WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal conversion methods

  1. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report concerns our research on base-catalyzed coal solubilization and a new approach for hydrogen addition. The work on base-catalyzed, chemical solubilization is continuing. this report is focused on the hydrogenation research. Specifically it deals with the use of arene chromium carbonyl complexes as reagents for the addition of dideuterium to coal molecules. In one phase of the work, he has established that the aromatic hydrocarbons in a representative coal liquid can be converted in very good yield to arene chromium carbonyl compounds. In a second phase of the work directly related to our objective of improved methods for catalytic hydrogenation, he has established that the aromatic constituents of the same coal liquid add dideuterium in the presence of added napththalene chromium carbonyl.

  2. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods. Tenth quarterly report, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-12-31

    This report concerns our research on base-catalyzed coal solubilization and a new approach for hydrogen addition. The work on base-catalyzed, chemical solubilization is continuing. this report is focused on the hydrogenation research. Specifically it deals with the use of arene chromium carbonyl complexes as reagents for the addition of dideuterium to coal molecules. In one phase of the work, he has established that the aromatic hydrocarbons in a representative coal liquid can be converted in very good yield to arene chromium carbonyl compounds. In a second phase of the work directly related to our objective of improved methods for catalytic hydrogenation, he has established that the aromatic constituents of the same coal liquid add dideuterium in the presence of added napththalene chromium carbonyl.

  3. Low severity conversion of activated coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  4. Monitoring coal conversion processes by IR-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobert, H.; Kempe, J.; Stephanowitz, H. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-01-01

    Explains application of infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis by an on-line computer system for assessing coal quality and suitability of brown coal for conversion processes. Coal samples were pelletized under addition of KBr and analyzed using an IRF 180 Fourier transform spectrometer in the spectral range of 400 to 2,000 cm{sup -1}. Components of spectra are presented; the oil yield from coal hydrogenation is calculated by regression analysis. Covariance spectra of carbon, organic hydrogen and sulfur are shown. It is concluded that the field of application for the method includes industrial coal liquefaction, gasification as well as briquetting and coking. 8 refs.

  5. Brayton Point coal conversion project (NEPCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W.F. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    The New England Power Company (NEPCO) recently converted Brayton Point Power Station Units 1, 2, and 3 from oil to coal. The coal conversion project is the largest coal conversion project in the nation to date. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) was hired as the engineer/constructor for the project. Units 1 and 2 are 250-MW Combustion Engineering boilers, and Unit 3 is a 650-MW Babcock and Wilcox boiler. All three units were originally designed to burn pulverized coal but were converted to oil during the years of low oil prices. Studies performed by NEPCO and SWEC indicated that the areas discussed in the following paragraphs required upgrading before the units could efficiently burn coal and meet Federal and State environmental requirements. All units have been converted and are operating. This paper discusses design modifications required to burn coal, startup, and initial operating problems, and solutions.

  6. Coal conversion. 1977 technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The status and progress in US DOE's projects in coal gasification, liquefaction, and fluidized-bed combustion are reviewed with financing, flowsheets, history, progress and status of each (57 projects). (LTN)

  7. Low severity conversion of activated coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  8. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  9. Environmental monitoring handbook for coal conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; DeCicco, S.G. (eds.)

    1978-05-01

    The primary objectives of the Department of Energy's (DOE) coal conversion program are to demonstrate the environmental acceptability, technical feasibility, and economic viability of various technologies for gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels from coal. The Environmental Monitoring Handbook for Coal Conversion Facilities will help accomplish the objective of environmental acceptability by guiding the planning and execution of socioeconomic and environmental monitoring programs for demonstration facilities. These programs will provide information adequate to (1) predict, insofar as is possible, the potential impacts of construction and operation of a coal conversion plant, (2) verify the occurrence of these or any other impacts during construction and operation, (3) determine the adequacy of mitigating measures to protect the environment, (4) develop effluent source terms for process discharges, and (5) determine the effectiveness of pollution control equipment. Although useful in a variety of areas, the handbook is intended primarily for contractors who, as industrial partners with DOE, are building coal conversion plants. For the contractor it is a practical guide on (1) the methodology for developing site- and process-specific environmental monitoring programs, (2) state-of-the-art sampling and analytical techniques, and (3) impact analyses.To correspond to the phases of project activity, the subject matter is divided into four stages of monitoring: (1) a reconnaissance or synoptic survey, (2) preconstruction or baseline, (3) construction, and (4) operation, including process monitoring (prepared by Radian Corp., McLean, Va.). For each stage of monitoring, guidelines are given on socioeconomics, aquatic and terrestrial ecology, air quality and meteorology, surface and groundwater quality, geohydrology and soil survey, and surface water hydrology.

  10. Biological conversion of coal gas to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-08-01

    Biological conversion of low-Btu coal synthesis gas to higher Btu methane was demonstrated using both pure co-cultures and/or adapted-mixed anaerobic bacteria. Peptostreptococcus productus metabolized coal gas to mainly acetate and CO/sub 2/. The co-cultures containing methanogens converted these products to methane. In mixed culture studies, CH/sub 4/ and small amounts of acetate were produced. Reactor studies using stirred-tank and immobilized cell reactors exhibited excellent potential to convert CO, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ to methane at higher gas flow rates. Gas retention times ranging from 0.7 to 2 hours and high agitation were required for 90 percent CO conversion in these systems. This paper also illustrates the potential of biological methanation and demonstrates the need for good mass transfer in converting gas phase substrates. 21 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  11. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-01-01

    The Sixth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 13-15, 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the National Bureau of Standards. Fifty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; four papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  12. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  13. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  14. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  15. The Zimmer nuclear to coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, R.H.; Pfund, E.M.; Buchmueller, D.P.; Fletcher, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the control, protection and monitoring systems employed on the world's first nuclear-to-coal power plant conversion, the philosophies utilized to guide the engineering of these systems and the implementation of those philosophies. Extensive use is made of programmable electronic systems to provide a state-of-the-art plant which does not compromise the proven operating interfaces and philosophies associated with AEP's six operating 1300 MW units. The technologies employed include two distributed digital control systems, a fiber optic-based network of programmable logic controllers, a distributed microprocessor-based annunciator and sequence of events system, and a plant operations computer which accesses each of the preceding systems

  16. Method to liquefy coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronauer, D.C.; Kehl, W.L.

    1977-06-08

    In a method to liquify coal in the presence of hydrogen and hydrogen-transfer solvents, a hydrogenation catalyst is used in which an amorphous aluminium phosphate is taken as catalyst carrier. The particular advantage of aluminium phosphate catalyst carriers is their property of not loosing their mechanical strength even after manifold oxidizing regeneration (burning off the deposited carbon). The quantity of carbon deposited on the catalyst when using an aluminium phosphate carrier is considerably loss than with usual catalyst carriers.

  17. Pocess for the conversion of coal into benzine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, S M; Kuo, J C.W.; Wise, J J; Garwood, W E

    1976-10-21

    The effective conversion of coal into liquid hydrocarbon benzine with a high octane number is described in the claimed method for coal enrichment. The coal is converted with O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O at about 788 to 982/sup 0/C giving a synthesis product (containing CO, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/). The conversion of the carbon oxides and hydrogen to a product containing H/sub 2/O, C/sup -//sub 4/gas and C/sup +//sub 5/ aromatic benzine is catalyzed with a catalyst consisting of a crystalline alumino silicate zeolite with a SiO/sub 2//AlO/sub 2/ ratio of at least 12 and a forced index of 1 to 12. The C/sup -//sub 4/gas is separated into a C/sup -//sub 2/residual gas (CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) and alkylation material (saturated and unsaturated C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons), the latter alkylated with strong acid at about 232/sup 0/C, 35.2Kg/cm/sup 2/ pressure, the C/sub 7//C/sub 8/ product is mixed with the aromatic benzine, the C/sup -//sub 2/residual gas steam reformed to an auxiliary synthesis gas and converted into a synthetic natural gas by methanation catalysts.

  18. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States) Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  19. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, D.R.; Stoner, D.L.; Dugan, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  20. Conversion of metallurgical coke and coal using a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Siwei; Bayham, Samuel; Zeng, Liang; McGiveron, Omar; Chung, Elena; Majumder, Ankita; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accumulated more than 300 operation hours were accomplished for the moving bed reducer reactor. • Different reactor operation variables were investigated with optimal conditions identified. • High conversions of sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were achieved without flow problems. • Co-current and counter-current contact modes were tested and their applicability was discussed. - Abstract: The CLC process has the potential to be a transformative commercial technology for a carbon-constrained economy. The Ohio State University Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process directly converts coal, eliminating the need for a coal gasifier oran air separation unit (ASU). Compared to other solid-fuel CLC processes, the CDCL process is unique in that it consists of a countercurrent moving bed reducer reactor. In the proposed process, coal is injected into the middle of the moving bed, whereby the coal quickly heats up and devolatilizes, splitting the reactor roughly into two sections with no axial mixing. The top section consists of gaseous fuel produced from the coal volatiles, and the bottom section consists of the coal char mixed with the oxygen carrier. A bench-scale moving bed reactor was used to study the coal conversion with CO 2 as the enhancing gas. Initial tests using metallurgical cokefines as feedstock were conducted to test the effects of operational variables in the bottom section of the moving bed reducer, e.g., reactor temperature, oxygen carrier to char ratio, enhancer gas CO 2 flow rate, and oxygen carrier flow rates. Experiments directly using coal as the feedstock were subsequently carried out based on these test results. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and Illinois #6 coal were tested as representative sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, respectively. Nearly complete coal conversion was achieved using composite iron oxide particles as the oxygen carriers without any flow problems. The operational results demonstrated that a

  1. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion contractors review conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 55 papers presented at the conference. They are divided into the following topical sections: Direct liquefaction; Indirect liquefaction; Gas conversion (methane conversion); and Advanced research liquefaction. Papers in this last section deal mostly with coprocessing of coal with petroleum, plastics, and waste tires, and catalyst studies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. The application of the coal grain analysis method to coal liberation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Adair, B. [CSIRO Earth Science & Resource Engineering Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Emerging coal markets such as the use of coal for conversion to liquid fuels and its use in fuels cells and as coal water slurries in diesel engines require coal products with different coal quality specifications than those applicable to traditional coal markets of coke making and conventional power generation. As well as quantifying coals in terms of their chemical and physical properties, detailed knowledge of the mineral inclusions within the coal particles is required to identify coals that are suited to economically produce the low-ash value coals required for these markets. After mining and processing, some particles can consist of essentially pure components of a single maceral or mineral phase whilst others are composite particles that are comprised of varying amounts of macerals and minerals. The proportion of particles that are present as pure components or as composites will be a function of the characteristics of the coal and the particle size. In general, it is considered that size reduction will result in liberation and hence increased yield. The amount of liberation that occurs during crushing or grinding a coal is however coal specific. Particle characterization information provided by an optical microscopic-imaging method, Coal Grain Analysis, was used to identify coals that might benefit from additional crushing to improve recovery of clean coal by new density separation techniques and by flotation. As expected, the results of these studies suggest that the degree of liberation that is obtained is coal specific, and, hence, yield improvements are also coal specific. Hence a quantitative method of investigating this issue is required.

  3. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-05

    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  4. Science of coal-to-oil conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, W D

    1944-01-01

    A general review is given of the principles of the most important commercial processes for obtaining oil from coal, and of the yields obtained by, and special features of each process. The composition of typical tars obtained by the low-temperature carbonization of coal, yields of products other than tar, estimated costs of running a plant of 700 tons daily capacity and annual British statistics on the industry from 1930 through 1938 are tabulated. The text is chiefly concerned with the various types of retorts, which have been developed for use in this process. Economics and cost of production are discussed.

  5. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  6. Fourth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The fourth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 9 to 11, 1979, at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Department of Energy, and the Gas Research Institute. The papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  7. An overview of coal preparation initiatives with application to coal conversion in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, C.F.; Bunt, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Coal has for many years been the most important energy resource in South Africa and has contributed to more than 70 % of South Africa's energy needs in 1998. The large in-situ coal deposits (in excess of 120 x 10 9 t) and relatively large recoverable reserves (about 33.5 x 10 9 t) will ensure that coal will for many a year still be South Africa's single biggest energy resource. Biomass burning consumes approximately 11 Mt/a of which 8 Mt/a is natural wood. This equals natural wood production. The use of firewood is considered to be unsustainable. Of the 225 Mt/a of coal extracted in South Africa in 1998, 67.0 Mt/a was exported. Of this, 62.9 Mt/a were exported as steam coal, 2.1 Mt/a as metallurgical coal, and the rest as anthracite. Current exports are conducted via the Richards Bay terminal (63.6 Mt/a), Durban (2.0 Mt/a) and a small amount via Maputo. The Richards Bay terminal is to be expanded to 72 Mt/a by 1999. It is also very important to note that most of the coal resources possess calorific values of below 25 MJ/kg, which limits its utilization to power generation (Eskom) and processes such as fixed bed dry bottom gasification (Sasol). A break-down of production and usage of coal by the various controlling groups in South Africa shows that Sasol (54.2 Mt/a) and Escom (91.0 Mt/a) are major consumers of coal. It has been proposed earlier by Horsfall (1993) that for power generation and coal conversion, the in-situ quality is generally regarded as satisfactory for use. All that is required in the way of processing is crushing to an appropriate top size and, for conversion, screening of the unwashed coal. Most other consumers require some degree of beneficiation, which generally entails the removal of stone/shale and low quality coal. More recently, the introduction of destoning plants at Duvha Colliery (Larcodems) and New Vaal Colliery (Drewboy washers) has significantly reduced the abrasiveness content of these local thermal coals, together with an increase

  8. Nuclear methods in coal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear methods, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA) provide useful information about elemental constituents in coal and fly ash, but often other techniques are required to supplement NAA data. Spark source mass spectrometry and atomic absorption have been studied as methods for determination of certain elements in coal that are not easily measured by NAA. In work concerned with the chemical speciation of elements in fly ash, a number of analytical techniques have been used; these include NAA, chemical etching and separation, optical and electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction

  9. Comparison of coal reactivity during conversion into different oxidizing medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkikh, A G; Slyusarskiy, K V; Larionov, K B; Osipov, V I

    2016-01-01

    Acoal conversion process of different coal samples into three different types of oxidizing medium (argon, air and steam) were studied by means of thermogravimetry. Two coal types with different metamorphism degree (lignite and bituminous coal) were used. The experimental procedure was carried out in non-isothermal conditions in temperature range from 373 K to 1273 K with 20 K/min heating rate. Purge gas consisted of argon and oxidizer with volumetric ratio 1:24 and had 250 ml/min flow rate.The ignition and burnout indexes were calculated to evaluate sample reactivity at different oxidizing mediums. The highest reactivity coefficient values in same atmosphere were obtained for lignite. It was caused by higher particle special surface area and volatile matter content. (paper)

  10. Proceedings of the third annual underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Annual Underground Coal Conversion Symposium was held at Fallen Leaf Lake, CA, June 6--9, 1977. It was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and hosted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Forty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; ten papers had been entered previously from other sources. The papers cover the in-situ gasification of lignite, subbituminous coal and bituminous coal, in flat lying seams and a steeply dipping beds, at moderate and at greater depths, and describe various technologies of (borehole linking, well spacings, gasifying agents (air, oxygen, steam, hydrogen, including mixtures). Measuring instruments for diagnostic and process control purposes are described. Environmental impacts (ground subsidence and possible groundwater pollution) are the subject of several papers. Finally, mathematical modelling and projected economics of the process are developed. (LTN)

  11. Process for complete conversion of coal oils, shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P

    1911-07-08

    A process is described for complete conversion of mineral coal oil, shale oil, and other similar oils in pitch, characterized by these oils being mixed with a nonvolatile substance with a boiling point on the average higher than the boiling point of the oil to be treated, and then being heated under pressure with the introduction of air, whereby the heating is interrupted if necessary on account of the known exothermic reaction and the conversion of the oil in the pitch or its distillation can be carried out without further heating.

  12. Proceedings of the 5th underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The 5th underground coal conversion symposium was held at Alexandria, Virginia, June 18--21, 1979. Thirty-three papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Seven papers were also abstracted for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. Seven papers had been entered previously from other sources. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Extraction. (LTN)

  13. Low temperature coal depolymerization-liquefaction: conversion of a North Dakota lignite to a light hydrocarbon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabtai, J.; Yuan Zhang (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Fuels Engineering)

    1989-10-01

    A new low temperature method of coal liquefaction is described which includes intercalation of the coal with FeCl{sub 3}, depolymerization under supercritical conditions, and hydroprocessing of the depolymerized product. Results indicate a high yield conversion of lignites to light hydrocarbon oils. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  15. Coal conversion process by the United Power Plants of Westphalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-08-01

    The coal conversion process used by the United Power Plants of Westphalia and its possible applications are described. In this process, the crushed and predried coal is degassed and partly gasified in a gas generator, during which time the sulfur present in the coal is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which together with the carbon dioxide is subsequently washed out and possibly utilized or marketed. The residual coke together with the ashes and tar is then sent to the melting chamber of the steam generator where the ashes are removed. After desulfurization, the purified gas is fed into an external circuit and/or to a gas turbine for electricity generation. The raw gas from the gas generator can be directly used as fuel in a conventional power plant. The calorific value of the purified gas varies from 3200 to 3500 kcal/cu m. The purified gas can be used as reducing agent, heating gas, as raw material for various chemical processes, or be conveyed via pipelines to remote areas for electricity generation. The conversion process has the advantages of increased economy of electricity generation with desulfurization, of additional gas generation, and, in long-term prospects, of the use of the waste heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for this process.

  16. Conversion of different ash content brown coal in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, P.; Chernyavskiy, N.; Ryzhkov, A.; Remenuk, A. [Ural Federal Univ., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Dept. of Thermal Power Plants; Dulienko, S. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Coal Energy Technology Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Available equations used to determine combustion specific rate of coal-derived cokes describe the burning of carbon particles well enough but are not accurate in case of ash-containing coke particles combustion. This study is an attempt to account for the influence of both initial ash content and its increase in the course of carbon conversion in specific rate calculations. The results of experimental study of burn-out dynamics of Volchanskiy field (North Urals) brown coal and its coke with different ash content under conditions of fluidized bed combustion at impulse-type non-gradient reactor RSC-1 and dynamic installation Pyrolysis-M are summarized. Diffusion and heterogeneous (kinetic) components of carbon combustion rate are identified separately by using diffusion and kinetics equation with correction for carbon mass fraction in particles. Burning particle overheating values and heterogeneous combustion rate constants at different temperatures are estimated.

  17. Biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Corder, R E; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1987-09-01

    High temperatures and pressures are required, and therefore, high costs incurred during catalytic upgrading of coal synthesis gas to methane. Thus, the feasibility of biological reactions in converting synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in mixed and pure cultures. Complete conversion has been achieved in 2 hours with a mixed culture, and 45 minutes to 1.5 hours in pure cultures of P. productus and Methanothrix sp.. Typical sulfur levels involved during the process are found not to inhibit the bacteria and so sulfur does not have to be removed prior to biomethanation. Preliminary economic analyses indicate that coal gas may be biologically methanated for 50-60 cents/million Btu. Further studies with pure culture bacteria and increased pressure are expected to enhance biomethanation economics.

  18. Radiation-thermal processes of conversion in the coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafaev, I.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The brief review, history, modern condition and bibliographic data on research of radiation-stimulated processes in coals are adduced in the report. Results of new researches of influence of gamma - radiation and accelerated electrons on pyrolysis, gasification, desulphurization, paramagnetism, adsorption and optical properties of coals in wide intervals of change of absorbed dose, dose rate, temperature, radiation type and other parameters of processes are stated. As object of researches Turkish (Yeni koy, Yatagan) and Russian (Siberia) coals were used. Specific peculiarities of influence of ionizing radiations on fossil fuels, bringing in change of their reactivity as result of destruction and polycondensation processes are considered. a)Pyrolysis: Under action of gamma-radiation and accelerated electrons the rate of thermal (t) pyrolysis grows and the ratio of radiation-thermal (rt) and thermal (t) processes: Wrt/ Wt depends on dose rate and temperature. By increase of dose rate the radiation effects grows, and at increase of temperature this effect is reduced. The influence of high rate heating of coals under pulls action of accelerated electrons on conversion degree and product composition has been established. The investigation regularities of formation liquid and gas products is resulted at radiation - thermal processing of mixtures of lignites with fuel oil. These experiments were conducted in flowing conditions in the interval of temperature T=350-500 degrees centigrade, power of the pulls accelerated electrons P=30-50 W, flow velocity of fuel oil 0,2-2 ml/minute. As a index of process were controlled conversion degree of coals, overall yield, contents and characteristic of liquid and gas products. The products of thermal treatment of these mixtures and also radiation-thermal treatment of separate components significantly less than radiation-thermal conversion of binary mixtures. It has been established that radiation effect has a positive

  19. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, W. A.; Slade, E. C.

    1978-06-01

    A survey of the industrial capabilities of the valve and valve-actuator industry to supply large, high-pressure stop valves for the future coal conversion industry is presented in this report. Also discussed are development and testing capabilities of valve and valve-actuator manufacturers and anticipated lead times required to manufacture advanced design valves for the most stringent service applications. Results indicate that the valve and valve-actuator industry is capable of manufacturing in quantity equipment of the size and for the pressure and temperature ranges which would be required in the coal conversion industry. Valve manufacturers do not, however, have sufficient product application experience to predict the continuing functional ability of valves used for lock-hopper feeders, slurry feeders, and slag-char letdown service. Developmental and testing efforts to modify existing valve designs or to develop new valve concepts for these applications were estimated to range from 1 to 6 years. A testing facility to simulate actuation of critical valves under service conditions would be beneficial.

  20. Determining phenols in coal conversion products by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanitskaya, L.V.; Kushnarev, D.F.; Polonov, V.M.; Kalabin, G.A.

    1985-03-01

    Possibility of using nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the hydrogen 1 (/sup 1/H) isotope for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the hydroxyl groups in the products of coal processing is investigated. The basis of the method is the fact that in NMR spectra of the /sup 1/H in organic compounds with acid protons, the latter are unprotected when strong bases are used as solvents because of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The resin from the medium-temperature semicoking of Cheremkhovskii coals, its hydrogenate, and phenol fraction of the hydrogenate were used for the investigation. The results were compared with the results of other NMR spectroscopy methods. The high solubility of hexamethanol and the fact that the products can be analyzed in the natural state, are some advantages of the method. 18 references.

  1. Research on novel coal conversion technology for energy and environment in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Takarada [Gunma University (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    In the 21st century, more efficient coal conversion technology will be needed. In this paper, novel gasification, pyrolysis and desulfurization processes using active catalysts are introduced. In particular, the application of ion-exchanged metals in brown coal to coal conversion technology is featured in this study. Other topics discussed include: Catalysis of mineral matter in coal; Catalytic effectiveness of Ni and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for various coals; Direct production of methane from steam gasification; Preparation of active catalysts from NaCl and KCl using brown coal; Gasification of high rank coal by mixing K-exchanged brown coal; Recovery of sulfur via catalytic SO{sub 2} gasification of coal char; Research on novel coal conversion technology BTX production by hydropyrolysis of coal in PPFB using catalyst; High BTU gas production by low-temperature catalytic hydropyrolysis of coal; and Ca-exchanged brown coal as SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S sorbents. 12 refs., 17 figs.

  2. Monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion processes via ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A. C.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    1980-02-01

    The state of the art of instrumentation for monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion systems is examined. The instrumentation types studied include thermocouples, radiation pyrometers, and acoustical thermometers. The capabilities and limitations of each type are reviewed. A feasibility study of the ultrasonic thermometry is described. A mathematical model of a pulse-echo ultrasonic temperature measurement system is developed using linear system theory. The mathematical model lends itself to the adaptation of generalized correlation techniques for the estimation of propagation delays. Computer simulations are made to test the efficacy of the signal processing techniques for noise-free as well as noisy signals. Based on the theoretical study, acoustic techniques to measure temperature in reactors and combustors are feasible.

  3. Contribution to determination of coal grindability using Hardgrove method

    OpenAIRE

    Tichánek, František

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with determination of grindability of coal using Hardgrove method. Some non-availabilities of determination are mentioned as well as factors affecting grindability and relations for conversion of Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) values to Bond Work Index (Wi). Paper also provides information on utilization of Hardgrove method in Czech Republic and indicates HGI values for coal from OKD-Karvina region. Příspěvek se zabývá stanovením melitelnosti uhlí pomocí metody Hardgrov...

  4. Energy conservation in coal conversion. Final report, September 15, 1977--September 1, 1978. Selected case studies and conservation methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcupile, J.C.

    1978-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the methodologies developed in the Energy Conservation in Coal Conversion August, 1977 Progress Report - Contract No. EY77S024196 - to an energy efficient, near-term coal conversion process design, and to develop additional, general techniques for studying energy conservation and utilization in coal conversion processes. The process selected for study was the Ralph M. Parsons Company of Pasadena, California ''Oil/Gas Complex, Conceptual Design/Economic Analysis'' as described in R and D Report No. 114 - Interim Report No. 4, published March, 1977, ERDA Contract No. E(49-18)-1975. Thirteen papers representing possible alternative methods of energy conservation or waste heat utilization have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  6. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  7. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary. [using coal or coal derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A data base for the comparison of advanced energy conversion systems for utility applications using coal or coal-derived fuels was developed. Estimates of power plant performance (efficiency), capital cost, cost of electricity, natural resource requirements, and environmental intrusion characteristics were made for ten advanced conversion systems. Emphasis was on the energy conversion system in the context of a base loaded utility power plant. All power plant concepts were premised on meeting emission standard requirements. A steam power plant (3500 psig, 1000 F) with a conventional coal-burning furnace-boiler was analyzed as a basis for comparison. Combined cycle gas/steam turbine system results indicated competitive efficiency and a lower cost of electricity compared to the reference steam plant. The Open-Cycle MHD system results indicated the potential for significantly higher efficiency than the reference steam plant but with a higher cost of electricity.

  8. Biogenic coal-to-methane conversion efficiency decreases after repeated organic amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katherine J.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Fields, Matthew W.; Gerlach, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Addition of organic amendments to coal-containing systems can increase the rate and extent of biogenic methane production for 60–80 days before production slows or stops. Understanding the effect of repeated amendment additions on the rate and extent of enhanced coal-dependent methane production is important if biological coal-to-methane conversion is to be enhanced on a commercial scale. Microalgal biomass was added at a concentration of 0.1 g/L to microcosms with and without coal on days 0, 76, and 117. Rates of methane production were enhanced after the initial amendment but coal-containing treatments produced successively decreasing amounts of methane with each amendment. During the first amendment period, 113% of carbon added as amendment was recovered as methane, whereas in the second and third amendment periods, 39% and 32% of carbon added as amendment was recovered as methane, respectively. Additionally, algae-amended coal treatments produced ∼38% more methane than unamended coal treatments and ∼180% more methane than amended coal-free treatments after one amendment. However, a second amendment addition resulted in only an ∼25% increase in methane production for coal versus noncoal treatments and a third amendment addition resulted in similar methane production in both coal and noncoal treatments. Successive amendment additions appeared to result in a shift from coal-to-methane conversion to amendment-to-methane conversion. The reported results indicate that a better understanding is needed of the potential impacts and efficiencies of repeated stimulation for enhanced coal-to-methane conversion.

  9. Conversion of coal mining regions of France. La reconversion de la mineria del carbon en Francia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, A.

    1990-08-01

    This programme of drastic reduction in coal mining in France has been made possible by the Economic Conversion Plan for the Coalfields. The Plan takes account of all areas of work affected by the reduction in coal mining and will assist in maintaining or even increase economic activity in the areas involved.

  10. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)]|[Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  11. Challenges of coal conversion for decarbonized energy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciazko, Marek; Jalosinski, Krzysztof; Majchrzak, Henryk; Michalski, Mieczyslaw; Tymowski, Henryk; Witos, Tadeusz; Wroblewska, Elzbieta

    2010-09-15

    Carbon dioxide is considered to be the main challenge for the coal-based power generation as well as for any other industrial application of coal. Poland's energy sector is primarily based on coal combustion that covers almost 90% of demand. Future development of that sector depends on the restriction on value of carbon dioxide emission or trading allowances. There are two main technological approaches to development of new coal based generation capacity, namely: gasification and pre-combustion capture; supercritical combustion and post-combustion capture. The current situation in development of three this type projects in Poland is presented.

  12. Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor heat source for coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher, R.W. Jr.; Lewis, A.C.

    1992-09-01

    In the industrial nations, transportable fuels in the form of natural gas and petroleum derivatives constitute a primary energy source nearly equivalent to that consumed for generating electric power. Nations with large coal deposits have the option of coal conversion to meet their transportable fuel demands. But these processes themselves consume huge amounts of energy and produce undesirable combustion by-products. Therefore, this represents a major opportunity to apply nuclear energy for both the environmental and energy conservation reasons. Because the most desirable coal conversion processes take place at 800 degree C or higher, only the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) have the potential to be adapted to coal conversion processes. This report provides a discussion of this utilization of HTGR reactors

  13. Chemical coal conversion yesterday, today, and tomorrow; Der Chemierohstoff Kohle: gestern, heute und morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbiersky, J. [UCP Chemicals AG, Wien (Austria)

    2007-01-15

    Shortage in mineral oil and gas as well as a high price level have caused a renaissance in coal conversion technologies, at the end of the 70's. Today we have a similar situation. Now coal coversion technologies will be in the focus again but hopefully as a longterm strategy. The most important coal conversion technologies as liquefaction, gasification, coking and calcium carbide synthesis are discussed regarding their use for the production of chemicals. The most important source for aromatic chemicals from coal is till now coal tar with an availability of 22 Mio. t/a. The manufacturing of coal tar is discussed as an example for making aromatic products from a complex feed stock that you get by the fixed bed gasification, coal liquefaction and coking. Also the special marketing strategy that is necessary to be competitive against products from the petroindustry. It can be expected, that coal gasification as a source for synthesis gas will become more and more important. Synthesis gas is the access to aliphatic hydrocarbons by Fischer Tropsch synthesis and to methanol, a chemical with a high synthetic potential. Also the new hydrothermal carbonization of biomass to synthetic coal is mentioned. (orig.)

  14. Bioassays for risk assessment of coal conversion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacht, S.; Sinder, C.; Pfeifer, F.; Klein, J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Traditional as well as biotechnological processing coal leads to complex mixtures of products. Besides chemical and physical characterization, which provides the information for product application, there is a need for bioassays to monitor properties that are probably toxic, mutagenic or cancerogenic. Investigations carried out focused on the selection, adaptation and validation of bioassays for the sensitive estimation of toxic effects. Organisms like bacteria, Daphnia magna and Scenedesmus subspicatus, representing different complexities in the biosphere, were selected as test systems for ecotoxicological and mutagenicity studies. The results obtained indicate that bioassays are, in principle, suitable tools for characterization and evaluation of coal-derived substances and bioconversion products. Using coal products, coal-relevant model compounds and bioconversion products, data for risk assessment are presented. (orig.)

  15. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  17. Coal conversion and the HTR - basic elements of novel power supply concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    A meeting under this title was held in Dortmund on 16 to 19 September, 1985, jointly by the VGB Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber e.V., Essen, and the Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG (VEW), Dortmund. The meeting was held in two sections: 'Gersteinwerk power plant - the combination unit K and the KUV coal conversion system' and '7th International conference on HTR technology'. Three technologies were discussed that will have a significant role on the future energy market, i.e., the HTR reactor line (first applied in the Hamm-Uentrop THTR reactor), the new generation of coal-fired power plants with combined gas/steam turbines, and the coal gasification technology. All three systems will make more efficient and less-polluting use of domestic coal by using HTR process heat, by converting coal to widen its range of applications, and by providing more efficient combination units for power plants. (orig./UA) [de

  18. Method selection for mercury removal from hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziok Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is commonly found in coal and the coal utilization processes constitute one of the main sources of mercury emission to the environment. This issue is particularly important for Poland, because the Polish energy production sector is based on brown and hard coal. The forecasts show that this trend in energy production will continue in the coming years. At the time of the emission limits introduction, methods of reducing the mercury emission will have to be implemented in Poland. Mercury emission can be reduced as a result of using coal with a relatively low mercury content. In the case of the absence of such coals, the methods of mercury removal from coal can be implemented. The currently used and developing methods include the coal cleaning process (both the coal washing and the dry deshaling as well as the thermal pretreatment of coal (mild pyrolysis. The effectiveness of these methods various for different coals, which is caused by the diversity of coal origin, various characteristics of coal and, especially, by the various modes of mercury occurrence in coal. It should be mentioned that the coal cleaning process allows for the removal of mercury occurring in mineral matter, mainly in pyrite. The thermal pretreatment of coal allows for the removal of mercury occurring in organic matter as well as in the inorganic constituents characterized by a low temperature of mercury release. In this paper, the guidelines for the selection of mercury removal method from hard coal were presented. The guidelines were developed taking into consideration: the effectiveness of mercury removal from coal in the process of coal cleaning and thermal pretreatment, the synergy effect resulting from the combination of these processes, the direction of coal utilization as well as the influence of these processes on coal properties.

  19. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, Gregory D.; Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration

  20. Mathematical methods in geometrization of coal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurygin, D. N.; Kalinchenko, V. M.; Tkachev, V. A.; Tretyak, A. Ya

    2017-10-01

    In the work, the approach to increase overall performance of collieries on the basis of an increase in accuracy of geometrization of coal thicknesses is considered. The sequence of stages of mathematical modelling of spatial placing of indicators of a deposit taking into account allocation of homogeneous sites of thickness and an establishment of quantitative interrelations between mountain-geological indicators of coal layers is offered. As a uniform mathematical method for modelling of various interrelations, it is offered to use a method of the group accounting of arguments (MGUA), one of versions of the regressive analysis. This approach can find application during delimitation between geological homogeneous sites of coal thicknesses in the form of a linear discriminant function. By an example of division into districts of a mine field in the conditions of mine “Sadkinsky” (East Donbass), the use of the complex approach for forecasting of zones of the small amplitude of disturbance of a coal layer on the basis of the discriminant analysis and MGUA is shown.

  1. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-first quarterly report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  2. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. 19th quarterly report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  3. Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, M; Fink, J K [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

  4. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  5. Alternative method for assessing coking coal plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzuy Nguyen; Susan Woodhouse; Merrick Mahoney [University of Adelaide (Australia). BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre

    2008-07-15

    Traditional plasticity measurements for coal have a number of limitations associated with the reproducibility of the tests and their use in predicting coking behaviour. This report reviews alternative rheological methods for characterising the plastic behaviour of coking coals. It reviews the application of more fundamental rheological measurements to the coal system as well as reviewing applications of rheology to other physical systems. These systems may act as potential models for the application of fundamental rheological measurements to cokemaking. The systems considered were polymer melts, coal ash melts, lava, bread making and ice cream. These systems were chosen because they exhibit some physically equivalent processes to the processes occurring during cokemaking, eg, the generation of bubbles within a softened system that then resolidifies. A number of recommendations were made; the steady and oscillatory shear squeeze flow techniques be further investigated to determine if the measured rheology characteristics are related to transformations within the coke oven and the characteristics of resultant coke; modification of Gieseler plastometers for more fundamental rheology measurements not be attempted.

  6. Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gray, D. [Mitre Corp, McLean, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

  7. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, D.A. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  8. Variations in the stable isotope ratios of specific aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons from coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, C.; Snape, C.E.; Fallick, A.E. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1998-07-01

    To establish the scope for applying gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry ({sup {delta}-13}C GC-IRMS) to molecular recognition problems in coal utilisation, {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotope ratios were determined for n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a function of coal rank and process conditions. Six coals ranging from a lignite to a low volatile bituminous coal were subjected to chloroform extraction, fixed-bed pyrolysis under hydrogen pressure (hydropyrolysis) and fluidised-bed (flash) pyrolysis. No significant variations in the stable isotope ratios of n-alkanes were evident as a function of either rank or conversion regime. In contrast, the isotope ratios of PAHs show large variations with those for hydropyrolysis (-23 to -25 parts per thousand) being similar to the bulk values of the initial coals and being isotopically heavier (less negative) than their fluidised-bed pyrolysis counterparts by 2-3 parts per thousand. However, the PAHs from fluidised-bed pyrolysis, which resemble closely those obtained from high temperature coal carbonization, are still heavier (by 2-3 parts per thousand) than those from diesel particulates and coal gasification and combustion residues. This provides a firm basis for the source apportionment of airborne PAHs in the proximity of coking plants, particularly with no major variations in the PAH isotope ratios being found as a function of rank.

  9. Pyrolysis and liquefaction of acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin swelled Mukah Balingian Malaysian sub-bituminous coal-The effect on coal conversion and oil yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Pauzi Abdullah; Mohd Azlan Mohd Ishak; Khudzir Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The effect of swelling on Mukah Balingian (MB) Malaysian sub-bituminous coal macrostructure was observed by pyrolysing the swelled coal via thermogravimetry under nitrogen at ambient pressure. The DTG curves of the pyrolyzed swelled coal samples show the presence of evolution peaks at temperature ranging from 235 - 295 degree Celsius that are due to releasing of light molecular weight hydrocarbons. These peaks, however, were not present in the untreated coal, indicating some changes in the coal macrostructure has occurred in the swelled coal samples. The global pyrolysis kinetics for coal that follows the first-order decomposition reaction was used to evaluate the activation energy of the pyrolyzed untreated and swelled coal samples. The results thus far have shown that the activation energy for the acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin-swelled coal samples exhibit lower values than untreated coal, indicating less energy is required during the pyrolysis process due to the weakening of the coal-coal macromolecular interaction network. Moreover, liquefaction on the swelled coal samples that was carried out at temperatures ranging from 360 to 450 degree Celsius at 4 MPa of nitrogen pressure showed the enhancement of the coal conversion and oil yield at temperature of 420 degree Celsius, with retrogressive reaction started to dominate at higher temperature as indicated by decreased and increased in oil yield and high molecular weight pre-asphaltene, respectively. These observations suggest that the solvent swelling pre-treatment using acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin can improve the coal conversion and oil yields at less severe liquefaction condition. (author)

  10. Nitrogen conversion during rapid pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke in a high-frequency furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Shuai; Zhou, Zhi-jie; Li, Jun; Wang, Fu-chen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Use a high-frequency furnace to study N-conversion during rapid pyrolysis of coal. ► Scarcely reported N-conversion during rapid pyrolysis of petroleum coke was studied. ► Both of NH 3 and HCN can be formed directly from coal during rapid pyrolysis. ► NH 3 –N yields are higher than HCN–N yields in most conditions. ► NH 3 –N yields of petroleum coke increase with temperature and no HCN detected. -- Abstract: Rapid pyrolysis of three typical Chinese coals, lignite from Inner Mongolia, bituminous from Shenfu coalfield, and anthracite from Guizhou, as well as a petroleum coke were carried out in a drop-style high-frequency furnace. The reactor was induction coil heated and had a very small high-temperature zone, which could restrain secondary conversions of nitrogen products. The effects of temperature and coal rank on conversions of fuel-N to primary nitrogen products (char-N, HCN–N, NH 3 –N and (tar + N 2 )–N) have been investigated. The results showed that, the increasing temperature reduced the yields of char-N and promoted the conversion of fuel-N to N 2 . Char-N yields increased, while volatile-N yields decreased as the coal rank increased. In most of the conditions, NH 3 –N yields were higher than HCN–N yields during rapid pyrolysis of coal. In the case of petroleum coke, NH 3 –N yields increased gradually with the increasing temperature, but no HCN was detected. We argue that NH 3 –N can be formed directly through the primary pyrolysis without secondary reactions. Although volatile-N yields of lignite were higher than those of bituminous, yields of (HCN + NH 3 )–N in volatile-N of lignite were lower than those of bituminous. While the (HCN + NH 3 )–N yields of anthracite were the lowest of the three coals. Both of the (HCN + NH 3 )–N yields and (HCN + NH 3 )–N proportions in volatile-N of petroleum coke were lower than the three coals.

  11. Possible improvements of efficiency by the use of new coal conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieb, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Following a comparison of the efficiencies of conventional steam power processes, the gas fuel cell and the combined gas steam turbine processes are introduced as new coal utilization technologies. Coal conversion processes which can be coupled to combined gas-steam turbine processes such as the fluidized-bed firing, the solid bed gasification, the dust part-gasification and the fluidized-bed gasification are more closely mentioned and their coupling efficiencies discussed. The decoupling of third energy, such as low-temperature heat, high-temperature heat and chemical energy are briefly dealt with as third possibility for the improvement of the efficiency. (GG/LH) [de

  12. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States-Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzek, Tad W.; Croft, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    The United States has the world's largest coal reserves and Montana the highest potential for mega-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create a major source of domestic transportation fuels from coal, and some prominent Montanans want to be at the center of that effort. We calculate that the energy efficiency of the best existing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process applied to average coal in Montana is less than 1/2 of the corresponding efficiency of an average crude oil refining process. The resulting CO 2 emissions are 20 times (2000%) higher for CTL than for conventional petroleum products. One barrel of the FT fuel requires roughly 800 kg of coal and 800 kg of water. The minimum energy cost of subsurface CO 2 sequestration would be at least 40% of the FT fuel energy, essentially halving energy efficiency of the process. We argue therefore that CTL conversion is not the most valuable use for the coal, nor will it ever be, as long as it is economical to use natural gas for electric power generation. This finding results from the low efficiency inherent in FT synthesis, and is independent of the monumental FT plant construction costs, mine construction costs, acute lack of water, and the associated environmental impacts for Montana

  13. Study on denitration technology of coal char reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie FU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to more effectively control NO emissions in coal-fired flue gas, the denitration reaction is carried out with simulated industrial boiler flue gas in a fixed bed reactor. The influence of char types, reaction conditions, the composition of flue gas and other factors on the conversion rate of NO are discussed. The result shows that the industrial semi-coke is the most suitable experimental coal in the three coals studied, and the industrial semi-coke particle size of 0.6 ~ 10 mm is relatively suitable; The conversion rate of NO increases gradually with the increase of temperature, and when the reaction temperature is 700 ℃ and the space velocity is 10 000 h-1, the conversion rate of NO can reach 99%; the conversion rate of NO decreases gradually as airspeed increases, but the airspeed change has no effect on the conversion rate of NO at 700 ℃; under anaerobic conditions,the change of NO concentration has no effect on the conversion rate of NO; at the same temperature, NO conversion rate is higher at the presence of oxygen compared with that at anaerobic situation, and the conversion rate of NO is the highest when O2 concentration is 4%; under aerobic conditions, the concentration change of SO2 and CO2 has no effect on the conversion rate of NO.

  14. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  15. A Reduced Reaction Scheme for Volatile Nitrogen Conversion in Coal Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Saaby; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    In pulverised coal flames, the most important volatile nitrogen component forming NOx is HCN. To be able to model the nitrogen chemistry in coal flames it is necessary to have an adequate model for HCN oxidation. The present work was concerned with developing a model for HCN/NH3/NO conversion based...... that the CO/H-2 chemistry was described adequately, the reduced HCN/NH3/NO model compared very well with the detailed model over a wide range of stoichiometries. Decoupling of the HCN chemistry from the CO/H-2 chemistry resulted in over-prediction of the HCN oxidation rate under fuel rich conditions, but had...... negligible effect on the CO/H-2 chemistry. Comparison with simplified HCN models from the literature revealed significant differences, indicating that these models should be used cautiously in modelling volatile nitrogen conversion....

  16. Critical evaluation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors applicable to coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; DeStefano, J.R.; Delene, J.G.

