to strength has to be discussed such as incorporation of reinforcing materials and improvement of aggregate hardness.

  17. The coal industry and its greenhouse challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Australian coal industry is actively involved in greenhouse gas emission management and abatement issues. An Australian Coal Association (ACA) position paper on greenhouse in November 1989, recommended a number of strategies to minimise the greenhouse effect, including the enhancement of energy utilisation efficiency, improved energy conversion efficiency at coal-fired power stations, expanded use of solar heating, and improved recycling. All of the strategies have been implemented to various degrees. The management and abatement of greenhouse gas emissions within the coal industry has been approached from an individual operational level, and a 'higher' industry level

  18. Synergetic and inhibition effects in carbon dioxide gasification of blends of coals and biomass fuels of Indian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyam Naidu, V; Aghalayam, P; Jayanti, S

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the enhancement of CO2 gasification reactivity of coals due to the presence of catalytic elements in biomass such as K2O, CaO, Na2O and MgO. Co-gasification of three Indian coal chars with two biomass chars has been studied using isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in CO2 environment at 900, 1000 and 1100°C. The conversion profiles have been used to establish synergetic or inhibitory effect on coal char reactivity by the presence of catalytic elements in biomass char by comparing the 90% conversion time with and without biomass. It is concluded that both biomasses exhibit synergistic behavior when blended with the three coals with casuarina being more synergetic than empty fruit bunch. Some inhibitory effect has been noted for the high ash coal at the highest temperature with higher 90% conversion time for the blend over pure coal, presumably due to diffusional control of the conversion rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mineral conversion and microstructure change in the melting process of Shenmu coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianguo; Deng Furong; Zhao Hong; Cen Kefa [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2007-05-15

    China has rich reserves of Shenmu coal, which has the typical characteristic of low-melting-point ash. If used in the pulverized-coal boiler of a power plant, Shenmu coal would cause serious slagging. In order to solve the slagging problem of Shenmu coal, the melting mechanism of Shenmu coal ash was studied. One of the Shenmu coals - Wenjialiang coal - was selected for the study. Using thermogravimetry-differential scanning colorimetry (TG-DSC) methods, the change of the coal ash's physicochemistry with temperature was studied. The typical temperature points in the melting process were obtained. Ash samples of the different temperature points were prepared in a high-temperature furnace with parameters similar to those used in the TG-DSC test, and were then cooled quickly in water. Later, the ash samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) methods in detail. Wenjialiang coal ash started to melt at 980{sup o}C. The ash was found to melt to a great extent at 1200{sup o}C and formed a multiform microstructure. At 1260{sup o}C, it was found to melt into a dense body with many pores, and formed a piece of vitreous body at 1340{sup o}C. Anorthite and gehlenite are the intermediate products that exist between 980 and 1340{sup o}C. They may be the main cause of the ash having low melting points, so that they could convert into a eutectic at low temperatures.

  20. 24 CFR 245.416 - Initial submission of materials to HUD: Conversion from project-paid utilities to tenant-paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... projects, and utility rate information, as obtained from the utility supplier; (iv) The estimated monthly... HUD: Conversion from project-paid utilities to tenant-paid utilities or a reduction in tenant utility... AUTHORITIES TENANT PARTICIPATION IN MULTIFAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS Procedures for Requesting Approval of a...

  1. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  2. Legal-institutional arrangements facilitating offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, L.H.

    1977-09-01

    Concern for the continuing sufficiency of energy supplies in the U.S. has tended to direct increasing attention to unconventional sources of supply, including wind energy. Some of the more striking proposals for the utilization of wind energy relate to offshore configurations. The legal-institutional arrangements for facilitating the utilization of offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are examined by positioning three program alternatives and analyzing the institutional support required for the implementation of each.

  3. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  4. A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids. Final report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

    1994-04-01

    A batch microreactor was designed and fabricated as a means of investigating maximum yields of liquids obtainable in very short reaction times of the order of a few seconds, and the maximum ratios of liquids/hydrocarbon (HC) gases obtainable under those conditions. A Wyodak sub-bituminous coal, crushed and sieved to {minus}200 mesh particle size, was used in the experiments, with a temperature of 500{degrees}C and a pressure of 1500 psi. The fine coal particles were fed dry to the reactor and heated to reaction temperature in times of one to two seconds. At a time of 3 seconds at reaction temperature, in a single pass a liquid yield of 60% by weight of the coal was obtained, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/(HC) gases of 30/1. When the unreacted solids were recycled to the reactor, and the results combined with those of the first pass, a liquid yield of 82% by weight of the coal was achieved, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/HC gases of 30/1. This ratio represents only about 3 wt percent HC gases, much lower that is produced in current advanced technologies, and represents a large saving in hydrogen consumption. A simulated distillation technique was applied to the liquids. The liquid product contained 86% by weight (of the liquids) total distillables (boiling point below 538{degrees}C), including 70% by weight of low-boiling fractions in the gasoline, kerosene and gas oil range (boiling point up to 325{degrees}C). The liquid product exhibited a H/C ratio of 1.5, which is considerably higher than observed in current advanced technologies for the primary liquids. Several catalysts were investigated. Iron catalysts, specifically ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferric sulfate pentahydrate, each produced these high conversions and high ratios of liquids/HC gases.

  5. Dissolution of subbituminous coal in tetrahydroquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, H F; Frazee, W S; Broderick, T E; Hurtubise, R J

    1986-05-01

    Two different samples of Wyodak subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming were liquefied in a two dm/sup 3/ batch reactor using 1,2,3,4 tetrahydroquinoline, THQ, as a solvent. Sufficient sample was produced to determine product boiling ranges by distillation and to measure THQ distribution in the product. Product distillation showed that even at cyclohexane conversions greater than 50%, net distillate yields produced using THQ as a solvent were negative. In some cases, high boiling, coal-derived residue yields were greater than the dry coal charged to the reactor. These observations have been attributed to THQ losses resulting from dimerization of the THQ and reactions between THQ and coal derived components. 5 references.

  6. CO2 utilization: Developments in conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdogan Alper

    2017-03-01

    The potential utilization of CO2, captured at power plants, should also been taken into consideration for sustainability. This CO2 source, which is potentially a raw material for the chemical industry, will be available at sufficient quality and at gigantic quantity upon realization of on-going tangible capture projects. Products resulting from carboxylation reactions are obvious conversions. In addition, provided that enough supply of energy from non-fossil resources, such as solar [1], is ensured, CO2 reduction reactions can produce several valuable commodity chemicals including multi-carbon compounds, such as ethylene and acrylic acid, in addition to C1 chemicals and polymers. Presently, there are only few developing technologies which can find industrial applications. Therefore, there is a need for concerted research in order to assess the viability of these promising exploratory technologies rationally.

  7. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  8. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of ancient buried wood-II. Observations on the origin of coal from lignite to bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Breger, I.A.; Szeverenyi, N.; Maciel, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Coalified logs ranging in age from Late Pennsylvania to Miocene and in rank from lignite B to bituminous coal were analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) utilizing the cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning technique, as well as by infrared spectroscopy. The results of this study indicate that at least three major stages of coalification can be observed as wood gradually undergoes transformation to bituminous coal. The first stage involves hydrolysis and loss of cellulose from wood with retention and differential concentration of the resistant lignin. The second stage involves conversion of the lignin residues directly to coalified wood of lignitic rank, during which the oxygen content of intermediate diagenetic products remains constant as the hydrogen content and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to involve loss of methoxyl groups, water, and C3 side chains from the lignin. In the third major stage of coalification, the coalified wood increases in rank to subbituminous and bituminous coal; during this stage the oxygen content decreases, hydrogen remains constant, and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to result from loss of soluble humic acids that are rich in oxygen and that are mobilized during compaction and dewatering. Relatively resistant resinous substances are differentially concentrated in the coal during this stage. The hypothesis that humic acids are formed as mobile by-products of the coalification of lignin and function only as vehicles for removal of oxygen represents a dramatic departure from commonly accepted views that they are relatively low-molecular-weight intermediates formed during the degradation of lignin that then condense to form high-molecular-weight coal structures. ?? 1982.

  10. Environmental pollution caused by coal mining and utilization in China; Umweltbelastungen durch Kohlefoerderung und -nutzung in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Fuchen [Guangdong Ocean Univ., Zhanjiang (China). Dept. of Scientific Research Management

    2013-07-15

    After the BP Statistical Review of World Energy of 2010 45.6% of coal production and 46.9% of coal consumption in the world in 2009 are accounted for China. The large-scale coal production and use cause major environmental impacts. A large environmental impact is through the emission of some unavoidable reaction products (for example waste gas, waste heat) that affect and damage the ecosystem. A steady influence can lead to long-term climate changes and medium term damage to the ecosystem. Other environmental impacts occur during mining of coal by the change in the water balance and the transformation of the landscape (surface mining, spoil tips). The environmental problems caused by coal mining and utilization can not be ignored in China. [German] Nach der BP-Statistik der Weltenergie 2010 sind 45,6% der Kohleproduktion und 46,9% des Kohleverbrauchs in der Welt im Jahr 2009 auf China entfallen. Die grossangelegte Kohlefoerderung und -verwendung fuehren zu grossen Umweltbelastungen. Eine grosse Umweltbeeinflussung erfolgt durch die Emission von zum Teil unvermeidbaren Umsetzungsprodukten (zum Beispiel Abgas, Abwaerme), die das Oekosystem beeinflussen und schaedigen. Eine stetige Beeinflussung kann langfristig zu den Klimaveraenderungen und mittelfristig zur Schaedigung des Oekosystems fuehren. Weitere Umweltbelastungen erfolgen beim Abbau der Kohle durch die Veraenderung des Wasserhaushalts und durch die Umgestaltung der Landschaft (Tagebau, Abbauhalden). Die Umweltprobleme, die durch die Kohlefoerderung und -nutzung verursacht werden, koennen in China nicht ignoriert werden.

  11. Report on the research achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992. Studies on liquefying reaction in coal, and reforming and utilization of the products; 1992 nendo sekitan no ekika hanno to seiseibutsu no kaishitsu riyo no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992 in studies on liquefying reaction in coal, and reforming of the products. High conversion rate was attained in the co-treatment of bitumen and Taiheiyo coals by using highly dispersing oil soluble solvent without performing coking, even if the asphaltene concentration is high. When a very highly acidic trifluoromethane sulfonic acid catalyst is used, hydrogenation and conversion to solubilized low molecules is possible even with a solvent having low affinity with coal. Swelling effect by tetralin is remarkable in pulverized coal, and the conversion rate was improved greatly under high-pressure hydrogen. When naphtha of the Wandoan coal liquefied oil is given extraction treatment with base and acid/base, the gas production decreases noticeably when hydrogenating and refining the extracts, resulting in reduced hydrogen consumption and improved oil recovery rate. Furthermore, when the extraction treated naphtha is hydrogenated, denitrification can be achieved completely. Kerosene and light oil liquefied from the Wandoan coal were cracked by fluidity contact, whereas the light gravity product yield due to the decomposition was found low because of containing a great amount of two-ring aromatics. The pressure crystal deposition method using solvent is effective in separation of high-melting point compounds including anthracene from heavy gravity oil. (NEDO)

  12. Environmental impact of coal mine methane emissions and responding strategies in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y.P.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X.L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2011-01-15

    The impact on global climate change from coal mine methane emissions in China has been drawing attention as coal production has powered its economic development. Data on coal mine methane emissions from the State Administration of Coal Mine Safety of China has been analyzed. It is estimated that the methane emission from coal mining in China reached 20 billions of cubic meters in 2008, most of which comes from state-owned coal mines with high-gas content. China releases six times as much of methane from coal mines as compared to the United States. However, Chinese methane emission from coal production accounts for only a very small proportion on the environmental impact when compared to emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption. The Chinese government has shown environmental awareness and resolution on the mitigation and utilization of coal mine methane emissions. Measures have been taken to implement the programs of mitigation and utilization of coal mine methane, and at the same time, to ensure mining safety. Nearly 7.2 billions of cubic meters of methane were drained from the coal mines, and 32% of it was utilized in 2008. The slow advancement of technologies for the drainage and utilization of low-concentration methane from ventilation air hinders the progress of mitigation of atmospheric methane and the utilization of coal mine methane emissions.

  13. Effect of pre-swelling of coal on its solvent extraction and liquefaction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Meixia Cao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-10-15

    Effects of pre-swelling of coal on solvent extraction and liquefaction properties were studied with Shenhua coal. It was found that pre-swelling treatments of the coal in three solvents, i.e., toluene (TOL), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and tetralin (THN) increased its extraction yield and liquefaction conversion, and differed the liquefied product distributions. The pre-swollen coals after removing the swelling solvents showed increased conversion in liquefaction compared with that of the swollen coals in the presence of swelling solvents. It was also found that the yields of (oil + gas) in liquefaction of the pre-swollen coals with NMP and TOL dramatically decreased in the presence of swelling solvent. TG and FTIR analyses of the raw coal, the swollen coals and the liquefied products were carried out in order to investigate the mechanism governing the effects of pre-swelling treatment on coal extraction and liquefaction. The results showed that the swelling pre-treatment could disrupt some non-covalent interactions of the coal molecules, relax its network structure and loosened the coal structure. It would thus benefit diffusion of a hydrogen donor solvent into the coal structure during liquefaction, and also enhance the hydrogen donating ability of the hydrogen-rich species derived from the coal. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Study of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, B.T.G.

    1979-01-01

    Various types of coal contain high levels of a number of trace elements. Little is known of the fates of these trace elements during the conversion of coal to liquid and gaseous products. Studies were undertaken of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis, one of the major coal conversion processes. The bituminous coal was pyrolyzed to produce liquid and gaseous products. The pyrolysis products were collected in traps in an inert gas stream. In addition mildly hydrogenated coal was prepared by mixing with tetralin, a hydrogen donor solvent, at boiling temperature. In order to characterize each element specifically during pyrolysis, base samples of coal and mildly hydrogenated coal (H-coal) were spiked with heavy metal sulfides, trace metals bound to partially oxidized coal (coal humates), and halide salts prior to carrying out pyrolysis. Eight elements were investigated in this research. They are As, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, and V. Pre-spiked hydrogenated coal, i.e., pulverized coal spiked with halide salts and heavy metal sulfides then hydrogenated with tetralin, was prepared and studied for the fates of these elements during pyrolysis. Chlorinated and brominated coals were also prepared to compare the volatility differences between organically and inorganically bound halogens during the pyrolysis reaction. These products and the coal char residues were analyzed for the spiked elements mainly by neutron activation analysis for the spiked elements to determine their degree of volatility. Volatility and recovery (mass balance) will be discussed for those elements that appeared highly volatile during pyrolysis. In order to understand the halogenated compounds in the pyrolysis products, gas chromatograms were taken to the collected pyrolysis products of coal, hydrogenated coal, NaCl spiked coal, NaBr spiked coal, chlorinated coal, and brominated coal

  15. Oxy-coal combustion in an entrained flow reactor: Application of specific char and volatile combustion and radiation models for oxy-firing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez, L.; Yin, Chungen; Riaza, J.

    2013-01-01

    The deployment of oxy-fuel combustion in utility boilers is one of the major options for CO2 capture. However, combustion under oxy-firing conditions differs from conventional air-firing combustion, e.g., in the aspect of radiative heat transfer, coal conversion and pollutants formation....... In this work, a numerical study on pulverised coal combustion was conducted to verify the applicability and accuracy of several sub-models refined for oxy-fuel conditions, e.g., gaseous radiative property model, gas-phase combustion mechanism and heterogeneous char reaction model. The sub-models were...... implemented in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations of combustion of three coals under air-firing and various oxy-firing (21-35% vol O2 in O2/CO2 mixture) conditions in an EFR (entrained flow reactor). The predicted coal burnouts and gaseous emissions were compared against experimental results...

  16. Unexpectedly high uptake of palladium by bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The uptake of palladium as a conversion catalyst onto coals of different rank was investigated. Palladium fixation occurs by a different mode to that for alkaline earth and first row transition metals. Therefore, the dispersion of relatively high concentration of palladium by an ion sorption process is even possible for bituminous coals. (orig.)

  17. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  18. Fiscal 2000 project on measures for assisting and diffusing environmentally-friendly coal utilization system introduction. CMG recovery/utilization system joint demonstration project; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien nado fukyu taisaku jigyo chosa hokoku. CMG kaishu riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A CMG (coal mine gas) recovery/utilization system was designed, constructed, and then demonstrated at a model coal mining district in Liaoning Province for the purpose of contributing to the solution of energy and environment related problems in China. The recovery system demonstration test, aiming to improve on safety and productivity of coal mining and to supply recovered gas with stability, involved gas drainage test boring, mine sealing, sealed gas induction control, centralized gas monitoring, etc., which were carried out at the coal mine working face. A utilization system demonstration test was conducted, and CMG would continue to be supplied to the current users and CMG utilization would be started at the other 6 coal mines. For the supply of CMG to large-scale gas consuming areas, steel materials were manufactured and processed for spherical gas holders and denitrification facilities, gas holders were constructed, pipe lines were installed, and a provisional gas supply was carried out. For the transfer and diffusion of the technology, Chinese engineers were trained in Japan and Japanese engineers were dispatched to China. (NEDO)

  19. FY 2000 report on the project for promotion of clean coal technology. Survey of overseas trends of technology to use hydrocarbon base energy such as coal; 2000 nendo clean coru technology suishin jigjyo. Sekitan tou tankasuiso kei energy riyo gijutsu ni kansuru kaigai doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For contributing to the study on the comprehensive development of technology to use hydrocarbon resource such as coal in Japan, survey was conducted of trends of supply/demand, policy, utilization technology, etc. of hydrocarbon base energy such as coal in developed countries such as the U.S., European countries, etc. Proved coal reserves in the world are 980 billion tons, and years of mining are 230. The resource amount of coal is more than those of oil and natural gas. In the U.S., the budget was largely cut in the 1990s because of the financial deficit, but the R and D are being promoted of power plant being aimed at substantial reduction in emissions of NOx, SOx, etc. and reduction in cost. European countries are tackling the technical development of petroleum substituting energy and the verification/commercialization. As to the clean coal technology, every country is making the technical development for coal liquefaction/gasification. Relating to the natural gas technology, studies are being made of GTL, coal bed methane, shale gas, methane hydrate, etc. The energy conversion use of waste, technical development of biomass energy, etc. were also being carried out. (NEDO)

  20. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eOhtomo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological CO2 sequestration in unmineable subsurface oil/gas fields and coal formations has been proposed as a means of reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. However, the feasibility of injecting CO2 into subsurface depends upon a variety of geological and economic conditions, and the ecological consequences are largely unpredictable. In this study, we developed a new flow-through-type reactor system to examine potential geophysical, geochemical and microbiological impacts associated with CO2 injection by simulating in situ pressure (0–100 MPa and temperature (0–70°C conditions. Using the reactor system, anaerobic artificial fluid and CO2 (flow rate: 0.002 and 0.00001 mL/min, respectively were continuously supplemented into a column comprised of bituminous coal and sand under a pore pressure of 40 MPa (confined pressure: 41 MPa at 40°C for 56 days. 16S rRNA gene analysis of the bacterial components showed distinct spatial separation of the predominant taxa in the coal and sand over the course of the experiment. Cultivation experiments using sub-sampled fluids revealed that some microbes survived, or were metabolically active, under CO2-rich conditions. However, no methanogens were activated during the experiment, even though hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogens were obtained from conventional batch-type cultivation at 20°C. During the reactor experiment, the acetate and methanol concentration in the fluids increased while the δ13Cacetate, H2 and CO2 concentrations decreased, indicating the occurrence of homo-acetogenesis. 16S rRNA genes of homo-acetogenic spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Sporomusa were consistently detected from the sandstone after the reactor experiment. Our results suggest that the injection of CO2 into a natural coal-sand formation preferentially stimulates homo-acetogenesis rather than methanogenesis, and that this process is accompanied by biogenic CO2 conversion to

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of a coal-based polygeneration system with partial gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yang, Yongping; Zhai, Dailong; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study proposed a polygeneration system based on coal partial gasification, in which methanol and power were generated. This proposed system, comprising chemical and power islands, was designed and its characteristics are analyzed. The commercial software Aspen Plus was used to perform the system analysis. In the case study, the energy and exergy efficiency values of the proposed polygeneration system were 51.16% and 50.58%, which are 2.34% and 2.10%, respectively, higher than that of the reference system. Energy-Utilization Diagram analysis showed that removing composition adjustment and recycling 72.7% of the unreacted gas could reduce the exergy destruction during methanol synthesis by 46.85% and that the char utilized to preheat the compressed air could reduce the exergy destruction during combustion by 10.28%. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. At the same capacity ratio, the energy and exergy efficiency values of the proposed system were 1.30%–2.48% and 1.21%–2.30% higher than that of the reference system, respectively. The range of chemical-to-power capacity ratio in the proposed system was 0.41–1.40, which was narrower than that in the reference system. But the range of 1.04–1.4 was not recommended for the disappearance of energy saving potential in methanol synthesis. - Highlights: • A novel polygeneration system based on coal partial gasification is proposed. • The efficient conversion method for methanol and power is explored. • The exergy destruction in chemical energy conversion processes is decreased. • Thermodynamic performance and system characteristics are analyzed

  2. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  3. Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    This Ph.D. thesis describes an experimental and modeling investigation of the thermal conversion of coal and an experimental investigation of the emission of NO from char combustion in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres. The motivation for the work has been the prospective use of the technology “Oxy......-Fuel Combustion” as a mean of CO2 abatement in large scale energy conversion. Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) experiments have been conducted in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 mixtures in the temperature interval 1173 K – 1673 K using inlet O2 concentrations between 5 – 28 vol. %. Bituminous coal has been used as fuel in all....... % it was found that char conversion rate was lowered in O2/CO2 compared to O2/N2. This is caused by the lower diffusion coefficient of O2 in CO2 (~ 22 %) that limits the reaction rate in zone III compared to combustion in O2/N2. Using char sampled in the EFR experiments ThermoGravimetric Analyzer (TGA...

  4. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jer Y.; Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

  5. Challenge of coal-liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, T

    1985-09-01

    The near-term prospect for coal-water (CWMs) mixtures as a convenient replacement fuel for UK oil-fired plant is discussed. Specific use of CWMs in industrial water-tube boilers is presented. The article shows how such developments complement the introduction of new, modern coal-designed industrial combustion equipment in the form of fully automatic stokers and fluidized bed combustion systems. Topics presented include properties and preparation of CWM, combustion characteristics of CWM, and boiler conversion. 9 references, 4 figures.

  6. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Survey by region/industry in India; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indo ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A survey was made in India which is a coal producing/consuming country following China in Asia and where coal is used for about 60% of the primary commercial energy. The survey was conducted on coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental issues, aiming at studying feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly coal utilization system into every industry including the residential/commercial one, and at implementing a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation. Total power source facilities in fiscal 1995 are 83.3 million kW, 64% of which are coal thermal power facilities and generated 260 TWh, 69% of the total output energy. Main commercial energy sources are coal, oil and natural gas, and oil is self-sufficient. The survey this time did not examine very well the actual state of the environmental pollution problem caused by the coal utilization. Indian coal is high in ash content but low in sulfur content, and therefore, SOx polluting air has not been a very important problem so far, but soot/smoke is almost the problem. Further, ash treatment after combustion at boilers, etc. is expected to be a big problem in the future. 49 figs., 88 tabs.

  7. The effect of catalysts blending on coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, F.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Lobo, L.S.; Cabrita, I. [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    1999-05-01

    The effect of several catalysts on coal hydropyrolysis efficiency was studied, having selected catalysts with different characteristics and behaviours. For the experimental conditions used Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ICI 41-6 showed selectivity towards lighter fractions, whilst ZnCl{sub 2} led to the highest coal conversion and to the greatest preasphaltenes yields. These results suggested the use of mixtures of catalysts. The heavier molecules of asphaltenes produced as a result of ZnCl{sub 2} action, could then be converted into lighter fractions by the action of a selective catalyst. Coal hydropyrolysis tests were undertaken using ZnCl{sub 2} mixed with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or ICI 41-6. These mixtures of catalysts led to increased conversions and higher product yields. The best results were obtained in the presence of ZnCl{sub 2} mixed with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In an attempt to interpret these results, coal structure before and after swelling pre-treatment was also studied using SEM. 17 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO 2 emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO x emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today's conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated

  9. Life-Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Water Consumption – Effects of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Liquid Fuels as Analyzed with the GREET Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The vast reserves of coal in the U.S. provide a significant incentive for the development of processes for coal conversion to liquid fuels (CTL). Also, CTL using domestic coal can help move the U.S. toward greater energy independence and security. However, current conversion technologies are less economically competitive and generate greater greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than production of petroleum fuels. Altex Technologies Corporation (Altex, hereinafter) and Pennsylvania State University have developed a hybrid technology to produce jet fuel from a feedstock blend of coal and biomass. Collaborating with Altex, Argonne National Laboratory has expanded and used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model to assess the life-cycle GHG emissions and water consumption of this hybrid technology. Biomass feedstocks include corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw. The option of biomass densification (bales to pellets) is also evaluated in this study. The results show that the densification process generates additional GHG emissions as a result of additional biomass process energy demand. This process coproduces a large amount of char, and this study investigates two scenarios to treat char: landfill disposal (Char-LF) and combustion for combined heat and power (CHP). Since the CHP scenarios export excess heat and electricity as coproducts, two coproduct handling methods are used for well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis: displacement (Char-CHP-Disp) and energy allocation (Char-CHP-EnAllo). When the feedstock contains 15 wt% densified wheat straw and 85 wt% lignite coal, WTWa GHG emissions of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid pathways are 116, 97, and 137 gCO2e per megajoule (MJ) under the Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char-CHP-EnAllo scenarios, respectively, as compared to conventional jet fuel production at 84 gCO2e/MJ. WTWa water consumption values are 0.072, -0.046, and 0.044 gal/MJ for Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char

  10. The directory of United States coal & technology export resources. Profiles of domestic US corporations, associations and public entities, nationwide, which offer products or services suitable for export, relating to coal and its utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available U.S. coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the US which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition. The directory listings are divided into four primary classifications: coal resources; technology resources; support services; and financing and resource packaging. The first three of which are subdivided as follows: Coal Resources -- coal derivatives, coal exporters, and coal mining; Technology Resources -- advanced utilization, architects and engineers, boiler equipment, emissions control and waste disposal systems, facility construction, mining equipment, power generation systems, technical publications, and transport equipment; Support Services -- coal transport, facility operations, freight forwarders, sampling services and equipment, and technical consultants. Listings for the directory were solicited on the basis of this industry breakdown. Each of the four sections of this directory begins with a matrix illustrating which companies fall within the particular subclassifications specific to that main classification. A general alphabetical index of companies and an index by product/service classification are provided following the last section of the directory.

  11. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

    1979-02-23

    This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

  12. The clean coal initiative: An appropriate response to complex environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program that can offer significant benefits when these technologies are used for power production, pollution control or the conversion of coal into other alternative energy products. The paper describes the status of the program, the 35 projects currently in the program, and the environmental role of clean coal technologies

  13. Coal marketing in Asia: Opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingner, D.

    1996-01-01

    In Asia, coal currently accounts for over 40 percent of the fossil fuel used for commercial energy. This paper briefly surveys the forces that are likely to decide the future role coal will play as a prime source of energy in the vigorous economies of Asia. As Australia is well placed to profit from Asia's growing need for coal, the challenge to Australian coal suppliers is how to maximize its potential contribution. Four-fifths of all new coal fired electrical generating capacity in the world in the next decade will be located in Asia. Three-quarters of Australia's coal exports are to Asian customers and, conversely, 40 percent of Asian imports are from Australia. Australian coal suppliers have established ties and a depth of marketing experience in the region on which to build. However, pricing policies, and the emergence of the private power producers, together with environmental pressures, will present challenges for the future. (author). 1 fig

  14. Production of blast furnace coke from soft brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, G.; Wundes, H.; Schkommodau, F.; Zinke, H.-G. (VEB Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    Reviews experimental production and utilization of high quality brown coal coke in the GDR during 1985 and 1986. The technology of briquetting and coking brown coal dust is described; the superior parameters of produced coke quality are listed in comparison to those of regular industrial coke made from brown and black coal. Dust emission from high quality brown coal coke was suppressed by coke surface treatment with dispersion foam. About 4,200 t of this coke were employed in black coal coke substitution tests in a blast furnace. Substitution rate was 11%, blast furnace operation was positive, a substitution factor of 0.7 t black coal coke per 1 t of brown coal coke was calculated. Technology development of high quality brown coal coke production is regarded as complete; blast furnace coke utilization, however, requires further study. 8 refs.

  15. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z; Morikawa, M; Fujii, Y [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Y.; Ijiri, A.; Ikegawa, Y.; Tsutsumi, M.; Imachi, H.; Uramoto, G.; Hoshino, T.; Morono, Y.; Tanikawa, W.; Hirose, T.; Inagaki, F.

    2013-12-01

    belonged to a methylotrophic methanogen within the genus Methanosarcina. For the acetate-fed culture, no cell proliferation and methane-production were observed after two-years incubation. During the injection of CO2 and fluid, increase of dissolved CH4 concentration was observed, of which δ13CCH4 were constantly similar to those of the absorbed coal-bed methane (δ13CCBM, ~70‰), suggesting the enhanced gas recovery with fluid flow. The output volume of CO2 (ΣCO2out, 22.1 to 125.6 mM) was smaller than initial concentration (ΣCO2in, 138.38 mM), which can be explained by either adsorption on coal, formation of carbonate minerals, or microbial consumption. Increase of acetate concentration in the fluids was also observed, whereas δ13Cacetate depleted during experiment. Considering with the decrease of additive H2, it is most likely that homo-acetogenesis would occur during experiments, which is consistent with detection of Sporomusa-related 16S rRNA genes, homo-acetogenic bacterium, in cloning analysis of sandstone after experiment. Decrease of formate concentrations and increase of δ13Cformate indicate bacterial consumption of formate and isotopic fractionation. Our results suggest that CO2 injection to natural coal-sand formation stimulates homo-acetogenesis rather than methanogenesis, accompanied by biogenic CO2 conversion to acetate.

  17. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  18. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Research on collection and utilization of coal mine methane gas in Russia (Kuznetsk coal field); Russia (Kuznetsk tanden) ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The above-mentioned effort is to comply with the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) joint implementation clause. At this coal field, mining facilities are growing superannuated and obsolescent in the prolonged business depression, causing frequent occurrence of disasters such as gas explosions. The coal mine gas collection rate at the Kuznetsk coal field is as low as 17%, with concern for safety discouraging sufficient collection. Even the small amount of the collected gas is, in the absence of gas utilizing facilities, totally discharged into the air. For the mitigation of global warming, for mining safety, and for the establishment of a foundation for business, it is desired that coal mine methane gas collection/utilization facilities and related technologies be introduced into the coal field. Gas purging from the pits is incomplete, which is attributed to the lack of equipment capable of excavating proper-diameter bores longer than 100m for longwall mining. Ventilation also needs improvement. The research is under way on the premise that highly reliable intermediate range (300m) boring equipment and gas management technologies will be available. Collection of gas of a 30-35% concentration level at a collection rate of 40% is the target. (NEDO)

  19. Modeling of the flame propagation in coal-dust- methane air mixture in an enclosed sphere volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krainov, A Yu; Moiseeva, K M

    2016-01-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of the flame front propagation in coal-dust- methane-air mixture in an enclosed volume with the ignition source in the center of the volume are presented. The mathematical model is based on a dual-velocity two-phase model of the reacting gas-dispersion medium. The system of equations includes the mass-conversation equation, the impulse-conversation equation, the total energy-conversation equation of the gas and particles taking into account the thermal conductivity and chemical reactions in the gas and on the particle surface, mass-conversation equation of the mixture gas components considering the diffusion and the burn-out and the particle burn-out equation. The influence of the coal particle mass on the pressure in the volume after the mixture burn out and on the burn-out time has been investigated. It has been shown that the burning rate of the coal-dust methane air mixtures depends on the coal particle size. (paper)

  20. Coal chemical industry and its sustainable development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Kechang; Li, Wenying; Zhao, Wei

    2010-01-01

    China is rich in coal resource, which is vital for energy security in this country. In early 21st century, the coal chemical industry in China will be oriented to the development of high efficiency, safety, cleanliness, and optimum utilization. In this review, the authors present an introduction to the utilization status of primary energy production and consumption in China. Since 2005, fundamental research studies, supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Chinese National Basic Research Program, have been carried out at Taiyuan University of Technology. The Ministry stresses that the new coal chemical industry should be developed in a sustainable manner to realize effective utilization of energy. Moreover, upgrading the high technology to improve actively the recycling processes of coal chemical engineering is of strategic importance to realize the modern coal chemical engineering.

  1. Development of a Coal Quality Expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-20

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories Combustion Engineering, Inc., (ABB CE) and CQ Inc. completed a broad, comprehensive program to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of using higher quality U.S. coals for electrical power generation and developed state-of-the-art user-friendly software--Coal Quality Expert (CQE)-to reliably predict/estimate these benefits in a consistent manner. The program was an essential extension and integration of R and D projects performed in the past under U.S. DOE and EPRI sponsorship and it expanded the available database of coal quality and power plant performance information. This software will permit utilities to purchase the lowest cost clean coals tailored to their specific requirements. Based on common interest and mutual benefit, the subject program was cosponsored by the U.S. DOE, EPRI, and eight U.S. coal-burning utilities. In addition to cosponsoring this program, EPN contributed its background research, data, and computer models, and managed some other supporting contracts under the terms of a project agreement established between CQ Inc. and EPRI. The essential work of the proposed project was performed under separate contracts to CQ Inc. by Electric Power Technologies (El?'T), Black and Veatch (B and V), ABB Combustion Engineering, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Decision Focus, Inc. Although a significant quantity of the coals tied in the United States are now cleaned to some degree before firing, for many of these coals the residual sulfur content requires users to install expensive sulfur removal systems and the residual ash causes boilers to operate inefficiently and to require frequent maintenance. Disposal of the large quantities of slag and ash at utility plant sites can also be problematic and expensive. Improved and advanced coal cleaning processes can reduce the sulfur content of many coals to levels conforming to environmental standards without requiring post-combustion desulfurization systems. Also

  2. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  3. Investigation on characterization of Ereen coal deposit

    OpenAIRE

    S. Jargalmaa; B. Purevsuren; Ya. Davaajav; B. Avid; B. Bat-Ulzii; B. Ochirhuyag

    2016-01-01

    The Ereen coal deposit is located 360 km west from Ulaanbaatar and 95 km from Bulgan town. The coal reserve of this deposit is approximately 345.2 million tons. The Ereen coal is used directly for the Erdenet power plant for producing of electricity and heat. The utilization of this coal for gas and liquid product using gasification and pyrolysis is now being considered. The proximate and ultimate analysis show that the Ereen coal is low rank D mark hard coal, which corresponds to subbitumino...

  4. Microbially-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Strategies for Increased Biogenic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K.; Barhart, E. P.; Schweitzer, H. D.; Cunningham, A. B.; Gerlach, R.; Hiebert, R.; Fields, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Coal is the largest fossil fuel resource in the United States. Most of this coal is deep in the subsurface making it costly and potentially dangerous to extract. However, in many of these deep coal seams, methane, the main component of natural gas, has been discovered and successfully harvested. Coal bed methane (CBM) currently accounts for approximately 7.5% of the natural gas produced in the U.S. Combustion of natural gas produces substantially less CO2 and toxic emissions (e.g. heavy metals) than combustion of coal or oil thereby making it a cleaner energy source. In the large coal seams of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming, CBM is produced almost entirely by biogenic processes. The in situ conversion of coal to CBM by the native microbial community is of particular interest for present and future natural gas sources as it provides the potential to harvest energy from coal seams with lesser environmental impacts than mining and burning coal. Research at Montana State University has shown the potential for enhancing the subsurface microbial processes that produce CBM. Long-term batch enrichments have investigated the methane enhancement potential of yeast extract as well as algal and cyanobacterial biomass additions with increased methane production observed with all three additions when compared to no addition. Future work includes quantification of CBM enhancement and normalization of additions. This presentation addresses the options thus far investigated for increasing CBM production and the next steps for developing the enhanced in situ conversion of coal to CBM.

  5. Materials, process, product analysis of coal process technology. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, J. C.; Roig, R. W.; Loridan, A.; Leggett, N. E.; Capell, R. G.; Humpstone, C. C.; Mudry, R. N.; Ayres, E.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of materials-process-product analysis is a systematic evaluation of alternative manufacturing processes--in this case processes for converting coal into energy and material products that can supplement or replace petroleum-based products. The methodological steps in the analysis include: Definition of functional operations that enter into coal conversion processes, and modeling of alternative, competing methods to accomplish these functions; compilation of all feasible conversion processes that can be assembled from combinations of competing methods for the functional operations; systematic, iterative evaluation of all feasible conversion processes under a variety of economic situations, environmental constraints, and projected technological advances; and aggregative assessments (economic and environmental) of various industrial development scenarios. An integral part of the present project is additional development of the existing computer model to include: A data base for coal-related materials and coal conversion processes; and an algorithmic structure that facilitates the iterative, systematic evaluations in response to exogenously specified variables, such as tax policy, environmental limitations, and changes in process technology and costs. As an analytical tool, the analysis is intended to satisfy the needs of an analyst working at the process selection level, for example, with respect to the allocation of RDandD funds to competing technologies.

  6. Utilization of coal fly ash in construction in relation to regulations within the framework of the Dutch Soil Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Sloot, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, the Dutch Government passed the Soil Protection Act. Within the framework of this act aiming at reduction of soil pollution by anthropogenic activities, a number of regulations will be enforced. One of these is the Regulation for Construction Materials, which is intended to control environmental impacts resulting from the utilization of industrial residues in construction. The regulation will apply to all conventional materials used in construction and raw materials derived from waste materials. For effective enforcement of this regulation by 1992, a full set of well documented procedures are needed to cover such aspects as sampling, storage, analysis of solids and liquids, leaching, and evaluation of test results. These procedures should ultimately be available as national (NEN), or preferably internationally (CEN, ISO), agreed standard protocols. A coherent program of projects has been started in 1990 in association with the Dutch Normalization Institute to generate these protocols and initiate the necessary research activities. As a result of the new regulations, initiatives have been taken to certify industrial residues for certain applications. The utilization of coal combustion residues in construction is governed by certificates. Thus, quality control at the utilities is an integral part of coal fly ash utilization and marketing. For public acceptance of utilization of these materials, quality control and certification is an essential element along with demonstrations of proper performance in practice

  7. Upgraded Coal Interest Group -- A vision for coal-based power in 1999 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.; Battista, J.; Stopek, D.; Akers, D.

    1999-01-01

    The US is at a critical junction. Global competition is now a reality for a large number of US businesses and, ultimately, almost all US businesses will compete to one degree or another in the global marketplace. Under these circumstances, maintaining and improving the standard of living of US citizens requires a plentiful supply of low-cost electric energy to reduce the cost of providing goods and services both in the US an abroad. At the same time, segments of the public demand increased environmental restrictions on the utility industry. If the electric utility industry is to successfully respond to the goals of reducing electricity costs, maintaining reliability, and reducing emissions, fuels technology research is critical. For coal-fired units, fuel cost typically represents from 60--70% of operating costs. Reducing fuel cost, reduces operating costs. This can provide revenue that could be used to finance emissions control systems or advanced type of boilers resulting from post-combustion research. At the same time, improving coal quality reduces emissions from existing boilers without the need for substantial capital investment by the utility. If quality improvements can be accomplished with little or no increase in fuel costs, an immediate improvement in emissions can be achieved without an increase in electricity costs. All of this is directly dependent on continued and expanded levels of research on coal with the cooperation and partnership between government and industry. The paper describes enhanced fuel technologies (use of waste coal, coal water slurries, biomass/composite fuels, improved dewatering technologies, precombustion control of HAPs, dry cleaning technologies, and international coal characterization) and enhanced emission control technologies

  8. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report for project “Increasing the Rate and Extent of Microbial Coal to Methane Conversion through Optimization of Microbial Activity, Thermodynamics, and Reactive Transport”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Matthew [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2018-01-17

    Currently, coal bed methane (CBM) wells have a limited lifetime since the rate of methane removal via the installed wells is much faster than the in situ methane production rates. Along with water issues created by large amounts of CBM production water, the short life span of CBM wells is a huge deterrent to the environmental and economic feasibility of CBM production. The process of biogenic methanogenesis can be enhanced via the stimulation of the associated microbial communities that can convert the organic fractions of coal to methane. This process is termed Microbially-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (MECBM). However, the rates of methane production are still limited and long incubation times are necessary. We hypothesized that the elucidation of chemical and biological parameters that limited MECBM together with thermodynamic considerations would inform strategies to optimize the process under flow conditions. We incorporated microbiological, physicochemical, and engineering processes to develop a more sustainable CBM production scheme with native coal and native microorganisms. The proposed combination of microbial ecology and physiology as well as optimized engineering principles minimized key constraints that impact microbial coal conversion to methane under environmentally relevant conditions. The combined approach for bench-scale tests resulted in more effective and less environmentally burdensome coal-dependent methane production with the potential for H2O and CO2 management.

  10. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  11. Proceedings of the workshop on radioactivity associated with coal use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    A workshop on radioactivity in coal use was held on September 15 through 17, 1981, under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Programs, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the workshop was to identify research issues associated with radioactivity resulting from the use of coal for electric power generation. The concensus of the 10 scientists participating in the workshop was that a moderate to strong need exists for research in solubility of fly ash in different fluids and for determination of radioactivity in construction materials. Several additional research issues were identified but were given a lower priority. Summaries of each presentation are included. Titles are: some effects of coal combustion on the radiation environment; radionuclides in western coal at Mound; low-level radiation in coals utilized and ashes produced at New York State electric utilities; radioactivity from coal use - where are the problems; chemistry of radionuclides in coal preparation; uranium daughters in natural atmospheric aerosols and coal-fired power plant emissions; possible contributions of coal extraction and utilization to radioactivity contributions in drinking water; and impact on water quality from radionuclides in coal. One paper has been abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  12. Low-level radiation in coals utilized and ashes produced at New York State electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.

    1981-01-01

    Eight coal-fired power plants in New York State were sampled for coal, fly ash and bottom ash. Samples were analyzed for uranium 238, uranium 235, uranium 234, thorium 232, thorium 230, radium 226, lead 210, polonium 210, radon 222. The leachate of six fly ash samples was analyzed for all of the above except radon 222. Some data on fly ash analysis are included

  13. Clean coal technology roadmap: issues paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2003-07-01

    The need for the Clean Coal Technology Roadmap is based on the climate change threat, Canada's commitment to the Kyoto protocol, and the need to keep options open in determining the future position of coal in Canada's energy mix. The current role of coal, issues facing coal-fired utilities, and greenhouse gas emission policies and environmental regulations are outlined. The IEA energy outlook (2002) and a National Energy Board draft concerning Canada's energy future are outlined. Environmental, market, and technical demands facing coal, technology options for existing facilities, screening new developments in technology, and clean coal options are considered. 13 figs. 5 tabs.

  14. CVFA: Coal vendor financial advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goote, W.G.; Andersen, S.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system for determining coal vendor financial viability in fuel purchasing contracts at an electric utility is described. The system blends rules, data objects, and financial knowledge to provide a rational basis for accepting or rejecting coal contracts given the financial capability of the coal vendor. The discussion concludes with a critique of managerial issues in the development of the system and its use in decision making. 3 refs., 1 fig

  15. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  16. The behavior of catalysts in hydrogasification of sub-bituminous coal in pressured fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shuai; Bi, Jicheng; Qu, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •CCHG in a pressured fluidized bed achieved 77.3 wt.% of CH 4 yield in 30 min. •Co-Ca and Ni-Ca triggered catalytic coal pyrolysis and char hydrogasification. •The reason for better catalytic performance of 5%Co-1%Ca was elucidated. •Sintered catalyst blocked the reactive sites and suppressed coal conversion. •Co-Ca made the catalyzed coal char rich in mesopore structures and reactive sites. -- Abstract: The catalytic hydrogasification of the sub-bituminous coal was carried out in a lab-scale pressurized fluidized bed with the Co-Ca, Ni-Ca and Fe-Ca as catalysts at 850 °C and 3 MPa. The effect of different catalysts on the characteristics of gasification products was investigated, and the behavior of the catalysts was also explored by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-Raman, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), etc. Experiment results showed that all the catalysts promoted the carbon conversion in the coal catalytic hydrogasification (CCHG), and the catalytic activity was in the order: 5%Co-1%Ca > 5%Ni-1%Ca > 5%Fe-1%Ca. Compared with the raw coal hydrogasification, the carbon conversion increased from 43.4 wt.% to 91.3 wt.%, and the CH 4 yield increased from 23.7 wt.% to 77.3 wt.% within 30 min after adding the 5%Co-1%Ca catalyst into the coal. Co-Ca and Ni-Ca possessed catalytic effect on both processes of pyrolysis of coal and hydrogasification of coal char in CCHG, by which the graphitization of the coal was suppressed and methane formation rate was significantly accelerated. Fe/Co/Ni-Ca could penetrate into the interior of coal during CCHG, making the catalytic production of CH 4 conduct in the pore structures. The activity difference of the catalysts was owing to the different ability of rupturing the amorphous C−C bonds in coal structure. The incomplete carbon conversion of the 5%Co-1%Ca loaded coal was due to the agglomeration of the catalyst and the blockage of the reactive sites by the sintered catalyst. This work will provide

  17. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  18. Utilization of coal fired power plant by-products. Utilization of coal ash; Sekitan karyoku ni okeru fukusanbutsu no yuko riyo gijutsu. Sekitanbai no yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, K. [The Federation of Electric Power Companies, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, M. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-05

    The paper introduced the present situation and future task of the tackling with effective use of coal ash discharged from coal thermal power plants. Making the use of the characteristics, coal ash is mostly used in the fields of cement/concrete, civil engineering/construction, and agriculture/forestry/fisheries. In the case of using fly ash to concrete, the effects are the heightening of long-term strength, increase in workability, decrease in hydration heat, control of alkali aggregate reaction, etc. In the civil engineering/construction field, coal ash is allowed to be used for road bed material and mixed civil engineering material as road materials, for revetment back-filling material, soft ground surface layer treatment, soft ground/soil improvement materials, FGC deep layer mixing treatment process, SPC (sand compaction pile) material, etc. as earth work materials. Besides, it is used for light coarse aggregate, light sand, etc., as construction materials, for material substituting ceramics products, etc. as building materials, and for agricultural material, potassium silicate fertilizer and ocean structure in the agriculture/forestry/fisheries field. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Estimation of hydrogen bondings in coal utilizing FTir and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); FTir to DSC wo mochiita sekitannai suiso ketsugo no teiryoteki hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mae, K.; Miura, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to know coal condensation structure which has influence on coal conversion reaction, an attempt was made on quantitative evaluation of hydrogen bonding in coal. Using as test samples the VDC made from Taiheiyo coal swollen by tetralin and vacuum-dried, and its pyrolyzed char, DSC measurement and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT) were performed. An FT spectrum comparison revealed that the VDC swollen at 220{degree}C has the hydrogen bonding relaxed partly from the original coal. However, since the change is in a huge coal molecular structure restraining space, it has stopped at relaxation of the bonding energy without causing separation as far as free radicals. On the other hand, the DSC curve shows that the VDC has slower endothermic velocity than the original coal. In other words, the difference in heat absorption amounts in both materials is equivalent to the difference of enthalpy ({Delta} H) of both materials, which corresponds to the relaxation of the hydrogen bonding. Therefore, the {Delta} H was related to wavenumber shift of the FT spectra (which corresponds to change in the hydrogen bonding condition). By using this relationship, a method for evaluating hydrogen bonding distribution was proposed from an O-H contracting vibration change that can be measured by using the FT spectra and a thermal change that can be measured by using the DSC. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  20. US and world coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, B

    1988-07-01

    This paper reviews the US's coal trade with other countries in the world. Despite being pressed to support domestic coal producers, US utilities are looking towards Colombia for more of their supplies. Whilst the amount of Colombian coal imported into the US is small, it is a combination of this and coal imported from Australia, Canada and China which is causing concern. Studies indicate that the volume of coal imported into the US may rise to 3 Mt/year within three years. Coal exports may suffer if Brazil bans the import of significant quantities of US coking coal in retaliation against American trade sanctions against Brazilian computer import barriers. Also, Romania is expected to impose tariffs on US imports which will have an impact on US coal exported to Romania. US remains the top coal exporter to the European Communities but its lead was cut back due to a big rise of Australian export. A portion of EC market has also been lost to the USSR and Poland. Meanwhile, Japan is resisting buying US's steam coal because it is too expensive.

  1. New stage of clean coal technology in Japan; Clean coal technology no aratana tenkai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The paper described the positioning and new development of clean coal technology. Coal is an important resource which supplies approximately 30% of the energy consumed in all the world. In the Asian/Pacific region, especially, a share of coal in energy is high, around 60% of the world, and it is indispensable to continue using coal which is abundantly reserved. Japan continues using coal as an important energy among petroleum substituting energies taking consideration of the global environment, and is making efforts for development and promotion of clean coal technology aiming at further reduction of environmental loads. Moreover, in the Asian region where petroleum depends greatly upon outside the region, it is extremely important for stabilization of Japan`s energy supply that coal producing countries in the region promote development/utilization of their coal resources. For this, it is a requirement for Japan to further a coal policy having an outlook of securing stable coal supply/demand in the Asian region. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Taipower - latest projects to boost coal import levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, D

    1985-05-01

    The activities are reviewd for Taipower, the state enterprise electrical power utility for Taiwan RC: its generating facilities and comparability; the status of major projects, especially the Taichung thermal project; the status of coal; coal burn performance; air pollution controls; coal ash performance; coal imports; transport logistics; including terminal facilities at the Taichung thermal power plant.

  3. Surface chemical problems in coal flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Miller, K. J.; Deurbrouck, A. W.

    1981-02-01

    As the use of coal increases and more fine material is produced by mining and processing, the need for improved methods of coal beneficiation increases. While flotation techniques can help meet these needs, the technique is beset with many problems. These problems involve surface chemical and interfacial properties of the coal-mineral-water slurry systems used in coal flotation. The problems associated with coal flotation include non-selectivity, inefficient reagent utilization, and excessive variablity of results. These problems can be broadely classified as a lack of predictability. The present knowledge of coal flotation is not sufficient, in terms of surface chemical parameters, to allow prediction of the flotation response of a given coal. In this paper, some of the surface chemical properties of coal and coal minerals that need to be defined will be discussed in terms of the problems noted above and their impact on coal cleaning.

  4. Simulation of pulverized coal fired boiler: reaction chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, C.P.; Lansarin, M.A.; Secchi, A.R.; Mendes, T.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Modelagem, Simulacao, Controle e Otimizacao de Processos)]. E-mail: {cperdomo, marla, arge, talita}@enq.ufrgs.br

    2005-06-15

    This work is part of a joint project to built a computational tool for power plant simulation, dealing specifically with the reaction chamber (place of the boiler where the fuel is burned). In order to describe the conversion of chemical energy to thermal energy, an one dimensional pseudo-homogeneous mathematical model, with variable physical properties, and based on mass and energy balances, was developed. The equations were implemented in the gPROMS simulator and the model parameters were estimated using the module gEST of this software, with experimental data from a large-scale coal-fired utility boiler and kinetic data from the open literature. The results showed that the model predicts the composition of the outlet combustion gas satisfactorily. (author)

  5. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  6. Clean Coal Day '93. Hokkaido Seminar; Clean Coal Day '93. Hokkaido Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The titles of the lectures in this record are 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Future development of coal-fired thermal power generation, 3) Current status of research and development of coalbed methane in the U.S., and 4) PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle) system. Under title 1), the reason is explained why coal is back as an energy source and is made much of. The actualities of coal being labelled as a dirty energy source are explained. The rapid growth of demand for coal in Asia is commented on and what is expected of clean coal technology is stated. Under title 2), it is predicted that atomic energy, LNG (liquefied natural gas), and coal will be the main energy sources for electric power in Japan. Under title 3), it is stated that 10% of America's total amount of methane production is attributable to coal mining, that methane is the cleanest of the hydrocarbon fuels although it is a pollution source from an environmental point of view, and that it is therefore reasonable to have its collection and utilization placed in the domain of clean coal technology. Under title 4), a PFBC system to serve as the No. 3 machine for the Tomahigashi-Atsuma power plant is described. (NEDO)

  7. Highly efficient power system based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.; Hart, Ron R.; Parish, Theodore A.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was focused on developing a technologically feasible power system that is based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation. The new concept is an attempt to combine several advantageous design solutions, which have been proposed for application in both fission and fusion reactors, into one innovative system that can offer exceptional energy conversion efficiency. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of operational aspects including fission fragment escape from the fuel, collimation, collection, criticality, long-term performance, energy conversion efficiency, heat removal, and safety characteristics. Specific characteristics of the individual system components and the entire system are evaluated. Consistent analysis and evaluation of the technological feasibility of the concept were achieved using state-of-the-art computer codes that allowed realistic and consistent modeling. The calculated energy conversion efficiencies for the presented designs without a thermodynamic cycle and with the heavy water cycle are 52% and 62%, respectively. The analysis indicates that efficiencies up to 90% are potentially achievable. (author)

  8. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  9. Cooling Effect Analysis of Suppressing Coal Spontaneous Ignition with Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Shuanwei; Wang, Jianguo; Hao, Gaihong

    2018-05-01

    Suppression of spontaneous ignition of coal stockpiles was an important issue for safe utilization of coal. The large thermal energy from coal spontaneous ignition can be viewed as the latent energy source to further utilize for saving energy purpose. Heat pipe was the more promising way to diffuse effectively concentrated energy of the coal stockpile, so that retarding coal spontaneous combustion was therefore highly desirable. The cooling mechanism of the coal with heat pipe was pursued. Based on the research result, the thermal energy can be transported from the coal seam to the surface continuously with the use of heat pipe. Once installed the heat pipes will work automatically as long as the coal oxidation reaction was happened. The experiment was indicated that it can significantly spread the high temperature of the coal pile.

  10. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S. [W.S. Hinton and Associates, Cantonment, FL (United States); Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  11. A Study on the Hydrotreating of Coal Hydroliquefaction Residue and its Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Gao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-conversion of coal hydroliquefaction residue obtained from a 6t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydroliquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 °C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydroliquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydroliquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ•mol-1. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values.

  12. Summary of the APEC coal trade and investment liberalization and facilitation workshop: Facilitating trade and investment in Indonesia's coal energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    The Workshop brought together experts from APEC economies to discuss important issues related to coal development, trade and consumption in the APEC region, with a focus on Indonesia. Papers ranged from broad regional coal-related issues to specific policy and contract terms. The host, Indonesia, was selected as the focus of the workshop because it: (a) has APEC's fastest growing electricity sector, (b) is in the process of switching from oil based electricity generation to coal and natural gas-based generation, (c) is among the fastest growing coal exporters in APEC, and (d) has a contract system for coal development that has been widely accepted by foreign investors. In addition, Indonesia is in the process of revising its coal policies, and might benefit from the timely discussions in this workshop. The papers presented in the workshop spanned the coal chain from coal resources and reserves, conversion technologies, economics and markets, legal and policy issues, to community and cultural concerns. Participants represented government, industry and academic interests, and provided perspectives of coal and technology suppliers, consumers, energy policy makers and legal experts

  13. Optimal thermionic energy conversion with established electrodes for high-temperature topping and process heating. [coal combustion product environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Applied research-and-technology (ART) work reveals that optimal thermionic energy conversion (TEC) with approximately 1000 K to approximately 1100 K collectors is possible using well established tungsten electrodes. Such TEC with 1800 K emitters could approach 26.6% efficiency at 27.4 W/sq cm with approximately 1000 K collectors and 21.7% at 22.6 W/sq cm with approximately 1100 K collectors. These performances require 1.5 and 1.7 eV collector work functions (not the 1 eV ultimate) with nearly negligible interelectrode losses. Such collectors correspond to tungsten electrode systems in approximately 0.9 to approximately 6 torr cesium pressures with 1600 K to 1900 K emitters. Because higher heat-rejection temperatures for TEC allow greater collector work functions, interelectrode loss reduction becomes an increasingly important target for applications aimed at elevated temperatures. Studies of intragap modifications and new electrodes that will allow better electron emission and collection with lower cesium pressures are among the TEC-ART approaches to reduced interelectrode losses. These solutions will provide very effective TEC to serve directly in coal-combustion products for high-temperature topping and process heating. In turn this will help to use coal and to use it well.

  14. The future of coal as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the future of such coal as an energy source which the author believes, is inextricably related to its economic and environmental acceptability. Technologies have been - and are being - developed that will help assure that coal retains its traditional share of the United States energy market. In addition, there are some 900 million tons per year of coal equivalent oil and gas currently being consumed (22.5 quads of 12.500 BTU/lb coal) in the United States that may be considered for potential coal conversion. Lastly, one can see trends emerging that may justify reconsideration of coal as a source of hydrocarbon to substitute for petrochemical industry feedstocks in addition to its customary role as a BTU supplier. The balance of this report will provide a background on environmental and legislative initiatives and discuss some of these technologies and new directions for coal research in the 1990s and beyond

  15. Howden-Microcoal system for the conversion of industrial oil or gas fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the conversion of an industrial boiler designed for oil firing at Courtaulds plc Greenfield site in North Wales to Howden-Microcoal firing are discussed. The production of Howden-Micro coal (an ultrafine or 'micronised' coal) is described and the Howden-Microcoal processor is compared with other fluid energy and mechanical mills. A typical boiler installation and modifications required for conversion to Howden-Microcoal firing are presented along with the main results of the Courtauld's tests. Cost, conversion time and the effect on average steam generation costs are considered.

  16. Material balance in coal. 2. Oxygen determination and stoichiometry of 33 coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volborth, A.; Miller, G.E.; Garner, C.K.; Jerabek, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical analysis of coal can be supplemented by the determination of oxygen in high and low temperature ash, in coal as received and in coal dried at 105 0 C. The rapid method utilizes fast-neutron activation. The reaction 16 O(n,p) 16 N and counting of the 6.1 and 7.1 MeV gammas of 7.3 second half-life are used. A specially designed dual transfer and simultaneous counting system gives very accurate results. Oxygen in 33 coals ranging from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal is determined and compared with ''oxygen by difference.'' Considerable discrepancies are observed. Better stoichiometric results are obtained if oxygen in coal ash, in wet coal and in the dried coal is determined. This permits the estimation of the true material balances using data of the ultimate and the proximate coal analysis. The oxygen determination provides the coal chemist with an accurate basis and can be used to rank coal. The summation of the percent of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur, and oxygen becomes more meaningful and some errors can be detected and the state of completeness of coal analysis thus evaluated. Total sulfur can be estimated and oxidation effects during drying can be detected. These affect the moisture determination. It appears that after more data are collected, the interpretation of solid fuel analyses may be facilitated and will be stoichiometrically more meaningful. It is shown that it may be possible to simplify the present time-consuming methods of coal analysis

  17. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  18. Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O' Connor, J.T.

    2000-07-01

    The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the

  19. Method selection for mercury removal from hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziok Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is commonly found in coal and the coal utilization processes constitute one of the main sources of mercury emission to the environment. This issue is particularly important for Poland, because the Polish energy production sector is based on brown and hard coal. The forecasts show that this trend in energy production will continue in the coming years. At the time of the emission limits introduction, methods of reducing the mercury emission will have to be implemented in Poland. Mercury emission can be reduced as a result of using coal with a relatively low mercury content. In the case of the absence of such coals, the methods of mercury removal from coal can be implemented. The currently used and developing methods include the coal cleaning process (both the coal washing and the dry deshaling as well as the thermal pretreatment of coal (mild pyrolysis. The effectiveness of these methods various for different coals, which is caused by the diversity of coal origin, various characteristics of coal and, especially, by the various modes of mercury occurrence in coal. It should be mentioned that the coal cleaning process allows for the removal of mercury occurring in mineral matter, mainly in pyrite. The thermal pretreatment of coal allows for the removal of mercury occurring in organic matter as well as in the inorganic constituents characterized by a low temperature of mercury release. In this paper, the guidelines for the selection of mercury removal method from hard coal were presented. The guidelines were developed taking into consideration: the effectiveness of mercury removal from coal in the process of coal cleaning and thermal pretreatment, the synergy effect resulting from the combination of these processes, the direction of coal utilization as well as the influence of these processes on coal properties.

  20. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1998-05-01

    The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

  1. Comparative study of coal and biomass co-combustion with coal burning separately through emissions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Asadullah, A.; Khan, G.; Soomro, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methos to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal and coal biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emission of CO, CO/sub 2/, NOx and SO/sub 2/ as compared to 100% coal, Maximum amount of CO emission were 1510.5 ppm for bannana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30) of 684.667 leaves (90:10) and minimum amount of SO/sub 2/ present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20). The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm). The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution. (author)

  2. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  3. Thermogravimetric analysis of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of different coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Wang, N.; Li, B [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion

    2001-09-01

    Based on the characteristic of hydropyrolysis (HyPy), a multi-stage MHyPy of different coals was investigated using thermogravimetry. The results show that keeping the near peak temperature for some time in HyPy process can obviously increase the conversion rate, which is believed due to the full match between formation rate of free radicals and supply of hydrogen. The fast heating in MHyPy process results in the same conversion rate as that of the slow heating in HyPy process, which leads to the less reaction time and high yield of oil. The effect of MHyPy depends on the coal structure itself and it is notable for the coal with high H/C ratio. This suggests that the external hydrogen promotes the reaction between intrinsic hydrogen and free radicals. The MHyPy improves the removal of sulfur and nitrogen. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Geological evaluation on productibility of coal seam gas; Coal seam gas no chishitsugakuteki shigen hyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1996-09-01

    Coal seam gas is also called coal bed methane gas, indicating the gas existing in coal beds. The gas is distinguished from the oil field based gas, and also called non-conventional type gas. Its confirmed reserve is estimated to be 24 trillion m {sup 3}, with the trend of its development seen worldwide as utilization of unused resource. For the necessity of cultivating relevant technologies in Japan, this paper considers processes of production, movement, stockpiling, and accumulation of the gas. Its productibility is controlled by thickness of a coal bed, degree of coalification, gas content, permeability, groundwater flow, and deposition structure. Gas generation potential is evaluated by existing conditions of coal and degree of coalification, and methane production by biological origin and thermal origin. Economically viable methane gas is mainly of the latter origin. Evaluating gas reserve potential requires identification of the whole mechanism of adsorption, accumulation and movement of methane gas. The gas is expected of effect on environmental aspects in addition to availability as utilization of unused energy. 5 figs.

  5. Coal conversion and aquatic environments: overview of impacts and strategies for monitoring. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, R. D.; Sanders, F. S.; Barnthouse, L. W.

    1977-01-01

    Impact assessment and environmental monitoring are difficult but crucial steps needed to ensure the environmentally safe development of coal conversion technologies. This paper summarizes strategies for impact assessment and monitoring developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for DOE's program to build demonstration facilities. Impacts on aquatic environments depend heavily on the abiotic and biotic characteristics of the site and details of facility design. Key issues include availability of water, use of ''zero-discharge'' designs, and methods of handling solid wastes. In monitoring programs emphasis is placed on (1) thorough use of existing data, (2) use of a synoptic reconnaissance survey, criteria for choosing parameters to be measured, and the search for ecologically meaningful, cost-effective methods.

  6. Status of Westinghouse coal-fueled combustion turbine programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalzo, A.J.; Amos, D.J.; Bannister, R.L.; Garland, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    Developing clean, efficient, cost effective coal utilization technologies for future power generation is an essential part of our National Energy Strategy. Westinghouse is actively developing power plants utilizing advanced gasification, atmospheric fluidized beds (AFB), pressurized fluidized beds (PFB), and direct firing technology through programs sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE). The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is sponsoring the Direct Coal-Fired Turbine program. This paper presents the status of current and potential Westinghouse Power Generation Business Unit advanced coal-fueled power generation programs as well as commercial plans

  7. Card index of coal user-payers in the system of accounting and analysis of coal marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapka, D

    1980-01-01

    A card index of coal users-payers was formed on the basis of an existing card file of payers which functions in development of an earlier subsystem of financial accounting of coal users by means of a corresponding reorganization of the available set of data and supplementing it with new data on users. The card index performs a monitor and address function. Checked and refined data are input in subsequent technological cycles of data conversion. The structure of the card file, its functions, realization conditions with output of necessary following results are examined.

  8. Characterization of substances in products, effluents, and wastes from coal conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are investigating materials from synthetic fossil fuel processes. During the past year, samples have been collected from the Solvent Refining Coal Pilot Plant (SRC-I mode), Lignite Gasification Pilot Plant, Eyring Research Institute Gasifier, and Hanna III In Situ Coal Gasification Experiment. Inorganic and organic analyses have been performed, and comparisons of the data show some important differences in the potential emissions

  9. The European Coal Market: Will Coal Survive the EC's Energy and Climate Policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The European coal industry is at a crossroads. The European Commission (EC) Energy Policy by 2020, the 20/20/20 targets, is not favourable to coal: a 20% decrease in CO 2 emissions does not favour coal compared with natural gas, its main competitor in electricity generation; a 20% increase in energy efficiency will lead to a decrease in energy/coal consumption; a 20% increase in renewables will displace other energy sources, including coal. The recent EC Energy road-map to 2050 targets a cut in GHG emissions by 80-95%. Under such a tough emissions reduction target, the future use of coal is tied with CCS technologies for which public acceptance and an adequate CO 2 price are crucial. The Large Combustion Plants Directive has already had a huge impact on EU coal-fired electricity generation. In UK, a third of coal-fired power capacity will be closed by the end of 2015 at the latest. Phase III of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme requires CO 2 allowances to be auctioned from January 2013, adding a new burden on fossil fuel power plants. The end of state aid to European hard coal production by 2018, in line with EC Council Decision 2010/787/EU, means that domestic production is going to decrease. Does this mean the end of coal in Europe? Maybe not, and certainly not by 2020, although its future after that date is quite uncertain. Coal provides 17% of the EU s primary energy supply, and represents 25% of electricity generation. With the phasing out of nuclear energy in some countries (mainly Germany), coal has gained a period of grace before the transition to a less-carbonised economy. Its consumption by European power utilities increased by 7% in the first half of 2012, boosted by low CO 2 prices and relatively high gas prices. European production still accounts for 60% of the total coal supply in the EU. Coal therefore gives the EU a certain degree of independence and contributes to its security of supply. Hard coal and lignite represent approximately 80% of EU

  10. Monetization of Nigeria coal by conversion to hydrocarbon fuels through Fischer-Tropsch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguejiofor, G.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Given the instability of crude oil prices and the disruptions in crude oil supply chains, this article offers a complementing investment proposal through diversification of Nigeria's energy source and dependence. Therefore, the following issues were examined and reported: A comparative survey of coal and hydrocarbon reserve bases in Nigeria was undertaken and presented. An excursion into the economic, environmental, and technological justifications for the proposed diversification and roll-back to coal-based resource was also undertaken and presented. The technology available for coal beneficiation for environmental pollution control was reviewed and reported. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and its advances into Sasol's slurry phase distillate process were reviewed. Specifically, the adoption of Sasol's advanced synthol process and the slurry phase distillate process were recommended as ways of processing the products of coal gasification. The article concludes by discussing all the above-mentioned issues with regard to value addition as a means of wealth creation and investment.

  11. China’s farewell to coal: A forecast of coal consumption through 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yu; Zhang, Zong-Yong; Liao, Hua; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, China has encountered serious environmental problem, especially severe air pollution that has affected eastern and northern China frequently. Because most air pollutants in China are closely related to coal combustion, the restriction of coal consumption is critical to the improvement of the environment in China. In this study, a panel of 29 Chinese provinces from 1995 to 2012 is utilized to predict China’s coal consumption through 2020. After controlling for the spatial correlation of coal consumption among neighboring provinces, an inverted U-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) between coal consumption per capita and GDP per capita in China is detected. Furthermore, based on the estimation results and reasonable predictions of key control variables, China’s provincial and national coal consumption through 2020 is forecasted. Specifically, under the benchmark scenario, consumption is expected to continue growing at a decreasing rate until 2020, when China’s coal consumption would be approximately 4.43 billion tons. However, if China can maintain relatively high growth rate (an annual growth rate of 7.8 percent), the turning point in total coal consumption would occur in 2019, with projected consumption peaking at 4.16 billion tons. - Highlights: • Provincial panel data is used to investigate the influential factors of coal consumption in China. • The spatial correlations of coal consumption in neighboring provinces are fully considered. • An inverted-U shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve for coal consumption in China has been found. • Based on the estimation results, China’s national coal consumption before 2020 is forecasted. • Under the basic scenario, China’s national coal consumption will grow at a decreasing speed till 2020.

  12. Energy Information Administration quarterly coal report, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The United States produced just over 1 billion short tons of coal in 1992, 0.4 percent more than in 1991. Most of the 4-million-short-ton increase in coal production occurred west of the Mississippi River, where a record level of 408 million short tons of coal was produced. The amount of coal received by domestic consumers in 1992 totaled 887 million short tons. This was 7 million short tons more than in 1991, primarily due to increased coal demand from electric utilities. The average price of delivered coal to each sector declined by about 2 percent. Coal consumption in 1992 was 893 million short tons, only 1 percent higher than in 1991, due primarily to a 1-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Consumer coal stocks at the end of 1992 were 163 million short tons, a decrease of 3 percent from the level at the end of 1991, and the lowest year-end level since 1989. US coal exports fell 6 percent from the 1991 level to 103 million short tons in 1992. Less coal was exported to markets in Europe, Asia, and South America, but coal exports to Canada increased 4 million short tons

  13. Determining phenols in coal conversion products by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanitskaya, L.V.; Kushnarev, D.F.; Polonov, V.M.; Kalabin, G.A.

    1985-03-01

    Possibility of using nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the hydrogen 1 (/sup 1/H) isotope for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the hydroxyl groups in the products of coal processing is investigated. The basis of the method is the fact that in NMR spectra of the /sup 1/H in organic compounds with acid protons, the latter are unprotected when strong bases are used as solvents because of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The resin from the medium-temperature semicoking of Cheremkhovskii coals, its hydrogenate, and phenol fraction of the hydrogenate were used for the investigation. The results were compared with the results of other NMR spectroscopy methods. The high solubility of hexamethanol and the fact that the products can be analyzed in the natural state, are some advantages of the method. 18 references.

  14. Microbial diversity of western Canadian subsurface coal beds and methanogenic coal enrichment cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, Tara J.; Foght, Julia M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Budwill, Karen [Carbon and Energy Management, Alberta Innovates-Technology Futures, 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-05-01

    Coalbed methane is an unconventional fuel source associated with certain coal seams. Biogenic methane can comprise a significant portion of the gas found in coal seams, yet the role of microbes in methanogenesis in situ is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to detect and identify major bacterial and archaeal species associated with coal sampled from sub-bituminous methane-producing coal beds in western Canada, and to examine the potential for methane biogenesis from coal. Enrichment cultures of coal samples were established to determine how nutrient amendment influenced the microbial community and methane production in the laboratory. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed using DNA extracted and amplified from uncultured coal samples and from methanogenic coal enrichment cultures. Libraries were screened using restriction fragment length polymorphism, and representative clones were sequenced. Most (> 50%) of the bacterial sequences amplified from uncultured coal samples were affiliated with Proteobacteria that exhibit nitrate reduction, nitrogen fixation and/or hydrogen utilization activities, including Pseudomonas, Thauera and Acidovorax spp., whereas enrichment cultures were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and/or Lactobacillales. Archaeal 16S rRNA genes could not be amplified from uncultured coal, suggesting that methanogens are present in coal below the detection levels of our methods. However, enrichment cultures established with coal inocula produced significant volumes of methane and the archaeal clone libraries were dominated by sequences closely affiliated with Methanosarcina spp. Enrichment cultures incubated with coal plus organic nutrients produced more methane than either nutrient or coal supplements alone, implying that competent methanogenic consortia exist in coal beds but that nutrient limitations restrict their activity in situ. This report adds to the scant literature on coal bed microbiology and suggests how microbes may be

  15. Survey of trace elements in coals and coal-related materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, R.R.; Cahill, R.A.; Frost, J.K.; Camp, L.R.; Gluskoter, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing primarily instrumental neutron activation analysis and other analytical methods such as neutron-activation analysis with radiochemical separation, emission spectrochemical analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, ion-selective electrode analysis, and American Society for Testing of Materials procedures (ASTM), as many as 61 elements were quantitatively surveyed in 170 U.S. whole coals, 70 washed coals, and 40 bench samples. Data on areal and vertical distributions in various regions were obtained along with extensive information on the mode of occurence of various elements in the coal matrix itself. Efforts have been made to attain the maximal accuracy and precision possible for a wide variety of elements in the inhomogeneous coal matrix. (T.G.)

  16. A study on the hydrotreating of coal hydro liquefaction residue and its kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Lu, X.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydro-conversion of coal hydro liquefaction residue obtained from a 6 t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydro liquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 {sup o}C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydro liquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydro liquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ-mol{sup -1}. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. (authors)

  17. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  18. Deuterium as a tracer in coal liquefaction. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.A.; Collin, P.J.; Barron, P.F.; Vassallo, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Deuterium has been used to trace the pathways by which hydrogen reacts with an Australian bituminous coal (Liddell) in the presence of a nickel/molybdenum catalyst. The results show that at 400 0 C extensive scrambling of hydrogen and deuterium occurs among aromatic and α to aromatic aliphatic hydrogen and deuterium substituents. Deuterium can enter all structural groups in both asphaltene and hexane-soluble fractions of the coal-derived liquids, but it enters aromatic and α to aromatic groups in preference to alkyl groups remote from aromatic rings. Thus the results indicate that hydrogen atoms are very mobile during coal hydrogenation. Deuterium from deuterium oxide generated during conversion can also be incorporated into the coal-derived liquids. During coal hydrogenation, the eventual fate of much of the hydrogen in the gas phase is to substitute for hydrogen already in the coal. (Auth.)

  19. Influence of reaction parameters on brown coal-polyolefinic plastic co-pyrolysis behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K.Marx Str. 42, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma, 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain); Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, rue V.Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)

    2007-03-15

    Co-processing of polyolefinic polymers with Kansk-Achinsk (Russia) brown coal was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and autoclave pyrolysis under argon and hydrogen pressure in catalytic conditions (or not). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were used to analyze the distillate products. Some synergistic effects indicate chemical interaction between the products of thermal decomposition of coal and plastic. In co-pyrolysis under H{sub 2} a significant increasing of coal conversion degree as a function of polymer amount in feedstock was found. Simultaneously the coal promoted formation of distillate products from polymers. Some alkyl aromatic and O-containing substances were detected in co-pyrolysis fraction boiling in the range 180-350 C, indicating interactions between coal and plastic. Iron containing ore materials, modified by mechanochemical treatment, demonstrated a catalytic activity in hydropyrolysis process. In catalytic conditions, increases of the mixtures conversion degree by 9-13 wt.%, of distillate fraction yields by 1.2-1.6 times and a decrease of olefins and polycyclic components were observed. (author)

  20. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  1. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system. Green helmet project for briquette production plant - Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo chosa hokokusho. Briquette seizo setsubi ni kakawaru green helmet jigyo (Thai koku Mae Moh tanko)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This Green Helmet Project is intended to suppress generation of environment polluting substances in association with coal utilization in Thailand by demonstrating and improving the proliferation infrastructure for the clean coal technology to be used widely in Thailand. The project is also intended to serve for stabilized assurance of energies for Japan. The demonstration project related to briquette manufacturing facilities executed as one of the 'Projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system' is intended to manufacture at low cost a briquette which is low in odor, free of smoke, and suppressed largely of sulfur oxide generation. The briquette is made by adding clayish minerals, sulfur, a fixing agent and a binder into brown coal being a low grade coal. The project implements proliferation of the technology to reduce environmental load associated with coal utilization in developing countries according to the situation and needs of the counterpart countries. The present project has performed the site surveys and guidance of operation and maintenance techniques as follow-up works of the demonstration project having been completed by cooperation between Japan and Thailand. It is considered that what had been intended in the beginning has been achieved sufficiently. (NEDO)

  2. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

  3. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  4. Coal business heats up in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, M. [CN Rail (United States)

    2002-03-01

    The fact that CN's Coal Business Unit moved just under 50 million t of coal in 2001 would have been unimaginable just a year earlier, as CN's coal franchise faced a number of challenges last year. On the metallurgical side, where bituminous coal is used in steel production, rising extraction costs in relation to national and international values forced the closure of three CN-served mines in 2000: TeckCominco's Quinteet mine in British Columbia; Smoky River Coal's Smoky River facility and Luscar's Gregg River mine, Alberta. As for thermal coal, utilities had been moving to alternative fuels, maintaining only low coal inventories, and there were few plans for new coal plants. The article explains how North America's railroad helps fuel growing demand for thermal and metallurgical coal. 5 photos.

  5. Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, D.

    1991-10-29

    A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

  6. Feedlot biomass co-firing: a renewable energy alternative for coal-fired utilities. Paper no. IGEC-1-128

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, S.; Thien, B.; Annamalai, K.; Sweeten, J.

    2005-01-01

    The swiftly growing feedlot industry in the United States upshots in the production of manure from one or more animal species in excess of what can safely be applied to farmland in accordance with nutrient management plans. Disposal of the vast quantity of manure produced as a by-product of the cattle feeding industry is one of the major operating tasks of the industry. Aside from the traditional means of disposal as fertilizer, an alternative and attractive way of overcoming this threat is to develop processes that make use of manure as an energy resource. In the present study, the feasibility of using of manure as a fuel in existing coal fired power plants is considered and appropriately termed Feedlot Biomass (FB). The technology of co-firing coal: feedlot biomass facilitates an environment friendly utilization of animal waste for the production of valuable power/steam concurrently addressing the renewable energy, groundwater contamination, and greenhouse gas concerns. Co-firing tests were performed at the Texas AandM University 30 kW t (100,000 Btu/h) laboratory-scale facility. The trials revealed the enhanced combustion of the blends. The NO emissions were less for the blend even with higher nitrogen content of FB as compared to coal. (author)

  7. Coal use in the People`s Republic of China, Volume 2: The economic effects of constraining coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A.; Lim, D.; Frias, O.; Benavides, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics; Tompkins, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The People`s Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China) is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. The dominance of coal in China`s energy balance has come at a high price to the environment. With the recent attention given to global warming issues, China`s energy consumption and production practices have become the subject of much concern. Of particular concern is China`s ability to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by constraining coal use and the impact such policies will likely have on the Chinese economy. The study is divided into two reports. Volume 1 focuses on the full coal fuel cycle, emissions, and environmental effects. This report (Volume 2) analyzes various CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies and determines their effect on economic growth. Contrary to what some analysts have claimed, the current work suggests that it would not be costly for the Chinese to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In fact, some strategies were accompanied by increases in China`s energy and economic efficiency, which actually stimulated economic growth.

  8. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  9. Bugs and coal: processing fuels with biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1987-06-01

    Bioprocessing of coal is developing along several fronts, each of potential significance to utilities. Researchers have found a fungus, polyporous versicolor, which can liquefy certain kinds of coal and scientists have genetically engineered bacteria that remove sulfur and ash-forming metal impurities from coal. Research programs are being undertaken to find organisms that will convert lignite into gaseous methane to produce gaseous fuel more economically than the current coal gasification methods. Researchers looking for ways to remove sulfur from coal before it is burned are evaluating the use of a bacterium called thiobacillus ferroxidans to enhance the physical removal of pyrite. 2 refs.

  10. Boiler briquette coal versus raw coal: Part I--Stack gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, S; Bai, Z; Liu, W; Zhu, T; Wang, T; Qing, S; Zhang, J

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM10, 0.38 for PM2.5, 20.7 for SO2, and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM10, 0.30 for PM2.5, 7.5 for SO2, and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM10, 0.87 for PM2.5, 46.7 for SO2, and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM10, 0.79 for PM2.5, 19.9 for SO2, and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5, 6.4 for SO2, and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM10, 0.094 for PM2.5, 2.4 for SO2, and 1.7 for CO. PM10 and PM2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study.

  11. Boiler Briquette Coal versus Raw Coal: Part I-Stack Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Su; Bai, Zhipeng; Liu, Weili; Zhu, Tan; Wang, Tongjian; Qing, Sheng; Zhang, Junfeng

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM 10 , 0.38 for PM 25 , 20.7 for SO 2 , and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM 10 , 0.30 for PM 2 5 , 7.5 for SO 2 , and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM 10 , 0.87 for PM 25 , 46.7 for SO 2 , and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM 10 , 0.79 for PM 2.5 , 19.9 for SO 2 , and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/ steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM 10 , 0.12 for PM 2.5 , 6.4 for SO 2 , and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM 10 , 0.094 for PM 2.5 , 2.4 for SO 2 , and 1.7 for CO. PM 10 and PM 2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study.

  12. Hydropyrolysis of coal at very low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, J.; Kamo, T.; Kodera, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba-city (Japan). Energy Resources Department

    1998-07-01

    In the present study, Taiheiyo coal was heated under a pressure of 0.6 Torr and a temperature range of 20-800{degree}C in the presence and absence of hydrogen atoms. The yielded char, gas and liquid were measured and analyzed by TG-MS and GC-MS respectively. The result shows that the conversion of coal with hydrogen atoms is higher than that without, and more gas and liquid products are obtained in the presence of hydrogen atoms. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Role of iron catalyst impregnated by solvent swelling method in pyrolytic removal of coal nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, J.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S.; Nielsen, M.; Furimsky, E. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology

    1995-11-01

    Organometallic iron precursors, ferrocene and ferric acetate, were impregnated into Illinois No. 6 (IL), Wyoming (WY) and Yallourn (YL) coals by solvent swelling technique in THF, ethanol, and a THF/ethanol binary solvent. Then iron-impregnated coals were pyrolyzed in a flow of helium at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed and a thermobalance. Conversion of coal nitrogen to N{sub 2} was 20, 38 and 30% respectively, for original IL, WY, and YL coals. Iron formed from both precursors lowered the onset temperature of N{sub 2} evolution by 20-100{degree}C. When ferrocene was impregnated in coals at a concentration of 1.7-1.8 wt% as Fe, nitrogen conversion was increased to 52, 71 and 68% for IL, WY and YL coals, respectively. Ferric acetate impregnated into IL coal from THF/ethanol solution increased the nitrogen conversion much more than that from ethanol solution. The expansion of microporous coal structure by the swelling was essential for better dispersion of the catalyst precursor. The evolution of HCN as well as NH{sub 3} was effectively suppressed above 600{degree}C by the presence of iron but not influenced significantly by combinations of catalyst precursors and solvents. The increase in N{sub 2} yield was compensated by the decrease in nitrogen emitted as HCN and NH{sub 3} and in tar and char. The increase in CO evolution from the iron-impregnated IL coal at 600-800{degree}C was explained by catalytic rearrangement of aromatic structure of char, accompanying the removal of nitrogen as N{sub 2}. In a range of 600-750{degree}C, the evolution of CO as well as N{sub 2} from the other coals increased remarkably with a significant decrease in CO{sub 2} gasification in char microproes. 32 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. 57Fe NGR studies on three-stage hydroliquefaction of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamond, M.; Bacaud, R.; Bussiere, P.; Charcosset, H.; Nickel-Pepin-Donat, B.

    1990-01-01

    Iron Moessbauer spectroscopy has been performed on liquefaction residues of two different French coals. In a three-stage liquefaction of high volatile bituminous coal (Freyming), without an added catalyst, the coal pyrite is not entirely converted into pyrrhotites, whereas in the presence of an added catalyst, coal pyrite is totally transformed into more dispersed pyrrhotites than those from the sample without an added catalyst; furthermore, the whole added catalyst precursor is reduced into pyrrhotites. In the case of liquefaction of subbituminous coal (Gardanne), full conversion of coal pyrite into pyrrhotites (even without an added catalyst) occurs. In addition, in the presence of the added catalyst, besides pyrrhotites, FeS is evidenced. When molybdenum-iron oxide is added as a catalyst precursor, no mixed Fe-Mo phase is detected. (orig.)

  15. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  16. 30 CFR 819.13 - Auger mining: Coal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Coal recovery. 819.13 Section 819....13 Auger mining: Coal recovery. (a) Auger mining shall be conducted so as to maximize the utilization and conservation of the coal in accordance with § 816.59 of this chapter. (b) Auger mining shall be...

  17. Continuous quality control of mined hard and soft coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertl, W.H.; Gant, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    A method is provided for determining the shale content of mined coal by monitoring the thorium content of the coal. Thorium content and ash content are shown to be related whereby a direct reading of the thorium will be indicative of the shale content of the coal and the ash content of the coal. The method utilizes the natural radiation of thorium to provide the continuous or selective control of mined coals

  18. Study of catalytic effects of mineral matter level on coal reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, Nestor J.; Klunder, Edgar B.; Krastman, Donald

    1981-03-01

    Coal liquefaction experiments using a 400-lb/day bubble-column reactor tested the catalytic effects of added mineral matter level on coal conversion, desulfurization, and distillate yields in continuous operation under recycle conditions, with specific emphasis on the use of a disposable pyrite catalyst indigenous to the feed coal. Western Kentucky No. 11 run-of-mine (ROM) and washed coals were used as feedstocks to determine the effects of levels of mineral matter, specifically iron compounds. Liquefaction reactivity as characterized by total distillate yield was lower for washed coal, which contained less mineral matter. Liquefaction reactivity was regained when pyrite concentrate was added as a disposable catalyst to the washed coal feed in sufficient quantity to match the feed iron concentration of the run-of-mine coal liquefaction test run.

  19. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  20. The two faces of coal : uncertainty the common prospect for metallurgical and thermal coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotnikov, D.

    2010-01-01

    Although the methods of producing thermal and metallurgical coal are the same, metallurgical coal is destined to cross the world for steel manufacturing and thermal coal is destined for power plants close to where it was mined. This article discussed the factors influencing the price of these 2 coals. The production of thermal coal can remain steady during an economic crisis because coal-fired power plants generally provide low-cost-base-load electricity that remains stable during economic cycles. However, the demand for metallurgical coal is more volatile during an economic crisis because it is directly related to the demand for steel products in the construction and automotive industry, which are very sensitive to the state of the economy. There have been recent indications that Canada's export market for thermal coal is on the rise. In 2008, China became a net importer of coking coal. China's need for more coal to fuel its growing economy despite the global economic slowdown has meant that producers are diverting excess supply from European markets to China. Higher-end thermal coal offers low sulphur content and higher energy content, both desirable traits for power utilities facing strict emissions control. In addition to having huge reserves of very high-quality coal that is becoming increasingly important to China, Canada has the advantage of having the available transportation capacity in its west coast terminals and on its rail network. 3 figs.

  1. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siddique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their emissions. The study revealed that the ratio of 80:20 of coal (lignite-cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and SO2 as compared to 100% coal. Maximum amount of CO emissions were 1510.5 ppm for banana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30 of 684.667 ppm. Maximum percentage of SO2 (345.33 ppm was released from blend of lakhra coal and tree leaves (90:10 and minimum amount of SO2 present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20. The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas maximum amount of NOx was liberated from lakhra coal-tree leaves (60:40 and minimum amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm. The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution.

  2. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1995--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Cooke, W.S.; Schmidt, E.; Schobert, H.H.

    1996-02-01

    Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. Here in this quarterly, we report on the catalytic effects of several molybdenum-, cobalt-, and iron-containing compounds in the reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with hydrogen under conditions related to coal liquefaction. The catalytic effects of several molybdenum-, cobalt-, and iron-containing compounds have been examined in the hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under conditions related to coal liquefaction. The metal compounds are candidate catalyst precursors for direct coal liquefaction. The reactions were carried out in batch microautoclave reactors at 400{degrees}C for 30 minutes with 6.9 MPa (cold) hydrogen pressure, and tridecane solvent. A metal loading of 0.5 mol% resulted in low conversion and only hydrogenation. Addition of sulfur in 4:1 molar ratio led only to a minor increase in conversion and hydrodesulfurization. The use of a higher boiling solvent (octadecane vs. tridecane) was beneficial in providing increased conversion, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrogenation. An increase in metal compound loading to 36.2 mol% led to a dramatic increase in conversion, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrocracking. Molybdenum hexacarbonyl at 36 mol% loading, with added sulfur at 6:1 ratio and octadecane solvent, gave 100% conversion of dibenzothiophene to other products with 100% hydrodesulfurization. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate and molybdenum(III) chloride are less active under similar conditions. A cobalt-molybdenum thiocubane complex gave unexpectedly low conversions. Iron and cobalt carbonyls also provided very low conversions, even with added sulfur.

  3. Coal anion structure and chemistry of coal alkylation. Fourth quarterly progress report, December 1, 1977--February 28, 1978. [Carbon atoms in butyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Three research problems are in progress. First, work is progressing well concerning the methods appropriate for the reductive alkylation of Illinois No. 6 coal samples. We have investigated the influence of the leaving group on the conversion of the Illinois coal to a soluble material. We find that the n-butyl iodide is more effective than other n-butyl halides. Second, preliminary results have been obtained concerning the distribution of hydrogen and deuterium atoms in the reaction of Illinois No. 6 coal samples with perdeuteriotetralin at 400/sup 0/C. Third, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of appropriate model compounds with n-butyl groups have been tabulated for comparison with the spectroscopic results obtained from coal alkylation products. Fourth, the chromatographic procedures necessary for the separation of the coal samples are being developed.

  4. Central Arkansas Energy Project. Coal to medium-Btu gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The Central Arkansas Energy Project has as its objective the conversion of coal in a central location to a more readily usable energy source, medium Btu gas (MBG), for use at dispersed locations as fuel for power production and steam generation, or as a feedstock for chemical processing. The project elements consist of a gasification facility to produce MBG from coal, a pipeline to supply the MBG to the dispersed sites. The end of line users investigated were the repowering or refueling of an existing Arkansas Power and Light Co. Generating station, an ammonia plant, and a combined cycle cogeneration facility for the production of steam and electricity. Preliminary design of the gasification plant including process engineering design bases, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, system description, project engineering design, equipment specifications, plot plan and section plot plans, preliminary piping and instrument diagrams, and facilities requirements. Financial analyses and sensitivities are determined. Design and construction schedules and manpower loadings are developed. It is concluded that the project is technically feasible, but the financial soundness is difficult to project due to uncertainty in energy markets of competing fuels.

  5. ANALYSIS ON CONFLICTS OF CHINA’S COAL TAX REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in politics and governance. However, coal tax reform proposal has induced many controversies in China. The causes of that include value conflicts of all actors, competing interests of all parties and institutional barriers of economic, politics and legislation. Therefore, the government cannot regulate coal issues only through taxation. The case reveals that good governance on coal cannot be achieved only by economic tools as coal system contains so high stake and involves so many players.

  6. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Shridharani, K.; Huang, W.J.

    1981-02-01

    The effects of minerals and inexpensive ores or by-products (pyrites, red mud, flue dust, speculites, zinc sulfides, calcium oxide, dolomites, mica, molybdenite) in catalysing coal liquefaction or the hydrogenation of process solvents was studied with different cokes and solvents. Improved results were obtained in several cokes and th results are given in terms of oil fields, hydrogen consumption, desulfurization of SRC, etc. The addition of pyrite resulted in increased production of oils and increased conversion of coal; however, the effects varied from coal to coal. Dolomite, mica and molybdenite had insignificant catalytic activity. The reduction of pyrite, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ at process conditions was studied. (LTN)

  7. Oil from coal: just not worth it, say NCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grainger, L

    1970-01-01

    The creation of new markets by making oil fuels from coal in Britain is unresolved at this time. The dominant factor in the economics is the price ratio between coal and oil, which in Britain is 3 times less favorable than in the U.S. Current conversion results in a price more than double that of natural oil; however, the National Coal Board (NCB) continues to assess oil-from-coal processes. A sound research background in the new field of coal derivatives from solvent processing is being developed to produce materials of higher specific value than fuels. A continuous pilot plant is being built to prepare coke from filtered coal solution on the scale of a half-a-ton per week. Future prospects of the industry lie in areas where markets for coal will diminish, such as metallurgical coke. The fate of the coal industry will depend more and more on its largest market-electricity generation. In order to compete with nuclear power, the NCB is developing a new system of fluidized combustion.

  8. Energy and environmental (JSR) research emphasizing low-rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, L.L.

    1994-12-01

    The products of plastic thermal depolymerization can be used for the manufacture of new plastics or various other hydrocarbon-based products. One thermal depolymerization development effort is ongoing at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) of the University of North Dakota, under joint sponsorship of the American Plastics Council, the 3M corporation, and the Department of Energy. Thermal depolymerization process development began at the EERC with a benchscale program that ran from 9/92 to 6/93 (1). Testing was conducted in a 1-4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) unit using individual virgin resins and resin blends and was intended to determine rough operating parameters and product yields and to identify product stream components. Process variables examined included temperature and bed material, with a lesser emphasis on gas fluidization velocity and feed material mix. The following work was performed: (1) a short program to determine the suitability of using CaO in a postreactor, fixed bed for chlorine remediation, (2) thermal depolymerization of postconsumer plastics, and (3) testing of industrial (3M) products and wastes to determine their suitability as feed to a thermal depolymerization process. The involvement of DOE in the development of the plastics thermal depolymerization process has helped to facilitate the transfer of coal conversion technology to a new and growing technology area -- waste conversion. These two technology areas are complementary. The application of known coal conversion technology has accelerated the development of plastics conversion technology, and findings from the plastics depolymerization process development, such as the development of chlorine remediation techniques and procedures for measurement of organically associated chlorine, can be applied to new generations of coal conversion processes.

  9. A review of conversion processes for bioethanol production with a focus on syngas fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Devarapalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from corn is a well-established technology. However, emphasis on exploring non-food based feedstocks is intensified due to dispute over utilization of food based feedstocks to generate bioethanol. Chemical and biological conversion technologies for non-food based biomass feedstocks to biofuels have been developed. First generation bioethanol was produced from sugar based feedstocks such as corn and sugar cane. Availability of alternative feedstocks such as lignocellulosic and algal biomass and technology advancement led to the development of complex biological conversion processes, such as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP, and syngas fermentation. SHF, SSF, SSCF, and CBP are direct fermentation processes in which biomass feedstocks are pretreated, hydrolyzed and then fermented into ethanol. Conversely, ethanol from syngas fermentation is an indirect fermentation that utilizes gaseous substrates (mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 made from industrial flue gases or gasification of biomass, coal or municipal solid waste. This review article provides an overview of the various biological processes for ethanol production from sugar, lignocellulosic, and algal biomass. This paper also provides a detailed insight on process development, bioreactor design, and advances and future directions in syngas fermentation.

  10. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-01-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  11. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  12. Relation of ash composition to the uses of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieldner, A C; Selvig, W A

    1926-02-01

    The effects of coal ash and ash components on the utilization of coal for coke and gas production, steam generation, water gas production, smithing, and domestic uses were described in a review of literature. Calcite, gypsum, and pyrite which occur in high amounts in coal, increase the ash fusibility of the coal and render it unsuitable for many industrial and domestic uses. As a rule, coal ash of high Si content and low Fe content would not be readily fusible. High amounts of ash in coal also have the effect of reducing the heating value of the coal.

  13. Temperature effects on chemical structure and motion in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, G.E.

    1996-09-30

    The objective of this project was to apply recently developed, state-of-the-art nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to examine in situ changes in the chemical structure and molecular/macromolecular motion in coal as the temperature is increased above room temperature. Although alterations in the chemical structure of coal have been studied previously by {sup 13}C NMR, using quenched samples, the goal of this project was to examine these chemical structural changes, and changes in molecular/macromolecular mobility that may precede or accompany the chemical changes, at elevated temperatures, using modern {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR techniques, especially {sup 1}H dipolar-dephasing techniques and related experiments pioneered in the laboratory for examining pyridine-saturated coals. This project consisted of the following four primary segments and related efforts on matters relevant to the first four tasks. (1) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure and mobility as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (2) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure, mobility and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (3) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure/mobility as a function of temperature over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (4) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure, dynamics and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (5) Related matters relevant to the first four tasks: (a) {sup 1}H CRAMPS NMR characterization of oil shales and their kerogen concentrates; and (b) improved quantitation in {sup 13}C MAS characterization of coals.

  14. Report on Seminar on Clean Coal Technology '93; Clean coal technology kokusai seminar hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The program of the above clean coal technology (CCT) event is composed of 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Research on CCT in America (study of coal structure under electron microscope), and 3) Research on CCT in Australia (high intensity combustion of ultrafine coal particles in a clean way). Remarks under item 1) are mentioned below. As for SO{sub 2} emissions base unit, Japan's is 1 at its coal-fired thermal power station while that of America is 7.8. As for the level of SO{sub 2}/NOx reduction attributable to coal utilization technologies, it rises in the order of flue gas desulfurizer-aided pulverized coal combustion, normal pressure fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation/fuel cell. As for the level of CO2 reduction attributable to power generation efficiency improvement, provided that Japan's average power generation efficiency is 39% and if China's efficiency which is now 28% is improved to be similar to that of Japan, there will be a 40% reduction in CO2 emissions. Under item 2) which involves America's CCT program, reference is made to efforts at eliminating unnecessary part from the catalytic process and at reducing surplus air, to the export of CCT technology, and so forth. Under item 3), it is stated that coal cleaning may govern reaction efficiency in a process of burning coal particles for gasification. (NEDO)

  15. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1994-04-01

    The conversion of coal by an economically feasible catalytic method requires the catalyst to diffuse into the coal sample so that hydrogenation catalysis can occur from within as well as the normal surface catalysis. Thus an estimate of the size, shape, and reactivity, of the pores in the coal before and after the swelling with different solvents is needed so that an optimum sized catalyst will be used. This study characterizes the accessible area found in Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) using a EPR spin probe technique. The properties deduced in this manner correlate well with the findings deduced from SANS, NMR, SEM, SAXS and light scattering measurements. The use of nitroxide spin probes with swelling solvents is a simple way in which to gain an understanding of the pore structure of coals, how it changes in the presence of swelling solvents and the chemistry that occurs at the pore wall. Hydrogen bonding sites occur primarily in low-rank coals and vary in reactive strength as rank is varied. Unswelled coals contain small, spherical pores which disappear when coal is swelled in the presence of polar solvents. Swelling studies of polystyrene-divinyl benzene copolymers implied that coal is polymeric, contains significant quantities of covalent cross-links and the covalent cross-link density increases with rank.

  16. Width design for gobs and isolated coal pillars based on overall burst-instability prevention in coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted on the overall burst-instability of isolated coal pillars by means of the possibility index diagnosis method (PIDM. First, the abutment pressure calculation model of the gob in side direction was established to derive the abutment pressure distribution curve of the isolated coal pillar. Second, the overall burst-instability ratio of the isolated coal pillars was defined. Finally, the PIDM was utilized to judge the possibility of overall burst-instability and recoverability of isolated coal pillars. The results show that an overall burst-instability may occur due to a large gob width or a small pillar width. If the width of the isolated coal pillar is not large enough, the shallow coal seam will be damaged at first, and then the high abutment pressure will be transferred to the deep coal seam, which may cause an overall burst-instability accident. This approach can be adopted to design widths of gobs and isolated coal pillars and to evaluate whether an existing isolated coal pillar is recoverable in skip-mining mines.

  17. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-01-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI - , F - , and SO 4 = . We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements

  18. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  19. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, March 1, 1981-May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Huang, W.J.; Shridharani, K.

    1981-06-01

    This report covers results from both tubing-bomb experiments and continuous PDU runs. The following materials were evaluated in the PDU on Elkhorn No. 2 coal from Floyd County, Kentucky: Molybdic oxides; iron oxide; pyrite; pyrite/iron oxide mixture, and iron sulfate impregnation. A base case liquefaction run was also made for direct comparison. All of the above materials were examined at both 825 and 850/sup 0/F. Tubing-bomb experiments are reported on pyrite, red mud, sodium sulfide and organic compounds of cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, chromium and lead. Significant conclusions were drawn on the catalysis by different materials. Especially significant was the higher level of activity resulting from impregnation versus particle incorporation of the catalyst in the system. Impregnation of coal decreased the hydrocarbon gases yield and increased oil yield. Hydrogen consumption was significantly reduced by impregnation. Addition of molybdic oxide containing 90% MoO/sub 3/ and 10% silica to coal liquefaction reaction mixture had the following effect: coal conversion increased, oil yield increased by more than a factor of two at both temperatures, hydrogen consumption increased, solvent/oil fraction showed substantial increase in hydrogen content, and molybdenum in the resulting liquefaction residue was apparently transformed into an amorphous material. A more thorough evaluation of completely sulfided molybdenum will be made to see if its activity increases. In the tubing-bomb experiments organic compound of molybdenum showed the highest activity for coal conversion and oil production. Significant synergism was noted between red mud and sodium sulfide in the coal liquefaction reaction.

  20. Pyrolysis of chromium rich tanning industrial wastes and utilization of carbonized wastes in metallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres Filho, Artur; Lange, Liséte Celina; de Melo, Gilberto Caldeira Bandeira; Praes, Gustavo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of organic material in oxygen-free or very lean oxygen atmosphere. This study evaluates the use of pyrolysis for conversion of leather wastes from chromium tanning processes into Carbonized Leather Residues (CLR), and the utilization of CLR in metallurgical processes through the production of iron ore pellets. CLR was used to replace mineral coal in proportions of 10% and 25% on fixed carbon basis content in the mixtures for pellets preparation. Experimental conversions were performed on a pilot scale pyrolysis plant and a pelletizing reactor of the "pot grate" type. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of using the charcoal product from animal origin as an energy source, with recovery of up to 76.47% of chromium contained in CLR in the final produced of iron ore pellets. Pellets with 25% replacement of fixed carbon in the coal showed an enhanced compressive strength, with an average value of 344kgfpellet(-1), compared to 300kgfpellet(-1) for standard produced pellets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Federal tax incentives affecting coal and nuclear power economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of federal corporate income tax incentives on coal and nuclear power developments. It estimates (1) the magnitudes of tax incentives in relationship to utility costs, (2) the relative magnitude of benefits going to coal and nuclear facilities, and (3) the influence which the time paths of tax payments and after-tax net income have upon possible incentives for premature construction and excess capacity. Utility planners currently believe that nuclear power enjoys an after-tax competitive advantage over coal plants. Investigation of investment-related credits, deductions, and exclusions in the Internal Revenue Code shows that nuclear power enjoys a more favorable tax subsidy because of its greater capital intensity. In the absence of tax subsidies, no utility would prefer nuclear power to coal generation. Tax changes now under consideration could increase the tax benefits to both without disturbing the differential advantage held by nuclear power. 43 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  2. Transport fuels from two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, A.; Cebolla, V.; Fernandez, I.; Martinez, M.T.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.; Prado, J.G. (Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1994-03-01

    Four Spanish lignites and their vitrinite concentrates were evaluated for coal liquefaction. Correlationships between the content of vitrinite and conversion in direct liquefaction were observed for the lignites but not for the vitrinite concentrates. The most reactive of the four coals was processed in two-stage liquefaction at a higher scale. First-stage coal liquefaction was carried out in a continuous unit at Clausthal University at a temperature of 400[degree]C at 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and with anthracene oil as a solvent. The coal conversion obtained was 75.41% being 3.79% gases, 2.58% primary condensate and 69.04% heavy liquids. A hydroprocessing unit was built at the Instituto de Carboquimica for the second-stage coal liquefaction. Whole and deasphalted liquids from the first-stage liquefaction were processed at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The effects of liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), temperature, gas/liquid ratio and catalyst on the heteroatom liquids, and levels of 5 ppm of nitrogen and 52 ppm of sulphur were reached at 450[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, 0.08 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock and with Harshaw HT-500E catalyst. The liquids obtained were hydroprocessed again at 420[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure and 0.06 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock to hydrogenate the aromatic structures. In these conditions, the aromaticity was reduced considerably, and 39% of naphthas and 35% of kerosene fractions were obtained. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  4. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Subramanian, Ramanathan [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rizeq, George [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McDermott, John [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Eiteneer, Boris [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ladd, David [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (U