WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal cleaning technologies

  1. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  2. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  3. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R ampersand D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base

  4. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-01-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  5. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  6. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourillon, C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  7. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  8. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  9. Clean coal technology roadmap: issues paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2003-07-01

    The need for the Clean Coal Technology Roadmap is based on the climate change threat, Canada's commitment to the Kyoto protocol, and the need to keep options open in determining the future position of coal in Canada's energy mix. The current role of coal, issues facing coal-fired utilities, and greenhouse gas emission policies and environmental regulations are outlined. The IEA energy outlook (2002) and a National Energy Board draft concerning Canada's energy future are outlined. Environmental, market, and technical demands facing coal, technology options for existing facilities, screening new developments in technology, and clean coal options are considered. 13 figs. 5 tabs.

  10. Clean coal technology challenges for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, J. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2001-01-01

    China is rich in coal reserves and also the largest coal producer and consumer in the world. Coal constitutes over 70% of the total energy consumption, some 86% of coal production is burned directly, which causes serious air pollution problems. However, based on China's specific energy structure, coal utilisation will remain the dominant means of energy usage and clean coal technology must be the way forward if the environmental problems are to be resolved. This article discusses China's Clean Coal Technology Program, its implementation, including the clean coal technologies being developed and introduced, with reference to the key R & D institutes for each of the coal-using sectors. The article is an edited version of the 2000 Robens Coal Science Lecture, delivered in London in October 2000. The China Coal Technology Program for the 9th Five-Year Plan (1996-2000) was approved in 1997. The technologies included in the Program considered in this article are in: coal washing and grading, coal briquette, coal water slurry; circulating fluidised bed technology; pressurised fluidised bed combined cycle; integrated gasification combined cycle; coal gasification, coal liquefaction and flue gas desulfurisation. 4 tabs.

  11. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: coal combustion/coal processing; advanced electric power generation systems; combined nitrogen oxide/sulfur dioxide control technologies; and emerging clean coal issues and environmental concerns. These paper have been cataloged separately elsewhere

  12. Clean coal technology optimization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laseke, B.A.; Hance, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 contains provisions for the mitigation of acid rain precipitation through reductions in the annual emission of the acid rain precursors of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ). These provisions will affect primarily existing coal-fired power-generating plants by requiring nominal reductions of 5 millon and 10 million tons of SO 2 by the years 1995 and 2000, respectively, and 2 million tons of NO x by the year 2000 relative to the 1980 and 1985-87 reference period. The 1990 CAAA Title IV provisions are extremely complex in that they establish phased regulatory milestones, unit-level emission allowances and caps, a mechanism for inter-utility trading of emission allowances, and a system of emission allowance credits based on selection of control option and timing of its implementation. The net result of Title IV of the 1990 CAAA is that approximately 147 gigawatts (GW) of generating capacity is eligible to retrofit SO 2 controls by the year 2000. A number of options are available to bring affected boilers into compliance with Title IV. Market sharewill be influenced by technology performance and costs. These characteristics can be modeled through a bottom-up technology cost and performance optimization exercise to show their impact on the technology's potential market share. Such a model exists in the form of an integrated data base-model software system. This microcomputer (PC)-based software system consists of a unit (boiler)-level data base (ACIDBASE), a cost and performance engineering model (IAPCS), and a market forecast model (ICEMAN)

  13. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  14. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  15. Industrial use of coal and clean coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibson, I; Plante, J J.M.

    1990-06-01

    This report builds upon two reports published in 1988, namely {ital The use of Coal in the Industrial, Commercial, Residential and Transportation Sectors} and {ital Innovative Clean Coal Technology Deployment}, and provides more specific recommendations pertaining to coal use in the US industrial sector. The first chapter addresses industrial boilers which are common to many industrial users. The subsequent nine chapters cover the following: coke, iron and steel industries; aluminium and other metals; glass, brick, ceramic, and gypsum industries; cement and lime industries; pulp and paper industry; food and kindred products; durable goods industry; textile industry; refining and chemical industry. In addition, appendices supporting the contents of the study are provided. Each chapter covers the following topics as applicable: energy overview of the industry sector being discussed; basic processes; foreign experience; impediments to coal use; incentives that could make coal a fuel of choice; current and projected use of clean coal technology; identification of coal technology needs; conclusions; recommendations.

  16. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately

  17. Controlling the cost of clean air - A new clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.; Godfrey, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the authors' alternative to expensive coal combustion products clean-up by cleaning the coal, removing the sulfur, before combustion. Topics discussed include sulfur in coal and the coal cleaning process, the nature of a new coal cleaning technology, the impact on Clean Air Act compliance, and the economics of the new technology

  18. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  19. Clean coal technology and advanced coal-based power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Clean Coal Technology is an arbitrary terminology that has gained increased use since the 1980s when the debate over acid raid issues intensified over emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In response to political discussions between Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada and President Ronald Reagan in 1985, the US government initiated a demonstration program by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Clean Coal Technologies, which can be categorized as: 1. precombustion technologies wherein sulfur and nitrogen are removed before combustion, combustion technologies that prevent or lower emissions as coal is burned, and postcombustion technologies wherein flue gas from a boiler is treated to remove pollutants, usually transforming them into solids that are disposed of. The DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is being carried out with $2.5 billion of federal funds and additional private sector funds. By the end of 1989, 38 projects were under way or in negotiation. These projects were solicited in three rounds, known as Clean Coal I, II, and III, and two additional solicitations are planned by DOE. Worldwide about 100 clean coal demonstration projects are being carried out. This paper lists important requirements of demonstration plants based on experience with such plants. These requirements need to be met to allow a technology to proceed to commercial application with ordinary risk, and represent the principal reasons that a demonstration project is necessary when introducing new technology

  20. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  1. Report on Seminar on Clean Coal Technology '93; Clean coal technology kokusai seminar hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The program of the above clean coal technology (CCT) event is composed of 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Research on CCT in America (study of coal structure under electron microscope), and 3) Research on CCT in Australia (high intensity combustion of ultrafine coal particles in a clean way). Remarks under item 1) are mentioned below. As for SO{sub 2} emissions base unit, Japan's is 1 at its coal-fired thermal power station while that of America is 7.8. As for the level of SO{sub 2}/NOx reduction attributable to coal utilization technologies, it rises in the order of flue gas desulfurizer-aided pulverized coal combustion, normal pressure fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation/fuel cell. As for the level of CO2 reduction attributable to power generation efficiency improvement, provided that Japan's average power generation efficiency is 39% and if China's efficiency which is now 28% is improved to be similar to that of Japan, there will be a 40% reduction in CO2 emissions. Under item 2) which involves America's CCT program, reference is made to efforts at eliminating unnecessary part from the catalytic process and at reducing surplus air, to the export of CCT technology, and so forth. Under item 3), it is stated that coal cleaning may govern reaction efficiency in a process of burning coal particles for gasification. (NEDO)

  2. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  3. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  4. Fossil fuels. Commercializing clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Sprague, John W.; Kirk, Roy J.; Clark, Marcus R. Jr.; Greene, Richard M.; Buncher, Carole S.; Kleigleng, Robert G.; Imbrogno, Frank W.

    1989-03-01

    Coal, an abundant domestic energy source, provides 25 percent of the nation's energy needs, but its use contributes to various types of pollution, including acid rain. The Department of Energy (DOE) has a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program whose goal is to expand the use of coal in an environmentally safe manner by contributing to the cost of projects demonstrating the commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. Concerned about the implementation of the CCT program, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Power, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, requested GAO to report on (1) DOE's process of negotiating cooperative agreements with project sponsors, (2) changes DOE has made to the program, (3) the status of funded projects, and (4) the interrelationship between acid rain control proposals and the potential commercialization of clean coal technologies. Under the CCT program, DOE funds up to 50 percent of the cost of financing projects that demonstrate commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. DOE has conducted two solicitations for demonstration project proposals and is planning a third solicitation by May 1989. The Congress has appropriated $400 million for the first solicitation, or round one of the program, $575 million for round two, and $575 million for round three, for a total of $1.55 billion. For the round-one solicitation, DOE received 51 proposals from project sponsors. As of December 31, 1988, DOE had funded nine projects and was in the process of negotiating cooperative financial assistance agreements with sponsors of four projects. In September 1988, DOE selected 16 round-two projects from 55 proposals submitted and began the process of negotiating cooperative agreements with the project sponsors. The Congress has debated the need to reduce acid rain-causing emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion. The 100th Congress considered but did not enact about 20 acid rain control bills. On February 9, 1989

  5. Environmental characteristics of clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is aimed at demonstrating the commercial readiness of advanced coal-based technologies. A major goal of the CCT program is to introduce into the US energy marketplace those coal-based power generation technologies that have superior economic and environmental performance over the current suite of commercial coal-based power generation technologies. The commercialization of CCTs will provide the electric utility industry with technology options for replacing aging power plants and meeting future growth in electricity demand. This paper discusses the environmental advantages of two CCTs used for electric power generation: pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC). These CCTs are suitable for repowering existing power plants or for grassroots construction. Due to their high efficiency and advanced environmental control systems, they emit less sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), particulate matter, and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than a state-of-the-art, pulverized coal power plant with flue gas desulfurization (PC/FGD)

  6. New stage of clean coal technology in Japan; Clean coal technology no aratana tenkai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The paper described the positioning and new development of clean coal technology. Coal is an important resource which supplies approximately 30% of the energy consumed in all the world. In the Asian/Pacific region, especially, a share of coal in energy is high, around 60% of the world, and it is indispensable to continue using coal which is abundantly reserved. Japan continues using coal as an important energy among petroleum substituting energies taking consideration of the global environment, and is making efforts for development and promotion of clean coal technology aiming at further reduction of environmental loads. Moreover, in the Asian region where petroleum depends greatly upon outside the region, it is extremely important for stabilization of Japan`s energy supply that coal producing countries in the region promote development/utilization of their coal resources. For this, it is a requirement for Japan to further a coal policy having an outlook of securing stable coal supply/demand in the Asian region. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Asia's coal and clean coal technology market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.; Binsheng Li

    1992-01-01

    The Asian region is unique in the world in having the highest economic growth rate, the highest share of coal in total primary energy consumption and the highest growth rate in electricity generation capacity. The outlook for the next two decades is for accelerated efforts to control coal related emissions of particulates and SO 2 and to a lessor extent NO x and CO 2 . Only Japan has widespread use of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) however a number of economies have plans to install CCTs in future power plants. Only CCTs for electricity generation are discussed, and are defined for the purpose of this paper as technologies that substantially reduce SO 2 and/or NO x emissions from coal-fired power plants. The main theses of this paper are that major increases in coal consumption will occur over the 1990-2010 period, and this will be caccompanied by major increases in coal related pollution in some Asian economies. Coal fired electricity generation is projected to grow at a high rate of about 6.9 percent per year over the 1990-2010 period. CCTs are projected to account for about 150 GW of new coal-fired capacity over the 1990-2010 period of about one-third of all new coal-fired capacity. A speculative conclusion is that China will account for the largest share of CCT additions over the 1990-2010 period. Both the US and Japan have comparative advantages that might be combined through cooperation and joint ventures to gain a larger share of the evolving CCT market in Asia. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2003 (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  9. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Completed Projects (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  10. Clean coal technologies in Japan: technological innovation in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This brochure reviews the history clean coal technologies (CCT) in Japan and systematically describes the present state of CCT insofar. The brochure contains three parts. Part 1. CCT classifications; Part 2. CCT overview; and Part 3. Future outlook for CCT. The main section is part 2 which includes 1) technologies for coal resources development; 2) coal-fired power generation technologies - combustion technologies and gasification technologies; 3) iron making and general industry technologies; 4) multi-purpose coal utilization technologies - liquefaction technologies, pyrolysis technologies, powdering, fluidization, and co-utilisation technologies, and de-ashing and reforming technologies; 5) Environmental protection technologies - CO{sub 2} recovery technologies; flue gas treatment and gas cleaning technologies, and technologies to effectively use coal has; 6) basic technologies for advanced coal utilization; and 7) co-production systems.

  11. Clean coal technologies and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    The role for Clean Coal Technologies is discussed in the context of the global climate change debate. Global climate change is, of course as the name implies, a global issue. This clearly distinguishes this issue from acid rain or ozone non-attainment, which are regional in nature. Therefore, the issue requires a global perspective, one that looks at the issue not just from a US policy standpoint but from an international policy view. This includes the positions of other individual nations, trading blocks, common interest groups, and the evolving United Nations bureaucracy. It is assumed that as the global economy continues to grow, energy demand will also grow. With growth in economic activity and energy use, will come growth in worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, including growth in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Much of this growth will occur in developing economies which intend to fuel their growth with coal-fired power, especially China and India. Two basic premises which set out the boundaries of this topic are presented. First, there is the premise that global climate change is occurring, or is about to occur, and that governments must do something to mitigate the causes of climate change. Although this premise is highly rebuttable, and not based on scientific certainty, political science has driven it to the forefront of the debate. Second is the premise that advanced combustion CCTs, with their higher efficiencies, will result in lower CO 2 emissions, and hence lessen any contribution of greater coal use to potential global climate change. This promise is demonstrably true. This discussion focuses on recent and emerging public sector policy actions, which may in large part establish a new framework in which the private sector will find new challenges and new opportunities

  12. Coal and clean coal technology: challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, Andrew [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Globally, there is a growing concern about fuel diversity and security of supply, particularly with regard to oil and natural gas. In contrast, coal is available from a much wider range of sources and has greater price stability. Consequently, coal use is increasing rapidly, and by 2030 may well reach a level of more than 4,500 Mtoe, corresponding to close to a doubling of current levels. However, at the same time, tightening regulations will require better solutions for achieving environmental compliance, for which coal has a number of key issues to address. Most of the coal will be used in the power generation sector. Consequently, the key research challenges are to develop and deploy methods by which coal can be used cleanly, efficiently, and in a sustainable way. These include improvements to existing coal utilisation technologies, particularly to improve operational flexibility and availability, while reducing energy use through higher efficiencies. There is an increasing need to ensure improved emissions control, with the emphasis on achieving ever-lower emissions of particulates, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} while also introducing control of trace species, particularly mercury. Alongside this, a key challenge is the integration of techniques that can capture CO{sub 2} then transport and store it within secure geological formations, thereby resulting in near zero emissions of CO{sub 2}. From a power plant perspective, the need is to achieve such integration while minimising any adverse impact on power plant efficiency, performance of existing emissions control systems, operational flexibility and availability. At the same time, means to minimize the additional costs associated with such technology must be established.

  13. Comprehensive Report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program: Clean power from integrated coal/ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes a clean coal program in which an iron making technology is paired with combined cycle power generation to produce 3300 tons per day of hot metal and 195 MWe of electricity. The COREX technology consists of a metal-pyrolyzer connected to a reduction shaft, in which the reducing gas comes directly from coal pyrolysis. The offgas is utilized to fuel a combined cycle power plant.

  14. The clean coal technologies for lignitic coal power generation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Raza, Z.; Aziz-ur-Rehman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Pakistan contains huge reserves of lignitic coals. These are high sulphur, high ash coals. In spite of this unfortunate situation, the heavy demand for energy production, requires the development utilization of these indigenous coal reserves to enhance energy production. The central of the environmental pollution caused by the combustion of these coals has been a major hindrance in their utilization. Recently a substantial reduction in coal combustion emissions have been achieved through the development of clean coal technologies. Pakistan through the transfer and adaptation of the advanced clean coal technologies can utilize incurring the high sulphur coals for energy production without incurring the environmental effects that the developed countries have experienced in the past. The author discusses the recently developed clean coal utilization technologies, their applications economies and feasibility of utilization with specific reference to Pakistan''s coal. (author)

  15. Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

  16. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  17. Clean coal technologies for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, D.M. [GE Industrial & Power Systems, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The oil- and gas-fired turbine combined-cycle penetration of industrial and utility applications has escalated rapidly due to the lower cost, higher efficiency and demonstrated reliability of gas turbine equipment in combination with fuel economics. Gas turbine technology growth has renewed the interest in the use of coal and other solid fuels in combined cycles for electrical and thermal energy production to provide environmentally acceptable plants without extra cost. Four different types of systems utilizing the gas turbine advantages with solid fuel have been studied: direct coal combustion, combustor processing, fuel processing and indirect cycles. One of these, fuel processing (exemplified by coal gasification), is emerging as the superior process for broad scale commercialization at this time. Advances in gas turbine design, proven in operation above 200 MW, are establishing new levels of combined-cycle net plant efficiencies up to 55% and providing the potential for a significant shift to gas turbine solid fuel power plant technology. These new efficiencies can mitigate the losses involved in gasifying coal and other solid fuels, and economically provide the superior environmental performance required today. Based on demonstration of high baseload reliability for large combined cycles (98%) and the success of several demonstrations of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants in the utility size range, it is apparent that many commercial IGCC plants will be sites in the late 1990s. This paper discusses different gas turbine systems for solid fuels while profiling available IGCC systems. The paper traces the IGCC option as it moved from the demonstration phase to the commercial phase and should now with planned future improvements, penetrate the solid fuel power generation market at a rapid pace.

  18. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  19. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-09

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  20. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  1. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  2. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    1999-03-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  3. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2002-07-30

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results. Also includes Power Plant Improvement Initiative Projects.

  4. Clean coal technology: coal's link to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Coal, the world's most abundant fossil fuel, is very important to the world's economy. It represents about 70% of the world's fossil energy reserves. It produces about 27% of the world's primary energy, 33% of the world's electricity, and it is responsible for about $21 billion in coal trade - in 1990, 424 million tons were traded on the international market. And, most importantly, because of its wide and even distribution throughout the world, and because of its availability, coal is not subject to the monopolistic practices of other energy options. How coal can meet future fuel demand in an economical, efficient and environmentally responsive fashion, with particular reference to the new technologies and their US applications is discussed. (author). 6 figs

  5. Clean Coal Technologies in China: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the dominant primary energy source in China and the major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. To facilitate the use of coal in an environmentally satisfactory and economically viable way, clean coal technologies (CCTs are necessary. This paper presents a review of recent research and development of four kinds of CCTs: coal power generation; coal conversion; pollution control; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. It also outlines future perspectives on directions for technology research and development (R&D. This review shows that China has made remarkable progress in the R&D of CCTs, and that a number of CCTs have now entered into the commercialization stage.

  6. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a $6.9 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Technology has a vital role in ensuring that coal can continue to serve U.S. energy interests and enhance opportunities for economic growth and employment while meeting the national committment to a clean and healthy global environment. These technologies are being advanced through the CCT Program. The CCT Program supports three substantive national objectives: ensuring a sustainable environment through technology; enhancing energy efficiency and reliability; providing opportunities for economic growth and employment. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program reduce the emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants, solid and liquid wastes, and other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion to other fuel forms. These emissions reductions are achieved with efficiencies greater than or equal to currently available technologies.

  7. Development of clean coal technologies in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.

    2013-07-01

    In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

  8. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  9. Clean coal technology demonstration program: Program update 1996-97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (known as the CCT Program) reached a significant milestone in 1996 with the completion of 20 of the 39 active projects. The CCT Program is responding to a need to demonstrate and deploy a portfolio of technologies that will assure the U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 297 billion tons could continue to supply the nation`s energy needs economically and in a manner that meets the nation`s environmental objectives. This portfolio of technologies includes environmental control devices that contributed to meeting the accords on transboundary air pollution recommended by the Special Envoys on Acid Rain in 1986. Operational, technical, environmental, and economic performance information and data are now flowing from highly efficient, low-emission, advanced power generation technologies that will enable coal to retain its prominent role into the next millennium. Further, advanced technologies are emerging that will enhance the competitive use of coal in the industrial sector, such as in steelmaking. Coal processing technologies will enable the entire coal resource base to be used while complying with environmental requirements. These technologies are producing products used by utilities and industrial processes. The capability to coproduce products, such as liquid and solid fuels, electricity, and chemicals, is being demonstrated at a commercial scale by projects in the CCT Program. In summary, this portfolio of technologies is satisfying the national need to maintain a multifuel energy mix in which coal is a key component because of its low-cost, availability, and abundant supply within the nation`s borders.

  10. Modeling technological learning and its application for clean coal technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Toshihiko; Sato, Takemi; Wang, Hao; Kusunoki, Tomoya; Furubayashi, Takaaki

    2011-01-01

    Estimating technological progress of emerging technologies such as renewables and clean coal technologies becomes important for designing low carbon energy systems in future and drawing effective energy policies. Learning curve is an analytical approach for describing the decline rate of cost and production caused by technological progress as well as learning. In the study, a bottom-up energy-economic model including an endogenous technological learning function has been designed. The model deals with technological learning in energy conversion technologies and its spillover effect. It is applied as a feasibility study of clean coal technologies such as IGCC (Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle) and IGFC (Integrated Coal Gasification Fuel Cell System) in Japan. As the results of analysis, it is found that technological progress by learning has a positive impact on the penetration of clean coal technologies in the electricity market, and the learning model has a potential for assessing upcoming technologies in future.

  11. Cleaning up coal-fired plants : multi-pollutant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2009-06-15

    Coal is the source of 41 per cent of the world's electricity. Emission reduction technologies are needed to address the rapid growth of coal-fired plants in developing countries. This article discussed a multi-pollutant technology currently being developed by Natural Resources Canada's CANMET Energy Technology Centre. The ECO technology was designed to focus on several types of emissions, including sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), mercury and particulates, as well as acid gases and other metals from the exhaust gas of coal-fired plants. The ECO process converts and absorbs incoming pollutants in a wet electrostatic precipitator while at the same time producing a valuable fertilizer. The ECO system is installed as part of the plant's existing particulate control device and treats flue gas in 3 process steps: (1) a dielectric barrier discharge reactor oxidizes gaseous pollutants to higher oxides; (2) an ammonia scrubber then removes sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) not converted by the reactor while also removing the NOx; and (3) the wet electrostatic precipitator captures acid aerosols produced by the discharge reactor. A diagram of the ECO process flow was included. It was concluded that the systems will be installed in clean coal plants by 2015. 2 figs.

  12. Prospects For Coal And Clean Coal Technologies In Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    The coal sector in Kazakhstan is said to have enough reserves to last over 100 years, but the forecasted reserves are expected to last several hundreds of years. This makes investing in the fuel and energy sector of the country an attractive option for many international and private organisations. The proven on-shore reserves will ensure extraction for over 30 years for oil and 75 years for gas. The future development of the domestic oil sector depends mainly on developing the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. The coal sector, while not a top priority for the Kazakh government, puts the country among the world's top ten coal-rich countries. Kazakhstan contains Central Asia's largest recoverable coal reserves. In future, the development of the raw materials base will be achieved through enriching and improving the quality of the coal and the deep processing of coal to obtain fluid fuel and synthetic substances. Developing shale is also topical. The high concentration of methane in coal layers makes it possible to extract it and utilise it on a large scale. However, today the country's energy sector, which was largely established in the Soviet times, has reached its potential. Kazakhstan has about 18 GW of installed electricity capacity, of which about 80% is coal fired, most of it built before 1990. Being alert to the impending problems, the government is planning to undertake large-scale modernisation of the existing facilities and construct new ones during 2015-30. The project to modernise the national electricity grid aims to upgrade the power substations to ensure energy efficiency and security of operation. The project will result in installation of modern high-voltage equipment, automation and relay protection facilities, a dispatch control system, monitoring and data processing and energy management systems, automated electricity metering system, as well as a digital corporate telecommunication network.

  13. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruya, P. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Vietnam's energy economy is largely served by traditional biofuels and oil products. Within the power generating sector, hydropower and gas-fired power dominate. However, Vietnam still maintains a 40 Mt/y coal industry, parts of which have recently undergone a long overdue programme of renovation and expansion. Vietnam has been a successful exporter of anthracite, with more than half of the country's production being shipped or barged to steel mills in Japan or power stations in southern China, as well as most other Far Eastern coal importers. The industry is due to take a different form. Opencast mining has recently accounted for around 60% of production but this mining method could be phased out as reserves become more difficult and costly to extract. A shift to underground mining is expected, with a greater emphasis on more modern and mechanised production techniques. Coal is located mainly in the coalfields in Quang Ninh in the north easternmost province of Vietnam. The lower rank reserves located within the Red River coalfields, close to the existing anthracite operations, may yield many more millions of tonnes of coal for exploitation. Underground coal gasification could possibly be exploited in the deeper reserves of the Red River Basin. While coal production could rapidly change in future years, the power generation sector is also transforming with the country's 12,000 MWe development programme for new coal-fired power capacity. The economy suffers from a threat of power shortages due to a lack of generating and transmission capacity, while inefficiencies blight both energy production and end-users. Delivering power to the regions of growth remains difficult as the economy and the demand for power outpaces power generation. While hydroelectric power is being pursued, coal is therefore becoming a growing factor in the future prosperity of the Vietnamese economy. 111 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Clean coal technology deployment: From today into the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papay, L.T.; Trocki, L.K.; McKinsey, R.R. [Bechtel Technology and Consulting, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s clean coal technology (CCT) program succeeded in developing more efficient, cleaner, coal-fired electricity options. The Department and its private partners succeeded in the demonstration of CCT -- a major feat that required more than a decade of commitment between them. As with many large-scale capital developments and changes, the market can shift dramatically over the course of the development process. The CCT program was undertaken in an era of unstable oil and gas prices, concern over acid rain, and guaranteed markets for power suppliers. Regulations, fuel prices, emergency of competing technologies, and institutional factors are all affecting the outlook for CCT deployment. The authors identify the major barriers to CCT deployment and then introduce some possible means to surmount the barriers.

  15. US Department of Energy first annual clean coal technology conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The first public review of the US DOE/Industry co-funded program to demonstrate the commercial readiness of Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) was held at Cleveland, Ohio Sept. 22--24, 1992. The objectives were to provide electric utilities, independent power producers, and potential foreign users information on the DOE-supported CCT projects including status, results, and technology performance potential; to further understanding of the institutional, financial, and technical considerations in applying CCTs to Clean Air Act compliance strategies; to discuss to export market, financial and institutional assistance, and the roles of government and industry in pursuing exports of CCTs; and to facilitate meetings between domestic and international attendees to maximize export opportunities

  16. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin, including Indonesia, Thailand, and the Republic of China (ROC-Taiwan). The US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies that can be applied domestically and abroad. These innovative US CCTs are expected to satisfy increasingly stringent environmental requirements while substantially improving power generation efficiencies. They should also provide distinct advantages over conventional pulverized coal-fired combustors. Finally, they are expected to be competitive with other energy options currently being considered in the region. This paper presents potential technology scenarios for Indonesia, Thailand, and the ROC-Taiwan and considers an environmental cost-benefit approach employing a newly developed method of applying environmental externalities. Results suggest that the economic benefits from increased emission control can indeed be quantified and used in cost-benefit comparisons, and that US CCTs can be very cost effective in reducing emissions

  17. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  18. Clean coal and heavy oil technologies for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, D.M. [GE Industrial & Power Systems, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Global power generation markets have shown a steady penetration of GT/CC technology into oil and gas fired applications as the technology has matured. The lower cost, improved reliability and efficiency advantages of combined cycles can now be used to improve the cost of electricity and environmental acceptance of poor quality fuels such as coal, heavy oil, petroleum coke and waste products. Four different technologies have been proposed, including slagging combustors, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC), Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC). Details of the technology for the three experimental technologies can be found in the appendix. IGCC is now a commercial technology. In the global marketplace, this shift is being demonstrated using various gasification technologies to produce a clean fuel for the combined cycle. Early plants in the 1980s demonstrated the technical/environmental features and suitability for power generation plants. Economics, however, were disappointing until the model F GT technologies were first used commercially in 1990. The economic break-through of matching F technology gas turbines with gasification was not apparent until 1993 when a number of projects were ordered for commercial operation in the mid-1990s. GE has started 10 new projects for operation before the year 2000. These applications utilize seven different gasification technologies to meet specific application needs. Early plants are utilizing low-cost fuels, such as heavy oil or petroleum coke, to provide economics in first-of-a-kind plants. Some special funding incentives have broadened the applications to include power-only coal plants. Next generation gas turbines projected for commercial applications after the year 2000 will contribute to another step change in technology. It is expected that the initial commercialization process will provide the basis for clear technology choices on future plants.

  19. Clean Coal Technology: Region 4 Market Description, South Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Region 4 Market Description Summary provides information that can be used in developing an understanding of the potential markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs) in the South Atlantic Region. This region (which geographically is Federal Region 4) consists of the following eight states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. In order to understand the potential market. A description is provided of the region's energy use, power generation capacity, and potential growth. Highlights of state government activities that could have a bearing on commercial deployment of CCTs are also presented. The potential markets characterized in this summary center on electric power generation by investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal electric utilities and involve planned new capacity additions and actions taken by utilities to comply with Phases I and II of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Regulations, policies, utility business strategies, and organizational changes that could impact the role of CCTs as a utility option are identified and discussed. The information used to develop the Region 4 Market Description is based mainly on an extensive review of plans and annual reports of 29 investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal coal-using electric utilities and public information on strategies and actions for complying with the CAAA of 1990

  20. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  1. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO 2 emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  2. The development of clean coal technology is the main way to control of atmospheric pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Lixin; Xu Hong [Clean Coal Engineering & Research Center of Coal Industry (China)

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric pollution in China and its causes are analysed. Power stations, industrial boilers and kilns and domestic coal combustion are the main pollution sources. Clean coal technologies are urgently needed. Main clean coal technologies which can improve the present situation of industrial coal combustion are coal cleaning, blending and briquetting; boiler retrofitting; advanced technologies to improve combustion efficiency and reduce pollution - fluidized bed combustion and pulverized coal desulfurization; and advanced desulfurization and dedusting technologies and equipment.

  3. Coal liquefaction technologies for producing ultra clean fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.S.; Haq, N.U.; Nasir, H.; Islam, N.

    2011-01-01

    The expanding demand for petroleum, accompanied by the diminishing petroleum reserves and the energy security, has intensified the significance in coal liquefaction technologies (CTL) globally and specially in Pakistan. Pakistan is rich in coal resources, but short of petroleum. The Geological Survey of Pakistan based on wide spread drilling over an area of 9000 sq. km, a total of 175 billion tons of coal resource potential has been assessed. This paper overviews a general introduction on the mechanisms and processes of CLT such as direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) technologies. (author)

  4. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  5. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increase demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains technical papers on: advanced coal process systems; advanced industrial systems; advanced cleanup systems; and advanced power generation systems. In addition, there are poster session abstracts. Selected papers from this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  6. Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This project will provide a full-scale demonstration of Micronized Coal Reburn (MCR) technology for the control of NO x on a wall-fired steam generator. This demonstration is expected to reduce NO x emissions by 50 to 60%. Micronized coal is coal that has been very finely pulverized (80% less than 325 mesh). This micronized coal, which may comprise up to 30% of the total fuel fired in the furnace, is fired high in the furnace in a fuel-rich reburn zone at a stoichiometry of 0.8. Above the reburn zone, overfire air is injected into the burnout zone at high velocity for good mixing to ensure complete combustion. Overall excess air is 15%. MCR technology reduces NO x emissions with minimal furnace modifications, and the improved burning characteristics of micronized coal enhance boiler performance

  7. Passamaquoddy Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program: Public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} was conceived and developed specifically to address two problems experienced by the Dragon cement plant; meeting increasingly stringent gas emission limits for sulfur dioxide, and disposing of kiln dust, containing alkali oxides, which had to be wasted in order to avoid kiln operating and product quality problems. The idea involved making the kiln dust into a slurry in order to leach out the species (primarily potassium and sulfur) which rendered it unacceptable for return to kiln feed. This slurry, the liquid part of which is an alkaline solution, acts as a scrubbing reagent for SO{sub 2} in the flue gas while CO{sub 2} in the gas serves to precipitate soluble calcium and release sulfate for combination with the potassium. The effect of the process is to scrub SO{sub 2} from kiln flue gas, extract the volatile species from the dust allowing it to be returned to the kiln, and yield a leachate comprising potassium sulfate which can be crystallized (using heat recovered from the flue gas) and sold as fertilizer. Apart from widespread application in the cement industry, it was evident that, if the process could be demonstrated, its potential would extend to any plant burning fossil fuel where an alkaline waste either occurs intrinsically or can be juxtaposed. Obvious candidates appeared to include the pulp and paper industry and waste incineration. The chemistry was proved in a 1/100th scale pilot plant using actual kiln dust and a slip stream of kiln gas. A full scale demonstration installation was commissioned in 1989 by CDN (USA), the owners of the Dragon plant with the financial support of the US Department of Energy under its innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

  8. Overview of current and future - clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darthenay, A.

    1995-01-01

    A new generation of advanced coal technology, environmentally cleaner and in many cases more efficient, has been developed: flue gas treatment of pulverized coal combustion, circulating fluidized bed (CFB), integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). These techniques are described, giving a balance of their references and of the steps which are still to be got over in order to have industrial processes applicable to large size power plants. 4 tabs

  9. International prospects for clean coal technologies (Focus on Asia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaspy, D.T. [Southern Energy, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to propose Asia as a focus market for commercialization of CCT`s; describe the principles for successful penetration of CCT`s in the international market; and summarize prospects for CCT`s in Asia and other international markets. The paper outlines the following: Southern Company`s clean coal commitment; acquisition of Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA); the prospects for CCT`s internationally; requirements for CCT`s widespread commercialization; CEPA`s application of CCT`s; and gas turbine power plants as a perfect example of a commercialization driver.

  10. The Clean Coal Technology Program: Options for SO2, NOx, and particulate control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakey, J.P.; Hargis, R.; Eastman, M.L.; Santore, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    There are currently 42 active projects in the Clean Coal Technology Program. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is responsible for managing 30 of these projects: five projects under Clean Coal 1, ten projects under Clean Coal 2, nine projects under Clean Coal 3, and six projects under Clean Coal 4. This paper describes each of the PETC projects, including the technologies involved and the project status. Many of the projects will use advanced approaches to meet current and future requirements for particulate and air toxic emissions. Discussion of these aspects have been expanded in this summary paper to address the focus of this symposium. Additional information can be provided to interested particles either through DOE, the participant or the technology supplier. Numerous non-federal organizations including state and utility/industry research groups provide important co-funding and other support for these CCT projects. Space limitations prohibit listing them in this paper; however, a complete listing can be found in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program Update 1990. Appendix A to this paper contains flow diagrams for all the projects

  11. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  12. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Vol.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increased demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains papers presented at the plenary session and panel sessions on; international markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs); role of CCTs in the evolving domestic electricity market; environmental issues affecting CCT deployment; and CCT deployment from today into the next millennium. In addition papers presented at the closing plenary session on powering the next millennium--CCT answers the challenge are included. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  13. Innovation in clean coal technologies. Empirical evidence from firm-level patent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Juergen [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Wetzel, Heike [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Economics

    2016-02-15

    This article empirically analyzes supply-side and demand-side factors expected to a.ect innovation in clean coal technologies. Patent data from 93 national and international patent offices is used to construct new firm-level panel data on 3,648 clean coal innovators over the time period 1978 to 2009. The results indicate that on the supply-side a firm¡¯s history in clean coal patenting and overall propensity to patent positively a.ects clean coal innovation. On the demand-side we find strong evidence that environmental regulation of emissions, that is CO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and SO{sub 2}, induces innovation in both efficiency improving combustion and after pollution control technologies.

  14. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  15. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  16. Clean coal technologies and possible emission trading regimes in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, S.

    1992-01-01

    After reviewing clean coal technologies currently under study in the United States, Australia, and Japan, under the current climate of global warming concerns, one concludes that some of these technologies might well be commercialised soon, especially if some kind of 'emission trading' regime is encouraged after the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environmental and Development (UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 1992). Some alternative financing possibilities under various emission trading regimes are studied for a 'sample' technology to illustrate the issues involved in clean-coal technology penetration. It is concluded that a financial 'carbon saving credit' alone might prove sufficient to stimulate such penetration. (author)

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  18. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  19. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country's coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently

  20. Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This project will demonstrate Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology in a commercial application by the repowering of an existing City Water, Light and Power (CWL P) Plant in Springfield, Illinois. The project duration will be 126 months, including a 63-month demonstration period. The estimated cost of the project is $270,700,000 of which $129,357,204 will be funded by DOE. The IGCC system will consist of CE's air-blown, entrained-flow, two-stage, pressurized coal gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup process; a combustion turbine modified to use low Btu coal gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment. An existing 25-MWe steam turbine and associated equipment will also be part of the IGCC system. The result of repowering will be an IGCC power plant with low environmental emissions and high net plant efficiency. The repowering will increase plant output by 40 MWe through addition of the combustion turbine, thus providing a total IGCC capacity of a nominal 65 MWe. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The relationship of fluidized bed technology to the U.S. Clean Coal Technology demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weth, G.; Geffken, J.; Huber, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Combustion projects (both AFBCs and PFBCs) have a prominent role in the US DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. This program has the successful commercialization of these technologies as its primary objective and this is the basic criterion for government funding and participation in the development and demonstration of the technologies. Under the CCT program the US DOE is actively involved in the development and operation of three Fluidized Bed Technology projects, NUCLA, TIDD, and SPORN, and is in the negotiation stage on others, Dairyland, Nichols and Tallahassee. All of these projects, along with the operating information on fluidized beds in the industrial sector, will provide a basis for evaluating future utilization of Fluidized Bed Technology in the market place. Impacting upon further utilization will be the time-frame and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper presents the results of a study to ascertain the commercial readiness of Fluidized Bed Technology to meet the emissions and time-frame requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Specifically addressed are: Commercialization criteria/factors which candidate and/or existing CCTs must achieve in order to gain market acceptance. The status of Fluidized Bed Technology in achieving these commercialization criteria for market acceptance (industrial and utility) consistent with the time frame of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Recommendations of commercialization criteria for future fluidized bed CCT demonstration projects

  2. Clean Coal Technologies: Accelerating Commercial and Policy Drivers for Deployment [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world’s most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry’s considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbonconstrained world.

  3. The 3R anthracite clean coal technology: Economical conversion of brown coal to anthracite type clean coal by low temperature carbonization pre-treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someus Edward

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the "end-of-the-pipe" post treatment solutions. The "3R" (Recycle-Reduce-Reuse integrated environment control technology provides preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels, such as brown coal and contaminated solid fuels to achieve high grade cleansed fuels with anthracite and coke comparable quality. The goal of the 3R technology is to provide cost efficient and environmentally sustainable solutions by preventive pre-treatment means for extended operations of the solid fuel combustion power plants with capacity up to 300 MWe power capacities. The 3R Anthracite Clean Coal end product and technology may advantageously be integrated to the oxyfuel-oxy-firing, Foster Wheeler anthracite arc-fired utility type boiler and Heat Pipe Reformer technologies in combination with CO2 capture and storage programs. The 3R technology is patented original solution. Advantages. Feedstock flexibility: application of pre-treated multi fuels from wider fuel selection and availability. Improved burning efficiency. Technology flexibility: efficient and advantageous inter-link to proven boiler technologies, such as oxyfuel and arcfired boilers. Near zero pollutants for hazardous-air-pollutants: preventive separation of halogens and heavy metals into small volume streams prior utilization of cleansed fuels. >97% organic sulphur removal achieved by the 3R thermal pre-treatment process. Integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS programs: the introduction of monolitic GHG gas is improving storage safety. The 3R technology offers significant improvements for the GHG CCS conditions. Cost reduction: decrease of overall production costs when all real costs are calculated. Improved safety: application of preventive measures. For pre-treatment a specific purpose designed, developed, and patented pyrolysis technology used, consisting of a horizontally arranged externally

  4. Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology. [Laccase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, C.T.

    1990-04-27

    This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the sulfur groups, splitting of C-S bonds and loss of sulfur as sulfuric acid. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS) are serving as models of organic sulfur-containing components of coal in initial studies.

  5. Relevance of Clean Coal Technology for India’s Energy Security: A Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Tiwari, Vineet; Vishwanathan, Saritha

    2017-07-01

    Climate change mitigation regimes are expected to impose constraints on the future use of fossil fuels in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2015, 41% of total final energy consumption and 64% of power generation in India came from coal. Although almost a sixth of the total coal based thermal power generation is now super critical pulverized coal technology, the average CO2 emissions from the Indian power sector are 0.82 kg-CO2/kWh, mainly driven by coal. India has large domestic coal reserves which give it adequate energy security. There is a need to find options that allow the continued use of coal while considering the need for GHG mitigation. This paper explores options of linking GHG emission mitigation and energy security from 2000 to 2050 using the AIM/Enduse model under Business-as-Usual scenario. Our simulation analysis suggests that advanced clean coal technologies options could provide promising solutions for reducing CO2 emissions by improving energy efficiencies. This paper concludes that integrating climate change security and energy security for India is possible with a large scale deployment of advanced coal combustion technologies in Indian energy systems along with other measures.

  6. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.F. [SIMTECHE, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  7. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    During the period 1971 to 1980, electricity consumption in Taiwan increased remarkably at an average rate of 12.2% per year. Despite experiencing a record low in 1982 and 1983, electricity demand returned to double digit growth, reaching 11.6% and 10.2% in 1987 and 1988, respectively, due to a strong economic recovery. In 1988, 71.6 TWh of electricity was produced, 21.1 TWh of which was from coal-fired units (29%). The electricity demand for Taiwan is expected to continue to grow at a very rapid rate during the 1990--2006 time frame. The average load is expected to grow at an annual rate of 5.6% while the peak load is projected to increase at an annual rate of 6.0%. All new coal-fired power plants are expected to comply with government regulations on S0 2 , NO x , and particulate emissions. Taper reports that all of its proposed coal-fired units will be equipped with modern flue gas emission reduction devices, such as electrostatic precipitators or baghouse filters, flue gas desulfurization and deco x devices, to reduce the pollutants to their minimum practical levels. New coal-based generation requirements in the sizes needed in Taiwan create an opportunity for several of the Cats currently under demonstration in the United States. Options to be considered are described

  8. Analysis of the market penetration of clean coal technologies and its impacts in China's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Nakata, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses policy instruments for promoting the market penetration of clean coal technologies (CCTs) into China's electricity sector and the evaluation of corresponding effects. Based on the reality that coal will remain the predominant fuel to generate electricity and conventional pulverized coal boiler power plants have serious impacts on environment degradation, development of clean coal technologies could be one alternative to meet China's fast growing demand of electricity as well as protect the already fragile environment. A multi-period market equilibrium model is applied and an electricity model of China is established to forecast changes in the electricity system up to 2030s. Three policy instruments: SO 2 emission charge, CO 2 emission charge and implementing subsidies are considered in this research. The results show that all instruments cause a significant shift in China's electricity structure, promote CCTs' competitiveness and lead China to gain great benefit in both resource saving and environment improvement. Since resource security and environment degradation are becoming primary concerns in China, policies that could help to gain generations' market share of advanced coal-based technologies such as CCTs' is suitable for the current situation of China's electricity sector. (author)

  9. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  10. Clean coal technologies---An international seminar: Seminar evaluation and identification of potential CCT markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guziel, K.A.; Poch, L.A.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1991-07-01

    The need for environmentally responsible electricity generation is a worldwide concern. Because coal is available throughout the world at a reasonable cost, current research is focusing on technologies that use coal with minimal environmental effects. The United States government is supporting research on clean coal technologies (CCTs) to be used for new capacity additions and for retrofits to existing capacity. To promote the worldwide adoption of US CCTs, the US Department of Energy, the US Agency for International Development, and the US Trade and Development Program sponsored a two-week seminar titled Clean Coal Technologies -- An International Seminar. Nineteen participants from seven countries were invited to this seminar, which was held at Argonne National Laboratory in June 1991. During the seminar, 11 US CCT vendors made presentations on their state-of-the-art and commercially available technologies. The presentations included technical, environmental, operational, and economic characteristics of CCTs. Information on financing and evaluating CCTs also was presented, and participants visited two CCT operating sites. The closing evaluation indicated that the seminar was a worthwhile experience for all participants and that it should be repeated. The participants said CCT could play a role in their existing and future electric capacity, but they agreed that more CCT demonstration projects were needed to confirm the reliability and performance of the technologies

  11. Emission allowance trading under the Clean Air Act Amendments: An incentive mechanism for the adoption of Clean Coal Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) uses tradeable SO 2 allowances as a means of reducing acidic emissions from the electricity generating industry. The use of emission allowances generates two important results; first, utilities are given the flexibility to choose their optimal (least cost) compliance strategies and second, the use of emission allowances creates greater incentives for the development and commercialization of innovative emissions control technology. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) are able to generate electricity more efficiently, use a wide variety of coal grades and types, and dramatically reduce emissions of SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , and PM per kWh. However, development and adoption of the technology is limited by a variety of regulatory and technological risks. The use of SO 2 emission allowances may be able to provide incentives for utility (and nonutility) adoption of this innovative technology. Emission allowances permit the utility to minimize costs on a systemwide basis and provides rewards for addition emission reductions. As CCTs are a more efficient and low emitting source of electricity, the development and implementation of this technology is desirable. This paper will explore the relationship between the incentives created by the SO 2 allowance market and CCT development. Regulatory hindrances and boons for the allowance market shall also be identified to analyze how market development, state mandates, and incentive regulation will effect the ability of allowances to prompt CCT adoption

  12. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO 2 emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO x emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today's conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated

  13. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1991 (as of December 31, 1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of large-scale ''showcase'' facilities built across the country. The program takes the most promising advanced coal-based technologies and moves them into the commercial marketplace through demonstration. These demonstrations are on a scale large enough to generate all the data, from design, construction and operation, that are necessary for the private sector to judge commercial potential and make informed, confident decisions on commercial readiness. The CCT Program has been identified in the National Energy Strategy as major initiative supporting the strategy's overall goals to: increase efficiency of energy use; secure future energy supplies; enhance environmental quality; fortify foundations. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program when commercially available will enable coal to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. The goal of the program is to furnish the US and international energy marketplaces with a number of advanced, highly efficient, and environmentally acceptable coal-using technologies

  14. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical

  15. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  16. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  17. Clean coal technology - Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanhe; Liang Jie; Yu Li

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon probing technology. An analysis of the experiment results indicates that the output of air gas is 3000 m 3 /h with a heating value of about 4.18 MJ/m 3 , while the output of water gas is 2000 m 3 /h with a heating value of over 11.00 MJ/m 3 , of which H 2 content is above 40% with a maximum of 71.68%. The cyclical time of two-phase underground gasification is 16 h, with 8 h for each phase. This prolongs the time when the high-heating value gas is produced. The moving speed of the gasification working face in two alternative gasifiers is identified, i.e. 0.204 and 0.487 m/d, respectively. The success of the pilot project experiment of the underground gasification reveals the strides that have been made toward the commercialization of the UCG in China. It also further justifies the reasonability and feasibility of the new technology of long channel, big section, two-phase underground gasification. A conclusion is also drawn that the technology of the pilot project experiment can be popularized in old and discarded coal mines

  18. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  19. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  20. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-12

    This twelfth quarterly report describes work done during the twelfth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  1. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  2. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  3. Clean coal technology: gasification of South African coals - 2nd CSIR Biennial Conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available between climate change and the use of fossil fuels such as coal. The development of CCTs has therefore received increased attention worldwide. CCTs are defined as “Technologies designed to enhance both the efficiency and the environmental acceptability... be utilised • The heat and mass transfer rates are high • Good temperature control can be achieved • Lower temperature operation increases refractory life • Limestone can be added for in bed capture of hydrogen sulphide • As there are no moving parts...

  4. Technology options for clean coal power generation with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Song; Bergins, Christian; Kikkawa, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Kawasaki, Terufumi

    2010-09-15

    The state-of-the-art coal-fired power plant today is about 20% more efficient than the average operating power plants, and can reduce emissions such as SO2, NOx, and mercury to ultra-low levels. Hitachi is developing a full portfolio of clean coal technologies aimed at further efficiency improvement, 90% CO2 reduction, and near-zero emissions, including 700 deg C ultrasupercritical boilers and turbines, post-combustion CO2 absorption, oxyfuel combustion, and IGCC with CCS. This paper discusses the development status, performance and economic impacts of these technologies with focus on post combustion absorption and oxyfuel combustion - two promising CO2 solutions for new and existing power plants.

  5. Clean coal technology choices relating to the future supply and demand of electricity in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennon, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The finalization of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has catalysed a high degree of debate and interest in the future of coal-fired power generation. Fossil fuel combustion is responsible for a significant percentage of pollutants emitted globally, and coal will continue to play a major role in the energy portfolios of many countries. This is particularly true for developing countries. This fact has resulted in a major focus on technologies which improve the efficiency of coal combustion and conversion to electrical energy, as well as technologies which directly of indirectly reduce overall emissions. The issues around clean coal technologies (CCT) and their evolution, development and uptake in both developed and developing countries are complex. This paper addresses these issues in a Southern African context, viewed from the policy perspective of developing countries and presented in a framework of electricity supply and demand considerations in the region. The principal climate change policy elements proposed for South Africa are presented in the context of the current electricity supply and demand situation in the region. These are presented in the context of Eskom's Integrated Electricity Planning (IEP) process including the environmental considerations inherent in decision-making processes. The potential future of the CCT, barriers to their introduction and potential measures to facilitate their accelerated adoption are discussed. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  7. Clean Coal Day '94 Hokkaido International Seminar; Clean coal day '94 Hokkaido kokusai seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The lectures given at the seminar were 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Clean coal technology in the United Kingdom, and 3) How clean coal should be in Australia. In lecture 1), remarks are made on the importance of coal and its future, coal that protects forest, whether coal is a dirty fuel, coal combustion tests started relative to environmental pollution, acid rain in China and coal combustion, briquets effective in energy conservation, etc. In lecture 2), remarks are made on the importance of coal utilization in the United Kingdom, current state of coal utilization in power generation, problems related to gasification furnaces, problems related to combustors, problems related to high-temperature gas cleaning, function of cleaning filters, advantages of high-temperature gas treatment, actualities of gas combustors, studies of gas combustors, etc. In lecture 3), remarks are made on Australia's coal situation, problems related to clean coal technology, problems related to coal preparation technology, potentialities of Australian brown coal, coal utilization in power generation, need of new technology development, current state of coal utilization in Australia, coal utilization in metal-making industry, international cooperation on technology, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Clean Coal Day '94 Hokkaido International Seminar; Clean coal day '94 Hokkaido kokusai seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The lectures given at the seminar were 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Clean coal technology in the United Kingdom, and 3) How clean coal should be in Australia. In lecture 1), remarks are made on the importance of coal and its future, coal that protects forest, whether coal is a dirty fuel, coal combustion tests started relative to environmental pollution, acid rain in China and coal combustion, briquets effective in energy conservation, etc. In lecture 2), remarks are made on the importance of coal utilization in the United Kingdom, current state of coal utilization in power generation, problems related to gasification furnaces, problems related to combustors, problems related to high-temperature gas cleaning, function of cleaning filters, advantages of high-temperature gas treatment, actualities of gas combustors, studies of gas combustors, etc. In lecture 3), remarks are made on Australia's coal situation, problems related to clean coal technology, problems related to coal preparation technology, potentialities of Australian brown coal, coal utilization in power generation, need of new technology development, current state of coal utilization in Australia, coal utilization in metal-making industry, international cooperation on technology, etc. (NEDO)

  9. Clean coal technology project to Polk Power Station, Tampa Electric Company, Florida, Volume 1: Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Tampa Electric Company proposes to construct and operate a 1,150-MW power station in southwestern Polk County, Florida. The proposed Polk Power Station would require an EPA NPDES permit for a new source and would include a 260-MW IGCC unit as a DOE Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. This EIS document assesses the proposed project and alternatives with respect to environmental impacts. Mitigative measures are also evaluated for the preferred alternative. Included in this Volume I are the following: alternatives including Tampa Electric Companies proposed project (preferred alternative with DOE financial assistance); affected environment; environmental consequences of the alternatives

  10. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  11. Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1990-07-01

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  13. Study on Economic Aspects and the Introduction of Clean Coal Technologies with CCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Haruki; Nakata, Toshihiko

    The advantages of coal are the largest reserves among any other fossil fuels, and can be found in many places including some developed countries. Due to the weak energy security of Japan, it is necessary to use coal as an energy source. We have designed the detailed energy model of electricity sector in which we take both energy conversion efficiency and economic aspects into consideration. The Japan model means an energy-economic model focusing on the structure of the energy supply and demand in Japan. Furthermore, the most suitable carbon capture and storage (CCS) system consisting of CO2 collection, transportation, storages are assumed. This paper examines the introduction of clean coal technologies (CCT's) with CCS into the electricity market in Japan, and explores policy options for the promotion of CCT's combined with CCS. We have analyzed the impacts of carbon tax where each fossil technology, combined with CCS, becomes competitive in possible market. CO2 mitigation costs for all plants with CCS are detailed and compared.

  14. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

    2002-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis

  15. Development of clean soil technology using coals as oily/tarry contaminant removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.; Carson, D.; Ignasiak, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Clean Soil Process for the treatment of oil/tar contaminated soils has been developed. The mechanics, of the clean-up process that utilizes coal as a cleaning medium is described. The experience and results obtained in the batch-scale testing as well as in the 250 kg/hr continuous facility have been applied for a conceptual design of a 200 t/day mobile plant

  16. The role of clean coal technologies in post-2000 power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, L.A.; Bajura, R.A.; Mahajan, K.

    1994-01-01

    A substantial global market for advanced power systems is expected to develop early in the next century for both repowering and new capacity additions, Although natural gas-fueled systems, such as gas turbines, are expected to dominate in the 1990's, coal-fueled systems are expected to emerge in the 2000's as systems of choice for base-load capacity because of coal's lower expected cost. Stringent environmental regulations dictate that all advanced power systems must be clean, economical, and efficient in order to meet both the environmental and economic performance criteria of the future. Recognizing these needs, the DOE strategy is to carry out an effective RD ampersand D program, in partnership with the private sector, to demonstrate these technologies for commercial applications in the next century. These technologies are expected to capture a large portion of the future power generation market. The DOE: expects that, domestically, advanced power systems products will be selected on the basis of varying regional needs and the needs of individual utilities. A large international demand is also expected for the new products, especially in developing nations

  17. Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program. Four Rivers Energy Modernization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    One of the five projects selected for funding within the Clean Coal Technology Program is a project proposed by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) of Allentown, Pennsylvania. APCI requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 95 megawatt-electric (MWe) gross equivalent, second generation, pressurized, circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) combustor cogeneration facility. The project, named the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Project, is co be located adjacent to an existing APCI chemicals manufacturing facility in Calvert City, Kentucky. Four Rivers Energy Partners, L.P. (FREP), will execute the project. The demonstration plant will produce approximately 70 MWe for the utility grid and an average of 310,000 pounds per hour of process steam for the chemicals manufacturing facility. The project, including the demonstration phase, will last 80 months at a total cost of $360,707,500. DOE`s share of the project cost will be 39.5 percent, or $142,460,000. The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate a second generation PCFB system based on technology being supplied by Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation (FWEC), Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Westinghouse), and LLB Lurgi Lentjes Babcock Energietechnik GmbH (LLB). The integrated performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the process systems, including coal preparation and feed, sorbent feed, carbonizer, char transfer, PCFB combustor, carbonizer and combustor hot-gas filtration, carbonizer and combustor alkali removal, topping combustor, gas turbine-generator, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam turbine-generator, and balance-of-plant systems. The project will utilize Western Kentucky and Southern Illinois bituminous coal.

  18. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine

  19. Study on the flotation technology for deep-cleaning of coal slime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Xiao-heng; Shan Xiao-yun; Jiang He-jin; Li Xiang-li [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The paper introduced the basic principle and special features of deep-cleaning of coal slime by flotation, first, separating the slime by conventional flotation to give a relatively low ash concentrate, a tailing containing an ash as high as possible, followed by flocculation-flotation to recover additional low ash concentrate. The regressive release flotation test and microphoto indicated that the middling consists mainly of intergrowth particles of coal and minerals. Comparison between deep-cleaning and conventional flotation results denoted that, at approximately same concentrate ash, its yield by deep-cleaning was 46.06 percent point higher, and at similar yield, its concentrate ash, 1.78 percent point lower. The performance by deep-cleaning is even better than that by regressive release flotation test. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Fossil fuels. Pace and focus of the clean coal technology program need to be assessed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, James A.; Clark, Marcus R. Jr.; Kovalak, Francis J.; Kleigleng, Robert G.; Imbrogno, Frank W.

    1990-03-01

    DOE developed an elaborate process for evaluating, ranking, and selecting round-two project proposals. The criteria used to evaluate and select proposals for funding generally conformed to congressional and other program guidance. Also, the evaluation and selection process provided reasonable assurance that proposals were consistently and thoroughly evaluated and that projects were selected using the applicable criteria. GAO's analysis the evaluation and selection process showed that DOE picked the highest-ranked proposals submitted for the various mix of technologies that it was interested in seeing demonstrated. Of the 16 projects DOE selected in round two, 12 were rated weak in meeting certain of the evaluation criteria. Nine of the projects were rated weak in meeting the criterion that a project's technology has the potential to reduce nationwide emissions that cause acid rain. Although emphasis was to be focused on coal-burning projects nationwide to reduce emissions that cause acid rain, it still was only one of many criteria to be considered in evaluating proposals. If DOE had picked more projects with greater potential to reduce nationwide emissions from coal-fired facilities, it would have resulted in (1) the selection of lower ranked projects demonstrating technologies similar to the projects that were selected, and (2) projects selected which may not be successfully demonstrated or commercialized because of weaknesses in other criteria. GAO also noted that half of the 48 proposals that were evaluated in round-two fared poorly against 3 or more of the evaluation criteria. This could indicate that DOE may have problems in identifying and funding additional promising clean coal technology projects in future rounds. Furthermore, GAO's past work has shown that problems have delayed finalizing project cooperative agreements, delayed completion of various project phases, and extended the estimated completion dates for some projects in round-one. As of December

  1. Lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals to achieve high-efficient and clean combustion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes full lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals launched to support selection an appropriate combustion technology and to support optimization of the boiler design. Tested mix of Middle-Bosnia brown coals is projected coal for new co-generation power plant Kakanj Unit 8 (300-450 MWe, EP B&H electricity utility. The basic coal blend consisting of the coals Kakanj: Breza: Zenica at approximate mass ratio of 70:20:10 is low grade brown coal with very high percentage of ash - over 40%. Testing that coal in circulated fluidized bed combustion technique, performed at Ruhr-University Bohum and Doosan Lentjes GmbH, has shown its inconveniency for fluidized bed combustion technology, primarily due to the agglomeration problems. Tests of these coals in PFC (pulverized fuel combustion technology have been performed in referent laboratory at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Sarajevo University, on a lab-scale PFC furnace, to provide reliable data for further analysis. The PFC tests results are fitted well with previously obtained results of the burning similar Bosnian coal blends in the PFC dry bottom furnace technique. Combination of the coals shares, the process temperature and the air combustion distribution for the lowest NOx and SO2 emissions was found in this work, provided that combustion efficiency and CO emissions are within very strict criteria, considering specific settlement of lab-scale furnace. Sustainability assessment based on calculation economic and environmental indicators, in combination with Low Cost Planning method, is used for optimization the power plant design. The results of the full lab-scale investigation will help in selection optimal Boiler design, to achieve sustainable energy system with high-efficient and clean combustion technology applied for given coals.

  2. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Environmental monitoring report, July--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has installed and is presently operating a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The host facility for this demonstration project is NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. The demonstration project has added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which is expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. NYSEG also made combustion modifications to each boiler and plans to demonstrate selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology on unit 1, which will reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Goals of the proposed demonstration include up to 98 percent SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high-sulfur coal, 30 percent NO{sub x} reductions through combustion modifications, additional NO{sub x} reductions using SNCR technology, production of marketable commercial-grade gypsum and calcium chloride by-products to minimize solid waste disposal, and zero wastewater discharge.

  3. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  4. Determination of properties of clean coal technology post-process residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities of using modern measuring devices to determine the properties of process residues (Polish acronym: UPP. UPP was taken from the combustion process from a power plant in Silesia. Determining the properties of UPP is the basis for making decisions about its practical application, for example, as a raw material to obtain useful products such as: pozzolan, cenosphere or zeolite, for which there is demand. The development of advanced technology and science has given rise to modern and precise research tools that contribute to the development of appropriate methods to assess the properties of post-process residue. For this study the following were used: scanning electron microscope with EDS microanalysis and an analyzer for particle size-, shape- and number- analysis. The study conducted confirms the effectiveness of SEM analysis to determine the properties of post-process residue from Clean Coal Technologies (CCT. The results obtained are an introduction to further research on the determination of properties of CCT post-process residue. Research to determine the properties of CCT post-process residue only began relatively recently.

  5. Report to Congress: Expressions of interest in commercial clean coal technology projects in foreign countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report was prepared in response to the guidance provided by the Congress in the course of the Fiscal Year 1995 appropriations process for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). As described in detail below, DOE was directed to make the international dissemination of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) an integral part of its policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Congress directed DOE to solicit ``Statements of Interest`` in commercial projects employing CCTs in countries projected to have significant growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, DOE was asked to submit to the Congress a report that analyzes the information contained in the Statements of Interest, and that identifies the extent to which various types of Federal incentives would accelerate the commercial availability of these technologies in an international context. In response to DOE`s solicitation of 18 November 1994, 77 Statements of Interest were received from 33 companies, as well as five additional materials. The contents of these submittals, including the requested Federal incentives, the CCTs proposed, the possible host countries, and the environmental aspects of the Statements of Interest, are described and analyzed in the chapters that follow.

  6. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, J.J.; Hoskins, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors

  7. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  8. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  9. Carbonia Municipal Administration s commitment to clean coal technologies; Impegno dell Amministrazione comunale di Carbonia a sostegno delle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadagnini, G [Comune di Carbonia, Carbonia (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    The Sulcis coalfield was discovered in 1851. For several years it was mined at very low rate until 1936 when the Italian government decided to intensify its exploitation, founding the 'Carbonifera Sarda' company. Resumption of work led to the construction of new coal washeries, the renovation of old power stations and the creation of new ones. Some attempts were made to convert coal through the application of gasification technology, at San Gavino foundry and in a small plant near the town of S. Antioco. Thus the town of Carbonia was founded and was opened in December 1938. As a result of growing social and economic needs in the area, Carbonia s Municipal Administration has always been committed to utilizing the local reserves of coal. For example, the town was actively involved in the IGCC Sulcis project and, at present, it is working on a very important town planning initiative which involves the restoration of the old Serbariu mine buildings on the outskirts of the town. The Municipal Administration will renovate the 'Lampisteria' building turning it into a mining museum as well as restoring the old warehouse (thanks to an agreement with Sotacarbo) and making it a Research Centre for advanced coal technologies development. This Research Centre will be a national centre for developing clean coal technologies and for promoting coal utilization. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  10. The role of clean coal technologies in a deregulated rural utility market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.W. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The nation`s rural electric cooperatives own a high proportion of coal-fired generation, in excess of 80 percent of their generating capacity. As the electric utility industry moves toward a competitive electricity market, the generation mix for electric cooperatives is expected to change. Distributed generation will likely serve more customer loads than is now the case, and that will lead to an increase in gas-fired generation capacity. But, clean low-cost central station coal-fired capacity is expected to continue to be the primary source of power for growing rural electric cooperatives. Gasification combined cycle could be the lowest cost coal based generation option in this new competitive market if both capital cost and electricity production costs can be further reduced. This paper presents anticipated utility business scenarios for the deregulated future and identifies combined cycle power plant configurations that might prove most competitive.

  11. Clean coal use in China: Challenges and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xu; Snowden, Simon; McLellan, Benjamin C.; Höök, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption in China is currently dominated by coal, a major source of air pollution and carbon emissions. The utilization of clean coal technologies is a likely strategic choice for China at present, however, although there have been many successes in clean coal technologies worldwide, they are not widely used in China. This paper examines the challenges that China faces in the implementation of such clean coal technologies, where the analysis shows that those drivers that have a negative bearing on the utilization of clean coal in China are mainly non-technical factors such as the low legal liability of atmospheric pollution related to coal use, and the lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal use in China. Policies for the development of clean coal technologies are in their early stages in China, and the lack of laws and detailed implementation requirements for clean coal require resolution in order to accelerate China's clean coal developments. Currently, environmental pollution has gained widespread attention from the wider Chinese populace and taking advantage of this opportunity provides a space in which to regain the initiative to raise people’s awareness of clean coal products, and improve enterprises’ enthusiasm for clean coal. - Highlights: • Clean coal is not widely used in China due to many management issues. • Legal liability of pollution related with coal utilization is too low in China. • China is lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal utilization. • It is difficult to accelerate clean coal utilization by incentive subsidies alone.

  12. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change...

  13. Valuation of clean energy investments: The case of the Zero Emission Coal (ZEC) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Frank Ernest

    Today, coal-fired power plants produce about 55% of the electrical energy output in the U.S. Demand for electricity is expected to grow in future. Coal can and will continue to play a substantial role in the future global energy supply, despite its high emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2 etc.) and low thermal energy conversion efficiency of about 37%. This is due to the fact that, it is inexpensive and global reserves are abundant. Furthermore, cost competitive and environmentally acceptable energy alternatives are lacking. New technologies could also make coal-fired plants more efficient and environmentally benign. One such technology is the Zero Emission Carbon (ZEC) power plant, which is currently being proposed by the ZECA Corporation. How much will such a technology cost? How competitive will it be in the electric energy market when used as a technology for mitigating CO2 emission? If there were regulatory mechanisms, such as carbon tax to regulate CO2 emission, what would be the minimum carbon tax that should be imposed? How will changes in energy policy affect the implementation of the ZEC technology? How will the cost of the ZEC technology be affected, if a switch from coal (high emission-intensive fuel) to natural gas (low emission-intensive fuel) were to be made? This work introduces a model that can be used to analyze and assess the economic value of a ZEC investment using valuation techniques employed in the electric energy industry such as revenue requirement (e.g. cost-of-service). The study concludes that the cost of service for ZEC technology will be about 95/MWh at the current baseline scenario of using fuel cell as the power generation system and coal as the primary fuel, and hence will not be competitive in the energy markets. For the technology to be competitive, fuel cell capital cost should be as low as 500/kW with a lifetime of 20 years or more, the cost of capital should be around 10%, and a carbon tax of 30/t of CO2 should be in place

  14. Study on the technology of decreasing ash and sulfur in coking coal concentrate by deep-cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, A.; Li, P.; Chen, S. [Hefei Design and Research Institute of Coal Industry, Hefei (China)

    2007-06-15

    Middling fractions of coking coal, a rare resource in China, were analysed for their embedded minerals both in kind and distribution. Observation with a microscope shows that most are clay minerals of very small particle size. The embedded minerals can be liberated from middling by grinding. Clean coal can be obtained from ground middling by the flocculation-flotation process. The yield of clean coal could thus be increased and its ash and sulfur content decreased. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. 2nd clean coal & carbon capture - securing the future. Conference documentation and delegate information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The presentations covered: policies and the regulatory environment - creating opportunities for clean coal technologies; mastering the economics of clean coal - gaining finance and investment for key projects; international initiatives in clean coal technologies; power plant developments; broader uses for coal; and carbon capture and storage.

  16. Clean coal technologies. The capture and geological storage of CO2 - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    There is no longer any doubt about the connection between carbon dioxide emissions of human origin and global warming. Nearly 40% of world CO 2 emissions are generated by the electricity production sector, in which the combustion of coal - developing at a roaring pace, especially in China - accounts for a good proportion of the total. At a time when the reduction of greenhouse gases has become an international priority, this growth is a problem. Unless CO 2 capture and storage technologies are implemented, it will be very difficult to contain global warming

  17. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict

  18. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world's most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market

  19. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  20. Clean Coal Day '93. Hokkaido Seminar; Clean Coal Day '93. Hokkaido Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The titles of the lectures in this record are 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Future development of coal-fired thermal power generation, 3) Current status of research and development of coalbed methane in the U.S., and 4) PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle) system. Under title 1), the reason is explained why coal is back as an energy source and is made much of. The actualities of coal being labelled as a dirty energy source are explained. The rapid growth of demand for coal in Asia is commented on and what is expected of clean coal technology is stated. Under title 2), it is predicted that atomic energy, LNG (liquefied natural gas), and coal will be the main energy sources for electric power in Japan. Under title 3), it is stated that 10% of America's total amount of methane production is attributable to coal mining, that methane is the cleanest of the hydrocarbon fuels although it is a pollution source from an environmental point of view, and that it is therefore reasonable to have its collection and utilization placed in the domain of clean coal technology. Under title 4), a PFBC system to serve as the No. 3 machine for the Tomahigashi-Atsuma power plant is described. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2000 report on the project for promotion of clean coal technology. Survey of zero emission coal technology; 2000 nendo clean coru technology suishin jigyo. Zero emission coru technology chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper surveyed a plan on the zero emission coal technology including up to CO2 fixation which is proposed in the U.S. and the present situation of the related study, and studied the viability of this plan including the R and D similar to this plan in Japan. Los Alamos National Laboratory in the U.S. thought of a concept of the technology to produce hydrogen from coal and recover CO2 at the same time for underground fixation, and is proceeding with the practical application. The process does not need oxygen, combustion, nor heating to be newly made. What is needed except coal is only water and lime, both of which can be recycled. The process, which discharges nothing into the air, is a closed cycle. The HyPr-RING process in Japan is a technology to decompose coal in high temperature (about 650 degrees C)/high pressure (100-200 atm) water for hydrogen formation, absorbing the formed CO2 by CaO, etc. Both of the processes have the problem, but it is necessary to make information exchanges since Japan and the U.S. devised the process at the same time. (NEDO)

  2. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.E. [Custom Coals Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  3. The Healy clean coal project: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, J.B.; McCrohan, D.V. [Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the US Department of Energy under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program is currently in construction. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the US Department of Energy. Construction is scheduled to be completed in August of 1997, with startup activity concluding in December of 1997. Demonstration, testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of NOx, SO{sub 2} and particulates from this 50 megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards. The project status, its participants, a description of the technology to be demonstrated, and the operational and performance goals of this project are presented.

  4. Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology. Second quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, C.T.

    1990-04-27

    This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the sulfur groups, splitting of C-S bonds and loss of sulfur as sulfuric acid. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS) are serving as models of organic sulfur-containing components of coal in initial studies.

  5. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  6. The clean coal initiative: An appropriate response to complex environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program that can offer significant benefits when these technologies are used for power production, pollution control or the conversion of coal into other alternative energy products. The paper describes the status of the program, the 35 projects currently in the program, and the environmental role of clean coal technologies

  7. FY 2000 report on the project for promotion of clean coal technology. Survey of overseas trends of technology to use hydrocarbon base energy such as coal; 2000 nendo clean coru technology suishin jigjyo. Sekitan tou tankasuiso kei energy riyo gijutsu ni kansuru kaigai doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For contributing to the study on the comprehensive development of technology to use hydrocarbon resource such as coal in Japan, survey was conducted of trends of supply/demand, policy, utilization technology, etc. of hydrocarbon base energy such as coal in developed countries such as the U.S., European countries, etc. Proved coal reserves in the world are 980 billion tons, and years of mining are 230. The resource amount of coal is more than those of oil and natural gas. In the U.S., the budget was largely cut in the 1990s because of the financial deficit, but the R and D are being promoted of power plant being aimed at substantial reduction in emissions of NOx, SOx, etc. and reduction in cost. European countries are tackling the technical development of petroleum substituting energy and the verification/commercialization. As to the clean coal technology, every country is making the technical development for coal liquefaction/gasification. Relating to the natural gas technology, studies are being made of GTL, coal bed methane, shale gas, methane hydrate, etc. The energy conversion use of waste, technical development of biomass energy, etc. were also being carried out. (NEDO)

  8. Final Report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Coal Technology workgroup reported to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. This page includes the final report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee.

  9. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  10. Fiscal 1995 coal production/utilization technology promotion subsidy/clean coal technology promotion business/regional model survey. Study report on `Environmental load reduction measures: feasibility study of a coal utilization eco/energy supply system` (interim report); 1995 nendo sekitan seisan riyo gijutsu shinkohi hojokin clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa. `Kankyo fuka teigen taisaku: sekitan riyo eko energy kyokyu system no kanosei chosa` chosa hokokusho (chukan hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The coal utilization is expected to make substantial growth according to the long-term energy supply/demand plan. To further expand the future coal utilization, however, it is indispensable to reduce environmental loads in its total use with other energies, based on the coal use. In this survey, a regional model survey was conducted as environmental load reduction measures using highly cleaned coal which were taken in fiscal 1993 and 1994. Concretely, a model system was assumed which combined facilities for mixed combustion with coal and other energy (hull, bagasse, waste, etc.) and facilities for effective use of burned ash, and potential reduction in environmental loads of the model system was studied. The technology of mixed combustion between coal and other energy is still in a developmental stage with no novelties in the country. Therefore, the mixed combustion technology between coal and other energy is an important field which is very useful for the future energy supply/demand and environmental issues. 34 refs., 27 figs., 48 tabs.

  11. Combustion and environmental performance of clean coal end products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Sakellaropoulos, G. [Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Ptolemaidas-Kozanis, Ptolemaida (Greece). Inst. for Solid Fuel Technolgy and Applications]|[Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering Lab]|[Chemical Process Engineering Research Inst., Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Solid Fuels and Environment; Someus, E. [Thermal Desorption Technology Group (Greece); Grammelis, P.; Amarantos, P.S. [Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Ptolemaidas-Kozanis, Ptolemaida (Greece). Inst. for Solid Fuel Technolgy and Applications; Palladas, A.; Basinas, P.; Natas, P.; Prokopidou, M.; Diamantopoulou, I.; Sakellaropoulos, G. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering Lab

    2006-07-01

    Clean and affordable power production is needed in order to achieve sustainable economic development. This paper focused on clean coal technologies in which coal-fired power plants are used in conjunction with large amounts of renewable energy sources to offer a high level of process safety and long term management of all residual operation streams. Thermal Desorption Recycle-Reduce-Reuse Technology (TDT-3R) was described as being a promising solid fuel pretreatment process for clean energy production up to 300 MWe capacities. TDT-3R is based on low temperature carbonisation fuel pre-treatment principles, which produce cleansed anthracite type fuels from coal and other carbonaceous material such as biomass and organic wastes. The combustion efficiency of such clean coals and the environmental performance of the TDT-3R process were investigated in this study via pilot scale tests of clean fuel production. Tests included flue gas emissions monitoring, raw fuel and product characterisation and thermogravimetric tests, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans, and heavy metals analyses, and toxicity tests. Raw material included coal and biomass, such as willow, straw and demolition wood. The fuels were heated in a rotary kiln operating at 550 degrees C under slightly vacuum conditions. Clean coals were tested either alone or in conjunction with biomass fuels in a pilot scale combustion facility at Dresden, Germany. The clean coal samples were shown to have higher fixed carbon and ash content and lower volatiles compared to the respective raw coal samples. The major advantage of the TDT-3R process is the production of fuels with much lower pollutants content. Low nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine and heavy metal contents result in produced fuels that have excellent environmental performance, allow boiler operation in higher temperatures and overall better efficiency. Moreover, the use of clean fuels reduces deposition problems in the combustion chamber due to the

  12. Use of clean coal technology by-products as agricultural liming techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, R.C.; Sutton, P.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1995-03-01

    Dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are mixtures of coal fly-ash, anhydrite (CaCO{sub 4}), and unspent lime- or limestone-based sorbent. Dry FGD by-products frequently have neutralizing values greater than 50% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency and thus have potential for neutralizing acidic soils. Owing to the presence of soluble salts and various trace elements, however, soil application of dry FGD by-products may have adverse effects on plant growth and soil quality. The use of a dry FGD by-product as a limestone substitute was investigated in a field study on three acidic agricultural soils (pH 4.6, 4.8, and 5.8) in eastern Ohio. The by-product (60% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency) was applied in September, 1992, at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lime requirement of the soils, and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were planted. Soils were sampled immediately after FGD application and three more times every six months thereafter. Samples were analyzed for pH and water soluble concentrations of 28 elements. Soil pH was increased by all FGD rates in the zone of incorporation (0--10 cm), with the highest rates giving a pH slightly above 7. Within one year pH increases could be detected at depths up to 30 cm. Calcium, Mg, and S increased, and Al, Mn, and Fe decreased with increasing dry FGD application rates. No trace element concentrations were changed by dry FGD application except B which was increased in the zone of incorporation. Dry FGD increased alfalfa yield on all three soils, and had no effect on corn yield. No detrimental effects on soil quality were observed.

  13. Problems of clean coals production as a sources of clean energy generation; Problemy produkcji czystych wegli jako zrodlo wytwarzania czystej energii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, W. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Mineral and Energy Economy Institute

    2004-07-01

    The paper advises of clean coal technology programme objectives. Issues connected with clean coals preparation for combustion have been discussed. The quality of steam fine coals has been presented, including those used in the commercial power industry. A small supply of 'clean coals' has been started in Poland, related however to a limited demand. Factors affecting the reduction in clean coal production have been discussed. The fact that there are no significant reasons to constrain supplies of clean coals has been emphasised. The quality of coal in deposits is very good, and the condition of preparation enables production of clean coal. Clean energy generation from clean coal requires only cooperation between the hard coal mining industry and the commercial power industry, passing over particular sectoral interests. 15 refs.

  14. The Crux of Clean Coal Technology for industrialization%合理的机制有效的政策是实现洁净煤技术产业化的关键

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦俊杰; 俞珠峰; 杜铭华

    2001-01-01

    Clean coal technology can be used as a leading technology forresolvi ng the coal use and environmental problem. Therefore, it was attached and develo ped by industrial countries. In China, to establish reasonable management system and policy is the key for clean coal technology industrialization. The law, pol icy and existing problem with concerned the clean coal technology in China are d iscussed in this paper. The obstacle to develop clean coal technology industrial ization is point out and an policy suggestion to speed up the clean coal technol ogy industrialization is put forward.%洁净煤技术作为解决煤炭利用和环境问题的主导技术,在各工业发达国家得到重视和发展,建立合理的机制、制定配套的政策对促进中国洁净煤技术产业化发展至关重要。本文阐述了中国现行的洁净煤技术相关法律、政策及其存在问题,指出了洁净煤技术产业化发展遇到的障碍,提出了加快洁净煤技术产业化发展的政策建议。

  15. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Coal-water fuels - a clean coal solution for Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubicic, B.; Willson, W.; Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Stajner, K.; Popovic, R.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Europe currently faces great economic and environmental problems. Among these problems is energy provision. Coal reserves are large but cause pollution while oil and gas need to be used for export. Formal 'clean coal technologies' are simply too expensive to be implemented on a large scale in the current economic crisis. The promised western investment and technological help has simply not taken place, western Europe must help eastern Europe with coal technology. The cheapest such technology is coal-water fuel slurry. It can substitute for oil, but research has not been carried out because of low oil prices. Coal-water fuel is one of the best methods of exploiting low rank coal. Many eastern European low rank coals have a low sulfur content, and thus make a good basis for a clean fuel. Italy and Russia are involved in such a venture, the slurry being transported in a pipeline. This technology would enable Russia to exploit Arctic coal reserves, thus freeing oil and gas for export. In Serbia the exploitation of sub-Danube lignite deposits with dredging mining produced a slurry. This led to the use and development of hot water drying, which enabled the removal of many of the salts which cause problems in pulverized fuel combustion. The system is economic, the fuel safer to transport then oil, either by rail or in pipelines. Many eastern European oil facilities could switch. 24 refs

  17. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  18. Strategic considerations for clean coal R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullan, J.T.; Williams, B.C.; McCahey, S.

    2001-01-01

    While present interest in coal-fired power generation is centred on the developing countries, with new natural-gas-fired power stations predominating in the developed world, in the long term coal will return to being the fuel of choice for power generation for much of the world. To minimise the global impact of coal use it is essential, therefore, that coal technologies are developed that are efficient, clean and economically attractive. Techno-economic analyses of the options for coal are presented together with a strategic overview of potential lines of development. The broad conclusions are that new coal plants will not be truly competitive with natural gas until the price of gas increases to about 3.3 EURO/GJ, compared with a coal price of 1.3 EURO/GJ. Present state-of-the-art pulverised coal-fired plant is close to its optimum techno-economic performance and further improvements depend on the development of cost-effective super-alloys. However, there are good opportunities to increase the efficiency of coal use to greater than 50% (LHV basis) using gasification-based power generation cycles. Unless credit is given for the much lower emissions provided by these cycles, the pulverised coal and pressurised fluidised bed combustion will remain the most economic options. (author)

  19. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z; Morikawa, M; Fujii, Y [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. A clean coal: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this report comments the evolution of coal demand which has doubled during the last 35 years for different reasons (increase of electricity production, development of China and India), but is still based on local production although coal international trade increased indeed quicker than coal demand. It notices that there is still a lot of coal available for the future, and that demand will keep on increasing. It outlines that coal will have to reduce its impacts on the environment, and presents the technologies which will allow this reduction. It also presents the technologies for CO 2 capture and storage (CCS), and evokes its regulatory issues and its environmental impacts. Some research and development projects in CCS in different countries (Europe, Germany, United States, Australia) are presented. Finally, it stresses the importance of a global deployment of much less polluting technologies to limit greenhouse gas emissions

  1. International technologies market for coal thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports a general framework of potential market of clean coal combustion technologies in thermal power plants, specially for commercialization and market penetration in developing countries [it

  2. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-17

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  3. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davies, Lincoln [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, JoAnn [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reitze, Arnold [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Silcox, Geoffrey [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues.

  4. Public meetings for views and comments on the conduct of the 1992 Clean Coal Technology Solicitation---Cheyenne, Wyoming, October 30, 1991 and Louisville, Kentucky, November 12, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Two public meetings were convened by the Department of Energy (DOE) in October and November 1991 in order to obtain views, comments, and recommendations with regard to the forthcoming Clean Coal Technology V solicitation. In the sections that follow, brief descriptions are provided on the background to the CCT solicitation and the public meetings, and how the meetings were conducted. Subsequent chapters of this report present the discussions that ensued at teach of the meetings, and the views, recommendations, and concerns that were expressed by attendees. The report also includes a compilation of the written comments that were received. Finally, an appendix contains attendee registration data and transcripts for opening and closing plenary sessions. (VC)

  5. Demonstration of advanced combustion NO(sub X) control techniques for a wall-fired boiler. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The project represents a landmark assessment of the potential of low-NO(sub x) burners, advanced overtire air, and neural-network control systems to reduce NO(sub x) emissions within the bounds of acceptable dry-bottom, wall-fired boiler performance. Such boilers were targeted under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Testing provided valuable input to the Environmental Protection Agency ruling issued in March 1994, which set NO(sub x) emission limits for ''Group 1'' wall-fired boilers at 0.5 lb/10(sup 6) Btu to be met by January 1996. The resultant comprehensive database served to assist utilities in effectively implementing CAAA compliance. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. Five nationally competed solicitations sought cost-shared partnerships with industry to accelerate commercialization of the most advanced coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The Program, valued at over$5 billion, has leveraged federal funding twofold through the resultant partnerships encompassing utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. This project was one of 16 selected in May 1988 from 55 proposals submitted in response to the Program's second solicitation. Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation's (FWEC) advanced overfire air (AOFA), low-NO(sub x) burners (LNB), and LNB/AOFA on wall-fired boiler NO(sub x) emissions and other combustion parameters. SCS also evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced on-line optimization system, the Generic NO(sub x) Control Intelligent System (GNOCIS). Over a six-year period, SCS carried out testing at Georgia Power Company's 500-MWe Plant Hammond Unit 4 in Coosa, Georgia. Tests proceeded in a logical sequence using rigorous statistical analyses to

  6. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  7. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  8. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  9. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  10. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  11. The possibility of using clean coal in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.K.; Khairudin, M.Y. [Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Perai (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    The Asia-Pacific region will see tremendous growth in demand for electricity in the next few decades and will be an important market for generation equipment and associated services. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries alone anticipate additional power demand of more than 37,000 NM by the year 2000, with an estimated total expenditure of US $85 billion. Trends in recent years show natural gas-fired combined cycle in plants to be fast gaining in popularity over conventional thermal plants. The advantages include increased primary energy conversion efficiency coupled with significant reduction in pollutant emissions, shorter construction times, faster loading rates and reduced staffing requirements. In the computer model used for generation capacity expansion planning in Tenaga Nasional Berhad, clean coal technology models are not used as candidate plants. In the opinion of the authors, this results from a lack of comprehensive data regarding the operating characteristics and the capital and operating costs of such plants, making it difficult to compare to more proven technologies. We also believe that the economics of such plants have not been sufficiently demonstrated at full scale. The authors believe, however, that in the future, coal-fired combined cycle plants will offer enormous possibilities in Malaysia as an urgency to develop this form of clean coal technology in other countries will assure widespread commercial realization of the technology. The anticipated increase in electricity demand brings to the region many business opportunities. As an example, gas turbine component parts, which are used both in conventional systems and clean coal systems, initially can be locally manufactured with technology transfer from original equipment manufacturers; these technology transfers can progress into fall-licenses to local manufacturers.

  12. Cleaning of Egyptian coal by using column flotation to minimize the environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalek, M.A.A. [CMRDI, Cairo (Egypt)

    2002-07-01

    This work aims to decrease the sulfur content of the Egyptian coal by using column flotation technology to be suitable for various applications. In this study, the column flotation parameters as air flow-rate, wash water, frother dosage and feed rate with its solid percent were studied. A clean coal was obtained containing 1.01 % total sulfur with a yield of 82 %, from Maghara coal (Sinai-Egypt) which contains 3.3 % total sulfur as raw coal.

  13. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  14. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  15. The Healy Clean Coal Project: Design verification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidetti, R.H.; Sheppard, D.B.; Ubhayakar, S.K.; Weede, J.J.; McCrohan, D.V.; Rosendahl, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Healy Clean Coal Project, TRW Inc., the supplier of the advanced slagging coal combustors, has successfully completed design verification tests on the major components of the combustion system at its Southern California test facility. These tests, which included the firing of a full-scale precombustor with a new non-storage direct coal feed system, supported the design of the Healy combustion system and its auxiliaries performed under Phase 1 of the project. Two 350 million BTU/hr combustion systems have been designed and are now ready for fabrication and erection, as part of Phase 2 of the project. These systems, along with a back-end Spray Dryer Absorber system, designed and supplied by Joy Technologies, will be integrated with a Foster Wheeler boiler for the 50 MWe power plant at Healy, Alaska. This paper describes the design verification tests and the current status of the project

  16. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, Alaska final Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-14

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) provides the mechanism to evaluate the integrated coal combustion/emission control system being demonstrated by the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) as part-of the third solicitation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT-III). The EMP monitoring is intended to satisfy two objectives: (1) to develop the information base necessary for identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental problems arising from replication of the technology and (2) to identify and quantify project-specific and site-specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents (Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision). The EMP contains a description of the background and history of development of the project technologies and defines the processes that will take place in the combustion and spray dryer absorber systems, including the formation of flash-calcined material (FCM) and its use in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from the flue gases. It also contains a description of the existing environmental resources of the project area. The EMP includes two types of environmental monitoring that are to be used to demonstrate the technologies of the HCCP: compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring. Compliance monitoring activities include air emissions, wastewater effluents, and visibility. Monitoring of these resources provide the data necessary to demonstrate that the power plant can operate under the required state and federal statutes, regulations, and permit requirements.

  17. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  18. Analytical support for coal technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek Václav

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of success in the selection negotiation The Brown Coal Research Institute j.s.c. Most was authorized to process the project Phare D5/93 with the title "Analytical support to clean coal technologies". The elaboration of the task run in 1997 in a close cooperation with the Mining University - TU Ostrava; DBI - AUA GmbH, Freiberg, Germany; DMT mbH, Essen, Germany and Cerchar, Mazingarbe, France. In the work the available reserves of brown and hard coal and from them following possible levels of annual minings in relation to prognosed needs of the electro-energetics and heating-industry were evaluated. The knowledge about the contents of selected trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, V, Zn in Czech (CZ coal were also evaluated it was investigated. Further, the distribution of trace elements during the burning process in four types of boilers in CZ. was investigated. The CZ and EU legislation related to trace elements in coal and combustion products was finally comparred. It was stated that the CZ legal standards are not at variant with EU the standards.

  19. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  20. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix A (Part 2). Coal preparation and cleaning assessment study appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report presents the results of integrating coal washability and coal reserves data obtained from the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Two computer programs were developed to match the appropriate entries in each data set and then merge the data into the form presented in this report. Approximately 18% of the total demonstrated coal reserves were matched with washability data. However, about 35% of the reserves that account for 80% of current production were successfully matched. Each computer printout specifies the location and size of the reserve, and then describes the coal with data on selected physical and chemical characteristics. Washability data are presented for three crush sizes (1.5 in., /sup 3///sub 8/ in., and 14 mesh) and several specific gravities. In each case, the percent recovery, Btu/lb, percent ash, percent sulfur, lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu, and reserves available at 1.2 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu are given. The sources of the original data and the methods used in the integration are discussed briefly.

  1. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  2. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  3. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  4. Southern Coal Corporation Clean Water Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Coal Corporation is a coal mining and processing company headquartered in Roanoke, VA. Southern Coal Corporation and the following 26 affiliated entities are located in Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia

  5. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Walker, Harold [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD

  6. Report on the FY 1999 survey for making a data book related to new energy technology development. Trends of solar energy utilization, waste power generation, clean energy vehicle, geothermal power generation, clean coal technology, other new energy technology and new energy technology development; 1999 nendo shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa hokokusho. Taiyonetsu riyo, haikibutsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, chinetsu hatsuden, clean coal technology, sonota no shin energy gijutsu, shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kanren doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper collected/arranged the most up-to-date data made public in the new energy technology field. As to the solar energy utilization, the utilization is on the decrease with the beginning of the 1980s as a peak, and the solar systems introduced in FY 1998 totaled 15,000 and the water heaters 56,000. The waste power generation is showing a steady growth both in the general use and in the industrial use, and the introduction of 5 million KW is expected for FY 2010. The sale of the hybrid car started at the end of 1997, and the subjects are the price/performance/fuel supply system. Concerning the geothermal power generation, 497,000 KW and 36,000 KW were introduced for business use and non-utility use, respectively. Japan ranks sixth among nations of the world. Relating to the coal liquefaction, the pilot plant (PP) of Japan's original bituminous coal liquefaction NEDOL process finished operation in 1998, and the construction of technology package, international cooperation, etc. are being conducted. About the coal gasification, the construction of demonstrative equipment and operation are planned during FY 2002 - FY 2007, making use of the PP achievements of IGCC. In regard to the biomass-based waste power generation, the lignocellulose system is large in potential quantity. As to the hydrogen energy, the WE-NET project entered Period II. With respect to the ocean thermal energy conversion, the demonstrative study started. In relation to the wave power generation, a small size of approximately several hundred W was commercialized. (NEDO)

  7. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Clean coal technology model project seminar held in Thailand; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Tai ni okeru clean coal technology model jigyo seminar no kaisai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, the desulfurization seminar diffusing the demonstration project of simplified desulfurizer introduction was held at the site in Thailand. The purpose is to reduce the environmental pollutants and contribute to the effective utilization of energy with coal utilization in Thailand. Invitation letters were sent to users of coal and heavy oil boilers through the Department of Factories, Ministry of Industry, Thailand, to call participation in the seminar. Inspection of the desulfurizer introduced in the factory of Thai Union Paper Public was included in the seminar for diffusing the project. The inspection site is in the demonstration project site of simplified desulfurizer introduction. There were a lot of participants from Thai users and from Japan. The seminar included the presentations from NEDO, JETRO, FTI, and MOSTE, introduction of general technology for processes of ENAA desulfurizer, introduction of demonstration unit plan by IHI, and introduction of operation of demonstration unit by TUP. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  9. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  10. Fiscal 1996 coal production/utilization technology promotion subsidy/clean coal technology promotion business/regional model survey. Study report on `Environmental load reduction measures: feasibility study of a coal utilization eco/energy supply system`; 1996 nendo sekitan seisan riyo gijutsu shinkohi hojokin clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa. `Kankyo fuka teigen taisaku sekitan riyo eko energy kyokyu system no kanosei chosa` chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Oil demand is expected to substantially grow in the future, and the use of oil with combustibles such as hull, baggase and waste is considered from an effective use of energy. A regional model survey was conducted as measures to reduce environmental loads where the fuel mixing combustion with coal and other energy is made the core. The domestic production amount of hull is 2.4-3.0 tons/year, which have a heating value of 3,500 kcal/kg. If hull can be formed into the one storable for a the long term (the one mixed with low grade coal, etc.), it can be a fuel for stable supply. Bagasse is produced 100 million tons/year, which have a heating value of 2,500 kcal/kg. Among wastes, waste tire, plastics, waste, sludge, etc. have a lot of problems in terms of price and environment, but each of them has a heating value during 3,000-10,000 kcal/kg. As to the coal combustion, the pollutional regulation on it is strict, and much higher processing technology is needed. The technology of coal fuel mixing combustion with other energy has not risen higher than the developmental level. Though the technology is a little bit higher in price than the coal fuel single combustion, it is viable. 38 refs., 32 figs., 65 tabs.

  11. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage

  12. Combustion behaviour of ultra clean coal obtained by chemical demineralisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Rubiera; A. Arenillas; B. Arias; J.J. Pis; I. Suarez-Ruiz; K.M. Steel; J.W. Patrick [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2003-10-01

    The increasing environmental concern caused by the use of fossil fuels and the concomitant need for improved combustion efficiency is leading to the development of new coal cleaning and utilisation processes. However, the benefits achieved by the removal of most mineral matter from coal either by physical or chemical methods can be annulled if poor coal combustibility characteristics are attained. In this work a high volatile bituminous coal with 6% ash content was subjected to chemical demineralisation via hydrofluoric and nitric acid leaching, the ash content of the clean coal was reduced to 0.3%. The original and treated coals were devolatilised in a drop tube furnace and the structure and morphology of the resultant chars was analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopies. The reactivity characteristics of the chars were studied by isothermal combustion tests in air at different temperatures in a thermogravimetric system. Comparison of the combustion behaviour and pollutant emissions of both coals was conducted in a drop tube furnace operating at 1000{sup o}C. The results of this work indicate that the char obtained from the chemically treated coal presents very different structure, morphology and reactivity behaviour than the char from the original coal. The changes induced by the chemical treatment increased the combustion efficiency determined in the drop tube furnace, in fact higher burnout levels were obtained for the demineralised coal.

  13. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both the ash and sulfur contents of run-of-mine coals. The extent of cleaning depends on the liberation characteristics of the coal, which generally improve with reducing particle size. however, since most of the advanced technologies are wet processes, the clean coal product must be dewatered before it can be transported and burned in conventional boilers. This additional treatment step significantly increases the processing cost and makes the industrial applicability of these advanced technologies much less attractive. In order to avoid problems associated with fine coal dewatering, researchers at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a novel triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process that can remove mineral matter from dry coal. In this technique, finely pulverized coal is brought into contact with a material (such as copper) having a work function intermediate to that of the carbonaceous material and associated mineral matter. Carbonaceous particles having a relatively low work function become positively charged, while particles of mineral matter having significantly higher work functions become negatively charged. once the particles become selectively charged, a separation can be achieved by passing the particle stream through an electrically charged field. Details related to the triboelectrostatic charging phenomenon have been discussed elsewhere (Inculet, 1984).

  14. Clean fuel-magnesia bonded coal briquetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosun, Yildirim I. [S. Demirel University Eng., Arch. Faculty Mining Eng. Department, Isparta (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    Benefaction from coal fines as solid fuel in Turkey is very much important for economical development. Beneficiation from washed coal fines in the industry using solid fuel at lump size and in the municipal areas as an household solid fuel may be only provided by hot briquetting of the coal fines. The most practical common way of that benefication from coal fines in our country have been hot binding by sulfite liquor-sulfite liquor-melas and lime mixtures. Harmful the flue content of sulfite liquor-melas may only be eliminated by lime, a type of solid additive. However, cold bonded briquettes produced from coal fines are environmentally free. Just ash contents of these briquettes increase at a certain degree and heat content of them decrease at a certain extent. By using magnesia binder showed in this study, Tuncbilek lignite fines have been briquetted by cold and hot briquetting techniques. The qualities of briquettes produced by cold binders were compared with to those produced by other hot binding methods As a result, magnesia binder showed the similar characteristics with those of the briquettes produced by only cold bonded gypsum. Use of magnesite mixture and gypsum just as only cold binder was not suitable for the requirements from the coal briquettes to be used as solid fuels, particularly from household fuels, but just only as cold additive should be used. (author)

  15. Dynamics of clean coal-fired power generation development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Li

    2012-01-01

    Coal-fired power technology will play an important role over a long period in China. Clean coal-fired power technology is essential for the global GHG emission reduction. Recently, advanced supercritical (SC)/ultra-supercritical (USC) technology has made remarkable progress in China and greatly contributed to energy saving and emission reduction. This study analyzes the dynamics of SC/USC development in China from an integrated perspective. The result indicates that, besides the internal demand, the effective implementation of domestic public policy and technology transfer contributed greatly to the development of SC/USC technology in China. In future low carbon scenario, SC/USC coal-fired power technology might still be the most important power generation technology in China until 2040, and will have a significant application prospect in other developing countries. The analysis makes a very useful introduction for other advanced energy technology development, including a renewable energy technology, in China and other developing countries. - Highlights: ► The US/USC technology is the key clean coal-fired power technology in current China. ► The domestic policy and technology transfer largely contributed to their development. ► This makes a useful introduction for the development of renewable energy in China.

  16. Coal reverse flotation. Part II: Cleaning of a subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.J.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. for Mining Engineering

    2006-01-15

    Reverse flotation of a subbituminous coal was investigated and it turned out that a large amount of DTAC was needed in this process. The application of the zero-conditioning time method along with the use of PAM significantly reduced DTAC consumption from over 6 kg/t down to 1.375 kg/t. Dextrin was necessary to improve the selectivity. The addition of a dispersant (tannic acid) improved further the quality of concentrate. The concentrate ash content of 16.7% at 50.4% yield was obtained for the feed ash content of 34.6%. Although this gives only about 64% combustible recovery, since the inherent ash content for this coal was determined to be 10% the room for further improvement is very limited. The best separation was obtained around a natural pH of 7.5-8.4 for this coal.

  17. CPICOR{trademark}: Clean power from integrated coal-ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintrell, R.; Miller, R.N.; Harbison, E.J.; LeFevre, M.O.; England, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The US steel industry, in order to maintain its basic iron production, is thus moving to lower coke requirements and to the cokeless or direct production of iron. The US Department of Energy (DOE), in its Clean Coal Technology programs, has encouraged the move to new coal-based technology. The steel industry, in its search for alternative direct iron processes, has been limited to a single process, COREX{reg_sign}. The COREX{reg_sign} process, though offering commercial and environmental acceptance, produces a copious volume of offgas which must be effectively utilized to ensure an economical process. This volume, which normally exceeds the internal needs of a single steel company, offers a highly acceptable fuel for power generation. The utility companies seeking to offset future natural gas cost increases are interested in this clean fuel. The COREX{reg_sign} smelting process, when integrated with a combined cycle power generation facility (CCPG) and a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), is an outstanding example of a new generation of environmentally compatible and highly energy efficient Clean Coal Technologies. This combination of highly integrated electric power and hot metal coproduction, has been designated CPICOR{trademark}, Clean Power from Integrated Coal/Ore Reduction.

  18. A study of Multistage/Multifunction Column for Fine Coal Cleaning CRADA PC93-005, Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph Lai; Shiao-Hung Chiang; Daxin He; Yuru Feng

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of the this research project is to explore the potential applicability of a multistage column for fine coal cleaning and other applications in fluid particle separation. The research work identifies the design parameters and their effects on the performance of the separation device. The results of this study provide an engineering data basis for further development of this technology in coal cleaning and in general areas of fluid and particle separations

  19. Insight conference reports : proceedings of the clean coal summit : business strategies, solutions and risk management in uncertain regulatory times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference was held to examine business options and risk management solutions in clean coal technologies. The conference was attended by coal industry representatives as well as members of both governmental and non-governmental agencies, who examined recent energy regulations and policies as well as a variety of issues related to sustainable energy development. Issues related to the attrition of Canada's older power plants were discussed and new coal gasification technologies were reviewed. The conference also addressed issues concerning public opinion and First Nations people. Conventional coal energy options were discussed along with advancements in emissions control technologies with particular reference to the role of clean coal science and technology. The conference featured 14 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  20. The Clean Coal Program's contributions to addressing the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential contributions of the US Department of Energy's Clean Coal Program (CCP) to addressing the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (CAA90). Initially funded by Congress in 1985, the CCP is a government and industry co-funded effort to demonstrate a new generation of more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies in a series of full- scale ''showcase'' facilities built across the country. The CCP is expected to provide funding for more than $5 billion of projects during five rounds of competition, with at least half of the funding coming from the private sector. To date, 42 projects have been selected in the first 4 rounds of the CCP. The CAA and amendments form the basis for regulating emissions of air pollutants to protect health and the environment throughout the United States. Although the origin of the CAA can be traced back to 1955, many amendments passed since that time are testimony to the iterative process involved in the regulation of air pollution. Three key components of CAA90, the first major amendments to the CAA since 1977, include mitigation measures to reduce levels of (1) acid deposition, (2) toxic air pollutants, and (3) ambient concentrations of air pollutants. This paper focuses on the timeliness of clean coal technologies in contributing to these provisions of CAA90

  1. Coal reburning technology for cyclone boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagiela, A.S.; Maringo, G.J.; Newell, R.J.; Farzan, H.

    1990-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox has obtained encouraging results from engineering feasibility and pilot-scale proof-of-concept studies of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO x control. Accordingly, B and W completed negotiations for a clean coal cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to demonstrate coal reburning technology for cyclone boilers. The host site for the demonstration is the Wisconsin Power and Light (WP and L) Company's 100MWe Nelson Dewey Station. Reburning involves the injection of a supplemental fuel (natural gas, oil, or coal) into the main furnace to produce locally reducing stoichiometric conditions which convert the NO x produced therein to molecular nitrogen, thereby reducing overall NO x emissions. There are currently no commercially-demonstrated combustion modification techniques for cyclone boilers which reduce NO x emissions. The emerging reburning technology offers cyclone boiler operators a promising alternative to expensive flue gas cleanup techniques for NO x emission reduction. This paper reviews baseline testing results at the Nelson Dewey Station and pilot-scale results simulating Nelson Dewey operation using pulverized coal (PC) as the reburning fuel. Outcomes of the model studies as well as the full-scale demonstration preliminary design are discussed

  2. Distribution Route Planning of Clean Coal Based on Nearest Insertion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunrui

    2018-01-01

    Clean coal technology has made some achievements for several ten years, but the research in its distribution field is very small, the distribution efficiency would directly affect the comprehensive development of clean coal technology, it is the key to improve the efficiency of distribution by planning distribution route rationally. The object of this paper was a clean coal distribution system which be built in a county. Through the surveying of the customer demand and distribution route, distribution vehicle in previous years, it was found that the vehicle deployment was only distributed by experiences, and the number of vehicles which used each day changed, this resulted a waste of transport process and an increase in energy consumption. Thus, the mathematical model was established here in order to aim at shortest path as objective function, and the distribution route was re-planned by using nearest-insertion method which been improved. The results showed that the transportation distance saved 37 km and the number of vehicles used had also been decreased from the past average of 5 to fixed 4 every day, as well the real loading of vehicles increased by 16.25% while the current distribution volume staying same. It realized the efficient distribution of clean coal, achieved the purpose of saving energy and reducing consumption.

  3. Update on the REIPPPP, clean coal, nuclear, natural gas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milazi, Dominic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available , clean coal, nuclear, natural gas The Sustainable Energy Resource Handbook Volume 6 Dominic Milazi, Dr Tobias Bischof-Niemz, Abstract Since its release in 2011, the Integrated Resource Plan (IRP 2010-2030), or IRP 2010, has been the authoritative... text setting out South Africa’s electricity plan over the next 20 years. The document indicates timelines on the roll out of key supply side options such as renewable energy, the nuclear, natural gas and coal build programmes, as well as peaking...

  4. Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasing, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co 2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO 2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co 2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R ampersand D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications, (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at

  6. Technological roadmap for production, clean and efficient use of Brazilian mineral coal: 2012 to 2035; Roadmap tecnologico para producao, uso limpo e eficiente do carvao mineral nacional: 2012 a 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has one of the largest coal reserves in the world, but it is not among the largest producers in the world. Coal in Brazil, has two main applications: use as fuel for power generation, including industrial energy use, and in the iron and steel industry for production of coke, pig iron and steel. In the updated rates of use, the coal reserves can provide coal for more than 500 years. A public policy to better take advantage of the mineral coal, with horizons in 2022 and 2035 and the guidelines and strategies proposed for the country to reach the production, clean and efficient use of the expressive quantity of the mineral national coal are presented.

  7. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Mark S.; Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  8. Clean Coal Power at Toms Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    On October 20, 1992 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-21-93MC92444 with TAMCO Power Partners to implement the Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined - Cycle Demonstration Project. The process design is proceeding as scheduled, and a draft Environmental Information Volume has been produced. The overall project schedule, however, may have to be adjusted when the Power Sales Agreement has been finalized

  9. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  10. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  11. Coal resources - issues and technological outlook for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.

    2000-01-01

    In presenting the need to consider resources, utilisation and environment as interrelated rather than separate aspects, Dr Ando puts the case for increased cooperation and mutual trust between the coal producer, Australia, and the coal consumer, Japan, to ensure not only the growth of the industry but also a rational and long term response to the greenhouse challenge. On the use side the top priority is considered to be the improvement in combustion efficiency by promoting further development of clean coal technology. To achieve these goals, parties on both sides must build programs of international cooperation that encompass the transfer of such technology

  12. Development of advanced coal cleaning process; Kodo sekitan kaishitsu gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, S [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, A; Yamashita, T [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a clean coal production process which excellently removes environmental pollutant, is low-costed, and need no particular systems for distribution of products. The result of the development was described paying attention to column flotation which is a technology to high-efficiently select particulate regions, particulate heavy media cyclone, magnetic separation, and the basic design of the process into which those above were integrated. The two-stage selection process, which is an integration of column flotation and particulate heavy media cyclone into the conventional coal preparation equipment, can produce low-ash clean coal at high separation efficiency and also suppress the rise in processing cost. This process was also effective for removal of sulfur content and trace metal elements. The use of clean coal at power plant can be effective for not only the reduction in ash treatment amount, but the aspect of boiler operation characteristics such as heat transfer efficiency of boiler furnace wall, ash related troubles, loads of electrostatic precipitator, loads of flue gas desulfurization facilities. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Absorptive capacity, knowledge circulation and coal cleaning innovation : the Netherlands in the 1930s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, M.; Tjong Tjin Tai, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Before World War II, Dutch State Mines, the national, state owned coal corporation, was confronted with major challenges, specifically that foreign coal was sold at dumping prices in the home market. At the same time, coal cleaning needed to be improved in order to offer higher quality coal against

  14. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would

  15. FY 1998 survey report. Survey to prepare a data book related to new energy technology development (Trends on the waste power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy cars, coal liquefaction/coal gasification and new energy); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy, jidosha, sekitan ekika gas ka oyobi shin energy kanren doko)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Together with the progress of technology development, policies for the introduction/promotion of new energy technology are being developed such as promotion of the commercialization development, revision of the law system, and expansion of the subsidy system for promotion. To push the introduction/promotion forward more effectively, it is necessary to arrange various kinds of data comprehensively/systematically and to make them the basic data for contribution to the spread/education. As to the six fields of the waste power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy cars, coal liquefaction, and coal gasification of the technology fields of new energy, this report collected/arranged the data made public recently in terms mainly of the following: trends of the introduction in Japan and abroad, policy/law/subsidy system in Japan and abroad, cost, system outline, basic terms, a list of the main affiliated companies and groups, and the nation's outlook for energy introduction and policies of each new energy technology in Japan and abroad, and the trends. Moreover, characteristics by field were described of the state of the commercialization/introduction of new energy technology. (NEDO)

  16. The Clean Development Mechanism and Technology Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) on the transfer of clean technology in India. The reason this study is unique is because firstly, it adopts an outcome-oriented approach to define ‘technology transfer’, which means that technology transfer occurs if firms...

  17. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey for a data book on new energy technology development. Waste power generation, solar energy utilization. geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traverse themes; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika gas ka oyobi odanteki theme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper collected and arranged data on new energy technology. As to the waste power generation, in terms of general waste, 161 places have power generation facilities, 657,000 kW in output, as of the end of FY 1996. Out of them, 100 facilities (scale of output: 555,000 kW) are selling power. In terms of industrial waste, 53 places (209,000 kW) have power generation facilities. The output will be 2 million kW in FY 2000. In relation to the solar energy utilization, the number of solar systems introduced in FY 1996 is 25,000, that of water heating appliances produced in FY 1996 is 170,000. Geothermal power of 494,000 kW and 37,000 kW was introduced for electric power industry use and private use, respectively. Clean energy vehicles have not been so much spread, but the hybrid car was put on sale in 1997. Concerning the coal liquefaction, the R and D were made at a pilot plant of NEDOL process, and operation started in 1997. As to the coal gasification, investigational study and element study on the demonstration plant are being conducted in FY 1997 and 1998, making use of the research results obtained from the existing pilot plant of coal gasification combined power generation

  18. Combustion characteristics of intensively cleaned coal fractions. Effect of mineral matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Fuente, E.; Pis, J.J. [Inst. Nacional de Carbon, Oviedo (Spain); Ivatt, S. [ETSU, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this work has been to assess the effect that intensive coal cleaning exerts on the combustion behaviour of different density-separated coal fractions. Samples with ash contents varying from 39% for the raw coal, to 2% for the cleanest fraction were obtained after density separation. Temperature-programmed combustion and isothermal gasification in air were used to measure the reactivities of the parent coal and the cleaned fractions. Coal and char reactivities increased with increasing ash content of the samples. Thermal analysis-mass spectrometry of the low-temperature ashes was also carried out in order to study the reactions of coal minerals under combustion conditions. (orig.)

  19. Coal cleaning: a viable strategy for reduced carbon emissions and improved environment in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Wei Taoyuan

    2005-01-01

    China is a dominant energy consumer in global context and current energy forecasts emphasise that China's future energy consumption also will rely heavily on coal. The coal use is the major source of the greenhouse gas CO 2 and particles causing serious health damage. This paper looks into the question if coal washing might work as low cost strategy for both CO 2 and particle emission reductions. Coal washing removes dirt and rock from raw coal, resulting in a coal product with higher thermal energy and less air pollutants. Coal cleaning capacity has so far not been developed in line with the market potential. In this paper an emerging market for cleaned coal is studied within a CGE model for China. The macro approach catches the repercussions of coal cleaning through increased energy efficiency, lower coal transportation costs and crowding out effect of investments in coal washing plants. Coal cleaning stimulates economic growth and reduces particle emissions, but total energy use, coal use and CO 2 emissions increase through a rebound effect supported by the vast reserve of underemployed labourers. A carbon tax on fossil fuel combustion has a limited effect on total emissions. The reason is a coal leakage to tax exempted processing industries

  20. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  1. Land use and coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Arid Lands Ecology Reserve and the Hanford National Environmental Research Park were established to promote the use of the Hanford Site for ecological research, especially studies related to energy technologies and their potential for environmental impacts. Coal is currently regarded as the most dependable interim source of energy in the United States. To meet expected demands, coal needs to be mined in large quantities and may be mined predominantly in locations of sparse precipitation. Often the most economical way to extract coal is through surface mining. It is expected that following coal extraction the pits will be filled with overburden, graded to approximate original contour, native topsoil applied to prescribed depths and planted with climatically adapted herbs, shrubs or trees. Because primary productivity in dry regions is characteristically low, it is realistic to expect, if the above procedure is followed, that the revegetated surfaces will also produce little phytomass in the years following restoration. Appropriate data are needed for accurate estimation of the economic feasibility of a particular restoration practice or its alternative. Research programs are discussed briefly

  2. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  3. Clean coal technologies. The capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2} - Panorama 2008; Les technologies du charbon propre. Captage et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2} - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    There is no longer any doubt about the connection between carbon dioxide emissions of human origin and global warming. Nearly 40% of world CO{sub 2} emissions are generated by the electricity production sector, in which the combustion of coal - developing at a roaring pace, especially in China - accounts for a good proportion of the total. At a time when the reduction of greenhouse gases has become an international priority, this growth is a problem. Unless CO{sub 2} capture and storage technologies are implemented, it will be very difficult to contain global warming.

  4. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  5. Low-grade coals: a review of some prospective upgrading technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-07-15

    There is a growing need of using low-grade coals because of higher quest for power generation. In the present carbon-constrained environment, there is a need of upgrading these coals in terms of moisture, ash, and/or other trace elements. The current paper reviews technologies used mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal and related harmful constituents, such as sulfur and mercury. The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. Drying technologies consist of both evaporative and non-evaporative (dewatering) types. The conventional coal cleaning used density separation in water medium. However, with water being a very important resource, conservation of water is pushing toward the development of dry cleaning of coal. There are also highly advanced coal-cleaning technologies that produce ultra-clean coals and produce coals with less than 0.1% of ash. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash, and other pollutant components. It also attempts to present the current status of the technologies in terms of development toward commercialization and highlights on problems encountered. It is obvious that still the upgrading goal has not been realized adequately. It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. 68 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/1996 - 3/31/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous

  7. 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology; Dai 6 kai sekitan riyo gijutsu kaigi koenshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The paper compiled the papers presented in the 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology held in September 1996. With relation to the fluidized bed boiler, reported were Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant and Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Regarding the coal reformation, Development of advanced coal cleaning process, Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process, etc. Concerning the combustion technology, Study of the O2/CO2 combustion technology, Development of pressurized coal partial combustor, etc. About the CWM, Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology, Technique of CWM distribution system, etc. Relating to the coal ash, Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash, Employment of fluidized bed ash as a basecourse material, On-site verification trials using fly ash for reclamation behind bulkheads, Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash, Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation, Practical use technology of coal ash (POZ-O-TEC), etc

  8. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31

    fiber optic sensors uses sol-gel derived porous silica materials doped with nanometer particles of noble metals in the form of fiber or coating for sensing trace H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and HCl in gas samples at for applications ambient temperature. The third classes of fiber optic sensors use sol-gel derived semiconductor metal oxide coating on the surface of silica optical fiber as transducers for selectively sensing H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO at high temperature. In addition, optical fiber temperature sensors use the fluorescence signal of rare-earth metal ions doped porous silica optical fiber or the optical absorption signal of thermochromic metal oxide materials coated on the surface of silica optical fibers have also been developed for monitoring gas temperature of corrosive gas. Based on the results obtained from this project, the principle of fiber optic sensor techniques for monitoring matrix gas components as well as trace components of coal gasification derived syngas has been established. Prototype sensors for sensing trace ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in gasification derived syngas have been built up in our laboratory and have been tested using gas samples with matrix gas composition similar to that of gasification derived fuel gas. Test results illustrated the feasibility of these sensors for applications in IGCC processes.

  9. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  10. Predicting the market penetration of the next generation of coal-fired technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, M.K.; McCall, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses what role clean coal-fired technology will have in future generating capacity based on availability and prices of coal and natural gas, the nuclear option, environmental regulations, limitations of current air pollution control technologies, and economics. The topics of the paper include the need for new electric generating capacity, why coal must remain a source of energy for generating electricity, technology effectiveness and market penetration analysis methodologies, coal-fired technology economic and technical assumptions, cost estimates, and high and low growth scenarios

  11. Disordering fantasies of coal and technology: Carbon capture and storage in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Jonathan Paul

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways that continued use of coal is justified, and compensated for, is through fantasies of technology. This paper explores the politics of 'Carbon Capture and Storage' (CCS) technologies in Australia. These technologies involve capturing CO 2 emissions, usually to store them 'safely' underground in a process called 'geo-sequestration'. In Australia the idea of 'clean coal' has been heavily promoted, and is a major part of CO 2 emissions reduction plans, despite the technological difficulties, the lack of large scale working prototypes, the lack of coal company investment in such research, and the current difficulties in detecting leaks. This paper investigates the ways that the politics of 'clean coal' have functioned as psycho-social defence mechanisms, to prolong coal usage, assuage political discomfort and anxiety, and increase the systemic disturbance produced by coal power. - Highlights: • Clean coal and geological sequestration is part of Australian climate policy. • Governments have offered much to carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects. • Coal, and coal power, industries have been relatively uninterested. • Progress with CCS is problematic and has not lived up to expectations. • CCS defends against tackling the connection between coal and climate.

  12. Advanced control - technologies for suppressing harmful emission in lignitic coal-fired power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Hai, S.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The production of sufficient amount of indigenous energy is a prerequisite for the prosperity of a nation. Pakistan's energy demand far exceeds its indigenous supplies. A cursory look at the energy situation in Pakistan reveals that there is an urgent need for the development of its energy resources. In this regard, coal can play a key role if its problems of high-sulfur and high ash can be rectified through the adoption adaptation of advanced technologies, like (I) clean coal technologies, and (II) control technologies. A review on clean coal technologies for utilization of lignitic coals has already been published and the present article describes the effect of harmful emissions from the combustion of high sulfur coals, like the ones found in Pakistan and their control through advanced control technologies, to make a significant contribution in the total energy economics of Pakistan. (author)

  13. Proceedings of the Clean and Efficient Use of Fossil Energy for Power Generation in Thailand. The Joint Eighth APEC Clean Fossil Energy Technical Seminar and the Seventh APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-30

    The convention named above held jointly by the two seminars also named above took place in Bangkok, Thailand, in the period October 30 through November 3. Open remarks were delivered by Mr. Piromsakdi Laparojkit, Secretary General of National Energy Policy Council, Thailand; Mr. Yoshito Yoshimura, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan; Mr. Paul Toghe, Embassy of Australia in Bangkok; and Mr. Robert Gee, Department of Energy, U.S.A. There were ten technical sessions, in which presentations were made and discussion was held over coal in the APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) economy, important role of coal and natural gas in developing economies, coal and environmental situation in Thailand, coal fired power plant related environmental issues, commercially available CCTs (clean coal technologies) in the APEC region, emerging technologies for reducing GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, clean fuels in the APEC region, growing importance of IPPs (independent power producers) in the APEC region, cooperation among APEC economies, and the like. (NEDO)

  14. Research report of FY 1997 on the clean coal technology promotion project and region model survey. Measures for environmental load reduction: feasibility survey on the environmental load reduction-type utilization Energy Center (interim report); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa `kankyo fuka teigen taisaku: kankyo fuka teigengata sekitan riyo energy center feasibility chosa` chosa hokokusho (chukan hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey has given an eye to the coal that it can be easily burnt together with combustible waste and supplements unstable generation of waste. Thus, the establishment of the Energy Center at the place where infrastructure of coal will be arranged, a lot of combustible waste will be expected to generate and a considerable aniybt if energy will be used, has been planned, and this survey is intended to study the scale of Energy Center, its economy and the problems to be solved. In power plant project using RDF for above-mentioned local governments, the construction of power plant and the renewal time of the existing incinerator to RDF facility can be planned separately in this system. The power plant will be economically constructed and the amount of coal can be decreased in accordance with increased RDF to meet wide range of refuse treatment. In FY 1997, the actual situation of the waste treatment and the infrastructure of coal supply was surveyed, and selection of the place suitable for the Energy Center and its scale was studied. 69 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Manufacturing of ashless coal by using solvent de-ashing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang-Do Kim; Kwang-Jae Woo; Soon-Kwan Jeong; Young-Jun Rhim; Si-Huyn Lee [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Republic of Korea). Clean Energy Research Center

    2007-07-01

    Maintenance of a high oil value has an influence to energy crisis and national security in South Korea which does not have energy resources. The coals which have characterized by the abundant reserves and the inexpensive price can be said to be the alternative energy source. Hyper-coal process, which has been developed in Japan since 1999, is a new effective process to produce a clean coal by using the solvent de-ashing technology. When coal is extracted with organic solvent, only the organic portion of coal is dissolved in the solvents. That is possible to apply the low rank coal. This study was performed to produce ashless coal by using the solvent de-ashing technology. The experiment was conducted in the batch(or semi-batch) type reactor with two solvents such as NMP(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone) and 1-MN(1-methylnaphthalene) and various coals such as Kideko coal, Roto South coal and Sunhwa coal at 200-400{sup o}C. As a result of the test, extraction yield of coals was more than 60% on daf. Ash concentration which contains the extracted coal was 0.11-1.0wt%. The heat value was increased from 5,400 kcal/kg to 7,920 kcal/kg in the Roto South coal. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Technological and economic aspects of coal biodesulfurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J

    1998-01-01

    The sulfur found in coal is either part of the molecular coal structure (organically bound sulfur), is contained in minerals such as pyrite (FeS2), or occurs in minor quantities in the form of sulfate and elemental sulfur. When pyrite crystals are finely distributed within the coal matrix, mechanical cleaning can only remove part of the pyrite. It can, however, be removed by microbial action requiring only mild conditions. The process involves simple equipment, almost no chemicals, but relatively long reaction times, and treatment of iron sulfate containing process water. Different process configurations are possible, depending on the coal particle size. Coal with particle sizes of less than 0.5 mm is preferably desulfurised in slurry reactors, while lump coal (> 0.5 mm) should be treated in heaps. Investment and operating costs are estimated for different process configurations on an industrial scale. Concerning the organically bound sulfur in coal there is up to now no promising biochemical pathway for the degradation and/or desulfurisation of such compounds.

  17. Developing new technology of coal coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkin, L.I.; Nefedov, P.Ya.

    1981-03-01

    This paper characterizes types of coke (grain size, compression strength, abrasion, porosity) used by: blast furnaces, shaft furnaces, ferroalloys and phosphorus production, and ore agglomeration. Development of formed metallurgical coke production on the basis of technologies worked out by the Eastern Research Scientific Institute for Coal Chemistry is analyzed. The following phases in the investigations are stressed: optimization of coal blends (increasing proportion of coals with poor caking properties, pressing briquets, carbonization, temperature distribution and temperature control, using heat emitted by hot coke for coal preheating (heat consumption of coking is reduced to 200 kcal/kg). On the basis of technology developed and tested by VUKhIN formed coke consisting of 60% G6 coal and 40% 2SS coal has been produced. Using the coke in blast furnaces increases furnace capacity by 5% and reduces coke consumption in a furnace by 2.6%. It is suggested that wide use of the proposed technology of formed metallurgical coke production in the Kuzbass (using coals with poor caking properties from surface mines) would increase coke production of the region to 50 Mt for a year. technology of producing formed foundry coke from: 80 to 86% anthracites, semianthracites and coals with poor caking properties, 5 to 10% coking coal, and 8% binder is evaluated. Formed foundry coke produced from the blend reduces coke consumption in a foundry by 25 to 30% and increases cast iron temperature by 20 to 50/sup 0/C. Technologies of producing coke for phosphorus industry by continuous coking of coals difficult to coke in vertical coke ovens and production of coke for ore agglomeration are also discussed. (In Russian)

  18. Technological perspectives of clean vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanico, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The main characteristics of the different technologies of available commercially cars were studied (now or in the halfway through time limit) of smaller contaminants gases generation, with the objective to carry out a comparative evaluation of their competitiveness and feasibilities of real insertion.They were studied thus the self-electric 'pure' and hybrid, from motors of conventional combustion and of cells of fuels with reformers; as well as them fed by hydrogen, utilized in motors of combustion and in direct conversion fuels cells. It is appreciated that the cars hibridos conventional present large advantages that are permitting their effective insertion in the market. Of the remainders, only the conventional motor of hydrogen does not present technological obstacles and has real potentiality in the medium time limit.The electric cars have strong limitations owed al poor performance of the batteries set against the liquid fuels, that have shown do not they permit him to be inserted in the real market in spite of the enormous efforts carried out.The fuel cells continue being very costly. Being that the technologies selected for electric vehicles (of polimer membrane) use essentially hydrogen as fuel, which (besides other disadvantages) has a prohibitive cost set against the hydrocarbons, their possibility of massive insertion is little probable, still low environmental incentives.There are several reasons to think that the EVs with fuel cells of hydrogen (PEM) can run the same luck that the EVs of batteries.The use of internal converters of gasoline or the cells of metanol direct appear with an interesting horizon, although they will need still strong investments in basic investigations associates to be competitive.The hydrogen is a vector energy, not a resource, and being its main producing market and consumer the industry of the petroleum, very with difficulty this return competitive before an increase in the oil price.Their use in vehicles way the adaptation

  19. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb).

  20. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P.

    1995-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb)

  1. Steam vacuum cleaning. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The baseline technology currently used for washing debris is a high-pressure water cleaning (HPWC) system. The system used at the FEMP is the Hotsy reg-sign Model 550B HPWC. Although the HPWC technology has functioned satisfactorily, improvements are being sought in areas related to reduced liquid waste volume, increased productivity, increased washing effectiveness, and decreased airborne contamination. An innovative technology that offers potential improvements in these areas is a steam vacuum cleaning (SVC) system that integrates high-pressure steam cleaning with a vacuum recovery sub-system that simultaneously collects dislodged contaminants thereby reducing airborne contamination. The SVC system selected for demonstration at the FEMP was the Kelly trademark Decontamination System shown. This report provides comparative performance and cost analyses between the Hotsy HPWC system and the Kelly Decontamination System. Both technologies were demonstrated at the FEMP site located at Fernald, Ohio from July 29, 1996 through August 15, 1996. The demonstrations were conducted at the FEMP Plant 1 as part of the LSTD project sponsored by the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the US DOE's Office of Science and Technology

  2. Development of coal hydro gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Nomura, Kazuo; Asaoka, Yoshikiyo; Kato, Shojiro; Seo, Tomoyuki

    1997-01-01

    Taking a potential future decrease in natural gas supply into consideration, we are looking for a way to secure a stable supply of high quality substitute natural gas made from coal (which occurs abundantly throughout the world) in large volumes at low cost. We are working towards our goal of commercializing coal hydro gasification technology in the 2010's and have started developing elemental technology from FY, 1996 as a part of the governmental new energy program. (au)

  3. New air cleaning technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Kitani, S.; Matsui, H.; Ikezawa, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Application of the new techniques and improvements in air cleaning systems have been made to reduce release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities based on the ALARA concept. For example, the reduction of release of radioactive gaseous effluents has been made by installation of a charcoal gas hold-up system and a clean steam supply system for a turbine gland seal in a BWR and of a gas decay tank system in a PWR. In connection with the effort for reduction of releases in plants, research and development on air cleaning technology have also been made. Some activities mentioned in the present paper are: removal of particulates, airborne radioiodine, noble gases and tritium; penetration characteristics of submicron DOP aerosol for HEPA filters; radioiodine removal from air exhausts; and operational performance of the incineration plants using ceramic filters

  4. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulatov, Igor; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO 2 reduction.

  5. Underground coal gasification technology impact on coal reserves in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Rosso Murillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In situ coal gasification technology (Underground Coal Gasification–UCG– is an alternative to the traditional exploitation, due to it allows to reach the today’s inaccessible coal reserves’ recovery, to conventional mining technologies. In this article I answer the question on how the today’s reserves available volume, can be increased, given the possibility to exploit further and better the same resources. Mining is an important wealth resource in Colombia as a contributor to the national GDP. According with the Energy Ministry (Ministerio de Minas y Energía [1] mining has been around 5% of total GDP in the last years. This is a significant fact due to the existence of a considerable volume of reserves not accounted for (proved reserves at year 2010 were 6.700 million of tons. Source: INGEOMINAS and UPME, and the coal future role’s prospect, in the world energy production.

  6. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  7. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  8. Technology transfer in the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Haake, F.; Van der Linden, N.H.

    2007-01-01

    Technology transfer is often mentioned as an ancillary benefit of the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), but this claim has never been researched or substantiated. The question of technology transfer is important from two perspectives: for host countries, whether the CDM provides a corridor for foreign, climate-friendly technologies and investment, and for industrialised countries as it provides export potential for climate-friendly technologies developed as a consequence of stringent greenhouse gas targets. In order to better understand whether technology transfer from the EU and elsewhere is occurring through the CDM, and what is the value of the associated foreign investment, this paper examines technology transfer in the 63 CDM projects that were registered on January 1st, 2006. Technology originates from outside the host country in almost 50% of the evaluated projects. In the projects in which the technology originates from outside the host country, 80% use technology from the European Union. Technologies used in non-CO2 greenhouse gas and wind energy projects, and a substantial share of the hydropower projects, use technology from outside the host country, but biogas, agricultural and biomass projects mainly use local technology. The associated investment value with the CDM projects that transferred technology is estimated to be around 470 million Euros, with about 390 coming from the EU. As the non-CO2 greenhouse gas projects had very low capital costs, the investment value was mostly in the more capital-intensive wind energy and hydropower projects

  9. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  10. Alternative Solvents and Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Hintze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning solvents for aerospace components and oxygen fuel systems, including currently used Vertrel-MCA, have a negative environmental legacy, high global warming potential, and have polluted cleaning sites. Thus, alternative solvents and technologies are being investigated with the aim of achieving precision contamination levels of less than 1 mg/sq ft. The technologies being evaluated are ultrasonic bath cleaning, plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide cleaning.

  11. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Clean coal technology: gasification of South African coals - IFSA 2008

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Engelbrecht_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 109 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Engelbrecht_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 /var...

  13. Clean utilization of low-rank coals for low-cost power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondreal, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Despite the unique utilization problems of low-rank coals, the ten US steam electric plants having the lowest operating cost in 1990 were all fueled on either lignite or subbituminous coal. Ash deposition problems, which have been a major barrier to sustaining high load on US boilers burning high-sodium low-rank coals, have been substantially reduced by improvements in coal selection, boiler design, on-line cleaning, operating conditions, and additives. Advantages of low-rank coals in advanced systems are their noncaking behavior when heated, their high reactivity allowing more complete reaction at lower temperatures, and the low sulfur content of selected deposits. The principal barrier issues are the high-temperature behavior of ash and volatile alkali derived from the coal-bound sodium found in some low-rank coals. Successful upgrading of low-rank coals requires that the product be both stable and suitable for end use in conventional and advanced systems. Coal-water fuel produced by hydrothermal processing of high-moisture low-rank coal meets these criteria, whereas most dry products from drying or carbonizing in hot gas tend to create dust and spontaneous ignition problems unless coated, agglomerated, briquetted, or afforded special handling

  14. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin

    2000-05-01

    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  15. Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 clean coal project at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, D.P. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates completed a two year demonstration of its capabilities in late 1994 under both high- and low-particulate loading conditions. This $43 million demonstration was co-funded by Southern Company, the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE under the auspices of the US Department of Energy`s Round II Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) program. The focus of the Yates Project was to demonstrate several cost-saving modifications to Chiyoda`s already efficient CT-121 process. These modifications included: the extensive use of fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) in the construction of the scrubber vessel and other associated vessels, the elimination of flue gas reheat through the use of an FRP wet chimney, and reliable operation without a spare absorber module. This paper focuses on the testing results from the last trimester of the second phase of testing (high-ash loading). Specifically, operation under elevated ash loading conditions, the effects of low- and high-sulfur coal, air toxics verification testing results and unexpected improvements in byproduct gypsum quality are discussed.

  16. Acid leaching of coal: to produce clean fuels from Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seferinoglu, Meryem [Mineral Research and Exploration Directorate (Turkey)], email: meryem_seferinoglu66@yahoo.com; Duzenli, Derya [Ankara Central Laboratory (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing concerns about the environment, energy producers and governments are looking at developing clean energy sources. However, Turkey has limited clean energy resources and is using low grade coal which has high sulphur content as an alternative energy source. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of generating clean fuel from Edirne Lignite and to get a better understanding of chemical mechanisms involved in coal leaching with hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions. Leaching was conducted on Edirne Lignite with HF solution at ambient temperature and the effects of parameters such as reaction time and concentration of acid solutions on the process were evaluated. The optimum conditions were found and it was shown that ash levels can be reduced from 28.9% to 10.5% and the calorific value increased by 500kcal/kg with the HF leaching method. This study demonstrated that the production of clean fuel from high sulphur lignite is possible.

  17. Developing densification technology to facilitate briquetting of coal fines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, R. [Ministry of Metallurgy (China). Anshan Thermal Energy Research Institute

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces the densification technology in coal processing and the research of increasing the caking power of coal and its application. By exploiting the inherent caking property of coal, it is hoped to advance the briquetting technology so that coal fines is converted into high quality coke or briquette. This will produce very good social, economical and environmental benefit. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fletcher, Thomas [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pugmire, Ronald [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, Philip [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sutherland, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, Jeremy [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hunsacker, Isaac [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Li, Suhui [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Puntai, Naveen [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reid, Charles [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Schurtz, Randy [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-10-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical (Subtask 4.4) and physical (Subtask 4.5) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation.

  19. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O. [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  20. Promoting clean energy technology entrepreneurship: The role of external context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malen, Joel; Marcus, Alfred A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how political, social and economic factors influence clean energy technology entrepreneurship (CETE). Government policies supporting clean energy technology development and the development of markets for clean energy create opportunities for CETE. However, the extent to which such opportunities lead to the emergence of new clean energy businesses depends on a favorable external context promoting CETE. This study employs a novel dataset combining indicators of the policy and social context of CETE with information on clean energy technology startup firms in the USA to provide empirical evidence that technological and market conditions supporting clean energy induce more extensive CETE under contexts where local attention to clean energy issues and successful firms commercializing clean energy technologies are more prominent. By establishing that CETE is contingent upon a supportive local environment as well as technology and market opportunities, the study holds relevance for policy makers and clean energy technology firms. - Highlights: • Influence of political, social and economic factors on clean energy technology entrepreneurship (CETE). • CETE more prominent with clean energy technology availability. • Greater when local attention interacts with technology availability and market opportunities. • Greater when local firms successfully commercialize technologies. • Novel dataset and Arellano-Bond dynamic panel estimation.

  1. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC): Providing Analysis and Insights on Clean Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicholi S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-BASED TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Sarma V. Pisupati; Chunshan Song; Ronald S. Wasco; Ronald T. Wincek; Xiaochun Xu; Alan W. Scaroni; Richard Hogg; Subhash Chander; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Mark S. Klima; Peter T. Luckie; Adam Rose; Richard L. Gordon; Jeffrey Lazo; A. Michael Schaal

    2004-01-30

    The third phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for US Department of Defense (DOD) facilities was completed. The objectives of the project were to: decrease DOD's dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase III activities were focused on evaluating deeply-cleaned coals as fuels for industrial boilers and investigating emissions control strategies for providing ultra-low emissions when firing coal-based fuels. This was addressed by performing coal beneficiation and preparation studies, and bench- to demonstration-scale emissions reduction studies. In addition, economic studies were conducted focused on determining cost and market penetration, selection of incentives, and regional economic impacts of coal-based technologies.

  3. Issue of fossil fuel resources and coal technology strategy for the 21st century - toward the globalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K. [Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The President of the Japan Coal Energy Centre gives an outlook on coal demand worldwide and particularly in Asia as a whole and Japan, and outlines the present day environmental concerns concerning coal. World reserves of coal, petroleum, natural gas and uranium are compared. The huge resources of coal may not be realized due to difficulty of development in both technical and economic terms. The 'triangle strategy' to resolve problems of supply and the environment is outlined - this considers the relationship between resources (supply) and utilization (demand); between resources and environment; and between utilization and environment. Technical tasks to tackle to exploit coal are listed. These include: advance in technology for resource exploration; improvement in refining and storing low-grade coal; establishing a highly efficient mining system; promoting of clean coal technology; recovery of coalbed methane; and CO{sub 2} fixation. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  5. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  6. Surface cleaning in thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    A ''clean surface'' is one that contains no significant amounts of undesirable material. This paper discusses the types and origin of various contaminants. Since cleaning is often equated with adhesion, the mechanisms of adhesion to oxide, metal, and organic surfaces are reviewed and cleaning processes for these surfaces are outlined. Techniques for monitoring surface cleaning are presented, and the importance of storage of clean surfaces is discussed. An extensive bibliography is given. 4 figs., 89 references

  7. CO2 reduction potential of future coal gasification based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Van Veen, H.M.

    1992-03-01

    Assessment studies are carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with gas turbines (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) without and with CO 2 -removal. System elements include coal gasification, high-temperature gas-cleaning, molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines, CO shift, membrane separation, CO 2 recovery and a bottoming cycle. Various system configurations are evaluated on the basis of thermodynamic computations. The energy balances of the various system configurations clearly indicate that integrated coal gasification MCFC power plants (IGMCFC) with CO 2 removal have high efficiencies (42-47% LHV) compared to IGCC power plants with CO 2 -removal (33-38% LHV) and that the CO 2 -removal is simplified due to the specific properties of the molten carbonate fuel cells. IGMCFC is therefore an option with future prospective in the light of clean coal technologies for power generation with high energy efficiencies and low emissions. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  8. Mesoporous materials for clean energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Noemi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana M; Serrano, Elena; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; García-Martínez, Javier

    2014-11-21

    Alternative energy technologies are greatly hindered by significant limitations in materials science. From low activity to poor stability, and from mineral scarcity to high cost, the current materials are not able to cope with the significant challenges of clean energy technologies. However, recent advances in the preparation of nanomaterials, porous solids, and nanostructured solids are providing hope in the race for a better, cleaner energy production. The present contribution critically reviews the development and role of mesoporosity in a wide range of technologies, as this provides for critical improvements in accessibility, the dispersion of the active phase and a higher surface area. Relevant examples of the development of mesoporosity by a wide range of techniques are provided, including the preparation of hierarchical structures with pore systems in different scale ranges. Mesoporosity plays a significant role in catalysis, especially in the most challenging processes where bulky molecules, like those obtained from biomass or highly unreactive species, such as CO2 should be transformed into most valuable products. Furthermore, mesoporous materials also play a significant role as electrodes in fuel and solar cells and in thermoelectric devices, technologies which are benefiting from improved accessibility and a better dispersion of materials with controlled porosity.

  9. Carbon capture from coal fired power plant using pressurized fluid bed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dennis; Christensen, Tor

    2010-09-15

    This presentation will discuss the use of a pressurized fluid bed boiler system and specialized carbon capture system to burn coal and generagte clean electricity. The paper will present the existing boiler and carbon capture technology and present economics, thermal performance and emissions reduction for a 100Mw module.

  10. Development of the ultra-clean dry cleanup process for coal-based syngases: pilot-scale evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. Slimane; P.V. Bush; J.L. Aderhold, Jr.; B.G. Bryan; R.A. Newby; D. A. Horazak; S.C. Jain [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports on a recent successful pilot-scale evaluation of the Ultra-Clean Process performance at a 10-ton/day coal gasifier facility. In these tests, carbonaceous feedstocks were gasified, using GTI's fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasification technology, to generate syngas. The raw syngas was then conditioned and fed to the UCP test section for deep cleaning to meet very stringent cleaning requirements for chemical feedstocks or liquid-fuel synthesis applications, or for fuel-cell power generation. Fine particle sorbents for sulfur, halide, and mercury removal were injected into the syngas upstream of two stages of particulate controlled devices, 'barrier filter-reactors', coupling efficient particle capture with an effective entrained and filter cake reaction environment for very effective multiple contaminant removal. The goal of the test program was to confirm sorbent selection, filter-reactor operating parameters and sorbent-to-contaminant ratios, which were previously determined in the laboratory to have potential to reduce contaminant concentrations to very low levels. The pilot-scale data developed are being used to update conceptual evaluations, which have shown the technical feasibility, cost effectiveness and commercial merit for the Ultra-Clean Process compared to conventional, Rectisol-based syngas cleaning. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  12. Investigation of the remaining major and trace elements in clean coal generated by organic solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Wang; Chunqi Li; Kinya Sakanishi; Tetsuya Nakazato; Hiroaki Tao; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takayuki Takarada; Ikuo Saito [National Institute Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2005-09-01

    A sub-bituminous Wyodak coal (WD coal) and a bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal (IL coal) were thermally extracted with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) to produce clean extract. A mild pretreatment with acetic acid was also carried out. Major and trace inorganic elements in the raw coals and resultant extracts were determined by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS), and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). It was found that the extraction with 1-MN resulted in 73-100% reductions in the concentration of Li, Be, V, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Ba, Hg, and Pb. The extraction with NMP yielded more extract than that with 1-MN, but it retained more organically associated major and trace metals in the extracts. In the extraction of WD coal with NMP, the acid pretreatment not only significantly enhanced the extraction yield but also significantly reduced the concentrations of alkaline earth elements such as Be, Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba in the extract. In addition, the modes of occurrence of trace elements in the coals were discussed according to their extraction behaviors. 30 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. The economic case for industrial application of low-rank coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, W.

    1991-01-01

    The World Coal Institute estimates coal should overtake oil as the world's largest source of primary energy by the turn of the century. Current world coal production of 3.6 billion tons in 1990 is predicted to rise to 4 billion tons by the year 2000. It is conceded that a major environmental problem with burning coal is the so-called greenhouse effect. The question is how do you use the new technologies that have been developed which now allow coal to be burned with minimum damage to the environment. Despite their technical merits, acceptance of these new technologies is slow because they appear uncompetitive when compared with historic energy costs. Unless economic comparisons include some form of environmental evaluation, this issue will continue to be a barrier to progress. To avoid stagnation and provide the necessary incentive for implementing badly needed change, structural changes in energy economics need to be made which take into account the environmental cost element of these emerging new technologies. The paper discusses coal trade and quality and then describes the three main areas of development of clean coal technologies: coal preparation, combustion, and flue gas treatment

  14. Element geochemistry and cleaning potential of the No. 11 coal seam from Antaibao mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.F.; Qin, Y.; Song, D.Y.; Sang, S.X.; Jiang, B.; Zhu, Y.M.; Fu, X.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College for Resources & Geoscience

    2005-12-15

    Based on the analyses of sulfur and 41 other elements in 8 channel samples of the No. 11 coal seam from Antaibao surface mine, Shanxi, China and 4 samples from the coal preparation plant of this mine, the distribution of the elements in the seam profile, their geochemical partitioning behavior during the coal cleaning and the genetic relationships between the both are studied. The coal-forming environment was probably invaded by sea water during the post-stage of peatification, which results in the fact that the contents of As, Fe, S, etc. associated closely with sea water tend to increase toward the top of the seam. These elements studied are dominantly associated with kaolinite, pyrite, illite, montmorillonite, etc., of which the As, Pb, Mn, Cs, Co, Ni, etc. are mainly associated with sulfides, the Mo, V, Nb, Hf, REEs, Ta etc. mainly with kaolinite, the Mg, Al etc. mainly with epigenetic montmorillonite, and the Rb, Cr, Ba, Cu, K, Hg, etc. mainly with epigenetic illite. The physical coal cleaning is not only effective in the removal of ash and sulfur, but also in reducing the concentration of most major and trace elements. The elements Be, U, Sb, W, Br, Se, P, etc. are largely or partly organically bound showing a relatively low removability, while the removability of the other elements studied is more than 20%, of which the Mg, Mn, Hg, Fe, As, K, AI, Cs, and Cr associated mostly with the coarser or epigenetic minerals show a higher removability than that of ash. The distribution of the elements in the seam profile controls their partitioning behavior to a great degree during the coal cleaning processes.

  15. Tapping global expertise in coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1986-01-01

    The basic technology of fossil-fuel-fired electricity generation has remained virtually the same for 30 years. To encourage the development of new coal technology for US utilities, EPRI has signed contracts with power equipment manufacturers from Europe, Japan and the USA. These firms will work cooperatively to demonstrate improved designs, materials and procedures in existing commercial plants and large-scale laboratory facilities. The manufacturers will focus on boilers, turbines, balance-of-plant components and retrofit applications, and will validate individual components in separate installations and develop equipment specifications. EPRI and its contractors will spend approximately 25 million dollars over the next 5 years on developing improved coal-fired plant. (6 refs.)

  16. Metamorphosis of the coal sector. From dirty to clean?; Metamorfose van de kolensector. Van vies naar schoon?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, S.

    2008-05-15

    The author surveys the extreme make-over of the coal industry: from dirty to clean. To many of us, coal might seem the energy source of the past. In many countries of Western Europe, coal mines were closed decades ago and in most cases gas has replaced coal for heating. However, the worldwide use of coal has never been as high as it is today and coal consumption is expected to increase by 70% until 2030. This increase has mainly to do with the rapid growth of energy consumption in China and India. There are, however, environmental problems related to coal, the most prominent being the very high CO2 emissions, causing climate change. Capturing CO2 and burying it in geological formation underground, a technology called Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), could potentially alleviate the CO2 burden that is inevitably related to coal. However, CCS is not yet a proven method and there are many uncertainties to be taken away. This leaves a gap between the international and European policy goals of decreasing global CO2 emissions and the emissions caused by coal. In fact, it shows the necessity of reaching an international climate agreement (post Kyoto) and of creating a fair efforts sharing balance between the industrialized and developing countries. [Dutch] De auteur geeft een overzicht van de extreme veranderingen in de steenkoolindustrie om deze schoner te laten produceren. Voor velen van ons lijken kolen misschien de energiebron van het verleden. In veel landen van West-Europa, werden kolenmijnen tientallen jaren geleden gesloten en in de meeste gevallen heeft aardgas steenkool vervangen voor verwarming. Echter, het wereldwijde gebruik van steenkool is nog nooit zo hoog geweest als nu en het verbruik van steenkool zal naar verwachting met 70% stijgen tot 2030. Deze stijging heeft vooral te maken met de snelle groei van het energieverbruik in China en India. Er zijn echter milieuproblemen in verband met steenkool, waarvan de meest prominente de zeer hoge CO2-uitstoot

  17. Pollution control technologies applied to coal-fired power plant operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Rozpondek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Burning of fossil fuels is the major source of energy in today's global economy with over one-third of the world's powergeneration derived from coal combustion. Although coal has been a reliable, abundant, and relatively inexpensive fuel source for mostof the 20th century, its future in electric power generation is under increasing pressure as environmental regulations become morestringent worldwide. Current pollution control technologies for combustion exhaust gas generally treat the release of regulatedpollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter as three separate problems instead of as parts of one problem. Newand improved technologies have greatly reduced the emissions produced per ton of burning coal. The term “Clean Coal CombustionTechnology” applies generically to a range of technologies designed to greatly reduce the emissions from coal-fired power plants.The wet methods of desulfurization at present are the widest applied technology in professional energetics. This method is economicand gives good final results but a future for clean technologies is the biomass. Power from biomass is a proven commercial optionof the electricity generation in the World. An increasing number of power marketers are starting to offer environmentally friendlyelectricity, including biomass power, in response to the consumer demand and regulatory requirements.

  18. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L. [AMAX R& D Center/ENTECH Global Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  19. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Tai-Shung; Li, Xue; Ong, Rui Chin; Ge, Qingchun; Wang, Honglei; Han, Gang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Killingholme clean coal/carbon capture and storage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periselneris, J.; Atherton, D.; Read, A. [E.ON UK, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), is seen as one of the key bridging technologies in the deployment of CCS. To this effect, E.ON UK is developing plans for a large scale demonstration unit based on IGCC technology to be sited on the East coast of England. The provisional location is close to E.ON's existing CCGT at Killingholme in Lincolnshire. This paper details E.ON UK's main drivers and goals and the development of the plant itself. 8 figs.

  2. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1997--September 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1998-01-06

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included performing pilot-scale air toxics (i.e., trace elements and volatile organic compounds) testing and evaluating a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was installed on the demonstration boiler. An economic analysis was conducted which investigated the benefits of decreased dependence on imported oil by using new coal combustion technologies. Work related to coal preparation and utilization was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, and surface-based separation processes. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included receiving three cleaned coals from Cyprus-Amax.

  3. Underground coal mining technology - the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lama, R P [Kembla Coal and Coke Pty Limited, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    1989-01-01

    Discusses development of underground coal mining in Australia in the last four decades. The following aspects are reviewed: technology for underground mining (longwall mining, unidirectional cutting, bidirectional cutting, operation of more than one shearer on a working face, optimum dimensions of longwall blocks), longwall productivity (productivity increase will depend on increasing the availability factor of equipment, reducing failures due to human errors, organizational models, improving on-site decision making, improving monitoring, maintenance, planning and scheduling, concept of 'Transparent Mine'), roadway development systems (types of heading machines, standard systems for mine drivage and roof bolting and their productivity), size of coal mines, man and material transport systems (20,000-30,000 t/d from a single longwall face, mine shafts with a diameter 9-10 m), mine layout design (layout of longwall blocks, main intakes and returns situated in rock layers), mine environmental systems (ventilation systems, gas control), management, training and interpersonal relationships. Future coal mines will be developed with an integral capacity of 8-10 Mt/a from a single longwall operation with main development arteries placed in rocks. Development of gate roadways will require novel solutions with continuous cutting, loading and bolting. Information technology, with the concept of 'transparent mine', will form the backbone of decision making.

  4. Steam coal processing technology: handling, high-order processing, COM, meth-coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, H.; Onodera, J.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: various handling techologies (overland and marine transport, storage, water removal, drying, comminution and sizing); various coal processing technologies (gravity concentration, magnetic separation, multi-stage flotation, liquid-phase pelletizing, chemical processing); production methods for coal-oil mixtures (COM), their physical properties, stability, storage, transport, advantages, plus recent trends in research and development; production of coal-methanol slurry (meth-coal), its stability, storage, transport, utilization and environmental problems, plus latest trends in research and development. (In Japanese)

  5. An international partnership approach to clean energy technology innovation: Carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoliang

    Is a global research partnership effective in developing, deploying, and diffusing clean energy technologies? Drawing on and extending innovation system studies, this doctoral dissertation elaborates an analytical model for a global technology learning system; examines the rationales, mechanisms, and effectiveness of the United States-- China Clean Energy Research Center Advanced Coal Technology Consortium (CERC-ACTC); and analyzes government's role in developing and implementing carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States (U.S.) and China. Studies have shown that successful technology innovation leads to economic prosperity and national competence, and prove that technology innovation does not happen in isolation but rather within interactive systems among stakeholders. However, the innovation process itself remains unclear, particularly with regard to interactive learning among and between major institutional actors, including technology developers, regulators, and financial organizations. This study seeks to advance scholarship on the interactive learning from the angle of global interactive learning. This dissertation research project seeks, as well, to inform policy-makers of how to strengthen international collaboration in clean energy technology development. The U.S.--China CERC-ACTC announced by Presidents Obama and Hu in 2009, provided a unique opportunity to close this scholarly gap. ACTC aimed to "advance the coal technology needed to safely, effectively, and efficiently utilize coal resources including the ability to capture, store, and utilize the emissions from coal use in both nations " through the joint research and development by U.S. and Chinese scientists and engineers. This dissertation project included one-year field research in the two countries, with in-depth interviews of key stakeholders, a survey of Consortium participants, analysis of available data, and site visits to collaborative research projects from 2013-2014. This

  6. Evaluation of air cleaning technologies existing in the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    Five portable air cleaning technologies including one new technology were evaluated to find their effectiveness in removing ultrafine particles. Measurements were carried out both in a duct and in a test room. The results showed that the technologies that use/create ozone to clean air can increase...... the ozone level significantly in the room. Moreover, they can cause generation of ultrafine particles and consequently increase ultrafine particle concentration in the room. The study suggests using a mechanical filter with low pressure drop as a recommended air cleaning technology in order to remove...

  7. Clean Coal: myth or reality? At the heart of the energy-climate equation, capturing and storing CO2 - Proceedings of the 2007 Le Havre's international meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufenacht, Antoine; Brodhag, Christian; Mocilnikar, Antoine-Tristan; Bennaceur, Kamel; Esseid, Ablaziz; Lemoine, Stephane; Prevot, Henri; Diercks, Thorsten; Jaclot, Francois; Fache, Dominique; Coulon, Pierre-Jean; Capris, Renaud; TRANIE, Jean-Pascal; Le Thiez, Pierre; Marliave, Luc de; Perrin, Nicolas; Paelinck, Philippe; Clodic, Denis; Thabussot, Laurent; Alf, Martin; Boon, Gustaaf; Giger, Francois; Bisseaud, Jean-Michel; Michel, Patrick; Poyer, Luc; Biebuyck, Christian; Kalaydjian, Francois; Roulet, Claude; Bonijoly, Didier; Gresillon, Francois Xavier; Bonneville, Alain; Tauziede, Christian; Munier, Gilles; Moncomble, Jean-Eudes; Frois, Bernard; Charmant, Marcel; Thybaud, Nathalie; Fares, Tewfik; Lacave, Jean-Marc; Duret, Benoit; Gerard, Bernard

    2007-03-01

    This document comprises the French and English versions of the executive summary of the RIH 2007 meetings, followed by the available presentations (slides). Content: - Symposium Opening: Government and the Coal Issue; 1 - First Session - Energy, Climate, Coal: - Scenarios for energy technologies and CO 2 emissions: Energy outlooks, CO 2 emissions, Technologies (Kamel BENNACEUR); - The global situation of coal: The situation of the international steam coal market, Change in this market, Total's position in this business, Major challenges for the future (Ablaziz ESSEID); - Coal markets: availability, competitiveness, and growing maturity (Stephane LEMOINE); - Coal in the geopolitics of greenhouse gases (Henri PREVOT); - Questions; 2 - Second Session - Coal Economy: - Opportunities and challenges for coal in the European energy mix: the Commission's energy package: The European situation, The European energy mix, The role of EURACOAL (Thorsten DIERCKS); - The development of a coal bed in Lucenay-les-Aix and Cossaye in the Massif Central (Francois JACLOT); - The Russian view of coal's place in the energy mix (Dominique FACHE); - Coal, a key to development in Niger (Pierre-Jean COULON); - The energy and environmental efficiency of coal-fired power plants associated with heating networks (Renaud CAPRIS); - The Valorca project: efficient and immediate use of coal, and strong outlooks for the future (Jean-Pascal TRANIE); - Questions; 3 - Third and Forth Sessions - Clean Power Plants: - CO 2 capture systems (Pierre LE THIEZ); - CO 2 geological capture and storage in the Lacq basin (Luc de MARLIAVE); - Clean coal: Air Liquide technology developments and industrial solutions (Nicolas PERRIN); - Clean combustion and CO 2 (Philippe PAELINCK); - CO 2 capture by freezing/defrosting at low temperatures (Denis CLODIC); - Questions; - Using the experience of a large corporation (ENDESA), to develop clean energy: coal (Laurent THABUSSOT); - Pathways to reduce CO 2

  8. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  9. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, R.; Findling, B.; Klein-Vielhauer, S.; Nieke, E.; Paschen, H.; Tangen, H.; Wintzer, D.

    1991-01-01

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  10. The directory of US coal and technology export resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of The Directory remains focused on offering a consolidated resource to potential buyers of US coal, coal technology, and expertise. This is consistent with the US policy on coal and coal technology trade, which continues to emphasize export market strategy implementation. Within this context, DOE will continue to support the teaming'' approach to marketing; i.e., vertically integrated large project teams to include multiple industry sectors, such as coal producers, engineering and construction firms, equipment manufacturers, financing and service organizations.

  11. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1996--March 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Pisupati, S.V. [and others

    1997-07-22

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. Preliminary pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction catalyst tests were conducted when firing natural gas in Penn State`s down-fired combustor. This is the first step in the scale-up of bench-scale results obtained in Phase II to the demonstration boiler scale when firing coal. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included installing a ribbon mixer into Penn State`s micronized coal-water mixture circuit for reentraining filter cake. In addition, three cleaned coals were received from CQ Inc. and three cleaned coals were received from Cyprus-Amax.

  12. European coal technology applied by the Danish power companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydenberg, B. [Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The development of coal-fired power plants has shown remarkable improvements with regard to efficiency and cleaner technology, and as coal remains the most important fuel for electric power production, it is important to make use of this technological development to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Of the three available technologies: Integrated Coal Gasification and Combined Cycle, Fluid Bed Combustion and Pulverised Coal with Ultra Supercritical Steam Data, the technology chosen by I/S ELSAM is the PC-USC with power production efficiencies growing from 45% to 50%. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Constructive Technology Assessmentand Technology Dynamics. The Case of Clean Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Johan

    1992-01-01

    A synthesis of neo-Schumpeterian evolutionary, sociological, and historical coevolution ary models could be used for constructive technology assessment, aimed at the active management of the process of technological change. This article proposes a synthetic quasi-evolutionary model, in which

  14. Optimization of design and operating parameters in a pilot scale Jameson cell for slime coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacifazlioglu, Hasan; Toroglu, Ihsan [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Karaelmas, 67100 (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    The Jameson flotation cell has been commonly used to treat a variety of ores (lead, zinc, copper etc.), coal and industrial minerals at commercial scale since 1989. It is especially known to be highly efficient at fine and ultrafine coal recovery. However, although the Jameson cell has quite a simple structure, it may be largely inefficient if the design and operating parameters chosen are not appropriate. In this study, the design and operating parameters of a pilot scale Jameson cell were optimized to obtain a desired metallurgical performance in the slime coal flotation. The optimized design parameters are the nozzle type, the height of the nozzle above the pulp level, the downcomer diameter and the immersion depth of the downcomer. Among the operating parameters optimized are the collector dosage, the frother dosage, the percentage of solids and the froth height. In the optimum conditions, a clean coal with an ash content of 14.90% was obtained from the sample slime having 45.30% ash with a combustible recovery of 74.20%. In addition, a new type nozzle was developed for the Jameson cell, which led to an increase of about 9% in the combustible recovery value.

  15. Timing of adoption of clean technologies by regulated monopolies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Slim Ben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a monopoly firm producing a good and, at the same time, polluting and using fossil energy. By incurring an investment cost, this firm can adopt a lower production cost clean technology using renewable energy. We determine the optimal adoption date for the firm in the case where it is not regulated at all and in the case where it is regulated at each period. Interestingly, the regulated firm adopts the clean technology earlier than what is socially optimal, as opposed to the nonregulated firm. The regulator can induce the firm to adopt the clean technology at the socially optimal date by a postpone adoption subsidy. Nevertheless, the regulator may be interested in the earlier adoption of the firm to encourage the diffusion of the use of clean technologies in other industries.

  16. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  17. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix B. Assessment of status of technology for solvent refining of coal. 1977 technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report reviews the technology and environmental impacts of the solvent refined coal process to produce clean solid fuel (SRC-I). Information on SRC-I pilot plant operation, process design, and economics is presented. A bibliography of current available literature in this technology area, divided into fourteen categories with abstracts of the references, is appended. The history, current operations, and future plans for the SRC pilot plants at Fort Lewis and Wilsonville are reviewed. Process data generated at these pilot plants for various coals are used as a basis for a conceptual commercial plant design with a capacity to process 20,000 tons per day (TPD) of prepared coal. Block flow diagrams, material balances, an energy balance, and a list of raw materials for the plant are also provided. Capital cost estimates for a 20,000 TPD coal feed plant derived from four prior economic studies range from $706 million to $1093 million in 1976 dollars. The annual net operating cost is estimated at $238.6 million (1976 dollars) and the average product cost at $2.71/MM Btu based on utility financing (equity 25:debt 75) with $25/ton as the delivered price of the dry coal. The report also discusses special technical considerations associated with some of the process operations and major equipment items and enumerates technical risks associated with the commercialization of the SRC-I process.

  18. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  19. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  20. Assessing technology transfer in the Clean Development Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Sara Lena Yri

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an operational definition of technology transfer, to be applied in studies of technology transfer in projects under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Although the CDM has never been given an explicit mandate for transferring technologies, its contribution in this respect has both been hoped for and exacted. The discussions of technology transfer in CDM projects are however blurred by widely varying conceptions of what technology transfer is. Qu...

  1. Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillemann, Levi; Beck, Fredric; Brodrick, James; Brown, Austin; Feldman, David; Nguyen, Tien; Ward, Jacob

    2013-09-17

    For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would "always be five years away." This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market, they are growing rapidly. The four key technologies this report focuses on are: onshore wind power, polysilicon photovoltaic modules, LED lighting, and electric vehicles.

  2. Hot Gas Particulate Cleaning Technology Applied for PFBC/IGFC -The Ceramic Tube Filter (CTF) and Metal Filter-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasatsu, H; Misawa, N; Kobori, K; Iritani, J

    2002-09-18

    Coal is a fossil fuel abundant and widespread all over world. It is a vital resource for energy security, because the supply is stable. However, its CO2 emission per unit calorific value is greater than that of other fossil fuels. It is necessary to develop more efficient coal utilization technologies to expand the coal utilization that meets the social demand for better environment. The Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) combined cycle has become a subject of world attention in terms of better plant operation, improved plant efficiency, lower flue gas emission and fuel flexibility. The gas turbine, one of the most important components in the PFBC, is eager for a hot gas (approximately 650-850C) cleaning system in order to eliminate the severe erosion problem with the less thermal loss. The cyclone is most popular system for a hot gas cleaning, however, the severe damage for gas turbine blades by highly concentrated fine fly ash from PFBC boiler is reported.

  3. Sustainable development, clean technology and knowledge from industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Slobodan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean technology or clean production is the most important factor for the economic growth of a society and it will play the main role not only in the area of cleaner production, but also in sustainable development. The development of clean technology will be the main factor of the company’s strategy in the future. Each company, which wants to reach the competitive position at the market and wants to be environmentally friendly, has to accept the new approach in corporate management and the strategy of new clean technology. The main principles of clean technology are based on the concept of maximum resource and energy productivity and virtually no waste. This approach may be limited by human resources and the level of their environmental knowledge. Companies are committed to the development of the workers’ skills, and thus to the improvement of the company for the full implementation of the environmental legislation and clean production concept. Based on this commitment, one of Tempus projects is designed to improve the university-enterprise cooperation in the process of creating sustainable industry in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. To achieve this goal, partner universities will create special courses on sustainable industry and thus enhance the lifelong learning process and cooperation between industry and universities in the Western Balkan countries.

  4. Coal technology in a sustainable society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Coal is a major world energy resource. For many countries it is the primary fuel in electricity generation. As world energy demand increases so also will the demand for coal. Steel and aluminium-essential elements in the fabric of modern society -also rely heavily on coal. This article points out that the Australian coal industry is responding to the challenges facing coal by investigating a sustainable development strategy and examining the full life cycle outcomes of coal as fuel and reductant. The challenge is to deliver much more efficient ways of extracting energy from coal. The most effective strategies are seen to be: ash displacement credits, synergies with renewables and integration with other industries

  5. How energy technology innovation affects transition of coal resource-based economy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Pibin; Wang, Ting; Li, Dan; Zhou, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to investigate factors and mechanisms that may facilitate the transition from coal resource-based economy to sustainability. Based on the energy technology innovation theory, factors that may influence the transition of coal resource-based economy were categorized into four types, including: innovation policy, innovation input, innovation ability, and innovation organization. Hypotheses were proposed regarding the mechanisms of these factors. Data were collected from surveys administered to 314 Chinese energy firms, and a structural equation model (SEM) was employed to test the hypotheses. Ten of fifteen hypotheses were retained based on the reliability tests, validity tests, and SEM. The results show that the four proposed factors are crucial in transforming the coal resource-based economy, and the effects become statistically significant through three intermediate variables, namely, transition of energy consumption structure, correction of resource wealth investment, and improvement of transition environment. - Highlights: •Approximately, 66% of energy relies on coal in China. •Serious environment problems have occurred in many coal-based regions. •Energy technology innovation can promote the transition of coal-based economy. •China should accelerate the development of clean energy.

  6. Externally-fired combined cycle: An effective coal fueled technology for repowering and new generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, L.E.; Bary, M.R. [Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Gray, K.M. [Pennsylvania Electric Co., Johnstown, PA (United States); LaHaye, P.G. [Hague International, South Portland, ME (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) is an attractive emerging technology for powering high efficiency combined gas and steam turbine cycles with coal or other ash bearing fuels. In the EFCC, the heat input to a gas turbine is supplied indirectly through a ceramic air heater. The air heater, along with an atmospheric coal combustor and ancillary equipment, replaces the conventional gas turbine combustor. A steam generator located downstream from the ceramic air heater and steam turbine cycle, along with an exhaust cleanup system, completes the combined cycle. A key element of the EFCC Development Program, the 25 MMBtu/h heat-input Kennebunk Test Facility (KTF), has recently begun operation. The KTF has been operating with natural gas and will begin operating with coal in early 1995. The US Department of Energy selected an EFCC repowering of the Pennsylvania Electric Company`s Warren Station for funding under the Clean Coal Technology Program Round V. The project focuses on repowering an existing 48 MW (gross) steam turbine with an EFCC power island incorporating a 30 MW gas turbine, for a gross power output of 78 MW and a net output of 72 MW. The net plant heat rate will be decreased by approximately 30% to below 9,700 Btu/kWh. Use of a dry scrubber and fabric filter will reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate emissions to levels under those required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions are controlled by the use of staged combustion. The demonstration project is currently in the engineering phase, with startup scheduled for 1997. This paper discusses the background of the EFCC, the KTF, the Warren Station EFCC Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project, the commercial plant concept, and the market potential for the EFCC.

  7. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  8. Are clean technology and environmental quality conflicting policy goals?

    OpenAIRE

    Brechet, Thierry; Meunier, Guy; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique UR 1303 Alimentation et Sciences Sociales

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of an environmental policy on the diffusion of a clean technology in an economy where firms compete on the output market. We show that the share of adopting firms is non-monotonic with the stringency of the environmental policy, and that the adoption of the clean technology may well increase the pollution level. We also compare the effects of an emission tax and tradable pollution permits on welfare, technology adoption, and pollution level. We show that, ...

  9. Are Clean Technology and Environmental Quality Conflicting Policy Goals?

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Brechet; Guy Meunier

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of an environmental policy on the diffusion of a clean technology in an economy where firms compete on the output market. We show that the share of adopting firms is non-monotonic with the stringency of the environmental policy, and that the adoption of the clean technology may well increase the pollution level. We also compare the effects of an emission tax and tradable pollution permits on welfare, technology adoption, and pollution level. We show that, ...

  10. New NOx cleaning technology helps the government fulfil promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Norwegian, Bergen-based company ECO Energy has recently launched a new cleaning technology halving NO x emissions from industry plants without requiring large investments. Thus, governmental promises to finance NO x cleaning equipment for Norwegian industry have become a less expensive to reach. ECO Energy has ensured world patent on the 'stopNOx' technology. Its method consists of adding water and urea to oil before the combustion process. The technology has been applied in Italy, reducing NO x emissions from industry in average with above 50 percent (ml)

  11. The environmental effect of subsidies for clean technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, F.P.; Nentjes, A.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental subsidies for clean technology result in a larger diffusion of such technology. However, as a result emissions can increase in imperfect markets for products. When several companies compete each other with clean and dirty technologies, production and emission will rise because of price competition.This effect will be even larger in case subsidies are applied. Therefore, subsidies are not advisable for every market. In this article an evolutionary game theory has been used with respect to the diffusion of environment-friendly innovation of products and the role of environmental policy instruments (in particular subsidies). 7 refs

  12. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF ENVIRONMENTALY FRIENDLY CLEANING METHOD BY LASER TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lýdia Sobotová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Still deteriorating environment, requirements for reducing of production waste, requirements for the protection of the working environment, the formation of new technologies and materials, as well as the economic conditions are forcing manufacturers to use the environmentally friendly technology. The contribution deals with new progressive possibilities of cleaning products, raw materials and with the establishment of a minimum production waste. The research focuses on the possibilities of laser cleaning of materials, under defined technological conditions. In the contribution is presented the results of realized experiments in Technical University of Kosice, together created in cooperation with Trumpf Slovakia, s.r.o

  13. Measures of International Manufacturing and Trade of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Sandor, Debbie; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret

    2017-05-25

    The technologies that produce clean energy, such as solar photovoltaic panels and lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, are globally manufactured and traded. As demand and deployment of these technologies grows exponentially, the innovation to reach significant economies of scale and drive down energy production costs becomes less in the technology and more in the manufacturing of the technology. Manufacturing innovations and other manufacturing decisions can reduce costs of labor, materials, equipment, operating costs, and transportation, across all the links in the supply chain. To better understand the manufacturing aspect of the clean energy economy, we have developed key metrics for systematically measuring and benchmarking international manufacturing of clean energy technologies. The metrics are: trade, market size, manufacturing value-added, and manufacturing capacity and production. These metrics were applied to twelve global economies and four representative technologies: wind turbine components, crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic modules, vehicle lithium ion battery cells, and light emitting diode packages for efficient lighting and other consumer products. The results indicated that clean energy technologies are being developed via complex, dynamic, and global supply chains, with individual economies benefiting from different technologies and links in the supply chain, through both domestic manufacturing and global trade.

  14. Life cycle energy use and GHG emission assessment of coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for SNG and power cogeneration. • A model based on a Chinese domestic database is developed for evaluation. • Cogeneration shows lower GHG emissions than coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration has lower life cycle energy use than supercritical coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies. - Abstract: Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) and power cogeneration/polygenereation (PG) technology and its competitive alternatives. Four main SNG applications are considered, including electricity generation, steam production, SNG vehicle and battery electric vehicle (BEV). Analyses show that if SNG is produced from a single product plant, the lower limits of its life cycle energy use and GHG emissions can be comparable to the average levels of coal-power and coal-BEV pathways, but are still higher than supercritical and ultra supercritical (USC) coal-power and coal-BEV pathways. If SNG is coproduced from a PG plant, when it is used for power generation, steam production, and driving BEV car, the life cycle energy uses for PG based pathways are typically lower than supercritical coal-power pathways, but are still 1.6–2.4% higher than USC coal-power pathways, and the average life cycle GHG emissions are lower than those of all coal-power pathways including USC units. If SNG is used to drive vehicle car, the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of PG-SNGV-power pathway are both much higher than all combined coal-BEV and coal-power pathways, due to much higher energy consumption in a SNG driven car than in a BEV car. The coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology shows comparable or better energy and environmental performances when compared to other coal-based alternatives, and is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies.

  15. The applied technologies to access clean water for remote communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabindra, I. B.

    2018-01-01

    A lot of research is done to overcome the remote communities to access clean water, yet very little is utilized and implemented by the community. Various reasons can probably be made for, which is the application of research results is assessed less practical. The aims of this paper is seeking a practical approach, how to establish criteria for the design can be easier applied, at the proper locations, the simple construction, effectively producing a volume and quality of clean water designation. The methods used in this paper is a technological model assessment of treatment/filtering clean water produced a variety of previous research, to establish a model of appropriate technology for remote communities. Various research results collected from the study of literature, while the identification of opportunities and threats to its application is done using a SWOT analysis. This article discussion is looking for alternative models of clean water filtration technology from the previous research results, to be selected as appropriate technology, easily applied and bring of many benefits to the remote communities. The conclusions resulting from the discussion in this paper, expected to be used as the basic criteria of design model of clean water filtration technologies that can be accepted and applied effectively by the remote communities.

  16. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  17. SELECTION OF SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMBUSTION OF BOSNIAN COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anes Kazagić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with optimization of coal combustion conditions to support selection a sustainable combustion technology and an optimal furnace and boiler design. A methodology for optimization of coal combustion conditions is proposed and demonstrated on the example of Bosnian coals. The properties of Bosnian coals vary widely from one coal basin to the next, even between coal mines within the same basin. Very high percentage of ash (particularly in Bosnian brown coal makes clear certain differences between Bosnian coal types and other world coal types, providing a strong argument for investigating specific problems related to the combustion of Bosnian coals, as well as ways to improve their combustion behaviour. In this work, options of the referent energy system (boiler with different process temperatures, corresponding to the different combustion technologies; pulverised fuel combustion (slag tap or dry bottom furnace and fluidized bed combustion, are under consideration for the coals tested. Sustainability assessment, based on calculation economic and environment indicators, in combination with common low cost planning method, is used for the optimization. The total costs in the lifetime are presented by General index of total costs, calculated on the base of agglomeration of basic economic indicators and the economic indicators derived from environmental indicators. So, proposed methodology is based on identification of those combustion technologies and combustion conditions for coals tested for which the total costs in lifetime of the system under consideration are lowest, provided that all environmental issues of the energy system is fulfilled during the lifetime. Inputs for calculation of the sustainability indicators are provided by the measurements on an experimental furnace with possibility of infinite variation of process temperature, supported by good praxis from the power plants which use the fuels tested and by thermal

  18. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The Bulgarian coal and the fluid bed technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.; Georgiev, J.; Lebedov, K.; Petrov, N.

    2000-01-01

    Because of low-quality of the most of Bulgarian coal and more rigorous ecological restrictions for decreasing of greenhouse gases the fluidized bed technology is the most appropriate combustion technology. A study with a pilot plant aiming to establish the values of technological parameters in view to maintain stable process of fluidized bed combustion at the specific burning characteristics of the Bulgarian coal was carried out. Coal of different quality and particle size production of 'Marbas' LTD mines were used. Series of experiments with batches of strictly determined content were carried out at minimal, average and maximal load. The technological factors as: layer's aerodynamics, layer's height, fuel's quantity and quantity of inert material were changed at each batch. The ecological factors were optimized considering coal's quality, plant's parameters, limestone's dosing and layer's aerodynamics. A regressive model for optimization of technological and ecological factors was created. An average coefficient of performance was achieved, resp. 82.27 % at combustion of coal from mines 'Maritsa-West' and 90 % from mine 'Lev'. A coefficient of sulfur oxides' capture 70 % was obtained at coal with sulfur content 3.1-3.9 %. In conclusion the fluidized bed technology is very suitable for combustion's characteristics of the Bulgarian coal

  20. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  1. Fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application in cleanrooms

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Air Cleaning Technology and Its Application in Cleanrooms sets up the theoretical framework for cleanrooms. New ideas and methods are presented, which include the characteristic index of cleanrooms, uniform and non-uniform distribution characteristics, the minimum sampling volume, a new concept of outdoor air conditioning and the fundamentals of leakage-preventing layers. Written by an author who can look back on major scientific achievements and 50 years of experience in this field, this book offers a concise and accessible introduction to the fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application. The work is intended for researchers, college teachers, graduates, designers, technicians and corporate R&D personnel in the field of HVAC and air cleaning technology. Zhonglin Xu is a senior research fellow at China Academy of Building Research.

  2. Environmental considerations of coal gasification technology and the Wabash River Repowering Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessig, W.S.; Frederick, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have mandated a significant reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions. Coal gasification can assist coal burning utilities in meeting this challenge. The use of combustion turbines in the cycle is an important factor in terms of efficiency and pollution control technologies. The gasification process can be utilized in several applications including 'repowering' existing coal-fired facilities as well as new 'greenfield' projects. This paper addresses the environmental benefits of the repowering application at PSI Energy's Wabash River Station. The environmental impacts of air, water, solid waste, trace hazardous air pollutants, and fuel sources are addressed. Specifically, sulfur removal is discussed on both a technical and an economic level

  3. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  4. Technology for beneficiation of non-coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    This article outlines the need for efficient non-coking coal beneficiation plants in India to cope with mass production from opencast coal mines. The existing use of magnetite in heavy medium separation processes is expensive and not very efficient in respect to removing shales from opencast lump coals. Instead a new technique is proposed using a ROMJIG washing plant developed in the Federal Republic of Germany. This provides a very efficient, low cost washing system for the coals and allows the continued integration with the coal blending plants. This simplified technology allows for flexible working hours to meet demand and will allow new developments to continue including fuel slurry pipelines, automated testing of coals and new pulverized boiler fuels.

  5. Clean technology for the small auriferous mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotruba, Herrnann

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of gold in the small auriferous mining is characterized by several deficiencies, among them low recovery, emissions of mercury in form of milled mercury; amalgams and vapor, cyanide emissions and of its compounds, low level of industrial security. The mercury is used for the amalgamation of concentrated (taken place by several methods of gravimetric separation), for the amalgamation of the whole mineral load. The last case represents a mercury use in open circuit, with lost discharges of mercury to the process tales. The cyanidation is used in most of the cases for the residuals of the gravimetric concentration. This means that combines amalgamation with cyanidation that is in double cost and double environmental impact. To minimize operation costs and environmental impacts, the following steps of the mineral benefit, are advisable: controlled mill and appropriate to liberate the gold and not over miller; gravimetric concentration to recover a pre-concentrated with lost minimum of gold; Separation of the thick gold (if it exists) of the pre-concentrate. The free and thick gold can separate for gravimetric processes of the pre-concentrate and to smelt it directly; the amalgamation is not more necessary. The pre-concentrated cyanidation for agitation generally has bigger recovery and it is quicker than the traditional method for percolation. The realization of the new process has a gold recovery more high, less operation costs, less cyanide emissions, any emission of mercury and a higher work security. It should be mentioned that the viability and efficiency of the clean process depends of the mineral nature

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Office Clean Water Processing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-03-01

    The DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)’s Advanced Manufacturing Office partners with industry, small business, universities, and other stakeholders to identify and invest in emerging technologies with the potential to create high-quality domestic manufacturing jobs and enhance the global competitiveness of the United States.

  7. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ..., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202... recognizes the importance of this guidance to its Federal and state partners, to the regulated community, and... of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental...

  8. Clean energy technologies : perspectives and recent progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Research and Development

    2006-07-01

    There is a need to move toward a bio-based economy that offers new ways of thinking and new approaches to energy consumption and use. Bioenergy technologies can complement highly efficient fossil fuels with renewable and sustainable alternatives to achieve improved health and air quality, while reducing greenhouse gases. Perspectives on the bio-based economy and recent progress in bioenergy technologies were addressed in this presentation. The purpose was to explore the opportunities and challenges of using biomass for energy systems in industrial settings. The presentation provided information on current research being undertaken in bioenergy in the agricultural and forest fibre industries. Information on the Canadian Biomass Innovation Network (CBIN), which consists of federal researchers, program managers, policy makers and expert advisors and on its thermochemical energy systems were discussed in detail. CBIN's mission, vision, priorities, outputs, and funding were identified. Thermochemical conversion research under CBIN relates to combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis. tabs., figs.

  9. Recovery of clean coal fines through a combination of gravity concentrator and flotation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.K.; Banerjee, P.K.; Dutta, A.; Mishra, A. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India). Research & Development

    2007-07-01

    Flotation feed is a mixture of coarse and ultra-fine fractions. During conditioning of the flotation feed with collector and frother, the finer fraction consumes more reagents as compared to coarser particles. This is mainly due to more specific surface area of the ultra fine than the coarse fraction. This favors the adsorption of reagents toward ultra-finer fractions leads to less complete surface coverage of coarse particles and more entrainment of finer gangue particles. This results in the lower yield of coarse fractions from the flotation circuit and loss in selectivity. Hence, the major challenge is to improve the recovery of the coarser fraction and selectivity of ultra-fine fractions by improving flotation kinetics of all size fractions. This article deals with an approach to overcome the improper reagent adsorption by fine and coarse coal fractions in the flotation circuit through an innovative washing circuit containing gravity operation and flotation processes. Flotation performance between a new washing circuit having stub cyclone and flotation and normal single-stage reagent addition flotation process is compared in terms of selectivity, separation efficiency, rate constant, and size-wise recovery. The washing circuit having stub cyclone and flotation processes improves the fine clean coal yield by 10% and reduces the consumption of reagent compared to the normal single-stage reagent addition flotation process.

  10. 21st Century Coal: Advanced Technology and Global Energy Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Coal currently supplies with more than 40% of the world electricity consumption and it essential input of around 70% of world steel production, representing around 30% of the world primary energy supply. This is because coal is cheap, abundant, accessible, widely distributed and easy energy to transport, store and use. For these features, coal is projected to be intensively used in the future. Production and use of coal present a series of issues throughout the whole value chain. While existing technology allows addressing most of them (safety at work, land restoration, mercury, NOx and sulphur emissions avoidance, etc.), CO2 emissions continues to be the biggest challenge for coal use in the future. This report focuses on the technology path to near-zero emissions including useful insights in advanced coal power generation technologies and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage, a promising technology with a large potential which can push Carbon Capture and Storage competitiveness. In addition, the report shows the features of the new generation of coal-fired power plants in terms of flexibility for dynamic operation and grid stability, requirements increasingly needed to operate on grids with significant wind and solar generation.

  11. Market for new coal powerplant technologies in the US: 1997 annual energy outlook results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutzler, M.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Energy Information Administration

    1997-12-31

    Over the next 20 years, the combination of slow growth in the demand for electricity, even slower growth in the need for new capacity, especially baseload capacity, and the competitiveness of new gas-fired technologies limits the market for new coal technologies in the US. In the later years of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook projections, post-2005, when a significant amount of new capacity is needed to replace retiring plants and meet growing demand, some new coal-fired plants are expected to be built, but new gas-fired plants are expected to remain the most economical choice for most needs. The largest market for clean coal technologies in the United States may be in retrofitting or repowering existing plants to meet stricter environmental standards, especially over the next 10 years. Key uncertainties include the rate of growth in the demand for electricity and the level of competing fuel prices, particularly natural gas. Higher than expected growth in the demand for electricity and/or relatively higher natural gas prices would increase the market for new coal technologies.

  12. Purification of mine water of radium - The implementation of the technology in a coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupnik, S.

    2002-01-01

    In underground coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin there are inflows of highly mineralised waters containing radium isotopes. These waters cause radioactive pollution of the natural environment in mining areas. Therefore cleaning of saline waters of radium is very important. Two types of radium-bearing waters were distinguished - one type containing radium and barium ions, but no sulphates (type A) and another one in which radium and sulphate ions are present but no barium (type B). A very efficient and inexpensive method of purification of saline waters, of Ba 2+ and Ra 2+ ions was developed and implemented in two coal mines. As the result of used technology, based on application of phosphogypsum as the cleaning agent, a significant decrease of radium discharge was achieved - daily of about 120 MBq of 226 Ra and 80 MBq of 228 Ra. Another type of radium waters does not contain barium ions, but contains sulphate ions SO 4 2- . There is no carrier for co-precipitation of radium so radium is transported with discharged waters to main rivers. Different method of purification from radium must be applied for such waters. Laboratory and field experiments were performed, and a cleaning method was chosen. For purification of saline waters - waste products from other industrial processes are applied. The method of purification have been applied in full technical scale in coal mine with very good results - of about 6 m 3 /min of radium-bearing waters is cleaned. Whole this process takes place in underground old workings without any contact of mining crew with radioactive deposits, which are produced during the process. As a result radium amount released to the natural environment was significantly diminished - approximately of about 90 MBq of 226 Ra per day and 150 MBq of 228 Ra. (author)

  13. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for

  14. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  15. Role of coal in the world and Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

    1994-10-01

    This paper examines the changing role of coal in the world and in Asia. Particular attention is given to the rapidly growing demand for coal in electricity generation, the importance of China as a producer and consumer of coal, and the growing environmental challenge to coal. Attention is given to the increasing importance of low sulfur coal and Clean Coal Technologies in reducing the environmental impacts of coal burning

  16. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  17. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char-for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests

  18. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  19. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  20. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project. Technology assessment on coal gasification and liquefaction; 1975 nendo sekitan no gas ka ekika gijutsu no technology assessment seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-31

    This research was intended to find the desirable direction of technological development, by discussing the effects of coal gasification/liquefaction technologies from every angle, for the purpose coping with the social demand for steadily and continuously obtaining clean energy. This year, the examination was conducted not only on the energy conversion technologies of coal gasification/liquefaction, but also on the impact generating from the entire supply system of coal energy from coal mine development to mining, transportation, storage and conversion to secondary energy. For this purpose, while the outline was grasped of coal resources in the world as well as each technology for the mining, transportation, storage, electric power generation by gasification, and high calorie gasification, a case study was made on the assumption that electric power generation and high calorie gasification were conducted by importing 1,000 tons of coal from overseas, extracting the impact on the basis of this case study. In addition, examination was made on the position of coal energy in the energy supply of the future, with an impact investigated on condition that about 300 million tons were imported equivalent to roughly 16% of energy supply in the year 2000 or about. (NEDO)

  1. Making it easier for clean technologies to get returns from GHG credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how clean technologies can get returns from greenhouse gases credits. Businesses recognize that climate change opportunity is bigger than information technology. Clean technologies and climate change will transform the economy. Clean technologies will bring business opportunities, revitalize industry and the economy, bring jobs and increase exports.

  2. Materials, critical materials and clean-energy technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggert R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern engineered materials, components and systems depend on raw materials whose properties provide essential functionality to these technologies. Some of these raw materials are subject to supply-chain risks, and such materials are known as critical materials. This paper reviews corporate, national and world perspectives on material criticality. It then narrows its focus to studies that assess “what is critical” to clean-energy technologies. The focus on supply-chain risks is not meant to be alarmist but rather to encourage attention to monitoring these risks and pursuing technological innovation to mitigate the risks.

  3. Materials, critical materials and clean-energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, R.

    2017-07-01

    Modern engineered materials, components and systems depend on raw materials whose properties provide essential functionality to these technologies. Some of these raw materials are subject to supply-chain risks, and such materials are known as critical materials. This paper reviews corporate, national and world perspectives on material criticality. It then narrows its focus to studies that assess "what is critical" to clean-energy technologies. The focus on supply-chain risks is not meant to be alarmist but rather to encourage attention to monitoring these risks and pursuing technological innovation to mitigate the risks.

  4. Life cycle assessment ultra-clean micronized coal-water-oil fuel preparation and its usage in diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, X.; Wang, Z.; Novelli, G.; Benedetti, B. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2005-08-15

    The study described the preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal-water-oil fuel (UCMWOF) and its usage in diesel engine. The production and usage of UCMCWOF and diesel oil, on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) basis, were evaluated. A comparison between the two systems shows that beside reducing of photochemical ozone creation potential and rest indicators in UCMCWOF increase. This predicates that the system of UCMCWOF is characterized by high global environmental impact, but its local impacts are lower if compared with the use of diesel and traditional coal. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Technology Efficiency Study on Nuclear Power and Coal Power in Guangdong Province Based on DEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yinong Li; Dong Wang

    2006-01-01

    Guangdong Province has taken the lead in embarking on nuclear power development to resolve its dire lack of primary resources. With the deepening of the on-going structural reform in the electric power sector in China, the market competition scheme is putting electricity generation enterprises under severe strain. Consequently, it is incumbent upon the nuclear power producers to steadily upgrade management, enhance technical capabilities, reduce cost and improve efficiency. At present, gradual application of such efficiency evaluation methodology has already commenced in some sectors in China including the electric power industry. The purpose of this paper is to use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a cutting-edge approach in the efficiency evaluation field - to study the technological efficiency between nuclear power and coal power in Guangdong Province. The DEA results demonstrate that, as far as Guangdong Province is concerned, the technological efficiency of nuclear power is higher than that of coal power in terms of Technological Efficiency (TE), Pure Technology Efficiency (PTE) and Scale Efficiency (SE). The reason is that nuclear power technology is advanced with a much higher equipment availability factor. Under the same scale, the generation output of nuclear power is far higher than that of equivalent coal power generation. With the environmental protection and sustainable development requirements taken into full account, nuclear power constitutes a clean, safe and highly-efficient energy form which should be extensively harnessed in Guangdong Province to fuel its future continuing economic growth. (authors)

  6. Clean technologies for energy production from coal and renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculescu, Violeta; David, Elena; Sisu, Claudia; Constantinescu, Marius; Bucura, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is captured from exhaust gases by a selective separation using a cyclic adsorption process, wherein the adsorption step of the process is conducted by passing the gas mixture through an adsorption zone containing selective adsorbents such as carbon molecular sieve and zeolites. Physical adsorption system is operated in pressure swing adsorption (PSA) or temperature swing adsorption (TSA), wherein the gas is adsorbed and then the initial conditions are modified to desorb the gas. The technical feasibility of the process is dictated by the adsorption step, whereas the desorption step controls its economic viability. Strong affinity of an adsorbent for captured CO 2 from exhaust gas is essential for an effective adsorption step and for this regenerable sorbents are developed that have high selectivity, high regenerability and high adsorption capacity for CO 2 , properties critical for the efficiency of the PSA/TSA process. The following materials and facilities will be used: carbon molecular sieves made at ICSI, zeolites, laboratory facility in operation at ICSI and gas analysis gauges (gas chromatograph, gas spectrometer, atomic adsorption spectrophotometer), etc. (authors)

  7. System principles and evaluation criteria of reliability for optimization of technological parameters of coal deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.О. Khorolskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with solving the scientific problem of select mining equipment for selection longwall faces of mining venture. The main goal of the paper is to study technology of coal extraction of mining venture. The paper proposes a new approach to solve a problem of mining equipment selection for longwall faces of mining venture. The article describes new method for selection of mining equipment based on theory graph. Special attention is given to technological aspects; they are lenght of longwall faces, depth of coal stratum. Predictions obtained for daily production of mining equipment are compared with design outputs. Conclusions regarding the main reason of instability of longwall faces workings are made. It is found that to be able to use standard algorithms find the shortest path between vertices, you must perform matrix description of the constructed graphs that illustrate the structure of the interaction of different types of control equipment. Using classical optimization of method of discrete mathematics and algorithms for finding the shortest path between two vertices of network models obtained from the formalization of graphs with maximum results of specific types of equipment production chains, solved the problem of rational choice cleaning equipment for the new site with the cost parameters of the mining equipment and cost of mining coal. The authors developed effective and appropriate variants for the mine development for different coal deposits of mining venture.

  8. The Victorian government`s clean technology incentive scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, M.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reeve, D. [Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Over the past decade environment policies have placed increasing emphasis on waste minimization and cleaner production techniques. The Environment Protection Authority in Victoria, Australia, has sought to encourage waste minimization by establishing a Clean Technology Incentive Scheme. The Scheme was established in 1988 and since then 35 offers of loans have been made. Results to date are encouraging. In this work, case studies of three especially successful projects are presented. 2 refs.

  9. The Victorian government`s clean technology incentive scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, M A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reeve, D [Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Over the past decade environment policies have placed increasing emphasis on waste minimization and cleaner production techniques. The Environment Protection Authority in Victoria, Australia, has sought to encourage waste minimization by establishing a Clean Technology Incentive Scheme. The Scheme was established in 1988 and since then 35 offers of loans have been made. Results to date are encouraging. In this work, case studies of three especially successful projects are presented. 2 refs.

  10. The element technology of clean fuel alcohol plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D S; Lee, D S [Sam-Sung Engineering Technical Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C Y [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1996-02-01

    The fuel alcohol has been highlighted as a clean energy among new renewable energy sources. However, the production of the fuel alcohol has following problems; (i)bulk distillate remains is generated and (ii) benzene to be used as a entertainer in the azeotropic distillation causes the environmental problem. Thus, we started this research on the ground of preserving the cleanness in the production of fuel alcohol, a clean energy. We examined the schemes of replacing the azotropic distillation column which causes the problems with MSDP(Molecular Sieve Dehydration Process) system using adsorption technology and of treating the bulk distillate remains to be generated as by-products. In addition, we need to develop the continuous yea station technology for the continuous operation of fuel alcohol plant as a side goal. Thus, we try to develop a continuous ethanol fermentation process by high-density cell culture from tapioca, a industrial substrate, using cohesive yeast. For this purpose, we intend to examine the problem of tapioca, a industrial substrate, where a solid is existed and develop a new process which can solve the problem. Ultimately, the object of this project is to develop each element technology for the construction of fuel alcohol plant and obtain the ability to design the whole plant. (author) 54 refs., 143 figs., 34 tabs.

  11. Implications of using clean technologies to power selected ASEAN countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Anjana; Ahlgren, Erik O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on energy system development of the three largest Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries: Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam. The energy infrastructures in these counties are in the process of rapid development and, therefore, technology choices are critical. Applying the energy system model MARKAL and scenario analysis, this paper examines and quantifies the role of clean and advanced energy technologies for efficient local resource exploitation and improving energy security and environmental conditions. The main focus is on the power sector and the paper also addresses the potential ASEAN markets for European energy technologies. The paper concludes that there is a large potential market for clean and advanced energy technologies in the studied countries. If adopted, these technologies will bring several benefits like reduction in primary energy requirement, reduced investments requirement in the power sector and other parts of the energy infrastructure, reduced import of primary energy, reduced CO 2 emissions and local pollution, reduced energy system costs and marginal cost of electricity supply. Finally, barriers for transfer and diffusion of advanced energy technologies are discussed.

  12. Technological challenges for boosting coal production with environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Mrinal K

    2009-07-01

    The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenon rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This paper focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy source in foreseeable future. It examines the energy requirement perspective for India and demand of coal as the prime energy source. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and Indian coal mining industry offers a bright future for the country's energy security, provided the industry is allowed to develop by supportive government policies and adopts latest technologies for mining. It is an irony that in-spite of having a plentiful reserves, India is not able to jack up coal production to meet its current and future demand. It discusses the strategies to be adopted for growth and meeting the coal demand. But such energy are very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively The paper highlights the emissions of greenhouse gases due to burning of fossil fuels and environmental consequences of global warming and sea-level rise. Technological solutions for environment friendly coal mining and environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper.

  13. Technologically enhanced natural radioactivity around the coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, J.; Marovic, G.

    1997-01-01

    In some situations the exposure to natural radiation sources is enhanced as a result to technological developments. Burning of coal is one source of enhanced radiation exposure to naturally occurring elements, particularly radium, thorium and uranium. Most of the radioactive substances are concentrated in the ash and slag, which are heavy and drop to the bottom of a furnace. Lighter fly ash is carried up the chimney and into the atmosphere. The bottom ash and slag are usually deposited in a waste pile, from where some activity may leach into aquifers or be dispersed by wind.The main pathways through which the populations living around coal fired power plants are exposed to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides are inhalation and ingestion of the activity discharged into the Exosphere. For this reason, extensive investigations have been under way for several years in the coal fired power plant in Croatia, which uses an anthracite coal with a higher than usual uranium content. (authors)

  14. Rebirth of a 100-year-old technology: underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, B.C.; Harju, J.A.; Schmit, C.R.; Solc, J. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Boysen, J.E. [B.C. Technologies Ltd. (Country unknown/Code not available); Kuehnel, R.A. [International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (Netherlands); Walker, L.K. [Innisfree Pty. Ltd. (Country unknown/Code not available); Komsartra, C. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi (Thailand)

    1997-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a clean coal technology that was first conceived by Mendeleev in Russia over 100 years ago. It involves the conversion of coal in situ to a low-to-medium grade product gas, avoiding the expense of mining and reclamation. The successful application of UCG is critically dependent on both judicious site selection and process design specific to that site. It requires a detailed knowledge and understanding of those geologic, hydrogeologic, and other site characteristics critical to the technical success and environmental acceptability of the process. This paper addresses the development and key features of UCG and describes a UCG feasibility project now under way in Southern Thailand on a lignite deposit. The relevance of the technology to the long-term supply of gas to the Eastern States of Australia is also discussed. It is concluded that the lack of acceptance of the technology to date follows from a confusion in the interpretation of test results from the different hydrogeologic settings of previous UCG test sites. Successful development of the technology requires the careful assembly of an integrated design team with hydrogeologic, geologic mineralogic, chemical and engineering expertise. (author). 1 fig., 11 refs.

  15. Present state in coal preparation. Stanje u pripremi uglja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevremovic, C. (Rudarsko-Geoloski Fakultet, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    Describes the low technological state of Yugoslav coal enterprises,in particular of those that exploit low grade lignite and brown coal with high ash and sulfur content. Unadjusted coal prices (almost the same price level for low and high energy coal) and absence of stringent laws on environmental pollution are regarded as main reasons for the low technological level of coal preparation and beneficiation plants. Modern preparation equipment for coal classification, coal washing, coal drying and briquetting is pointed out. Advanced coal carbonization and gasification should have a wider application in Yugoslavia for reducing environmental pollution and producing clean fuel.

  16. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  17. Coal cleaning: A viable strategy for reduced carbon emissions and improved environment in China?

    OpenAIRE

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: China is a dominant energy consumer in a global context and current energy forecasts emphasise that China’s future energy consumption also will rely heavily on coal. The coal use is the major source of the greenhouse gas CO2 and particles causing serious health damage. This paper looks into the question if coal washing might work as low cost strategy for both CO2 and particle emission reductions. Coal washing removes dirt and rock from raw coal, resulting in a coal pr...

  18. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  19. A software tool for soil clean-up technology selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranes, S.; Gonzalez-Valencia, E.; Lodolo, A.; Miertus, S.

    2002-01-01

    Soil remediation is a difficult, time-consuming and expensive operation. A variety of mature and emerging soil remediation technologies is available and future trends in remediation will include continued competition among environmental service companies and technology developers, which will definitely result in further increase in the clean-up options. Consequently, the demand has enhanced developing decision support tools that could help the decision makers to select the most appropriate technology for the specific contaminated site, before the costly remedial actions are taken. Therefore, a software tool for soil clean-up technology selection is currently being developed with the aim of closely working with human decision makers (site owners, local community representatives, environmentalists, regulators, etc.) to assess the available technologies and preliminarily select the preferred remedial options. The analysis for the identification of the best remedial options is based on technical, financial, environmental, and social criteria. These criteria are ranked by all involved parties to determine their relative importance for a particular project. (author)

  20. Pyritic waste from precombustion coal cleaning: Amelioration with oil shale retort waste and sewage sludge for growth of soya beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.G.; Gnanapragasam, N.; Stevens, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Solid residue from fossil fuel mining and utilization generally present little hazard to human health. However, because of the high volumes generated, they do pose unique disposal problems in terms of land use and potential degradation of soil and water. In the specific case of wastes from precombustion coal cleaning, the materials include sulfur compounds that undergo oxidation when exposed to normal atmospheric conditions and microbial action and then produce sulfuric acid. The wastes also contain compounds of metals and nonmetals at concentrations many times those present in the original raw coal. Additionally, the residues often contain coal particles and fragments that combust spontaneously if left exposed to the air, thus contributing to the air pollution that the coal cleaning process was designed to prevent. Federal and state efforts in the United States to ameliorate the thousands of hectares covered with these wastes have focused on neutralizing the acidity with limestone and covering the material with soil. The latter procedure creates additional degraded areas, which were originally farmland or wildlife habitat. It would seem preferable to reclaim the coal refuse areas without earth moving. The authors describe here experiments with neutralization of coal waste acidity using an alkaline waste derived from the extraction of oil from oil shale to grow soya beans (Glycine max. [L]) on a mixture of wastes and sewage sludge. Yield of plant material and content of nutrients an potentially toxic elements in the vegetation and in the growth mixtures were determined; results were compared with those for plants grown on an agricultural soil, with particular focus on boron

  1. The Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organization of production of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF in Ukraine becomes an especially topical and at the same time complex scientific and applied task, taking into consideration criteria of the techno-ecological and economic rationality. The article presents a methodical approach to the comparative analysis of efficiency of the main methods and technologies for the synthetic liquid fuels production and a carried out testing, the results of which allowed to conclude that the most rational is the technology of indirect coal liquefaction based on coal thermal plasma gasification.

  2. The Clean Development Mechanism and neglected environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Popp, David; Prag, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides an institutional framework for developed countries to support projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Are the technologies promoted those most needed by the recipient countries? We address this question by first reviewing Technology Needs Assessments prepared by developing countries, and then comparing the stated needs to the technologies most frequently promoted via CDM. While there appears to be a good match between requested technologies and those used in CDM, desired technologies such as solar energy for remote locations, biofuels, improved cooking stoves, and efficient lighting appear “neglected” by CDM. Nonetheless, a review of costs for these technologies suggests that many could be cost effective for developing countries. For projects requiring wide dispersal of household items, such as cooking stoves or lighting, the administrative burdens of CDM provide a hurdle. In other cases, difficulties quantifying the ancillary benefits of these projects hinder the promotion of these technologies. We conclude with possible explanations for why these technologies are neglected and suggestions for future research. - Highlights: ► We identify technologies desired by developing countries but not provided via CDM. ► Solar PV is neglected due to high costs. ► The CDM process provides a hurdle for improved cooking stoves and efficient lighting. ► Implications for CDM and climate policy are discussed

  3. Analysis of some potential social effects of four coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.

    1980-09-01

    This is an analysis of the potential social impacts of four coal technologies: conventional combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, liquifaction, and gasification. Because of their flexibility, and the abundance and relatively low costs of coal, the potential benefits of these technologies would seem to outweigh their potential social costs, both in the intermediate and long term. Nevertheless, the social costs of a coal industry are far more obscure and hard to quantify than the benefits. In general, however, it maybe expected that those technologies that can be deployed most quickly, that provide fuels that can substitute most easily for oil and natural gas, that are the cheapest, and that are the most thermally efficient will minimize social costs most in the intermediate term, while technologies that can guide energy infrastructure changes to become the most compatable with the fuels that will be most easily derived from inexhaustible sources (electricity and hydrogen) will minimize social costs most in the long run. An industry structured to favor eastern over western coal and plant sites in moderate sized communities, which could easily adapt to inexhaustible energy technologies (nuclear or solar) in the future, would be favored in either time period.

  4. International convention on clean, green and sustainable technologies in iron and steel making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) discussed energy efficiency and conservation in iron and steel making, air pollution control, carbon trading, reclamation of iron ore mines, utilisation of low grade coal and iron ore, Corex and Finex processes, HIsmelt, sinter technology, energy recovery, reduction gas from coal, coal gasification and syngas based DRI, and resettlement of people.

  5. Coal chemistry and technology. Komur Kimyasi ve Teknolojisi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kural, O [ed.

    1988-01-01

    The 18 chapters cover the following topics: mining in Turkey; formation, petrography and classification of coal; chemical and physical properties of coal; mechanical properties of coal; spontaneous combustion of coal and the methods of prevention; sampling of coal; coal preparation and plants; desulfurization of coal; bituminous coal and its consumption; lignite and its consumption; world coal trade and transportation; other important carbon fuels; briquetting of coal; carbonization and coking formed coke; liquefaction of coal; gasification of coal; underground gasification of coal; and combustion models, fluidized-bed combustion, furnaces. An English-Turkish coal dictionary is included. 641 refs., 244 figs., 108 tabs.

  6. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500-MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired cmbustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Field chemical emissions monitoring, Overfire air and overfire air/low NO{sub x} burner operation: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes data gathered by Radian Corporation at a coal-fired power plant, designated Site 16, for a program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services (SCS), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Concentrations of selected inorganic and organic substances were measured in the process and discharge streams of the plant operating under two different types of combustion modifications: overfire air (OFA) and a combination of overfire air with low-NO{sub x} burners (OFA/LNB). Information contained in this report will allow DOE and EPRI to determine the effects of low-NO{sub x} modifications on plant emissions and discharges. Sampling was performed on an opposed wall-fired boiler burning medium-sulfur bituminous coal. Emissions were controlled by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). The testing was conducted in two distinct sampling periods, with the OFA test performed in March of 1991 and the OFA/LNB test performed in May of 1993. Specific objectives were: to quantify emissions of target substances from the stack; to determine the efficiency of the ESPs for removing the target substances; and to determine the fate of target substances in the various plant discharge streams.

  7. Research on Coal Exploration Technology Based on Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the main source of energy. In China and Vietnam, coal resources are very rich, but the exploration level is relatively low. This is mainly caused by the complicated geological structure, the low efficiency, the related damage, and other bad situations. To this end, we need to make use of some advanced technologies to guarantee the resource exploration is implemented smoothly and orderly. Numerous studies show that remote sensing technology is an effective way in coal exploration and measurement. In this paper, we try to measure the distribution and reserves of open-air coal area through satellite imagery. The satellite picture of open-air coal mining region in Quang Ninh Province of Vietnam was collected as the experimental data. Firstly, the ENVI software is used to eliminate satellite imagery spectral interference. Then, the image classification model is established by the improved ELM algorithm. Finally, the effectiveness of the improved ELM algorithm is verified by using MATLAB simulations. The results show that the accuracies of the testing set reach 96.5%. And it reaches 83% of the image discernment precision compared with the same image from Google.

  8. CoalFleet for tomorrow. An industry initiative to accelerate the deployment of advanced coal-based generation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, J.; Holt, N.; Phillips, J. [Electric Power Research Institute (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The industry initiative 'CoalFleet for tomorrow' was launched in November 2004 to accelerate the deployment and commercialization of clean, efficient, advanced coal power systems. This paper discusses the structure of CoalFleet and its strategy for reducing the cost, leadtime and risk of deploying advanced coal technologies such as combined-cycle power plants. 6 figs.

  9. Air and gas cleaning technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    All large-scale uses of radioactive materials require rigid control of off-gases and generated aerosols. Nuclear air and gas cleaning technology has answered the need from the days of the Manhattan Project to the present with a variety of devices. The one with the longest and most noteworthy service is the HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter that originally was referred to as an absolute filter in recognition of its extraordinary particle retention characteristics. Activated-charcoal adsorbers have been employed worldwide for retention of volatile radioiodine in molecular and combined forms and, less frequently, for retention of radioactive noble gases. HEPA filters and activated -charcoal adsorbers are often used with auxiliary devices that serve to extend their effective service life or significantly improve collection efficiency under unfavorable operating conditions. Use of both air cleaning devices and their auxiliaries figure prominently in atomic energy, disposal of high- and low-level nuclear wastes, and in the production of fissile materials. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy would be impossible without these, or equivalent, air- and gas-cleaning devices

  10. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  11. General concepts and applications of the new clean technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovi D, G.

    1997-01-01

    The article is divided in three parts; in the first one it is the problem of the identification and the control of the environmental impact and of the sources of due contamination to the industry or the family sector; in second part they are considered the methods used for the transformation of existent plants and the setting in march of new plants; and in third part they are considered the implementation difficulties and the perspectives of success of the clean technologies. The work concludes that it is necessary to study the problem in their group, it is convenient to apply the possible solutions, be not still good

  12. Status of advanced ultra-supercritical pulverised coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-01

    In pulverised coal combustion (PCC) power plant, increasing the maximum temperature of the steam cycle increases the electrical efficiency, which in turn lowers both coal consumption and flue gas emissions. However, the maximum steam temperature is limited by materials that can operate at these conditions for practical service lifetimes without failure. The EU, USA, Japan, India and China all have material research programmes aiming for the next generation of increased steam temperatures and efficiency, known as advanced ultra-supercritical (AUSC) or 700°C technology. This report reviews developments and status of these major material research programmes.

  13. Ninth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Over 200 papers are presented under the following headings: coal preparation; Clean Coal Technology Program status; pre- and post-utilization processing; advanced conversion technologies; integrated gasification combined cycle; indirect liquefaction; advanced liquefaction process development; conversion processes; coal - from a user's perspective; issues associated with coal use in heat engines; fundamentals of combustion; advanced combustion systems; low quality fuel applications/fluidised beds; combustion systems; ash and sludge disposal/utilization; developing SO 2 /NO x control technologies; technical overview of air toxics; scientific, economic and policy perspectives on global climate change; Clean Air Act compliance strategies; environmental policy/technology; spontaneous combustion; and special topics

  14. Digital bus technology in new coal-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaney, J.; Murray, J. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The main issues associated with including digital bus technology such as Foundation fieldbus, Profibus-DP or DeviceNet, in a coal-fired power plant are deciding which systems to install and determining how to implement it. Although still new, digital bus experiences to date have shown that the technology performs solidly and when wiring best practices are followed a significantly shorted commissioning cycle can be achieved. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  16. Selected results of the slovak coal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hredzák Slavomír

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution gives the review of Slovak brown coal research in the last 10 years. The state and development trends of the coal research in Slovakia from the point of view of the clean coal technologies application are described. Some selected results which have been obtained at the Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences are also introduced.

  17. Guide to cleaner coal technology-related web sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R; Jenkins, N; Zhang, X [IEA Coal Research - The Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The 'Guide to Cleaner Coal Technology-Related Web Sites' is a guide to web sites that contain important information on cleaner coal technologies (CCT). It contains a short introduction to the World Wide Web and gives advice on how to search for information using directories and search engines. The core section of the Guide is a collection of factsheets summarising the information available on over 65 major web sites selected from organizations worldwide (except those promoting companies). These sites contain a wealth of information on CCT research and development, technology transfer, financing and markets. The factsheets are organised in the following categories. Associations, research centres and programmes; Climate change and sustainable development; Cooperative ventures; Electronic journals; Financial institutions; International organizations; National government information; and Statistical information. A full subject index is provided. The Guide concludes with some general comments on the quality of the sites reviewed.

  18. DuPont IsoTherming clean fuel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinski, E. [E.I. DuPont Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This poster described a hydroprocessing technology that DuPont has acquired from Process Dynamics, Inc. The IsoTherming clean fuel technology significantly reduces sulphur in motor fuels. The technology provides petroleum refiners the solution for meeting ultra low sulphur diesel requirements, at much lower costs than conventional technologies. IsoTherming hydroprocessing operates in a kinetically limited mode, with no mass transfer limitation. Hydrogen is delivered to the reactor in the liquid phase as soluble hydrogen, allowing for much higher space velocities than conventional hydrotreating reactors. Treated diesel is recycled back to the inlet of the reactor, generating less heat and more hydrogen into the reactor. The process results in a more isothermal reactor operation that allows for better yields, fewer light ends and greater catalyst life. The technology reduces coking, because the process provides enough hydrogen in the solution when cracking reactions take place. As a result, the process yields longer catalyst life. Other advantages for refiners include lower total investment; reduced equipment delivery lead times; reduced maintenance and operating costs; and configuration flexibility. tabs., figs.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

    2004-02-01

    The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

  20. Advanced coal combustion technologies and their environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic, Maja; Feretic, Danilo; Tomsic, Zeljko

    1997-01-01

    Estimations of world energy reserves show that coal will remain the leading primary energy source for electricity production in the foreseeable future. In order to comply with ever stricter environmental regulations and to achieve efficient use of limited energy resources, advanced combustion technologies are being developed. The most promising are the pressurised fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). By injecting sorbent in the furnace, PFBC removes more than 90 percent of SO 2 in flue gases without additional emission control device. In addition, due to lower combustion temperature, NO x emissions are around 90 percent lower than those from pulverised coal (PC) plant. IGCC plant performance is even more environmentally expectable and its high efficiency is a result of a combined cycle usage. Technical, economic and environmental characteristics of mentioned combustion technologies will be presented in this paper. Comparison of PFBC, IGCC and PC power plants economics and air impact will also be given. (Author)

  1. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel

  2. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    .... Bill 658, requires the FAA to identify bleed air purification technology. Specifically, the FAA seeks... Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0714] Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and... developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and sensor technology...

  3. Kazakhstan uranium industry: towards the XXI century with clean technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhakishev, M.E.; Yazikov, V.G.; Dujsebaev, B.O.; Zabaznov, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    Kazakhstan is a leading country of the world by uranium resources, and in the it Earth's interior 19 % of world proved resources are concentrated. At present the National Atomic Company (NAC) Kazatomprom is responsible for uranium mining and production of natural uranium and its compounds in the Republic. The company activity covers the exploring, mining and export of natural uranium; production of slightly enriched uranium compounds and fuel pellets production for nuclear reactors. In the company there are three Uranium Ore Mining Departments in the South Kazakhstan, VolgovGeology Geological Exploration Enterprise and Ulba Metallurgical Plant. Mining is carrying out by technologically progressive ecologically clean technology of in-situ well leaching. The key importance the company pays to environment protection activities. NAC Kazatomprom sees perspectives of Kazakhstan uranium industry in formation of general all-sufficient technological cycle from uranium mining to fuel supply on the nuclear plants. The missing links - enrichment by U-235 isotope and fuel assemblies production - should be replaces by formation of steady partnership cooperation with foreign enterprises

  4. Studying the dependence of quality of coal fine briquettes on technological parameters of their production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Н. Александрова

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study characterizes the role of coal in the fuel and energy balance of the Far East Region and points out the issue of losses of coal fines in the processes of coal mining, transportation and processing. To solve the problem of losses of coal fines, the mined coal is sorted into different size classes and fuel briquettes are produced from coal fines. Physical foundations are presented in short of briquetting solid combustible mineral resources. The dependences and variations of briquette compression strength limit are studied vs. charge humidity and briquetting pressure. Optimal parameters are retrieved for briquetting coal fines. The principal technological scheme is given of the process of briquette production. The developed technological solutions include sorting regular coal and briquetting coal fines, as well as the involvement of technogenic carbon-containing wastes from the hydrolysis production lines, plus residuals from oil refining.

  5. The role of the clean development mechanism in facilitating the application of biomass renewable energy technologies in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheng, Wong Hwee; Hvid, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The Malaysian Government's move to ratify the Kyoto Protocol in September 2001 reaffirms the country's support to combat global climate change. Although Malaysia is not bound by any commitments to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, the opportunities that exist through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be two-fold: to contribute to the country's sustainable development objectives and to improve the energy supply security through the application of clean energy technologies such as renewable energy technologies. Malaysia is very dependent on fossil fuel based technologies for electricity generation and energy production. In 2001 almost 90% of the total energy input to power stations was derived from fossil fuels. Although the energy mix will continue to be predominantly based on fossil fuels, indigenous renewable energy resources may come to play a noticeable role in complementing the depleting fossil fuels. This paper focuses on how best to utilize the oil palm residues for electricity generation and energy production as these residues are the 'low hanging fruits' that are readily available. It compares the use of two different technological uses of residues: distributes power generation and co-firing with coal in large-scale power plants. The paper analyses the financial, economic and environmental impacts of these technologies, and it discusses the relative benefits of the technologies. In addition, the paper look into the barriers associated with each of the technologies, and it suggests possible policy interventions to be adopted in order to promote a viable and environmentally efficient use of the limited biomass resources. (au)

  6. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  7. CLEAN HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY FOR 3-WHEEL TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Sapru

    2005-11-15

    Hydrogen is a clean burning, non-polluting transportation fuel. It is also a renewable energy carrier that can be produced from non-fossil fuel resources such as solar, wind and biomass. Utilizing hydrogen as an alternative fuel for vehicles will diversify the resources of energy, and reduce dependence on oil in the transportation sector. Additionally, clean burning hydrogen fuel will also alleviate air pollution that is a very severe problem in many parts of world, especially major metropolitan areas in developing countries, such as India and China. In our efforts to foster international collaborations in the research, development, and demonstration of hydrogen technologies, through a USAID/DOE cost-shared project, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.,(www.ovonic.com) a leading materials and alternative energy company, in collaboration with Bajaj Auto Limited, India's largest three-wheeler taxi manufacturer, has successfully developed and demonstrated prototype hydrogen ICE three-wheelers in the United States and India. ECD's proprietary Ovonic solid-state hydrogen storage technology is utilized on-board to provide a means of compact, low pressure, and safe hydrogen fuel. These prototype hydrogen three-wheelers have demonstrated comparable performance to the original CNG version of the vehicle, achieving a driving range of 130 km. The hydrogen storage system capable of storing 1 kg hydrogen can be refilled to 80% of its capacity in about 15 minutes at a pressure of 300 psi. The prototype vehicles developed under this project have been showcased and made available for test rides to the public at exhibits such as the 16th NHA annual meeting in April 2005, Washington, DC, and the SIAM (Society of Indian Automotive Manufacturers) annual conference in August 2005, New Delhi, India. Passengers have included members of the automotive industry, founders of both ECD and Bajaj, members of the World Bank, the Indian Union Minister for Finance, the President of the Asia

  8. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

    2012-04-30

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRI’s coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERC’s TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200–500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRI’s patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERC’s TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

  9. Portfolio Optimization of Nanomaterial Use in Clean Energy Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elizabeth A; Babbitt, Callie W; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Moore, Sean T

    2018-04-03

    While engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly incorporated in diverse applications, risks of ENM adoption remain difficult to predict and mitigate proactively. Current decision-making tools do not adequately account for ENM uncertainties including varying functional forms, unique environmental behavior, economic costs, unknown supply and demand, and upstream emissions. The complexity of the ENM system necessitates a novel approach: in this study, the adaptation of an investment portfolio optimization model is demonstrated for optimization of ENM use in renewable energy technologies. Where a traditional investment portfolio optimization model maximizes return on investment through optimal selection of stock, ENM portfolio optimization maximizes the performance of energy technology systems by optimizing selective use of ENMs. Cumulative impacts of multiple ENM material portfolios are evaluated in two case studies: organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) for renewable energy and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles. Results indicate ENM adoption is dependent on overall performance and variance of the material, resource use, environmental impact, and economic trade-offs. From a sustainability perspective, improved clean energy applications can help extend product lifespans, reduce fossil energy consumption, and substitute ENMs for scarce incumbent materials.

  10. Research, development, demonstration, and early deployment policies for advanced-coal technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2007-01-01

    Advanced-coal technologies will increasingly play a significant role in addressing China's multiple energy challenges. This paper introduces the current status of energy in China, evaluates the research, development, and demonstration policies for advanced-coal technologies during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and gives policy prospects for advanced-coal technologies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Early deployment policies for advanced-coal technologies are discussed and some recommendations are put forward. China has made great progress in the development of advanced-coal technologies. In terms of research, development, and demonstration of advanced-coal technologies, China has achieved breakthroughs in developing and demonstrating advanced-coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, and key technologies of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and co-production systems. Progress on actual deployment of advanced-coal technologies has been more limited, in part due to insufficient supporting policies. Recently, industry chose Ultra Super Critical (USC) Pulverized Coal (PC) and Super Critical (SC) PC for new capacity coupled with pollution-control technology, and 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) as a supplement

  11. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Company, Billings, MT (United States); Heintz, S.J. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  12. Research on novel coal conversion technology for energy and environment in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Takarada [Gunma University (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    In the 21st century, more efficient coal conversion technology will be needed. In this paper, novel gasification, pyrolysis and desulfurization processes using active catalysts are introduced. In particular, the application of ion-exchanged metals in brown coal to coal conversion technology is featured in this study. Other topics discussed include: Catalysis of mineral matter in coal; Catalytic effectiveness of Ni and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for various coals; Direct production of methane from steam gasification; Preparation of active catalysts from NaCl and KCl using brown coal; Gasification of high rank coal by mixing K-exchanged brown coal; Recovery of sulfur via catalytic SO{sub 2} gasification of coal char; Research on novel coal conversion technology BTX production by hydropyrolysis of coal in PPFB using catalyst; High BTU gas production by low-temperature catalytic hydropyrolysis of coal; and Ca-exchanged brown coal as SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S sorbents. 12 refs., 17 figs.

  13. Fiscal 1999 report on results of joint demonstrative project for environmentally benign coal utilization system. Demonstrative project concerning coal preparation technology (China); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo seika hokokusho. Sentan gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho jigyo (Chugoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the demonstrative project for coal preparation technology, as a part of the measures against environmental pollution due to the structuring of demonstration and dissemination basis for clean coal technologies in China, The results for fiscal 1999 is reported. In the utilization of coal in China, a problem of urgency is the highly efficient selection and removal of sulfur contents in raw coal. Coal production in Chongquing City is yearly 30 million tons, of which 90% contains sulfur contents of 3% or higher. At Jinjia Colliery of Panjiang Coal and Electric Co. Ltd., Guizhou Province, a site for the present project, a number of coal seams are unsuitable for single utilization because of high sulfur contents. The coal preparation technologies to be introduced are expected to improve coal preparation efficiency and desulfurization ratio in terms of both the washability of raw coal and the accuracy of the coal washer. This is the third year of the project, with the following activities performed, namely, research/design, manufacturing/procurement of equipment, design for construction work, training of operators or the like, and documentation. The manufacturing and procurement are for such equipment as vacuum disk filter with accessories, waste water thickener, pressure filter for tailings with accessories, flocculant pump/piping, slurry tank/pump, high-shear mixer with accessories, and electric instrumentation. All the equipment arrived at the site in January, 2001. (NEDO)

  14. Proceedings of the sixteenth international conference on coal and slurry technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of this conference are grouped under the following headings: Update in operating slurry pipeline systems; Environmental aspects; Materials and equipment; Indirect coal, liquefaction, Pipeline technology; Coal preparation and beneficiation; Direct coal liquefaction; Rheology characterization and formulation; Atomization and combustion; Demonstrations and evaluations; Small scale applications

  15. Washability characteristics of residual coals obtained from solvent extraction: studies towards developing cleaner coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, C.C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2004-07-01

    The washability characteristics of original Indian coals and solvent-extracted residual coals were studied by the float and sink technique. The following conclusions were drawn on the basis of the present study. Anthracene oil-extracted residual coals have lower percentage of reactions in the specific gravity range of 1.4 to 1.6 than the original coals, which indicates that the mineral matter is disassociated from the organic mass, and the anthracene oil-extracted residual coal is more suitable for washing than the original coal. The floatability behaviour of coal increases during NMP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) extraction. This indicates that coal changes its washability character during NMP extractions. As during NMP extraction the surface area of coal increases by creating fissures in the matrix, the chemical leaching technique would be more suitable to remove the mineral matter in the residual coals. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Device for filling up air cleaning cells with adsorbent coal and its loading process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, H.C.; Allard, M.D.; Petit, J.L.; Sfulgis, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns improved appliances enabling granules to be compressed, evenly on the whole, in a hopper, filter or any other component to be filled with such granules. This criterion is particularly important in the case of air filters using granulated adsorbing coal for separating the radioactive substances in the air should an ccident occur in a nuclear power station [fr

  17. Longwall top coal caving (LTCC) mining technologies with roof softening by hydraulic fracturing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishin, V.; Nikitenko, S.; Opruk, G.

    2018-05-01

    The paper discusses advanced top coal caving technologies for thick coal seams and addresses some issues of incomplete coal extraction, which can result in the environmental damage, landscape change, air and water pollution and endogenous fires. The authors put forward a fundamentally new, having no equivalent and ecology-friendly method to difficult-to-cave roof coal – directional hydraulic fracturing and nonexplosive disintegration.

  18. China power - thermal coal and clean coal technology export. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binsheng Li

    1996-12-31

    China is the world`s fourth largest electric power producer, and is expected to surpass Japan within the next two years to become the third largest power producer. During the past 15 years, China`s total electricity generation more than tripled, increasing from about 300 TWh to about 1,000 TWh. Total installed generating capacity grew at an average of 8.2 percent per year, increasing from 66 to 214 GW. The share of China`s installed capacity in Asia increased from 21 to 31 percent. The Chinese government plans to continue China`s rapid growth rate in the power sector. Total installed capacity is planned to reach 300 GW by 2000, which will generate 1,400 TWh of electricity per year. China`s long-term power sector development is subject to great uncertainty. Under the middle scenario, total capacity is expected to reach 700 GW by 2015, with annual generation of 3,330 TWh. Under the low and high scenarios, total capacity will reach 527-1,005 GW by 2015. The high scenario representing possible demand. To achieve this ambitious scenario, dramatic policy changes in favor of power development are required; however, there is no evidence that such policy changes will occur at this stage. Even under the high scenario, China`s per capita annual electricity consumption would be only 3,000 kWh by 2015, less than half of the present per capita consumption for OECD countries. Under the low scenario, electricity shortages will seriously curb economic growth.

  19. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E.; Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L.; Lacroix, M.; Carra, O.; Dechelette, F.; Prele, G.; Rodriguez, G.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO 2 interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  20. Trajectories towards clean technology. Example of volatile organic compound emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belis-Bergouignan, Marie-Claude; Oltra, Vanessa; Saint Jean, Maider [IFREDE-E3i, University Montesquieu-Bordeaux IV, Avenue Leon Duguit, Pessac 33608 (France)

    2004-02-20

    This article is based on the observation that, up until now, corporate investment has been limited in clean technologies despite the will of governmental authorities to stimulate them in order to cope with the demands of sustainable development. The paper deals with the issue of the development of clean technologies and the role of regulations as clean technology promoters. It tries to apprehend the characteristics and specificity of clean technology from both an empirical and a theoretical point of view, so as to understand which are the most favourable (or inversely, the most detrimental) conditions for their development. We use case studies concerning the reduction of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in the chemical and metallurgical industries. These two examples highlight the problems created by the shift from a 'with-solvent paradigm' to a 'solvent-free paradigm' and the way clean technology trajectories may spread within such paradigms. We show that the problem of clean technology development primarily resides in some factors that impede technological adoption, although a strong and mixed incentives framework prevails. Such impediments are sector-specific, leading to different clean technology trajectories among sectors and indicating areas of sectoral intervention that could become the cornerstones of complementary technology policy.

  1. Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future: Interlaboratory Working Group on Energy-Efficient and Clean-Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2000-12-18

    This study estimates the potential for public policies and R and D programs to foster clean energy technology solutions to the energy and environmental challenges facing the nation. These challenges include global climate change, air pollution, oil dependence, and inefficiencies in the production and use of energy. The study uses a scenario-based approach to examine alternative portfolios of public policies and technologies. Although the report makes no policy recommendations, it does present policies that could lead to impressive advances in the development and deployment of clean energy technologies without significant net economic impacts. Appendices are available electronically at: www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/29379appendices.pdf (6.4 MB).

  2. Analysis on energy saving and emission reduction of clean energy technology in ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Qin, Cuihong; Peng, Chuansheng

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the application of clean energy technology in ports. Using Ningbo port Co. Ltd. Beilun second container terminal branch as an example, we analyze the effect of energy saving and emission reduction of CO2 and SO2 by clean energy alternative to fuel oil, and conclude that the application of clean energy technology in the container terminal is mature, and can achieve effect of energy-saving and emission reduction of CO2 and SO2. This paper can provide as a reference for the promotion and application of clean energy in ports.

  3. The Development of Environmentally Friendly Technologies of Using Coals and Products of Their Enrichment in the Form of Coal Water Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murko, Vasily; Hamalainen, Veniamin

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the current state of the technology for production and combustion of fuel coal water slurries in Russia and foreign countries. Experimental and industrial facilities show the technological and economic efficiency of using this technology for disposal of wastes resulting after coal processing and enrichment. The feasibility studies of use of the technology at large Kuzbass thermal power stations are presented. The possibility of solving a serious environmental problem of reducing storage of the most toxic waste of coal enrichment in the location areas of coal washing plants and coal mining enterprises is demonstrated.

  4. The Clean Air Act implementation and the coal industry: A regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolka, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Utility regulators are responsible for insuring that there is a sufficient supply of electricity to meet consumers needs at a reasonable price. The Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission Act (CAA) compliance strategies are effective at the lowest possible cost. Those potential compliance costs in Pennsylvania may exceed $3 billion by the end of the decade. This does not include worst case estimates of over $750 million per year in added operations and maintenance costs. In the face of these expenses, concerns such as jobs and the health of Pennsylvania's coal industry may carry little weight. The Commission cannot relieve companies of their responsibility for complying. Thus, in order to maintain its market among electric companies, coal will have to be competitive both in offering solutions to the emissions requirements of the CAA and in providing acceptable alternatives for future, new generating plants

  5. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vol.9. No.1. Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Third APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Coal Flow Seminar was held featuring regional investment strategies for coal, power infrastructure, and technology transfer in Terrigal, Australia in 26-28, November, 1996. This publication introduces the summary and the papers presented for the keynote speeches and the panels of this seminar. For the keynote speeches, `Investment requirements for steaming coal supplies in APEC member economies,` `Barriers to investment across the APEC regional coal chain,` `The role of advanced coal technologies in greenhouse gas abatement and financing its development and uptake,` `Investment in clean coal power plants,` and `Role of multilateral development banks in financing clean coal technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emission` were presented. In addition, summary and papers describing individual situations of APEC member economies are introduced. 59 refs., 42 figs., 37 tabs.

  6. Extractable trace elements and sodium in Illinois coal-cleaning wastes: correlation with concentrations in tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.G.

    1983-07-01

    Trace element concentrations in shoots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were correlated with extractable element concentrations in five southern Illinois coal-cleaning wastes limed to pH 6.5, in a greenhouse study to determine applicability of soil tests to coal-waste evaluation. There was little or no correlation between shoot concentrations of Fe, and Fe extracted from the wastes by dilute acid (r equals 0.60), DTPA at pH 6.4 (r equals 0.47) or DTPA at pH 8.4 (r equals -0.17). The corresponding r values for Mn were 0.94, 0.97, and 0.96; for Zn, 0.96, 0.96, and 0.88; and for Cu, 0.67, 0.90, and 0.88, respectively. Shoot B correlated well with hot water-soluble B(r equals 0.96) and acid-soluble B(r equals 0.91). Correlations for shoot Na were also good with water-soluble Na and acid-soluble Na (r equals 0.96 in both cases). Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Se in the shoots were well below reported upper critical levels, and similar to concentrations in the grass grown on a silt loam under the same greenhouse conditions. 21 references.

  7. U.S. Near-Zero Emissions Program: CCS - Clean Coal R&D, FutureGen, & Demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Der, Victor [Department of Energy (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper a projection of the CO{sub 2} emissions in the United States is shown; the technical challenges in the capture and sequestration of the CO{sub 2}; what is understood by carbon sequestration; the three elements of the capture and CO{sub 2} storage that are: capture, transport, and storage; the FutureGen project; plants of coal combustion with sequestration, and at the end an initiative for the generation with clean coal is presented. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se muestra una proyeccion de las emisiones de CO{sub 2} en los Estados Unidos; los retos tecnicos en la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2}; que entendemos por secuestro de carbono; los tres elementos de la captura y almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} que son captura, transporte y almacenamiento; el proyecto FutureGen; plantas de combustion de carbon con secuestro, y al final se presenta una iniciativa para la generacion con carbon limpio.

  8. Economic and environmental aspects of coal preparation and the impact on coal use for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    Australia is the world's largest coal exporter, and coal is the nation's largest export and dominant revenue earner. The future competitiveness of coal will be maintained through improved preparation of coal for traditional markets, by upgrading for new markets, and via coal utilization processes that are more efficient and environmentally acceptable. Australia is also a niche supplier of technologies and services with the potential to expand. This potential extends to the increasing vertical integration of coal supplies (whether Australian, indigenous or blended) with downstream utilization such as power generation. Technological advancement is a key element of industry strategy and coal preparation research and development, and clean coal technologies are critical aspects. This paper summarizes these issues, linking the economic and environmental aspects across the coal production and utilization chain. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs

  9. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  10. Non-mine technology of hydrocarbon resources production at complex development of gas and coal deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saginov, A.S.; Adilov, K.N.; Akhmetbekov, Sh.U.

    1997-01-01

    Non-mine technology of coal gas seams exploitation is new geological technological method of complex exploitation of coal gas deposits. The method allows sequentially to extract hydrocarbon resources in technological aggregative-mobile condensed states. According to natural methane content in seams the technology includes: methane extraction from sorption volume where it is bounded up with coal; gas output intensification of coal is due to structural changes of substance at the cost of physico-chemical treatment of seam; increase of seam permeability by the methods of active physical and physico-chemical actions on coal seam (hydro-uncovering, pneumatic hydro action etc.). Pilot testing shows efficiency of well mastering with help of depth pumps. In this case works of action of pumping out of operating liquid and gas extraction from coal seam are integrated

  11. Hard coal as a source of clean energy in Poland; Wegiel kamienny jako zrodlo czystej energii w Polsce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ney, R.; Blaschke, W.; Lorenz, U.; Gawlik, L. [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    The paper addresses the issues and problems related to hard coal usage for energy production in Poland. These include coal quality, coal reserves, coal preparation, coal pricing, pollution regulations, and organisation and modernisation of the Polish power industry. 11 refs., 12 tabs.

  12. Elusive prize: enormous coal gas potential awaits production technology breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2002-01-07

    The expanded gas pipeline grid has excess capacity, and gas resources are declining. There is increasing interest in development of Canada's resources of coalbed methane (CBM). The chairman of the Canadian Coalbed Methane Forum estimates that Canada has more than 3,000 trillion ft{sup 3} of gas awaiting suitable technology. PanCanadian and MGV Energy conducted a CBM exploration and pilot study on the Palliser spread in southern Alberta. Results from 23 of 75 wells are encouraging. The study is being accelerated and expanded to include an additional 50 wells elsewhere in Alberta. Some scientists anticipate commercial CBM production within two years. Problems facing developers include the large land holdings necessary for economic CBM production and the disposal of coal formation water. It is anticipated that U.S. technology will be modified and used. The potential for CBM development at Pictou in Nova Scotia and in British Columbia in the foothills is considered. 3 figs.

  13. Technology of new generation of manufacture of liquid products from coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the given work the review about a condition of research and trial works on technology perfection hydrogenation coals is made. Done design work on processing 65 thousand tons / year Karazhyra coal to liquid fuels and other products of combustion purposes. The basic advantage of the Kazakhstan technology for producing motor fuels coal hydrogenation at low pressure hydrogen (up to 5 MPa compared to the processes developed in the USA, Germany, Japan, Great Britain, and Russia. An integrated low-waste technology and coal processing, which allows the production of industrially important: liquid and patent fuel, binders for briquetting, and allocate bitumen due to the utilization of sludge.

  14. Review of coal-water fuel pulverization technology and atomization quality registration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of coal-water fuel application in industrial power engineering are considered and described. Two main problems and disadvantages of this fuel type are suggested. The paper presents information about liquid fuel atomization technologies and provides data on nozzle type for coal-water fuel pulverization. This article also mentions some of the existing technologies for coal-water slurry spraying quality determination.

  15. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L. [CEA, DEN, DPC Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lacroix, M. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carra, O. [AREVA / NP, 10 Rue Juliette Recamier, 69003 Lyon (France); Dechelette, F. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Prele, G. [EDF/SEPTEN, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbane Cedex (France); Rodriguez, G. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO{sub 2} interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  16. A new power station with clean combustion of coal residues financed by the Commission wins an international prize. Una nueva central electrica de combustion limpia de residuos de carbon financiada por la Comision gana un premio internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furfari, S. (Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Energy, Energy Technology Unit)

    1993-07-01

    Between 1987 and 1989 10,55 million ecus were given by the European Commission's Demonstration Programme for the construction of the Emile Huchet power station using circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The power station was constructed jointly by Charbonnages de France, COREAL, Stein Industrie and Lurgi. An important feature was its ability to burn coal preparation wastes cleanly. Despite burning poor quality fuel its emissions are well below the maximum standards. Other stations of this type are now planned in France.

  17. Asia-Pacific workshop on coal mining technology 2001. Coal in the 21st century - harmonization and globalization of technology. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: prospect of coal resources development; safety issue and needs of research cooperation; and development of safety technology - role of advanced countries.

  18. The prospects of hard and brown coal in Poland and in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Majchrzak, Henryk; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja

    2010-09-15

    Poland possess significant reserves of hard and brown coal and is an important producer of these fuels, for that reason coal has a dominant position in Polish energy balance. The government document describing energy policy of Poland up to the year 2030 treats Polish coal as an stabilizer of national energy safety. The progress in clean coal technologies development is a key element to determine the role of Polish coal both in Polish and EU economy. The possibilities of prospective use of coal pointing at the main direction of clean technology development has also been discussed in the paper.

  19. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix G: Commercial design and technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A technology evaluation of five coal gasifier systems (Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi and BGC/Lurgi) and procedures and criteria for evaluating competitive commercial coal gasification designs is presented. The technology evaluation is based upon the plant designs and cost estimates developed by the BDM-Mittelhauser team.

  20. Regional technological change in US coal mines: 1951-76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhani, H A

    1982-04-01

    This paper analyses technological change in coal mines in five regions - the Northern and Southern Appalachians, the Rocky Mountains, the Interior and Gulf and Northern Great Plains. Section 2 deals with changes in production profiles, over time, of the regions by dividing coal mines into underground and surface mines. It concludes that the Appalachian regions are the declining regions with lower labour productivity and that the Northern Great Plains, with its increasing labour productivity, is the expanding region. Section 3 presents a methodology of S-shaped growth curves. Section 4 reports empirical results for growth rates of adoption of the newer techniques across regions. These results reveal that the Northern Great Plains region is not absorbing the manpower and resources released by the Appalachian regions so that there are shortages in the former in the face of unemployment in the latter. There is, therefore, an opportunity for the declining Appalachian regions to inform their surplus manpower and resources about the growth centre in the north and prepare them for relocation, retraining and readjustment to the changes. (11 refs.)

  1. Casing drilling TM : a viable technology for coal bed methane?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madell, G.; Muqeem, M. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This paper highlighted the experience that Tesco has gained by drilling more than 30 wells using only casings as the drill stem, suggesting that such technology could be advantageous for Coal Bed Methane (CBM) exploration and development. Tesco has manufactured a mobile and compact hydraulic drilling rig that is ideal to meet the great demand for CBM development in Canada. The Casing Drilling TM system, when used in conjunction with the drilling rig, could be very effective and efficient for exploration and development of CBM reserves which typically require extensive coring. Continuous coring while drilling ahead and wire line retrieval can offer time savings and quick core recovery of large diameter core required for exploration core desorption tests. The proposed system may also have the potential to core or drill typically tight gas sands or coal beds under balanced with air or foam. This would reduce drilling fluid damage while finding gas at the same time. Compared to conventional drill pipes, Casing Drilling TM could also be effective with water production from shallow sands because of the smaller annual clearance which requires less air volumes to lift any produced water. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  2. Remote Water Lance Technology for Cleaning Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, R.M.; Owen, J.R.; Mangold, F.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the use of remote water lances for cleaning sludge or solidified heel materials from waste tanks. S.A.Robotics has developed a long arm retrieval system to deploy ultra-high pressure water lances and vacuum recovery systems for tank cleanup operations. This system uses remote-operated telescoping long arms with light weight, high strength materials, innovative high capacity joint designs, and multiple degrees of freedom to deploy tank cleaning heads to all areas within the tanks. Arm designs can be scaled and adjusted to suit even the largest tanks. (authors)

  3. The Shell gasification technology offers clean solutions for refineries and utility companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlaswinkel, E.E.; Posthuma, S.A.; Zuideveld, P.L. [Shell International Oil Products BV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Shell has developed two dedicated gasification technologies, the Shell Gasification Process (SGP) for gaseous and liquid feed stocks and the Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) for coal, lignite and petroleum coke. These processes are described. One of the most recent applications of SGP is the PER+ Shell Refinery project in the Netherlands which is nearly completed. A 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on SCGP has recently been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). These two projects are discussed.

  4. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  5. Strengthening Clean Energy Technology Cooperation under the UNFCCC: Steps toward Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, R.; de Coninck, H.; Dhar, S.; Hansen, U.; McLaren, J.; Painuly, J.

    2010-08-01

    Development of a comprehensive and effective global clean technology cooperation framework will require years of experimenting and evaluation with new instruments and institutional arrangements before it is clear what works on which scale and in which region or country. In presenting concrete examples, this paper aims to set the first step in that process by highlighting successful models and innovative approaches that can inform efforts to ramp up clean energy technology cooperation. This paper reviews current mechanisms and international frameworks for global cooperation on clean energy technologies, both within and outside of the UNFCCC, and provides selected concrete options for scaling up global cooperation on clean energy technology RD&D, enabling environment, and financing.

  6. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. 76 FR 34041 - Clean Technologies Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... national and regional government officials; and networking events. Participating in an official U.S... and sanitation, etc., in 63 cities nationwide.) The booming Indian economy, rapid industrialization... environmental quality. The city's size makes it particularly attractive market for large investments in clean...

  8. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1993--March 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.; Shepard, J.F.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.; Chander, S.; Cho, H.; Ityokumbul, M.T.; Klima, M.S. [and others

    1994-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. To achieve the objectives of the program, a team of researchers was assembled. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFS) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phases I and II are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  9. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  10. Development of life cycle water-demand coefficients for coal-based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for coal power generation. • We develop life cycle water footprints for 36 coal-based electricity generation pathways. • Different coal power generation technologies were assessed. • Sensitivity analysis of plant performance and coal transportation on water demand. - Abstract: This paper aims to develop benchmark coefficients for water consumption and water withdrawals over the full life cycle of coal-based power generation. This study considered not only all of the unit operations involved in the full electricity generation life cycle but also compared different coal-based power generating technologies. Overall this study develops the life cycle water footprint for 36 different coal-based electricity generation pathways. Power generation pathways involving new technologies of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or ultra supercritical technology with coal transportation by conventional means and using dry cooling systems have the least complete life cycle water-demand coefficients of about 1 L/kW h. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to study the impact of power plant performance and coal transportation on the water demand coefficients. The consumption coefficient over life cycle of ultra supercritical or IGCC power plants are 0.12 L/kW h higher when conventional transportation of coal is replaced by coal-log pipeline. Similarly, if the conventional transportation of coal is replaced by its transportation in the form of a slurry through a pipeline, the consumption coefficient of a subcritical power plant increases by 0.52 L/kW h

  11. On a clean power generation system with the co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; He, Boshu

    2017-07-01

    A clean power generation system was built based on the steam co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier. The chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling technology was used to supply oxygen for the calciner. The solid oxide fuel cell and the steam turbine were combined to generate power. The calcium looping and mineral carbonation were used for CO 2 capture and sequestration. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of this system. The effects of key operation parameters on the system total energy efficiency (ŋ ten ), total exergy efficiency (ŋ tex ) and carbon sequestration rate (R cs ) were detected. The energy and exergy balance calculations were implemented and the corresponding Sankey and Grassmann diagrams were drawn. It was found that the maximum energy and exergy losses occurred in the steam turbine. The system ŋ ten and ŋ tex could be ∼50% and ∼47%, and R cs could be over unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S. [W.S. Hinton and Associates, Cantonment, FL (United States); Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  13. Research on Occupational Safety, Health Management and Risk Control Technology in Coal Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lu-Jie; Cao, Qing-Gui; Yu, Kai; Wang, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Bin

    2018-04-26

    This paper studies the occupational safety and health management methods as well as risk control technology associated with the coal mining industry, including daily management of occupational safety and health, identification and assessment of risks, early warning and dynamic monitoring of risks, etc.; also, a B/S mode software (Geting Coal Mine, Jining, Shandong, China), i.e., Coal Mine Occupational Safety and Health Management and Risk Control System, is developed to attain the aforementioned objectives, namely promoting the coal mine occupational safety and health management based on early warning and dynamic monitoring of risks. Furthermore, the practical effectiveness and the associated pattern for applying this software package to coal mining is analyzed. The study indicates that the presently developed coal mine occupational safety and health management and risk control technology and the associated software can support the occupational safety and health management efforts in coal mines in a standardized and effective manner. It can also control the accident risks scientifically and effectively; its effective implementation can further improve the coal mine occupational safety and health management mechanism, and further enhance the risk management approaches. Besides, its implementation indicates that the occupational safety and health management and risk control technology has been established based on a benign cycle involving dynamic feedback and scientific development, which can provide a reliable assurance to the safe operation of coal mines.

  14. Development of clean environment conservation technology by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myunjoo; Kim, Tak Hyun; Jung, In Ha

    2012-04-01

    This report is aim to develop the technology for environmental conservation by radiation. It is consisted of two research parts. One is development of wastewater disinfection technology by radiation and the other is development of livestock waste treatment technology by radiation. For the development of wastewater disinfection technology disinfect ion process, technology for treatment of toxic organic chemicals and assessment of ecological toxicity, technology for treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals and assessment of genetic safety were developed. For the development of livestock waste treatment technology, process for simultaneous removal of nutrients, technology for disinfection and quality enhancement of livestock waste compost, technology for reduction of composting periods, monitoring of toxic organic compounds, pretreatment technology for organic toxic chemicals and enhancement of biological treatment efficiencies were developed. Based on basic research, advanced livestock wastewater treatment process using radiation was established

  15. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  16. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  17. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for Clean Power and Syngas Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy, Fabrice [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Hufton, Jeffrey [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Bhadra, Shubhra [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Weist, Edward [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Lau, Garret [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Jonas, Gordon [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Air Products has developed an acid gas removal technology based on adsorption (Sour PSA) that favorably compares with incumbent AGR technologies. During this DOE-sponsored study, Air Products has been able to increase the Sour PSA technology readiness level by successfully operating a two-bed test system on coal-derived sour syngas at the NCCC, validating the lifetime and performance of the adsorbent material. Both proprietary simulation and data obtained during the testing at NCCC were used to further refine the estimate of the performance of the Sour PSA technology when expanded to a commercial scale. In-house experiments on sweet syngas combined with simulation work allowed Air Products to develop new PSA cycles that allowed for further reduction in capital expenditure. Finally our techno economic analysis of the use the Sour PSA technology for both IGCC and coal-to-methanol applications suggests significant improvement of the unit cost of electricity and methanol compared to incumbent AGR technologies.

  18. Technological research in coal mining. La investigacion tecnologica en la mineria del carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caride Linan, C. (OCICARBON, Madrid (Spain))

    1990-09-01

    Ocicarbon was formed in 1985 as a consequence of the resolutions, adopted by Congress when the then current National Energy Plan was approved. The aim of this non-profit making private organisation which is made up of national coal producers is to manage, promote and finance technological research and development of interest to both coal producers and customers. 2 figs.

  19. Alberta Office of Coal Research and Technology: Annual review 1991-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Annual report of the Office, established in 1984 to coordinate the government funding needed to identify, investigate and develop coal-related technologies. Background is given along with coal research strategy and research priorities. Short explanations are given of the various research projects being undertaken in mining, preparation and upgrading, combustion, liquefaction/co-processing, gasification, environment, enhanced oil recovery, the Western Canadian Low-Sulfur to Coal Program, and the Coal Research Contractor's Conference. Project expenditures are then listed by title and year, along with other statistics. A listing of the status of projects supported by the Office is also included, along with a list of publications currently available.

  20. Feasibility of zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes for clean energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, A. W.; Dubbeldam, D.; Liu, M. S.; Ladewig, B. P.; Hill, A. J.; Hill, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Gas separation technologies for carbon-free hydrogen and clean gaseous fuel production must efficiently perform the following separations: (1) H2/CO2 (and H2/N2) for pre-combustion coal gasification, (2) CO2/N2 for post-combustion of coal, (3) CO2/CH4 for natural gas sweetening and biofuel

  1. Geographic information technology monitoring and mapping of coal fires in Ukraine, according to the space survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivnyak, G.; Busygin, B.; Garkusha, I. [National Mining Univ., Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2010-07-01

    Coal fires are a significant problem around the world, particularly in China, India, and the United States. Coal fires burn thousands of tons of coal reserves and lead to serious problems for the environment, degradation and destruction of landscape, and harm public health. Technology, such as spectrology analysis of signatures with high temperature activity can be used to calculate vegetation algorithms and soil indexes, and multispectral survey data in the thermal channels of scanners. This paper presented the perspectives of technology development in coal fires and the approach to the detection, monitoring, and quantitative estimation of coal fires by the instruments using geographic information systems. Specifically, the paper considered the use of coal fire fragment monitoring technology from data of a diachronous survey obtained by Landsat satellites, to classify dangerous coal waste banks of the Donbass Mine located in Ukraine. The paper provided a description of the study area and discussed the detection technology of temperature-active waste banks. It was concluded that geoinformation technology provides an opportunity to effectively mark mining dumps, in particular, waste banks in multispectrum space images made by Landsat satellites. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Coal Quality Expert: Status and software specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the Clean Coal Technology Program (Clean Coal Round 1), the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are funding the development and demonstration of a computer program called the Coal Quality Expert (CQE trademark). When finished, the CQE will be a comprehensive PC-based program which can be used to evaluate several potential coal cleaning, blending, and switching options to reduce power plant emissions while minimizing generation costs. The CQE will be flxible in nature and capable of evaluating various qualities of coal, available transportation options, performance issues, and alternative emissions control strategies. This allows the CQE to determine the most cost-effective coal and the least expensive emissions control strategy for a given plant. To accomplish this, the CQE will be composed of technical models to evaluate performance issues; environmental models to evaluate environmental and regulatory issues; and cost estimating models to predict costs for installations of new and retrofit coal cleaning processes, power production equipment, and emissions control systems as well as other production costs such as consumables (fuel, scrubber additive, etc.), waste disposal, operating and maintenance, and replacement energy costs. These technical, environmental, and economic models as well as a graphical user interface will be developed for the CQE. And, in addition, to take advantage of already existing capability, the CQE will rely on seamless integration of already proven and extensively used computer programs such as the EPRI Coal Quality Information Systems, Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM trademark), and NO x Pert. 2 figs

  3. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal Energy Technology Center

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round 2. The project is described in the report ''Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO(sub x)) Emissions from High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers'' (Southern Company Services 1990). In June 1990, Southern Company Services (Southern) entered into a cooperative agreement to conduct the study. Southern was a cofunder and served as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. Other participants and cofunders were EPRI (formerly the Electric Power Research Institute) and Ontario Hydro. DOE provided 40 percent of the total project cost of$23 million. The long-term operation phase of the demonstration was started in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. This independent evaluation is based primarily on information from Southern's Final Report (Southern Company Services 1996). The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH(sub 3)) into boiler flue gas and passing the 3 flue gas through a catalyst bed where the NO(sub x) and NH(sub 3) react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The objectives of the demonstration project were to investigate: Performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and manufacturing methods at typical U.S. high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions; Catalyst resistance to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals but not present, or present at much lower concentrations, in fuels from other countries; and Effects on the balance-of-plant equipment

  4. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  5. Effects of long-term coal supply contracts on technology adoption and improvements in the mining of coal. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.R.; Hawkins, S.A.; Webb, P.F.; Kauffman, P.W.

    1979-08-01

    The relationship between long-term coal supply contracts and the adoption of new technology in the coal mining industry is a complex one. From this study certain conclusions can be drawn. New technologies and improvements in the mining of coal can be logically categorized into three areas: evolutionary technology, transitional technology, or innovative technology. Evolutionary improvements in technology can be categorized as improvements, or increased production capacities, in existing equipment. Transitional technology involves the adoption of existing or proven technologies into new conditions, or, proceeding from one technology type to a newer type for the same function. Innovative technology includes equipment, concepts, and systems not readily available, or untried, in the existing mining environment (seam conditions, etc.). Technology adoption is an economic decision. This point was repeatedly emphasized by industry representatives contacted during the study. The long-term coal supply contract influences the decision to adopt new technology and mining improvements in several ways depending on the technology type (i.e., evolutionary, transitional, or innovative), and also the coal supplier type (i.e., captive or independent producer). Several examples of the adoption of new technologies in mines under long-term coal supply contracts are discussed. (LTN)

  6. TECHNOLOGY OF REVERSE-BLAST CORROSION CLEANING OF STEEL SHEETS PRIOR TO LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zguk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of surface cleaning against corrosion influences on efficiency in realization of a number of technological processes. While using bentonite clays in power fluid reverse-blast cleaning ensures formation of anticorrosion protective coating with light absorbing properties on the cleaned surface and prevents formation of the repeated corrosion. The paper presents results of the investigations pertaining to influence of reverse-blast cleaning parameters of steel sheets on quality of the cleaned surface prior to laser cutting. Processing conditions, applied compositions of power fluid and also properties of the protective film coatings on the cleaned surface have been given in the paper. The paper considers topography, morphology and chemical composition of the given coating while applying complex metal micrographic, X-ray diffraction and electronic and microscopic investigations. A complex of laser cutting (refer to gas lasers with output continuous capacity of 2.5/4.0 kW has been applied for experimental works to evaluate influence of the formed surface quality on efficiency of laser cutting process. Specimens having dimension 120×120 mm, made of steel Ст3пс, with thickness from 3 to 10 mm have been prepared for the experiments. An analysis has shown that the application of reverse-blast cleaning ensures higher speed in laser cutting by a mean of 10–20 %. The investigations have made it possible to determine optimum cleaning modes: distance from a nozzle to the surface to be cleaned, jet velocity, pressure. It has been revealed that after drying of the specimens processed by power fluid based on water with concentrations of bentonite clay and calcined soda a protective film coating with thickness of some 5–7 µm has been formed on the whole cleaned specimen surfaces. Chemical base of the coating has been formed by the elements which are included in the composition of bentonite clay being the basic component of the power fluid. 

  7. The contemporary coal industry: dancing to faster music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R. [World Coal Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    Within a framework that supports sustainable development, the issues of changing coal markets, environmental policy and climate change, and the positive marketing of coal as a solution to energy demand are discussed. Changes affect both domestic and international markets, and each subset of the market is different. In Europe, coal consumption is declining in contrast with expanding Asian energy markets. Clean coal technologies improve efficiency and make coal more acceptable. The greatest reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be realized within the least efficient areas of coal consumption, in particular the domestic markets in Asia, eastern Europe, and Africa.

  8. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  9. Technology Roadmap: High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal is the largest source of power globally and, given its wide availability and relatively low cost, it is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. The High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation Roadmap describes the steps necessary to adopt and further develop technologies to improve the efficiency of the global fleet of coal. To generate the same amount of electricity, a more efficient coal-fired unit will burn less fuel, emit less carbon, release less local air pollutants, consume less water and have a smaller footprint. High-efficiency, low emissions (HELE) technologies in operation already reach a thermal efficiency of 45%, and technologies in development promise even higher values. This compares with a global average efficiency for today’s fleet of coal-fired plants of 33%, where three-quarters of operating units use less efficient technologies and more than half is over 25 years old. A successful outcome to ongoing RD&D could see units with efficiencies approaching 50% or even higher demonstrated within the next decade. Generation from older, less efficient technology must gradually be phased out. Technologies exist to make coal-fired power generation much more effective and cleaner burning. Of course, while increased efficiency has a major role to play in reducing emissions, particularly over the next 10 years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be essential in the longer term to make the deep cuts in carbon emissions required for a low-carbon future. Combined with CCS, HELE technologies can cut CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation plants by as much as 90%, to less than 100 grams per kilowatt-hour. HELE technologies will be an influential factor in the deployment of CCS. For the same power output, a higher efficiency coal plant will require less CO2 to be captured; this means a smaller, less costly capture plant; lower operating costs; and less CO2 to be transported and stored.

  10. The Concept of Resource Use Efficiency as a Theoretical Basis for Promising Coal Mining Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhalchenko, Vadim

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to solving one of the most relevant problems of the coal mining industry - its high resource use efficiency, which results in high environmental and economic costs of operating enterprises. It is shown that it is the high resource use efficiency of traditional, historically developed coal production systems that generates a conflict between indicators of economic efficiency and indicators of resistance to uncertainty and variability of market environment parameters. The traditional technological paradigm of exploitation of coal deposits also predetermines high, technology-driven, economic risks. The solution is shown and a real example of the problem solution is considered.

  11. Framework for Evaluating the Total Value Proposition of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, J. E.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional valuation techniques fail to include many of the financial advantages of clean energy technologies. By omitting benefits associated with risk management, emissions reductions, policy incentives, resource use, corporate social responsibility, and societal economic benefits, investors and firms sacrifice opportunities for new revenue streams and avoided costs. In an effort to identify some of these externalities, this analysis develops a total value proposition for clean energy technologies. It incorporates a series of values under each of the above categories, describing the opportunities for recapturing investments throughout the value chain. The framework may be used to create comparable value propositions for clean energy technologies supporting investment decisions, project siting, and marketing strategies. It can also be useful in policy-making decisions.

  12. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo

    2004-07-01

    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  13. Energy strategy would slow coal's growth, says DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Strategy (NES) recently announced by the Bush Administration would slow the growth in use of coal by hundreds of millions of tons of coal by hundreds of millions of tons after 2000, according to the Department of Energy's (DOE) own figures. If today's policies are continued, coal consumption will nearly triple by 2030. Current annual consumption of more than 900 million tons (19 quadrillion Btus) would rise to 1,550 million tons in 2010 and to nearly 2,600 million tons by 2030. Coal's share of electricity generation, now about 55%, would grow to 75% by 2030 under the current policy base assumptions of the DOE. The NES, however, projects that surge of nuclear power plant construction will stem the growth of coal use. The strategy would still increase coal use, from 19 quadrillion Btus today to about 28 quads in 2010, but to only 32 quads by 2030. By 2030, coal would account for less than 50% of electricity generation under the NES. Total clean coal technologies capacity is substantially lower under the NES scenario case than under the clean coal actions alone. The strategy also contains good news for the coal industry in the short run. It holds out two main goals for coal policy: maintaining coal's competitiveness while meeting environmental, health and safety requirements; and creating a favorable export climate for US coal and coal technology

  14. Evaluation of Surface Cleaning Procedures for CTGS Substrates for SAW Technology with XPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Brachmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient and reproducible cleaning procedure of piezoelectric substrates is essential in surface acoustic waves (SAW technology to fabricate high-quality SAW devices, especially for new applications such SAW sensors wherein new materials for piezoelectric substrates and interdigital transducers are used. Therefore, the development and critical evaluation of cleaning procedures for each material system that is under consideration becomes crucial. Contaminants like particles or the presence of organic/inorganic material on the substrate can dramatically influence and alter the properties of the thin film substrate composite, such as wettability, film adhesion, film texture, and so on. In this article, focus is given to different cleaning processes like SC-1 and SC-2, UV-ozone treatment, as well as cleaning by first-contact polymer Opticlean, which are applied for removal of contaminants from the piezoelectric substrate Ca 3 TaGa 3 Si 2 O 14 . By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the presence of the most critical contaminants such as carbon, sodium, and iron removed through different cleaning procedures were studied and significant differences were observed between the outcomes of these procedures. Based on these results, a two-step cleaning process, combining SC-1 at a reduced temperature at 30 ∘ C instead of 80 ∘ C and a subsequent UV-ozone cleaning directly prior to deposition of the metallization, is suggested to achieve the lowest residual contamination level.

  15. Upgrading of technology of absorptive cleaning of oily wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Pavluh, L. I .

    2013-01-01

    Oily wastewater treatment technology is improved through the improvement of the absorptive properties of sorbents based on plant waste. The cost of flowsheets for treatment of wastewaters contaminated with oil products is presented.

  16. Proceedings of the Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-26

    This proceedings includes papers presented at the Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar held at Terrigal, Australia in November, 1996. Keynote addresses, three sessions for discussions, and presentations by members economies are included. `Future investment requirements for coal in the APEC region,` `Barriers to investment across the APEC region coal chain,` `International commercial financier`s perspective on coal,` `The role of advanced coal technologies in greenhouse gas abatement and financing its development and uptake,` `Investment issues affecting the uptake of clean coal technology (CCT),` `Role of multilateral development banks in financing CCT to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,` and `Strategies for addressing regional coal issues` were presented as keynote addresses. In the sessions, investment issues facing coal power development, financing coal and investment, and investment strategies for CCT were discussed. 58 refs., 42 figs., 40 tabs.

  17. Coal-oil coprocessing at HTI - development and improvement of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalzer, R.H.; Lee, L.K.; Hu, J.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Co-Processing refers to the combined processing of coal and petroleum-derived heavy oil feedstocks. The coal feedstocks used are those typically utilized in direct coal liquefaction: bituminous, subbituminous, and lignites. Petroleum-derived oil, is typically a petroleum residuum, containing at least 70 W% material boiling above 525{degrees}C. The combined coal and oil feedstocks are processed simultaneously with the dual objective of liquefying the coal and upgrading the petroleum-derived residuum to lower boiling (<525{degrees}C) premium products. HTI`s investigation of the Co-Processing technology has included work performed in laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The concept of co-processing technology is quite simple and a natural outgrowth of the work done with direct coal liquefaction. A 36 month program to evaluate new process concepts in coal-oil coprocessing at the bench-scale was begun in September 1994 and runs until September 1997. Included in this continuous bench-scale program are provisions to examine new improvements in areas such as: interstage product separation, feedstock concentrations (coal/oil), improved supported/dispersed catalysts, optimization of reactor temperature sequencing, and in-line hydrotreating. This does not preclude other ideas from DOE contracts and other sources that can lead to improved product quality and economics. This research work has led to important findings which significantly increased liquid yields, improved product quality, and improved process economics.

  18. Photoresist removal using gaseous sulfur trioxide cleaning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Puppo, Helene; Bocian, Paul B.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1999-06-01

    A novel cleaning method for removing photoresists and organic polymers from semiconductor wafers is described. This non-plasma method uses anhydrous sulfur trioxide gas in a two-step process, during which, the substrate is first exposed to SO3 vapor at relatively low temperatures and then is rinsed with de-ionized water. The process is radically different from conventional plasma-ashing methods in that the photoresist is not etched or removed during the exposure to SO3. Rather, the removal of the modified photoresist takes place during the subsequent DI-water rinse step. The SO3 process completely removes photoresist and polymer residues in many post-etch applications. Additional advantages of the process are absence of halogen gases and elimination of the need for other solvents and wet chemicals. The process also enjoys a very low cost of ownership and has minimal environmental impact. The SEM and SIMS surface analysis results are presented to show the effectiveness of gaseous SO3 process after polysilicon, metal an oxide etch applications. The effects of both chlorine- and fluorine-based plasma chemistries on resist removal are described.

  19. Technical, environmental, and economic assessment of deploying advanced coal power technologies in the Chinese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Xiao Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Wang Bo; Xu Xiang

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the technical, environmental, and economic dimensions of deploying advanced coal-fired power technologies in China. In particular, we estimate the differences in capital cost and overall cost of electricity (COE) for a variety of advanced coal-power technologies based on the technological and economic levels in 2006 in China. This paper explores the economic gaps between Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and other advanced coal power technologies, and compares 12 different power plant configurations using advanced coal power technologies. Super critical (SC) and ultra super critical (USC) pulverized coal (PC) power generation technologies coupled with pollution control technologies can meet the emission requirements. These technologies are highly efficient, technically mature, and cost-effective. From the point of view of efficiency, SC and USC units are good choices for power industry. The net plant efficiency for IGCC has reached 45%, and it has the best environmental performance overall. The cost of IGCC is much higher, however, than that of other power generation technologies, so the development of IGCC is slow throughout the world. Incentive policies are needed if IGCC is to be deployed in China

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES/CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL BORNE CATALYST WITH CLEANAIR SYSTEM'S DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with CleanAir System's Diesel Oxidation Catalyst manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a fuel-borne catalyst used in ultra low sulfur d...

  1. Reclamation technology development for western Arkansas coal refuse waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.R.; Veith, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Coal mining has been an important industry in the Arkansas River Valley Major Land Resource Area (MLRA) of western Arkansas for more than 100 yr., most of it with little regard for environmental concerns. Almost 3,640 ha. of land affected by surface coal mines cover the seven-county area, with less than 1,200 ha. currently in various stages of operation or reclamation. Since only the active mining sites must now be reclaimed by law, the remaining 2,440 ha. of abandoned land remains at the mercy of natural forces. Little topsoil exists on these sites and the coal wastes are generally acidic with a pH in the 4.0-5.5 range. Revegetation attempts under these conditions generally require continued maintenance and retreatment until an acceptable cover is achieved. If and when an acceptable vegetative cover is established, the cost frequently approaches $7,400/ha. ($3,000/acre). In an effort to resolve these issues and provide some direction for stabilizing coal waste lands, the US Department of Agriculture through its Soil Conservation Service Plant Materials Center at Boonville, Arkansas, received a Congressional Pass through administered by the US Bureau of Mines, to support a 5-yr. revegetation study on the coal mine spoils of western Arkansas. This paper reports the results through the spring of 1994 on that portion of the study dealing with the establishment of blackberries as a cash crop on coal mine spoils

  2. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  3. Technology roadmaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of a technology road map is to define the state of a current technology, relevant market issues, and future market needs; to develop a plan that industry can follow to provide these new products and services; and to map technology pathways and performance goals for bringing these products and services to market. The three stages (planning, implementation, and reviewing and updating), benefits, and status of the Clean Coal Technology Roadmap are outlined. Action Plan 2000, a $1.7 million 2000 Climate Change Technology and Innovation Program, which uses the technology roadmapping process, is described. The members of the management steering committee for the Clean Coal Technology Roadmap are listed. A flowsheet showing activities until November 2004, when the final clean coal road map is due, is included.

  4. Clean Energy Technology Incubator Initiative Launched in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    - including the State Energy Conservation Office, the General Land Office, the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission, the Texas Energy Coordination Council and the Texas Department of Economic Development from market entry. The alliance is interested in a broad range of company types, from technology-based

  5. Demand for Clean Energies Efficient Development in Buildings Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa Omer, Abdeen

    2017-01-01

    Aims/Purpose: The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment, and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that green energies like wind, solar, ground source heat pumps, and biomass must be promoted, implemented, and demonstrated from the economic and/or environmental point view. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas. Study design: Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect or global warming) are comprehensively discussed in this article. Place and Duration of Study: National Centre for Research, Energy Research Institute (ERI), between January 2014 and July 2015. (author)

  6. Phase transformations in synthesis technologies and sorption properties of zeolites from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Б. Котова

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal fly ash is generated in the course of combustion of coal at thermal power plants. Environmental problems increase sharply without disposing that industrial waste. Technologies were tested of hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites from fly ash forming during combustion of coal at thermal power plants of the Pechora coal basin and dependences were identified of the experiment conditions on physical and chemical properties of the end product. It is demonstrated that synthesizing zeolites from fly ash is the first stage of forming ceramic materials (ceramic membranes, which defines the fundamental character (importance of that area of studies. It was for the first time that sorption and structural characteristics and cation-exchange properties of fly ash from the Pechora basin coals were studied with respect to, Ba2+ and Sr2+.

  7. Sulphur self–retention and sulphur dioxide capture with active calcium minerals in mineral–rich coals / Mchabe, D.

    OpenAIRE

    Mchabe, Dursman

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide information for the development of clean coal technology, the sulphur self–retention and sulphur dioxide capturing properties of minerals present in low grade coals was investigated. This study consisted of detailed mineral analyses of coal and ash samples using results obtained from QEMSCAN and separate retention (coal) and capture (ash) experiments with laboratory scale reactors. Typical South African coal samples were used in this study. The ash content v...

  8. Decontamination of coal mine effluent generated at the Rajrappa coal mine using phytoremediation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Kalpana C; Lal, B; Banerjee, T K

    2017-06-03

    Toxicity of the effluent generated at the Rajrappa coal mine complex under the Central Coalfields Limited (CCL, a subsidiary of Coal India Limited) in Jharkhand, India was investigated. The concentrations (mg L -1 ) of all the toxic metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Cd) in the coal mine effluent were above the safe limit suggested by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2003). Among these, Fe showed the highest concentration (18.21 ± 3.865), while Cr had the lowest effluent concentration (0.15 ± 0.014). Efforts were also made to detoxify the effluent using two species of aquatic macrophytes namely "'Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes." After 10 days of phytoremediation, S. molesta removed Pb (96.96%) > Ni (97.01%) > Cu (96.77%) > Zn (96.38%) > Mn (96.22%) > Fe (94.12%) > Cr (92.85%) > Cd (80.99%), and P. stratiotes removed Pb (96.21%) > Fe (94.34%) > Ni (92.53%) > Mn (85.24%) > Zn (79.51%) > Cr (78.57%) > Cu (74.19%) > Cd (72.72%). The impact of coal mine exposure on chlorophyll content showed a significant decrease of 42.49% and 24.54% from control values in S. molesta and P. stratiotes, respectively, perhaps due to the damage inflicted by the toxic metals, leading to the decay of plant tissues.

  9. Technology for cleaning of Pb-Bi adhering to steel (1). Basic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Sasa, Toshinobu; Umeno, Makoto; Kurata, Yuji; Kikuchi, Kenji; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2004-12-01

    The accelerator driven system (ADS) is proposed to transmute minor actinides (MA) in high-level waste from spent fuels of nuclear power reactors. Liquid Pb-Bi alloy is a candidate material for spallation target and coolant of ADS. Pb-Bi cleaning technology is required to reduce radiation exposure during maintenance service and to decontaminate replaced components. In this study, three cleaning methods were tested; silicon oil cleaning at 170degC, mixture of acetic acid and nitric acid cleaning. Specimens were prepared by immersion in melted Pb-Bi. After silicon oil tests, most of Pb-Bi remained on the surface of the specimens. It was found that blushing was needed to remove Pb-Bi effectively. On the other hands, Pb-Bi was easily dissolved and almost removed in the mixed acid and nitric acid. Silicon oil cleaning did not affect on base metals. The surface of base metals was slightly blacked after mixed acid cleaning. F82H base metals were corroded by nitric acid. (author)

  10. Replacement Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware for Propellant Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-l13- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. Replacement technologies are being investigated for aerospace hardware and for gauges and instrumentation. This paper includes the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification of aerospace hardware using known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils. The results correlate nonvolatile residue with CFC 113. The studies also include enhancements to aqueous sampling for organic and particulate contamination. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon 225 (HCFC 225), HCFC 141b, HFE 7100(R), and Vertrel MCA(R) was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC 113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autogenous ignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  11. One coal miner's perspective on the present United States coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.E. [Murray Energy Corp., Pepper Pike, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The President and CEO of the Murray Energy Corporation presented his observations on and concerns about the coal and energy industries in the USA, as a coal miner and an energy trader. He outlines the coal mining operations of the Murray Energy Corporation. He offers critical comments about, for example, some unscrupulous energy trading activities, the future of Powder River Basin coal (which he believes may be curtailed by the introduction of clean coal technologies), the lack of expertise in coal mining, the need to revise the law concerning coal company bankruptcies, the need for the government to provide a means to secure bonds, the need to liberalize black lung disease benefits, and the factors deterring improvement of the performance of the eastern coal industry. He criticises current policy and puts forward some recommendations.

  12. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  13. Environmentally friendly type coal utilization technology transfer project. Downstream field; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo gijutsu iten jigyo. Karyu bun`ya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper arranged the result of the clean coal technology transfer project carried out during October to December, 1996. For the purpose of supporting introduction/spread of clean coal technology (CCT) in Asian and Pacific countries, the project invited engineers of the countries to Japan, aiming at fermentation of the understanding of CCT and improvement in ability. The project was held by NEDO and managed by Center for Coal Utilization, Japan. The manager course is for policy decision makers, management and senior management (plant manager class). By taking up CCT assessment and a menu of economical efficiency, prepared was the environment to which CCT is introduced in case of working out policy and planning plant/equipment investment. Moreover, the engineer course is for policy planners, medium-class management (section chief class), senior engineers (planners), and takes up materials for judgment in case of planning CCT facilities and proposing measures to reduce environmental loads by management and improvement of facilities at the same time. Fifteen engineers were invited: 6 from China, 3 from Indonesia, 3 from the Philippines, and 3 from Thailand

  14. Canada's clean energy technology and the southern California market : a needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presented a study whose purpose was to develop targeted market intelligence regarding the specific needs and plans of southern California-based organizations that are interested in procuring or using clean energy technologies for demonstration or commercial purposes. Industry Canada and the Canadian Consulate General in Los Angeles planned to utilize the study as a tool to explore business development or partnering opportunities between Canada/Canadian industry and California entities. The report described the study objective and provided a definition of clean energy technology. Clean energy was defined as any energy that causes little or no harm to the environment. The study scope was also presented. The study focused on opportunities in the following areas: solar power and photovoltaic technologies; hydrogen and fuel cells technologies; and thermochemical waste-to-energy systems. Context was discussed in terms of California's energy drivers, and California clean energy initiatives and experience. The results of a survey conducted with 350 organizations in southern California were also outlined for facilities and capital projects; fleets and mobile sources; and parks and public spaces. Last, the report presented an analysis of the California marketplace and solar power, hydrogen and fuel cells, and waste-to-energy. 14 refs

  15. 77 FR 74520 - Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation; Order Withdrawing Trading Suspension as to Extensions, Inc. December 12...

  16. 'The Voracity Effect' and Climate Change : The Impact of Clean Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of a successful international cooperative agreement over the control of emissions there is a growing interest in the role that clean technologies may play to alleviate the climate change problem. Within a non-cooperative transboundary pollution game, we investigate, analytically and

  17. Flue gas cleaning by electron beam technology in 21st

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guang; Luo Jingyu; Zhang Ming

    2005-01-01

    China is paying great attention to the pollution caused by flue gases including sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, fine particles, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the environmental protection and sustainable development of China economy for 21st century. Among several promising processes, applicable to industrial scale, the electron beam (EB) scrubbing process can simultaneously remove SO 2 , NOx, PM-10 (particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter), VOC and CO 2 from the flue gas is a new high technology combined with radiation chemistry and electron accelerator technique. The EB flue gas purification process consists of the producing ionization in the EB irradiated gases followed by the formation of free radicals and active species which ultimately forming foggy sulfur acid and nitrate acid. These acids react further with added ammonia to form ammonium sulfate and nitrates as by-products, which can be fertilizer usable in agriculture. The next stage for this technology is its optimization for the reduction of electricity energy consumption and an effective collection of by-products. Lastly the investment cost for EB method is shown to be the most economic compared with other competing methods. (S. Ohno)

  18. Needs, resources and climate change: Clean and efficient conversion technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2011-02-01

    Energy "powers" our life, and energy consumption correlates strongly with our standards of living. The developed world has become accustomed to cheap and plentiful supplies. Recently, more of the developing world populations are striving for the same, and taking steps towards securing their future energy needs. Competition over limited supplies of conventional fossil fuel resources is intensifying, and more challenging environmental problems are springing up, especially related to carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. There is strong evidence that atmospheric CO 2 concentration is well correlated with the average global temperature. Moreover, model predictions indicate that the century-old observed trend of rising temperatures could accelerate as carbon dioxide concentration continues to rise. Given the potential danger of such a scenario, it is suggested that steps be taken to curb energy-related CO 2 emissions through a number of technological solutions, which are to be implemented in a timely fashion. These solutions include a substantial improvement in energy conversion and utilization efficiencies, carbon capture and sequestration, and expanding the use of nuclear energy and renewable sources. Some of these technologies already exist, but are not deployed at sufficiently large scale. Others are under development, and some are at or near the conceptual state. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating the costs and achievable benefits of extending technologies for uneconomical coal resources in South Africa: the case of underground coal gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zieleniewski, M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available -3433. Shoko, E., McLellan, B., Dicks, A.L., Diniz da Costa, J.C., 2006. Hydrogen from coal: Production and utilisation technologies. International Journal of Coal Geology, 65(3-4): 213-222. Simeons, C., 1978. Coal: Its role in tomorrow’s technol- ogy... the consideration of other, alternative solutions to the energy shortage problem. Underground coal gasifi- cation (UCG) is among the most promising tech- nologies and, to an acceptable degree, the proven feasible one (Walker et al., 2001; Ergo Exergy, 2005...

  20. Radioactivity levels in Indian coal and some technologically enhanced exposure to natural radiation environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Mishra, U.C.

    1988-01-01

    The summary of results of gamma-spectrometric measurements of natural radioactivity levels in coal from mines, coal, fly-ash, slag and soil samples from thermal power plants in India are presented. These constitute the sources of technologic ally enhanced exposures to natural radiation. Brief description of sampling and measurement procedure is given. Radiation dose to the population from coal fired power plants for electricity generation have been calculated using the model developed by UNSCEAR and ORNL reports with correction for local population density. (author). 13 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  1. Low carbon Finland 2050. VTT clean energy technology strategies for society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Simila, L.; Sipila, K. [and others

    2012-11-15

    The Low Carbon Finland 2050 project by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland aims to assess the technological opportunities and challenges involved in reducing Finland's greenhouse gas emissions. A target for reduction is set as at least 80% from the 1990 level by 2050 as part of an international effort, which requires strong RD and D in clean energy technologies. Key findings of the project are presented in this publication, which aims to stimulate enlightening and multidisciplinary discussions on low-carbon futures for Finland. The project gathered together VTT's technology experts in clean energy production, smart energy infrastructures, transport, buildings, and industrial systems as well as experts in energy system modelling and foresight. VTT's leading edge 'Low Carbon and Smart Energy' enables new solutions with a demonstration that is the first of its kind in Finland, and the introduction of new energy technology onto national and global markets. (orig.)

  2. Low carbon Finland 2050. VTT clean energy technology strategies for society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T; Simila, L; Sipila, K [and others

    2012-11-15

    The Low Carbon Finland 2050 project by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland aims to assess the technological opportunities and challenges involved in reducing Finland's greenhouse gas emissions. A target for reduction is set as at least 80% from the 1990 level by 2050 as part of an international effort, which requires strong RD and D in clean energy technologies. Key findings of the project are presented in this publication, which aims to stimulate enlightening and multidisciplinary discussions on low-carbon futures for Finland. The project gathered together VTT's technology experts in clean energy production, smart energy infrastructures, transport, buildings, and industrial systems as well as experts in energy system modelling and foresight. VTT's leading edge 'Low Carbon and Smart Energy' enables new solutions with a demonstration that is the first of its kind in Finland, and the introduction of new energy technology onto national and global markets. (orig.)

  3. The clean development mechanism versus international permit trading: The effect on technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagem, Cathrine

    2009-01-01

    The clean development mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol may induce technological change in developing countries. As an alternative to the clean development mechanism regime, developing countries may accept a (generous) cap on their own emissions, allow domestic producers to invest in new efficient technologies, and sell the excess emission permits on the international permit market. The purpose of this article is to show how the gains from investment, and hence the incentive to invest in new technology in developing countries, differ between the two alternative regimes. We show that the difference in the gains from investment depends on whether the producers in developing countries face competitive or noncompetitive output markets, whether the investment affects fixed or variable production costs, and whether producers can reduce emissions through means other than investing in new technology. (author)

  4. Revolution...Now The Future Arrives for Five Clean Energy Technologies – 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul

    2016-09-30

    Decades of investments by the federal government and industry in five key clean energy technologies are making an impact today. The cost of land-based wind power, utility and distributed photovoltaic (PV) solar power, light emitting diodes (LEDs), and electric vehicles (EVs) has fallen by 41% to as high as 94% since 2008. These cost reductions have enabled widespread adoption of these technologies with deployment increasing across the board.

  5. The future of coal-fired generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G. [Sherritt International Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The 3 features that will ensure coal's place as a primary energy source are its affordability, availability and its abundance. Coal reserves represent more than 200 years of supply. Graphs depicting coal consumption in North America, Central and South America, Western Europe, Easter Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia show that coal use is expected to grow 1.5 per cent annually. Asia is the greatest consumer of coal, while the consumption of coal in Eastern Europe is steadily declining. About half of the electricity supply in the United States will continue to be generated by coal and non-electrical utilization is also expected to grow. Emerging technologies that are promoting efficiency of coal utilization include combustion technology, clean coal technology, conversion technology and emissions technology. These technologies also address environmental concerns regarding coal combustion, such as removal of carbon dioxide through sequestration and reduction in nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and particulates. Mercury mitigation technologies are also being developed. It was noted that the use of coal is mitigated by other available supply such as nuclear, natural gas and hydro which provide the base load generation. Renewable energy supply can meet up to 20 per cent of the base load, while coal can fill be gap between base load and peak loads. It was noted that the use of coal in direct industrial processes allows for synergies such as syngas for bitumen upgrading, coal as a chemical feedstock with electricity as a by-product, combined heat and power and cogeneration. tabs., figs.

  6. International cooperation and technology transfer for coal and power development in ASEAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husin, Z.A. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia))

    1991-12-01

    Coal resources in the ASEAN region are being developed to meet the forecast rise in electricity demand of 9% per year to 2000. From a virtual non-existence in the early 1980s, it is hoped that coal will provide up to 37% of increased power plant capacity. Close cooperation with industrialised countries outside the region are necessary to help overcome the pressures being put on available energy and financial resources, technological knowledge, and the environment. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Technological and economical problems in exploitation of coal stripe mines in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristov, Stoyan; Borisov, Bogomil

    1997-01-01

    Taking into consideration the restructure of the mining-energetic industry into the new economic conditions, financial, technical and technological problems are analysed, as well as their influence on the economic effects of the coal production in Bulgaria. Ecological standards for environmental policy are noticed. Perspectives for development of the coal production industry are pointed out, especially in the mining/power complex Maritsa East, one of the most important region for power generation in Bulgaria

  8. Clean up fly ash from coal burning plants by new isolated fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium glabrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertit Taştan, Burcu

    2017-09-15

    In Turkey approximately 45 million tons of coals are burned in a year and 19.3 million tons of fly ash have emerged. The bioremediation of heavy metals or different elements from fly ash makes them bio-available. However, in previous studies, requiring of long operational time and failing to show tolerance to high pulp densities of fly ash of selected fungal species makes them impractical. In this work, bioremediation of fly ash by new isolated fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium glabrum were investigated in one step and two step bioremediation process. Ca, Si, Fe and S were found to be considerable amount in studied fly ashes by ED-XRF element analysis. The bioremediation yields of Mo (100%), S (64.36%) Ni (50%) and Cu (33.33%) by F. oxysporum were high. The remediated elements by P. glabrum in fly ash were Mo (100%), S (57.43%), Ni (25%), Si (24.66%), V (12.5%), Ti (5%) and Sr (3.2%). The isolation of high fly ash resistant fungi and reduction of the bioremediation time will allow the practical applications of the bioremediation technology when it is scaled up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Combining active chilled beams and air-cleaning technologies to improve the indoor climate in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    This project is part of a long-term research programme to study the possibilities of using efficient air-cleaning technologies to improve the indoor air quality in buildings. The purpose of this part of the project was to study the energy-saving potential of combining the cooling and cleaning of ...... than 5 Pa (0.104 Ibf /ft2). Furthermore, the measurement results of the combined system showed that adding the filter accelerated the removal rate of the particles by 2 h-1. However, the efficiency of the chilled beam in exchanging heat was reduced by 38%....

  10. Combining active chilled beams and air cleaning technologies to improve indoor climate in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2012-01-01

    This project is part of a long-term research programme studying the possibilities of using efficient air cleaning technologies to improve the indoor air quality in buildings. The purpose of this part of the project is to study energy-saving potential by combining cooling and cleaning of air in of....... Furthermore, the measurement results of the combined system showed that adding the filter accelerated the removal rate of the particles by 2 (h-1). However, the efficiency of the chilled beam in exchanging the heat reduced by 38%....

  11. Profile of Clean Technology Commercialization in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish

    2010-04-01

    In 2009, the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) performed it third successive study of the growth and transition of nanotechnology into commercial products, under award from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Nanotechnology is a recently recognized cross-disciplinary field of a variety of potentially disruptive technologies that involves the creation and operation of objects at the nanoscale, up to 100 nanometers in size. Nanomanufacturing is the large-scale manipulation of matter at the nanoscale, to produce value-added components. Because of the economically significant new markets and breadth of applications that can benefit from the exploitation of these size-driven aspects, much international research and commercial effort is being expended to create revolutionary value-added products using the many capabilities and tools enabled by nanotechnology. In the context of Michigan and many other US states, startup and commercialization activity is especially important in market diversification and job growth initiatives. This trend has accelerated new applications of nanotechnology in industrial and consumer markets related to energy efficiency and environmentally conscious manufacturing, known as ``cleantech." Dr. Mehta’s presentation will illustrate the industry’s major trends, concerns and barriers across key strategic indicators, as well as highlight the characteristics of startup businesses and established players in this important field.

  12. Coal and recycling mark the way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignell, E.

    2000-11-01

    A report is given of this year's Mineral Engineering Society's annual conference held in Scarborough, UK. The themes of recycling and coal were chosen for the two days of technical presentations. Topics included the cleaning up of brown field sites; the use of recycled waste oxide to replace iron ore pellets for cooling furnaces in steel making; high pressure filtration of industrial mineral effluent; iron ore mining in Australia; screen development; the status of coal preparation technology, by RJB Mining; study of movement of material (to simulate coal) in a hopper; and a UK-Chinese project on reduction of sulphur in coal.

  13. Coal Technology Program progress report for April 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    In the Hydrocarbonization Research program, two successful experiments were completed in the bench-scale hydrocarbonizer. A settling test at a lower temperature (390/sup 0/F) using 20 percent toluene in Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Unfiltered Oil (UFO) produced a 30 percent clarified product in 2 hr. Characterization tests include distillation curves for Wilsonville's SRC-UFO and a particle size distribution of Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Company's (PAMCO) SRC-UFO. Studies of intermediate-temperature pyrolysis of large blocks have been maintained with char samples continuing to demonstrate pyrophoricity, even after heating to 700/sup 0/C. Simulated distillation analysis of tars produced by the last eight experiments are being compared with those performed at Laramie upon tars produced by the Hanna No. 2 experiment. In Coal-Fueled MIUS, stainless steel tubing to be used in one of the furnace tube bundles was ordered and the bid package for the furnace completed. Tests continued on the coal feed system and with the cold flow fluidized bed model. For the Synthoil process, flow diagrams, material balances, and utilities requirements were completed for the entire facility. For the Hydrocarbonization process, flowsheets were reviewed for compatibility; equipment lists were brought up to date; and utilities requirements were compiled from the individual flowsheets. The char recovery and storage subsystem flowsheet was completed. (auth)

  14. Physico-chemical fracturing and cleaning of coal. [Treatment with CO/sub 2/ in water at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1983-09-30

    This invention relates to a method of producing a crushable coal and reducing the metallic values in coal represented by Si, Al, Ca, Na, K, and Mg, which comprises contacting a coal/water mix in a weight ratio of from about 4:1 to 1:6 in the presence of CO/sub 2/ at pressures of about 100 to 1400 psi and a minimum temperature of about 15/sup 0/C for a period of about one or more hours to produce a treated coal/water mix. In the process the treated coal/water mix has reduced values for Ca and Mg of up to 78% over the starting mix and the advantageous CO/sub 2/ concentration is in the range of about 3 to 30 g/L. Below 5 g/L CO/sub 2/ only small effects are observed and above 30 g/L no further special advantages are achieved. The coal/water ratios in the range 1:2 to 2:1 are particularly desirable and such ratios are compatible with coal water slurry applications.

  15. The critical assessment of the carbon dioxide purification technologies after Oxyfuel combustion of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovchev, M.; Gadjanov, P.; Tzvetkov, N.

    2012-01-01

    The critical assessment of the two carbon dioxide purification technologies after Oxyfuel - combustion of coals are discussed in the report. It is noticed that these technologies proposed by 'Foster Wheeler' and 'Air Products' companies are under development now (2012) and their presence in the international market is to be expected in the next years. (authors)

  16. A feasibility study of conceptual design for international clean energy network using hydrogen conversion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Hamada, Akiyoshi; Kitamura, Kazuhiro

    1998-01-01

    Clean energy is more and more required worldwide in proportion to actualization of global environmental issues including global warming. Therefore, it is an urgent task to realize promotion of worldwide introduction of clean energy which exists abundantly and is widely distributed in the world, such as hydropower and solar energy, while reducing the dependence on fossil fuel. However, since the renewable energy, differing from so called fossil fuel, is impossible to transport for long distance and store as it is, its utilization is subject to be li