    1975-12-01

    A critical review is presented of the technology and costs of very high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs) applicable to nuclear coal conversion. Coal conversion processes suitable for coupling to reactors are described. Vendor concepts of the VHTR are summarized. The materials requirements as a function of process temperature in the range 1400 to 2000 0 F are analyzed. Components, environmental and safety factors, economics and nuclear fuel cycles are reviewed. It is concluded that process heat supply in the range 1400 to 1500 0 F could be developed with a high degree of assurance. Process heat at 1600 0 F would require considerably more materials development. While temperatures up to 2000 0 F appear to be attainable, considerably more research and risk were involved. A demonstration plant would be required as a step in the commercialization of the VHTR

  17. 14 MeV INAA nitrogen determination in coal conversion liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Khalil, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Fast neutron activation analysis has been used for the direct determination of nitrogen in coal conversion liqui-ds. In our previous work on coals, solid standards such as N-1-napthylacetamide, NBS SRM 912 urea and NBS SRM 148 nicotinic acid were used for nitrogen determinations. In this work, a set of organic liquids was selected and evaluated for use as nitrogen standards in the analysis of coal-derived liquids. The use of the liquid standards minimizes problems associated with maintaining uniform irradation and counting geometries and self absorption differences related to varying matrix densities. The standard liquids were selected using criteria of high boiling point, well-defined stoichiometry, high-purity, non-hygroscopic nature and simple C-H-N elemental compositions. Excellent agreement between the 14 MeV INAA data and calculated stoichiometric values has been demonstrated for liquids with nitrogen contents from 1.89 to 39.95%. The liquid standards have been used to determine nitrogen in a set of typical coal conversion liquids and several international standards. (author)

  18. Spline methods for conversation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The consider the numerical solution of physical theories, in particular hydrodynamics, which can be formulated as systems of conservation laws. To this end we briefly describe the Basis Spline and collocation methods, paying particular attention to representation theory, which provides discrete analogues of the continuum conservation and dispersion relations, and hence a rigorous understanding of errors and instabilities. On this foundation we propose an algorithm for hydrodynamic problems in which most linear and nonlinear instabilities are brought under control. Numerical examples are presented from one-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics. 9 refs., 10 figs

  19. Mineral conversion and microstructure change in the melting process of Shenmu coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianguo; Deng Furong; Zhao Hong; Cen Kefa [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2007-05-15

    China has rich reserves of Shenmu coal, which has the typical characteristic of low-melting-point ash. If used in the pulverized-coal boiler of a power plant, Shenmu coal would cause serious slagging. In order to solve the slagging problem of Shenmu coal, the melting mechanism of Shenmu coal ash was studied. One of the Shenmu coals - Wenjialiang coal - was selected for the study. Using thermogravimetry-differential scanning colorimetry (TG-DSC) methods, the change of the coal ash's physicochemistry with temperature was studied. The typical temperature points in the melting process were obtained. Ash samples of the different temperature points were prepared in a high-temperature furnace with parameters similar to those used in the TG-DSC test, and were then cooled quickly in water. Later, the ash samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) methods in detail. Wenjialiang coal ash started to melt at 980{sup o}C. The ash was found to melt to a great extent at 1200{sup o}C and formed a multiform microstructure. At 1260{sup o}C, it was found to melt into a dense body with many pores, and formed a piece of vitreous body at 1340{sup o}C. Anorthite and gehlenite are the intermediate products that exist between 980 and 1340{sup o}C. They may be the main cause of the ash having low melting points, so that they could convert into a eutectic at low temperatures.

  20. Method of developing thick sloping coal formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragintsev, V F; Mashkovtsev, I L; Semenov, V S; Zykov, V N

    1980-02-15

    A method of developing thick sloping coal formations in three inclined layers includes carrying out developmental operations for each of the layers until one begins development of the last one and extraction of layers. It is characterized in that in order to improve efficiency and safety of an operation of formation development there is first extraction of the upper layer and then slits in sequence from the roof of the formation to the floor of the upper layer and beneath protected objects. Then the lower layer is workedin thin strips in sequence from the floor of the formation to the roof of the lower layer. Next there is extraction of a slit at the roof of the middle layer and delivery of a plasticized hardening mixture into the worked out space of the indicated slot. The middle layer is worked in thin layers beneath the protection of the formed artificial roof in a sequence from the artificial roof to the floor of the middle layer. Workings of the middle layer are formed by joining of the combined workings of the upper and lower layers during extraction of pillars of coal between them. The layers are respectively worked following completion of roof advance in front of the working face of each subsequent extraction layer in alternating fashion.

  1. A novel method for estimating methane emissions from underground coal mines: The Yanma coal mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhong-Min; Chen, Zhi-Jian; Pan, Jie-Nan; Niu, Qing-He

    2017-12-01

    As the world's largest coal producer and consumer, China accounts for a relatively high proportion of methane emissions from coal mines. Several estimation methods had been established for the coal mine methane (CMM) emission. However, with large regional differences, various reservoir formation types of coalbed methane (CBM) and due to the complicated geological conditions in China, these methods may be deficient or unsuitable for all the mining areas (e.g. Jiaozuo mining area). By combing the CMM emission characteristics and considering the actual situation of methane emissions from underground coal mine, we found that the methane pre-drainage is a crucial reason creating inaccurate evaluating results for most estimation methods. What makes it so essential is the extensive pre-drainage quantity and its irrelevance with annual coal production. Accordingly, the methane releases were divided into two categories: methane pre-drainage and methane release during mining. On this basis, a pioneering method for estimating CMM emissions was proposed. Taking the Yanma coal mine in the Jiaozuo mining area as a study case, the evaluation method of the pre-drainage methane quantity was established after the correlation analysis between the pre-drainage rate and time. Thereafter, the mining activity influence factor (MAIF) was first introduced to reflect the methane release from the coal and rock seams around where affected by mining activity, and the buried depth was adopted as the predictor of the estimation for future methane emissions. It was verified in the six coal mines of Jiaozuo coalfield (2011) that the new estimation method has the minimum errors of 12.11%, 9.23%, 5.77%, -5.20%, -8.75% and 4.92% respectively comparing with other methods. This paper gives a further insight and proposes a more accurate evaluation method for the CMM emissions, especially for the coal seams with low permeability and strong tectonic deformation in methane outburst coal mines.

  2. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 1: Introduction and summary and general assumptions. [energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal - feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    Nine advanced energy conversion concepts using coal or coal-derived fuels are summarized. They are; (1) open-cycle gas turbines, (2) combined gas-steam turbine cycles, (3) closed-cycle gas turbines, (4) metal vapor Rankine topping, (5) open-cycle MHD; (6) closed-cycle MHD; (7) liquid-metal MHD; (8) advanced steam; and (9) fuel cell systems. The economics, natural resource requirements, and performance criteria for the nine concepts are discussed.

  3. Future developments and technological and economic assessment of methods for producing synthetic liquid fuel from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlikhter, E B; Khor' kov, A V; Zhorov, Yu M

    1980-11-01

    Promising methods for obtaining synthetic liquid fuel from coal are surveyed and described: thermal dissolution of coal by means of a hydrogen donor solution: hydrogenation; gasification with subsequent synthesis and pyrolysis. A technological and economic assessment of the above processes is given. Emphasis is placed on methods employing catalytic conversion of methanol into hydrocarbon fuels. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations of the process for obtaining high-calorific liquid fuel from methanol the possibility of obtaining diesel fractions as well as gasoline is demonstrated. (12 refs.) (In Russian)

  4. Microbial conversion of higher hydrocarbons to methane in oil and coal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Martin; Beckmaann, Sabrina; Siegert, Michael; Grundger, Friederike; Richnow, Hans [Geomicrobiology Group, Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, oil production has increased enormously but almost half of the oil now remaining is heavy/biodegraded and cannot be put into production. There is therefore a need for new technology and for diversification of energy sources. This paper discusses the microbial conversion of higher hydrocarbons to methane in oil and coal reservoirs. The objective of the study is to identify microbial and geochemical controls on methanogenesis in reservoirs. A graph shows the utilization of methane for various purposes in Germany from 1998 to 2007. A degradation process to convert coal to methane is shown using a flow chart. The process for converting oil to methane is also given. Controlling factors include elements such as Fe, nitrogen and sulfur. Atmospheric temperature and reservoir pressure and temperature also play an important role. From the study it can be concluded that isotopes of methane provide exploration tools for reservoir selection and alkanes and aromatic compounds provide enrichment cultures.

  5. New methods in efficient coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, C.O.; Wolach, D.G.; Alexander, A.B. [Savage Industries Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1998-10-01

    With the increasing trend towards railroad mergers in the USA, there is a growing awareness of competition and of the need for railroads to ensure a better value service. This paper discusses the concept of business process outsourcing and its potential to provide an efficient and integrated transport system for coal handling. Examples at US coal distribution facilities are given. 6 photos., 1 fig.

  6. Systems and methods for wave energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Daniel G.; Cantara, Justin; Nathan, Craig; Lopes, Amy M.; Green, Brandon E.

    2017-02-28

    Systems for wave energy conversion that have components that can survive the harsh marine environment and that can be attached to fixed structures, such as a pier, and having the ability to naturally adjust for tidal height and methods for their use are presented.

  7. Analytical methods relating to mineral matter in coal and ash from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A. [Ultra-Systems Technology Pty. Ltd., Indooroopilly, Qld. (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The paper begins by describing the minerals that occur in coal, as well as trace elements. The testing methods that are then described include those that are in the main the standard tools for the examination and assessment of minerals in coal and ash. The techniques discussed include optical and beam techniques, X-ray methods and a variety of other useful methods. 12 refs.

  8. Methods for Mining and Summarizing Text Conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Carenini, Giuseppe; Murray, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Due to the Internet Revolution, human conversational data -- in written forms -- are accumulating at a phenomenal rate. At the same time, improvements in speech technology enable many spoken conversations to be transcribed. Individuals and organizations engage in email exchanges, face-to-face meetings, blogging, texting and other social media activities. The advances in natural language processing provide ample opportunities for these "informal documents" to be analyzed and mined, thus creating numerous new and valuable applications. This book presents a set of computational methods

  9. Behaviors of overlying strata in extra-thick coal seams using top-coal caving method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidents such as support failure and excessive deformation of roadways due to drastic changes in strata behaviors are frequently reported when mining the extra-thick coal seams Nos. 3–5 in Datong coal mine with top-coal caving method, which significantly hampers the mine's normal production. To understand the mechanism of strata failure, this paper presented a structure evolution model with respect to strata behaviors. Then the behaviors of strata overlying the extra-thick coal seams were studied with the combined method of theoretical analysis, physical simulation, and field measurement. The results show that the key strata, which are usually thick-hard strata, play an important role in overlying movement and may influence the mining-induced strata behaviors in the working face using top-coal caving method. The structural model of far-field key strata presents a “masonry beam” type structure when “horizontal O-X” breakage type happens. The rotational motion of the block imposed radial compressive stress on the surrounding rock mass of the roadway. This can induce excessive deformation of roadway near the goaf. Besides, this paper proposed a pre-control technology for the hard roof based on fracture holes and underground roof pre-splitting. It could effectively reduce stress concentration and release the accumulated energy of the strata, when mining underground coal resources with top-coal caving method.

  10. Coal conversion processes. Quarterly report, December 13, 1983-March 12, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Biloen, P.; Holder, G.D.; Klinzing, G.E.; Tierney, J.W.

    1984-05-01

    Experimental work is continuing on four separate projects related to coal conversion processes. The direct digital control of exothermic multiphase reactions is being studied in an experimental adiabatic flow reactor. The existence of two stable steady states for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction network at the same temperature and feed condition has been verified and quantified. Various absorbents for SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub X/ are being studied. The absorption of NO/sub 2/ by methanol and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone has been extensively examined. Preliminary data have been obtained with triethylene-tetraamine. Hindered amines will be studied next. Procedures for the preparation of liquid membranes have been tested and the incorporation of hindered amines in them will now be examined. Isotopic switching is being used to study the way in which promoters affect supported metal catalysts. With improved resolution from the mass spectrometer, early quantitative results give indications of three different surface species and of non-statistical ingrowth of /sup 13/C into the product molecules. A program for the study of the extraction of coal and oil shale using supercritical fluids is being carried out. The effect of the presence of piperidine on the amount of toluene solubles produced by supercritical extraction of coal with toluene/piperidine mixture has been determined. A new kinetic model for the extraction/liquefaction of coal by supercritical toluene and THF has been developed and proven satisfactory. Bruceton coal and Hi Na lignite have been extracted with supercritical water. 3 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.

  11. Effect of ultrafine iron and mineral matter on conversion of nitrogen and carbon during pyrolysis and gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Furimsky, E. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Reaction Science

    1995-01-01

    A subbituminous coal was used to determine the distribution of N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN during slow rate heating pyrolysis in He and gasification in 10% CO{sub 2} + He balance. During pyrolysis, the N{sub 2} was the major product followed by NH{sub 3} and HCN. During gasification, the N{sub 2} yields were significantly enhanced and those of NH{sub 3} and HCN decreased. Partial demineralization of coal resulted in a decrease in carbon and nitrogen conversion. This effect was also evident by comparing the nitrogen and carbon conversions of chars prepared at 500{degree}C from the fresh and demineralized coals. The addition of ultrafine Fe to coal increased conversion of carbon and nitrogen to N{sub 2} during gasification but had little effect during pyrolysis. Thus, during the former more than 80% of the coal nitrogen was released as N{sub 2}. Also, in the presence of Fe the temperature of N{sub 2} release was decreased by about 100{degree}C both during pyrolysis and gasification. During gasification of chars prepared at 1000{degree}C, the conversion of the coal nitrogen to N{sub 2} was much lower than that of carbon. 16 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Complete biocycle for solar energy conversion, storage, fuel and power generation, and coal conservation for future use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    A complete carbon biocycle has been described, starting from coal in in situ condition in coal seams underground. Various steps involved are: (i) Biogasification of coal to methane, using a consortia of bacteria, has been reported. A group of bacteria degrades complex structure of coal to simpler structure. This simpler structure of coal, is then converted to methane by methanogens; (ii) Biophotolysis of methane and associated biodegradation, results in products, such as hydrogen and oxygen for use in fuel cells for power generation; (iii) Bioconversion of products so obtained is carried out to produce methanol or methane that could be used as fuel or recycled; (iv) In complete biocycle some methane is converted to biomass. In order to replace this methane, coal is converted to methane using group of bacteria, only to the extent methane has been converted to biomass; (v) The biomass so produced could be dumped underground from where coal has been gasified. Alternatively it could be burnt as fuel or else used as substitute of protein in animal food. Detailed concept of proposed technology for: (a) an alternative to conventional coal mining, (b) generation of power using products of bioconversion in fuel cell, and (c) conversation of solar energy for generation of alternative source of fuel and power, has been discussed. Possibility of developing a biofuel cell for conversion of solar energy through bioelectrochemical route has been suggested. (author). 48 refs., 3 figs

  13. Method of developing thick sloping coal formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragintsev, V F; Mashkovtsev, I L; Semenov, V S; Zykov, V N

    1980-04-25

    A method is patented for developing thick sloping coal formations in 3 inclined layers. It includes conducting developmental operations for each of the layers until one begins the last one and extraction of the layers. In order to improve effectivess and extraction operation safety one first carried out preliminary development of a formation in thin strips beneath protected objects when extracting formation which contain alot of gas. Then one removes the gas of a formation through boreholes that have been drilled into the formation from the indicated workings. Then one works the upper layer in thin strips in a sequence from the roof of the formation to the floor of the upper layer. The one strengthens roof rock of the formation by pumping in a quickly hardening solution into the boreholes which have been drilled into the roof of the formation after processing the upper layer. The middle layer is worked in thin strips in the sequence from the roof to the ground of the middle layer, then the lower layer of the formation is strengthened by pumping in quickly hardening solution into the formation along degasified boreholes and it is worked in thin strips in sequence from the ground of the lower to its roof. Workings are shaped respectively for the middle and lower layers by deepening workings of the upper and middle layers. The layers are worked respectively after finishing displacement of the roof in front of the extraction face of each subsequent extraction of a layer in alternating fashion.

  14. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

  15. Coal conversion and aquatic environments: overview of impacts and strategies for monitoring. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, R. D.; Sanders, F. S.; Barnthouse, L. W.

    1977-01-01

    Impact assessment and environmental monitoring are difficult but crucial steps needed to ensure the environmentally safe development of coal conversion technologies. This paper summarizes strategies for impact assessment and monitoring developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for DOE's program to build demonstration facilities. Impacts on aquatic environments depend heavily on the abiotic and biotic characteristics of the site and details of facility design. Key issues include availability of water, use of ''zero-discharge'' designs, and methods of handling solid wastes. In monitoring programs emphasis is placed on (1) thorough use of existing data, (2) use of a synoptic reconnaissance survey, criteria for choosing parameters to be measured, and the search for ecologically meaningful, cost-effective methods.

  16. Superacid Catalyzed Depolymerization and Conversion of Coals. Final Technical Report. [HF:BF{sub 2}/H{sub 2}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G.

    1980-01-01

    We were interested in applying superacid catalyzed cleavage-depolymerization and ionic hydrogenation low temperature conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbon, as well as obtaining information about the reactions involved and the structure of intermediates of the coal liquefaction process. In order to show the feasibility of our proposed research we have carried out preliminary investigation in these areas. Preceding our work there was no practical application of a superacid system to coal liquefaction. We carried out an extensive study of the potential of the HF:BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system for coal hydroliquefaction. Under varying conditions of reactant ratio, reaction time and temperature, we were able to obtain over 95% pyridine extractible product by treating coal in HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system at approx. 100 degrees C for 4 hours. The coal to acid ratio was 1:5 and FB{sub 3} at 900 psi and H{sub 2} at 500 psi were used. These are extremely encouraging results in that the conditions used are drastically milder than those used in any known process, such as Exxon donor solvent and related processes. The cyclohexane extractibility of the treated coal was as high as 27% and the yield of liquid distillate at 400 degrees C/5 x 10{sup -3}/sup torr/ was approx. 30%. The infrared spectrum of product coal, extracts and distillates were distinctly different from the starting coal and show a significant increase in the amount of saturates. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of cyclohexane extract of the treated coal shows essentially all aliphatic photons. The spectra of other treated coal extracts show increased amounts and types of aliphatic protons as well as significant amounts of protons bound to unsaturated sites. This again indicates that the HF-BF{sub 3} system is depolymerizing the coal to small fragments which are soluble in non-polar solvents.

  17. COAL CONVERSION WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY CATALYTIC OXIDATION IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip E. Savage

    1999-01-01

    Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, we examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO(sub 2), bulk TiO(sub 2), and CuO supported on Al(sub 2) O(sub 3). We used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which we can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO(sub 2) yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that we could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, we performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO(sub 2) and TiO(sub 2) catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO(sub 2) formation rates during SCWO. MnO(sub 2) does not affect the selectivity to CO(sub 2), or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO(sub 2) are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO(sub 2) , which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of

  18. Coal Enrichment Methods by Using Microorganisms and Their Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Deska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review the literature on the methods of low-rank coal enrichment by using microorganisms and their metabolites. Effective bio-beneficiation technologies for low-rank coals in the future are also suggested throughout this paper. An extensive literature review highlights recent advances in bio-beneficiation technologies for low rank coals. This paper presents the state of the art in the field of the bio-beneficiation technology - carbon leaching with the aid of microorganisms, especially fungi. The knowledge of the low-rank coals leaching is an important step to meet the carbon eco-requirements and improve the economics of mining companies. There are several reasons to investigate microbial activities towards coal. This paper presents the current state of knowledge concerning bioleaching of coal. Thus, in view of the increasing importance of hard coal as a raw material and energy source, it seems hopeful to study the potential of microorganisms to modify the low-rank coal structure.

  19. INTERPRETATION OF COAL POTENTION USING GROUND PENETRATING RADAR (GPR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmatul Wahidah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal exposure founded at Klatak Kebo Ireng village in Besuki Tulungagung precisely in the vicinity of the river. Energy needs is increasing so the coal used for one of alternative energy source that can be used by society. This study was conducted to determine of the potential distribution coal modeling on geological structure. Identification of coal structure is using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR 2005 it conducted because this method is more suitable for shallow of surveys. The location for taking data is around the river that showed to exposure. There are 5th lines of taken data with length about 50 until 100 meters. Data processing was done using of software Future series 2005. The data displayed with software in the color pattern to obtain based on the constant of dielectric and conductivity. The results of interpretation study are the data indicates that there is a coal on the overall trajectory. Only in 2nd track contain little of coal. The Coal layers are appear in processing the results of data is thickness about 6 at the top. In the area of study also found the cavity (cavity area which contained of several tracks. On the bottom of the track there is a pattern of coal reddish of yellow color which indicates that material contains of minerals.

  20. Modelling a coal subcrop using the impedance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.A.; Thiel, D.V.; O' Keefe, S.G. [Griffith University, Nathan, Qld. (Australia). School of Microelectronic Engineering

    2000-07-01

    An impedance model was generated for two coal subcrops in the Biloela and Middlemount areas (Queensland, Australia). The model results were compared with actual surface impedance data. It was concluded that the impedance method satisfactorily modelled the surface response of the coal subcrops in two dimensions. There were some discrepancies between the field data and the model results, due to factors such as the method of discretization of the solution space in the impedance model and the lack of consideration of the three-dimensional nature of the coal outcrops. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Proceedings of the symposium on assessing the industrial hygiene monitoring needs for the coal conversion and oil shale industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, O. Jr. (ed.)

    1979-03-01

    This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, Analysis and Assessment Program, through the Safety and Environmental Protection Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The symposium program included presentations centering around the themes: Recognition of Occupational Health Monitoring Requirements for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries and Status of Dosimetry Technology for Occupational Health Monitoring for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries. Sixteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; six had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  2. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  3. Coal: the future in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The whole issue is devoted to the future of coal in South Africa, and includes articles on the Petrick report, coal conversion research in South Africa, the activities of the Fuel Research Institute (on beneficiation, briquetting, carbonization, fluidized bed combustion), Sasol's production of chemical feedstocks from coal, mining methods, and the coal requirements of the electric and chemical industries.

  4. New method for reduction of burning sulfur of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutskanov, L.; Dushanov, D.

    1998-01-01

    The coal pyrolysis is key phase in the the pyrolysis-combustion cycle as it provides char for combustor. The behaviour of sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis depends on factors as rank of coal, quantity of sulfur and sulfur forms distribution in the coal, quantity and kind of mineral matter and the process conditions. The mineral content of coal may inhibit or catalyze the formation of volatile sulfur compounds. The pyrolysis itself is a mean of removing inorganic and organic sulfur but anyway a portion of it remains in the char while the other moves into the tar and gas. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal reduction of burning sulfur at the coal pyrolysis by varying parametric conditions. The pyrolysis of different kinds of coal has been studied. The samples with size particles o C at atmospheric pressure and with a heating rate of 6-50 o C min -1 . They were treated with exhaust gas and nitrogen at an addition of steam and air. The char obtained remains up to 10 min at the final temperature. The char samples cool without a contact with air. Two methods of desulfurization-pyrolysis were studied - using 9-vertical tubular reactor and 9-horizontal turning reactor. The results obtained show that at all samples there is a decrease of burning sulfur with maximal removal efficiency 83%. For example at a pyrolysis of Maritsa Iztok lignite coal the burning sulfur is only 16% in comparison with the control sample. The remained is 90% sulfate, 10% organic and pyrite traces when a mixture 'exhaust gas-water stream-air' was used. The method of desulfurization by pyrolysis could be applied at different kinds of coal and different conditions. Char obtained as a clean product can be used for generating electric power. This innovation is in a stage of patenting

  5. Determination of coal bed quality in wells by geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.V.

    1974-01-01

    The dependence of the specific electric resistivity of coal and terrigenous material of the Donbass region on the degree of their metamorphism is discussed. From this dependence a method is derived to determine the metamorphism of coal from the effective specific resistivity of rocks by taking into account the self-polarisation and the density of the coal layers. The degree of metamorphism (from the coefficient of gas components in the heating mass of coal) is obtained with a standard deviation of 2.9%. Special physical properties of coal are related to its qualitative composition in a complex and very close way. With the whole complex of geophysical measurements the quality parameters can be estimated in more detail. For the Pavlogradsij-Petropavlovskij region of the Donbass non-linear mutli-dimensional relations between the quality parmaeters of coal are derived, and the measurements with standard geophysical methods (resistivity-, spontaneous-potential-, latero-, calibre- and gamma-gamma-log as well as cavernometry) are presented. The results obtained with these methods are tested by a comparison with 8 samples from mines. The standard deviation for the ash content is 3.73% (for core sampling 1.0%) and for the thickness of the plastic layer 3.63 mm (for core sampling 3.34mm)

  6. Risk factors for the undermined coal bed mining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arad, V. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Arad, S. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The Romanian mining industry has been in a serious decline and is undergoing ample restructuring. Analyses of reliability and risk are most important during the early stages of a project in guiding the decision as to whether or not to proceed and in helping to establish design criteria. A technical accident occurred in 2008 at the Petrila coal mine involving an explosion during the exploitation of a coal seam. Over time a series of technical accidents, such as explosions and ignitions of methane gas, roof blowing phenomena or self-ignition of coal and hazard combustions have occurred. This paper presented an analysis of factors that led to this accident as well an analysis of factors related to the mining method. Specifically, the paper discussed the geomechanical characteristics of rocks and coal; the geodynamic phenomenon from working face 431; the spontaneous combustion phenomenon; gas accumulation; and the pressure and the height of the undermined coal bed. It was concluded that for the specific conditions encountered in Petrila colliery, the undermined bed height should be between 5 and 7 metres, depending on the geomechanic characteristics of coal and surrounding rocks. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  8. Coal devolatilization and char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker Degn; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    have been carried out in an electrically heated entrained flow reactor that is designed to simulate the conditions in a suspension fired boiler. Coal devolatilized in N2 and CO2 atmospheres provided similar results regarding char morphology, char N2-BET surface area and volatile yield. This strongly......The aim of the present investigation is to examine differences between O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres during devolatilization and char conversion of a bituminous coal at conditions covering temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K and inlet oxygen concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The experiments...

  9. Inelastic neutron scattering method in hard coal quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Loskiewicz, J.; Tracz, G.

    1994-07-01

    Nuclear methods in mining industry and power generation plants are nowadays very important especially because of the need for optimization of combustion processes and reduction of environmental pollution. On-line analysis of coal quality not only economic benefits but contribute to environmental protection too. Neutron methods especially inelastic scattering and PGNAA are very useful for analysis of coal quality where calorific valve, ash and moisture content are the most important. Using Pu-Be or Am-Be isotopic sources and measuring carbon 4.43 MeV γ-rays from neutron inelastic scattering: 12 C(n,n'γ) 12 C we can evaluate calorific valve in hard coals with precision better than in PGNAA method. This is mainly because of large cross-section for inelastic scattering and the strong correlation between carbon content and calorific value shown in the paper for different coal basins. The influence of moisture on 4.43 MeV carbon γ-rays in considered in the paper in theoretical and experimental aspects and appropriate formula is introduced. Also the possibilities of determine ash, moisture, Cl, Na and Si in coal are shown. (author). 11 refs, 15 figs

  10. Inelastic neutron scattering method in hard coal quality monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Loskiewicz, J.; Tracz, G. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-07-01

    Nuclear methods in mining industry and power generation plants are nowadays very important especially because of the need for optimization of combustion processes and reduction of environmental pollution. On-line analysis of coal quality not only economic benefits but contribute to environmental protection too. Neutron methods especially inelastic scattering and PGNAA are very useful for analysis of coal quality where calorific valve, ash and moisture content are the most important. Using Pu-Be or Am-Be isotopic sources and measuring carbon 4.43 MeV {gamma}-rays from neutron inelastic scattering: {sup 12}C(n,n`{gamma}){sup 12}C we can evaluate calorific valve in hard coals with precision better than in PGNAA method. This is mainly because of large cross-section for inelastic scattering and the strong correlation between carbon content and calorific value shown in the paper for different coal basins. The influence of moisture on 4.43 MeV carbon {gamma}-rays in considered in the paper in theoretical and experimental aspects and appropriate formula is introduced. Also the possibilities of determine ash, moisture, Cl, Na and Si in coal are shown. (author). 11 refs, 15 figs.

  11. 4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wen-Feng; Peng, Su-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions. (paper)

  12. Life-Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Water Consumption – Effects of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Liquid Fuels as Analyzed with the GREET Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The vast reserves of coal in the U.S. provide a significant incentive for the development of processes for coal conversion to liquid fuels (CTL). Also, CTL using domestic coal can help move the U.S. toward greater energy independence and security. However, current conversion technologies are less economically competitive and generate greater greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than production of petroleum fuels. Altex Technologies Corporation (Altex, hereinafter) and Pennsylvania State University have developed a hybrid technology to produce jet fuel from a feedstock blend of coal and biomass. Collaborating with Altex, Argonne National Laboratory has expanded and used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model to assess the life-cycle GHG emissions and water consumption of this hybrid technology. Biomass feedstocks include corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw. The option of biomass densification (bales to pellets) is also evaluated in this study. The results show that the densification process generates additional GHG emissions as a result of additional biomass process energy demand. This process coproduces a large amount of char, and this study investigates two scenarios to treat char: landfill disposal (Char-LF) and combustion for combined heat and power (CHP). Since the CHP scenarios export excess heat and electricity as coproducts, two coproduct handling methods are used for well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis: displacement (Char-CHP-Disp) and energy allocation (Char-CHP-EnAllo). When the feedstock contains 15 wt% densified wheat straw and 85 wt% lignite coal, WTWa GHG emissions of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid pathways are 116, 97, and 137 gCO2e per megajoule (MJ) under the Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char-CHP-EnAllo scenarios, respectively, as compared to conventional jet fuel production at 84 gCO2e/MJ. WTWa water consumption values are 0.072, -0.046, and 0.044 gal/MJ for Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char

  13. Coal desulphurisation as a method of sulphur dioxide emission control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, R.L.; Cockshott, A.R.

    1983-11-01

    Three methods of washing power station coal are first described and their effectiveness is discussed. The following wet and dry flue gas desulphurisation processes are discussed briefly: alkali injection, adsorption processes, Davy/Wellman-Lord, lime/limestone, double alkali, citrate, aqueous carbonate, spray absorption and magnesium oxide.

  14. Report of National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources for fiscal 1979. Research on conversion of coal to petroleum, research on coal liquefaction, high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal by continuous test equipment, and manufacture of coal chemicals; 1979 nendo sekitan no yuka no kenkyu / sekitan no ekika no kenkyu / renzoku shiken sochi ni yoru sekitan no koatsu ekiso suisoka bunkai / coal chemicals no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    Research was conducted on conversion of coal to petroleum for the purpose of securing substitute liquid fuel. Recovery of hydrogen from the waste gas from the conversion process was explained, as were the conversion results from various coals produced in Japan. In coal liquefaction researches with the aim of manufacturing artificial petroleum, a report was made on each of the researches, i.e., the experiment results of coal liquefaction using various catalysts, manufacture of hydrogen by water gas reaction, catalytic action against coal paste, action of mixed oil and pressure against coal paste, result of hydrogen adding test for coal paste using an intermediate scale device, test result of secondary hydrogen addition for coal liquefied oil, and the test result of continuous secondary hydrogen addition for the liquefied oil. In the manufacture of fuel oil by hydro-cracking of coal or tar, a report was made on high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal using a continuous testing device. Aromatic chemicals useful as chemical materials are supposed to be obtained by cutting inter-polymerized-unit bonding to make low molecules from the chemical structure of coal, removing surrounding radicals and simplifying it. A report was also made on the experiment of manufacturing coal chemicals by combination of high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation and hydro-dealkylation. (NEDO)

  15. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing

  16. A comparison of different methods for predicting coal devolatilisation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2001-04-01

    Knowledge of the coal devolatilisation rate is of great importance because it exerts a marked effect on the overall combustion behaviour. Different approaches can be used to obtain the kinetics of the complex devolatilisation process. The simplest are empirical and employ global kinetics, where the Arrhenius expression is used to correlate rates of mass loss with temperature. In this study a high volatile bituminous coal was devolatilised at four different heating rates in a thermogravimetric analyser (TG) linked to a mass spectrometer (MS). As a first approach, the Arrhenius kinetic parameters (k and A) were calculated from the experimental results, assuming a single step process. Another approach is the distributed-activation energy model, which is more complex due to the assumption that devolatilisation occurs through several first-order reactions, which occur simultaneously. Recent advances in the understanding of coal structure have led to more fundamental approaches for modelling devolatilisation behaviour, such as network models. These are based on a physico-chemical description of coal structure. In the present study the FG-DVC (Functional Group-Depolymerisation, Vaporisation and Crosslinking) computer code was used as the network model and the FG-DVC predicted evolution of volatile compounds was compared with the experimental results. In addition, the predicted rate of mass loss from the FG-DVC model was used to obtain a third devolatilisation kinetic approach. The three methods were compared and discussed, with the experimental results as a reference.

  17. Hydrothermal conversion of South African coal fly ash into pure phase Zeolite Na-P1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gitari, MW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South African coal combustion power utilities generate huge amounts of coal fly ash that can be beneficiated into zeolitic products. This chapter reports on the optimization of the presynthesis and synthesis conditions for a pure-phase zeolite Na-P1...

  18. In Situ Catalytic Pyrolysis of Low-Rank Coal for the Conversion of Heavy Oils into Light Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem Amin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lighter tars are largely useful in chemical industries but their quantity is quite little. Catalytic cracking is applied to improve the yield of light tars during pyrolysis. Consequently, in situ upgrading technique through a MoS2 catalyst has been explored in this research work. MoS2 catalyst is useful for the conversion of high energy cost into low energy cost. The variations in coal pyrolysis tar without and with catalyst were determined. Meanwhile, the obtained tar was analyzed using simulated distillation gas chromatograph and Elemental Analyzer. Consequently, the catalyst reduced the pitch contents and increased the fraction of light tar from 50 to 60 wt.% in coal pyrolysis tar. MoS2 catalyst increased the liquid yield from 18 to 33 (wt.%, db and decreased gas yield from 27 to 12 (wt.%, db compared to coal without catalyst. Moreover, it increased H content and hydrogen-to-carbon ratio by 7.9 and 3.3%, respectively, and reduced the contents of nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen elements by 8.1%, 15.2%, and 23.9%, respectively, in their produced tars compared to coal without catalyst.

  19. ACARP Project C10059. ACARP manual of modern coal testing methods. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, R.; Creelman, R.; Pohl, J.; Juniper, L. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The Manual summarises the purpose, applicability, and limitations of a range of standard and modern coal testing methods that have potential to assist the coal company technologist to better evaluate coal performance. It is presented in two volumes. This second volume provides more detailed information regarding the methods discussed in Volume 1.

  20. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jayesh [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Hess, Fernando [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Horzen, Wessel van [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Williams, Daniel [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Peevor, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Dyer, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Frankel, Louis [Canonsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and

  1. ACARP Project C10059. ACARP manual of modern coal testing methods. Volume 1: The manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, R.; Creelman, R.; Pohl, J.; Juniper, L. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The Manual summarises the purpose, applicability, and limitations of a range of standard and modern coal testing methods that have potential to assist the coal company technologist to better evaluate coal performance. The first volume sets out the Modern Coal Testing Methods in summarised form that can be used as a quick guide to practitioners to assist in selecting the best technique to solve their problems.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Phase 1 Results from the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). [coal utilization for electric power plants feasibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Ten advanced energy conversion systems for central-station, based-load electric power generation using coal and coal-derived fuels which were studied by NASA are presented. Various contractors were selected by competitive bidding to study these systems. A comparative evaluation is provided of the contractor results on both a system-by-system and an overall basis. Ground rules specified by NASA, such as coal specifications, fuel costs, labor costs, method of cost comparison, escalation and interest during construction, fixed charges, emission standards, and environmental conditions, are presented. Each system discussion includes the potential advantages of the system, the scope of each contractor's analysis, typical schematics of systems, comparison of cost of electricity and efficiency for each contractor, identification and reconciliation of differences, identification of future improvements, and discussion of outside comments. Considerations common to all systems, such as materials and furnaces, are also discussed. Results of selected in-house analyses are presented, in addition to contractor data. The results for all systems are then compared.

  3. Preparation, Characterization, and Activation of Co-Mo/Y Zeolite Catalyst for Coal Tar Conversion to Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Dwi Anggoro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of many efforts to convert coal tar into alternative liquid fuel is by hydrocracking. This research aims to determine the impregnation of Co-Mo/Y zeolite, its characteristics, the effect of impregnation temperature and time, and also the best Co-Mo/Y zeolite impregnation condition for the conversion of coal tar. This research was conducted in several steps, impregnating Co from Co(NO32.6H2O and Mo from (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O into Zeolite Y in liquid media, drying at 100 °C for 24 hours, and calcination at 550 °C for 3 hours. Coal tar was then reacted with hydrogen gas (as a reactant, and Co-Mo/Zeolite Y (as a catalyst was conducted at 350 °C. Characteristic analysis showed that Co and Mo had impregnated into the Y zeolite, as well as it made no change of catalyst’s structure and increased the total acidity. The higher of impregnation temperature was increased the catalyst crystallinity, total acidity, and yield of gasoline. The longer impregnation time was reduced crystallinity value, but total acidity and yield were increased. GC analysis showed that products included into the gasoline product (C8, C9, and C10. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 13rd November 2016; Revised: 12nd February 2017; Accepted: 16th February 2017 How to Cite: Anggoro, D.D., Buchori, L., Silaen, G.C., Utami, R.N. (2017. Preparation, Characterization, and Activation of Co-Mo/Y Zeolite Catalyst for Coal Tar Conversion to Liquid Fuel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 219-226 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.768.219-226 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.768.219-226

  4. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  5. Characterization of substances in products, effluents, and wastes from coal conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are investigating materials from synthetic fossil fuel processes. During the past year, samples have been collected from the Solvent Refining Coal Pilot Plant (SRC-I mode), Lignite Gasification Pilot Plant, Eyring Research Institute Gasifier, and Hanna III In Situ Coal Gasification Experiment. Inorganic and organic analyses have been performed, and comparisons of the data show some important differences in the potential emissions

  6. Longwall top coal caving (LTCC) mining technologies with roof softening by hydraulic fracturing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishin, V.; Nikitenko, S.; Opruk, G.

    2018-05-01

    The paper discusses advanced top coal caving technologies for thick coal seams and addresses some issues of incomplete coal extraction, which can result in the environmental damage, landscape change, air and water pollution and endogenous fires. The authors put forward a fundamentally new, having no equivalent and ecology-friendly method to difficult-to-cave roof coal – directional hydraulic fracturing and nonexplosive disintegration.

  7. Role of iron catalyst impregnated by solvent swelling method in pyrolytic removal of coal nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, J.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S.; Nielsen, M.; Furimsky, E. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology

    1995-11-01

    Organometallic iron precursors, ferrocene and ferric acetate, were impregnated into Illinois No. 6 (IL), Wyoming (WY) and Yallourn (YL) coals by solvent swelling technique in THF, ethanol, and a THF/ethanol binary solvent. Then iron-impregnated coals were pyrolyzed in a flow of helium at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed and a thermobalance. Conversion of coal nitrogen to N{sub 2} was 20, 38 and 30% respectively, for original IL, WY, and YL coals. Iron formed from both precursors lowered the onset temperature of N{sub 2} evolution by 20-100{degree}C. When ferrocene was impregnated in coals at a concentration of 1.7-1.8 wt% as Fe, nitrogen conversion was increased to 52, 71 and 68% for IL, WY and YL coals, respectively. Ferric acetate impregnated into IL coal from THF/ethanol solution increased the nitrogen conversion much more than that from ethanol solution. The expansion of microporous coal structure by the swelling was essential for better dispersion of the catalyst precursor. The evolution of HCN as well as NH{sub 3} was effectively suppressed above 600{degree}C by the presence of iron but not influenced significantly by combinations of catalyst precursors and solvents. The increase in N{sub 2} yield was compensated by the decrease in nitrogen emitted as HCN and NH{sub 3} and in tar and char. The increase in CO evolution from the iron-impregnated IL coal at 600-800{degree}C was explained by catalytic rearrangement of aromatic structure of char, accompanying the removal of nitrogen as N{sub 2}. In a range of 600-750{degree}C, the evolution of CO as well as N{sub 2} from the other coals increased remarkably with a significant decrease in CO{sub 2} gasification in char microproes. 32 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eOhtomo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological CO2 sequestration in unmineable subsurface oil/gas fields and coal formations has been proposed as a means of reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. However, the feasibility of injecting CO2 into subsurface depends upon a variety of geological and economic conditions, and the ecological consequences are largely unpredictable. In this study, we developed a new flow-through-type reactor system to examine potential geophysical, geochemical and microbiological impacts associated with CO2 injection by simulating in situ pressure (0–100 MPa and temperature (0–70°C conditions. Using the reactor system, anaerobic artificial fluid and CO2 (flow rate: 0.002 and 0.00001 mL/min, respectively were continuously supplemented into a column comprised of bituminous coal and sand under a pore pressure of 40 MPa (confined pressure: 41 MPa at 40°C for 56 days. 16S rRNA gene analysis of the bacterial components showed distinct spatial separation of the predominant taxa in the coal and sand over the course of the experiment. Cultivation experiments using sub-sampled fluids revealed that some microbes survived, or were metabolically active, under CO2-rich conditions. However, no methanogens were activated during the experiment, even though hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogens were obtained from conventional batch-type cultivation at 20°C. During the reactor experiment, the acetate and methanol concentration in the fluids increased while the δ13Cacetate, H2 and CO2 concentrations decreased, indicating the occurrence of homo-acetogenesis. 16S rRNA genes of homo-acetogenic spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Sporomusa were consistently detected from the sandstone after the reactor experiment. Our results suggest that the injection of CO2 into a natural coal-sand formation preferentially stimulates homo-acetogenesis rather than methanogenesis, and that this process is accompanied by biogenic CO2 conversion to

  9. A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids. Final report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

    1994-04-01

    A batch microreactor was designed and fabricated as a means of investigating maximum yields of liquids obtainable in very short reaction times of the order of a few seconds, and the maximum ratios of liquids/hydrocarbon (HC) gases obtainable under those conditions. A Wyodak sub-bituminous coal, crushed and sieved to {minus}200 mesh particle size, was used in the experiments, with a temperature of 500{degrees}C and a pressure of 1500 psi. The fine coal particles were fed dry to the reactor and heated to reaction temperature in times of one to two seconds. At a time of 3 seconds at reaction temperature, in a single pass a liquid yield of 60% by weight of the coal was obtained, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/(HC) gases of 30/1. When the unreacted solids were recycled to the reactor, and the results combined with those of the first pass, a liquid yield of 82% by weight of the coal was achieved, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/HC gases of 30/1. This ratio represents only about 3 wt percent HC gases, much lower that is produced in current advanced technologies, and represents a large saving in hydrogen consumption. A simulated distillation technique was applied to the liquids. The liquid product contained 86% by weight (of the liquids) total distillables (boiling point below 538{degrees}C), including 70% by weight of low-boiling fractions in the gasoline, kerosene and gas oil range (boiling point up to 325{degrees}C). The liquid product exhibited a H/C ratio of 1.5, which is considerably higher than observed in current advanced technologies for the primary liquids. Several catalysts were investigated. Iron catalysts, specifically ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferric sulfate pentahydrate, each produced these high conversions and high ratios of liquids/HC gases.

  10. Studies of materials found in products and wastes from coal-conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, M.R.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have been investigating materials from synthetic fossil-fuel processes. During this past year, solids from the Lignite Gasification Pilot Plant and samples from the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant (SRC-II mode) have been analyzed for organic and inorganic constituents. Observations on these samples are summarized

  11. Monetization of Nigeria coal by conversion to hydrocarbon fuels through Fischer-Tropsch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguejiofor, G.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Given the instability of crude oil prices and the disruptions in crude oil supply chains, this article offers a complementing investment proposal through diversification of Nigeria's energy source and dependence. Therefore, the following issues were examined and reported: A comparative survey of coal and hydrocarbon reserve bases in Nigeria was undertaken and presented. An excursion into the economic, environmental, and technological justifications for the proposed diversification and roll-back to coal-based resource was also undertaken and presented. The technology available for coal beneficiation for environmental pollution control was reviewed and reported. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and its advances into Sasol's slurry phase distillate process were reviewed. Specifically, the adoption of Sasol's advanced synthol process and the slurry phase distillate process were recommended as ways of processing the products of coal gasification. The article concludes by discussing all the above-mentioned issues with regard to value addition as a means of wealth creation and investment.

  12. Conversations among Coal Miners in a Campaign to Promote Hearing Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Quick, Brian L.; Witte, Kim; Vaught, Charles; Booth-Butterfield, Steve; Patel, Dhaval

    2009-01-01

    Although working in a coal mine can diminish one's hearing capabilities by 50%, not until 2000 did federal laws require companies to establish noise standards in order to help prevent hearing loss among their employees. Since then, researchers have worked with safety administrators to develop effective messages promoting hearing protection and…

  13. Advanced gasifier and water gas shift technologies for low cost coal conversion to high hydrogen syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Andrew Kramer [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and team members RTI International (RTI), Coanda Research and Development, and Nexant, are developing and maturing a portfolio of technologies to meet the United States Department of Energy (DOE) goals for lowering the cost of producing high hydrogen syngas from coal for use in carbon capture power and coal-to-liquids/chemicals. This project matured an advanced pilot-scale gasifier, with scalable and commercially traceable components, to readiness for use in a first-of-a-kind commercially-relevant demonstration plant on the scale of 500-1,000 tons per day (TPD). This was accomplished through cold flow simulation of the gasifier quench zone transition region at Coanda and through an extensive hotfire gasifier test program on highly reactive coal and high ash/high ash fusion temperature coals at GTI. RTI matured an advanced water gas shift process and catalyst to readiness for testing at pilot plant scale through catalyst development and testing, and development of a preliminary design basis for a pilot scale reactor demonstrating the catalyst. A techno-economic analysis was performed by Nexant to assess the potential benefits of the gasifier and catalyst technologies in the context of power production and methanol production. This analysis showed an 18%reduction in cost of power and a 19%reduction in cost of methanol relative to DOE reference baseline cases.

  14. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The 3R anthracite clean coal technology: Economical conversion of brown coal to anthracite type clean coal by low temperature carbonization pre-treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someus Edward

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the "end-of-the-pipe" post treatment solutions. The "3R" (Recycle-Reduce-Reuse integrated environment control technology provides preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels, such as brown coal and contaminated solid fuels to achieve high grade cleansed fuels with anthracite and coke comparable quality. The goal of the 3R technology is to provide cost efficient and environmentally sustainable solutions by preventive pre-treatment means for extended operations of the solid fuel combustion power plants with capacity up to 300 MWe power capacities. The 3R Anthracite Clean Coal end product and technology may advantageously be integrated to the oxyfuel-oxy-firing, Foster Wheeler anthracite arc-fired utility type boiler and Heat Pipe Reformer technologies in combination with CO2 capture and storage programs. The 3R technology is patented original solution. Advantages. Feedstock flexibility: application of pre-treated multi fuels from wider fuel selection and availability. Improved burning efficiency. Technology flexibility: efficient and advantageous inter-link to proven boiler technologies, such as oxyfuel and arcfired boilers. Near zero pollutants for hazardous-air-pollutants: preventive separation of halogens and heavy metals into small volume streams prior utilization of cleansed fuels. >97% organic sulphur removal achieved by the 3R thermal pre-treatment process. Integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS programs: the introduction of monolitic GHG gas is improving storage safety. The 3R technology offers significant improvements for the GHG CCS conditions. Cost reduction: decrease of overall production costs when all real costs are calculated. Improved safety: application of preventive measures. For pre-treatment a specific purpose designed, developed, and patented pyrolysis technology used, consisting of a horizontally arranged externally

  16. Underground coal mining - methods, equipment developments and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R

    1988-12-01

    Underground mines are truly beginning to accept the so-called 'high tech' technology evident in other industries. Automation, remote control and robotics have taken an added significance. Wireless communication, mine-wide equipment health and performance monitoring, and transmission of data from deeper levels to surface is moving towards becoming the norm. There is emphasis on developing and applying continuous mining systems, as well as on modifying cyclical discontinuous methods to continuous systems. Multi-purpose equipment is also being developed. Technology transfer is playing its role - equipment and systems from surface coal mining are being applied to underground mining and vice-versa. At the American Mining Congress Exhibition held in Chicago in April 1988, a variety of equipment for underground mining was displayed including coal face equipment such as shearer loaders, conveyors and powered supports, and equipment for room-and-pillar coal mining. The trend continues to be towards high power machines equipped with a variety of electronics and sensors, safety devices, and alarm systems. Ancillary equipment on display covered a variety of cutting drums, cutting tools, conveying equipment and so on. In room-and-pillar mining, the overall emphasis was on moving away from the cyclical nature of the work. Transportation by shuttle cars must be replaced by continuous transport systems such as conveyors. Experience from Australia has shown that the application of continuous haulage and breaker line supports has permitted a doubling of production from room-and-pillar systems. Production levels of 3,000tpd have already been achieved, and 4,000tpd is considered achievable.

  17. A method of refining aromatic hydrocarbons from coal chemical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieborak, K.; Koprowski, A.; Ratajczak, W.

    1979-10-01

    A method is disclosed for refining aromatic hydrocarbons of coal chemical production by contact of liquid aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures with a strongly acid macroporous sulfocationite in the H-form at atmospheric pressure and high temperature. The method is distinguished in that the aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures, from which alkali compounds have already been removed, are supplied for refinement with the sulfocationite with simultaneous addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by separation of pure hydrocarbons by rectification. Styrene or alpha-methylstyrene is used as the olefin derivatives of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The method is performed in several stages with addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons at each stage.

  18. Chromatographic methods and techniques used in studies of coals, their progenitors and coal-derived materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubkova, Valentina [Jan Kochanowski University of Humanities and Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Kielce (Poland)

    2011-03-15

    The use of chromatography in studies of coals, their progenitors and coal-related products was reviewed. The specificity of the coal structure was discussed. The use of extraction in preparing study samples was discussed paying special attention to the occurrence of undesirable phenomena such as aggregation of coal derivate molecules, resulting from the formation of their dimers and trimers, and degradation of polar solvents at temperatures above 350 C. The following ways of fractionating samples of coal materials were considered: thermal, solvent, column with the use of preparative size exclusive chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography as well as membrane separation. The use of chromatography coupled with experimental techniques such as mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and pyrolysis was analysed. (orig.)

  19. Conversion to use of digital chest images for surveillance of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (black lung).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Betty A; Ingeholm, Mary Lou; Prior, Fred; Mun, Seong K; Freedman, Matthew; Weissman, David; Attfield, Michael; Wolfe, Anita; Petsonk, Edward

    2009-01-01

    To protect the health of active U.S. underground coal miners, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has a mandate to carry out surveillance for coal workers' pneumoconiosis, commonly known as Black Lung (PHS 2001). This is accomplished by reviewing chest x-ray films obtained from miners at approximately 5-year intervals in approved x-ray acquisition facilities around the country. Currently, digital chest images are not accepted. Because most chest x-rays are now obtained in digital format, NIOSH is redesigning the surveillance program to accept and manage digital x-rays. This paper highlights the functional and security requirements for a digital image management system for a surveillance program. It also identifies the operational differences between a digital imaging surveillance network and a clinical Picture Archiving Communication Systems (PACS) or teleradiology system.

  20. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Y.; Ijiri, A.; Ikegawa, Y.; Tsutsumi, M.; Imachi, H.; Uramoto, G.; Hoshino, T.; Morono, Y.; Tanikawa, W.; Hirose, T.; Inagaki, F.

    2013-12-01

    belonged to a methylotrophic methanogen within the genus Methanosarcina. For the acetate-fed culture, no cell proliferation and methane-production were observed after two-years incubation. During the injection of CO2 and fluid, increase of dissolved CH4 concentration was observed, of which δ13CCH4 were constantly similar to those of the absorbed coal-bed methane (δ13CCBM, ~70‰), suggesting the enhanced gas recovery with fluid flow. The output volume of CO2 (ΣCO2out, 22.1 to 125.6 mM) was smaller than initial concentration (ΣCO2in, 138.38 mM), which can be explained by either adsorption on coal, formation of carbonate minerals, or microbial consumption. Increase of acetate concentration in the fluids was also observed, whereas δ13Cacetate depleted during experiment. Considering with the decrease of additive H2, it is most likely that homo-acetogenesis would occur during experiments, which is consistent with detection of Sporomusa-related 16S rRNA genes, homo-acetogenic bacterium, in cloning analysis of sandstone after experiment. Decrease of formate concentrations and increase of δ13Cformate indicate bacterial consumption of formate and isotopic fractionation. Our results suggest that CO2 injection to natural coal-sand formation stimulates homo-acetogenesis rather than methanogenesis, accompanied by biogenic CO2 conversion to acetate.

  1. Innovative Extraction Method for a Coal Seam with a Thick Rock-Parting for Supporting Coal Mine Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As thick rock partings delay the efficient mining of coal seams and constrain the sustainable development of coal mines, an innovative extraction method for a coal seam with thick rock parting was proposed. The coal seams were divided into different sub-zones according to the thickness of rock parting and then the sub-zones were mined by separately using three mining schemes involving full-seam mining, combined mining using backfill and caving (CMBC, and reducing height mining. Afterwards, the study introduced the basic mechanism and key devices for the CMBC and analysed the working state of the backfill support in detail. Moreover, the method for calculating the length of the backfill zone was proposed to design the length of backfill zone and the influences of four factors (including bulking coefficient of rock parting on the length of the backfill zone were also explored. By taking the No. 22203 panel, Buertai mine, Inner Mongolia, China as an example, the mined coal resource by using the CMBC extraction method will increase by 1.83 × 106 tons and the recovery ratio will rise from 56.2% to 92.4% compared with mining of the 2-2 upper coal seam alone. Moreover, by applying CMBC, a series of environmental and ecological problems caused by rock parting is reduced, which can improve the environment in mined areas. The research can provide technological guidance for mining panels of a coal seam with a thick rock parting and the disposal thereof under similar conditions.

  2. Conversion of metal plutonium to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A.V.; Subbotin, V.G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Mashirev, V.P. [ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    Report contains experimental results on metal plutonium of weapon origin samples conversion to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method. Circuits of processes are described. Their advantages and shortcomings are shown. Parameters of plutonium dioxide powders (phase and fraction compositions, poured density) manufactured by pyrochemical method in RFNC-VNIITF are shown as well. (authors)

  3. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  4. Optimal thermionic energy conversion with established electrodes for high-temperature topping and process heating. [coal combustion product environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Applied research-and-technology (ART) work reveals that optimal thermionic energy conversion (TEC) with approximately 1000 K to approximately 1100 K collectors is possible using well established tungsten electrodes. Such TEC with 1800 K emitters could approach 26.6% efficiency at 27.4 W/sq cm with approximately 1000 K collectors and 21.7% at 22.6 W/sq cm with approximately 1100 K collectors. These performances require 1.5 and 1.7 eV collector work functions (not the 1 eV ultimate) with nearly negligible interelectrode losses. Such collectors correspond to tungsten electrode systems in approximately 0.9 to approximately 6 torr cesium pressures with 1600 K to 1900 K emitters. Because higher heat-rejection temperatures for TEC allow greater collector work functions, interelectrode loss reduction becomes an increasingly important target for applications aimed at elevated temperatures. Studies of intragap modifications and new electrodes that will allow better electron emission and collection with lower cesium pressures are among the TEC-ART approaches to reduced interelectrode losses. These solutions will provide very effective TEC to serve directly in coal-combustion products for high-temperature topping and process heating. In turn this will help to use coal and to use it well.

  5. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Production of oxygenates from synthesis gas---A technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report concentrates on the production of oxygenates from coal via gasification and indirect liquefaction. At the present the majority of oxygenate synthesis programs are at laboratory scale. Exceptions include commercial and demonstration scale plants for methanol and higher alcohols production, and ethers such as MTBE. Research and development work has concentrated on elucidating the fundamental transport and kinetic limitations governing various reactor configurations. But of equal or greater importance has been investigations into the optimal catalyst composition and process conditions for the production of various oxygenates.

  6. Investigation of thermochemical conversions of coal pitches using high resolution PMR and IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekin, N.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Stepanenko, M.A.; Gordienko, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The hydrogen bonds in organic compounds present in coal pitch and fractions were investigated by infrared spectroscopy and proton magnetic resonance. The investigation was extended to include pitch that was thermally treated at 360 degrees C to raise the softening point to 85-90 degrees C. The infrared spectra revealed hydrogen present in OH groups, NH groups, COOH groups, unsaturated carbon double bonds, and multiple carbon double bonds. It was also determined that thermal treating increased the hydrogen present in aromatic compounds and decreased hydrogen present in aliphatic forms. (JMT)

  7. Trace impurities in coal by wet chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, E.N.

    1975-01-01

    In determining trace elements in coal by wet chemical methods, conventional atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to determine Li, Be, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, and Pb after dry ashing and acid dissolutions. A graphite furnace accessory was used for the flameless AAS determination of Bi, Se, Sn, Te, Be, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Sb, and Ge. Mercury can be determined by flameless AAS after oxygen bomb combustion. Arsenic and antimony can be determined as their hydrides by AAS after low temperature ashing. Germanium, tin, bismuth, and tellurium can be determined as their hydrides by AAS after high temperature ashing. Selenium can be determined as its hydride by AAS after a special combustion procedure or after oxygen bomb combustion. Fluorine can be determined by specific ion analysis after oxygen bomb combustion. Boron can be determined colorimetrically. (U.S.)

  8. Free radical reaction characteristics of coal low-temperature oxidation and its inhibition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zenghua; Kong, Biao; Wei, Aizhu; Yang, Yongliang; Zhou, Yinbo; Zhang, Lanzhun

    2016-12-01

    Study on the mechanism of coal spontaneous combustion is significant for controlling fire disasters due to coal spontaneous combustion. The free radical reactions can explain the chemical process of coal at low-temperature oxidation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to measure the change rules of the different sorts and different granularity of coal directly; ESR spectroscopy chart of free radicals following the changes of temperatures was compared by the coal samples applying air and blowing nitrogen, original coal samples, dry coal samples, and demineralized coal samples. The fragmentation process was the key factor of producing and initiating free radical reactions. Oxygen, moisture, and mineral accelerated the free radical reactions. Combination of the free radical reaction mechanism, the mechanical fragmentation leaded to the elevated CO concentration, fracturing of coal pillar was more prone to spontaneous combustion, and spontaneous combustion in goaf accounted for a large proportion of the fire in the mine were explained. The method of added diphenylamine can inhibit the self-oxidation of coal effectively, the action mechanism of diphenylamine was analyzed by free radical chain reaction, and this research can offer new method for the development of new flame retardant.

  9. Brief encounters with qualitative methods in health research: conversation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a brief introductory outline of the conversation analytic method, and some of its applications in health research. Drawing on extant literature and an illustrative original case study of suicide risk-assessment in primary care, the core tenets and techniques of the approach are described.

  10. A Method for Effective Conversion of Saccharides to Furfural Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for the effective conversion of one or more mono-, di-, oligo- or polysaccharides to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), in an ionic liquid by means of a chromium catalyst mixture comprising chromium (II) and chromium (III) species. The invention also provides a...

  11. Calibration method for direct conversion receiver front-ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Müller

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology induced process tolerances in analog circuits cause device characteristics different from specification. For direct conversion receiver front-ends a system level calibration method is presented. The malfunctions of the devices are compensated by tuning dominant circuit parameters. Thereto optimization techniques are applied which use measurement values and special evaluation functions.

  12. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  13. Methods for producing and upgrading liquid hydrocarbons from Alberta coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes a number of research projects into hydrotreating, the treatment necessary for synthetic crude oils to become suitable as feedstocks for refineries. The projects include the hydroprocessing of coal-based liquids, functional group analysis, isotopic studies of co-processing schemes, and co-processing coal and bitumen with molten halide catalysts.

  14. Automatic crack detection method for loaded coal in vibration failure process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwu Li

    Full Text Available In the coal mining process, the destabilization of loaded coal mass is a prerequisite for coal and rock dynamic disaster, and surface cracks of the coal and rock mass are important indicators, reflecting the current state of the coal body. The detection of surface cracks in the coal body plays an important role in coal mine safety monitoring. In this paper, a method for detecting the surface cracks of loaded coal by a vibration failure process is proposed based on the characteristics of the surface cracks of coal and support vector machine (SVM. A large number of cracked images are obtained by establishing a vibration-induced failure test system and industrial camera. Histogram equalization and a hysteresis threshold algorithm were used to reduce the noise and emphasize the crack; then, 600 images and regions, including cracks and non-cracks, were manually labelled. In the crack feature extraction stage, eight features of the cracks are extracted to distinguish cracks from other objects. Finally, a crack identification model with an accuracy over 95% was trained by inputting the labelled sample images into the SVM classifier. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher accuracy than the conventional algorithm and can effectively identify cracks on the surface of the coal and rock mass automatically.

  15. Solids throttling valves for coal conversion and utilization development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sine, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    A complete test system to test, evaluate, and develop control valves for slurry letdown service in coal liquefaction plants is needed. The site identified for the test system was the SRC II Pilot Plant located at Ft. Lewis, Washington. The US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, requested a test system design that would enable testing of various configuration letdown valves that would be compatible with the existing facility and have minimum impact on Pilot Plant operations. Drawings and specifications for such a test system were prepared, coordinated with Ft. Lewis personnel, revised to reflect Ft. Lewis operating personnel comments, and approved for use by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. These drawings and specifications will enable the test system to be built, installed, and integrated with the existing facility by a general contractor.

  16. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  17. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  18. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  19. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriyanto, Heri [Chemical Engineering of University Sultan AgengTirtayasa, Indonesia Email: herfais@yahoo.com (Indonesia); Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  20. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-01-01

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%

  1. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  2. Conversion of coal-fired bottom ash to fuel and construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Huseyin; Aksoy, Derya Oz; Ucar, Reyhan; Koca, Sabiha

    2017-07-01

    In this study, solid wastes taken from Seyitomer coal-fired power plant bottom ashes were subjected to experimental research to obtain a carbon-rich fraction. The possible recycling opportunities of remaining inorganic fraction in the cement and concrete industry was also investigated. Flotation technique was used to separate unburned carbon from inorganic bottom ashes. Collector type, collector, dispersant and frother amounts, and pulp density are the most important variables in the flotation technique. A number of flotation collectors were tested in the experiments including new era flotation reactives. Optimum collector, dispersant and frother dosages as well as optimum pulp density were also determined. After experimental work, an inorganic fraction was obtained, which included 5.41% unburned carbon with 81.56% weight yield. These properties meets the industrial specifications for the cement and concrete industry. The carbon content of the concentrate fraction, obtained in the same experiment, was enhanced to 49.82%. This fraction accounts for 18.44% of the total amount and can be mixed to the power plant fuel. Therefore total amount of the solid waste can possibly be recycled according to experimental results.

  3. Comparison of Methane Control Methods in Polish and Vietnamese Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Marek; Kuczera, Zbigniew

    2018-03-01

    Methane hazard often occurs in hard coal mines and causes very serious accidents and can be the reason of methane or methane and coal dust explosions. History of coal mining shows that methane released from the rock mass to the longwall area was responsible for numerous mining disasters. The main source of methane are coal deposits because it is autochthonous gas and is closely related with carbonification and forming of coal deposits. Degree of methane saturation in coal deposits depends on numerous factors; mainly on presence or lack of insulating layers in cover deposit that allow or do not on degasification and easily methane outflow into surroundings. Hence in coal mining there are coal deposits that contain only low degree of methane saturation in places where is lack of insulating layers till high in methane coal deposits occurring in insulating claystones or in shales. Conducting mining works in coal deposits of high methane hazard without using of special measures to combat (ventilation, methane drainage) could be impossible. Control of methane hazard depends also on other co-occuring natural dangers for which used preventive actions eliminate methane hazard. Safety in mines excavating coal deposits saturated with methane depends on the correct estimation of methane hazard, drawn up forecasts, conducted observations, hazard control as well as undertaken prevention measures. Methane risk prevention includes identification and control methods of methane hazards as well as means of combating the explosive accumulation of methane in longwall workings. The main preventive actions in underground coal mines are: effective ventilation that prevents forming of methane fuses or placed methane accumulation in headings ventilated by airflow created by main fans and in headings with auxiliary ventilation, methane drainage using drain holes that are drilled from underground headings or from the surface, methanometry control of methane concentration in the air; location

  4. Comparison of Methane Control Methods in Polish and Vietnamese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowski Marek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane hazard often occurs in hard coal mines and causes very serious accidents and can be the reason of methane or methane and coal dust explosions. History of coal mining shows that methane released from the rock mass to the longwall area was responsible for numerous mining disasters. The main source of methane are coal deposits because it is autochthonous gas and is closely related with carbonification and forming of coal deposits. Degree of methane saturation in coal deposits depends on numerous factors; mainly on presence or lack of insulating layers in cover deposit that allow or do not on degasification and easily methane outflow into surroundings. Hence in coal mining there are coal deposits that contain only low degree of methane saturation in places where is lack of insulating layers till high in methane coal deposits occurring in insulating claystones or in shales. Conducting mining works in coal deposits of high methane hazard without using of special measures to combat (ventilation, methane drainage could be impossible. Control of methane hazard depends also on other co-occuring natural dangers for which used preventive actions eliminate methane hazard. Safety in mines excavating coal deposits saturated with methane depends on the correct estimation of methane hazard, drawn up forecasts, conducted observations, hazard control as well as undertaken prevention measures. Methane risk prevention includes identification and control methods of methane hazards as well as means of combating the explosive accumulation of methane in longwall workings. The main preventive actions in underground coal mines are: effective ventilation that prevents forming of methane fuses or placed methane accumulation in headings ventilated by airflow created by main fans and in headings with auxiliary ventilation, methane drainage using drain holes that are drilled from underground headings or from the surface, methanometry control of methane concentration in

  5. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Radke, Lawrence F.; Heffern, Edward L.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M.K.; Smeltzer, Charles; Hower, James C.; Hower, Judith M.; Prakash, Anupma; Kolker, Allan; Eatwell, Robert J.; ter Schure, Arnout; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L.; Stracher, Glenn B.; Henke, Kevin R.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Román-Colón, Yomayara

    2011-01-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7–4.4 t d−1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3–9.5 t d−1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation.

  6. Processing needs and methodology for wastewaters from the conversion of coal, oil shale, and biomass to synfuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The workshop identifies needs to be met by processing technology for wastewaters, and evaluates the suitability, approximate costs, and problems associated with current technology. Participation was confined to DOE Environmental Control Technology contractors to pull together and integrate past wastewater-related activities, to assess the status of synfuel wastewater treatability and process options, and to abet technology transfer. Particular attention was paid to probable or possible environmental restrictions which cannot be economically met by present technology. Primary emphasis was focussed upon process-condensate waters from coal-conversion and shale-retorting processes. Due to limited data base and time, the workshop did not deal with transients, upsets, trade-offs and system optimization, or with solids disposal. The report is divided into sections that, respectively, survey the water usage and effluent situation (II); identify the probable and possible water-treatment goals anticipated at the time when large-scale plants will be constructed (III); assess the capabilities, costs and shortcomings of present technology (IV); explore particularly severe environmental-control problems (V); give overall conclusions from the Workshop and recommendations for future research and study (VI); and, finally, present Status Reports of current work from participants in the Workshop (VII).

  7. A comparative study on prediction methods for China's medium- and long-term coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bing-Bing; Liang, Qiao-Mei; Wang, Jin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Given the dominant position of coal in China's energy structure and in order to ensure a safe and stable energy supply, it is essential to perform a scientific and effective prediction of China's medium- and long-term coal demand. Based on the historical data of coal consumption and related factors such as GDP (Gross domestic product), coal price, industrial structure, total population, energy structure, energy efficiency, coal production and urbanization rate from 1987 to 2012, this study compared the prediction effects of five types of models. These models include the VAR (vector autoregressive model), RBF (radial basis function) neural network model, GA-DEM (genetic algorithm demand estimation model), PSO-DEM (particle swarm optimization demand estimation model) and IO (input–output model). By comparing the results of different models with the corresponding actual coal consumption, it is concluded that with a testing period from 2006 to 2012, the PSO-DEM model has a relatively optimal predicted effect on China's total coal demand, where the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) is close to or below 2%. - Highlights: • The prediction effects of five methods for China's coal demand were compared. • Each model has acceptable prediction results, with MAPE below 5%. • Particle swarm optimization demand estimation model has better forecast efficacy.

  8. Automated logic conversion method for plant controller systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Miyo, Tsunemasa; Okano, Masato.

    1990-01-01

    An automated method is proposed for logic conversion from functional description diagrams to detailed logic schematics by incorporating expertise knowledge in plant controller systems design. The method uses connection data of function elements in the functional description diagram as input, and synthesizes a detailed logic structure by adding elements to the given connection data incrementally, and to generate detailed logic schematics. In logic synthesis, for building up complex synthesis procedures by combining generally-described knowledge, knowledge is applied by groups. The search order of the groups is given by upper-level knowledge. Furthermore, the knowledge is expressed in terms of two classes of rules; one for generating a hypothesis of individual synthesis operations and the other for considering several hypotheses to determine the connection ordering of elements to be added. In the generation of detailed logic schematics, knowledge is used as rules for deriving various kinds of layout conditions on schematics, and rules for generating two-dimensional coordinates of layout objects. Rules in the latter class use layout conditions to predict intersections among layout objects without their coordinates being fixed. The effectiveness of the method with 150 rules was verified by its experimental application to some logic conversions in a real power plant design. Evaluation of the results showed them to be equivalent to those obtained by well qualified designers. (author)

  9. A method for producing a water and coal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutase, T.; Khongo, T.; Minemura, N.; Nakai, S.; Ogura, K.; Savada, M.

    1983-08-30

    Coal dust (100 parts with a 95 to 99 percent content of particles with a size of 7 to 150 micrometers) is loaded into a mixture of hydrocarbon oil (1 to 20 parts) and water (300 to 1,000 parts) and mixed for 3 to 5 minutes at a rotation frequency of 1,800 to 1,500 per minute. The agglomerates of the coal dust and hydrocarbon (Uv) (100 parts) produced in this manner are then mixed with water (25 to 60 parts), an anion surfacant (PAV) (from 0.1 to 2 parts) which has high dispersion activity and a nonionogenic surfacant (0.1 to 2 parts) which has an HLB indicator of from 7 to 17 (preferably 13) to ensure a high consistency of the aqueous suspension of high quality coal, characterized by high fluidity (dynamic viscosity from 0.5 to 1.4 pascals times seconds). It is preferable to use a heavy oil fraction, kerosene, residue from oil distillation or an anthracite coal resin as the hydrocarbon oil. Separation of the ash from the suspension is increased by adding the surfacants and a water soluble inorganic salt which provides for an alkalinity of the aqueous solution (a pH of 7). It is recommended that a salt of alkylbenzolsulfo acid, a sodium salt of polyoxyethylenalkylphenolsulfo acid, sodium laurylsulfate, ammonium lauryl sulfate polyoxyethylensorbitantristearate, polyoxyethylenlaurylic acid, polyoxyethylennonylphenol ether or polyoxyethyllauric ether be used as the surfacant.

  10. Project to develop and demonstrate methods to eliminate frozen coal handling problems. Status report I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-15

    For too many years, problems associated with frozen coal have plagued the companies who mine it, the companies who handle it in transit and the utilities and other industrial concerns that finally burn it. But never before has the magnitude of the frozen coal problem been as great as it is today because of two primary factors, i.e. (1) the majority of coal currently transported and used has been ground to a very fine mesh that absorbs water readily, thus providing more surface area for freezing, and (2) the substantially increased importance of coal, indeed, the now critical necessity for more coal to be used in displacing dangerously uncertain foreign oil supplies that currently account for 50 percent of our daily domestic oil consumption. Frozen coal problems can and do have a devastating effect upon the ability to provide energy from coal during harsh winter months when it is not needed. The majority of these problems have been involved with removing frozen coal from rail cars. To allay the problem, numerous techniques have been tried, all with some measure of success. As an example, certain chemicals have been sprayed on the coal; another common treatment has been widespread use of thaw sheds, which, whether electrically or gas-fired, are all energy intensive, time consuming, hard on rail equipment and expensive to operate over long periods of time. From sledge hammers and crow bars to gas-fired jets and electric thaw sheds, available mechanical de-icing methods often damage coal handling equipment, are time consuming and, therefore, very expensive when demurrage losses must be added to significant investment and/or operating costs.

  11. CAPTO method application to the quality assessment of Slovak brown coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turèániová ¼udmila

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the principle and application of CAPTO (Controlled - atmosphere programmed - temperature oxidation method for the sulphur content valuation in coal. The principle of CAPTO consists in mixing the coal with an inert material (WO3 and oxidation of the sample by a linear increase of temperature to 1000oC. The evolved gases (CO2, H2O, SO2 and NO2 are analyzed by infrared sensors. The method enables the determination of different sulphur forms (sulphidic, elemental, sulphate, organic aromatic and organic non-aromatic, hydrogen, carbon and humidity. The results on Americal coal Illionois No. 6 and Slovakian brown coal Nováky serve as an illustration of the CAPTO method possibility.

  12. Utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning based on GIS-based optimization method : study case at PT Adaro coal mine in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Anis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining activities may cause a series of environmental and socio-economic issues in communities around the mining area. Mining can become an obstacle to environmental sustainability and a major hidden danger to the security of the local ecology. Therefore, the coal mining industry should follow some specific principles and factors in achieving sustainable development. These factors include geological conditions, land use, mining technology, environmental sustainability policies and government regulations, socio-economic factors, as well as sustainability optimization for post-mining land use. Resources of the remains of the coal which is defined as the last remaining condition of the resources and reserves of coal when the coal companies have already completed the life of the mine or the expiration of the licensing contract (in accordance with government permission. This research uses approch of knowledge-driven GIS based methods mainly Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Fuzzy logic for utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning. The mining area selected for this study belongs to a PKP2B (Work Agreement for Coal Mining company named Adaro Indonesia (PT Adaro. The result shows that geologically the existing formation is dominated by Coal Bearing Formation (Warukin Formation which allows the presence of remains coal resource potential after the lifetime of mine, and the suitability of rubber plantation for the optimization of land use in all mining sites and also in some disposal places in conservation areas and protected forests.

  13. Life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment method for energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbur, Baris Burak; Xiang, Liming; Dubey, Swapnil; Choo, Fook Hoong; Duan, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LCA integrated thermoeconomic approach is presented. • The new unit fuel cost is found 4.8 times higher than the classic method. • The new defined parameter increased the sustainability index by 67.1%. • The case studies are performed for countries with different CO 2 prices. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) based thermoeconomic modelling has been applied for the evaluation of energy conversion systems since it provided more comprehensive and applicable assessment criteria. This study proposes an improved thermoeconomic method, named as life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment (LCiTA), which combines the LCA based enviroeconomic parameters in the production steps of the system components and fuel with the conventional thermoeconomic method for the energy conversion systems. A micro-cogeneration system is investigated and analyzed with the LCiTA method, the comparative studies show that the unit cost of fuel by using the LCiTA method is 3.8 times higher than the conventional thermoeconomic model. It is also realized that the enviroeconomic parameters during the operation of the system components do not have significant impacts on the system streams since the exergetic parameters are dominant in the thermoeconomic calculations. Moreover, the improved sustainability index is found roundly 67.2% higher than the previously defined sustainability index, suggesting that the enviroeconomic and thermoeconomic parameters decrease the impact of the exergy destruction in the sustainability index definition. To find the feasible operation conditions for the micro-cogeneration system, different assessment strategies are presented. Furthermore, a case study for Singapore is conducted to see the impact of the forecasted carbon dioxide prices on the thermoeconomic performance of the micro-cogeneration system.

  14. Method of electroplating a conversion electron emitting source on implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Suresh C [Setauket, NY; Gonzales, Gilbert R [New York, NY; Adzic, Radoslav [East Setauket, NY; Meinken, George E [Middle Island, NY

    2012-02-14

    Methods for preparing an implant coated with a conversion electron emitting source (CEES) are disclosed. The typical method includes cleaning the surface of the implant; placing the implant in an activating solution comprising hydrochloric acid to activate the surface; reducing the surface by H.sub.2 evolution in H.sub.2SO.sub.4 solution; and placing the implant in an electroplating solution that includes ions of the CEES, HCl, H.sub.2SO.sub.4, and resorcinol, gelatin, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, before tin plating, a seed layer is formed on the surface. The electroplated CEES coating can be further protected and stabilized by annealing in a heated oven, by passivation, or by being covered with a protective film. The invention also relates to a holding device for holding an implant, wherein the device selectively prevents electrodeposition on the portions of the implant contacting the device.

  15. Development of direct observation aparatus of coal carbonization process by x-ray computerized tomography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakawa, Mitsuhiro; Shiraishi, Katsuhiko; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Shimomura, Yasuto

    1987-01-01

    Coke production by chamber ovens has a long history and efforts are being continued to make the manufacturing process efficient and to preserve the environment. In this production by this method, however, it is hardly possible to obtain direct information during coal carbonization. Since the elements that compose coal and coke are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, etc. and are similar to those of the human body, authors has developed a coke oven that permits the direct observation of the coal carbonization process using a soft X-ray computerized tomography (CT) apparatus used in medical treatment. The following phenomena can be observed as images by the coke oven for the CT method : 1) Changes in the bulk density of charge coal (including the difference in the water content), 2) Width of the plastic layer and movement of the plastic layer in the coke oven chamber, 3) Expansion and shrinkage of the charge in the coke oven chamber, 4) Initiation and growth of cracks. (author)

  16. Method for processing coal-enrichment waste with solid and volatile fuel inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, A. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.; Osintsev, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    The method relates to the field of industrial heat and power engineering. It can be used in coal preparation plants for processing coal waste. This new way is realized to produce a loose ash residue directed to the production of silicate products and fuel gas in rotary kilns. The proposed method is associated with industrial processing of brown coal beneficiation waste. Waste is obtained by flotation separation of rock particles up to 13 mm in size from coal particles. They have in their composition both solid and volatile fuel inclusions (components). Due to the high humidity and significant rock content, low heat of combustion, these wastes are not used on energy boilers, they are stored in dumps polluting the environment.

  17. A method for processing peat or brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkevich, P.I.; Lishtvan, I.I.; Prokhorov, G.M.; Tolstikov, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method is patented for extraction of peat and brown coal using dimethylformamide or dimethylsulfoxide in order to increase the output of bitumen and to produce dyes and acids from it and to utilize the debituminized fuel. The extraction is conducted at a solvent to raw material ratio of 1 to 5 at a temperature of 95 to 160 degrees for 0.5 to 3 hours. The extract is processed by hydroxides or carbonates of alkaline metals at a ratio of extract to the bitumen of 0.1 to 0.5 at 95 to 160 degrees for 0.5 to 2 hours with isolation of the salts of carbonic acids and recrystallization of them from the hydroxide with the acquisition of the target product of humic acids. The solvent is distilled from the extraction residue and after drying the sediment, a dye D is produced, while the debituminized fuel is processed by hydroxides of alkaline metals in a 0.1 to 1 to 1 ratio at 100 to 150 degrees for 0.5 to 2 hours with the acquisition of thinner for cement solutions. Example. A suspension of 180 grams of peat with a particle size of 0.25 to 10 millimeters with indicators (in percent) of the degree of breakdown of 40, moisture level of 20, ash content of 3.1 and bitumen content of 4.2, is mixed with 810 grams of dimethylformamide (an extraction agent to peat ratio of 4.5) and is heated at 95 degrees for three hours. Eight hundred and seventy grams of the extract (the bitumen output is 33 percent) are acquired, along with 120 grams of debituminized peat. Thirty grams of NaOH (an alkaline to bitumen ratio of 0.5) is gradually added to the bitumen extract at 90 to 100 degrees. The reaction mixture is heated to 160 degrees and is cured at this temperature for 2 hours and subsequently cooled to 20 degrees, filtered off and the salts of the carbonic acids are washed out by a fresh portion of dimethylsulfoxide with the production of 21.3 grams of salts with a melting point of 122 to 175 degrees.

  18. Investigation on the activation of coal gangue by a new compound method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wan, Jianhua; Sun, Henghu; Li, Longtu

    2010-07-15

    In order to comprehensively utilize coal gangue as the main raw material in cementitious materials, improving its cementitious activity is a question of fundamental importance. In this paper, we present a new compound mechanical-hydro-thermal activation (CMHTA) technology to investigate the activation effect of coal gangue, and the traditional mechanical-thermal activation (TMTA) technology was used as reference. The purpose of this study is to give a detailed comparison between these two methods with regard to the mineral composition, crystal structure and microstructure, by XRD, IR, MAS NMR, XPS and mechanical property analysis. The prepared coal gangue based blended cement, containing 52% of activated coal gangue C (by CMHTA technology), has a better mechanical property than activated coal gangue T (by TMTA technology) and raw coal gangue. The results show that both of the TMTA and CMHTA technologies can improve the cementitious activity of raw gangue greatly. Moreover, compared with TMTA, the mineral phases such as feldspar and muscovite in raw coal gangue were partially decomposed, and the crystallinity of quartz decreased, due to the effect of adding CaO and hydro-thermal process of CMHTA technology. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zacher, Alan H.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Orth, Rick J.

    2010-03-30

    A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

  20. Analysis of the effects of biomass on the co-pyrolysis of coal using TGA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaman, S.; Haykiri-Acma, H.

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is a developing country with a population of 7.15 million and its economy is the 16th biggest in the world and 7th biggest in Europe (after Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, and Russia) with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of about 700 billion dollar. Low quality lignitic coals are the most significant primary energy resources of Turkey. Consequently, production of lignite in 2007 is 72 million tons, representing about 7.5% of lignite consumption of the world. However, undesirable characteristics of these lignites such as low calorific value, high ash, and high sulfur are some of serious drawbacks in the usage of them in conventional burning systems, regarding problematic deposit formations and polluting emissions. Therefore, alternative processes for these lignites such as pyrolysis and gasification to produce fuel gases and chemical are preferable. In this study, co-pyrolysis characteristics of Afsin-Elbistan lignite with biomass species such as hazelnut shells, sunflower seed shells, and hybrid poplar were investigated by Non-isothermal Thermogravimetry (TGA) technique. Structural differences in the physical and chemical properties of the samples were studied applying some methods such as X-Ray Diffractometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This study showed that addition of such biomass materials into lignite and then co-pyrolysis of these mixtures led to conversion levels that are seriously higher than the conversion level of the lignite alone under the same pyrolytic conditions. It is concluded that there are evident differences between the thermal reactivities of the lignite and the biomass materials, and the increase in the thermal reactivity when biomass was introduced may be explained by synergistic interactions between the constituents of lignite and biomass. (author)

  1. Method and device for the combustion of pulverised coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoppe, F

    1977-01-13

    Until now, high combustion space loadings in pulverised coal firing were only obtained with melting combustion, where the ash is fluid. The disadvantage of this is that part of the heating surface is covered by liquid slack, and this type of combustion cannot operate in 'on-off operation', as the slack solidifies when the boiler is switched off. According to the invention, however, pulverised coal, which is reluctant to react, can be burnt at high combustion space loadings of over 2000 Mcal/cu. metre. hour. atm. with dry ash extraction, so that its use is possible for the combustion in central heating plants in detached houses and blocks of flats, with 'on-off operation'. For this purpose, the pulverised coal is heated under excess pressure in an atmosphere with a maximum of 10% of oxygen with a speed of heating of 1000/sup 0/C/sec up to 100 to 150/sup 0/C above its ignition temperature, and can be blown into the combustion air. Tangentially to the flame jet, a cold gas flow is guided so that burning particles thrown out at the sides are cooled below the ash melting temperature, before they reach the walls. The burning flame jet is accelerated, by using the excess pressure, via an injector, into a zone at less than the ash melting temperature, so that dry ash extraction is guaranteed.

  2. Effects of drying methods on the low temperature reactivity of Victorian brown coal to oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, S.; Wood, D.G.; Harris, I.J. (University of Marmara, Istanbul (Turkey). Ataturk Faculty of Education, Division of Science Education)

    1992-02-01

    The effects of air drying and thermal dewatering on the low temperature oxygen reactivity of Victorian brown coal have been investigated in the temperature range 35-55{degree}C and at 100 kPa oxygen pressure using coal samples ground to {lt} 100 mesh. An attempt has also been made to relate the low temperature oxygen reactivity of the coal to its free radical concentration as measured prior to oxidation. Two rate models, the Schmidt and Winmill models, have been adapted to include the initial free radical concentration of the coal samples as the drying method sensitivity parameter in lieu of the concentration of oxygen-reactive sites in the coal material. The experimental results show that air drying, which reduces the free radical concentration of the coal, causes a decline in its oxygen reactivity whereas thermal dewatering, which causes an increase in the free radical concentration of the coal, enhances its oxygen reactivity. Air drying does not affect the distribution of the consumed oxygen in the oxidation products. A difference is observed in the case of the thermally dewatered coal samples. The correlation of the two rate models adopted is considered equally satisfactory. However, only the values obtained for the two activation energies in the Winmill model reflect the changes caused by thermal dewatering in the oxidation pattern of the coal. The activation energy values obtained from the two models are within the range of those quoted in the literature for the abstraction of hydrogen from various arene structures by free radicals. 35 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Forecast and Prevention of Coal and Gas Outbursts in the Case of Application of a New Mining Method - Drilling of a Coal Pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hudeček

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal and gas outbursts are one of risk factors accompanying the mining of coal in low seams in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield.At the use of the method of longwall mining, all coal reserves have not been mined out owing to tectonic faults. For mining outthe residual reserves, the application of a new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar was proposed.The method of mining of a coal seam utilizing long large diameter boreholes is verified in the Paskov Mine (company OKD, JSC –Czech Republic under conditions of rock mass with hazard of rock and gas outbursts in localities of residual pillars left in seams afterfinishing the mining operations performed with using the classical method of longwall working along the strike. [5]Forecast and preventive measures applied to the verification of the new method were based on previous experience withthe mining of seams with hazard of coal and gas outbursts. They accepted fully valid legislation, i.e. Ordinance of Ostrava RegionalMining Authority No. 3895/2002 and supplementary materials (Instructions and Guidelines. The proposed measures respectedthe character of the method being verified. [4]For all areas being mined, projects containing also chapters specifying the problems of ensuring the safety of mining worksand operation under conditions of hazard of coal and gas outbursts were prepared.In the contributions, basic proposals for the principles of coal and gas outburst forecast and prevention when applying the newmining method – drilling of a coal pillar are presented

  4. Damage evolution analysis of coal samples under cyclic loading based on single-link cluster method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Wang, Enyuan; Li, Nan; Li, Xuelong; Wang, Xiaoran; Li, Zhonghui

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE) response of coal samples under cyclic loading is measured. The results show that there is good positive relation between AE parameters and stress. The AE signal of coal samples under cyclic loading exhibits an obvious Kaiser Effect. The single-link cluster (SLC) method is applied to analyze the spatial evolution characteristics of AE events and the damage evolution process of coal samples. It is found that a subset scale of the SLC structure becomes smaller and smaller when the number of cyclic loading increases, and there is a negative linear relationship between the subset scale and the degree of damage. The spatial correlation length ξ of an SLC structure is calculated. The results show that ξ fluctuates around a certain value from the second cyclic loading process to the fifth cyclic loading process, but spatial correlation length ξ clearly increases in the sixth loading process. Based on the criterion of microcrack density, the coal sample failure process is the transformation from small-scale damage to large-scale damage, which is the reason for changes in the spatial correlation length. Through a systematic analysis, the SLC method is an effective method to research the damage evolution process of coal samples under cyclic loading, and will provide important reference values for studying coal bursts.

  5. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  6. Determination of chlorine in coal by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, S.; Bojarska, K. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Environmental Monitoring

    1997-12-31

    Determination of chlorine contents in coal is essential for both environmental protection and its technological use. The existing method of chlorine determination in coal are titration methods which have considerable errors particularly in the low concentration range. The elaborated method with the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in a comparison to the other methods is much faster and has better precision and accuracy. The principle of the method lies in the measurement of X-ray fluorescence radiation intensity which is emitted by chlorine in a sample and its comparison with standards. The calibration of the elaborated XRF method is based on natural coals having various concentrations of chlorine within the whole range of its occurrence in Polish coals. Concentrations for the calibration purpose were obtained by the determination of chlorine contents in selected coals by atomic absorption spectrometry method. The procedure of sample preparation for direct X-ray measurements, instrumental measuring conditions and the way of calibration curve preparation are described in the paper. All X-ray measurements were done with a Phillips sequential X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. A double anode Cr-Au X-ray tube with maximum power 3000 MW was used as the excitation source. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  8. An influence function method based subsidence prediction program for longwall mining operations in inclined coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Luo; Jian-wei Cheng [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2009-09-15

    The distribution of the final surface subsidence basin induced by longwall operations in inclined coal seam could be significantly different from that in flat coal seam and demands special prediction methods. Though many empirical prediction methods have been developed, these methods are inflexible for varying geological and mining conditions. An influence function method has been developed to take the advantage of its fundamentally sound nature and flexibility. In developing this method, significant modifications have been made to the original Knothe function to produce an asymmetrical influence function. The empirical equations for final subsidence parameters derived from US subsidence data and Chinese empirical values have been incorporated into the mathematical models to improve the prediction accuracy. A corresponding computer program is developed. A number of subsidence cases for longwall mining operations in coal seams with varying inclination angles have been used to demonstrate the applicability of the developed subsidence prediction model. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Characterization of solid residues from coal liquefaction processes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; McDougall, W.M.; Kybett, B.D.; Neufeld, C.

    1981-01-01

    Various coal liquefaction and beneficiation processes are being investigated by independent research groups sponsored by the Canadian Federal Government. These processes include the co-processing of heavy oils and bitumen with coal, oxygen removal and hydrogenation of coal and supercritical gas extraction of coal. The end products, gaseous and liquid fuels and insoluble organic residues, vary with the experimental conditions. The physical properties and origin of the insoluble residue may influence such factors as degree of conversion, efficiency of the process, and ultimately, gaseous and liquid yields. One of the most suitable methods of assessing the nature of the insoluble residues is the use of petrography. This report deals with petrographic assessment of the coals and residues from various coal conversion processes; attempts were made to characterize the solid phases in the residues; to assess them in a quantitative manner and where possible; to correlate the results with experimental data; and to assess their effects on conversion. (30 refs.)

  10. Fast fluid bed coal gasification for conversion of existing oil-fired boilers - an investigation of conditions precedent for commercial realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-06-01

    The syndicate Nordisk Fluidbaeddfoergasning which is made up of the following Scandinavian companies. A. Ahlstroem o/y Burmeister and Wain AB, Svenska Maskinverken AB and Svenska Cellulosa AB has been working with the development of a gas generator which makes it possible for the oil-fired boilers to use coal. The report describes a pre-project and presents the calculation of costs and the estimation of the market potential. The following appraisements have been made: (i) a commercially functioning plant can be erected (ii) the energy cost can be lower than the corresponding cost of conversion to coal powder fuel or competing gasifiers, and (iii) the size of the market is sufficiently large.

  11. New method for conversion of uranium hexafluoride to uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabayashi, S.; Suzuki, M.; Tanaka, H.

    1987-01-01

    Five different methods for conversion of UF 6 to ceramic-grade UO 2 powder have been developed to industrial scale. Two of them, the ammonium diuranate (ADU) and AUC processes, are based on precipitation of uranium compounds from aqueous solutions. The other three follow a dry route in which UF 6 is hydrolyzed and reduced by steam and hydrogen using fluidized bed techniques, rotating kilns, or flame chemistry methods. The ADU process has the advantage of flexible product powder characteristics, while disadvantages include a large quantity of waste, low powder fluidity, and a complicated process. On the other hand, the dry process using fluidized-bed techniques has the advantages of hydrofluoric acid recovery, a free-flowing powder, and process simplicity, but the disadvantages of poorer ceramic properties for the product. The new method developed at Mitsubishi Metal Corp. is a semidry process, which has well-balanced merits over the ADU process and the dry process using fluidized-bed techniques. This process is very attractive from powder characteristics, process simplicity, and waste reduction

  12. Technical data. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This volume includes a description of the railway to transport the coal; possible unbalance in the electrical power supply is considered in detail, as well as communications, signalling, etc. The railway will also be used to transport ashes and sludges for waste disposal. Coal fines in the coal supply will be burned to generate power. A very brief description of the coal gasification plant and its components is accompanied by a printout of the dates final engineering is to be completed. Permit applications are listed and socio-economic factors are discussed. The financing plan is discussed in some detail: basically, a loan guarantee from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation; equity provided by investment tax credit, deferred taxes, AFUDC and the sponsors; price support; and gas purchase agreement (this whole section includes several legal details.). (LTN)

  13. Application of Moessbauer spectroscopy for: (1) characterization of Egyptian Maghara coal; (2) evaluating the efficiency of different methods for coal desulphurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, N.A.; Sheta, N.H.; Ahmed, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Coal has been recently discovered in Maghara mine at Northern Sinai, Egypt. Coal samples have been collected from different depths and were measured by XRD, XRF, and MS, in order to characterize this type of coal. It has been found that the iron bearing minerals are mainly pyrite and different sulphates depending on the depth of the sample. The second part contains the application of desulphurization techniques to Egyptian coal which are: floatation (one step and two steps), chemical [(HCl+HNO 3 ), and Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ] and bacterial methods (Chromatium and Chlorobium species). The efficiency of each technique was calculated. A comparative discussion is given of each desulphurization method, from which the bacterial method has proved to be the most efficient one. (orig.)

  14. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 3: Combustors, furnaces and low-BTU gasifiers. [used in coal gasification and coal liquefaction (equipment specifications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Information is presented on the design, performance, operating characteristics, cost, and development status of coal preparation equipment, combustion equipment, furnaces, low-Btu gasification processes, low-temperature carbonization processes, desulfurization processes, and pollution particulate removal equipment. The information was compiled for use by the various cycle concept leaders in determining the performance, capital costs, energy costs, and natural resource requirements of each of their system configurations.

  15. Coal-nuclear energy system. Method of study. Examples of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneuve, F.; Le Penhuizic, B.

    1981-01-01

    Given the outlook for hydrocarbon depletion, three primary energy sources could enable supplies to be diversified, i.e. nuclear energy, coal and solar energy. These primary energy sources can rarely be used directly and must be converted into energy carriers such as electricity, hydrogen, substitute natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons derived from coal, etc. The nature of future gas carriers and their position in the national energy balance must be examined. Within the framework of an overall energy pattern. Many of the potential conversion processes are often interrelated through their production and consumption. Likewise, seasonal variations in consumption make it necessary to design production plants for peak demand or to create large-scale storage facilities. An initial model taking these interactions into consideration has been worked out to represent the variety of solutions possible. This model can be used to evaluate the technical paths to be followed within the framework of different assumptions concerning the future [fr

  16. A scanning electron microscope method for automated, quantitative analysis of mineral matter in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Ward, C.R. [R.A. Creelman and Associates, Epping, NSW (Australia)

    1996-07-01

    Quantitative mineralogical analysis has been carried out in a series of nine coal samples from Australia, South Africa and China using a newly-developed automated image analysis system coupled to a scanning electron microscopy. The image analysis system (QEM{asterisk}SEM) gathers X-ray spectra and backscattered electron data from a number of points on a conventional grain-mount polished section under the SEM, and interprets the data from each point in mineralogical terms. The cumulative data in each case was integrated to provide a volumetric modal analysis of the species present in the coal samples, expressed as percentages of the respective coals` mineral matter. Comparison was made of the QEM{asterisk}SEM results to data obtained from the same samples using other methods of quantitative mineralogical analysis, namely X-ray diffraction of the low-temperature oxygen-plasma ash and normative calculation from the (high-temperature) ash analysis and carbonate CO{sub 2} data. Good agreement was obtained from all three methods for quartz in the coals, and also for most of the iron-bearing minerals. The correlation between results from the different methods was less strong, however, for individual clay minerals, or for minerals such as calcite, dolomite and phosphate species that made up only relatively small proportions of the mineral matter. The image analysis approach, using the electron microscope for mineralogical studies, has significant potential as a supplement to optical microscopy in quantitative coal characterisation. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Comparing maceral ratios from tropical peatlands with assumptions from coal studies. Do classic coal petrographic interpretation methods have to be discarded?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Raphael A.J.; Hawke, Michelle I.; Marc Bustin, R. [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Tropical Peat Research Group, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, V6T 1Z4 Vancouver, B.C. (Canada)

    2001-12-01

    Petrographic investigations of tropical peat deposits from the Tasek Bera Basin, Malaysia, show that petrographic methods can contribute valuable information about paleoecological settings of mire deposits. Comparing modern peat-forming environments and the pre-maceral composition of peat samples allows the reconstruction of paleoecological conditions, such as floral composition, fires, microbial activity, etc., and gives insight into paleodepositional environments. In the past, maceral ratios of coals have been used to interpret paleodepositional settings of coal deposits. Such a procedure assumes that coal texture and coal maceral composition are dictated solely by the depositional environment, and thus different depositional environments should be clearly discriminated based on maceral ratios. In the modern peat deposits of Tasek Bera, divergent petrographic results occur in similar depositional environments, hence, poor correlation occurs between the petrography, the degree of decomposition, and the depositional environment. Furthermore, from the time of peat deposition, peat is subject to considerable alteration. During subsequent diagenesis, preservation of structured and strongly altered material, such as inertinite, gelified material or funginite, is favoured and results in biased coal maceral compositions. Because maceral indexes in modern peat studies are of little utility in the reconstruction of paleoenvironmental settings, it follows that coal maceral indexes should not be utilized in the future to interpret paleodepositional environments of coals.

  18. Sulfur content measurement in coal by X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Thinova, L.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence, using backscattering, was employed in the determination of sulfur content and ash content measurement in coal. The results of the methods are given to illustrate the differences between the chemical analysis and X-ray fluorescence method.

  19. A study on the measurement of coal moisture by the neutron method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yonghe

    1985-01-01

    The paper reports the result of measuring coal moisture by the neutron method. A deducting intercept method is used to eliminate the effects of the structural hydrogen and the matrix effect. A measuring device has been developed and its measuring accuracy is less than 1%

  20. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  1. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  2. A review on effluent generation in coal mines and its treatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, R.; Karmakar, N.C.; Gupta, S. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    2008-07-01

    The waste water of coal washeries, coal handling plants, workshops and overburden runoff of a coal mine contains a high concentration of suspended fine particles which usually remain after treatment in sedimentation tanks. The study on the performance characteristics of different coagulants shows that the turbidity removal efficiency depends much on the characteristics of the effluent and combined coagulants perform better than individuals. The various sources of generation of effluent and their treatment methods are discussed. It is suggested that the mine owners should consider the mine effluent as a rich source of both fine particles of coal and precious water. The coal particles are of high grade and may be used in coke preparation and water may be reused in mine to avoid the extra cost for water. The effluent treatment methods are required to be studied properly, so that less consumption of chemicals will be possible. If polyelectrolyte is used along with the other coagulants, the clarification performance will be improved. The best combination of chemicals are selected and practiced in mines. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. The methods of receiving coal water suspension and its use as the modifying additive in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuyev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Stebenkova, Y. Y.; Khmelev, A. B.; Kondratenko, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Results of research of the coal water suspension (CWS) from a cake received in the electrodigit ways in the fluid environment and gas are given in article and also the possibilities of its use as the modifying additive in concrete are considered. Use of a coal cake is perspective as it is a withdrawal of the coal and concentrating enterprises and has extremely low cost. Methods of receiving CWS and possibility of formation of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) are given in their structure. Research and the analysis of a microstructure of a surface of exemplars before electrodigit processing, their element structure, dependence of durability of a cement stone on a look and quantity of an additive of CWS is conducted. For modification of cement the carbon nanomaterials received from the following exemplars of water coal suspensions were used: foams from a cake from a scrubber of the plasma modular reactor, coal water suspension from a cake from electrodigit installation. The product which can find further application for a power engineering as fuel for combustion, and also in structural materials science, in particular, as the modifying additive in concrete allows to receive these methods.

  4. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 2: Materials considerations. [materials used in boilers and heat exchangers of energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies are presented which were carried out on materials behavior in nine advanced energy conversion systems employing coal and coal-derived fuels. The areas of materials behavior receiving particular attention in this regard are: (1) fireside corrosion and erosion in boiler and heat exchanger materials, (2) oxidation and hot corrosion of gas turbine materials, (3) liquid metal corrosion and mass transport, (4) high temperature steam corrosion, (5) compatability of materials with coal slag and MHD seed, (6) reaction of materials with impure helium, (7) allowable stresses for boiler and heat exchanger materials, (8) environmental effects on mechanical properties, and (9) liquid metal purity control and instrumentation. Such information was then utilized in recommending materials for use in the critical components of the power systems, and at the same time to identify materials problem areas and to evaluate qualitatively the difficulty of solving those problems. Specific materials recommendations for critical components of the nine advanced systems under study are contained in summary tables.

  5. Online analysis of coal on a conveyor belt by use of machine vision and kernel methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, C.; Jemwa, G.T.; van Dyk, J.C.; Keyser, M.J.; van Heerden, J.H.P. [University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch (South Africa). Dept. of Process Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the use of image analysis to quantify the amount of fines (6mm) present for different coal samples under conditions simulating the coal on conveyor belts similar to those being used by Sasol for gasification purposes. Quantification of the fines will be deemed particularly successful, if the fines mass fraction, as determined by sieve analysis, is possible to be predicted with an error of less than 10%. In this article, kernel-based methods to estimate particle size ranges on a pilot-scale conveyor belt as well as edge detection algorithms are considered. Preliminary results have shown that the fines fraction in the coal on the conveyor belt could be estimated with a median error of approximately 24.1%. This analysis was based on a relatively small number of sieve samples (18 in total) and needs to be validated by more samples. More samples would also facilitate better calibration and may lead to improved estimates of the sieve fines fractions. Similarly, better results may also be possible by using different approaches to image acquisition and analysis. Most of the error in the fines estimates can be attributed to sampling and to fines that were randomly obscured by the top layer (of larger particles) of coal on the belt. Sampling errors occurred as a result of some breakage of the coal between the sieve analyses and the acquisition of the images. The percentage of the fines obscured by the top layer of the coal probably caused most of the variation in the estimated mass of fines, but this needs to be validated experimentally. Preliminary studies have indicated that some variation in the lighting conditions have a small influence on the reliability of the estimates of the coal fines fractions and that consistent lighting conditions are more important than optimal lighting conditions.

  6. Method of gas emission control for safe working of flat gassy coal seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, E. A.; Yaroshenko, V. V.; Kislicyn, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The main problems at intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining are considered. For example, mine Kotinskaja JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass” shows that when conducting the work on the gassy coal seams, methane emission control by means of ventilation, degassing and insulated drain of methane-air mixture is not effective and stable enough. It is not always possible to remove the coal production restrictions by the gas factor, which leads to financial losses because of incomplete using of longwall equipment and the reduction of the technical and economic indicators of mining. To solve the problems, the authors used a complex method that includes the compilation and analysis of the theory and practice of intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining. Based on the results of field and numerical researches, the effect of parameters of technological schemes on efficiency of methane emission control on longwall panels, the non-linear dependence of the permissible according to gas factor longwall productivity on parameters of technological schemes, ventilation and degassing during intensive mining flat gassy coal seams was established. The number of recommendations on the choice of the location and the size of the intermediate section of coal heading to control gassing in the mining extracted area, and guidelines for choosing the parameters of ventilation of extracted area with the help of two air supply entries and removal of isolated methane-air mixture are presented in the paper. The technological scheme, using intermediate entry for fresh air intake, ensuring effective management gassing and allowing one to refuse from drilling wells from the surface to the mined-out space for mining gas-bearing coal seams, was developed.

  7. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhai, Rongrong; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Yongping; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  8. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  9. Prospects and technical and economic evaluation of methods for obtaining synthetic liquid from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlikhter, E B; Khor' kov, A V; Zhorov, Y M

    1980-11-01

    Rising oil prices and the exhaustion of cheap organic fuels point to the need for chemical processing of coal to obtain synthetic liquid fuels. Added importance for such development in the USSR is dictated by the remote location of many coal deposits, such as the Kansko-Achinsk basin. Methods for synthesizing described include thermal dissolution in a hydrogen donor solvent, hydrogenation, and gasification with subsequent synthesis and pyrolysis. The need for improved technology is stressed. Cost factors are related to the chemical process involved, rather than to losses in fuel quantities, and the methanol produced is readily transported by pipeline. It can be used for both gasoline and diesel fuels.

  10. Analysis and study on the membrane method of CO2 removal of coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fangqin, Li; Henan, Li; Jianxing, Ren; Jiang, Wu; Zhongzhu, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one kind of harmful substances from the burning process of fossil fuel. CO 2 emissions cause serious pollution on atmospheric environment, especially greenhouse effect. In this paper, CO 2 formation mechanism and control methods were researched. Membrane technology was studied to control CO 2 emissions from coal-fired boilers. The relationship between CO 2 removal efficiency and parameters of membrane contactor was analyzed. Through analysis and study, factors affecting on CO 2 removal efficiency were gotten. How to choose the best parameters was known. This would provide theoretical basis for coal-fired utility boilers choosing effective way of CO 2 removal. (author)

  11. Soil preparation methods promoting ectomycorrhizal colonization and American chestnut Castanea dentata establishment in coal mine restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv Hiremath; Brian C. McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate soil subsurface methods that may aid in seedling establishment and encourage root colonization from a diverse group of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi during restoration projects. American chestnut Castanea dentata Marsh. Borkh. and backcrossed chestnuts seedlings were planted on a reclaimed coal mine site...

  12. The X-ray fluorescent method for determination of total sulphur in bituminous coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widowska-Kusmierska, J.; Siess, K.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescent technique for the determination of total sulphur covering concentrations from 0,1 to 10% has been applied for bituminous coals showing a great variability in qualitative and quantitative composition of mineral matter (ash). The described method is a quick one giving results during one hour. The obtained good accuracy of determinations gives prospects for wide industrial application. (author)

  13. Dimensioning Method for Conversational Video Applications in Wireless Convergent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Perez Leal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.

  14. Dimensioning Method for Conversational Video Applications in Wireless Convergent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso JoséI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New convergent services are becoming possible, thanks to the expansion of IP networks based on the availability of innovative advanced coding formats such as H.264, which reduce network bandwidth requirements providing good video quality, and the rapid growth in the supply of dual-mode WiFi cellular terminals. This paper provides, first, a comprehensive subject overview as several technologies are involved, such as medium access protocol in IEEE802.11, H.264 advanced video coding standards, and conversational application characterization and recommendations. Second, the paper presents a new and simple dimensioning model of conversational video over wireless LAN. WLAN is addressed under the optimal network throughput and the perspective of video quality. The maximum number of simultaneous users resulting from throughput is limited by the collisions taking place in the shared medium with the statistical contention protocol. The video quality is conditioned by the packet loss in the contention protocol. Both approaches are analyzed within the scope of the advanced video codecs used in conversational video over IP, to conclude that conversational video dimensioning based on network throughput is not enough to ensure a satisfactory user experience, and video quality has to be taken also into account. Finally, the proposed model has been applied to a real-office scenario.

  15. Method of gamma transmission analysis for controlling the hydraulic transport of raw coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnik, R.; Boessow, E.; Fanger, H.U.

    1978-01-01

    The capacity of the methods for measuring gamma absorption developed at GKSS to be used for the analysis of conweyer flows of water/coal/refuse mixtures has been studied. As only the absorption properties of the refuse are essentially different from those of water the refuce is detected with higher accuracy than the coal. In this way the sensitivity of the gamma transmission analysis method agrees with the fact that in coal mining the critical mining parameters are influenced by refuse. The results of the investigations indicate that for measuring times of about 10 sec, accounting for realisitic variations of the chemism of the refuse, the volume shares can be determined with an accuracy of about +- 4.7 V/O of coal and about +- . 5 V/O of refuse. The measuring arrangement for the drift velocity is capable to record also the size and the number of the refuse lumps. The methods described therefore are well suited for controlling an optimal conveying operation. (orig.) [de

  16. Using X-ray methods to evaluate the combustion sulfur minerals and graphitic carbon in coals and ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz, D.L.; Collins, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Coals are complex mixtures of vastly different materials whose combustion kinetics may well exhibit symbiotic effects. Although the sulfur oxide gases produced during the combustion of coals may have a variety of sources, they are frequently caused by the thermal degradation of inorganic minerals to produce ''acid rain''. Since many of the minerals involved either as reactants or products in coal combustion produce well defined x-ray power diffraction (XRPD) patterns, the fate of these minerals may be followed by measuring the XRPD patterns of combustion products. Coal 1368P, a coal with an unusually high pyrite (FeS/sub 2/) fraction, has been the subject materials in our investigations of the fate of the inorganic minerals during combustion. These studies include measuring the fate of pyrite and of graphitic carbon in coal 1368P under varying combustion conditions. The results discussed in this paper were obtained by standard XRPD methods

  17. Methods for locating ground faults and insulation degradation condition in energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamy, Mohamed; Elasser, Ahmed; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2015-08-11

    Methods for determining a ground fault or insulation degradation condition within energy conversion systems are described. A method for determining a ground fault within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline waveform of differential current to a waveform of differential current during operation for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. A method for determining insulation degradation within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline frequency spectra of differential current to a frequency spectra of differential current transient at start-up for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. In one embodiment, the energy conversion system may be a photovoltaic system.

  18. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... configurations such as half bridge buck, full bridge buck, half bridge boost, or full bridge boost. A current driven conversion is advantageous for high efficient energy conversion from current sources such as solar cells or where a voltage source is connected through long cables, e.g. powerline cables for long...... an associated electric source connected to a set of input terminals. This is obtained by the two or more electric swiches being connected and controlled to short-circuit the input terminals during a part of a switching period. Further, a low pass filter with a capacitor and an inductor are provided to low pass...

  19. Conceptual development of a method to determine the principal stresses around coal mine workings to ensure safe mine design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzer, S

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to identify or to develop methods or procedures for the determination of the principal stresses in coal mine workings, which in turn would provide improved criteria for mine design layouts in coal mines. To address...

  20. Annotated bibliography of methods for determining sulfur and forms of sulfur in coal and coal-related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chriswell, C.D.; Norton, G.A.; Akhtar, S.S.; Straszheim, W.E.; Markuszewski, R.

    1993-01-01

    Over 400 published papers, presentations at scientific meetings, and reports relating to the determination of sulfur and sulfur forms in coal-related materials have been accumulated, classified, and an evaluation made of their content.

  1. Development of an integrated optimization method for analyzing effect of energy conversion efficiency under uncertainty – A case study of Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, S.W.; Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.; Hao, Q.; Nie, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Superiority–inferiority full-infinite mixed-integer method is developed. • The method can tackle uncertainties of fuzzy sets, crisp and functional intervals. • The method is applied to a real case of planning energy system. • Effects of energy-conversion efficiency on energy systems are analyzed. • Results can support policy enactment of conversion efficiency improvement. - Abstract: In this study, a superiority–inferiority full-infinite mixed-integer programming (SFMP) method is developed for analyzing the effect of energy conversion efficiency under uncertainty. SFMP can effectively tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets, crisp intervals and functional intervals, it also can directly reflect relationships among multiple fuzzy sets through varying superiority and inferiority degrees with a high computational efficiency. Then the developed SFMP is applied to a real case of planning energy system for Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, where multiple scenarios related to different energy-conversion efficiency are concerned. Results for energy processing, energy conversion, capacity expansion, pollutant emission and system cost have been generated. It is proved that SFMP is an effective approach to deal with the uncertainties in energy systems with interactive and uncertain characteristics. A variety of uncertainties existed in energy conversion processes and impact factors could affect the modeling result. Results show that improvement of energy-conversion efficiency can effectively facilitate reducing energy resources consumption, optimizing energy generation pattern, decreasing capacity expansion, as well as mitigating pollutant emissions. Results also reveal that, for the study area, electric power has a highest energy saving potential among heating, oil processing, coal washing and refining. Results can help decision makers to generate desired alternatives that can facilitate policy enactment of conversion efficiency

  2. Distribution Route Planning of Clean Coal Based on Nearest Insertion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunrui

    2018-01-01

    Clean coal technology has made some achievements for several ten years, but the research in its distribution field is very small, the distribution efficiency would directly affect the comprehensive development of clean coal technology, it is the key to improve the efficiency of distribution by planning distribution route rationally. The object of this paper was a clean coal distribution system which be built in a county. Through the surveying of the customer demand and distribution route, distribution vehicle in previous years, it was found that the vehicle deployment was only distributed by experiences, and the number of vehicles which used each day changed, this resulted a waste of transport process and an increase in energy consumption. Thus, the mathematical model was established here in order to aim at shortest path as objective function, and the distribution route was re-planned by using nearest-insertion method which been improved. The results showed that the transportation distance saved 37 km and the number of vehicles used had also been decreased from the past average of 5 to fixed 4 every day, as well the real loading of vehicles increased by 16.25% while the current distribution volume staying same. It realized the efficient distribution of clean coal, achieved the purpose of saving energy and reducing consumption.

  3. New method for protecting mine roadways in thin coal seams by means of prefabricated yielding blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peknik, J

    1983-05-01

    The use of concrete blocks for strata control in mine roadways driven in thin coal seams is evaluated. Two types of prefabricated blocks are used: BZT blocks made of reinforced concrete and yielding elements or popilbet blocks made of a mixture of fly ash (from coal power plants) and concrete. When the popilbet blocks were used no yielding elements were necessary. Mechanical properties of blocks made of reinforced concrete were controlled by yielding elements. Mechanical properties (compression strength) of the popilbet blocks were controlled by proportion of water, cement and fly ash. The BZT and the popilbet blocks were used for strata control in mine roadways in coal seams from 60 to 80 cm thick and dip angle from 5 to 18 degrees. Use of the BZT and the popilbet blocks reduced roadway deformation by about 50% in comparison to traditional strata control methods (timber cribbings, use of waste rock, etc.). Use of the blocks is explained. The BZT and the popilbet blocks were placed in a roadway wall. Height of the block wall equaled coal seam thickness. Yielding arched steel supports and timber liners were used for strata control in the roadway. The popilbet blocks were 50% less expensive than the BZT blocks. 9 references

  4. Large eddy simulations of coal jet flame ignition using the direct quadrature method of moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedel, Julien

    The Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) was implemented in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tool ARCHES to model coal particles. LES coupled with DQMOM was first applied to nonreacting particle-laden turbulent jets. Simulation results were compared to experimental data and accurately modeled a wide range of particle behaviors, such as particle jet waviness, spreading, break up, particle clustering and segregation, in different configurations. Simulations also accurately predicted the mean axial velocity along the centerline for both the gas phase and the solid phase, thus demonstrating the validity of the approach to model particles in turbulent flows. LES was then applied to the prediction of pulverized coal flame ignition. The stability of an oxy-coal flame as a function of changing primary gas composition (CO2 and O2) was first investigated. Flame stability was measured using optical measurements of the flame standoff distance in a 40 kW pilot facility. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the facility provided valuable insight into the experimentally observed data and the importance of factors such as heterogeneous reactions, radiation or wall temperature. The effects of three parameters on the flame stand-off distance were studied and simulation predictions were compared to experimental data using the data collaboration method. An additional validation study of the ARCHES LES tool was then performed on an air-fired pulverized coal jet flame ignited by a preheated gas flow. The simulation results were compared qualitatively and quantitatively to experimental observations for different inlet stoichiometric ratios. LES simulations were able to capture the various combustion regimes observed during flame ignition and to accurately model the flame stand-off distance sensitivity to the stoichiometric ratio. Gas temperature and coal burnout predictions were also examined and showed good agreement with experimental data. Overall, this research shows that high

  5. Micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Na [Green Construction Materials and Circulation Economy Center, Architectural Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Yao, Yuan, E-mail: yuanyaocas@163.com [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211 (United States); Sun, Henghu; Feng, Huan [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Al{sup IV} and Al{sup VI} both exist in the hydration products. • Increase of Ca/Si ratio promotes the conversion from [AlO{sub 4}] to [AlO{sub 6}]. • Polymerization degree of [SiO{sub 4}] in the hydration products declines. -- Abstract: In this research, the micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials has been investigated through SEM-EDS, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR techniques, in which the used red mud was derived from the bauxite calcination method. The results show that the red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials mainly form fibrous C-A-S-H gel, needle-shaped/rod-like AFt in the early hydration period. With increasing of the hydration period, densification of the pastes were promoted resulting in the development of strength. EDS analysis shows that with the Ca/Si of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials increases, the average Ca/Si and Ca/(Si + Al) atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel increases, while the average Al/Si atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel decreases. MAS NMR analysis reveals that Al in the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials exists in the forms of Al{sup IV} and Al{sup VI}, but mainly in the form of Al{sup VI}. Increasing the Ca/Si ratio of raw material promotes the conversion of [AlO{sub 4}] to [AlO{sub 6}] and inhibits the combination between [AlO{sub 4}] and [SiO{sub 4}] to form C-A-S-H gel. Meanwhile, the polymerization degree of [SiO{sub 4}] in the hydration products declines.

  6. Micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na; Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu; Feng, Huan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Al IV and Al VI both exist in the hydration products. • Increase of Ca/Si ratio promotes the conversion from [AlO 4 ] to [AlO 6 ]. • Polymerization degree of [SiO 4 ] in the hydration products declines. -- Abstract: In this research, the micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials has been investigated through SEM-EDS, 27 Al MAS NMR and 29 Si MAS NMR techniques, in which the used red mud was derived from the bauxite calcination method. The results show that the red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials mainly form fibrous C-A-S-H gel, needle-shaped/rod-like AFt in the early hydration period. With increasing of the hydration period, densification of the pastes were promoted resulting in the development of strength. EDS analysis shows that with the Ca/Si of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials increases, the average Ca/Si and Ca/(Si + Al) atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel increases, while the average Al/Si atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel decreases. MAS NMR analysis reveals that Al in the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials exists in the forms of Al IV and Al VI , but mainly in the form of Al VI . Increasing the Ca/Si ratio of raw material promotes the conversion of [AlO 4 ] to [AlO 6 ] and inhibits the combination between [AlO 4 ] and [SiO 4 ] to form C-A-S-H gel. Meanwhile, the polymerization degree of [SiO 4 ] in the hydration products declines

  7. A new method for calculating gas content of coal reservoirs with consideration of a micro-pore overpressure environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When the gas content of a coal reservoir is calculated, the reservoir pressure measured by well logging and well testing is generally used for inversion calculation instead of gas pressure. However, the calculation result is not accurate because the reservoir pressure is not equal to the gas pressure in overpressure environments. In this paper, coal samples of different ranks in Shanxi and Henan are collected for testing the capillary pressure of coal pores. Based on the formation process of CBM reservoirs and the hydrocarbon generation and expulsion history of coal beds, the forming mechanisms of micro-pore overpressure environments in coal reservoirs were analyzed. Accordingly, a new method for calculating the gas content of coal reservoirs with consideration of a micro-pore overpressure environment was developed. And it was used to calculate the gas content of No. 1 coal bed of the 2nd member of Lower Permian Shanxi Fm in the Zhongmacun Coal Mine in Jiaozuo, Henan. It is indicated that during the formation and evolution of coals, some solid organic matters were converted into gas and water, and gas–water contact is surely formed in pores. In the end, capillary pressure is generated, so the gas pressure in micro-pores is much higher than the hydrostatic column pressure, which results in a micro-pore overpressure environment. Under such an environment, gas pressure is higher than reservoir pressure, so the gas content of coal reservoirs calculated previously based on the conventional reservoir pressure evaluation are usually underestimated. It is also found that the micro-pore overpressure environment exerts a dominating effect on the CBM content calculation of 3–100 nm pores, especially that of 3–10 nm pores, but a little effect on that of pores >100 nm. In conclusion, this new method clarifies the pressure environment of CBM gas reservoirs, thereby ensuring the calculation accuracy of gas content of coal reservoirs.

  8. Conversion of coal mine drainage ochre to water treatment reagent: Production, characterisation and application for P and Zn removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsford, Devin; Santonastaso, Marco; Thorn, Peter; Kershaw, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Coal mine drainage ochre is a ferruginous precipitate that forms from mine water in impacted watercourses and during treatment. With thousands of tonnes per annum of such ochre arising from mine water treatment in the UK alone, management of these wastes is a substantive issue. This paper demonstrates that the ochre from both active and passive treatment of coal mine drainage can be transformed into an effective water treatment reagent by simple acid dissolution and that the reagent can be used for the removal of dissolved phosphorous from municipal wastewater and zinc from non-coal mine waters. Ochre is readily soluble in H2SO4 and HCl. Ochre is more soluble in HCl with solubilities of up to 100 g/L in 20% (w/w) HCl and 68 g/L in 10% (w/w) H2SO4. For four of the eight tested ochres solubility decreased in higher concentrations of H2SO4. Ochre compositional data demonstrate that the coal mine ochres tested are relatively free from problematic levels of elements seen by other authors from acid mine drainage-derived ochre. Comparison to British Standards for use of iron-based coagulants in drinking water treatment was used as an indicator of the acceptability of use of the ochre-derived reagents in terms of potentially problematic elements. The ochre-derived reagents were found to meet the 'Grade 3' specification, except for arsenic. Thus, for application in municipal wastewater and mine water treatment additional processing may not be required. There was little observed compositional difference between solutions prepared using H2SO4 or HCl. Ochre-derived reagents showed applicability for the removal of P and Zn with removals of up to 99% and 97% respectively measured for final pH 7-8, likely due to sorption/coprecipitation. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that applying a Fe dose in the form of liquid reagent leads to a better Fe:P and Fe:Zn removal ratio compared to ochre-based sorption media tested in the literature. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  9. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Raymond [Avondale, AZ

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  10. The Method of Validity Evaluation of Hard Coal Excavation in Residual Seam Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, Krzysztof; Bijańska, Jolanta; Gumiński, Adam

    2017-12-01

    The excavation of residual seam parts should be justified by positive assessment of the purposefulness, technical feasibility and economic effectiveness. The results of the profitability evaluation are crucial in a decision making process. The excavation of residual seam parts, even if it is possible from a technical point of view, should not be implemented if it is economically inefficient or when accompanied by a very high risk of non-recovery of invested capital resources. The article presents the evaluation method of possibilities of excavating hard coal from residual seam parts, and the example of its use in one of collieries in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Working in line with the developed method, allows to indicate the variant of residual seam part exploitation, which is feasible to implement from a technical point of view, and which is characterized by the highest economic effectiveness and lowest risk.

  11. Development of a method to estimate coal pillar loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DP

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available to the panel width to depth ratio, the percentage extraction and the stiffness of the surrounding strata influence the validity of the tributary area method. An underground test was conducted to assess the magnitude of changes in pillar stress. Various... stress measurement devices were installed in test pillars just prior to mining. The stress changes were monitored and compared with numerical modelling results. It was found that stresses increased by between 0.3 MPa and 0.5 MPa and that the stresses...

  12. Introduction to the geophysical methods applicable to coal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 2, it is the differences in the magnetic susceptibility of rocks that are exploited by the magnetic method. Units and terminology The internationally accepted unit for the magnetic field strength or intensity is the Tesla (named after Nikola Tesla..., the famous Serbian-American engineer and inventor). The Tesla is too large a unit for practical purposes and the nanotesla (nT, one billionth of a Tesla) is used in geophysical magnetic exploration. The name gamma (γ) was previously used instead...

  13. Anchor-Free Localization Method for Mobile Targets in Coal Mine Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Zhongmin; Deng, Zhidong; Xu, Shuo; Xu, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Severe natural conditions and complex terrain make it difficult to apply precise localization in underground mines. In this paper, an anchor-free localization method for mobile targets is proposed based on non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (Multi-dimensional Scaling: MDS) and rank sequence. Firstly, a coal mine wireless sensor network is constructed in underground mines based on the ZigBee technology. Then a non-metric MDS algorithm is imported to estimate the reference nodes’ location. Fi...

  14. Research on target tracking in coal mine based on optical flow method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongye; Xiao, Qingwei

    2015-03-01

    To recognize, track and count the bolting machine in coal mine video images, a real-time target tracking method based on the Lucas-Kanade sparse optical flow is proposed in this paper. In the method, we judge whether the moving target deviate from its trajectory, predicate and correct the position of the moving target. The method solves the problem of failure to track the target or lose the target because of the weak light, uneven illumination and blocking. Using the VC++ platform and Opencv lib we complete the recognition and tracking. The validity of the method is verified by the result of the experiment.

  15. One method for life time estimation of a bucket wheel machine for coal moving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîlceanu, Fl; Iancu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Rehabilitation of outdated equipment with lifetime expired, or in the ultimate life period, together with high cost investments for their replacement, makes rational the efforts made to extend their life. Rehabilitation involves checking operational safety based on relevant expertise of metal structures supporting effective resistance and assessing the residual lifetime. The bucket wheel machine for coal constitute basic machine within deposits of coal of power plants. The estimate of remaining life can be done by checking the loading on the most stressed subassembly by Finite Element Analysis on a welding detail. The paper presents step-by-step the method of calculus applied in order to establishing the residual lifetime of a bucket wheel machine for coal moving using non-destructive methods of study (fatigue cracking analysis + FEA). In order to establish the actual state of machine and areas subject to study, was done FEA of this mining equipment, performed on the geometric model of mechanical analyzed structures, with powerful CAD/FEA programs. By applying the method it can be calculated residual lifetime, by extending the results from the most stressed area of the equipment to the entire machine, and thus saving time and money from expensive replacements.

  16. Field measurement of mixing degree in coal mixer by later activable tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokooji, Makoto; Uemura, Katsumi; Adachi, Syoichi

    1975-01-01

    Mixing effectiveness in a rotary drum mixer for coke production was examined. Though the method to use the dispersion of characteristic values such as ash content or volatile components is common for measuring the mixing effectiveness, here the later activable tracer method with radioisotopes was employed, because the former method includes the dispersion of the characteristic values for raw materials themselves, and is poor in detectability. In a preliminary test, the expression for mixing degree was determined, and the tracer nuclide was selected. Coal mixture was irradiated in the TRIGA II reactor of St. Paul University for 4 hours at 100 kW. then further preliminary test was performed for La and Mn which were selected among the typical usable elements listed up by reviewing their γ-spectra. Finally, Mn was adopted by comparing both elements regarding their time required for activation analysis and economy. Manganese concentration originally contained in the coal mixture was 38 ppm. Mixing degree after passing through the coal mixer was 99.8%. The results of the regular test are shown in a table, and indicate that the mixer fully attained its aim. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. Assessment of the radiation risk following from exploitation of Polish brown coals. Part 1. Brown coal in Polish industry; preparation of the method of determining the concentrations of main natural radioisotopes appearing in brown coal and its combustion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, M.; Niewiadomski, T.; Schwabenthan, J.

    1982-01-01

    Poland is rich in deposits of brown coal applicable for large-scale industry. These deposits are estimated at about 13.5.10 9 tons. In the near future, one-half of the electric power produced in Poland will be generated by power plants using brown coal. As a result, the yearly burden of the environment in Poland will amount to about 15.10 6 tons of ashes and slag, and about 0.79.10 6 tons of fly ash emitted into the atmosphere. Concentrations of radioactive elements in wastes following from the use of brown coal may in some cases be as much as 12 times higher that occuring from combustion products of lignite coal. Distribution of these wastes to the environment affects the population, through inhalation of fly-ashes, consumption of radioactively contaminated products and through living in dwellings constructed of building materials produced using industrial wastes. In order to determine the concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in brown coal and in products of its combustion, the method of identifying these elements through gamma-spectrometry has been prepared. Concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po will be determined using the method of electrodeposition on metallic silver, which has been tested in the laboratory. (author)

  18. Prediction method of unburnt carbon for coal fired utility boiler using image processing technique of combustion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Sugano, A.; Kimura, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a method predicting unburnt carbon in a coal fired utility boiler developed using an image processing technique. The method consists of an image processing unit and a furnace model unit. temperature distribution of combustion flames can be obtained through the former unit. The later calculates dynamics of the carbon reduction from the burner stages to the furnace outlet using coal feed rate, air flow rate, chemical and ash content of coal. An experimental study shows that the prediction error of the unburnt carbon can be reduced to 10%

  19. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  20. Neural network based method for conversion of solar radiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Ali N.; Muneer, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Generalized regression neural network is used to predict the solar radiation on tilted surfaces. ► The above network, amongst many such as multilayer perceptron, is the most successful one. ► The present neural network returns a relative mean absolute error value of 9.1%. ► The present model leads to a mean absolute error value of estimate of 14.9 Wh/m 2 . - Abstract: The receiving ends of the solar energy conversion systems that generate heat or electricity from radiation is usually tilted at an optimum angle to increase the solar incident on the surface. Solar irradiation data measured on horizontal surfaces is readily available for many locations where such solar energy conversion systems are installed. Various equations have been developed to convert solar irradiation data measured on horizontal surface to that on tilted one. These equations constitute the conventional approach. In this article, an alternative approach, generalized regression type of neural network, is used to predict the solar irradiation on tilted surfaces, using the minimum number of variables involved in the physical process, namely the global solar irradiation on horizontal surface, declination and hour angles. Artificial neural networks have been successfully used in recent years for optimization, prediction and modeling in energy systems as alternative to conventional modeling approaches. To show the merit of the presently developed neural network, the solar irradiation data predicted from the novel model was compared to that from the conventional approach (isotropic and anisotropic models), with strict reference to the irradiation data measured in the same location. The present neural network model was found to provide closer solar irradiation values to the measured than the conventional approach, with a mean absolute error value of 14.9 Wh/m 2 . The other statistical values of coefficient of determination and relative mean absolute error also indicate the

  1. Ecological aspects of instrumental, nuclear methods in coal control; Ekologiczne aspekty stosowania instrumentalnych, jadrowych metod analizy wegla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cywicka-Jakiel, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-02-01

    This paper presents a brief information concerning development and employment of nuclear methods for the automatic coal quality monitoring. Their importance for the environment protection is emphasized. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs.

  2. An investigation on characterizing dense coal-water slurry with ultrasound: theoretical and experimental method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, M.H.; Su, M.X.; Dong, L.L.; Shang, Z.T.; Cai, X.S. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-07-01

    Particle size distribution and concentration in particulate two-phase flow are important parameters in a wide variety of industrial areas. For the purpose of online characterization in dense coal-water slurries, ultrasonic methods have many advantages such as avoiding dilution, the capability for being used in real time, and noninvasive testing, while light-based techniques are not capable of providing information because optical methods often require the slurry to be diluted. In this article, the modified Urick equation including temperature modification, which can be used to determine the concentration by means of the measurement of ultrasonic velocity in a coal-water slurry, is evaluated on the basis of theoretical analysis and experimental study. A combination of the coupled-phase model and the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law is employed in this work, and the attenuation spectrum is measured within the frequency region from 3 to 12 MHz. Particle size distributions of the coal-water slurry at different volume fractions are obtained with the optimum regularization technique. Therefore, the ultrasonic technique presented in this work brings the possibility of using ultrasound for online measurements of dense slurries.

  3. Application of a validated gasification model to determine the impact of coal particle grinding size on carbon conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Mayank

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the implementation of a comprehensive, previously validated multiscale model of entrained flow gasification to examine the impact of particle size on the gasification process in two different gasifier designs; the MHI and the GE gasifier. We show that the impact of the particle size depends on whether the char conversion process is kinetically limited or boundary layer diffusion-limited. Fine grinding helps accelerate char conversion under diffusion-control conditions, whereas the impact is not as noticeable under kinetic-control operation. The availability of particular gasification agents, namely O2 in the earlier sections of the gasifier or CO2 and H2O in the latter sections, as well as the temperature, are shown to have an impact on the relative importance of kinetics versus diffusion limitation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of a validated gasification model to determine the impact of coal particle grinding size on carbon conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Mayank; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the implementation of a comprehensive, previously validated multiscale model of entrained flow gasification to examine the impact of particle size on the gasification process in two different gasifier designs; the MHI and the GE gasifier. We show that the impact of the particle size depends on whether the char conversion process is kinetically limited or boundary layer diffusion-limited. Fine grinding helps accelerate char conversion under diffusion-control conditions, whereas the impact is not as noticeable under kinetic-control operation. The availability of particular gasification agents, namely O2 in the earlier sections of the gasifier or CO2 and H2O in the latter sections, as well as the temperature, are shown to have an impact on the relative importance of kinetics versus diffusion limitation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Power conversion and control methods for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dachuan

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of renewable energy due to the growing concern over the pollution caused by fossil-fuel-based energy. Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, can be used to enhance the safety, reliability, sustainability, and transmission efficiency of a power system. This dissertation focuses on the power conversion and control for two major renewable-energy sources: PV and fuel cell. Firstly, a current-based, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed for PV energy. An economical converter system using the above scheme for converting the output from PV panels into 60 Hz AC voltage is developed and built. Secondly, a novel circuit model for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack that is useful in the design and analysis of fuel-cell-based power systems is proposed. This Pspice-based model uses elements available in the Pspice library with some modifications to represent both the static and dynamic responses of a PEM fuel-cell module. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Thirdly, a DSP-controlled three-phase induction-motor drive using constant voltage over frequency is built and can be used in a fuel-cell automobile. A hydrogen sensor is used in the drive to both sound an alarm and shut down the inverter trigger pulses through the DSP. Finally, a hybrid power system consisting of PV panels and fuel cell is proposed and built. In the proposed system, PV panels can supply most of the power when the sunlight is available, and the excess power required by the load is supplied by a fuel cell. Load sharing between a fuel cell (FC) and the PV panel is investigated by both simulation and experiments.

  7. Syngas conversion to a light alkene and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.

    2017-11-14

    Methods of producing a light alkene. The method comprises contacting syngas and tungstated zirconia to produce a product stream comprising at least one light alkene. The product stream is recovered. Methods of converting syngas to a light alkene are also disclosed. The method comprises heating a precursor of tungstated zirconia to a temperature of between about 350.degree. C. and about 550.degree. C. to form tungstated zirconia. Syngas is flowed over the tungstated zirconia to produce a product stream comprising at least one light alkene and the product stream comprising the at least one light alkene is recovered.

  8. Multi-views storage model and access methods of conversation history in converged IP messaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meilian; Yang, Dong; Zhou, Xing

    2013-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the requirements of conversation history storage in CPM (Converged IP Messaging) system, a Multi-views storage model and access methods of conversation history are proposed. The storage model separates logical views from physical storage and divides the storage into system managed region and user managed region. It simultaneously supports conversation view, system pre-defined view and user-defined view of storage. The rationality and feasibility of multi-view presentation, the physical storage model and access methods are validated through the implemented prototype. It proves that, this proposal has good scalability, which will help to optimize the physical data storage structure and improve storage performance.

  9. A Novel Acoustic Liquid Level Determination Method for Coal Seam Gas Wells Based on Autocorrelation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In coal seam gas (CSG wells, water is periodically removed from the wellbore in order to keep the bottom-hole flowing pressure at low levels, facilitating the desorption of methane gas from the coal bed. In order to calculate gas flow rate and further optimize well performance, it is necessary to accurately monitor the liquid level in real-time. This paper presents a novel method based on autocorrelation function (ACF analysis for determining the liquid level in CSG wells under intense noise conditions. The method involves the calculation of the acoustic travel time in the annulus and processing the autocorrelation signal in order to extract the weak echo under high background noise. In contrast to previous works, the non-linear dependence of the acoustic velocity on temperature and pressure is taken into account. To locate the liquid level of a coal seam gas well the travel time is computed iteratively with the non-linear velocity model. Afterwards, the proposed method is validated using experimental laboratory investigations that have been developed for liquid level detection under two scenarios, representing the combination of low pressure, weak signal, and intense noise generated by gas flowing and leakage. By adopting an evaluation indicator called Crest Factor, the results have shown the superiority of the ACF-based method compared to Fourier filtering (FFT. In the two scenarios, the maximal measurement error from the proposed method was 0.34% and 0.50%, respectively. The latent periodic characteristic of the reflected signal can be extracted by the ACF-based method even when the noise is larger than 1.42 Pa, which is impossible for FFT-based de-noising. A case study focused on a specific CSG well is presented to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, and also to demonstrate that signal processing with autocorrelation analysis can improve the sensitivity of the detection system.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of coal cleaning of fugitive elements. Part II. Analytical methods. Final report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, R.E.; Price, A.A.; Ford, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    This report contains the analytical and test methods which were used routinely at Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. during the project. The procedures contained herein should aid coal industry laboratories and others, including commercial laboratories, who might be required to determine trace elements in coal. Some of the procedures have been presented in previous BCR reports; however, this report includes additional procedures which are described in greater detail. Also presented are many as the more basic coal methods which have been in use at BCR for many years, or which have been adapted or refined from other standard reference sources for coal and water. The basis for choosing specific analytical procedures for trace elements in coal is somewhat complex. At BCR, atomic absorption was selected as the basic method in the development of these procedures. The choice was based on sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, practicability, and economy. Whenever possible, the methods developed had to be both adequate and amenable for use by coal industry laboratories by virtue of relative simplicity and cost. This is not to imply that the methods described are simple or inexpensive; however, atomic abosrption techniques do meet these criteria in relation to more complex and costly methods such as neutron activation, mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence, some of which require highly specialized personnel as well as access to sophisticated nuclear and computational facilities. Many of the analytical procedures for trace elements in coal have been developed or adapted specifically for the BCR studies. Their presentation is the principal purpose of this report.

  11. Validity of the CT to attenuation coefficient map conversion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, R.; Ahangari Shahdehi, R.; Fazilat Moadeli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The most important commercialized methods of attenuation correction in SPECT are based on attenuation coefficient map from a transmission imaging method. The transmission imaging system can be the linear source of radioelement or a X-ray CT system. The image of transmission imaging system is not useful unless to replacement of the attenuation coefficient or CT number with the attenuation coefficient in SPECT energy. In this paper we essay to evaluate the validity and estimate the error of the most used method of this transformation. The final result shows that the methods which use a linear or multi-linear curve accept a error in their estimation. The value of mA is not important but the patient thickness is very important and it can introduce a error more than 10 percent in the final result

  12. A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal by HPLC analysis of perchloroethylene extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.J.; Murphy, P.M.; Chaven, C.

    1993-01-01

    A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal is described. Elemental sulfur is extracted from the coal with hot perchloroethylene (PCE) (tetrachloroethene, C2Cl4) and quantitatively determined by HPLC analysis on a C18 reverse-phase column using UV detection. Calibration solutions were prepared from sublimed sulfur. Results of quantitative HPLC analyses agreed with those of a chemical/spectroscopic analysis. The HPLC method was found to be linear over the concentration range of 6 ?? 10-4 to 2 ?? 10-2 g/L. The lower detection limit was 4 ?? 10-4 g/L, which for a coal sample of 20 g is equivalent to 0.0006% by weight of coal. Since elemental sulfur is known to react slowly with hydrocarbons at the temperature of boiling PCE, standard solutions of sulfur in PCE were heated with coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample program. Pseudo-first-order uptake of sulfur by the coals was observed over several weeks of heating. For the Illinois No. 6 premium coal, the rate constant for sulfur uptake was 9.7 ?? 10-7 s-1, too small for retrograde reactions between solubilized sulfur and coal to cause a significant loss in elemental sulfur isolated during the analytical extraction. No elemental sulfur was produced when the following pure compounds were heated to reflux in PCE for up to 1 week: benzyl sulfide, octyl sulfide, thiane, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, sulfuric acid, or ferrous sulfate. A sluury of mineral pyrite in PCE contained elemental sulfur which increased in concentration with heating time. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  13. Final Scientific/Technical Report for project “Increasing the Rate and Extent of Microbial Coal to Methane Conversion through Optimization of Microbial Activity, Thermodynamics, and Reactive Transport”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Matthew [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2018-01-17

    Currently, coal bed methane (CBM) wells have a limited lifetime since the rate of methane removal via the installed wells is much faster than the in situ methane production rates. Along with water issues created by large amounts of CBM production water, the short life span of CBM wells is a huge deterrent to the environmental and economic feasibility of CBM production. The process of biogenic methanogenesis can be enhanced via the stimulation of the associated microbial communities that can convert the organic fractions of coal to methane. This process is termed Microbially-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (MECBM). However, the rates of methane production are still limited and long incubation times are necessary. We hypothesized that the elucidation of chemical and biological parameters that limited MECBM together with thermodynamic considerations would inform strategies to optimize the process under flow conditions. We incorporated microbiological, physicochemical, and engineering processes to develop a more sustainable CBM production scheme with native coal and native microorganisms. The proposed combination of microbial ecology and physiology as well as optimized engineering principles minimized key constraints that impact microbial coal conversion to methane under environmentally relevant conditions. The combined approach for bench-scale tests resulted in more effective and less environmentally burdensome coal-dependent methane production with the potential for H2O and CO2 management.

  14. Characterization and Gravimetric Analysis of the Dissolved Quartz in the Conversion of Coal Fly Ash to Sodalite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hilmi Mohamed; Zainab Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a waste product produced from the electrical power plant and hazardous towards the environment. However, the high composition of silica and alumina in the CFA makes it useful as raw materials in the zeolite synthesis. However, the presence of silica in the form of quartz in the CFA does not facilitate the transformation of CFA to zeolite at 100 degree Celsius and autogeneous pressure. In this study, CFA was converted to zeolites in various NaOH concentrations by microwave heating at various heating time. All synthesized product were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gravimetric analysis. XRD has shown that quite pure sodalite in nano size has been formed as early as 15 minutes and increase with time. Prolong heating up to 45 minutes has reduced the content of quartz to ca 20 %. Gravimetric analysis performed on the liquor of the reaction showed that the dissolved silica decrease with increase of heating time indicating that most of the dissolved quartz is used up to form sodalite framework. Hence, quartz of CFA did help in enhancing the crystallinity of the formed sodalite after prolong heating. (author)

  15. Application of dry separative methods for decreasing content the residues unburned coal and separation Fe from black coal flies ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Kaľavský

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Main obstacle using of fly ashes in building, that is its main consumer, is the residue of unburned coal; it is expressed of loss onignition - LOI. In present, the valid STN and EU standard limits the content of LOI to 3 – 5 %, in national conditions maximum 7 %.Application of processing technologies also has to assure utilization of fly ash that provides a possibility of complex utilizationof individual products obtained by modification.By means of corona separation, based on different conductivity of individual fly ash elements, it is possible to separate unburnedcoal particles. The fly ash sample from black coal burning in melting boiler that was deposited on fly ash deposit, content of LOIof dielectric particle 6,45 % at 61 % weight yield was achieved. In the samples taken from dry taking of fly ash the non-conductingproduct contained 7,72 % of LOI at 73 % of weight yield.

  16. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  17. Methods for producing and upgrading liquid hydrocarbons from Alberta coal. [Canada - Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Production of synthetic crude oils by co-processing coal and heavy oil or bitumen has been the subject of research efforts in Alberta since 1979. This booklet describes the treatment that is necessary for these crude oils to become suitable as feedstocks for refineries as evolved in research projects. Sections are headed: hydroprocessing of coal-based liquids; functional group analysis; isotopic studies of co-processing schemes; chemistry of coal liquefaction; co-processing process development; molecular interactions between heavy oil and coal species during co-processing; combined processing of coal, heavy oil and natural gas; and coprocessing of coal and bitumen with molten halide catalysts. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  18. A simple method for conversion of airborne gamma-ray spectra to ground level doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim

    1996-01-01

    A new and simple method for conversion of airborne NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectra to dose rates at ground level has been developed. By weighting the channel count rates with the channel numbers a spectrum dose index (SDI) is calculated for each spectrum. Ground level dose rates then are determined...... by multiplying the SDI by an altitude dependent conversion factor. The conversion factors are determined from spectra based on Monte Carlo calculations. The results are compared with measurements in a laboratory calibration set-up. IT-NT-27. June 1996. 27 p....

  19. Micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na; Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu; Feng, Huan

    2013-11-15

    In this research, the micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials has been investigated through SEM-EDS, (27)Al MAS NMR and (29)Si MAS NMR techniques, in which the used red mud was derived from the bauxite calcination method. The results show that the red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials mainly form fibrous C-A-S-H gel, needle-shaped/rod-like AFt in the early hydration period. With increasing of the hydration period, densification of the pastes were promoted resulting in the development of strength. EDS analysis shows that with the Ca/Si of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials increases, the average Ca/Si and Ca/(Si+Al) atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel increases, while the average Al/Si atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel decreases. MAS NMR analysis reveals that Al in the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials exists in the forms of Al(IV) and Al(VI), but mainly in the form of Al(VI). Increasing the Ca/Si ratio of raw material promotes the conversion of [AlO4] to [AlO6] and inhibits the combination between [AlO4] and [SiO4] to form C-A-S-H gel. Meanwhile, the polymerization degree of [SiO4] in the hydration products declines. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  1. METHODICAL SUPPORT OF IMPROVING THE ORGANIZATION OF MARKETING ACTIVITY OF THE COAL-MINING ENTERPRISES OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Zaloznova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to develop scientific and methodical approaches and proposals for improving the organization of marketing activity of the coal-mining enterprises of Ukraine in the conditions of instability in demand. Methodology. To achieve this goal used methods: statistical analysis, synthesis, comparison, structural and logical, expert evaluation, ranking. Results. Factors affecting the organization of the processes of sales activity of coal mining enterprises are revealed. Trends of the modern development of the domestic coal market in Ukraine are determined. The dynamics of marketing performance of coal mining enterprises is analysed. Proposals for improving the organization of marketing activity of the coal-mining enterprises are developed, principal among which are the formation and development of a system of contractual relationships with various categories of consumers of coal products; rationale for the creation of the syndicate as the organizational-economic mechanism of management of marketing activity of the coal-mining enterprises of various forms of ownership; formation of the methodical approach to the selection of an effective channel of coal sales; information support. Practical implications. The expected economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve the organization of marketing activity of the coal-mining enterprise is designed. It consists of cost savings on marketing by increasing the level of coherence between the enterprise and the loading and transport management at the conclusion of contracts for the provision of transport services; formation of optimal schedules of wagon movement; rational use of cars on duty; reducing maintenance time consumers of coal products. The introduction of a set of measures to improve the organization of marketing activity of enterprise through improving a service of various categories of consumers and improve the contractual relationships will contribute to the

  2. Geodynamic methods for assessing methane distribution in bituminous coal deposits and measures to intensify methane fluxes during mine gas drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Гончаров

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores states of methane within the coal bearing stratum and shows heavy dependency of the intrastratal gas migration on the forms of porous space and petrographic properties of coal. The adsorbed methane is found to be predominant in the coal of Kuznetsk Basin. Different forms of coal diffusion and filtration are described revealing their dependency on geological and thermodynamic conditions. The paper provides justification for the primary focus on geodynamic processes when designing gas drainage systems and applicability of morphometric methods and remote sensing data for their identification. The significance of researches into the processes activating exothermic reactions resulting in methane transition to free state is explained. The paper presents the results of using seismic-acoustic stimulation techniques as one of the practical approaches to addressing this issue. Results of successful industrial testing have been compared with the results of numerical modelling of stress-strain state, which can also be managed through seismic-acoustic stimulation.

  3. Abstracts of the first ORNL workshop on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: characterization and measurement with a view toward personnel protection. [PAH from coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R.B. (comp.)

    1976-11-01

    This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at a workshop on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as those produced by coal conversion technologies. Their often carcinogenic nature imposes the obligation of providing adequate protection and measurement devices for workers and for the general public. The primary questions are as follows: What should be measured. Where and how should it be measured. What are the maximum permissible concentrations. This workshop and future workshops are intended to bring these problems into better focus and to help establish a consensus on what needs to be done in order to provide a dosimetry effort that will ensure the adequate protection of personnel. There were 32 attendees of this one-day meeting. The papers and discussions included current industrial hygiene practices, the development of government agency guidelines for worker protection, and a wide range of analytical techniques for PAH detection, some of which are still in the research stage and are unproven. The workshop was held at ORNL on February 26, 1976.

  4. Application of the surface reflection seismic method to shallow coal exploration in the plains of Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyatsky, H.V.; Lawton, D.C. (University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1988-12-01

    A study was done to make a quantitative interpretation of reflection seismic data from the Highvale-Whitewood shallow coal deposit in central Alberta. Results showed that the data is useful in demonstrating coal thickness and stratigraphy as well as structural formation. Reflection character is affected by nature of the strata surrounding the coal deposit. 22 refs., 1 tab., 23 figs.

  5. Calorimetric Measurement for Internal Conversion Efficiency of Photovoltaic Cells/Modules Based on Electrical Substitution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Terubumi; Tatsuta, Muneaki; Abe, Yamato; Takesawa, Minato

    2018-02-01

    We have succeeded in the direct measurement for solar cell/module internal conversion efficiency based on a calorimetric method or electrical substitution method by which the absorbed radiant power is determined by replacing the heat absorbed in the cell/module with the electrical power. The technique is advantageous in that the reflectance and transmittance measurements, which are required in the conventional methods, are not necessary. Also, the internal quantum efficiency can be derived from conversion efficiencies by using the average photon energy. Agreements of the measured data with the values estimated from the nominal values support the validity of this technique.

  6. Neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors: a comparison of data sets and interpolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, C.S.; Killough, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Various segments of the health physics community advocate the use of different sets of neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors as a function of energy and different methods of interpolation between discrete points in those data sets. The major data sets and interpolation methods are used to calculate the spectrum average fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors for five spectra associated with the various shielded conditions of the Health Physics Research Reactor. The results obtained by use of the different data sets and interpolation methods are compared and discussed. (author)

  7. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  8. Effects of fractal pore on coal devolatilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongli; He, Rong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cao, Liyong [Dongfang Electric Corporation, Chengdu (China). Centre New Energy Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Coal devolatilization is numerically investigated by drop tube furnace and a coal pyrolysis model (Fragmentation and Diffusion Model). The fractal characteristics of coal and char pores are investigated. Gas diffusion and secondary reactions in fractal pores are considered in the numerical simulations of coal devolatilization, and the results show that the fractal dimension is increased firstly and then decreased later with increased coal conversions during devolatilization. The mechanisms of effects of fractal pores on coal devolatilization are analyzed.

  9. Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

  10. A Comparison between Three Methods of Language Sampling: Freeplay, Narrative Speech and Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Rezapour

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The spontaneous language sample analysis is an important part of the language assessment protocol. Language samples give us useful information about how children use language in the natural situations of daily life. The purpose of this study was to compare Conversation, Freeplay, and narrative speech in aspects of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU, Type-token ratio (TTR, and the number of utterances. Methods: By cluster sampling method, a total of 30 Semnanian five-year-old boys with normal speech and language development were selected from the active kindergartens in Semnan city. Conversation, Freeplay, and narrative speech were three applied language sample elicitation methods to obtain 15 minutes of children’s spontaneous language samples. Means for MLU, TTR, and the number of utterances are analyzed by dependent ANOVA. Results: The result showed no significant difference in number of elicited utterances among these three language sampling methods. Narrative speech elicited longer MLU than freeplay and conversation, and compared to freeplay and narrative speech, conversation elicited higher TTR. Discussion: Results suggest that in the clinical assessment of the Persian-language children, it is better to use narrative speech to elicit longer MLU and to use conversation to elicit higher TTR.

  11. Anchor-Free Localization Method for Mobile Targets in Coal Mine Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe natural conditions and complex terrain make it difficult to apply precise localization in underground mines. In this paper, an anchor-free localization method for mobile targets is proposed based on non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (Multi-dimensional Scaling: MDS and rank sequence. Firstly, a coal mine wireless sensor network is constructed in underground mines based on the ZigBee technology. Then a non-metric MDS algorithm is imported to estimate the reference nodes’ location. Finally, an improved sequence-based localization algorithm is presented to complete precise localization for mobile targets. The proposed method is tested through simulations with 100 nodes, outdoor experiments with 15 ZigBee physical nodes, and the experiments in the mine gas explosion laboratory with 12 ZigBee nodes. Experimental results show that our method has better localization accuracy and is more robust in underground mines.

  12. Anchor-free localization method for mobile targets in coal mine wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhongmin; Deng, Zhidong; Xu, Shuo; Xu, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Severe natural conditions and complex terrain make it difficult to apply precise localization in underground mines. In this paper, an anchor-free localization method for mobile targets is proposed based on non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (Multi-dimensional Scaling: MDS) and rank sequence. Firstly, a coal mine wireless sensor network is constructed in underground mines based on the ZigBee technology. Then a non-metric MDS algorithm is imported to estimate the reference nodes' location. Finally, an improved sequence-based localization algorithm is presented to complete precise localization for mobile targets. The proposed method is tested through simulations with 100 nodes, outdoor experiments with 15 ZigBee physical nodes, and the experiments in the mine gas explosion laboratory with 12 ZigBee nodes. Experimental results show that our method has better localization accuracy and is more robust in underground mines.

  13. Analysis of coals and biomass pyrolysis using the distributed activation energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Chen, Zhichao; Qian, Juan; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Qunyi

    2009-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of coals and biomass was studied using thermogravimetric analysis with the distributed activation energy model. The integral method resulted in Datong bituminous coal conversions of 3-73% at activation energies of 100-486 kJ/mol. The corresponding frequency factors were e(19.5)-e(59.0)s(-1). Jindongnan lean coal conversions were 8-52% at activation energies of 100-462 kJ/mol. Their corresponding frequency factors were e(13.0)-e(55.8)s(-1). The conversion of corn-stalk skins were 1-84% at activation energies of 62-169 kJ/mol with frequency factors of e(10.8)-e(26.5)s(-1). Datong bituminous coal, Jindongnan lean coal and corn-stalk skins had approximate Gaussian distribution functions with linear ln k(0) to E relationships.

  14. ATR technique, an appropriate method for determining the degree of conversion in dental giomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prejmerean, Cristina; Prodan, Doina; Vlassa, Mihaela; Prejmerean, Vasile; Cuc, Stanca; Moldovan, Marioara; Streza, Mihaela; Buruiana, Tinca; Colceriu, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Dental light-curing giomers were developed to combine the favourable properties of diacrylic resin composites (DRCs) and glass-ionomer cements (GICs) in a single material and to eliminate their inherent drawbacks. Giomers are characterized by their aesthetic appearance, high mechanical properties, adhesion to dental tissues as well as fluoride release and recharge abilities. The qualities of the giomers are greatly influenced by the level of conversion of the component resins. Infrared spectroscopy is one of the most largely used techniques for the determination of the degree of conversion in resin-based dental materials. However different results were obtained due to the performances of the used methods. The present work presents the determination of conversion degree in a series of dental copolymers and their corresponding giomers using transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and an attenuated total reflection technique (ATR) technique, respectively, the main aim being the study of the influence of the materials composition and of the light curing modes upon the achieved conversion in the cured giomers. Beautifil II commercial giomer was used as a control. A halogen lamp and a diode-blue LED lamp were used for the curing of the materials. The results showed that the composition of the resins greatly influenced the conversion. The highest conversions (up to 79%) were obtained in the case of the experimental giomers which contained the experimental Bis-GMA urethane analogue, followed by the Beautifil II giomer (61%) and experimental giomers based on commercial Bis-GMA (up to 50%), respectively. The resins light-cured by using the diode-blue LED lamp presented slightly higher conversions than the resins cured by halogen lamp. The study demonstrates the possibility to evaluate easily and reproducibly the conversion in light-curing composite materials with complex chemical composition and structure, particularly in the case of giomers by using the

  15. A case study of multi-seam coal mine entry stability analysis with strength reduction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Ihsan Berk; Esterhuizen, Gabriel S; Klemetti, Ted; Murphy, Michael M; Sumner, James; Sloan, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the advantage of using numerical models with the strength reduction method (SRM) to evaluate entry stability in complex multiple-seam conditions is demonstrated. A coal mine under variable topography from the Central Appalachian region is used as a case study. At this mine, unexpected roof conditions were encountered during development below previously mined panels. Stress mapping and observation of ground conditions were used to quantify the success of entry support systems in three room-and-pillar panels. Numerical model analyses were initially conducted to estimate the stresses induced by the multiple-seam mining at the locations of the affected entries. The SRM was used to quantify the stability factor of the supported roof of the entries at selected locations. The SRM-calculated stability factors were compared with observations made during the site visits, and the results demonstrate that the SRM adequately identifies the unexpected roof conditions in this complex case. It is concluded that the SRM can be used to effectively evaluate the likely success of roof supports and the stability condition of entries in coal mines.

  16. Method of predicting air pollution of coal mines with use of new synthetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V; Putilina, O.N.

    1988-08-01

    Presents a methodological approach that enables on the basis of laboratory experiment to give a hygienic evaluation of synthetic materials used in coal mines to harden coal and rock masses to prevent rock falls and caving and for hermetization of ventilation equipment. Polyurethane, carbamidoformaldehyde and phenolformaldehyde plastic foam are studied in an experiment tha examined quantitative emission ofsubstances from their original components in the process of forming contaminants. Synthetics in a beaker are placed in an exsiccator, mixed with air, samples of volatiles particles collected and dynamics of their emission are calculated using regression and linear equations. Amounts of 2,4- toluenediisocyanate and diethylamine produced by polyurethane, and formaldehyde and methanol from carbamidoformaldehyde did not exceed limits of maximum concentrations; phenolformaldehyde plastic foam produced amounts of phenols and formaldehydes that are significantly higher than maximal permissible concentrations. Laboratory procedure and use of formulae were confirmed by testing air in a Donetsugol' mine. Polyurethane and carbamidoformaldehyde didnot contaminate air above hygienically safe limits, while phenolformaldehyde plastic foam exceeded safety limits proving need for hygienic measures to protect miners from its contaminants. Adequacy of laboratory-mathematical method to evaluate emissions of harmful chemicals from resins under mining conditions shows value of laboratory testing of many resins for safety in mine use. 4 refs.

  17. A novel MPPT method for enhancing energy conversion efficiency taking power smoothing into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jizhen; Meng, Hongmin; Hu, Yang; Lin, Zhongwei; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We discuss the disadvantages of conventional OTC MPPT method. • We study the relationship between enhancing efficiency and power smoothing. • The conversion efficiency is enhanced and the volatility of power is suppressed. • Small signal analysis is used to verify the effectiveness of proposed method. - Abstract: With the increasing capacity of wind energy conversion system (WECS), the rotational inertia of wind turbine is becoming larger. And the efficiency of energy conversion is significantly reduced by the large inertia. This paper proposes a novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method to enhance the efficiency of energy conversion for large-scale wind turbine. Since improving the efficiency may increase the fluctuations of output power, power smoothing is considered as the second control objective. A T-S fuzzy inference system (FIS) is adapted to reduce the fluctuations according to the volatility of wind speed and accelerated rotor speed by regulating the compensation gain. To verify the effectiveness, stability and good dynamic performance of the new method, mechanism analyses, small signal analyses, and simulation studies are carried out based on doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine, respectively. Study results show that both the response speed and the efficiency of proposed method are increased. In addition, the extra fluctuations of output power caused by the high efficiency are reduced effectively by the proposed method with FIS

  18. Coal liquefaction still a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overberg, H

    1982-03-19

    Liquefaction of coal is not profitable in West Germany and will not be so far some time to coal. This is true for West German and imported coal. The result may be improved but not changed by combined conversion of coal and top residues of distilleries. These are the main statements of a study carried out by Messrs. Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen, on behalf of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. The results of the study are presented in 20 volumes.

  19. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  20. Use of economic statistical method with the analysis of capital expenditure (on the basis of the coal industry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidchenko, N V

    1979-01-01

    It is shown, that the effective method in analyzing capital expenditure is the use of the economic statistical method. It is a result of the fact that capital expenditure is formed under the influence of a number of factors. On the basis of the coal industry, a model of capital expenditure, in which we found reflection of mining geological, technical, and technical conditions of production, was constructed. A level of capital expenditure is analyzed for various groups of mines and recommendations of a better use of basic industrial capital at coal enterprises is analyzed.

  1. Hearsay Ethnography: Conversational Journals as a Method for Studying Culture in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Susan Cotts; Swidler, Ann

    2009-04-01

    Social scientists have long struggled to develop methods adequate to their theoretical understanding of meaning as collective and dynamic. While culture is widely understood as an emergent property of collectivities, the methods we use keep pulling us back towards interview-situated accounts and an image of culture as located in individual experience. Scholars who seek to access supra-individual semiotic structures by studying public rituals and other collectively-produced texts then have difficulty capturing the dynamic processes through which such meanings are created and changed in situ. To try to capture more effectively the way meaning is produced and re-produced in everyday life, we focus here on conversational interactions-the voices and actions that constitute the relational space among actors. Conversational journals provide us with a method: the analysis of texts produced by cultural insiders who keep journals of who-said-what-to-whom in conversations they overhear or events they participate in during the course of their daily lives. We describe the method, distinguishing it from other approaches and noting its drawbacks. We then illustrate the methodological advantages of conversational journals with examples from our texts. We end with a discussion of the method's potential in our setting as well as in other places and times.

  2. Effect of Cooling Methods on Methane Conversion via Dielectric-Barrier Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baowei; Yang Kuanhui; Xu Genhui

    2008-01-01

    Effects of cooling methods on stability and methane conversion rate using dielectric-barrier discharges (DBD) were systematically investigated in this article. The results showed that the methane conversion rate was as high as 44.43% in a pure methane system at a flow rate of 100 mL ± min -1 and an input power of 234.2 W with air cooling. A dark greenish and soft film-like carbon was deposited on the outer surface of quartz tube when the outer electrode was water-cooled, which decreased the methane conversion. With air cooling of inner electrode the selectivity of C 2 hydrocarbons was higher than that with other cooling methods, while the C 3 hydrocarbons had higher selectivity with flowing water cooling. Cooling the inner electrode could restrain the carbon deposition, but would decrease the methane conversion rate. The stability of both reaction and plasma operation can be improved through cooling the reactor. From thermodynamic analysis, it was found that the effective collisions frequency among the reactant molecules and free electrons (e - ) increased with temperature, which in turn led to a higher methane conversion rate and a change in the distribution of products.

  3. Review biodepyritisation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, C.; Sukla, L.B.; Misra, V.N. [Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a detailed summary of the recent and past research activities in the area of biodesulfurisation of coal. It provides information about microorganisms important for biodesulfurisation of coal, with the emphasis on Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The review presents an insight into various methods of desulfurisation of coal combining physical and biological methods. Also, there are discussions on coal structure, distribution, mechanism and kinetics of pyrite oxidation and jarosite precipitation. Finally, areas requiring further research are identified.

  4. Promotive study on preparation of basis for foreign coal import. Study on coal renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Yoji [Japan Economic Research Institute, Tokyo

    1988-09-16

    This is an interim report on the coal renaissance study carried out in 1987 as a part of the Promotive Study on Preparation of Basis for Foreign Coal Import. The background and ideology of coal renaissance, future aspect of demand for coal, problems pertaining to the expansion of application, and a proposal for the expansion of coal usage are described in order. The role of coal expected as an alternate fuel for petroleum, development of new application fields for coal, conversion to coal, contribution of Japan to the stablization of international coal supply are outlined. Coal renaissance aims, based on technology, at stimulation of coal demand, change in the image of coal, and the utilization of the accumulated abundant knowhow. The aspect of coal demand in 2000, solution and current status of various restricting factors relating to the use of coal in general industry, and the remaining problems are discussed. 6 figures, 10 tables.

  5. Multimodal Corpus Analysis as a Method for Ensuring Cultural Usability of Embodied Conversational Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose the method of multimodal corpus analysis to collect enough empirical data for modeling the behavior of embodied conversational agents. This is a prerequisite to ensure the usability of such complex interactive systems. So far, the development of embodied agents suffers fr...

  6. En introduktion til CARM: The Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Bierring

    2014-01-01

    Dette working paper er en introduktion til og kort diskussion af workshopmetoden Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method (CARM), som er en metode udviklet til at afholde workshops på baggrund af resultater fra interaktionsanalyser. Artiklen er den første introduktion til CARM-metoden på dansk, og...

  7. Investigation to develop methods for removal of oxygen from coals. [None

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, N.E.; Khandhadia, P.S.; Furimsky, E.

    1985-02-01

    Several inorganic reducing agents of various chemical characteristics have been tested to see if they reduce the oxygen contained in coal. It was found that oxygen content of coals decreased when they were heated in only water (blank runs). The treatment with the reducing agents containing sulphur did not increase the oxygen removal over that achieved in the blank runs. However, it appears that the ferrous salt catalytically deoxygenated both the lignite and bituminous coals. 5 references.

  8. Review of coal-water fuel pulverization technology and atomization quality registration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of coal-water fuel application in industrial power engineering are considered and described. Two main problems and disadvantages of this fuel type are suggested. The paper presents information about liquid fuel atomization technologies and provides data on nozzle type for coal-water fuel pulverization. This article also mentions some of the existing technologies for coal-water slurry spraying quality determination.

  9. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  10. Conversation analysis as a method for investigating interaction in care home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, John

    2014-11-01

    This article gives an outline of how the socio-linguistic approach of conversation analysis can be applied to the analysis of carer-patient interaction in care homes. A single case study from a routine encounter in a residential care home is presented. This is used to show how the conversation analysis method works, the kinds of interactional and communication features it can expose, and what specific contribution this kind of micro-interactional approach may make to improving quality of care in these environments. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Froth flotation as a promising method of coal preparation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.R. de; Almeida, S L.M. de; Santos, A.T. dos

    1979-01-01

    Run-of-mine coal and pre-washed coal from Santa Catarina, Brazil, were characterized using washability curves, and by particle analysis after crushing. Bench-scale froth flotation tests were then conducted with the pre-washed coal, using kerosene and diesel oil as the collectors and pine oil as the frother. The influence of starch (as depressor) on flotation was also studied. The effects of feed particle size; pH; collector, frother and depressor additions; and flotation time were investigated. A 9.5% ash content coal was obtained with a mass recovery of about 29%. (17 refs.)

  12. Method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of coal mine dust using gamma-ray backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of particulate material, particularly coal mine dust, include placing a sample of the particulate material in a container to define a pair of angularly oriented surfaces of the sample, directing an incident gamma-ray beam from a radiation source at one surface of the sample and detecting gamma-ray backscatter from the other surface of the sample with a radiation detector having an output operating a display to indicate incombustible content of the sample. The positioning of the source and detector along different surfaces of the sample permits the depth of the scattering volume defined by intersection of the incident beam and a detection cone from the detector to be selected such that variations in scattered radiation produced by variations in density of the sample are compensated by variations in the attenuation of the incident beam and the gamma-ray backscatter. 17 claims 5 figures

  13. Safety assessment on the key equipment of coal gasification based on SDG-HAZOP method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Xu, X.; Ma, X.; Wu, C. [Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China)

    2008-07-15

    An example of the coal gasification process was introduced after the explanation of the graphical representation method known as the sign directed graph (SDG). The systematic modeling procedure was also introduced. Firstly, the key variables of the whole system were selected. Then the relationship equations were listed. Finally, the SDG-HAZOP (hazard and operability) model was derived after attaching the abnormal causes and adverse consequences. In order to get a credible SDG model, the model was checked by technicians in the factory. Based on computer-aided analysis, this model can express almost all the dangerous features of the gasification process. It can also reveal the mechanisms of danger propagation, which may effectively help safety engineers to identify potential hazards. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Prediction of groundwater inrush into coal mines from aquifers underlying the coal seams in China: application of vulnerability index method to Zhangcun Coal Mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Zhou, Wanfang; Wang, Jinhua; Xie, Shuhan

    2009-05-01

    Groundwater inrush is a geohazard that can significantly impact safe operations of the coal mines in China. Its occurrence is controlled by many factors and processes are often not amenable to mathematical expressions. To evaluate the water inrush risk, Professor Wu and his colleagues have proposed the vulnerability index approach by coupling the artificial neural network (ANN) and geographic information system (GIS). The detailed procedures of using this innovative approach are shown in a case study. Firstly, the powerful spatial data analysis functions of GIS was used to establish the thematic layer of each of the main factors that control the water inrush, and then to choose the training sample on the thematic layer with the ANN-BP Arithmetic. Secondly, the ANN evaluation model of the water inrush was established to determine the threshold value for each risk level with a histogram of the water inrush vulnerability index. As a result, the mine area was divided into four regions with different vulnerability levels and they served as the general guidelines for the mine operations.

  15. Zoning method for environmental engineering geological patterns in underground coal mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang; Li, Wenping; Wang, Qiqing

    2018-09-01

    Environmental engineering geological patterns (EEGPs) are used to express the trend and intensity of eco-geological environment caused by mining in underground coal mining areas, a complex process controlled by multiple factors. A new zoning method for EEGPs was developed based on the variable-weight theory (VWT), where the weights of factors vary with their value. The method was applied to the Yushenfu mining area, Shaanxi, China. First, the mechanism of the EEGPs caused by mining was elucidated, and four types of EEGPs were proposed. Subsequently, 13 key control factors were selected from mining conditions, lithosphere, hydrosphere, ecosphere, and climatic conditions; their thematic maps were constructed using ArcGIS software and remote-sensing technologies. Then, a stimulation-punishment variable-weight model derived from the partition of basic evaluation unit of study area, construction of partition state-variable-weight vector, and determination of variable-weight interval was built to calculate the variable weights of each factor. On this basis, a zoning mathematical model of EEGPs was established, and the zoning results were analyzed. For comparison, the traditional constant-weight theory (CWT) was also applied to divide the EEGPs. Finally, the zoning results obtained using VWT and CWT were compared. The verification of field investigation indicates that VWT is more accurate and reliable than CWT. The zoning results are consistent with the actual situations and the key of planning design for the rational development of coal resources and protection of eco-geological environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder: a mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaan RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard A Kanaan,1,2 David Armstrong,3 Simon Wessely2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Psychological Medicine, King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Weston Education Centre, Denmark Hill, 3Department of General Practice, King’s College London, Capital House, London, UK Objective: Since DSM-5 removed the requirement for a psychosocial formulation, neurologists have been able to make the diagnosis of conversion disorder without psychiatric input. We sought to examine whether neurologists and specialist psychiatrists concurred with this approach.Design: We used mixed methods, first surveying all the neurologists in the UK and then interviewing the neuropsychiatrists in a large UK region on the role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder.Results: Of the surveyed neurologists, 76% did not think that psychiatrists were essential for the diagnosis and 71% thought that psychiatrists did not even consider conversion disorder when referred a case. The neuropsychiatrists who were interviewed held complex models of conversion disorder. They believed all cases could be explained psychosocially in theory, but the nature of the diagnostic encounter often prevented it in practice; all felt that psychosocial formulation could be very helpful and some felt that it was essential to diagnosis.Conclusion: Although neurologists do not think psychiatrists are required for diagnosing conversion disorder, specialist psychiatrists disagree, at least in some cases. Keywords: functional neurological disorders, classification, qualitative research, survey, psychiatric formulation

  17. The role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Since DSM-5 removed the requirement for a psychosocial formulation, neurologists have been able to make the diagnosis of conversion disorder without psychiatric input. We sought to examine whether neurologists and specialist psychiatrists concurred with this approach. We used mixed methods, first surveying all the neurologists in the UK and then interviewing the neuropsychiatrists in a large UK region on the role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder. Of the surveyed neurologists, 76% did not think that psychiatrists were essential for the diagnosis and 71% thought that psychiatrists did not even consider conversion disorder when referred a case. The neuropsychiatrists who were interviewed held complex models of conversion disorder. They believed all cases could be explained psychosocially in theory, but the nature of the diagnostic encounter often prevented it in practice; all felt that psychosocial formulation could be very helpful and some felt that it was essential to diagnosis. Although neurologists do not think psychiatrists are required for diagnosing conversion disorder, specialist psychiatrists disagree, at least in some cases.

  18. Coal chemistry and technology. Komur Kimyasi ve Teknolojisi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kural, O [ed.

    1988-01-01

    The 18 chapters cover the following topics: mining in Turkey; formation, petrography and classification of coal; chemical and physical properties of coal; mechanical properties of coal; spontaneous combustion of coal and the methods of prevention; sampling of coal; coal preparation and plants; desulfurization of coal; bituminous coal and its consumption; lignite and its consumption; world coal trade and transportation; other important carbon fuels; briquetting of coal; carbonization and coking formed coke; liquefaction of coal; gasification of coal; underground gasification of coal; and combustion models, fluidized-bed combustion, furnaces. An English-Turkish coal dictionary is included. 641 refs., 244 figs., 108 tabs.

  19. Development and validation of a method to predict coal pillar life in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Merwe, J.N. [Pretoria Univ., Dept. of Mining Engineering (South Africa)

    2005-07-01

    One of the most difficult aspects of mine closure procedures, is to predict the long term stability of pillars in the case of coal mining. In South African coal mining, pillars have been designed since the late 1960's with the aid of a pillar strength formula based on statistical analysis of failed pillar cases by the well known team of Salamon and Munro. They developed the widely used power formula for pillar strength. Since that time, however, the data base of failed pillars has effectively doubled in size and re-analysis of the new data indicated that the original pillar strength of small pillars may have been over estimated. The data was then extensively re-analysed and a more effective linear formula for pillar strength was found. The most important differences between the two formulae are that the predicted strength of small pillars are lower and the strength of larger pillars, higher with the new formula. However, neither of the two methods explicitly cater for the prediction of the expected time of stability of coal pillars. No direct correlation between the safety factors and the period of stability of pillars could be found. It was then determined that the most frequent mode of pillar failure was by progressive scaling. Using the new formula to determine a minimum value of pillar safety factor (i.e. the safety factor at which failure can be taken as guaranteed to occur), the final sizes - after scaling - at which the failed pillars had to be in order to fail, were determined. The differences between the original dimensions and the postulated final dimensions were then used to calculate a rate of pillar scaling. The rate was then re-applied to the original data bases of both failed and intact pillar cases and distinct differences were found. The projected lives of the failed pillars were substantially shorter than the projected lives of the intact pillars. While this inspired confidence in the procedure, it was still based on an assumed and unproven

  20. Development and validation of a method to predict coal pillar life in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Merwe, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most difficult aspects of mine closure procedures, is to predict the long term stability of pillars in the case of coal mining. In South African coal mining, pillars have been designed since the late 1960's with the aid of a pillar strength formula based on statistical analysis of failed pillar cases by the well known team of Salamon and Munro. They developed the widely used power formula for pillar strength. Since that time, however, the data base of failed pillars has effectively doubled in size and re-analysis of the new data indicated that the original pillar strength of small pillars may have been over estimated. The data was then extensively re-analysed and a more effective linear formula for pillar strength was found. The most important differences between the two formulae are that the predicted strength of small pillars are lower and the strength of larger pillars, higher with the new formula. However, neither of the two methods explicitly cater for the prediction of the expected time of stability of coal pillars. No direct correlation between the safety factors and the period of stability of pillars could be found. It was then determined that the most frequent mode of pillar failure was by progressive scaling. Using the new formula to determine a minimum value of pillar safety factor (i.e. the safety factor at which failure can be taken as guaranteed to occur), the final sizes - after scaling - at which the failed pillars had to be in order to fail, were determined. The differences between the original dimensions and the postulated final dimensions were then used to calculate a rate of pillar scaling. The rate was then re-applied to the original data bases of both failed and intact pillar cases and distinct differences were found. The projected lives of the failed pillars were substantially shorter than the projected lives of the intact pillars. While this inspired confidence in the procedure, it was still based on an assumed and unproven rate

  1. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    Energi, Haesselbyverket, has now invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping wastes of rubber are mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1997 was 370 SEK/ton or 10 per cent higher than in 1996. For the world, the average import price fell to 46 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1998 as a result of the crisis in Asia. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO 2 -removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, Vaesteraas, has newly invested in a ca talytic NO x -cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO x -burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 800 tons in 1997, a minor increase compared to 1996. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1.7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimize the

  2. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  3. A high resolution interferometric method to measure local swelling due to CO2 exposure in coal and shale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluymakers, A.; Liu, J.; Kohler, F.; Renard, F.; Dysthe, D.

    2018-01-01

    We present an experimental method to study time-dependent, CO2-induced, local topography changes in mm-sized composite samples, plus results showing heterogeneous swelling of coal and shale on the nano- to micrometer scale. These results were obtained using high resolution interferometry

  4. A new experimental method to determine the CO2 sorption capacity of coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, S.; Peach, C.J.; Spiers, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced Coalbed Methane production (ECBM) involves the injection of CO2 to desorb CH4 from coal seams, and offers significant potential for deploying Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). An essential starting parameter, determined in the laboratory, is the absolute CO2 storage potential of the coal

  5. Planning of fuel coal imports using a mixed integer programming method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    In the public utility and commercial fuel industries, commodities from multiple supply sources are sometimes blended before use to reduce costs and assure quality. A typical example of these commodities is the fuel coal used in coal fired power plants. The diversity of the supply sources for these plants makes the planning and scheduling of fuel coal logistics difficult, especially for a power company that has more than one power plant. This study proposes a mixed integer programming model that provides planning and scheduling of coal imports from multiple suppliers for the Taiwan Power Company. The objective is to minimize total inventory cost by minimizing procurement cost, transportation cost and holding cost. Constraints on the system include company procurement policy, power plant demand, harbor unloading capacity, inventory balance equations, blending requirements, and safety stock. An example problem is presented using the central coal logistics system of the Taiwan Power Company to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model

  6. Planning of fuel coal imports using a mixed integer programming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, L.H. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan). Dept. of Mineral and Petroleum Engineering

    1997-12-31

    In the public utility and commercial fuel industries, commodities from multiple supply sources are sometimes blended before use to reduce costs and assure quality. A typical example of these commodities is the fuel coal used in coal fired power plants. The diversity of the supply sources for these plants makes the planning and scheduling of fuel coal logistics difficult, especially for a power company that has more than one power plant. This study proposes a mixed integer programming model that provides planning and scheduling of coal imports from multiple suppliers for the Taiwan Power Company. The objective is to minimize total inventory cost by minimizing procurement cost, transportation cost and holding cost. Constraints on the system include company procurement policy, power plant demand, harbor unloading capacity, inventory balance equations, blending requirements, and safety stock. An example problem is presented using the central coal logistics system of the Taiwan Power Company to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model.

  7. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  8. An optimized rapid bisulfite conversion method with high recovery of cell-free DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shaohua; Long, Fei; Cheng, Juanbo; Huang, Daixin

    2017-12-19

    Methylation analysis of cell-free DNA is a encouraging tool for tumor diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis. Sensitivity of methylation analysis is a very important matter due to the tiny amounts of cell-free DNA available in plasma. Most current methods of DNA methylation analysis are based on the difference of bisulfite-mediated deamination of cytosine between cytosine and 5-methylcytosine. However, the recovery of bisulfite-converted DNA based on current methods is very poor for the methylation analysis of cell-free DNA. We optimized a rapid method for the crucial steps of bisulfite conversion with high recovery of cell-free DNA. A rapid deamination step and alkaline desulfonation was combined with the purification of DNA on a silica column. The conversion efficiency and recovery of bisulfite-treated DNA was investigated by the droplet digital PCR. The optimization of the reaction results in complete cytosine conversion in 30 min at 70 °C and about 65% of recovery of bisulfite-treated cell-free DNA, which is higher than current methods. The method allows high recovery from low levels of bisulfite-treated cell-free DNA, enhancing the analysis sensitivity of methylation detection from cell-free DNA.

  9. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1994-04-01

    The conversion of coal by an economically feasible catalytic method requires the catalyst to diffuse into the coal sample so that hydrogenation catalysis can occur from within as well as the normal surface catalysis. Thus an estimate of the size, shape, and reactivity, of the pores in the coal before and after the swelling with different solvents is needed so that an optimum sized catalyst will be used. This study characterizes the accessible area found in Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) using a EPR spin probe technique. The properties deduced in this manner correlate well with the findings deduced from SANS, NMR, SEM, SAXS and light scattering measurements. The use of nitroxide spin probes with swelling solvents is a simple way in which to gain an understanding of the pore structure of coals, how it changes in the presence of swelling solvents and the chemistry that occurs at the pore wall. Hydrogen bonding sites occur primarily in low-rank coals and vary in reactive strength as rank is varied. Unswelled coals contain small, spherical pores which disappear when coal is swelled in the presence of polar solvents. Swelling studies of polystyrene-divinyl benzene copolymers implied that coal is polymeric, contains significant quantities of covalent cross-links and the covalent cross-link density increases with rank.

  10. Studies of the fate of sulfur trioxide in coal-fired utility boilers based on modified selected condensation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Jiang, Wu; Chen, Chien-Wei; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2010-05-01

    The formation of sulfur trioxide (SO(3)) in coal-fired utility boilers can have negative effects on boiler performance and operation, such as fouling and corrosion of equipment, efficiency loss in the air preheater (APH), increase in stack opacity, and the formation of PM(2.5). Sulfur trioxide can also compete with mercury when bonding with injected activated carbons. Tests in a lab-scale reactor confirmed there are major interferences between fly ash and SO(3) during SO(3) sampling. A modified SO(3) procedure to maximize the elimination of measurement biases, based on the inertial-filter-sampling and the selective-condensation-collecting of SO(3), was applied in SO(3) tests in three full-scale utility boilers. For the two units burning bituminous coal, SO(3) levels starting at 20 to 25 ppmv at the inlet to the selective catalytic reduction (SCR), increased slightly across the SCR, owing to catalytic conversion of SO(2) to SO(3,) and then declined in other air pollutant control device (APCD) modules downstream to approximately 5 ppmv and 15 ppmv at the two sites, respectively. In the unit burning sub-bituminous coal, the much lower initial concentration of SO(3) estimated to be approximately 1.5 ppmv at the inlet to the SCR was reduced to about 0.8 ppmv across the SCR and to about 0.3 ppmv at the exit of the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The SO(3) removal efficiency across the WFGD scrubbers at the three sites was generally 35% or less. Reductions in SO(3) across either the APH or the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in units burning high-sulfur bituminous coal were attributed to operating temperatures being below the dew point of SO(3).

  11. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. An Effective Method to Detect Volatile Intermediates Generated in the Bioconversion of Coal to Methane by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry after In-Situ Extraction Using Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction under Strict Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianmin; Wang, Baoyu; Tai, Chao; Wu, Li; Zhao, Han; Guan, Jiadong; Chen, Linyong

    2016-01-01

    Bioconversion of coal to methane has gained increased attention in recent decades because of its economic and environmental advantages. However, the mechanism of this process is difficult to study in depth, partly because of difficulties associated with the analysis of intermediates generated in coal bioconversion. In this investigation, we report on an effective method to analyze volatile intermediates generated in the bioconversion of coal under strict anaerobic conditions. We conduct in-situ extraction of intermediates using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bioconversion simulation equipment was modified and combined with a solid-phase micro-extraction device. In-situ extraction could be achieved by using the combined units, to avoid a breakdown in anaerobic conditions and to maintain the experiment continuity. More than 30 intermediates were identified qualitatively in the conversion process, and the variation in trends of some typical intermediates has been discussed. Volatile organic acids (C2-C7) were chosen for a quantitative study of the intermediates because of their importance during coal bioconversion to methane. Fiber coating, extraction time, and solution acidity were optimized in the solid-phase micro-extraction procedure. The pressure was enhanced during the bioconversion process to investigate the influence of headspace pressure on analyte extraction. The detection limits of the method ranged from 0.0006 to 0.02 mmol/L for the volatile organic acids and the relative standard deviations were between 4.6% and 11.5%. The volatile organic acids (C2-C7) generated in the bioconversion process were 0.01-1.15 mmol/L with a recovery range from 80% to 105%. The developed method is useful for further in-depth research on the bioconversion of coal to methane.

  13. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  14. Application of a spectrum standardization method for carbon analysis in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiongwei; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Liu, Jianmin; Ni, Weidou

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of coal carbon content using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is limited by its low precision and accuracy. A modified spectrum standardization method was proposed to achieve both reproducible and accurate results for the quantitative analysis of carbon content in coal using LIBS. The proposed method used the molecular emissions of diatomic carbon (C2) and cyanide (CN) to compensate for the diminution of atomic carbon emissions in high volatile content coal samples caused by matrix effect. The compensated carbon line intensities were further converted into an assumed standard state with standard plasma temperature, electron number density, and total number density of carbon, under which the carbon line intensity is proportional to its concentration in the coal samples. To obtain better compensation for fluctuations of total carbon number density, the segmental spectral area was used and an iterative algorithm was applied that is different from our previous spectrum standardization calculations. The modified spectrum standardization model was applied to the measurement of carbon content in 24 bituminous coal samples. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has superior performance over the generally applied normalization methods. The average relative standard deviation was 3.21%, the coefficient of determination was 0.90, the root mean square error of prediction was 2.24%, and the average maximum relative error for the modified model was 12.18%, showing an overall improvement over the corresponding values for the normalization with segmental spectrum area, 6.00%, 0.75, 3.77%, and 15.40%, respectively.

  15. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  16. Calcium phosphate formation from sea urchin - (brissus latecarinatus via modified mechano-chemical (ultrasonic conversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Samur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce apatite structures, such as hydroxyapatite (HA and fluorapatite (FA, from precursor calcium phosphates of biological origin, namely from sea urchin, with mechano-chemical stirring and hot-plating conversion method. The produced materials were heat treated at 800 °C for 4 hours. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies were conducted. Calcium phosphate phases were developed. The SEM images showed the formation of micro to nano-powders. The experimental results suggest that sea urchin, Brissus latecarinatus skeleton could be an alternative source for the production of various mono or biphasic calcium phosphates with simple and economic mechano-chemical (ultrasonic conversion method.

  17. Dispersed-phase catalysis in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, B.R.; Cugini, A.V.; Frommell, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the specific reaction (activation) conditions for the conversion of catalyst precursors to unsupported catalyst have a direct effect on the catalytic activity and dispersion. The importance of reaction intermediates in decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and the sensitivity of these intermediates to reaction conditions, were studied in coal liquefaction systems. Recent results indicate that optimization of activation conditions facilitates the formation of a highly dispersed and active form of molybdenum disulfide for coal liquefaction. The use of the catalyst precursors ammonium heptamolybdate, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum trisulfide for the conversion of coal to soluble products will be discussed. The use of an unsupported dispersed-phase catalyst for direct coal liquefaction is not a novel concept and has been employed in may studies with varying success. Dispersed-phase catalysts soluble and oil-soluble salts, and as finely divided powders. While some methods of catalyst introduction give higher dispersion of the catalyst and greater activity for the liquefaction of coal, all of the techniques allow the formation of a finely dispersed inorganic phase

  18. Method for conversion of carbohydrate polymers to value-added chemical products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongchao C [Norwood, NJ; Brown, Heather M [Kennewick, WA; Su, Yu [Richland, WA

    2012-02-07

    Methods are described for conversion of carbohydrate polymers in ionic liquids, including cellulose, that yield value-added chemicals including, e.g., glucose and 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) at temperatures below 120.degree. C. Catalyst compositions that include various mixed metal halides are described that are selective for specified products with yields, e.g., of up to about 56% in a single step process.

  19. A graphical method for estimating the tunneling factor for mode conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamental parameter characterizing the strength of any mode conversion process is the tunneling parameter, which is typically determined from a model dispersion relation which is transformed into a differential equation. Here a graphical method is described which gives the tunneling parameter from quantities directly measured from a simple graph of the dispersion relation. The accuracy of the estimate depends only on the accuracy of the measurements

  20. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  1. Thermoelectric power plant conversion from fuel oil to coal with integration of a CO{sub 2} capture plant. Part 1; Conversion de una central termoelectrica de combustoleo a carbon con integracion de una planta de captura de CO{sub 2}. Parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huante Perez, Liborio; Rodriguez Martinez, J. Hugo; Arriola Medellin, Alejandro M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The major features in the design of power plant conversion from fuel oil to coal, considering the new technical characteristics of fuel and his transportation to plant, equipment required to comply with Mexican environmental standards and additional requirements of auxiliaries are described. In addition, changes needed on power plant design were considered according to integrates CO{sub 2} capture plant alternatives. [Spanish] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas principales en el diseno de la conversion de Centrales de combustoleo a carbon, considerando el nuevo combustible y su transporte hasta la central, los equipos requeridos para cumplir con las normas ambientales y los requerimientos adicionales de los servicios auxiliares. Adicionalmente, se lleva a cabo el analisis de los cambios requeridos en el diseno de la conversion considerando diferentes opciones para la integracion de una planta de captura de CO{sub 2}, la cual debera entregar este subproducto para su compresion y envio a su destino final para su almacenamiento.

  2. Mechanism of Wandoan coal liquefaction by the use of tritium and 14C tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabe, Toshiaki; Nitoh, Osamu; Kawakami, Akira; Marumoto, Motoi; Nakagawa, Kouhei

    1986-01-01

    In order to make the behavior of hydrogen donor solvent clear, Wandoan coal was liquefied in tritium labeled tetralin solvent contained a small amount of 14 C labeled naphthalene, under initial H 2 pressure : 5.9 MPa, reaction temperature range : 400-440 deg C and with or without Ni-Mo-Al 2 O 3 catalyst. The concentration of 14 C in tetralin indicated that the hydrogenation of naphthalene to tetralin occurred. From tritium and hydrogen distributions in coal products, solvents and molecular hydrogen, the amounts of hydrogen which transferred by hydrogen addition and exchange reactions were estimated, and the effects of the catalyst and reaction temperature were examined. Without catalyst, the coal liquefaction proceeded mainly by the hydrogen addition from hydrogen donor solvent to coal and the hydrogen addition from molecular hydrogen to coal products hardly occurred. The catalyst was effective in the hydrocracking of preasphaltenes, but did not promote the hydrocracking of oil. Furthermore, the catalyst promoted the hydrogen addition from molecular hydrogen to coal products and solvents, and activated the hydrogen exchange between molecular hydrogen and solvents, but the hydrogen exchanges did not reach to equilibrium under the condition of 440 deg C. (author)

  3. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  4. Analysis of the average poly-cyclic aromatic unit in a meta-anthracite coal using conventional x-ray powder diffraction and intensity separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz, D.L.; Bissell, M.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray characterizations of coals and coal products have occurred for many years. Hirsch and Cartz measured the diffraction from several coals over the reciprocal space region from s = 0.12 angstrom -1 to 7.5 angstrom -1 where s = (4π/λ) sinΘ. In these studies, a 9 cm powder camera was used to study the high angle region, and a transmission type focusing camera equipped with a LiF monochromator was used for the low angle measurements. They reported that the height of the graphene peak measured for each coal is proportional to the % carbon in the coals. Hirsch also suggested that the ontyberem anthracite has a lamellar diameter of ca. 16 angstrom corresponding to an aromatic lamellae of ca. C 87 . For coals with lower carbon content, Hirsch proposed much smaller lamellae; C 19 for a coal with 80% carbon, and C 24 for a coal with 89% carbon. The subject coal for this study is a meta-anthracite which was derived from the Portsmouth, RI mine. The Narragansett Basin contains anthracite and meta-anthracite coals of Pennsylvanian Age. The Basin was a techtonically active non-marine coal-forming basin which has been impacted by several tectonic events. Because of the importance placed by coal scientists no correctly characterizing the nature of the micro-level structural cluster(s) in coals and because of improvements in both x-ray experimentation capabilities and computing power, we have measured the x-ray diffraction and scattering produced from irradiation of this meta-anthracite coal which contains about 94% aromatic carbon. The goal of our study is to determine the intra-planar, and where possible, inter-planar structural details of coals. To accomplish this goal we have utilized the methods normally used for the molecular analysis of non-crystalline condensed phases such as liquids, solutions, and amorphous solids. Reported herein are the results obtained from the high angle x-ray analysis of this coal

  5. Staged combustion - main method for suppressing nitrogen oxides in pulverized-coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R. (Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1989-08-01

    Describes principles behind staged combustion, which is based on organizing furnace operations so that only part of the air from the fuel is taken into the furnace. The remaining air, which is needed for combustion, is fed as a tertiary blast jet into the intermediate flame zone. Following inflammation and combustion of the volatile matter, the oxygen concentration in the flame drops sharply causing a retardation of the oxidation reactions forming NO and an intensification of the reactions causing the nitrogen-containing radicals NH{sub i} and CN to be converted into N{sub 2}. When the reducing agents CO, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} are present in certain flame zones, even the nitrogen oxide is reduced to N{sub 2}. The NO concentrations in the flame are reduced until the jet of tertiary air is introduced. Discusses with reference to practice in the USA and Western Europe how to achieve maximum effect of this method for different types of boiler and presents the results of observations of the introduction of staged combustion to the BKZ-210-140 boiler burning Kuznetsk gassy coal. 5 refs.

  6. Accuracy of cell calculation methods used for analysis of high conversion light water reactor lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang-Joon; Okumura, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Yukio; Tanaka, Ken-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Validation tests were made for the accuracy of cell calculation methods used in analyses of tight lattices of a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel core in a high conversion light water reactor (HCLWR). A series of cell calculations was carried out for the lattices referred from an international HCLWR benchmark comparison, with emphasis placed on the resonance calculation methods; the NR, IR approximations, the collision probability method with ultra-fine energy group. Verification was also performed for the geometrical modelling; a hexagonal/cylindrical cell, and the boundary condition; mirror/white reflection. In the calculations, important reactor physics parameters, such as the neutron multiplication factor, the conversion ratio and the void coefficient, were evaluated using the above methods for various HCLWR lattices with different moderator to fuel volume ratios, fuel materials and fissile plutonium enrichments. The calculated results were compared with each other, and the accuracy and applicability of each method were clarified by comparison with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. It was verified that the accuracy of the IR approximation became worse when the neutron spectrum became harder. It was also concluded that the cylindrical cell model with the white boundary condition was not so suitable for MOX fuelled lattices, as for UO 2 fuelled lattices. (author)

  7. An enhanced component connection method for conversion of fault trees to binary decision diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyte-Prescott, R.; Andrews, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) is widely applied to assess the failure probability of industrial systems. Many computer packages are available, which are based on conventional kinetic tree theory methods. When dealing with large (possibly non-coherent) fault trees, the limitations of the technique in terms of accuracy of the solutions and the efficiency of the processing time become apparent. Over recent years, the binary decision diagram (BDD) method has been developed that solves fault trees and overcomes the disadvantages of the conventional FTA approach. First of all, a fault tree for a particular system failure mode is constructed and then converted to a BDD for analysis. This paper analyses alternative methods for the fault tree to BDD conversion process. For most fault tree to BDD conversion approaches, the basic events of the fault tree are placed in an ordering. This can dramatically affect the size of the final BDD and the success of qualitative and quantitative analyses of the system. A set of rules is then applied to each gate in the fault tree to generate the BDD. An alternative approach can also be used, where BDD constructs for each of the gate types are first built and then merged to represent a parent gate. A powerful and efficient property, sub-node sharing, is also incorporated in the enhanced method proposed in this paper. Finally, a combined approach is developed taking the best features of the alternative methods. The efficiency of the techniques is analysed and discussed

  8. A novel energy conversion based method for velocity correction in molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hanhui [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Ningning [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ku, Xiaoke, E-mail: xiaokeku@zju.edu.cn [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fan, Jianren [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has become an important tool for studying micro- or nano-scale dynamics and the statistical properties of fluids and solids. In MD simulations, there are mainly two approaches: equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD and NEMD). In this paper, a new energy conversion based correction (ECBC) method for MD is developed. Unlike the traditional systematic correction based on macroscopic parameters, the ECBC method is developed strictly based on the physical interaction processes between the pair of molecules or atoms. The developed ECBC method can apply to EMD and NEMD directly. While using MD with this method, the difference between the EMD and NEMD is eliminated, and no macroscopic parameters such as external imposed potentials or coefficients are needed. With this method, many limits of using MD are lifted. The application scope of MD is greatly extended.

  9. A novel energy conversion based method for velocity correction in molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hanhui; Liu, Ningning; Ku, Xiaoke; Fan, Jianren

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has become an important tool for studying micro- or nano-scale dynamics and the statistical properties of fluids and solids. In MD simulations, there are mainly two approaches: equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD and NEMD). In this paper, a new energy conversion based correction (ECBC) method for MD is developed. Unlike the traditional systematic correction based on macroscopic parameters, the ECBC method is developed strictly based on the physical interaction processes between the pair of molecules or atoms. The developed ECBC method can apply to EMD and NEMD directly. While using MD with this method, the difference between the EMD and NEMD is eliminated, and no macroscopic parameters such as external imposed potentials or coefficients are needed. With this method, many limits of using MD are lifted. The application scope of MD is greatly extended.

  10. [Conversion methods of freshwater snail tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Liu, Xue-Qin

    2009-06-01

    Mollusk biomass is usually expressed as wet mass with shell, but this expression fails to represent real biomass due to the high calcium carbonate content in shells. Tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass are relatively close to real biomass. However, the determination process of these two parameters is very complicated, and thus, it is necessary to establish simple and practical conversion methods for these two parameters. A total of six taxa of freshwater snails (Bellamya sp., Alocinma longicornis, Parafossarulus striatulus, Parafossarulus eximius, Semisulcospira cancellata, and Radix sp.) common in the Yangtze Basin were selected to explore the relations of their five shell dimension parameters, dry and wet mass with shells with their tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass. The regressions of the tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass with the five shell dimension parameters were all exponential (y = ax(b)). Among them, shell width and shell length were more precise (the average percentage error between observed and predicted value being 22.0% and 22.5%, respectively) than the other three parameters in the conversion of dry mass. Wet mass with shell could be directly converted to tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass, with an average percentage error of 21.7%. According to the essence of definition and the errors of conversion, ash free dry mass would be the optimum parameter to express snail biomass.

  11. A New Tree-Type Fracturing Method for Stimulating Coal Seam Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is used widely to stimulate coalbed methane production in coal mines. However, some factors associated with conventional hydraulic fracturing, such as the simple morphology of the fractures it generates and inhomogeneous stress relief, limit its scope of application in coal mines. These problems mean that gas extraction efficiency is low. Conventional fracturing may leave hidden pockets of gas, which will be safety hazards for subsequent coal mining operations. Based on a new drilling technique applicable to drilling boreholes in coal seams, this paper proposes a tree-type fracturing technique for stimulating reservoir volumes. Tree-type fracturing simulation experiments using a large-scale triaxial testing apparatus were conducted in the laboratory. In contrast to the single hole drilled for conventional hydraulic fracturing, the tree-type sub-boreholes induce radial and tangential fractures that form complex fracture networks. These fracture networks can eliminate the “blank area” that may host dangerous gas pockets. Gas seepage in tree-type fractures was analyzed, and gas seepage tests after tree-type fracturing showed that permeability was greatly enhanced. The equipment developed for tree-type fracturing was tested in the Fengchun underground coal mine in China. After implementing tree-type fracturing, the gas extraction rate was around 2.3 times greater than that for traditional fracturing, and the extraction rate remained high for a long time during a 30-day test. This shortened the gas drainage time and improved gas extraction efficiency.

  12. Ambitious coal to gasoline plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, P

    1979-06-20

    A design study carried out by Badger Energy concludes that the first US commercial gasoline from coal facility could be completed in eight years. The cost of gasoline would be 1.09 US dollars/gal. in 1990 with coal at 25 US dollars/ton. The process involves oxygen-blown coal gasification, conversion to methanol by the Mobil process, gas fractionation and HF alkylation.

  13. Proposition of primary methods for nitrogen oxides emissions reduction at coal-fired 200 MW power unit (Yugoslavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repic, B.; Mladenovic, R.; Crnomarkovic, N.

    1997-01-01

    The combustion of coal is followed by increased pollution of the environment with toxic products. Together with the generation of other pollutants, the emission of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) represents, due to its high toxicity, a great environmental risk. Appropriate measures must be taken for lowering NO x emission, both on new facilities and those already in operation. Basic technologies (primary reduction methods) of several generations, developed until now and used in practice, are presented in the paper. The technologies applicable on domestic facilities and adjusted to domestic coals have been given particular consideration. Proposition of primary methods for NO x emission reduction at coal-fired 200 MW power unit at TPS 'Nikola Tesla' is analyzed. The following methods have been considered in detail: flue gases recirculation, multi-stage combustion, low-NO x burners, additional over-fire air, multi-stage air intake into the furnace, staged fuel injection, grinding fineness increase, etc. Considerations were performed according to existing constructive characteristics of the furnace and the burners, and characteristics of used fuels, i. e. lignites from Kolubara pit. (Author)

  14. A study on hydrogen bond in coal macerals with in situ diffuse reflectance FTIR by using a new experimental method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.T.; Li, W.; Sun, Q.L.; Li, B.Q. [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China). Inst. for Coal Chemistry

    2003-04-01

    A new method using the small porcelain as the reactor combined with increasing the flow rate of carrier gas was proposed, which has the advantage of excluding the condensation of volatile produced by heated solid samples on the windows during in situ diffuse reflectance FTIR experiment. Moreover, the feasibility of this method was also discussed. Using this method, the distribution and thermal stability of hydrogen bonds in coal macerals obtained from two coals were studied. The results show that the differences between the distribution of hydrogen bonds formed by hydroxyl group in the macerals of two coals were very similar. For the vitrinites the thermal stability of SH-N, carboxylic acid dimmers and self-associated OH is higher than those in inertinites but for OH-N and hydroxyl tetramers and OH-OR{sub 2} there are no obvious laws. For OH-{pi}, its content increased with increasing temperature to 350-380{sup o}C, and then decreased with further heating. The variation of hydrogen bonds in macerals reflects the difference in their structure.

  15. Improvements to methods for assisted discharge of coal and ash from storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, B.; Richards, D.G. [CRE Group Ltd., Stoke Orchard (United Kingdom)

    1999-03-01

    The project studied the effects of vibration on coal in storage and assessed the effect of changes in vibration parameters, with respect to changes in physical properties of coal, to the flow of material through the storage system. An effective technique was developed for the measurement of transmission of vibration through coal residing in storage vessels, at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory scale to large industrial plant. Significant parameters affecting vibration transmission were impact position (discharge was favoured by application near the outlet), and bulk density of the stored material. Use was made of computer-based discrete element modelling (DEM) techniques for studying vibrations. 27 refs., 62 figs., 13 tabs., 1 app.

  16. Detecting voids in coal seams in surface mining by means of a biophysical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bek, E.

    1985-07-01

    Soviet research institutes, in cooperation with research intitutes from other countries, developed the Radar 1 system for detecting abandoned workings in coal seams in surface mines. The system will be used for detecting voids in seams at depths to 50 m. The Academy of Sciences of Czechoslovakia tested use of dowsing for detecting abandoned workings in the Pohranicni straz, the Brezova and the Medard coal surface mines. The workings were situated at depths from 2 to 12 m from the ground surface (dowser position). The dowser was not informed of position or dimensions of the workings. Accuracy of determining position of abandoned workings in coal seams was high. Results of dowsing were checked by drilling. 4 references.

  17. Gradual combustion - method for nitrogen oxide suppression during brown coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.P.; Verzakov, V.N.; Lobov, T.V.

    1990-10-01

    Discusses combustion of brown coal in BKZ-500-140-1 boilers and factors that influence emission of nitrogen oxides. Temperature distribution in the furnace was evaluated. Effects of burner position, burner number and burner type as well as air excess ratio on chemical reactions during brown coal combustion, formation of nitrogen oxides and their emission were comparatively evaluated. Analyses showed that by optimum arrangement of burners and selecting the optimum air excess ratio a part of nitrogen oxides formed during the initial phase of combustion was reduced to molecular nitrogen in the second phase. On the basis of evaluations the following recommendations for furnace design are made: use of straight-flow burners characterized by a reduced mixing ratio with secondary air, parallel arrangement of burners which guarantees mixing of the combustion products from the burners with stable and unstable combustion (products of incomplete coal combustion), reducing the air excess ratio to below 1.0. 5 refs.

  18. Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-12-21

    The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships.

  19. Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong , Liu; Wei, [Richland, WA

    2012-01-24

    The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

  20. Achievement of extreme resolution for the selective by depth Moessbauer method on conversion electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenkov, M.I.; Zhdanov, V.S.; Ryzhikh, V.Yu.; Chubisov, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    At the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan the depth selective conversion electrons Moessbauer spectroscopy (DSCEMS) method was realized on the facility designed on the magnet sector beta-spectrometer base with the dual focusing equipped with non-equipotential electron source in the multi-ribbon variant and the position-sensitive detector. In the work the model statistical calculations of energy and angular distributions experienced not so many times of inelastic scattering acts were carried out

  1. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  2. Coal Layer Identification using Electrical Resistivity Imaging Method in Sinjai Area South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilham Samanlangi, Andi

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to image subsurface resistivity for coal identification in Panaikang Village, Sinjai, South Sulawesi.Resistivity measurements were conducted in 3 lines of length 400 meters and 300 meter using resistivity imaging, dipole-dipole configuration. Resistivity data was processed using Res2DInv software to image resistivity variation and interpret lithology. The research results shown that coal resistivity in Line is about 70-200 Ωm, Line 2 is about 70-90 Ωm, and Line 3 is about 70-200 Ωm with average thickness about 10 meters and distributed to the east of research area.

  3. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of low rank coals by distributed activation energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Huijuan; Liu, Guangrui; Wu, Jinhu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Types of carbon in coal structure were investigated by curve-fitted "1"3C NMR spectra. • The work related pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics with coal structure. • Pyrolysis kinetics of low rank coals were studied by DAEM with Miura integral method. • DAEM could supply accurate extrapolations under relatively higher heating rates. - Abstract: The work was conducted to investigate pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of low rank coals relating with coal structure by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and solid-state "1"3C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Four low rank coals selected from different mines in China were studied in the paper. TGA was carried out with a non-isothermal temperature program in N_2 at the heating rate of 5, 10, 20 and 30 °C/min to estimate pyrolysis processes of coal samples. The results showed that corresponding characteristic temperatures and the maximum mass loss rates increased as heating rate increased. Pyrolysis kinetics parameters were investigated by the DAEM using Miura integral method. The DAEM was accurate verified by the good fit between the experimental and calculated curves of conversion degree x at the selected heating rates and relatively higher heating rates. The average activation energy was 331 kJ/mol (coal NM), 298 kJ/mol (coal NX), 302 kJ/mol (coal HLJ) and 196 kJ/mol (coal SD), respectively. The curve-fitting analysis of "1"3C NMR spectra was performed to characterize chemical structures of low rank coals. The results showed that various types of carbon functional groups with different relative contents existed in coal structure. The work indicated that pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of low rank coals were closely associated with their chemical structures.

  4. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  5. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Coal energy (Studies on coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil); 1988 nendo sekitan ekikayo shokubai oyobi ekikayu binsekiho no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    The present study, as part of the studies on coal liquefying technologies, was originally intended to develop optimal catalysts that make it possible to manufacture a liquid fuel from hydrogenation treatment of coal, and establish optimal reaction operation for the liquefaction process. To achieve the intentions, studies were moved forward on the following four sub-themes: (1) fundamentals and developmental research on catalysts for the direct liquefaction, (2) chemical structures of organic constituents in the coal liquefaction process, (3) research on the optimal reaction operation in the direct coal liquefaction process, and (4) studies on nature and behavior of ash constituent in the coal liquefaction process. The current fiscal year has performed the discussions on the following items based on the achievements attained by fiscal 1987: 1. as a study on liquefaction catalysts, (1) a study on properties of liquefaction catalysts, and (2) a study on characteristics of the liquefying reaction; 2. as a study on the analytic method, (1) a study on the liquefying reaction analyzing method, and (2) a study on the liquefied oil property analyzing method. In Item 1-(1), a prototype zeolite-based catalyst having high hydrogenating decomposition activity was used to execute a reaction to lighten the liquefied oil. As a result, it was revealed that the liquefied oil can be lightened efficiently by having the oil go through a two-stage reforming reaction. (NEDO)

  6. Special method of coal winning in Hambach open-cast mine in 1987 using large machines in tandem operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, M; Muellensiefen, K

    1988-05-01

    In 1987 an additional 1,75 Mt coal, which were only overlain by slight layers of overburden, were won from the marginal batter system at Hambach open-cast mine by using a bucket wheel dredger with a daily output of 240 000 m/sup 3/ (solid) and at the same time bringing up the inside dump. During this working method the dredger and the spreader operated with a common belt conveyor in so-called tandem operation. Thanks to the efficient co-operation of the head planning department, field mining department, opencast mine surveying department and rock and soil mechanics department of the head office of the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG, this special coal winning operation could be completed successfully.

  7. Effect of Pilates method and conversation circles on the health of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi da Silva Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Health education practices associated with oriented exercises have potential beneficial effect on health promotion and prevention of chronic diseases. Objective: This study aimed to verify the effect of an intervention protocol using Pilates and conversation circles on the functional autonomy and quality of life of older adults in the context of the primary health care of Taió, SC, Brazil. Methods: This study applied a single case experimental design (ABAB, with 24 participants aged 60 years or older who changed phases with and without interventions performed with Pilates sessions and conversation circles. At the end of each phase, anamnesis interview applied with the WHOQOL-OLD inventory and the GDLAM protocol were individually performed. Results: Interventions were associated with increased functional parameters and quality of life as well as to reduced body mass index. Participants also reported improvement in emotional conditions, body harmony and global mobility. Conclusion: The Pilates Method assured increased functionality of the volunteers, and further studies should be carried out to evaluate the subjective indicators.

  8. Improved leaching test methods for environmental assessment of coal ash and recycled materials used on construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants will result in lower emissions of mercury and other pollutants. Fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, and other air pollution control residues are used in agricultural, commercial, and engineering applications. Resea...

  9. Newer methods for the characterization of higher molecular mass coal derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartle, K.D.

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in a number of areas in the analytical chemistry of higher molecular mass coal derivatives are critically reviewed, viz. supercritical fluid chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, charge-transfer fractionation, nmr spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and electrochemical analysis. (orig.) [de

  10. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  11. Method of modifying conveyor belt profile for monitoring ask content of coarse grain coal by radiometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taborsky, J.; Tryzna, P.; Formanek, Z.; Vales, J.

    1982-01-01

    The conveyor belt is gripped in the chosen place with benches to form a V shape with a constant cross section independent of the immediate amount of transported coal. At this point the source and the radiation intensity monitor are placed in horizontal plane on the sides of the conveyor belt. Their connecting line is perpendicular to the direction of the movement of the conveyor belt. Thus, monitoring of the ash content of mined coal and operative control of mining according to measured values are made possible. (Ha)

  12. Hydration mechanism and leaching behavior of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Xiaoming, E-mail: liuxm@ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline regions in size of ∼5 nm were found in the amorphous C-A-S-H gel. • A hydration model was proposed to clarify the hydration mechanism. • The developed cementitious materials are environmentally acceptable. - Abstract: A deep investigation on the hydration mechanism of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials was conducted from viewpoints of hydration products and hydration heat analysis. As a main hydration product, the microstructure of C-A-S-H gel was observed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the C-A-S-H gel is composed of amorphous regions and nanocrystalline regions. Most of regions in the C-A-S-H gel are amorphous with continuous distribution, and the nanocrystalline regions on scale of ∼5 nm are dispersed irregularly within the amorphous regions. The hydration heat of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials is much lower than that of the ordinary Portland cement. A hydration model was proposed for this kind of cementitious materials, and the hydration process mainly consists of four stages which are dissolution of materials, formation of C-A-S-H gels and ettringite, cementation of hydration products, and polycondensation of C-A-S-H gels. There are no strict boundaries among these four basic stages, and they proceed crossing each other. Moreover, the leaching toxicity tests were also performed to prove that the developed red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials are environmentally acceptable.

  13. On the measurment of specific energy of coals by means of 12C determination using a correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Bogacz, J.; Czubek, J.A.; Dabrowski, J.M.; Loskiewicz, J.; Zazula, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The most important industrial property of coal is its gross specific energy (combustion heat). It depends mainly on carbon concentration in coal. We propose to measure the carbon or more precisely, its 12 C content using the (n,n'γ) reaction in which 4.43 MeV gamma rays are emitted. We are using the correlation technique which can be used in high background measurements. The idea of correlation type measurement necessitates the existence of a reaction chain with primary and secondary radiations emitted and registered. By measuring the correlation or covariance function PHI we can obtain a measure of the number of excited 12 C nuclei i.e. a value which is connected to the carbon concentration. The dependence of PHI/t ratio (t being the sampling interval time) on carbon concentration shows a clear increase of the PHI/t value with carbon content. The relative standard deviations for different points vary from 1.3 to 4.4%. The preliminary results presented show that with improved experimental techniques this method can find application in industrial coal cobustion heat measurements. (author)

  14. Hydration mechanism and leaching behavior of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline regions in size of ∼5 nm were found in the amorphous C-A-S-H gel. • A hydration model was proposed to clarify the hydration mechanism. • The developed cementitious materials are environmentally acceptable. - Abstract: A deep investigation on the hydration mechanism of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials was conducted from viewpoints of hydration products and hydration heat analysis. As a main hydration product, the microstructure of C-A-S-H gel was observed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the C-A-S-H gel is composed of amorphous regions and nanocrystalline regions. Most of regions in the C-A-S-H gel are amorphous with continuous distribution, and the nanocrystalline regions on scale of ∼5 nm are dispersed irregularly within the amorphous regions. The hydration heat of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials is much lower than that of the ordinary Portland cement. A hydration model was proposed for this kind of cementitious materials, and the hydration process mainly consists of four stages which are dissolution of materials, formation of C-A-S-H gels and ettringite, cementation of hydration products, and polycondensation of C-A-S-H gels. There are no strict boundaries among these four basic stages, and they proceed crossing each other. Moreover, the leaching toxicity tests were also performed to prove that the developed red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials are environmentally acceptable.

  15. Variability of Mercury Content in Coal Matter From Coal Seams of The Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchowski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław; Pyka, Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    The process of identifying and documenting the quality parameters of coal, as well as the conditions of coal deposition in the seam, is multi-stage and extremely expensive. The taking and analyzing of seam samples is the method of assessment of the quality and quantity parameters of coals in deep mines. Depending on the method of sampling, it offers quite precise assessment of the quality parameters of potential commercial coals. The main kind of seam samples under consideration are so-called "documentary seam samples", which exclude dirt bands and other seam contaminants. Mercury content in coal matter from the currently accessible and exploited coal seams of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) was assessed. It was noted that the mercury content in coal seams decreases with the age of the seam and, to a lesser extent, seam deposition depth. Maps of the variation of mercury content in selected lithostratigraphic units (layers) of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been created.

  16. Denitrogenation and desulphurization during hydropyrolysis of coal in H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, W.; Zhang, J.; Shen, S.; Cao, Q.; Lu, Y. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2007-03-15

    The denitrogenation and desulphurization during hydropyrolysis of six Chinese coals were systematically investigated in H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet. The results from experiments show that HCN is the main product of coal-N at high temperature. Only a low amount of NH{sub 3} is formed. Yield of HCN depends on coal types and coal feeding rate, but NH{sub 3} does not change obviously. Yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} decrease with the increase of oxygen contents in coal during hydropyrolysis in H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet. The change of feeding rate affects the formation of H{sub 2}S from the conversion of coal-S. The mole ratios of n(N)/n(C) and n(S)/n(C) in all char samples are less than that of coal. The results suggest that hydropyrolysis in H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet is an efficient method for denitrogenation and desulphurization. In the present experimental conditions, the denitrogenation and desulphurization percentages reach up to 50% and 55% for Yanzhou coal, respectively. Yima coal can reach up to 40% and 60%. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Workability of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Fels, M; Soltysik, K

    1978-04-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation on workability of coal seams of stratigraphic groups from 100 to 700 in the: Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Analyzed are 2900 petrographic logs taken in the longwall workings and in narrow openings as well as about 9000 individual samples. Workability of coal seams, floors and partings is determined. Workability is described by the indicator f, (according to the Protodyakonov shatter method) and the indicator U, (compression strength of the unshaped test samples). The mean percentage content of indivi dual petrographic groups of coal as well as the mean workability indicator, f, of coals in the stratigraphic groups of coal seams in Upper Silesia are also determined.

  18. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  19. New coal-based energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1986-01-01

    Conversion of coal into liquid fuels or into coal gas is considered and the use of high temperature nuclear reactors whose waste heat can be used for remote (district) heating mentioned. The use of high temperature reactors as energy source for coal gasification is also examined and, finally, the extraction of heat from combined coal, steel and high temperature nuclear reactors is suggested. (G.M.E.)

  20. Method of burning highly reactive strongly slagging coal dust in a chamber furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protsaylo, M.Ya.; Kotler, V.R.; Lobov, G.V.; Mechev, V.P.; Proshkin, A.V.; Zhuravlev, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    In the chamber furnace in order to reduce slagging, it is proprosed that, above the coal dust burners, nozzles be installed with inclination downwards through which air is fed in a mixture with flue gases. Under the influence of this flue gas-air mixture, the coal dust flame is deviated downwards. In this case there is an increase in the length of the flame and degree of filling of the volume of the furnace with the flame. This increases the effectiveness of dust burning. The input into the furnace of fuel jointly with the air and flue gases (optimally 10-15% of the total quantity of gases formed during fuel combustion) makes it possible to reduce the temperature in the furnace and the probability of slagging of the furnace walls.

  1. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method to determine the catalytic conversion of cellulose from carbon-supported hydrogenolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Glauco F.; Ramos, Luiz A.; Barrett, Dean H.; Curvelo, Antonio Aprígio S.; Rodella, Cristiane B.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new method to determine the catalytic conversion of cellulose using TGA has been developed. • TGA is able to differentiate between carbon from cellulose and carbon from the catalyst. • Building an analytical curve from TGA results enables the accurate determination of cellulose conversion. - Abstract: The ability to determine the quantity of solid reactant that has been transformed after a catalytic reaction is fundamental in accurately defining the conversion of the catalyst. This quantity is also central when investigating the recyclability of a solid catalyst as well as process control in an industrial catalytic application. However, when using carbon-supported catalysts for the conversion of cellulose this value is difficult to obtain using only a gravimetric method. The difficulty lies in weighing errors caused by loss of the solid mixture (catalyst and non-converted cellulose) after the reaction and/or moisture adsorption by the substrate. These errors are then propagated into the conversion calculation giving erroneous results. Thus, a quantitative method using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been developed to determine the quantity of cellulose after a catalytic reaction by using a tungsten carbide catalyst supported on activated carbon. Stepped separation of TGA curves was used for quantitative analysis where three thermal events were identified: moisture loss, cellulose decomposition and CO/CO 2 formation. An analytical curve was derived and applied to quantify the residual cellulose after catalytic reactions which were performed at various temperatures and reaction times. The catalytic conversion was calculated and compared to the standard gravimetric method. Results showed that catalytic cellulose conversion can be determined using TGA and exhibits lower uncertainty (±2%) when compared to gravimetric determination (±5%). Therefore, it is a simple and relatively inexpensive method to determine catalytic

  2. Coal anion structure and chemistry of coal alkylation. Fourth quarterly progress report, December 1, 1977--February 28, 1978. [Carbon atoms in butyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Three research problems are in progress. First, work is progressing well concerning the methods appropriate for the reductive alkylation of Illinois No. 6 coal samples. We have investigated the influence of the leaving group on the conversion of the Illinois coal to a soluble material. We find that the n-butyl iodide is more effective than other n-butyl halides. Second, preliminary results have been obtained concerning the distribution of hydrogen and deuterium atoms in the reaction of Illinois No. 6 coal samples with perdeuteriotetralin at 400/sup 0/C. Third, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of appropriate model compounds with n-butyl groups have been tabulated for comparison with the spectroscopic results obtained from coal alkylation products. Fourth, the chromatographic procedures necessary for the separation of the coal samples are being developed.

  3. Boiler briquette coal versus raw coal: Part I--Stack gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, S; Bai, Z; Liu, W; Zhu, T; Wang, T; Qing, S; Zhang, J

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM10, 0.38 for PM2.5, 20.7 for SO2, and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM10, 0.30 for PM2.5, 7.5 for SO2, and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM10, 0.87 for PM2.5, 46.7 for SO2, and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM10, 0.79 for PM2.5, 19.9 for SO2, and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5, 6.4 for SO2, and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM10, 0.094 for PM2.5, 2.4 for SO2, and 1.7 for CO. PM10 and PM2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study.

  4. Boiler Briquette Coal versus Raw Coal: Part I-Stack Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Su; Bai, Zhipeng; Liu, Weili; Zhu, Tan; Wang, Tongjian; Qing, Sheng; Zhang, Junfeng

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM 10 , 0.38 for PM 25 , 20.7 for SO 2 , and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM 10 , 0.30 for PM 2 5 , 7.5 for SO 2 , and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM 10 , 0.87 for PM 25 , 46.7 for SO 2 , and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM 10 , 0.79 for PM 2.5 , 19.9 for SO 2 , and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/ steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM 10 , 0.12 for PM 2.5 , 6.4 for SO 2 , and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM 10 , 0.094 for PM 2.5 , 2.4 for SO 2 , and 1.7 for CO. PM 10 and PM 2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study.

  5. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Method and apparatus for clockless analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2007-03-06

    An apparatus and method for analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection includes at least one stage, which includes a first switch, second switch, current source or capacitor, and discriminator. The discriminator changes state in response to a current or charge associated with the input signal exceeding a threshold, thereby indicating whether the current or charge associated with the input signal is greater than the threshold. The input signal includes a peak or a charge, and the converter includes a peak or charge detect mode in which a state of the switch is retained in response to a decrease in the current or charge associated with the input signal. The state of the switch represents at least a portion of a value of the peak or of the charge.

  7. Hybrid Intelligent Control Method to Improve the Frequency Support Capability of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Young Heo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid intelligent control method that enables frequency support control for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs wind turbines. The proposed method for a wind energy conversion system (WECS is designed to have PMSG modeling and full-scale back-to-back insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT converters comprising the machine and grid side. The controller of the machine side converter (MSC and the grid side converter (GSC are designed to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT based on an improved hill climb searching (IHCS control algorithm and de-loaded (DL operation to obtain a power margin. Along with this comprehensive control of maximum power tracking mode based on the IHCS, a method for kinetic energy (KE discharge control of the supporting primary frequency control scheme with DL operation is developed to regulate the short-term frequency response and maintain reliable operation of the power system. The effectiveness of the hybrid intelligent control method is verified by a numerical simulation in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can improve the frequency regulation capability in the power system.

  8. The behavior of catalysts in hydrogasification of sub-bituminous coal in pressured fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shuai; Bi, Jicheng; Qu, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •CCHG in a pressured fluidized bed achieved 77.3 wt.% of CH 4 yield in 30 min. •Co-Ca and Ni-Ca triggered catalytic coal pyrolysis and char hydrogasification. •The reason for better catalytic performance of 5%Co-1%Ca was elucidated. •Sintered catalyst blocked the reactive sites and suppressed coal conversion. •Co-Ca made the catalyzed coal char rich in mesopore structures and reactive sites. -- Abstract: The catalytic hydrogasification of the sub-bituminous coal was carried out in a lab-scale pressurized fluidized bed with the Co-Ca, Ni-Ca and Fe-Ca as catalysts at 850 °C and 3 MPa. The effect of different catalysts on the characteristics of gasification products was investigated, and the behavior of the catalysts was also explored by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-Raman, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), etc. Experiment results showed that all the catalysts promoted the carbon conversion in the coal catalytic hydrogasification (CCHG), and the catalytic activity was in the order: 5%Co-1%Ca > 5%Ni-1%Ca > 5%Fe-1%Ca. Compared with the raw coal hydrogasification, the carbon conversion increased from 43.4 wt.% to 91.3 wt.%, and the CH 4 yield increased from 23.7 wt.% to 77.3 wt.% within 30 min after adding the 5%Co-1%Ca catalyst into the coal. Co-Ca and Ni-Ca possessed catalytic effect on both processes of pyrolysis of coal and hydrogasification of coal char in CCHG, by which the graphitization of the coal was suppressed and methane formation rate was significantly accelerated. Fe/Co/Ni-Ca could penetrate into the interior of coal during CCHG, making the catalytic production of CH 4 conduct in the pore structures. The activity difference of the catalysts was owing to the different ability of rupturing the amorphous C−C bonds in coal structure. The incomplete carbon conversion of the 5%Co-1%Ca loaded coal was due to the agglomeration of the catalyst and the blockage of the reactive sites by the sintered catalyst. This work will provide

  9. Thermovolumetric investigations of steam gasification of coals and their chars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porada Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of steam gasification of three coals of various rank and three chars obtained from these coals by the ex-situ method at 900 °C was compared. In the coal gasification process, the pyrolysis stage plays a very important part, which is connected with its direct impact on the kinetics of gasification of the resulting char. What is more, taking into consideration the impact of pyrolysis conditions on char properties, it should be anticipated that the gasification kinetics of coal and char, formed from it by the ex situ method, will be different. In order to examine and compare the process of gasification of coals and chars, an isothermal thermovolumetric method, designed by the authors, was applied. For all the examined samples the measurements were performed at three temperatures, i.e. 850, 900, and 950 °C, and at the pressure of 0.1 MPa. An evaluation of the impact of raw material on the steam gasification of the examined samples was made. The carbon conversion degree and the kinetic parameters of CO and H2 formation reaction were calculated. It was observed that the course of gasification is different for coals and chars obtained from them and it can be concluded that coals are more reactive than chars. Values of kinetic parameters of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formation calculated for coals and corresponding chars are also different. Due to the observed differences the process of gasification of coals and of chars with steam should not be equated.

  10. New method of reducing emission of nitrogen oxides at coal-dust burning thermal power plants in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1987-05-01

    New method of suppressing nitrogen oxide formation in the combustion process makes use of SGR- or PM-burners in the combustion chamber, augmented with auxiliary burners positioned higher in the chamber for secondary fuel with insufficient air and nozzles above the latter for tertiary air. A description of laboratory experiments on the reduction of nitrogen oxides using the above burner configuration as well as a description of the reaction process taking place during combustion are presented. Results of industrial testing of the three-stage combustion of high-nitrogen Australian black coal in a cylindrical combustion chamber developed by Hitachi-Zosen are presented.

  11. Effect of heat treatment changes on swelling treatment of coal; Sekitan no bojun shori sayo ni oyobosu netsushori henka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satsuka, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    Discussions were given on effects of heat treatment at relatively low temperatures as a pretreatment for coal liquefaction on coal swelling and hydrogenolysis reaction. Taiheiyo coal was heated to 200{degree}C for one hour as a pretreatment. The attempted heating methods consisted of four steps of rapid heating (6.7{degree}C/min)quenching (20{degree}C/min), rapid heating/natural cooling (0.7{degree}C/min), heating (1.0{degree}C/min)/quenching, and heating/natural cooling. The swelling treatment was composed of adding methanol benzene into heat treated coal, and leaving it at room temperature for 24 hours. The hydrogenolysis was carried out by using a tetralin solvent and at an initial hydrogen pressure of 20 kg/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 350{degree}C and for a time of one hour. Hydrogenolysis conversion in the heat treated coal was found lower than that of the original coal because of generation of liquefaction inactive components due to thermal polymerization. When the heat treated coal is swollen by using the solvent, gas yield from the hydrogenolysis reaction decreased due to gas suppression effect, and the conversion was lower than that of the original coal. Heat treatment suggests densification of the coal structure. Swollen coal shows no conspicuous difference in the heat treatment methods against the hydrogenolysis due to the swelling effect. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Coupling analysis of energy conversion in multi-mode vibration structural control using a synchronized switch damping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Hongli; Qiu, Jinhao; Xia, Pinqi; Inman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Modal coupling is an important issue in the analysis and control of structural systems with multi-degrees of freedom (MDOF). In this paper, modal coupling induced by energy conversion in the structural control of an MDOF system using a synchronized switch damping method is investigated theoretically and validated numerically. In the analysis, it is supposed that the voltage on the piezoelectric actuator is switched at the displacement extrema of a given mode. Two types of coupling in energy conversion are considered. The first is whether the switching action based on one mode induces energy conversion of the other modes. The second is whether the vibration of one mode affects the energy conversion of the other modes. The results indicate that the modal coupling in energy conversion is very complicated. In most cases the switching action based on one mode does induce energy conversion of another mode, but the efficiency depends on the frequency ratio of the two modes. The vibration of one mode affects the energy conversion of another mode only when the frequency ratio of the two modes takes some special values. Discussions are also given on the potential application of the theoretical results in the design of an energy harvesting device. (paper)

  13. Conversion factors for a mobile survey method by car in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, R.; Saito, K.

    2003-01-01

    Conversion factors for the purpose of mobile survey by car in the Chernobyl area have been evaluated using simulation calculations. In the calculations, the width of road is assumed as being 4 m, 10 m and 20 m and the surrounding area is divided into ten zones contaminated homogeneously by 137 Cs with different depth profiles in the ground. The air kerma contribution from all zones to the road is simulated. A conversion factor is calculated by dividing the air kerma rate in typical land-use adjacent to the road by that on the road. Conversion factors in various land uses around the roads are examined. The calculated conversion factors agree with the conversion factors measured in the Chernobyl area within an accuracy of 20%. Further, basic data, needed for composing conversion factors appropriate to other contaminated regions with different depth distributions from the Chernobyl area, are also indicated. (author)

  14. Causes of coal degradation at working faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1985-01-01

    Coal comminution by shearer loaders at working faces and factors influencing it are analyzed. Three groups of factors are evaluated: coal mechanical properties, design and specifications of shearer loaders and mining schemes. On the basis of analyses, recommendations for increasing proportion of coarse coal and reducing coal comminution in underground coal mines in Poland are made. Increasing output of coarse coal in coal seams with a high proportion of dull coal is most economic. Increasing power of drive systems for shearer loaders to 500 kW or more decisively influences grain size distribution of coal and increases proportion of coarse coal, especially in seams of dull coal. Gradually increasing cutting depth of a shearer loader negatively influences haulage speed and coarse coal output. Replacing gradual cutting depth increase by attack at the full cutting depth increases proportion of coarse coal. When medium or thick coal seams are mined a coal bench from 0.3 to 0.5 m thick should be left in the roof or between 2 benches cut by 2 cutting drums. The coal bench left in the face disintegrates under the influence of gravity and the proportion of coarse coal increases. Optimizing yield strength of powered supports at a working face is a further method for improving grain size distribution of coal and increasing proportion of coarse coal. 2 references.

  15. Study of mechanically activated coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukov Anatolij P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion and air gasification of mechanically activated micro-ground coals in the flux have been studied. Influence of mechanically activated methods at coals grinding on their chemical activeness at combustion and gasification has been determined. Intense mechanical activation of coals increases their chemical activeness that enables development of new highly boosted processing methods for coals with various levels of metamorphism.

  16. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingshi; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Binbin; Li Shehong; Wu Daishe; Hu Jun

    2006-01-01

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  17. Method of cutting steeply falling coal beds. [Bacteria, which only grow on methane, are injected into the coal bed and form low viscosity polysaccharides: as a result the coal collapses into the haulage gallery and is hauled away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretsinger, B Ye; Chernyshenko, D V; Levin, A D; Malashenko, Yu R; Shinkovskiy, V A; Shurova, Z P; Volkov, V I

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to reduce outlays for collapse and output of coal by creating artificial cavities of sliding along the coal bed in the surrounding rocks. This goal is achieved because in the well drilled in the bed for the entire height of the level, a suspension of cells of methane-oxidizing microorganisms is injected. The methane-oxidizing microorganisms used are, for example, the thermophilic culture Methylococcus thermophilus of strains ShP which grow at 45-65/sup 0/ C, or the mesophilic culture Methanomonas rubna of strains 15 Sh growing at 20-37/sup 0/ C. As a result of the vital activity of these cultures, polysaccharides are formed with viscosity of 5-7 and 3-4 St respectively. The mine pressure disrupts the blocks between the wells, and the outline section of the steeply dropping coal bed, being destroyed, slides on the products of vital activity of the microorganisms to the haulage gallery. Then the coal drops on cross cuts to the field gallery through which it is transported. Studies established that the only coal substrate which is suitable for growth of these microorganism cultures is methane. The synthesis of one g of absolutely dry substance of these microorganism requires 1.78 g of methane and 4.7 g of oxygen. The cultures are resistant to hydrostatic pressure from 20 to 150 atm and short-term pressure of gradient drops which occur during injection of the cellular suspension into the coal bed. They are filtered through the coal with preservation of the oxidizing and reproductive properties and are cultivated on the methane contained in the bed and form considerable number of exopolysaccarides. The polysaccarides weaken the bond between the bed and the surrounding rocks and serve as a unique lubricant promoting the sliding towards the haulage gallery of the coal blocks destroyed by mine pressure.

  18. Elucidation of hydrogen mobility in tetralin under coal liquefaction conditions using a tritium tracer method. Effects of the addition of H2S and H2O; Tritium tracer ho wo mochiita sekitan ekika hanno jokenka deno tetralin no suiso idosei hyoka. Ryuka suiso oyobi mizu no tenka koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, M.; Saito, M.; Ishihara, A.; Kabe, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously reported that the tritium tracer method is useful for the quantitative consideration of hydrogen behavior in coal during coal liquefaction reaction. Tetralin is excellent hydrogen donating solvent, and is considered as one of the model compounds of coal. In this study, effects of H2S and H2O on the hydrogen exchange reaction between tetralin and gaseous hydrogen labeled by tritium were investigated. It was suggested that the conversion of tetralin and the hydrogen exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and tetralin proceed through the radical reaction mechanism with a tetralyl radical as an intermediate product. When H2S existed in this reaction, the hydrogen exchange yield increased drastically without changing the conversion yield. This suggested that the hydrogen exchange reaction proceeds even in the reaction where radical does not give any effect. In the case of H2O addition, the conversion yield and hydrogen exchange rate decreased into a half or one-third. It was suggested that H2O inhibited the formation process of tetralyl radical. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  20. A study on the hydrotreating of coal hydro liquefaction residue and its kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Lu, X.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydro-conversion of coal hydro liquefaction residue obtained from a 6 t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydro liquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 {sup o}C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydro liquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydro liquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ-mol{sup -1}. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. (authors)

  1. A Study on the Hydrotreating of Coal Hydroliquefaction Residue and its Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Gao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-conversion of coal hydroliquefaction residue obtained from a 6t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydroliquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 °C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydroliquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydroliquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ•mol-1. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values.

  2. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, Samudra; DeCarolis, Joseph F.; Srivastava, Ravi K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology cost and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO x control configurations on a large subset of the existing coal-fired, utility-owned boilers in the US. The resultant data are used to create technology-specific marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) and also serve as input to an integer linear program, which minimizes system-wide control costs by finding the optimal distribution of NO x controls across the modeled boilers under an emission constraint. The result is a single optimized MACC that accounts for detailed, boiler-specific information related to NO x retrofits. Because the resultant MACCs do not take into account regional differences in air-quality standards or pre-existing NO x controls, the results should not be interpreted as a policy prescription. The general method as well as NO x -specific results presented here should be of significant value to modelers and policy analysts who must estimate the costs of pollution reduction.

  3. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  4. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Management of marine cage aquaculture. Environmental carrying capacity method based on dry feed conversion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiwen; Sun, Yinglan

    2007-11-01

    Marine cage aquaculture produces a large amount of waste that is released directly into the environment. To effectively manage the mariculture environment, it is important to determine the carrying capacity of an aquaculture area. In many Asian countries trash fish is dominantly used in marine cage aquaculture, which contains more water than pellet feed. The traditional nutrient loading analysis is for pellet feed not for trash fish feed. So, a more critical analysis is necessary in trash fish feed culturing areas. Corresponding to FCR (feed conversion rate), dry feed conversion rate (DFCR) was used to analyze the nutrient loadings from marine cage aquaculture where trash fish is used. Based on the hydrodynamic model and the mass transport model in Xiangshan Harbor, the relationship between the water quality and the waste discharged from cage aquaculture has been determined. The environmental carrying capacity of the aquaculture sea area was calculated by applying the models noted above. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the water quality parameters considered in this study. The simulated results show that the maximum nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were 0.216 mg/L and 0.039 mg/L, respectively. In most of the sea area, the nutrient concentrations were higher than the water quality standard. The calculated environmental carrying capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Xiangshan Harbor were 1,107.37 t/yr and 134.35 t/yr, respectively. The waste generated from cage culturing in 2000 has already exceeded the environmental carrying capacity. Unconsumed feed has been identified as the most important origin of all pollutants in cage culturing systems. It suggests the importance of increasing the feed utilization and improving the feed composition on the basis of nutrient requirement. For the sustainable development of the aquaculture industry, it is an effective management measure to keep the stocking density and pollution loadings below the environmental carrying

  6. The Evaluation of a Risk Degree for the Process of a Brown Coal Spontaneous Ignition on Dumps with Using of Modern Numeric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouda, Petr; Moni, Vlastimil; Řehoř, Michal; Blata, Jan; Helebrant, František

    2018-06-01

    The article is a summary of information about evaluation of a risk degree for a brown coal spontaneous ignition which is realized on the base of a database analysis of information about the development of stative quantities and desorbated gases in the stored bodies of the brown coal. The data were gained from the long term complex measurements which were realized at chosen companies during the coal mining in the previous parts of the project. In the last part of the project, we examined results of temperature models from thermographs with results of gasses and coal samples from the mines. Then, the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, water downfall, changes of barometric pressure etc.), the influence of coal mass degradation, the influence of physical and chemical factors, and the influence of other defective factors on the process of the coal spontaneous ignition. The gasmetry was assess with gas in-situ samples and laboratory gas models of indicative gasses for the spontaneous ignition, which were taken from the method of the thermic oxidation with the aim of the correlation finding for an epicentre of temperature within the spontaneous ignition.

  7. Environmental and economic gains of the conversion of the Zvolen (Slovakia) district CHP plant from low quality brown coal combustion to co-firing of biomass and low-sulphur brown coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilavsky, Jan; Jankovsky, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Zvolen CHP plant was originally commissioned in 1954. Overall installed output is 311 MW in heat production and 44,3 MW in power. Annual supply to the consumers was 788,910 GJ of heat and 102,459 GJ of electricity in 2004. Some 60 % of the heat production was used for heat and hot water supply to more than 9,000 houses and apartments and 40 % to industrial consumers. It uses pulverized lignite with up to 1 % of sulphur content as fuel. The content of sulphur in emitted flue gas is as high as 3,500-4,000 mg SO 2 /m 3 . It causes serious environmental problems in the region. New national limits for greenhouse gases emissions are 1.700 mg SO 2 /m 3 and 600 mg NO x /m 3 with effect from 1 January 2007. CHP is not able to achieve them without substantial improvement of technology with very high investment costs. Several alternatives of technical changes have been analysed in a study. Shift from lignite to low-sulphur content brown coal with co-firing of biomass has been identified economically most feasible and environmentally acceptable solution. The paper presents results of the study analysing the whole chain from biomass resources in the region up to the technical solutions for boilers reconstruction. The first part of the study was focused at identification of biomass resources for energy use from forestry, wood processing industry and agriculture. Ecological, economic and operational factors limiting utilization of potential biomass resources were identified and factored into calculations. Two boilers, each of them with the output of 108 MW t , will be reconstructed for co-firing of pulverized low sulphur content brown coal and biomass. Biomass will share up to 30% of the combusted fuel. After the reconstruction one boiler will remain with the same output of 108 MW t and the other will be with the output of 65 MW t . Power will be produced by the back pressure 25 MW e turbine. Chips will be stored in 9.000 m 3 open depot and in 3.000 m 3 silo. Chips will be fed

  8. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1986. Coal energy (Studies on coal liquefying catalysts and a liquefied oil analyzing method); 1986 nendo sekitan ekikayo shokubai oyobi ekikayu bunsekiho no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The present studies are intended to study catalysts that make manufacture of liquid fuel possible through coal liquefying reactions, and establish a liquefied oil analyzing method. The following items are discussed based on the achievements obtained by fiscal 1985: in the studies on coal liquefying catalysts, (1) a study on selectively liquefying catalysts, in which elucidation is made on effects of catalyst carriers on reaction selectivity and life of coal liquefying catalysts, and fundamental data are accumulated toward designing the catalysts with respect to catalyst carriers capable of selective hydrogenating reactions, and to carrying conditions; and (2) a study on solvent properties and reaction conditions. in which Mo-based catalysts are used to perform kinetic discussions on the relationship between the liquefying reaction conditions and compositions of solvents and produced oil to accumulate data for elucidating the action mechanisms of the Mo-based catalysts. In the study of the liquefied oil analyzing method, discussions are carried out on a measuring technology to expand the conventional method for liquefied oil analysis to hard-to-volatilize components. For the light and medium oils, an analyzing method will be established that utilizes effectively the NMR method and the MS method that have been established to date. (NEDO)

  9. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  10. Ninth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Over 200 papers are presented under the following headings: coal preparation; Clean Coal Technology Program status; pre- and post-utilization processing; advanced conversion technologies; integrated gasification combined cycle; indirect liquefaction; advanced liquefaction process development; conversion processes; coal - from a user's perspective; issues associated with coal use in heat engines; fundamentals of combustion; advanced combustion systems; low quality fuel applications/fluidised beds; combustion systems; ash and sludge disposal/utilization; developing SO 2 /NO x control technologies; technical overview of air toxics; scientific, economic and policy perspectives on global climate change; Clean Air Act compliance strategies; environmental policy/technology; spontaneous combustion; and special topics

  11. A storage and display method for radioisotope imaging using scan conversion memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masaomi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Nakanishi, Fumiko; Suzuki, Shigeo; Miyabayashi, Hiroyasu

    1975-01-01

    The scan conversion memory (SCM) has been applied to a method for the storage and display of radioisotope images. Scan data were fed into SCM as pulse signals with X and Y axis from the scinti-scanner or the scinti-camera. The electric charge on the SCM target is directly proportional to the pulse density. A TV display was executed immediately after the recording of a radioisotope image. If necessary, a seven additive color display to the image density could be obtained by a simple color slicer, and the image could be hard-copied by a video hard-copy printer. Characteristics of the SCM were experimentally clarified as follows: the practical resolution was 700 line/TV; ten levels gray scale were discriminated on the video monitor, the uniformity, measured by an oscilloscope was less than 20%, and dead time of the pulse interval at full scale signal was 5 μ sec. In their representation, the SCM scintigrams were observed as closely resembling conventional film scintigrams. Superimposed imaging of an X-ray picture and a radioisotope image can be realized by using the SCM, for an increase in anatomical localization on reading images. The SCM scintigram can be applied rapidly and can be the viewer of radioisotope imaging. (auth.)

  12. Development and manufacturing cycle for potassium nitrate and phosphate producing by conversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. И. Алексеев

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Russian market of potash mineral fertilizers in 2014 and forecast for 2015-2019 show [http://businesstat.ru/images/demo/potash_fertilizers_russia.pdf] that today the most widespread potash fertilizer is  the potassium chloride. But chloride-free potassium-containing products are in the highest demand at the fertilizer market. One of possible solutions to this problem is recrystallization of the potassium chloride or potassium-containing mineral ores using nitrate-containing or phosphorus-containing salt products. The basis for justifying processing conditions for polymineral potassium-containing salt raw materials and salt mineral ores is the data on phase equilibria in multicomponent water-salt systems. Knowledge of the regularities of phase equilibria in multicomponent salt systems helps to develop optimal conditions for complex processing of polymineral natural and technical raw materials. Below it is present the results of technological calculations for processing potash mineral raw materials with account of the complex nature of its utilization. Based on the analysis of the solubility diagrams of mutual salt systems different cyclic processes for production of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and nitrate and sodium chloride from dihydrogen phosphate and sodium nitrate and potassium chloride by conversion method have been designed, and ways of these processes optimization have been proposed for reducing the cost of certain technical  operations.

  13. Proceedings of the international symposium on coal - science, technology, industry, business, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, K.S.; Sen, S. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Papers were presented which covered the areas of coal science, advanced coal preparation, coal utilization, coal chemicals and the environment. These included carbon aromaticity, mineral studies, utilization of low rank coals, bioconversion of methane, swelling of coals, photocatalytic activity, flotation and effects of oxidation, microbial desulfurization, deashing, briquetting, commercial scale conversion of coal to fuels and chemicals, role of coal in iron and steel making, coal-water mixtures, dyes and chemical products, nitrogen oxides emissions and pollution control. 45 papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  14. Reaction of methane with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K.; Batts, B.D.; Wilson, M.A.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Maa, P.S.; Long, M.A.; He, S.J.X.; Attala, M.I. [Macquarie University, Macquarie, NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    A study of the reactivities of Australian coals and one American coal with methane or methane-hydrogen mixtures, in the range 350-400{degree}C and a range of pressures (6.0-8.3 MPa, cold) is reported. The effects of aluminophosphates (AIPO) or zeolite catalysts, with and without exchanged metals, on reactivity have also been examined. Yields of dichloromethane extractable material are increased by using a methane rather than a nitrogen atmosphere and different catalysts assist dissolution to various extends. It appears that surface exchanged catalysts are effective, but incorporating metals during AIPO lattice formation is detrimental. Aluminium phosphate catalysts are unstable to water produced during coal conversion, but are still able to increase extraction yields. For the American coal, under methane-hydrogen and a copper exchanged zeolite, 51.5% conversion was obtained, with a product selectivity close to that obtained under hydrogen alone, and with only 2% hydrogen consumption. The conversion under methane-hydrogen was also to that obtained under hydrogen alone, while a linear dependence of conversion on proportion of methane would predict a 43% conversion under methane-hydrogen. This illustrates a synergistic effect of the methane-hydrogen atmosphere for coal liquefaction using this catalyst systems. 31 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  16. Prediction of Floor Water Inrush: The Application of GIS-Based AHP Vulnerable Index Method to Donghuantuo Coal Mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Liu, Yuanzhang; Liu, Donghai; Zhou, Wanfang

    2011-09-01

    Floor water inrush represents a geohazard that can pose significant threat to safe operations for instance in coal mines in China and elsewhere. Its occurrence is controlled by many factors, and the processes are often not amenable to mathematical expressions. To evaluate the water inrush risk, the paper proposes the vulnerability index approach by coupling the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and geographic information system (GIS). The detailed procedures of using this innovative approach are shown in a case study in China (Donghuantuo Coal Mine). The powerful spatial data analysis functions of GIS was used to establish the thematic layer of each of the six factors that control the water inrush, and the contribution weights of each factor was determined with the AHP method. The established AHP evaluation model was used to determine the threshold value for each risk level with a histogram of the water inrush vulnerability index. As a result, the mine area was divided into five regions with different vulnerability levels which served as general guidelines for the mine operations. The prediction results were further corroborated with the actual mining data, and the evaluation result is satisfactory.

  17. Combination of epithermal and inelastic neutron scattering methods to locate coal and oil-shale zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed neutron generator of the deuterium-tritium reaction type irradiates earth formations in the vicinity of a borehole with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma rays produced by the inelastic scattering of the fast neutrons are observed in four energy regions of the gamma ray energy spectrum corresponding to the inelastic scattering of neutrons by carbon, oxygen, silicon, and calcium. The carbon/oxygen, calcium/silicon, and carbon plus oxygen gamma rays are found and combined with a separately derived hydrogen index log to determine the quality of coal-bearing formations or oil-shale regions. The hydrogen index curve is found preferably by a dual-spaced detector epithermal neutron porosity logging technique or from a conventional thermal neutron gamma ray log

  18. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Huang, W.J.; Shridharani, K.

    1981-04-01

    Results from screening studies showed that the pyrite samples separated from various coal seams had similar catalytic activity. The addition of all the pyrite samples to feed slurry increased conversion of coal and production of oil. A sample of fusinite was also tested for its liquefaction behavior with and without added pyrite. The addition of pyrite increased the conversion of fusinite and production of oil. These results show that pyrite catalyzes the conversion of fusinite and therefore improves overall coal conversion. Conversion of coal and oil production increased by impregnating coal with iron and molybdenum compounds. Coal conversion and oil production also increased with increasing concentration of both iron and molybdenum impregnated on coal. Addition of various transition metal sulfides increased coal conversion and oil production. Dramatic improvements were noted with nickel, vanadium, and tin sulfides. Addition of transition metal naphthenates produced mixed results; some of them improved coal conversion and others had no effect. The effect of metal concentration on coal conversion was also not clear. Deep cleaning of coal did not affect coal conversion, but it significantly reduced oil production. Addition of pyrite separated from coal to deep cleaned coal sample regained the oil production to the original value, i.e., oil produced from liquefaction of raw coal.Coal cleaned by oil agglomeration gave highest coal conversion and oil production. Basic and non-basic nitrogen compounds reduced the naphthalene hydrogenation activity of both Co-Mo-Al and sulfided Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Sulfided Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was inactive for denitrogenation of quinoline, and the reaction product mainly consisted of hydrogenated and hydrocracked quinoline. On the contrary, Co-Mo-Al was active for denitrogenation of quinoline, resulting in lower quinoline poisoning.

  19. China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  20. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL MODEL FOR MINING METHOD SELECTION IN A FUZZY ENVIRONMENT; CASE STUDY: TAZAREH COAL MINE, SEMNAN PROVINCE, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Asadi Ooriad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining method selection (MMS for mineral resources is one of the most significant steps in mining production management. Due to high costs involved and environmental problems, it is usually not possible to change the coal mining method after planning and starting the operation. In most cases, MMS can be considered as an irreversible process. Selecting a method for mining mainly depends on geological, geometrical properties of the resource, environmental impacts of exploration, impacts of hazardous activities and land use management. This paper seeks to develop a novel model for mining method selection in order to achieve a stable production rate and to reduce environmental problems. This novel model is illustrated by implementing for Tazareh coal mine. Given the disadvantages of the previous models for selecting coal mining method, the purpose of this research is modifying the previous models and offering a comprehensive model. In this respect, TOPSIS method is used as a powerful multi attribute decision-making procedure in Fuzzy environment. After implementation of the presented model in Tazareh coal mine, long wall mining method has been selected as the most appropriate mining method.

  2. Applying linguistic methods to understanding smoking-related conversations on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Brown, Cati G; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-03-01

    Social media, such as Twitter, have become major channels of communication and commentary on popular culture, including conversations on our nation's leading addiction: tobacco. The current study examined Twitter conversations following two tobacco-related events in the media: (1) President Obama's doctor announcing that he had quit smoking and (2) the release of a photograph of Miley Cyrus (a former Disney child star) smoking a cigarette. With a focus on high-profile individuals whose actions can draw public attention, we aimed to characterise tobacco-related conversations as an example of tobacco-related public discourse and to present a novel methodology for studying social media. Tweets were collected 11-13 November 2011 (President Obama) and 1-3 August 2011 (Miley Cyrus) and analysed for relative frequency of terms, a novel application of a linguistic methodology. The President Obama data set (N=2749 tweets) had conversations about him quitting tobacco as well as a preponderance of information on political activity, links to websites, racialised terms and mention of marijuana. Websites and terms about Obama's smoke-free status were most central to the conversation. In the Miley Cyrus data (N=4746 tweets), terms that occurred with the greatest relative frequency were positive, emotional and supportive of quitting (eg, love, and please), with words such as 'love' most central to the conversation. People are talking about tobacco-related issues on Twitter, and semantic network analysis can be used to characterise on-line conversations. Future interventions may be able to harness social media and major current events to raise awareness of smoking-related issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlish, John; Thompson, Jeffrey; Dunham, Grant

    2014-09-30

    Owners of fossil fuel-fired power plants face the challenge of measuring stack emissions of trace metals and acid gases at much lower levels than in the past as a result of increasingly stringent regulations. In the United States, the current reference methods for trace metals and halogens are wet-chemistry methods, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 29 and 26 or 26A, respectively. As a possible alternative to the EPA methods, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a novel multielement sorbent trap (MEST) method to be used to sample for trace elements and/or halogens. Sorbent traps offer a potentially advantageous alternative to the existing sampling methods, as they are simpler to use and do not require expensive, breakable glassware or handling and shipping of hazardous reagents. Field tests comparing two sorbent trap applications (MEST-H for hydrochloric acid and MEST-M for trace metals) with the reference methods were conducted at two power plant units fueled by Illinois Basin bituminous coal. For hydrochloric acid, MEST measured concentrations comparable to EPA Method 26A at two power plant units, one with and one without a wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber. MEST-H provided lower detection limits for hydrochloric acid than the reference method. Results from a dry stack unit had better comparability between methods than results from a wet stack unit. This result was attributed to the very low emissions in the latter unit, as well as the difficulty of sampling in a saturated flue gas. Based on these results, the MEST-H sorbent traps appear to be a good candidate to serve as an alternative to Method 26A (or 26). For metals, the MEST trap gave lower detection limits compared to EPA Method 29 and produced comparable data for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cobalt, manganese, selenium, and mercury for most test runs. However, the sorbent material produced elevated blanks for cadmium, nickel, lead, and chromium at levels

  4. Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Ethanol by Electrochemical Synthesis Method Using Cu-Zn Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Ramadan, S.; Fariduddin, S.; Aminudin, A. R.; Hayatri, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    Research on conversion of carbon dioxide into ethanol has been done. The conversion process is carried out in a sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution in an electrochemical synthesis reactor. As cathode was used Cu-Zn, while as anode carbon was utilized. Variations of voltage, concentration of sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution and time of electrolysis were performed to determine the optimum conditions to convert carbon dioxide into ethanol. Sample of the electrochemical synthesis process was analyzed by gas chromatography. From the result, it is found that the optimum conditions of the electrochemical synthesis process of carbon dioxide conversion into ethanol are voltage, concentration of sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution and time of electrolysis are 3 volts, 0.4 M and 90 minutes with the ethanol concentration of 10.44%.

  5. Methods for calculating dose conversion coefficients for terrestrial and aquatic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulanovsky, A.; Proehl, G.; Gomez-Ros, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants and animals may be exposed to ionizing radiation from radionuclides in the environment. This paper describes the underlying data and assumptions to assess doses to biota due to internal and external exposure for a wide range of masses and shapes living in various habitats. A dosimetric module is implemented which is a user-friendly and flexible possibility to assess dose conversion coefficients for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The dose conversion coefficients have been derived for internal and various external exposure scenarios. The dosimetric model is linked to radionuclide decay and emission database, compatible with the ICRP Publication 38, thus providing a capability to compute dose conversion coefficients for any nuclide from the database and its daughter nuclides. The dosimetric module has been integrated into the ERICA Tool, but it can also be used as a stand-alone version

  6. On the thermochemical conversions of hard coal pitches in the process of raising the softening point to 358-363 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekin, N.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Stepanenko, M.A.; Gordienko, V.G.

    1983-09-01

    High resolution paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy are used to obtain data on the nature of changes in hydrogen content of various groups in the substances of soluble functions in raw pitch and its thermoproducts during the process of producing binders with an increased softening point of 358-363 K. It was shown that thermal treatment of pitch during the process of raising the softening point leads to enrichment of the pitch structure with aromatic hydrogen and to reduction in the structure of the hydrogen in aliphatic bonds. The basis of these conversions is the splitting off of CH/SUB/3 groups and the formation of new structures containing CH/SUB/2 groups. (11 refs.)

  7. Conversion of South African coal fly ash into high-purity ZSM-5 zeolite without additional source of silica or alumina and its application as a methanol-to-olefins catalyst

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Missengue, RNM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of ZSM-5 synthesized from H2SO4-treated coal fly ash and fused coal fly ash extracts are compared in this study. In the synthesis process, fused coal fly ash extract (without an additional silica source) was used in the synthesis...

  8. Coal distribution, January--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-17

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents information for January through June 1990. Coal distribution data are shown (in tables 1--34) by coal-producing state of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and state of destination. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  9. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  10. Protection Performance Simulation of Coal Tar-Coated Pipes Buried in a Domestic Nuclear Power Plant Using Cathodic Protection and FEM Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, J. W.; Park, H. B. [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. S.; Kim, K. T. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Coal tar-coated pipes buried in a domestic nuclear power plant have operated under the cathodic protection. This work conducted the simulation of the coating performance of these pipes using a FEM method. The pipes, being ductile cast iron have been suffered under considerably high cathodic protection condition beyond the appropriate condition. However, cathodic potential measured at the site revealed non-protected status. Converting from 3D CAD data of the power plant to appropriate type for a FEM simulation was conducted and cathodic potential under the applied voltage and current was calculated using primary and secondary current distribution and physical conditions. FEM simulation for coal tar-coated pipe without defects revealed over-protection condition if the pipes were well-coated. However, the simulation for coal tar-coated pipes with many defects predict that the coated pipes may be severely degraded. Therefore, for high risk pipes, direct examination and repair or renewal of pipes are strongly recommended.

  11. Method for internal conversion coefficients determination by means of a magnetic spectrometer. Application to 129Xe and 77Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arqueros, F.; Campos, J.

    1986-01-01

    The method used for efficiency calibration of a magnetic electron spectrometer and its applications to conversion electron spectrometry is described. The present results point out that apparatus combining magnetic deflection and semiconductor detection have a nondecreasing interest in nuclear spectrometry for applications where good resolution and large background rejection are both necessary. The present apparatus can be employed with source of relatively low activity, (0.lμCi). The nuclides studied were 129 Xe and 77 Se resulting from 129 Cs and 77 Br decay. The parent nulcides were produced in ISOLDE on line isotope separator at CERN. The efficiency calibration method used for energies higher than 200 keV made use of the well known beta spectrum of 36 Cl. The calibration for low energies was made with Auger electron intensities and suitable conversion lines of 129 Xenon. Results for relative intensities of conversion electron lines and intense gamma lines of 129 Xe and 77 Se are given. From these measurements internal conversion coefficients for transitions of both nuclides were obtained. The results were in agreement with theoretical calculations. (author)

  12. Selection of biomass thermochemical conversion technology in the Netherlands : A best worst method approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kaa, G.; Kamp, L.M.; Rezaei, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the technology battle for biomass conversion in the Netherlands. Three types of technologies are currently fighting the battle for standard dominance: combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Twelve relevant factors for standard dominance were found: ‘financial strength’,

  13. A convenient method for the conversion of N-acyloxazolidinones to hydroxamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Hasegawa, Hikaru; Ghorpade, Sandeep R

    2002-10-03

    Treatment of N-acyloxazolidinones with hydroxylamines using samarium triflate as a Lewis acid provides the corresponding hydroxamic acids in 50-98% yields at room temperature. The conversion proceeds with high degree of chemoselectivity and without racemization of chiral centers alpha- to the acyl group. [reaction: see text

  14. Test work of sand compaction pile method on coal ash soil foundation. Sekitanbai jiban ni okeru sand compaction pile koho no shiken seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, K.; Maeda, S.; Shibata, T. (The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-01-25

    As an electric power supply source after the 1990 {prime}s, Nos. 5 and 6 units are additionally being constructed by Kansai Electric Power in its Himeji Power Station No.1 which is an exclusively LNG burning power station. The additional construction site of those units is of soil foundation reclaimed with coal ash which was used residual product in the existing No.1 through No.4 units. As a result of soil foundation survey, the coal ash layer and sand layer were known to be of material to be possibly liquidized at the time of earthquake. As measures against the liquidization, application was basically made of a sand compaction pile (SCP) method which is economical and abundant in record. However, that method was so short of record in the coal ash layer that its evaluation was difficult in soil reforming effect. Therefore, its applicability was evaluated by a work test on the site, which resulted in a confirmation that the coal ash as well as the sand can be sufficiently reformed by the SCP method. Started in September, 1991, the additional construction of Nos. 5 and 6 units in Himeji Power Station No.1 uses a 1.5m pitch SCP method to reform the soil foundation. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Development of sustainable coal to liquid processes: Minimising process CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kauchali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional coal-to-liquid (CTL plants are synonymous with the production of carbon dioxide. Coal may be gasified in the presence of steam and oxygen to produce gas comprising carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, methane (CH4, hydrogen (H2 and steam (H2O. The gases can be reacted to a myriad of chemicals and fuels via the Fischer-Tropsch (FT reaction. However, excess carbon dioxide is generated via the Water-Gas-Shift reaction during preparation of CO:H2 ratios for FT. Here, a process development is represented on a CHO phase diagram, where unique regions are identified for autothermal operations for coal conversion. Considerations are given to develop idealised processes for the production of liquid chemicals from coal which emit minimal process CO2, require minimal energy input and do not require steam. This is achieved by co-feeding coal with methane and identifying endothermic-exothermic process pairs for methane-coal dry reforming. Furthermore, it is shown that a preferred method to produce liquid fuels from coal is by first creating dimethyl ether (DME as an intermediate, followed by the dehydration of DME to liquid fuels (gasoline range. For this route, via DME, the CO2 emission was found to be four times less than idealised CTL processes. Keywords: Gasification, Reforming, Coal to liquid, Carbon dioxide, Autothermal, Fischer tropsch

  16. Surface chemical problems in coal flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Miller, K. J.; Deurbrouck, A. W.

    1981-02-01

    As the use of coal increases and more fine material is produced by mining and processing, the need for improved methods of coal beneficiation increases. While flotation techniques can help meet these needs, the technique is beset with many problems. These problems involve surface chemical and interfacial properties of the coal-mineral-water slurry systems used in coal flotation. The problems associated with coal flotation include non-selectivity, inefficient reagent utilization, and excessive variablity of results. These problems can be broadely classified as a lack of predictability. The present knowledge of coal flotation is not sufficient, in terms of surface chemical parameters, to allow prediction of the flotation response of a given coal. In this paper, some of the surface chemical properties of coal and coal minerals that need to be defined will be discussed in terms of the problems noted above and their impact on coal cleaning.

  17. The Nanticoke conversion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    A study was conducted to assess the conversion of the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant to cleaner burning natural gas combined-cycle gas turbines. The Nanticoke Generating Station on Lake Erie is responsible for more than 50 per cent of Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) coal-fired electricity production. The OPG is proposing to work towards compliance with the newly signed Ozone Annex to the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement which will require fossil-fueled power plants in southern Ontario to reduce their smog-causing nitrogen oxides emissions by about 50 per cent by 2007. This study assessed the emission reduction benefits and financial costs of conversion compared to continuing to operate Nanticoke as a coal-fired plant. The analysis includes a base case set of data on fuel prices, retrofit costs, fuel efficiencies, annual capacity factors and other parameters. It was determined that conversion would cost the average household less than $3 per month on their electricity bill. Conversion would also reduce emissions nitrogen oxide, a major smog pollutant, by 83 per cent and the particulates that form the most health-threatening portion of smog would be reduced by 100 per cent. 15 tabs., 1 fig.

  18. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  19. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1991 on research and development of coal energy. Studies on coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil; 1991 nendo sekitan ekikayo shokubai oyobi ekikayu bunseikiho no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1991 on research of coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil. Alkalis and alkali earth metals present during coal liquefied oil hydrogenation treatment deteriorate the activity remarkably as an effect of metal deposition from an Mo-based catalyst on the activity deterioration. Discussions were given on hydrogenating decomposition paths for bi-cyclic compounds by using reaction of model substances. Preliminary discussions were given jointly under the Japanese and Canadian technical cooperation on enhancing the quality of co-treated oil in the coal liquefaction, and on catalysts used therein. A 1-t/d PSU circulating solvent was studied to support the NEDO's bituminous coal liquefaction program. Analyses were carried out on acenaphthenes, biphenyls, phenanthrenes, and anthracenes in the oil liquefied from Wandoan coal. Discussions were given on CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the effects of catalyst concentrations and particle sizes in the coal liquefying reaction. In order to elucidate different non-covalently bonded high-order structures of coal polymer assemblies, chemical treatment was applied to coals under a relatively mild condition (room temperature to 150 degrees C). Chemical structures as a result of the non-covalent bond in the coals were investigated from change due to the treatment in the pyridine extraction characteristics. (NEDO)

  20. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1991 on research and development of coal energy. Studies on coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil; 1991 nendo sekitan ekikayo shokubai oyobi ekikayu bunseikiho no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1991 on research of coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil. Alkalis and alkali earth metals present during coal liquefied oil hydrogenation treatment deteriorate the activity remarkably as an effect of metal deposition from an Mo-based catalyst on the activity deterioration. Discussions were given on hydrogenating decomposition paths for bi-cyclic compounds by using reaction of model substances. Preliminary discussions were given jointly under the Japanese and Canadian technical cooperation on enhancing the quality of co-treated oil in the coal liquefaction, and on catalysts used therein. A 1-t/d PSU circulating solvent was studied to support the NEDO's bituminous coal liquefaction program. Analyses were carried out on acenaphthenes, biphenyls, phenanthrenes, and anthracenes in the oil liquefied from Wandoan coal. Discussions were given on CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the effects of catalyst concentrations and particle sizes in the coal liquefying reaction. In order to elucidate different non-covalently bonded high-order structures of coal polymer assemblies, chemical treatment was applied to coals under a relatively mild condition (room temperature to 150 degrees C). Chemical structures as a result of the non-covalent bond in the coals were investigated from change due to the treatment in the pyridine extraction characteristics. (NEDO)

  1. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  2. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  3. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE CHEMICAL FORMS OF MERCURY AND OTHER TARGET POLLUTANTS IN COAL-FIRED BOILER FLUE GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence J. McManus, Ph.D.

    1999-06-30

    . (ATS) as a secondary DOE contractor on this project, assessed the sampling and analytical plans and the emission reports of the five primary contractors to determine how successful the contractors were in satisfying their defined objectives. ATS identified difficulties and inconsistencies in a number of sampling and analytical methodologies in these studies. In particular there was uncertainty as to the validity of the sampling and analytical methods used to differentiate the chemical forms of mercury observed in coal flue gas. Considering the differences in the mercury species with regard to human toxicity, the rate of transport through the ecosystem and the design variations in possible emission control schemes, DOE sought an accurate and reliable means to identify and quantify the various mercury compounds emitted by coal-fired utility boilers. ATS, as a contractor for DOE, completed both bench- and pilot-scale studies on various mercury speciation methods. The final validation of the modified Ontario-Hydro Method, its acceptance by DOE and submission of the method for adoption by ASTM was a direct result of these studies carried out in collaboration with the University of North Dakota's Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). This report presents the results from studies carried out at ATS in the development of analytical methods to identify and quantify various chemical species, particularly those of mercury, in coal derived flue gas. Laboratory- and pilot-scale studies, not only on mercury species, but also on other inorganics and organics present in coal combustion flue gas are reported.

  5. Method of flash evaporation and condensation – heat pump for deep cooling of coal-fired power plant flue gas: Latent heat and water recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuzhong; Yan, Min; Zhang, Liqiang; Chen, Guifang; Cui, Lin; Song, Zhanlong; Chang, Jingcai; Ma, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method is developed for deep cooling of flue gas in coal-fired boilers. • The method can recover both latent heat and water from flue gas. • The method utilizes FGD scrubber as a deep cooling exchanger. • The method adopts the direct heat exchange mode to avoid the corrosion problem. - Abstract: Flue gas waste heat recovery and utilization is an efficient means to improve the energy efficiency of coal-fired power plants. At present, the surface corrosion and fouling problems of heat exchanger hinder the development of flue gas deep cooling. In this study, a novel flue gas deep cooling method that can reduce flue gas temperature below the dew point of vapor to recover latent heat and obtain clean water simultaneously is proposed to achieve improved energy efficiency. The heat transfer mode of this method is the direct contact mode, which takes the scrubber, e.g. the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, as the deep cooling exchanger. The flash evaporation and condensation (FEC) device and heat pump (HP) are utilized to provide low-temperature medium, such as FGD slurry or water, for washing and deep cooling flue gas, to collect recovered water, and to absorb recovered waste heat. This method is called as the FEC–HP method. This paper elaborated on two optional models of the proposed method. The mechanism for recovering heat and water was also analyzed using the customized flue gas humidity chart, and the method to quantitate recovered heat and water, as well as the results of the case of a 300 MW coal-fired generator set were provided. Net present value calculations showed that this method is profitable in the scenario of burning high-water-content coals. Several potential advantages of this method and suggestions for practical application were also discussed.

  6. Chemistry and structure of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    It is the objective of this project to isolate the asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions from coal liquids from a number of liquefaction processes. These processes consist of in general: catalytic hydrogenation, staged pyrolysis and solvent refining. These asphaltene fractions may be further separated by both gradient elution through column chromatography, and molecular size distribution through gel permeation chromatography. Those coal-derived asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions will be investigated by various chemical and physical methods for characterization of their structures. After the parameters are obtained, these parameters will be correlated with the refining and conversion variables which control a given type of liquefaction process. The effects of asphaltene in catalysis, ash or metal removal, desulfurization and denitrification will also be correlated. It is anticipated that understanding the role of asphaltenes in liquefaction processes will enable engineers to both improve existing processes, and to make recommendations for operational changes in planned liquefaction units in the United States. The objective of Phase 1 was to complete the isolation and separation of coal liquid fractions and to initiate their characterization. The objective of Phase 2 is to continue the characterization of coal asphaltenes and other coal liquid fractions by use of physical and instrumental methods. The structural parameters obtained will be used to postulate hypothetical average structures for coal liquid fractions. The objective of Phase 3 is to concentrate on the characterization of the preasphaltene (benzene insoluble fraction) of coal liquid fraction by the available physical and chemical methods to obtain a number of structural parameters.

  7. Coal marketing in Asia: Opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingner, D.

    1996-01-01

    In Asia, coal currently accounts for over 40 percent of the fossil fuel used for commercial energy. This paper briefly surveys the forces that are likely to decide the future role coal will play as a prime source of energy in the vigorous economies of Asia. As Australia is well placed to profit from Asia's growing need for coal, the challenge to Australian coal suppliers is how to maximize its potential contribution. Four-fifths of all new coal fired electrical generating capacity in the world in the next decade will be located in Asia. Three-quarters of Australia's coal exports are to Asian customers and, conversely, 40 percent of Asian imports are from Australia. Australian coal suppliers have established ties and a depth of marketing experience in the region on which to build. However, pricing policies, and the emergence of the private power producers, together with environmental pressures, will present challenges for the future. (author). 1 fig

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A VORTEX CONTAINMENT COMBUSTOR FOR COAL COMBUSTION SYTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the development of a vortex containment combustor (VCC) for coal combustion systems, designed to solve major problems facing the conversion of oil- and gas-fired boilers to coal (e.g., derating, inorganic impurities in coal, and excessive formation of NOx and...

  9. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  10. Implementation of a Monte Carlo method to model photon conversion for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizo, C. del; Tobias, I.; Perez-Bedmar, J.; Pan, A.C.; Luque, A.

    2008-01-01

    A physical model describing different photon conversion mechanisms is presented in the context of photovoltaic applications. To solve the resulting system of equations, a Monte Carlo ray-tracing model is implemented, which takes into account the coupling of the photon transport phenomena to the non-linear rate equations describing luminescence. It also separates the generation of rays from the two very different sources of photons involved (the sun and the luminescence centers). The Monte Carlo simulator presented in this paper is proposed as a tool to help in the evaluation of candidate materials for up- and down-conversion. Some application examples are presented, exploring the range of values that the most relevant parameters describing the converter should have in order to give significant gain in photocurrent

  11. Residual coal exploitation and its impact on sustainable development of the coal industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yujiang; Feng, Guorui; Zhang, Min; Ren, Hongrui; Bai, Jinwen; Guo, Yuxia; Jiang, Haina; Kang, Lixun

    2016-01-01

    Although China owns large coal reserves, it now faces the problem of depletion of its coal resources in advance. The coal-based energy mix in China will not change in the short term, and a means of delaying the coal resources depletion is therefore urgently required. The residual coal was exploited first with a lower recovery percentage and was evaluated as commercially valuable damaged coal. This approach is in comparison to past evaluations when the residual coal was allocated as exploitation losses. Coal recovery rates, the calculation method of residual coal reserves and statistics of its mines in China were given. On this basis, a discussion concerning the impacts on the delay of China's coal depletion, development of coal exploitation and sustainable developments, as well as technologies and relevant policies, were presented. It is considered that the exploitation of residual coal can effectively delay China's coal depletion, inhibit the construction of new mines, redress the imbalance between supply and demand of coal in eastern China, improve the mining area environment and guarantee social stability. The Chinese government supports the exploitation technologies of residual coal. Hence, exploiting residual coal is of considerable importance in sustainable development of the coal industry in China. - Highlights: •Pay attention to residual coal under changing energy-mix environment in China. •Estimate residual coal reserves and investigate its exploitation mines. •Discuss impacts of residual coal exploitation on delay of coal depletion in China. •Discuss impacts on coal mining industry and residual coal exploitation technology. •Give corresponding policy prescriptions.

  12. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic materials. Part I: conversion of rye straw to valuable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Thomas; Wörmeyer, Kai; Lima, Juan Carlos Ixcaraguá; Bockemühl, Vera; Antranikian, Garabed; Brunner, Gerd; Smirnova, Irina

    2011-04-01

    The conversion of lignocellulose to valuable products requires I: a fractionation of the major components hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, II: an efficient method to process these components to higher valued products. The present work compares liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment to the soda pulping process and to the ethanol organosolv pretreatment using rye straw as a single lignocellulosic material. The organosolv pretreated rye straw was shown to require the lowest enzyme loading in order to achieve a complete saccharification of cellulose to glucose. At biomass loadings of up to 15% (w/w) cellulose conversion of LHW and organosolv pretreated lignocellulose was found to be almost equal. The soda pulping process shows lower carbohydrate and lignin recoveries compared to the other two processes. In combination with a detailed analysis of the different lignins obtained from the three pretreatment methods, this work gives an overview of the potential products from different pretreatment processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modes of Occurrence of Fluorine by Extraction and SEM Method in a Coal-Fired Power Plant from Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmeng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an extraction method and environmental scanning electron microscopy (SEM are employed to reveal the changes in the occurrence mode of fluorine in a coal-fired power plant in Inner Mongolia, China. The different occurrence states of fluorine during coal combustion and emission show that fluorine in coal mainly assumes insoluble inorganic mineral forms. The results illustrate that the three typical occurrence modes in coal are CaF2, MgF2 and AlF3. The fluorine in fly ash can be captured by an electrostatic precipitator (EPS or a bag filter. In contrast, the gaseous fluorine content in flue gas is only in the range of several parts per million; thus, it cannot be used in this study. The occurrence mode of fluorine in bottom ash and slag is inorganic villiaumite (e.g., soluble NaF, KF and insoluble CaF2 which is difficult to break down even at high temperatures. The occurrence mode of fluorine with the highest content in fly ash is physically adsorbed fluorine along the direction of the flue gas flow. The insoluble inorganic mineral fluoride content in fly ash is also high, but the gradually increasing fluorine content in fly ash is mainly caused by physical adsorption. Fluorine in the coal-fired power plant discharges mostly as solid products; however, very little fluorine emitted into the environment as gas products (HF, SiF4 cannot be captured. The parameters used in this study may provide useful references in developing a monitoring and control system for fluorine in coal-fired power plants.

  14. Recommended methods for evaluating the benefits of ECUT Program outputs. [Energy Conversion and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Winter, C.

    1986-03-01

    This study was conducted to define and develop techniques that could be used to assess the complete spectrum of positive effects resulting from the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program activities. These techniques could then be applied to measure the benefits from past ECUT outputs. In addition, the impact of future ECUT outputs could be assessed as part of an ongoing monitoring process, after sufficient time has elapsed to allow their impacts to develop.

  15. Biotype assessment and evaluation as a method to quantify the external costs related to surface brown coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabrna, M.; Peleska, O.

    2009-01-01

    Externalities express the uncompensated effects of human individuals on each other and on nature. Externalities include costs and benefits which impact human individuals and environment and are not included in the costs and benefits of their creators and are often defined as the differences between social costs or revenues from economic activity and private costs or revenues. Surface brown coal mining can be characterized by a large range of adverse environmental effects. In order to compensate for the environmental damage caused by mining activities in the Czech Republic, various environmental fees paid by mining companies were introduced to the Czech legislation. The Hessian method of quantifying impacts on the environment is an expert methods that is appropriate for the evaluating environmental damage caused by large-scale impacts on landscape. This paper described the methodology of the Hessian method and its application to a selected opencast mine in north-western Bohemia called the Vrsany-Sverma mine. The paper also discussed current environmental charges in the Czech Republic. It was concluded that the calculated amount of environmental damage caused by surface mining balances the amount of environmental fees currently paid by mining companies. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  17. A Novel Method for Borehole Blockage Removal and Experimental Study on a Hydraulic Self-Propelled Nozzle in Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolong Ge

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When coal bed methane (CBM drainage boreholes cross fractured, soft, or water-swelling strata, they collapse and block frequently. Borehole blockages result in a rapid decrease in CBM extraction ability, which leads to a reduction in CBM output and threatens coal mine safety production. To solve these problems, a novel method that uses a self-propelled water-jet nozzle to dredge blocked boreholes in coal seams has been proposed on the basis of the existing technology. Based on a theoretical analysis of the reason for borehole caving and the theory of blockage removal, we optimized the nozzle inlet pressure and selected an appropriate high-pressure resin pipe. A field experiment on the blockage removal of blocked CBM drainage boreholes using the proposed method was run in the Fengchun coal mine, Qijiang, Chongqing, southwest China. In this field trial, the time spent to unblock a borehole varied between 18.52 and 34.98 min, which is much shorter than using a drilling rig. After blockage removal, the average pure volume of the methane drainage of a single borehole was increased from 0.03 L/min to ~1.91–7.30 L/min, and the methane drainage concentration of a single borehole increased from 5% to ~44%–85%. The extraction effect increased significantly.

  18. Method for assessing coal-floor water-inrush risk based on the variable-weight model and unascertained measure theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Zhao, Dekang; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianjun; Mu, Wenping; Liu, Honglei

    2017-11-01

    Water inrush from coal-seam floors greatly threatens mining safety in North China and is a complex process controlled by multiple factors. This study presents a mathematical assessment system for coal-floor water-inrush risk based on the variable-weight model (VWM) and unascertained measure theory (UMT). In contrast to the traditional constant-weight model (CWM), which assigns a fixed weight to each factor, the VWM varies with the factor-state value. The UMT employs the confidence principle, which is more effective in ordered partition problems than the maximum membership principle adopted in the former mathematical theory. The method is applied to the Datang Tashan Coal Mine in North China. First, eight main controlling factors are selected to construct the comprehensive evaluation index system. Subsequently, an incentive-penalty variable-weight model is built to calculate the variable weights of each factor. Then, the VWM-UMT model is established using the quantitative risk-grade divide of each factor according to the UMT. On this basis, the risk of coal-floor water inrush in Tashan Mine No. 8 is divided into five grades. For comparison, the CWM is also adopted for the risk assessment, and a differences distribution map is obtained between the two methods. Finally, the verification of water-inrush points indicates that the VWM-UMT model is powerful and more feasible and reasonable. The model has great potential and practical significance in future engineering applications.

  19. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  20. Materials, process, product analysis of coal process technology. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, J. C.; Roig, R. W.; Loridan, A.; Leggett, N. E.; Capell, R. G.; Humpstone, C. C.; Mudry, R. N.; Ayres, E.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of materials-process-product analysis is a systematic evaluation of alternative manufacturing processes--in this case processes for converting coal into energy and material products that can supplement or replace petroleum-based products. The methodological steps in the analysis include: Definition of functional operations that enter into coal conversion processes, and modeling of alternative, competing methods to accomplish these functions; compilation of all feasible conversion processes that can be assembled from combinations of competing methods for the functional operations; systematic, iterative evaluation of all feasible conversion processes under a variety of economic situations, environmental constraints, and projected technological advances; and aggregative assessments (economic and environmental) of various industrial development scenarios. An integral part of the present project is additional development of the existing computer model to include: A data base for coal-related materials and coal conversion processes; and an algorithmic structure that facilitates the iterative, systematic evaluations in response to exogenously specified variables, such as tax policy, environmental limitations, and changes in process technology and costs. As an analytical tool, the analysis is intended to satisfy the needs of an analyst working at the process selection level, for example, with respect to the allocation of RDandD funds to competing technologies.

  1. Study on the coal mixing ratio optimization for a power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. A.; Cheng, J. W.; Bai, Q.; Li, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    For coal-fired power plants, the application of blended coal combustion has been a great issue due to the shortage and rising prices of high-rank coal. This paper describes the optimization of blending methods between Xing'an lignite coal, Shaltala lignite coal, Ura lignite coal, and Inner Mongolia bituminous coal. The multi-objective decision-making method based on fuzzy mathematics was used to determine the optimal blending ratio to improve the power plant coal-fired economy.

  2. Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Rashid

    1990-01-01

    A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

  3. The environmental impact of coal technology: Politics and methods of achieving an international convention to protect the earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Particular attention will be paid to the following points during the international Round Table discussions: Technology transfer and political opportunities for the environmentally-compatible use of coal in developing and transitional countries who rely on coal to meet their energy needs. Supporting this challenge for the international community of coal-based energy conservation in these countries, particularly through development aid. To increasingly accept our collective responsibility for energy considerations and environmental effects, based on a better understanding of the countries' differing limits and obligations in achieving the goal of a convention to protect the earth's atmosphere. (orig.) [de

  4. Gaseous emissions from coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Stockpiled coal undergoes atmospheric oxidation and desorption processes during open air storage. These processes release gases to the environment which may effect health and safety by their toxicity and flammability. In extreme cases, this could lead to a fire. This report discusses gaseous emissions from coal stockpiles. It covers gas emission mechanisms, and gas sampling and testing methods, before examining in more detail the principal gases that have been emitted. It concludes that there is limited research in this area and more data are needed to evaluate the risks of gaseous emissions. Some methods used to prevent coal self-heating and spontaneous combustion can be applied to reduce emissions from coal stockpiles.

  5. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  6. Investigation of karst collapse based on 3-D seismic technique and DDA method at Xieqiao coal mine, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Jian-Ping; Chen, Zhong-Hui [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Institute of Rock Mechanical and Fractals, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Peng, Su-Ping; Li, Yong-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Xie, He-Ping [Institute of Rock Mechanical and Fractals, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-06-01

    Karst collapse is a serious geological problem in most of the coal mines in the north of China, but recently it has been found in the south as well. The present study is aimed at investigating subsidence mechanism and deformation field of a karst collapse column at Xieqiao, in the south of China. A method of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic technique has been successful in exploring the spatial morphology of the karst collapse at Xieqiao, and the discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) method is used to calculate the deformation field and analyze the subsidence mechanism. The results indicated that DDA could approximately simulate and back analyze the subsidence process and strata deformation fields. The subsidence processes of the collapse column depend on the sizes of the karst caves. With the continuous expansion of the karst caves, a semi-elliptic stress field, local separation strata and fracture zone will be formed around the karst cave. Moreover, they will gradually expand upwards along the vertical direction. The paper also indicates that the subsidence failure stage may trigger a sudden collapse of the karst column because of the sudden energy release. Also, it will make a great impact on the vicinity working face so as to cause a rock burst. The effects of the friction angle of rock strata on the subsidence mechanism were reported firstly based on DDA. (author)

  7. Application of coal petrographic methods in petroleum and natural gas exploration. Anwendung kohlenpetrographischer Methoden bei der Erdoel- und Erdgasprospektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmueller, M.

    1971-02-15

    The relationship that exists between coalification and the formation of liquid petroleum and natural gas depends entirely upon the temperature in the earth's crust and the duration of heating. The degree of coalification can be determined by reflectivity measurements on very small vitrinitic (huminitic) inclusions in sedimentary rocks, because a satisfactory correlation has been established between mean reflectivity (R/sub m Oil/) and different parameters of chemical rank using 900 vitrites of different rank. This paper reports the considerable experience obtained with this method using cores and cuttings from boreholes of the German oil industry. Subsequently, examples from other countries are described which confirm the applicability of the method. Results obtained so far suggest that oil deposits may occur when the reflectivity (R/sub m Oil/) of the vitrinite lies between 0.3 and 1.0% (brown coal to high-volatile bituminous stage), whereas economic gas deposits may be found when R/sub m Oil/ extends from 0.7 to 2.0% (high-low volatile bituminous stage).

  8. A rapid method for monitoring the hydrodeoxygenation of coal-derived naphtha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnand, B.A.; Coulombe, S.; Smiley, G.T.; Fairbridge, C.

    1988-01-01

    A bonded polar poly(ethylene glycol) capillary column has been used for the identification and quantification of the phenolic components in synthetic crude naphthas. This provides a rapid and routine method for the determination of phenolic oxygen content with results comparable to combustion and neutron activation methods. The method is most useful in monitoring the removal of phenolic oxygen by hydroprocessing. 11 refs., 1 fig. 1 tab.

  9. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association, is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  10. BAESNUM, a conversational computer program for the Bayesian estimation of a parameter by a numerical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, A.G.; Jaarsma, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a conversational computer program which, via Bayes' theorem, numerically combines the prior distribution of a parameter with a likelihood function. Any type of prior and likelihood function can be considered. The present version of the program includes six types of prior and employs the binomial likelihood. As input the program requires the law and parameters of the prior distribution and the sample data. As output it gives the posterior distribution as a histogram. The use of the program for estimating the constant failure rate of an item is briefly described

  11. Thermocatalytical processing of coal and shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the questions of thermocatalytical conversion of organic mass of coal (OMC, it is shown that in the absence of a catalyst process is carried out by a radical process. Accumulated data on the properties for radicals of different structure and therefore different reaction capacity enables us to understand and interpret the conversion of OMC. Thermal conversion of OMC regarded as a kind of depolymerization, accompanied by decomposition of the functional groups with the formation of radicals, competing for hydrogen atom. Catalyst can change the direction and conditions of the process. Modern catalysts can reduce the process pressure up to 50 atm., with a high degree of coal conversion. We consider examples of simultaneous conversion of coal and shale, shale and masut, shale and tar.

  12. Material and Energy Flow Analysis (Mefa of the Unconventional Method of Electricity Production Based on Underground Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czaplicka-Kolarz

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: This is the first approach which contains a whole chain of electricity production from Underground Coal Gasification, including stages of gas cleaning, electricity production and the additional capture of carbon dioxide.

  13. Quantitative determination of Quarternary alicyclic carbon atoms in coal and oil using nuclear magnetic resonance /sup 13/C method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonina, T.V.; Kushnarev, D.F.; Randin, O.I.; Shishkov, V.F.; Kalabin, G.A.

    1986-09-01

    Possibility is indicated for utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for quantitative determination of Quarternary aliphatic carbon atoms in heavy hydrocarbon fractions of oil and coal extracts. C/sub n/, CH, CH/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/ content in coal and oil samples are determined and corresponding resonance lines are referred to individual structural fragments (on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance /sup 13/C spectra) of known saturated hydrocarbons. Tests were carried out on chloroform extracts of Irsha-Borodinsk coal, Mungunsk coal and paraffin and cycloparaffin of Sivinsk oil (b.p. over 550 C) fractions. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained using Burker WP 200 spectrometer (50.13 MHz frequency). Results of the tests are given. 11 references.

  14. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  15. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Siddique; Suhail Ahmed Soomro; Aziza Aftab; Zahid Naeem Qaisrani; Abdul Sattar Jatoi; Asadullah; Ghulamullah Khan; Ehsanullah Kakar

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their ...

  16. Mapping of Trace Elements in Coal and Ash Research Based on a Bibliometric Analysis Method Spanning 1971–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the most important fossil energy used in China. The environmental impact of trace elements released in coal combustion has become one of the hottest issues in recent years. Based on a software named CiteSpace, and social network analysis (SNA, a bibliometric analysis of research into trace elements in coal and ash field during 1971–2017 is presented with the information of authors, countries, institutions, journals, hot issues and research trends in the present study. The study results indicate that: (1 Shifeng Dai, Robert B Finkelman, Guijian Liu and James C Hower have a large number of publications with great influence. (2 China (29.8% and USA (22.2% have high productivity in total publications. China and the USA correlate closely in the cooperative web system. (3 China University of Mining and Technology and Chinese Academy of Sciences take the leading position in the quantity of publications among all research institutions. (4 Energy and fuels, engineering and environmental science are three disciplines with the most studies in this field. (5 International Journal of Coal Geology, Fuel, Energy and Fuels and Fuel Processing Technology are the top four journals with the most publications in this field. (6 The enrichment origin and modes of occurrence of trace elements are the mainstream research related to trace elements in coal and ash. The environmental problems caused by coal combustion have promoted the development of trace elements in coal research, and human health is getting more and more popular in recent years. The study findings provide a better understanding of features of trace elements in coal and ash research, which could be taken as a reference for future studies in this field.

  17. Effects of modified coal-winning methods on structures in the coal mining industry. Learning from a case of damage; Auswirkungen veraenderter Abbauverfahren auf Bauwerke des Steinkohlenbergbaus. Lehren aus einem Schadensfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fastabend, M.; Schaefers, T.; Reissmann, F. [Ingenieurbuero IDN, Duisburg (Germany); Fischer, P.; Kaehler, A. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK), Herne (Germany)

    2006-11-07

    The collapse of a side wall of a raw feed coal bunker after 30 years in operation at a DSK colliery gave rise to the checking of structures of the same type of the basis of the causes of damage. Due to highly mechanised working methods in the colliery the soil mechanical boundary conditions of the filling material have changed. Meanwhile a deeper knowledge of the ground pressure theory to be assumed, which always necessitates consideration of at least a proportion of the earth static pressure in the case of rigid structures of this type, is also available. (orig.)

  18. The effect of curing units and methods on degree of conversion of two types of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani Tabatabaei M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Halogen lamp is the commonly used light source for composite photo polymerization. Recently, high power halogen lamps, LED and plasma arc are introduced for improving the polymerization. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conventional and high power halogen lamps and LED light curing unit on degree of conversion of two different composite resins.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study two halogen units (Coltolux 50 with the intensity of  330 mW/cm2 and Optilux 501 with two different operating modes of standard with the intensity of 820 mW/cm2 and Ramp with the intentsiy of 100-1030mW/cm2 and one LED light curing unit (620 mW/cm2 were used. The composites were hybrid (Tetric ceram and nanofilled (Filteke supreme. Each materials/curing method contained three samples and degree of conversion (DC was measured with FTIR. Data were analyzed statistically with one way and two way ANOVA, Tukey HSD. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance.Results: Tetric ceram revealed higher DCthan Supreme. Tetric ceram showed a significant decrease in DC when Coltolux 50 was used in comparison to LED and Optilux 501. The latters did not show significant effect on DC of this material. DC of Supreme polymerized with various curing modes was not significantly different.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, degree of conversion in hybrid composites was higher than nanofilled. In comparison with conventional halogen lamp (Coltolux 50, high intensity halogen lamps and LED unit significantly lead to higher degree of conversion in hybrid composites.

  19. Coal-related research, organic chemistry, and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Coal chemistry research topics included: H exchange at 400 0 C, breaking C-C bonds in coal, molecular weight estimation using small-angle neutron scattering, 13 C NMR spectra of coals, and tunneling during H/D isotope effects. Studies of coal conversion chemistry included thermolysis of bibenzyl and 1-naphthol, heating of coals in phenol, advanced indirect liquefaction based on Koelbel slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor, and plasma oxidation of coal minerals. Reactions of PAHs in molten SbCl 3 , a hydrocracking catalyst, were studied. Finally, heterogeneous catalysis (desulfurization etc.) was studied using Cu, Au, and Ni surfaces. 7 figures, 6 tables

  20. Mercury Emission Measurement in Coal-Fired Boilers by Continuous Mercury Monitor and Ontario Hydro Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqun; Zhou, Jinsong; He, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoshu; Hu, Changxin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Le; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2007-06-01

    The mercury emission control approach attaches more importance. The accurate measurement of mercury speciation is a first step. Because OH method (accepted method) can't provide the real-time data and 2-week time for results attained, it's high time to seek on line mercury continuous emission monitors(Hg-CEM). Firstly, the gaseous elemental and oxidized mercury were conducted to measure using OH and CEM method under normal operation conditions of PC boiler after ESP, the results between two methods show good consistency. Secondly, through ESP, gaseous oxidized mercury decrease a little and particulate mercury reduce a little bit, but the elemental mercury is just the opposite. Besides, the WFGD system achieved to gaseous oxidized mercury removal of 53.4%, gaseous overall mercury and elemental mercury are 37.1% and 22.1%, respectively.

  1. Planning new coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benesch, W.A. [STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    When considering fossil energy sources, it can be seen that natural gas and oil will become much scarcer than coal. Therefore, one practical option is to investigate and further develop coal-based energy supplies for the future. However, the existing coal stocks must be used very sparingly. Consequently, the conversion efficiency of the chemically-bonded energy in power and heat needs to be improved. By these means, and also by modern environmental engineering, power can be generated from coal without harming the environment. (orig.)

  2. The coal industry and its greenhouse challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Australian coal industry is actively involved in greenhouse gas emission management and abatement issues. An Australian Coal Association (ACA) position paper on greenhouse in November 1989, recommended a number of strategies to minimise the greenhouse effect, including the enhancement of energy utilisation efficiency, improved energy conversion efficiency at coal-fired power stations, expanded use of solar heating, and improved recycling. All of the strategies have been implemented to various degrees. The management and abatement of greenhouse gas emissions within the coal industry has been approached from an individual operational level, and a 'higher' industry level

  3. Non-covalent associative structure of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, H. [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2004-06-01

    The recent progress of non-covalent associative structure of coal and the mechanisms of the carbon disulphide-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) are mixed solvent and the additive addition enhancing the extraction yield of coals are reviewed, and the aggregation behaviour of coal in solid and solution states are presented, and the aggregation behavior of coal in solid and solution states are introduced in this paper. Coal extraction and swelling in organic solvents at room temperature were the most useful methods to understand the associative structure of coal. CS{sub 2}/NMP is a unique solvent to give high extraction yields for some bituminous coals. Some additives such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) can dissociate the stronger interactions among coal molecules and enhance the extraction yields of coal in the mixed solvent. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  5. Efficiency and emissions of coal combustion in two unvented cookstoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoma, J.; Kasali, G.B.; Ellegaard, A.

    1994-01-01

    An improved chamber method was employed in the evaluation of the energy conversion and emission characteristics of coal in two unvented cookstoves known as the clay stove and the Maamba stove. Burn rate and stove efficiency were determined together with mission factors for carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Compared to Maamba stove, the clay stove exhibited a lower burn rate but higher efficiency. The clay stove recorded mean CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , NO and RSP emission factors of 200, 47, 10, 0.4 and 2.4 g/kg, respectively. The Maamba stove emission factors for the same pollutants were 170, 36, n.d., 1.2 and 8.0 g/kg, respectively. The emissions and concentrations of carbon monoxide were less than those previously found with charcoal use, but still exceeded air pollution guidelines by orders of magnitude. Thus the use of coal would not constitute any appreciable improvement over the present charcoal use. Sulphur dioxide emissions and concentrations are quite high, and would constitute a new pollutant in residential areas of Zambia. Particulate emissions and concentrations from coal are higher than from charcoal. In view of specific health risks associated with particulates from coal smoke the domestic use of raw coal is not recommended. 16 refs, 8 figs, 20 tabs

  6. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  7. A spatial analysis of China's coal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Dunguo; Li Zhi

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of China's energy structure and the distribution of its coal resources make coal transportation a very important component of the energy system; moreover, coal transportation acts as a bottleneck for the Chinese economy. To insure the security of the coal supply, China has begun to build regional strategic coal reserves at some locations, but transportation is still the fundamental way to guaranty supply security. Here, we study China's coal transportation quantitatively with a linear programming method that analyses the direction and volume of China's coal flows with the prerequisite that each province's supply and demand balance is guaranteed. First, we analyse the optimal coal transportation for the status quo coal supply and demand given the bottleneck effects that the Daqin Railway has on China's coal flow; second, we analyse the influence of future shifts in the coal supply zone in the future, finding that China's coal flows will also change, which will pressure China to construct railways and ports; and finally, we analyse the possibility of exploiting Yangtze River capacity for coal transportation. We conclude the paper with suggestions for enhancing China's coal transportation security. - Highlights: ► We use linear programming to study China's coal transportation. ► First, analyse the optimal coal flow under the status quo condition. ► Second, analyse influences of coal supply zone shifts to Neimeng and Xinjiang. ► Third, analyse the influence of using Yangtze River for coal transportation. ► At last, we give suggestions about infrastructure construction to guaranty China's long-run coal supply security.

  8. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  9. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  10. Third symposium on coal preparation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The third Symposium on Coal preparation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Fourteen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five additional papers had been entered previously from other sources. Topics covered involved chemical comminution and chemical desulfurization of coal (aimed at reducing sulfur sufficiently with some coals to meet air quality standards without flue gas desulfurization), coal cleaning concepts, removing coal fines and recycling wash water, comparative evaluation of coal preparation methods, coal refuse disposal without polluting the environment, spoil bank reprocessing, noise control in coal preparation plants, etc. (LTN)

  11. Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Ethanol by Electrochemical Synthesis Method Using Brass as A Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septian Ramadan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of potential and gas flow rate were investigated to determine the optimum conditions of the electrochemical synthesis process to convert carbon dioxide to ethanol. The conversion process is carried out using a NaHCO3 electrolyte solution in an electrochemical reactor equipped with a cathode and anode. As cathode is used brass, while as anode is used carbon. The result of the electrochemical synthesis process was analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the content of the compounds produced qualitatively and quantitatively. The optimum electrochemical synthesis conditions to convert carbon dioxide to ethanol are potential and gas flow rate are 3 volts and 0.5 L/minutes with ethanol concentration yielded 1.32%.

  12. Engaging Conversationally: A Method for Engaging Students in Their Learning and Examining Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kiener

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the principles of the scholarship of teaching and learning and action research this study sought to examine how an instructor created and facilitated engagement in his students. The research was primarily undertaken to further define the middle range theory of mutual engagement. Theoretical sampling was used to analyze approximately 100 pieces of data that included instructor notes, teaching observations, feedback from conference presentations, student assessments, and end of semester student evaluations. Engaging conversationally (EC emerged as the phenomenon that described the instructor’s engagement in the learning process. EC was an ongoing cyclical pattern of inquiry that included preparing, reflecting and modeling. Interconnected in the pattern of inquiry were personality traits, counselor education, and teaching philosophy.

  13. An evaluation of different delivery methods for teaching binary, hex and decimal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kempthorne

    Full Text Available The ability to convert between binary, hexadecimal, and decimal numbering systems is a fundamental skill commonly taught to tertiary-level computing and ICT students. This paper presents the results of a multiple year investigation into the application of differing approaches for the teaching and learning of these skills. Specifically, the study compares traditional lectures, games, and group activities with student levels of academic achievement. Student prior experience with numbering system conversion is also analysed. The study reveals that, overall, the game-based approach resulted in the highest average test scores; however, when students were divided into groups with and without prior experience, the students with prior experience performed better with a traditional lecture approach.

  14. A novel headspace gas chromatographic method for in situ monitoring of monomer conversion during polymerization in an emulsion environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhong, Jin-Feng; Hu, Hui-Chao

    2012-05-18

    This paper describes a novel multiple-headspace extraction/gas chromatographic (MHE-GC) technique for monitoring monomer conversion during a polymerization reaction in a water-based emulsion environment. The polymerization reaction of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in an aqueous emulsion is used as an example. The reaction was performed in a closed headspace sample vial (as a mini-reactor), with pentane as a tracer. In situ monitoring of the vapor concentration of the tracer, employing a multiple headspace extraction (sampling) scheme, coupled to a GC, makes it possible to quantitatively follow the conversion of MMA during the early stages of polymerization. Data on the integrated amount of the tracer vapor released from the monomer droplet phase during the polymerization is described by a mathematic equation from which the monomer conversion can be calculated. The present method is simple, automated and economical, and provides an efficient tool in the investigation of the reaction kinetics and effects of the reaction conditions on the early stage of polymerization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of preparation method and CuO promotion in the conversion of ethanol into 1,3-butadiene over SiO2-MgO catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelici, Carlo; Velthoen, Marjolein E Z; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A

    2014-01-01

    Silica-magnesia (Si/Mg=1:1) catalysts were studied in the one-pot conversion of ethanol to butadiene. The catalyst synthesis method was found to greatly influence morphology and performance, with materials prepared through wet-kneading performing best both in terms of ethanol conversion and

  16. Coal transportation research and information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, R.W. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown); Hui, C.Y.

    1978-09-01

    This paper examines some of the existing and emerging issues of interest to engineers and planners dealing with coal transportation. One conclusion is that any research or data collection efforts in this field must be of a multidisciplinary nature. Not only must transportation planners, highway engineers, maintenance engineers, and soils engineers work together but, in addition, engineers will need to work with geologists, economists, and marketing specialists for effective planning, design, and operation of the coal transportation system. Earlier sections of this paper may have given the erroneous impression that all future research should concentrate on problems of transporting coal by truck. Although the West Virginia coal conversion study documented information deficiencies relative to the highway transportation of coal, research efforts involving railroads and waterways should continue. There is a serious need for research and information relative to the interactions between modes. For example, in order to predict the impact of local coal conversions on rail and barge systems that serve retailers, it is necessary to have a knowledge of the typical volumes that would be required by retail facilities, frequency of delivery to retail yards, and transportation distances involved mine and retailer. This paper deals with relatively short-term planning, however, information is required on the long-range future of the coal industry. Decision makers involved with providing an adequate coal transportation system must have information on the future role that coal will play in United States energy policy. (MCW)

  17. Evaluation of core physics analysis methods for conversion of the INL advanced test reactor to low-enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M. D.; Chang, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Computational neutronics studies to support the possible conversion of the ATR to LEU are underway. Simultaneously, INL is engaged in a physics methods upgrade project to put into place modern computational neutronics tools for future support of ATR fuel cycle and experiment analysis. A number of experimental measurements have been performed in the ATRC in support of the methods upgrade project, and are being used to validate the new core physics methods. The current computational neutronics work is focused on performance of scoping calculations for the ATR core loaded with a candidate LEU fuel design. This will serve as independent confirmation of analyses that have been performed previously, and will evaluate some of the new computational methods for analysis of a candidate LEU fuel for ATR. (authors)

  18. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  19. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  20. SU-F-I-24: Feasibility of Magnetic Susceptibility to Relative Electron Density Conversion Method for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K; Kadoya, N; Chiba, M; Matsushita, H; Jingu, K [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Sato, K; Nagasaka, T; Yamanaka, K [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Dobashi, S; Takeda, K [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop radiation treatment planning using magnetic susceptibility obtained from quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) via MR imaging. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a method for generating a substitute for a CT image from an MRI. Methods: The head of a healthy volunteer was scanned using a CT scanner and a 3.0 T MRI scanner. The CT imaging was performed with a slice thickness of 2.5 mm at 80 and 120 kV (dual-energy scan). These CT images were converted to relative electron density (rED) using the CT-rED conversion table generated by a previous dual-energy CT scan. The CT-rED conversion table was generated using the conversion of the energy-subtracted CT number to rED via a single linear relationship. One T2 star-weighted 3D gradient echo-based sequence with four different echo times images was acquired using the MRI scanner. These T2 star-weighted images were used to estimate the phase data. To estimate the local field map, a Laplacian unwrapping of the phase and background field removal algorithm were implemented to process phase data. To generate a magnetic susceptibility map from the local field map, we used morphology enabled dipole inversion method. The rED map was resampled to the same resolution as magnetic susceptibility, and the magnetic susceptibility-rED conversion table was obtained via voxel-by-voxel mapping between the magnetic susceptibility and rED maps. Results: A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and rED is not observed through our method. Conclusion: Our results show that the correlation between magnetic susceptibility and rED is not observed. As the next step, we assume that the voxel of the magnetic susceptibility map comprises two materials, such as water (0 ppm) and bone (-2.2 ppm) or water and marrow (0.81ppm). The elements of each voxel were estimated from the ratio of the two materials.

  1. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  2. Application of the dose rate spectroscopy to the dose-to-curie conversion method using a NaI(Tl) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JI, Young-Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Kim, Chang-Jong; Kang, Mun Ja; Park, Sang Tae

    2015-01-01

    Dose rate spectroscopy is a very useful method to directly calculate the individual dose rate from the converted energy spectrum for the dose rate using the G-factor which is related to the used detector response function. A DTC conversion method for the estimation of the radioactivity based on the measured dose rate from the radioactive materials can then be modified into a simple equation using the dose rate spectroscopy. In order to make the method validation of the modified DTC conversion method, experimental verifications using a 3″φx3″ NaI(Tl) detector were conducted at the simple geometry of the point source located onto a detector and more complex geometries which mean the assay of the simulated radioactive material. In addition, the linearity about the results from the modified DTC conversion method was also estimated by increasing the distance between source positions and a detector to confirm the method validation in the energy, dose rate, and distance range of the gamma nuclides. - Highlights: • A modified DTC conversion method using the dose rate spectroscopy was established. • In-situ calibration factors were calculated from the MCNP simulation. • Radioactivities of the disk sources were accurately calculated using a modified DTC conversion method. • A modified DTC conversion method was applied to the assay of the radioactive material

  3. An Open Conversation on Using Eye-Gaze Methods in Studies of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venker, Courtney E.; Kover, Sara T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Eye-gaze methods have the potential to advance the study of neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their increasing use, challenges arise in using these methods with individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and in reporting sufficient methodological detail such that the resulting research is replicable and interpretable. Method: This…

  4. Efficient method for the conversion of agricultural waste into sugar alcohols over supported bimetallic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tathod, Anup P; Dhepe, Paresh L

    2015-02-01

    Promoter effect of Sn in the PtSn/γ-Al2O3 (AL) and PtSn/C bimetallic catalysts is studied for the conversion of variety of substrates such as, C5 sugars (xylose, arabinose), C6 sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose), hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinogalactan), inulin and agricultural wastes (bagasse, rice husk, wheat straw) into sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, arabitol, galactitol). In all the reactions, PtSn/AL showed enhanced yields of sugar alcohols by 1.5-3 times than Pt/AL. Compared to C, AL supported bimetallic catalysts showed prominent enhancement in the yields of sugar alcohols. Bimetallic catalysts characterized by X-ray diffraction study revealed the stability of catalyst and absence of alloy formation thereby indicating that Pt and Sn are present as individual particles in PtSn/AL. The TEM analysis also confirmed stability of the catalysts and XPS study disclosed formation of electron deficient Sn species which helps in polarizing carbonyl bond to achieve enhanced hydrogenation activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    2000-07-01

    in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO{sub 2}-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NO{sub x}-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO{sub x}- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO{sub x}-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong

  6. Tunnelling support methods and their possible application to machine rock face excavation in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidl, B.; Edeling, H.

    1981-06-11

    Mechanized pushing through the rocks is possible even in teary rock if protective measures are taken directly behind the drill bit. Present arch-type supports are best reinforced with sprayed concrete as it will take up rock deformations. In this case, however, the question soon arises whether arch-type steel supports should be used at all. So far, mature solutions have not been found but they will be possible if the mining industry is really interested. Sprayed concrete with admixtures of reinforcing steel fibers plays a major role here as it will protect miner's heads already at an early stage and is suitable as support even at a later stage. Equally interesting would be reinforced concrete pumped behind advancing formwork. A combination of both techniques may turn out to be the most suitable method to replace arch-type supports. A problem of particular importance is machine bracing in the fresh concrete lining. If the concrete is filled in directly behind the drill bit, it is only 4 to 6 h old when it reaches the bracing device, i.e., its pressure resistance is lower than the contact pressure of present mining machinery. It may be difficult to find a solution here but it is considered to be possible. With shell concrete, the formwork should be constructed so as to withstand the contact pressure.

  7. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  8. The future of coal-fired generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G. [Sherritt International Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The 3 features that will ensure coal's place as a primary energy source are its affordability, availability and its abundance. Coal reserves represent more than 200 years of supply. Graphs depicting coal consumption in North America, Central and South America, Western Europe, Easter Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia show that coal use is expected to grow 1.5 per cent annually. Asia is the greatest consumer of coal, while the consumption of coal in Eastern Europe is steadily declining. About half of the electricity supply in the United States will continue to be generated by coal and non-electrical utilization is also expected to grow. Emerging technologies that are promoting efficiency of coal utilization include combustion technology, clean coal technology, conversion technology and emissions technology. These technologies also address environmental concerns regarding coal combustion, such as removal of carbon dioxide through sequestration and reduction in nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and particulates. Mercury mitigation technologies are also being developed. It was noted that the use of coal is mitigated by other available supply such as nuclear, natural gas and hydro which provide the base load generation. Renewable energy supply can meet up to 20 per cent of the base load, while coal can fill be gap between base load and peak loads. It was noted that the use of coal in direct industrial processes allows for synergies such as syngas for bitumen upgrading, coal as a chemical feedstock with electricity as a by-product, combined heat and power and cogeneration. tabs., figs.

  9. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation, etc. (conversion of old coal-fired thermoelectric power plants in Poland into combined cycle plants); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Poland sekitan karyoku hatsudensho (kyushiki) combined cycle eno tenkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A project is discussed for modernization for energy efficiency enhancement and greenhouse gas reduction. The most effective way to reduce greenhouse gas in Poland is to totally replace the existing coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants. Under this project, however, natural gas-fired power generation and integrated coal/brown coal gasification combined cycle power generation are both subjected to study. This is because the power plant modernization project is closely related to the fate of coal/brown coal industries which constitute the important industrial department of Poland. As for the earning rate of the project in case of natural gas-fired combined cycle power generation, the rate will be 13.2% even at the Kaweczyn station which is the highest in earning rate, and this fails to satisfy the project conditions. If integrated coal/brown gasification combined cycle power generation is chosen, the rate will be still lower. When the cost for greenhouse gas reduction is taken up, the Konin station exhibits the lowest of 9 dollars/tCO2, and the others 15-17 dollars/tCO2. When coal gas combined cycle is employed, the cost will be 3-4 times higher. (NEDO)

  10. Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, N.W.; Taylor, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications

  11. Cement production from coal conversion residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.D.; Clavenna, L.R.; Eakman, J.M.; Nahas, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Cement is produced by feeding residue solids containing carbonaceous material and ash constituents obtained from converting a carbonaceous feed material into liquids and/or gases into a cement-making zone and burning the carbon in the residue solids to supply at least a portion of the energy required to convert the solids into cement

  12. Conversion from film to image plates for transfer method neutron radiography of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper summarizes efforts to characterize and qualify a computed radiography (CR) system for neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL has multiple programs that are actively developing, testing, and evaluating new nuclear fuels. Irradiated fuel experiments are subjected to a number of sequential post-irradiation examination techniques that provide insight into the overall behavior and performance of the fuel. One of the first and most important of these exams is neutron radiography, which provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Results from neutron radiography are often the driver for subsequent examinations of the PIE program. Features of interest that can be evaluated using neutron radiography include irradiation-induced swelling, isotopic and fuel-fragment redistribution, plate deformations, and fuel fracturing. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique with film for imaging fuel. INL is pursuing multiple efforts to advance its neutron imaging capabilities for evaluating irradiated fuel and other applications, including conversion from film to CR image plates. Neutron CR is the current state-of-the-art for neutron imaging of highly-radioactive objects. Initial neutron radiographs of various types of nuclear fuel indicate that radiographs can be obtained of comparable image quality currently obtained using film. This paper provides neutron radiographs of representative irradiated fuel pins along with neutron radiographs of standards that informed the qualification of the neutron CR system for routine use. Additionally, this paper includes evaluations of some of the CR scanner parameters and their effects on image quality.

  13. Methods for the risk assessment of rock bursts under the condition of the Upper Silesian coal basin; Methoden zur Bewertung des Risikos von Gebirgsschlaegen unter Bedingungen des oberschlesischen Kohlebeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myszkowski, Jacek [Forschungsanstalt fuer Gebirgsschlaege und Gebirgsmechanik BT, Katowice (Poland). Hauptinst. fuer Bergbau

    2013-06-15

    The assessment of the risk of rock burst in underground coal mines is associated with the forecasting, assessment and management of risks. The contribution under consideration presents methods for the risk assessment and prevention of rock bursts.

  14. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  15. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  16. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on some properties of Shenhua coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhi-cai; Shui Heng-fu; Zhang De-xiang; Gao Jin-sheng [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). College of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2006-10-15

    Effects of hydrothermal treatment on swelling, extraction and liquefaction behavior of Shenhua coal were studied through analyses of element content, ash content, volatile content and IR spectrum of treated coal. The results indicate that hydrogenation of coal is distinctly carried out in the process of hydrothermal pre-treatment and the hydrogen content of treated coal is more than that of raw coal. The contents of ash and volatile matters of treated coal are lower than those of raw coal. With the increase of treatment temperature the volatile content of the hydrothermal treated coal decreases and the ash content of treated coal increases. CO{sub 2} is main gas product and unvaries with the temperature changing, whereas CO and CH{sub 4} are formed when the temperature is above 250{sup o}C and increase with the temperature during hydrothermal treatment. Hydrothermal treatment is not in favor of coal swelling and the swelling ratio of treated coal decreases with the increase of treatment temperature. The swelling ratio of extraction residue by CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent in NMP solvent is lower than that of the corresponding raw coal. The CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent extraction yields of coal treated at appropriate temperature are higher than that of raw coal, but the extraction yields of treated coal obtained by n-hexane, toluene and THF successive Soxhelt extraction are lower. Hydrothermal treatment at 250-300{sup o}C can increase the conversion of treated coal in direct hydro-liquefaction. The gas + oil yield of treated coal is lower than that of raw coal and the preasphaltene yield of treated coal is much higher. IR spectra of treated coals show that the forms of non-covalent bonds are changed by hydrothermal treatment, and the hydrolysis of ester and ether bonds and the pyrolysis of aromatic side chains also maybe occur at high treatment temperature. 21 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Methods for conversion of lignocellulosic-derived products to transportation fuel precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2017-10-03

    Methods are disclosed for converting a biomass-derived product containing levulinic acid and/or gamma-valerolactone to a transportation fuel precursor product containing diesel like hydrocarbons. These methods are expected to produce fuel products at a reduced cost relative to conventional approaches.

  18. Coal: an economic source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Coal, in spite its abundance availability in Pakistan, is a neglected source of energy. Its role as fuel is not more than five percent for the last four decades. Some of the coal, mined, in used as space heating in cold areas of Pakistan but more than 90% is being used in brick kilns. There are 185 billion tonnes of coal reserves in the country and hardly 3 million tonnes of coal is, annually, mined. Lakhra coal field is, presently, major source of coal and is considered the largest productive/operative coal field of Pakistan. It is cheaper coal compared to other coals available in Pakistan. As an average analysis of colas of the country, it shows that most of the coals are lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur content. The energy potential is roughly the same but the cost/ton of coal is quite different. It may be due to methods of mining. There should be some criteria for fixing the cost of the coal. It should be based on energy potential of unit mass of coal. (author)

  19. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  20. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil