WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal circuitry study

  1. Transitional circuitry for studying the properties of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubochkina, N.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to a new view of the structure of DNA as an intellectual scheme possessing the properties of logic and memory. The theory of transient circuitry, developed by the author for optimal computer circuits, revealed an amazing structural similarity between mathematical models of transition silicon elements and logic and memory circuits of solid state transient circuitry and atomic models of parts of DNA.

  2. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  3. Promotive study on preparation of basis for foreign coal import. Study on coal renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Yoji [Japan Economic Research Institute, Tokyo

    1988-09-16

    This is an interim report on the coal renaissance study carried out in 1987 as a part of the Promotive Study on Preparation of Basis for Foreign Coal Import. The background and ideology of coal renaissance, future aspect of demand for coal, problems pertaining to the expansion of application, and a proposal for the expansion of coal usage are described in order. The role of coal expected as an alternate fuel for petroleum, development of new application fields for coal, conversion to coal, contribution of Japan to the stablization of international coal supply are outlined. Coal renaissance aims, based on technology, at stimulation of coal demand, change in the image of coal, and the utilization of the accumulated abundant knowhow. The aspect of coal demand in 2000, solution and current status of various restricting factors relating to the use of coal in general industry, and the remaining problems are discussed. 6 figures, 10 tables.

  4. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  5. Study of mechanically activated coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukov Anatolij P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion and air gasification of mechanically activated micro-ground coals in the flux have been studied. Influence of mechanically activated methods at coals grinding on their chemical activeness at combustion and gasification has been determined. Intense mechanical activation of coals increases their chemical activeness that enables development of new highly boosted processing methods for coals with various levels of metamorphism.

  6. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  7. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  8. Study of China's coal supply cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Primary Industries and Energy is funding a joint research project between ABARE and the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission, China's leading organisation undertaking policy-related energy sector research. Together, the two organisations will analyse the economic costs and impacts of moving large quantities of coal from China's northern coal fields to, power stations in the rapidly growing south-eastern coastal provinces. The study will also compare the true economic costs of using domestic coal - including the costs of subsidies on coal production and transport - with the costs of using imported coal. ABARE will use its dynamic model, MEGABARE, to undertake ky parts of the study, taking into account the complex linkages between sectors in an economy and between different economies

  9. Study of coal flash hydropyrolysis denitrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lihua; Zhu, Zibin; Zhu, Hongbin; Zhang, Chengfang [Research Institute of Inorganic Chemical Technology, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2003-05-15

    The hydrodenitrogenation efficiency of 14 types of coals and the reaction mechanism of Zalainouer coal were studied in an experimental entrained bed reactor by flash hydropyrolysis (FHP). The results showed that flash hydropyrolysis is an efficient method for denitrogenation, and that the denitrogenation percentage increases with an increase in temperature and hydrogen pressure. For example, the denitrogenation percentage can reach up to about 60% for Zalainouer coal at 700 C and 6.0 MPa hydrogen pressure. The denitrogenation efficiency of different coal types is related to H/C. According to the conclusion of the study, the denitrogenation percentage increases with the increase in H/C ratio, reaching about 12% when H/C is equal to 0.6, and 40-55% when H/C is above 1.0. The results indicate that FHP is an efficient technique for removing nitrogen in coal.

  10. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Y Jia, W. Morris [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pedel, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rezeai, D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wang, L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  11. Reward Circuitry in Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sarah; Robison, A J; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving. The ability to observe and manipulate neuronal activity within specific cell types and circuits has led to new insight into not only the basic connections between brain regions, but also the molecular changes within these specific microcircuits, such as neurotrophic factor and GTPase signaling or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor function, that underlie synaptic and structural plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse. Excitingly, these insights from preclinical rodent work are now being translated into the clinic, where transcranial magnetic simulation and deep brain stimulation therapies are being piloted in human cocaine dependence. Thus, this review seeks to summarize current understanding of the major brain regions implicated in drug-related behaviors and the molecular mechanisms that contribute to altered connectivity between these regions, with the postulation that increased knowledge of the plasticity within the drug reward circuit will lead to new and improved treatments for addiction.

  12. Washability characteristics of residual coals obtained from solvent extraction: studies towards developing cleaner coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, C.C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2004-07-01

    The washability characteristics of original Indian coals and solvent-extracted residual coals were studied by the float and sink technique. The following conclusions were drawn on the basis of the present study. Anthracene oil-extracted residual coals have lower percentage of reactions in the specific gravity range of 1.4 to 1.6 than the original coals, which indicates that the mineral matter is disassociated from the organic mass, and the anthracene oil-extracted residual coal is more suitable for washing than the original coal. The floatability behaviour of coal increases during NMP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) extraction. This indicates that coal changes its washability character during NMP extractions. As during NMP extraction the surface area of coal increases by creating fissures in the matrix, the chemical leaching technique would be more suitable to remove the mineral matter in the residual coals. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  14. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Siddique; Suhail Ahmed Soomro; Aziza Aftab; Zahid Naeem Qaisrani; Abdul Sattar Jatoi; Asadullah; Ghulamullah Khan; Ehsanullah Kakar

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their ...

  15. The application of the coal grain analysis method to coal liberation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Adair, B. [CSIRO Earth Science & Resource Engineering Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Emerging coal markets such as the use of coal for conversion to liquid fuels and its use in fuels cells and as coal water slurries in diesel engines require coal products with different coal quality specifications than those applicable to traditional coal markets of coke making and conventional power generation. As well as quantifying coals in terms of their chemical and physical properties, detailed knowledge of the mineral inclusions within the coal particles is required to identify coals that are suited to economically produce the low-ash value coals required for these markets. After mining and processing, some particles can consist of essentially pure components of a single maceral or mineral phase whilst others are composite particles that are comprised of varying amounts of macerals and minerals. The proportion of particles that are present as pure components or as composites will be a function of the characteristics of the coal and the particle size. In general, it is considered that size reduction will result in liberation and hence increased yield. The amount of liberation that occurs during crushing or grinding a coal is however coal specific. Particle characterization information provided by an optical microscopic-imaging method, Coal Grain Analysis, was used to identify coals that might benefit from additional crushing to improve recovery of clean coal by new density separation techniques and by flotation. As expected, the results of these studies suggest that the degree of liberation that is obtained is coal specific, and, hence, yield improvements are also coal specific. Hence a quantitative method of investigating this issue is required.

  16. Neuroanatomical circuitry associated with exploratory eye movement in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Qiu

    Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients present abnormalities in a variety of eye movement tasks. Exploratory eye movement (EEM dysfunction appears to be particularly specific to schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of EEM dysfunction in schizophrenia are not clearly understood. To assess the potential neuroanatomical substrates of EEM, we recorded EEM performance and conducted a voxel-based morphometric analysis of gray matter in 33 schizophrenic patients and 29 well matched healthy controls. In schizophrenic patients, decreased responsive search score (RSS and widespread gray matter density (GMD reductions were observed. Moreover, the RSS was positively correlated with GMD in distributed brain regions in schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, in schizophrenic patients, some brain regions with neuroanatomical deficits overlapped with some ones associated with RSS. These brain regions constituted an occipito-tempro-frontal circuitry involved in visual information processing and eye movement control, including the left calcarine cortex [Brodmann area (BA 17], the left cuneus (BA 18, the left superior occipital cortex (BA 18/19, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6, the left cerebellum, the right lingual cortex (BA 17/18, the right middle occipital cortex (BA19, the right inferior temporal cortex (BA 37, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46 and bilateral precentral gyri (BA 6 extending to the frontal eye fields (FEF, BA 8. To our knowledge, we firstly reported empirical evidence that gray matter loss in the occipito-tempro-frontal neuroanatomical circuitry of visual processing system was associated with EEM performance in schizophrenia, which may be helpful for the future effort to reveal the underlying neural mechanisms for EEM disturbances in schizophrenia.

  17. Studies of coal structure using carbene chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The object of this grant was to react coal, derivatized forms of coal, and solvent swelled coal with carbenes (divalent carbon species) under mild conditions. These carbenes were to be prepared by treating the coal with several diazo compounds and then thermally decomposing them at relatively low temperatures (80--130{degree}C). The carbenes were to be chosen to show varying selectively toward aromatic rings containing heteroatom functionalities and toward polynuclear aromatic systems. In some instances, where selectivities toward aromatic and heteroaromatic ring systems were not known, model studies were to be carried out. Because of the generally mild conditions employed and the good selectivity anticipated, and actually observed with one particular system, it was expected that this methodology would provide structural information about the coal, along with data on the extent of occurrence and type of aromatic systems. After carbene reactions, treatment of the coal samples was to include extractions and thermolysis. Physical studies included thermogravimetric analysis, diffuse reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, GC/MS and GC/FT-IR. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Comparative study of coal and biomass co-combustion with coal burning separately through emissions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Asadullah, A.; Khan, G.; Soomro, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methos to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal and coal biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emission of CO, CO/sub 2/, NOx and SO/sub 2/ as compared to 100% coal, Maximum amount of CO emission were 1510.5 ppm for bannana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30) of 684.667 leaves (90:10) and minimum amount of SO/sub 2/ present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20). The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm). The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution. (author)

  19. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siddique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their emissions. The study revealed that the ratio of 80:20 of coal (lignite-cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and SO2 as compared to 100% coal. Maximum amount of CO emissions were 1510.5 ppm for banana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30 of 684.667 ppm. Maximum percentage of SO2 (345.33 ppm was released from blend of lakhra coal and tree leaves (90:10 and minimum amount of SO2 present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20. The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas maximum amount of NOx was liberated from lakhra coal-tree leaves (60:40 and minimum amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm. The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution.

  20. A critical appraisal of neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder: toward a new conceptualization of underlying neural circuitry and roadmap for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Swartz, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This critical review appraises neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder in emotion processing, emotion regulation, and reward processing neural circuitry, to synthesize current knowledge of the neural underpinnings of bipolar disorder, and provide a neuroimaging research “roadmap” for future studies. Method We examined findings from all major studies in bipolar disorder that used fMRI, volumetric analyses, diffusion imaging, and resting state techniques, to inform current conceptual models of larger-scale neural circuitry abnormalities in bipolar disorder Results Bipolar disorder can be conceptualized in neural circuitry terms as parallel dysfunction in bilateral prefrontal cortical (especially ventrolateral prefrontal cortical)-hippocampal-amygdala emotion processing and emotion regulation neural circuitries, together with an “overactive” left-sided ventral striatal-ventrolateral and orbitofrontal cortical reward processing circuitry, that result in characteristic behavioral abnormalities associated with bipolar disorder: emotional lability, emotional dysregulation and heightened reward sensitivity. A potential structural basis for these functional abnormalities are gray matter decreases in prefrontal and temporal cortices, amygdala and hippocampus, and fractional anisotropy decreases in white matter tracts connecting prefrontal and subcortical regions. Conclusion Neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder clearly demonstrate abnormalities in neural circuitries supporting emotion processing, emotion regulation and reward processing, although there are several limitations to these studies. Future neuroimaging research in bipolar disorder should include studies adopting dimensional approaches; larger studies examining neurodevelopmental trajectories in bipolar disorder and at-risk youth; multimodal neuroimaging studies using integrated systems approaches; and studies using pattern recognition approaches to provide clinically useful, individual

  1. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  2. Studies of chromosomal aberrations in occupationally coal exposed population (coal cutters)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijender Reddy, V.; Rudrama Devi, K.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed study was carried out among the 235 coal mine workers (coal cutters) and 215 unexposed individuals (controls) on cytogenetic effect of coal in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations were studied in exposed coal mine workers as well as in the control groups . The confounding factors like smoking drinking and combination of both were taken into account. There was a significant increase in the total number of aberrations among exposed population subjected to different habits like smoking and alcoholism compared to that of the controls. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab

  3. Risperidone and Divalproex Differentially Engage the Fronto-Striato-Temporal Circuitry in Pediatric Mania: A Pharmacological Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M.; Wegbreit, Ezra; Sweeney, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the impact of risperidone and divalproex on affective and working memory circuitry in patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method: This was a six-week, double-blind, randomized trial of risperidone plus placebo versus divalproex plus placebo for patients with mania (n = 21; 13.6 [plus or minus] 2.5…

  4. Electrokinetics and flocculation studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhawan, N. [Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Coal from India contains 25-35 per cent ash content. This leads to high slag volume, lower calorific value and inferior coke. In order to remove ash content, coal is washed, however, it retains some water that makes it difficult to process. Mechanical dewatering is performed in which a large portion of solids is removed while the remainder remains in centrifuge. There is therefore a need to recover solids and water. This paper discussed the use of flocculation and electrokinetic studies such as the determination of the point of zero charge. The experimental studies considered factors such as turbidity, faster settling, and compactness. Flocculation is brought about by the action of high molecular weight materials such as polyelectrolytes, where the material physically forms a bridge between two or more particles, uniting the sold particles into a random, three-dimensional structure, which is loose and porous. This paper also described the materials and methods of the electrokinetic studies on coal samples. Materials that were described included nephelometer, zeta meter, and a flocculator. It was concluded that in selecting the best flocculant, the preference order should be turbidity; settling rate; dosage; and moisture content. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  6. Study of the correlation between the coal calorific value and coal ash content using X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolortuya, D.; Zuzaan, P.; Gustova, M.V.; Maslov, O.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the possibility of determining the chemical elements in coal samples using X-ray fluorescence analysis and have found a relationship between the coal calorific value and its ash content with the coal moisture accounting. The amount of coal ash can be determined by the content of the basic chemical elements, such as Si, Sr, Fe, and Ca. It was concluded that the calorific value of coal can be estimated from the ash content in coal without the calorimetric measurements. These correlation coefficients were calculated for several coal mines in Mongolia. The results are in good agreement with the results of chemical analysis

  7. Chromatographic methods and techniques used in studies of coals, their progenitors and coal-derived materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubkova, Valentina [Jan Kochanowski University of Humanities and Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Kielce (Poland)

    2011-03-15

    The use of chromatography in studies of coals, their progenitors and coal-related products was reviewed. The specificity of the coal structure was discussed. The use of extraction in preparing study samples was discussed paying special attention to the occurrence of undesirable phenomena such as aggregation of coal derivate molecules, resulting from the formation of their dimers and trimers, and degradation of polar solvents at temperatures above 350 C. The following ways of fractionating samples of coal materials were considered: thermal, solvent, column with the use of preparative size exclusive chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography as well as membrane separation. The use of chromatography coupled with experimental techniques such as mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and pyrolysis was analysed. (orig.)

  8. Chemometric Study of Trace Elements in Hard Coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompalski, Przemysław; Cybulski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was the analysis of trace elements contents in coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), which may pose a potential threat to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. Productive carbon overburden in central and southern zones of the USCB is composed mostly of insulating tertiary formations of a thickness from a few m to 1,100 m, and is represented by Miocene and Pliocene formations. In the data study the geological conditions of the coal seams of particular zones of the USCB were taken into account and the hierarchical clustering analysis was applied, which enabled the exploration of the dissimilarities between coal samples of various zones of the USCB in terms of basic physical and chemical parameters and trace elements contents. Coals of the northern and eastern zones of the USCB are characterized by high average Hg and low average Ba, Cr, and Ni contents, whereas coals of southern and western zones are unique due to high average concentrations of Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, and V. Coals of the central part of the USCB are characterized by the highest average concentration of Mn and the lowest average concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, V, and Zn. PMID:24967424

  9. Study on coal dust wettability measurement using cold briquetting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Xu, H.; Shu, X. [North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Department of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2008-12-15

    Quantitative measuring of coal dust wettability is essential for the research and development of chemical coal dust suppressants in the field of dust control with wetting-agent-added water. The causes of low repeat rate and poor consistency in present lab testing of coal dust wettability are discussed. The influence of different briquetting pressure (from 0 to 6.5108 Pa) on the wet behavior of coal dust is investigated as a new way to quantitatively evaluate coal dust wettability. The study shows that there is a fairly high coincidence between the coal dust wettability data measured by the briquetting technique and the results gained from the lab dust suppression tests using an MCYZ apparatus designed by the authors. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Smoky River coal flood risk mapping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The Canada-Alberta Flood Damage Reduction Program (FDRP) is designed to reduce flood damage by identifying areas susceptible to flooding and by encouraging application of suitable land use planning, zoning, and flood preparedness and proofing. The purpose of this study is to define flood risk and floodway limits along the Smoky River near the former Smoky River Coal (SRC) plant. Alberta Energy has been responsible for the site since the mine and plant closed in 2000. The study describes flooding history, available data, features of the river and valley, calculation of flood levels, and floodway determination, and includes flood risk maps. The HEC-RAS program is used for the calculations. The flood risk area was calculated using the 1:100 year return period flood as the hydrological event. 7 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs., 3 apps.

  11. A study on the combustion behaviour of coal blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiera, F.; Fuente, E.; Arenillas, A.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Combustion behaviour of four coals of varying rank and their binary blends was studied using temperature programmed combustion tests, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characteristic parameters could not be predicted from the weight percentage of individual coals in the blend. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  13. Floatability characteristics: A case study with three typical Indian prime coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, D.; Singh, A.K.; Banerjee, P.K. [Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur (India). Division for Research & Development

    2008-07-01

    Three types of prime coking coals (coals A, B, and C) from Jharia coalfield, India, were investigated for the variations in their floatability characteristics. Among the three coals studied, coal A showed the least floatability. However, its floatability improved to some extent at higher dosages of collector and frother. Other two types of coal, i.e., coals B and C, showed almost similar flotation performance, which was much better as compared to coal A. The studies revealed that coal showed the least floatability characteristics, primarily due to the least concentration of vitrinite and liptinite content and a high percentage of inertinite and mineral matters in the coal. Also, the lower type of vitrinite (V7-V9) was present in the coal in greater proportion as compared to the other two coals and the proportion of ultra fines (-0.053mm) in coal A was higher as compared to the other two coals.

  14. Coal Transition in the United States. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Irem

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the 6 country case-studies commissioned to collect experience on past coal transitions. The 6 countries are: Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK, USA. Their role in the Coal Transitions project was to provide background information for a Synthesis Report for decision makers, and provide general lessons for national project teams to take into account in developing their coal transitions pathways for the future. Over the past decade, the US started to cut down the production and the use of coal, which was affected by unfavorable market dynamics and changing federal regulatory environment. Even before the shale gas revolution and uptake of renewables diminish the use of coal in power generation, coal communities were struggling to meet ends. The regional cost differences between producing states, such as the Appalachian and the Powder River Basins, indicates that coal-impacted communities and workers have lived through the impacts of coal transition at varying magnitudes and time periods. In the period between 2014 and 2016, we have seen the crash of major US coal companies due to declining demand for US coal domestically and internationally. Furthermore, Obama administration's climate change policies negatively impacted coal-fired power plants with additional GHG emission requirements, contributing to declining domestic demand for coal. Combined with market downturn, US coal producers already struggle to pay for high operational costs and legal liabilities under bankruptcy conditions. With under-funded state budgets, coal states are also grappling with financial exposure resulting from pension, health care and reclamation liabilities of bankrupt coal companies. In 2016, former President Obama announced the Power Plus Plan to aid coal-impacted communities and workers to prepare for a low carbon future. The federal budget plan targeted diversification of local economies, funding of health and pension funds of miners and retraining for

  15. Study of blood pressure among coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandon; Dhar, B.B.; Singh, A.K.P.; Sahay, L.K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the work was to assess the prevalence of hypertension among 2772 coal miners and to establish the relationship of hypertension with family history, living conditions, dietary habits, and other associated medical parameters. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coal before feeding to the gasification process [1]. .... to-control variables will make up the terms in the response surface model for the ... Montgomery (1999) explained that all the Taguchi engineering objectives for a robust ..... software [3].

  17. Thermogravimetric studies of New Zealand coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A.; Benfell, K.E.; Shaw, K.J. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    1997-12-31

    The thermal behaviour of New Zealand coals may be reliably characterised by a series of tightly constrained thermogravimetric (TG) procedures of high repeatability developed in the Department of Geology at The University of Auckland. Proximate, combustion and char reactivity analyses can be routinely obtained for run-of-mine samples. Volatile matter determination by TG produces an acceptable reproducible result compared with the ISO method, whereas further refinement of the technique is necessary to achieve the same level of precision for ash content of New Zealand low rank coals. Combining combustion and char reactivity analyses enables the performance of a coal to be assessed under differing operating conditions, and offers the opportunity to elucidate competing effects of major element geochemistry of the coal. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Coal Transition in the Czech Republic. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, Dominika; Recka, Lukacs; Scasny, Milan

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the 6 country case-studies commissioned to collect experience on past coal transitions. The 6 countries are: Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK, USA. Their role in the Coal Transitions project was to provide background information for a Synthesis Report for decision makers, and provide general lessons for national project teams to take into account in developing their coal transitions pathways for the future. Content: History of coal production and coal reserves; Key features of the Czech economy; Fuel mix in the Czech Republic 1990 - 2014; Key features of coal sector in the Czech Republic after 1990; The use of coal in the Czech Republic and its possible replacement: A. Coal as source of Electricity, B. Coal as Heating source, C. Non - energy coal use; The state role in the coal sector after 1990 - mining limits; Measures to ease transition: Phasing-out of mining activities, Rehabilitation of environmentally damaged land, Programmes financing the remediation of ecological damage, Remediation of environmental damage caused by mining; Future outlook; Lessons learned; References; Annex

  19. Study for recovery and utilization of coal mine gas in Russia (Kuznetsk coal basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions in line with the Joint Implementation, a study was conducted on recovery/utilization of methane gas emitted from the Chertinskaya coal mine in the Kuznetsk coal basin area. According to the survey, the methane gas emitted from the Chertinskaya coal mine into the atmospheric air is 26 million to 36 million tons on the levels of the annual coal production between 0.7 million and 1 million tons. However, the monthly gas recovery amount and concentration largely fluctuate, and therefore, the use method to cope with this was studied. The study was now under way, and the electric power production using gas engine was regarded as the best. In this project, only the Chertinskaya mine can generate power of 34,721 MWh. In the whole Kuznetsk coal basin, approximately 200 million m{sup 3} of gas is needed to be removed for safety of the mine. The use of this will probably bring energy substitution of about 128,000 tons/year and CO2 reduction of 2.8 million tons/year. (NEDO)

  20. Neural circuitry and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuroimmune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases defines the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  1. Study of coal oxidation by charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    It has been possible, using the technique of changed particle activation analysis, to follow the time course of the oxidation of coal exposed to air. The kinetics have been studied and seem to be consistent with a rapid initial uptake of oxygen containing molecules followed by slow diffusion into the surface of the coal particles. In this latter regard a study has been undertaken to study the depth profile of the oxygen into the coal particle surface. The depth of penetration of the activating particle is determined by the incident energy and therefore, by comparison to the appropriate standards, the depth profile may be determined either by varying the incident energy or by varying the particle size. Both approaches have been used and give consistent results. The depth to which a significant amount of oxygen penetrates varies from about 3 μm for very high rank coals to about 20 μm for low rank coals. This diffusion depth seems to be related to the porosity of the coals. A model for the low temperature air oxidation of coal has been developed to explain the results from the above mentioned experiments

  2. Coal resources available for development; a methodology and pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jane R.; Carter, M. Devereux; Cobb, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Coal accounts for a major portion of our Nation's energy supply in projections for the future. A demonstrated reserve base of more than 475 billion short tons, as the Department of Energy currently estimates, indicates that, on the basis of today's rate of consumption, the United States has enough coal to meet projected energy needs for almost 200 years. However, the traditional procedures used for estimating the demonstrated reserve base do not account for many environmental and technological restrictions placed on coal mining. A new methodology has been developed to determine the quantity of coal that might actually be available for mining under current and foreseeable conditions. This methodology is unique in its approach, because it applies restrictions to the coal resource before it is mined. Previous methodologies incorporated restrictions into the recovery factor (a percentage), which was then globally applied to the reserve (minable coal) tonnage to derive a recoverable coal tonnage. None of the previous methodologies define the restrictions and their area and amount of impact specifically. Because these restrictions and their impacts are defined in this new methodology, it is possible to achieve more accurate and specific assessments of available resources. This methodology has been tested in a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey on the Matewan 7.5-minute quadrangle in eastern Kentucky. Pertinent geologic, mining, land-use, and technological data were collected, assimilated, and plotted. The National Coal Resources Data System was used as the repository for data, and its geographic information system software was applied to these data to eliminate restricted coal and quantify that which is available for mining. This methodology does not consider recovery factors or the economic factors that would be considered by a company before mining. Results of the pilot study indicate that, of the estimated

  3. Coal Transition in the Netherlands. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, Ben; Hoelsgens, Rick

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the 6 country case-studies commissioned to collect experience on past coal transitions. The 6 countries are: Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK, USA. Their role in the Coal Transitions project was to provide background information for a Synthesis Report for decision makers, and provide general lessons for national project teams to take into account in developing their coal transitions pathways for the future. This document provides on overview of coal transitions in the Netherlands in the post-war period. The main focus is an in depth case study of the reconversion of the Limburg region in the South-east of the country which took place from 1965 to 1990. This is discussed in the first part of the document. The later part of the document discusses the re-emergence of coal as an energy source in the Netherlands and present challenges to phasing out coal use

  4. Study on coal char ignition by radiant heat flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkikh, A. G.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.

    2017-11-01

    The study on coal char ignition by CO2-continuous laser was carried out. The coal char samples of T-grade bituminous coal and 2B-grade lignite were studied via CO2-laser ignition setup. Ignition delay times were determined at ambient condition in heat flux density range 90-200 W/cm2. The average ignition delay time value for lignite samples were 2 times lower while this difference is larger in high heat flux region and lower in low heat flux region. The kinetic constants for overall oxidation reaction were determined using analytic solution of simplified one-dimensional heat transfer equation with radiant heat transfer boundary condition. The activation energy for lignite char was found to be less than it is for bituminous coal char by approximately 20 %.

  5. Refining and end use study of coal liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the DL1 material was 2.5-4.0 $/barrel greater than the base petroleum crude, while the DL2

  6. Basic studies on coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of research and development of coal liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992, regarding the coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products. For the fundamental study on coal liquefaction reaction, were investigated effect of asphaltene in petroleum residue on coprocessing, pretreatment effect in coprocessing of Taiheiyo coal and tarsand bitumen using oil soluble catalyst, solubilization and liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal at mild conditions with the aid of super acid, and flash hydropyrolysis of finely pulverized swollen coal under high hydrogen pressure. On the other hand, for the study on hydrotreatment of coal derived liquid, were investigated catalytic hydroprocessing of Wandoan coal liquids, production of gasoline from coal liquids by fluid catalytic cracking, solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from coal liquids, and separation of hetero compounds in coal liquid by means of high pressure crystallization. Further progress in these studies has been confirmed. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Brent coal typing by combined optical and geochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducazeaux, J.; Le Tran, K.; Nicolas, G. (Societe Nationale des Petroles d' Aquitaine (SNPA), 64 - Pau (France))

    1991-12-01

    Palynological,petrographical and organic geochemical studies show that various kinds of coal occur throughout the Middle Jurassic Brent Group in the Viking Graben. Two types of coal with strong contrast in terms of source rock potential are thoroughly investigated in this study. It is found that they are relevant to two distinct organic facies. Though having the same organic carbon content, they are very different with respect to the petroleum generating potential, one being a conventional gas-prone coal of type III kerogen and the other one of type II-(III) kerogen which should be considered as an oil-generating coal. Explanations are sought for the difference observed, both geochemically and optically. Palynological study shows the occurrence of two distinct communities of land plants in relation with the depositional environment and climatic changes, whilst coal petrographical study shows that the macerals are unevenly and differently distributed in these two coal types. The original organic material and the depositional environment appear to be the main controlling factors. 13 Refs.; 8 Figs.

  8. Neuroanatomical circuitry between kidney and rostral elements of brain: a virally mediated transsynaptic tracing study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye-Ting; He, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Tao-Tao; Feng, Mao-Hui; Zhang, Ding-Yu; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2017-02-01

    The identity of higher-order neurons and circuits playing an associative role to control renal function is not well understood. We identified specific neural populations of rostral elements of brain regions that project multisynaptically to the kidneys in 3-6 days after injecting a retrograde tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 into kidney of 13 adult male C57BL/6J strain mice. PRV-614 infected neurons were detected in a number of mesencephalic (e.g. central amygdala nucleus), telencephalic regions and motor cortex. These divisions included the preoptic area (POA), dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), lateral hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus (Arc), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), periventricular hypothalamus (PeH), and rostral and caudal subdivision of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). PRV-614/Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) double-labeled cells were found within DMH, Arc, SCN, PeH, PVN, the anterodorsal and medial POA. A subset of neurons in PVN that participated in regulating sympathetic outflow to kidney was catecholaminergic or serotonergic. PRV-614 infected neurons within the PVN also contained arginine vasopressin or oxytocin. These data demonstrate the rostral elements of brain innervate the kidney by the neuroanatomical circuitry.

  9. Freight Calculation Model: A Case Study of Coal Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunianto, I. T.; Lazuardi, S. D.; Hadi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Coal has been known as one of energy alternatives that has been used as energy source for several power plants in Indonesia. During its transportation from coal sites to power plant locations is required the eligible shipping line services that are able to provide the best freight rate. Therefore, this study aims to obtain the standardized formulations for determining the ocean freight especially for coal distribution based on the theoretical concept. The freight calculation model considers three alternative transport modes commonly used in coal distribution: tug-barge, vessel and self-propelled barge. The result shows there are two cost components very dominant in determining the value of freight with the proportion reaching 90% or even more, namely: time charter hire and fuel cost. Moreover, there are three main factors that have significant impacts on the freight calculation, which are waiting time at ports, time charter rate and fuel oil price.

  10. Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.; Chakraborty, K.

    1994-01-01

    Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

  11. Collaborative Studies for Mercury Characterization in Coal and Coal Combustion Products, Republic of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Constance L.; van Alphen, Chris

    2014-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) analyses were obtained for 42 samples of feed coal provided by Eskom, the national electric utility of South Africa, representing all 13 coal-fired power stations operated by Eskom in South Africa. This sampling includes results for three older power stations returned to service starting in the late 2000s. These stations were not sampled in the most recent previous study. Mercury concentrations determined in the present study are similar to or slightly lower than those previously reported, and input Hg for the three stations returned to service is comparable to that for the other 10 power stations. Determination of halogen contents of the 42 feed coals confirms that chlorine contents are generally low, and as such, the extent of Hg self-capture by particulate control devices (PCDs) is rather limited. Eight density separates of a South African Highveld (#4) coal were also provided by Eskom, and these show a strong mineralogical association of Hg (and arsenic) with pyrite. The density separates were used to predict Hg and ash contents of coal products used in South Africa or exported. A suite of 48 paired samples of pulverization-mill feed coal and fly ash collected in a previous (2010) United Nations Environment Programme-sponsored study of emissions from the Duvha and Kendal power stations was obtained for further investigation in the present study. These samples show that in each station, Hg capture varies by boiler unit and confirms that units equipped with fabric filters for air pollution control are much more effective in capturing Hg than those equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Apart from tracking the performance of PCDs individually, changes resulting in improved mercury capture of the Eskom fleet are discussed. These include Hg reduction through coal selection and washing, as well as through optimization of equipment and operational parameters. Operational changes leading to increased mercury capture include increasing mercury

  12. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  13. How plastic are human spinal cord motor circuitries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Perez, Monica A

    2017-01-01

    Human and animal studies have documented that neural circuitries in the spinal cord show adaptive changes caused by altered supraspinal and/or afferent input to the spinal circuitry in relation to learning, immobilization, injury and neurorehabilitation. Reversible adaptations following, e.g. the...

  14. Disturbance in the neural circuitry underlying positive emotional processing in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatzko, Alexander; Schmitt, Andrea; Demirakca, Traute; Weimer, Erik; Braus, Dieter F

    2006-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the circuitry underlying movie-induced positive emotional processing in subjects with chronic PTSD. Ten male subjects with chronic PTSD and ten matched controls were studied. In an fMRI-paradigm a sequence of a wellknown Walt Disney cartoon with positive emotional valence was shown. PTSD subjects showed an increased activation in the right posterior temporal, precentral and superior frontal cortex. Controls recruited more emotion-related regions bilateral in the temporal pole and areas of the left fusiform and parahippocampal gyrus. This pilot study is the first to reveal alterations in the processing of positive emotions in PTSD possibly reflecting a neuronal correlate of the symptom of emotional numbness in PTSD.

  15. Oxidation and carbonisation of coals: a case study of coal fire affected coals from the Wuda coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Jolanta; Meyer, Uwe; Ma, Jianwei; Chen-Brauchler, Dai

    2010-05-01

    At the coalfield of Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China) extensive underground coal fires cause widespread thermal and oxidative effects in coal seams. Within phase B of the Coal Fire Research Project of the Sino-German Initiative, methods for innovative fire-extinguishing technologies were investigated in multifaceted research approaches. Extensive investigations of oxidative and thermally affected coal seams in coal fire zone 18 were conducted in 2008 prior to application of new fire-extinguishing methods. We present results from the outcrop of coal seam No. 4 in the fire zone 18. The coal of seam No. 4 is of Early Permian age and belongs stratigraphically to the Shanxi Formation. The unaffected coal displays a high volatile bituminous A rank with a background value of random vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.90 to 0.96 % Rr. Coal channel samples were coallected at actively extracted coal faces along multiple profiles with surface temperatures ranging from about 50° to 600°C. Microscopic examinations revealed a variety of products of coal exposure to the fire. Within coal samples, a marked rise in vitrinite reflectance from background values to 5.55% Rr (6.00 % Rmax) is encountered. In addition, a number of coal samples showed suppressed vitrinite reflectances ranging between 0.82 to 0.88% Rr. Further, seemingly heat unaffected coal samples display intensive development of oxidations rims at coal grain edges and cracks as well as shrinkage cracks and formation of iron oxides/hydroxides. Instead, thermally affected coal samples with higher coalification grade are further characterised by development of macropores (devolatilisation pores) in vitrinitic streaks, transformation of liptinite to meta-liptinite and micrinite as well as by natural coke particles of mostly porous nature and fine to coarse grained anisotropic mosaic. Coal petrographic investigations confirmed a hypothesis that both, oxidations as well as low temperature carbonisation govern the thermal

  16. Uncertainty in coal property valuation in West Virginia: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, M.E.; McDowell, R.R.

    2001-01-01

    Interpolated grids of coal bed thickness are being considered for use in a proposed method for taxation of coal in the state of West Virginia (United States). To assess the origin and magnitude of possible inaccuracies in calculated coal tonnage, we used conditional simulation to generate equiprobable realizations of net coal thickness for two coals on a 7 1/2 min topographic quadrangle, and a third coal in a second quadrangle. Coals differed in average thickness and proportion of original coal that had been removed by erosion; all three coals crop out in the study area. Coal tonnage was calculated for each realization and for each interpolated grid for actual and artificial property parcels, and differences were summarized as graphs of percent difference between tonnage calculated from the grid and average tonnage from simulations. Coal in individual parcels was considered minable for valuation purposes if average thickness in each parcel exceeded 30 inches. Results of this study show that over 75% of the parcels are classified correctly as minable or unminable based on interpolation grids of coal bed thickness. Although between 80 and 90% of the tonnages differ by less than 20% between interpolated values and simulated values, a nonlinear conditional bias might exist in estimation of coal tonnage from interpolated thickness, such that tonnage is underestimated where coal is thin, and overestimated where coal is thick. The largest percent differences occur for parcels that are small in area, although because of the small quantities of coal in question, bias is small on an absolute scale for these parcels. For a given parcel size, maximum apparent overestimation of coal tonnage occurs in parcels with an average coal bed thickness near the minable cutoff of 30 in. Conditional bias in tonnage for parcels having a coal thickness exceeding the cutoff by 10 in. or more is constant for two of the three coals studied, and increases slightly with average thickness for the

  17. Basic study for promoting joint implementation and others. Feasibility study on the recovery and utilization of coal mine methane of an Upper Silesian Coal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Having the Mining Industry Restructuring Public Corporation located in the city of Katowice, Poland as the counterpart, a feasibility study has been executed on a project to utilize coal bed gas for power generation. Selected for the study are the 'Budryk coal mine' owned by KWK 'Budryk' Coal Company and the 'Pniowek coal mine' owned by Jastrzebie Coal Company. Since the Pniowek coal mine can utilize the whole quantity of recovered methane by 2001, the Budryk coal mine was selected as the object of the project. As a result of the trial calculation on the economy when the new gas power plant is installed in the Budryk coal mine, the energy substitution effect was found to equal to a power amount at transmission terminal of 6 MWh/year. Furthermore, when proliferation effect is taken into consideration, an enormous effect can be expected if new coal mines are developed and the existing cola mines will go further deeper, because the Silesian coal mine presently has the coal resource quantity of 57 billion tons and the annual gas discharge quantity of 750 million m{sup 3}. Therefore, if the technologies to recover, manage and utilize the gas are established at the Budryk coal mine, a large effect leading to an aspiration would be expected under the current situation of the structural reorganization under which the Polish coal companies are placed. (NEDO)

  18. Basic study for promoting joint implementation and others. Feasibility study on the recovery and utilization of coal mine methane of an Upper Silesian Coal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Having the Mining Industry Restructuring Public Corporation located in the city of Katowice, Poland as the counterpart, a feasibility study has been executed on a project to utilize coal bed gas for power generation. Selected for the study are the 'Budryk coal mine' owned by KWK 'Budryk' Coal Company and the 'Pniowek coal mine' owned by Jastrzebie Coal Company. Since the Pniowek coal mine can utilize the whole quantity of recovered methane by 2001, the Budryk coal mine was selected as the object of the project. As a result of the trial calculation on the economy when the new gas power plant is installed in the Budryk coal mine, the energy substitution effect was found to equal to a power amount at transmission terminal of 6 MWh/year. Furthermore, when proliferation effect is taken into consideration, an enormous effect can be expected if new coal mines are developed and the existing cola mines will go further deeper, because the Silesian coal mine presently has the coal resource quantity of 57 billion tons and the annual gas discharge quantity of 750 million m{sup 3}. Therefore, if the technologies to recover, manage and utilize the gas are established at the Budryk coal mine, a large effect leading to an aspiration would be expected under the current situation of the structural reorganization under which the Polish coal companies are placed. (NEDO)

  19. Carbon foams from coals. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montserrat Calvo; Roberto Garcia; Ana Arenillas; Isabel Suarez; Sabino R. Moinelo [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2005-12-01

    Carbon foams were obtained from a bituminous coal with good plasticity properties by a two-stage thermal process under different pressure and temperature conditions. The first stage was a controlled carbonisation treatment under pressure at 450 and 500{sup o}C. In the second stage the carbonisation product was baked at 1100{sup o}C. The foams produced display a macroporous texture with pressure and temperature determining the mean pore size and the amount of pores. The pressure increase reduces the pore size, while the increasing temperature increases the pore volume. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Study of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, B.T.G.

    1979-01-01

    Various types of coal contain high levels of a number of trace elements. Little is known of the fates of these trace elements during the conversion of coal to liquid and gaseous products. Studies were undertaken of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis, one of the major coal conversion processes. The bituminous coal was pyrolyzed to produce liquid and gaseous products. The pyrolysis products were collected in traps in an inert gas stream. In addition mildly hydrogenated coal was prepared by mixing with tetralin, a hydrogen donor solvent, at boiling temperature. In order to characterize each element specifically during pyrolysis, base samples of coal and mildly hydrogenated coal (H-coal) were spiked with heavy metal sulfides, trace metals bound to partially oxidized coal (coal humates), and halide salts prior to carrying out pyrolysis. Eight elements were investigated in this research. They are As, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, and V. Pre-spiked hydrogenated coal, i.e., pulverized coal spiked with halide salts and heavy metal sulfides then hydrogenated with tetralin, was prepared and studied for the fates of these elements during pyrolysis. Chlorinated and brominated coals were also prepared to compare the volatility differences between organically and inorganically bound halogens during the pyrolysis reaction. These products and the coal char residues were analyzed for the spiked elements mainly by neutron activation analysis for the spiked elements to determine their degree of volatility. Volatility and recovery (mass balance) will be discussed for those elements that appeared highly volatile during pyrolysis. In order to understand the halogenated compounds in the pyrolysis products, gas chromatograms were taken to the collected pyrolysis products of coal, hydrogenated coal, NaCl spiked coal, NaBr spiked coal, chlorinated coal, and brominated coal

  1. Feasibility study on recovery and utilization of coal mine gas (CMG) at Donetsk Coal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of getting petroleum substitution energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, an investigational study was carried out of the project for methane gas recovery/utilization at the Donbassa coal mine in Ukraine. At the Donbassa coal mine, degassing by test boring is being conducted to reduce the gas emission at coal face for safety, but most of the gas is discharged into the air. In this project, the following were studied: degassing boring/gas induction from bore hole/measurement in gas induction pipe, gas recovery system combined with gas induction in flyash, and installation/operation of gas engine power generation facilities (1,710kW x 7 units) with exhaust heat recovery boiler using the recovered methane gas as fuel. The results obtained were the petroleum substitution amount of 31,000 toe/y and the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction of 480,000 t/y. In the economical estimation, the initial investment amount was 3 billion yen, the profitability of the total investment used was 2.9%, and the internal earning rate was 6.5%. (NEDO)

  2. [Study on effects of Corydalis yanhusuo and L-THP on dopamine of reward circuitry in conditioned place preference rats and comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shou-Yang; Yang, Pei-Run; Qian, Gang; Wu, Ming-Song; Bai, Wei-Feng; Tu, Ping; Luo, Su-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    To study and compare the effect of Corydalis yanhusuo and L-THP on dopamine neurotransmitter and D2 receptor of reward circuitry in various cerebral areas of conditioned place preference model rats and the comparison of their effects. The CPP model was established by injecting morphine in rats with increasing doses for 10 days. The initial dose of 10 mg x kg(-1), and the final dose of 100 mg x kg(-1), with 10 mg x kg(-1) increased each day. At 48 h after the final training, CPP was adopted to detect the successful establishment of the model. On the same day (12 d), they were orally administered with 2, 1, 0.5 g x kg(-1) C. yanhusuo (containing 0.153, 0.077 and 0.038 mg L-THP) and L-THP (3.76, 1.88, 0.94 mg x kg(-1)) for six days. On 18 d, CPP test was performed again. Next day, HPLC was adopted to determine the content of dopamine neurotransmitters of reward circuitry in VTA-NAc-PFC; Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were adopted to detect the expression of D2 receptors. Compared with the physiological saline treatment group, C. yanhusuo (2, 1 g x kg(-1)) and L-THP (3.76, 1.88 mg x kg(-1)) groups showed that rats stayed in a notably shorter period in white boxes (morphine-accompanied boxes) (P THP in accelerating the recession of morphine's CPP effect Regarding the inhibition of morphine's CPP effect and the effect on dopamine system, the effect of C. yanhusuo traditional Chinese medicine containing one-fold L-THP monomer is equal to that of the independent application of around 24-fold L-THP monomer.

  3. Quantum chemistry calculation and experimental study on coal ash fusion characteristics of coal blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yushuang; Zhang Zhong-xiao; Wu Xiao-jiang; Li Jie; Guang Rong-qing; Yan Bo [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Power Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The coal ash fusion characteristics of high fusibility coal blending with two low fusibility coals respectively were studied. The data were analyzed using quantum chemistry methods and experiment from micro-and macro-molecular structures. The results show that Ca{sup 2+}, as the electron acceptor, easily enters into the lattice of mullite, causing a transition from mullite to anorthite. Mullite is much more stable than anorthite. Ca{sup 2+} of anorthite occupies the larger cavities with the (SiO{sub 4}){sup 4-} tetrahedral or (AlO{sub 4}){sup 5-} tetrahedral rings respectively. Ca atom linked O weakens Si-O bond, leading ash fusion point to reduce effectively. The chemistry, reactivity sites and bond-formation characteristics of minerals can well explain the reaction mechanism refractory minerals and flux ash melting process at high temperature. The results of experiment are agreed with the theory analysis by using ternary phase diagrams and quantitative calculation. 27 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Experimental study of rapid brown coal pyrolysis at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Lin; Sun, Shaozeng; Meng, Shun; Meng, Xianyu; Guo, Yangzhou [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Combustion Engineering Research Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Rapid coal pyrolysis is a very important step in the early stage of combustion. Rapid pyrolysis experiments of a brown coal at high temperature have been studied on a laminar drop tube furnace. The volatile mass release measured in this study is high for low rank coal. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor of pyrolysis are 19901.22 kJ/mol and 102.71, respectively. The nitrogen distribution between volatile and char is 0.54. With the increase of temperature, the yields of NH{sub 3} decreases, while those of HCN increases, leading the value of HCN/NH{sub 3} to become larger. At high temperature, the main nitrogen- containing species of pyrolysis in volatile is HCN.

  5. A Study of Coal Fire Propagation with Remotely Sensed Thermal Infrared Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyuan Huo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal-bearing countries. Thus, it is very important to monitor changes in coal fires. Remote sensing provides a useful technique for investigating coal fields at a large scale and for detecting coal fires. In this study, the spreading direction of a coal fire in the Wuda Coal Field (WCF, northwest China, was analyzed using multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ thermal infrared (TIR data. Using an automated method and based on the land surface temperatures (LST that were retrieved from these thermal data, coal fires related to thermal anomalies were identified; the locations of these fires were validated using a coal fire map (CFM that was developed via field surveys; and the cross-validation of the results was also carried out using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared images. Based on the results from longtime series of satellite TIR data set, the spreading directions of the coal fires were determined and the coal fire development on the scale of the entire coal field was predicted. The study delineated the spreading direction using the results of the coal fire dynamics analysis, and a coal fire spreading direction map was generated. The results showed that the coal fires primarily spread north or northeast in the central part of the WCF and south or southwest in the southern part of the WCF. In the northern part of the WCF, some coal fires were spreading north, perhaps coinciding with the orientation of the coal belt. Certain coal fires scattered in the northern and southern parts of the WCF were extending in bilateral directions. A quantitative analysis of the coal fires was also performed; the results indicate that the area of the coal fires increased an average of approximately 0.101 km2 per year.

  6. Reconnaissance coal study in the Susitna basin, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. LePain,; Stanley, Richard G.; Harun, Nina T.; Helmold, Kenneth T.; Tsigonis, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) conducted fieldwork during the summer of 2014 in the Susitna basin as part of an ongoing evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of frontier basins, particularly those near the Railbelt region (for example, Decker and others, 2013; Gillis and others, 2013). Topical studies associated with this recent work include sedimentary facies analysis (LePain and others, 2015) and structural geology investigations (Gillis and others, 2015). The Susitna basin contains coal-bearing Paleogene and Neogene strata correlative with formations that host oil and gas in Cook Inlet basin to its south. Isotopic signatures of natural gas reservoired in the Miocene/Pliocene Sterling and Miocene Beluga Formations suggest a biogenic origin for Cook Inlet gas (Claypool and others, 1980). To assess the biogenic gas potential of the Susitna basin, it is important to obtain information from its coal-bearing units.Characteristics of coal, such as maturity/rank and cleat development are key parameters influencing viability of a biogenic gas system (Laubach and others, 1998). In an early study of the Susitna basin (Beluga–Yentna region), Barnes (1966) identified, analyzed, and recognized potentially valuable subbituminous coal resources at Fairview Mountain, Canyon Creek, and Johnson Creek. Merritt (1990), in a sedimentological study to evaluate surface coal mining potential of the Tertiary rocks of the Susitna basin (Susitna lowland), concluded that the basin contained several billion tons of mineable reserves. This preliminary report offers a brief summary of new information on coals in the Susitna Basin acquired during associated stratigraphic studies (see LePain and others, 2015). 

  7. Coal Transition in the United Kingdom. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fothergill, Steve

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the 6 country case-studies commissioned to collect experience on past coal transitions. The 6 countries are: Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK, USA. Their role in the Coal Transitions project was to provide background information for a Synthesis Report for decision makers, and provide general lessons for national project teams to take into account in developing their coal transitions pathways for the future. The UK has virtually completed its move away from the production and use of coal - an astonishing transformation for an economy that once relied overwhelmingly on coal power. This is however a transformation that was never really 'planned' and the move away from coal started long before concerns about climate change achieved political prominence. Until as late as November 2015, for example, there was no government commitment to phase out coal in UK electricity generation. But it was already happening, and some of the most rapid change was actually in 2016, triggered in particular by the impact of a 'carbon tax' which has tipped the economics away from coal to gas-fired generation. A handful of coal-fired power stations will remain on the grid for a few years to help meet peak demand, but to all intents the UK is already entering the post-coal era. Whether this has been achieved without undue pain to coal mining areas is however deeply questionable. Job losses were for many years managed by a combination of redundancies and transfers to surviving mines. Redundancy payments, welfare benefits and early access to pensions provided support former miners, and careers advice and training was on offer. Most former miners have now reached retirement age. The big problem for mining communities has been replacement of the lost jobs. The UK has a long history of efforts to regenerate areas affected by coal closures and there is clear evidence that this has delivered positive results in the form of new jobs. Nevertheless, there continues to

  8. Performance study of coal-base charcoals for removing radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuying; Wu Yanwei; Guo Liangtian; Jia Ming; Lu Xueshi; Zhang Hong

    1988-01-01

    In authos' laboratory sveral types of domestic coal-base charcoals are selected and impregnated and examined for their main physical and chemical performances. The results show that under the test conditions the iodine-removing efficiencies of these impregnated coal-base charcoals charcoals are not poorer than that of the impregnated fruit-shell base charcoals (such as coconut shell charcoal) and most of their physical properties can satisfy the requirements of the nuclear grade charcoals assigned in USA standards. More detailed studies will be made in the next programme

  9. Studying the dependence of quality of coal fine briquettes on technological parameters of their production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Н. Александрова

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study characterizes the role of coal in the fuel and energy balance of the Far East Region and points out the issue of losses of coal fines in the processes of coal mining, transportation and processing. To solve the problem of losses of coal fines, the mined coal is sorted into different size classes and fuel briquettes are produced from coal fines. Physical foundations are presented in short of briquetting solid combustible mineral resources. The dependences and variations of briquette compression strength limit are studied vs. charge humidity and briquetting pressure. Optimal parameters are retrieved for briquetting coal fines. The principal technological scheme is given of the process of briquette production. The developed technological solutions include sorting regular coal and briquetting coal fines, as well as the involvement of technogenic carbon-containing wastes from the hydrolysis production lines, plus residuals from oil refining.

  10. Study on the associative structure of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, H.; Zhou, H. [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China)

    2004-12-01

    The associative kinetics of one coal soluble constituent, pyridine insoluble (PI) and carbon disulfide-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent soluble was investigated. It is clarified that the aggregation of PI molecules in NMP solution is a reaction controlled mechanism. A two-step kinetic process is provided, which are the formation of elemental aggregates and their clustering. The associative rates for the aggregation at different holding temperatures and solvents are determined, and the rate constants follow the Arrhenius equation. The activation energy of the aggregation of PI molecule sin NMP solution is 73/3 kJ/mol and 21.6 kJ/mol for the first and the second step, respectively. The effect of temperature on the aggregation rate is remarkable, and the aggregation rate increases with increasing temperature. The aggregation rate of PI molecules in CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent is faster than that in NMP due to the higher diffusibility of PI-1 molecules in the mixed solvent. The aggregation mechanism of PI molecules in solution is also discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Study on standard coal preparation plant for coking coal in Jharia Coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiewski, J; Sarkar, G G

    1975-10-01

    The proposed standardization of coal preparation plant will be based on three standard types of crushing station, a standard jig washery or cyclone washery, and three standard types of slurry water treatment section. Some large installations, and some existing washeries after modification, may incorporate heavy media baths for coarse coal and jigs for slack coal, where coal is easy or moderately easy to wash. Flow sheets are given for the standard types of crushing plant, washery, and slurry water circuit. The storage of raw coal and saleable products is briefly discussed.

  12. Study on surface morphology and physicochemical properties of raw and activated South African coal and coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. B.; Langwenya, S. P.; Mamba, B. B.; Balakrishnan, M.

    South African coal and coal fly ash were selected as the raw materials to be used for study of their morphology and physicochemical properties and their respective activated carbons for adsorption applications. Coal and fly ash were individually steam activated at a temperature range of 550-1000 °C for 1 h in a muffle furnace using cylindrical stainless steel containers. Scanning electron micrographs revealed a change in surface morphology with more mineral matter available on the surface of the coal particles due to increased devolatilization. However, in the case of fly ash, the macerals coalesced to form agglomerates and the presence of unburnt carbon constituted pores of diameter between 50 and 100 nm. The BET surface area of coal improved significantly from 5.31 to 52.12 m 2/g whereas in case of fly ash the surface area of the raw sample which was originally 0.59 m 2/g and upon activation increased only up to 2.04 m 2/g. The chemical composition of the fly ash confirmed that silica was the major component which was approximately 60% by weight fraction. The impact of this study was to highlight the importance of using raw materials such as coal and a waste product, in the form of coal ash, in order to produce affordable activated carbon that can be used in drinking water treatment. This would therefore ensure that the quality of water supplied to communities for drinking is not contaminated especially by toxic organic compounds.

  13. Study on regional stratagem for coal mine disasters control and prevention in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, B.; Lei, Y. [China Coal Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    A regional strategy study was aimed at coal mine disaster control and prevention, which deepens and enriches the macro-strategy of coal mine disaster control and prevention, and provides an important support for the rapid and healthy development of China's regional coal industry. The country was divided into 4 regions: Northeast, North, South and Xinqing. In view of the regional status of coal mine disasters, the regulation and development trend of regional coal mine disasters was analysed, the outstanding problems and key factors were identified, and general thoughts on regional coal mine disaster control and prevention are put forward. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Coal Transition in Poland. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpor, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the 6 country case-studies commissioned to collect experience on past coal transitions. The 6 countries are: Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK, USA. Their role in the Coal Transitions project was to provide background information for a Synthesis Report for decision makers, and provide general lessons for national project teams to take into account in developing their coal transitions pathways for the future. The restructuring of the Polish coal sector is inextricably related to the democratic transformation which began in 1989. The economic dimension of the transformation is manifested in the shift from central planning to the free market. Although this process brought economic growth, it has had severe social costs. The main goals of the coal sector restructuring were to achieve its profitability and competitiveness on the global market. However, even with a very quick down-sizing of production and employment, which positively affected the mines' productivity, these goals were not achieved. Neither the profitability of the sector nor the sustainability of the labour restructuring were achieved. There were three main reasons for lack of success in this process. Firstly, the rapid changes of governments making impossible implementation of long term strategies and ensure implementation of market rules in the sector. Secondly, the pressure from trade unions on sustaining the status quo - state owed structure of mining companies, professional privileges and increasing salaries. Thirdly, the lack of sufficient incentives for retraining the miners and revitalising the areas exposed the most on the coal sector restructuring. Content: Introduction; Historical background; Structure of the coal and energy sector; Policies for the restructuring of the coal sector: Main actors in the process, Governmental programs, Instruments for easing the restructuring processes; Conclusions and lessons learnt

  15. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of coal and carbon dioxide derived from laboratory coal combustion: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has dramatically increased from the start of the industrial revolution in the mid-1700s to present levels exceeding 400 ppm. Carbon dioxide derived from fossil fuel combustion is a greenhouse gas and a major contributor to on-going climate change. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope geochemistry is a useful tool to help model and predict the contributions of anthropogenic sources of CO2 in the global carbon cycle. Surprisingly few studies have addressed the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 derived from coal combustion. The goal of this study is to document the relationships between the carbon and oxygen isotope signatures of coal and signatures of the CO2 produced from laboratory coal combustion in atmospheric conditions.Six coal samples were selected that represent various geologic ages (Carboniferous to Tertiary) and coal ranks (lignite to bituminous). Duplicate splits of the six coal samples were ignited and partially combusted in the laboratory at atmospheric conditions. The resulting coal-combustion gases were collected and the molecular composition of the collected gases and isotopic analyses of δ13C of CO2, δ13C of CH4, and δ18O of CO2 were analysed by a commercial laboratory. Splits (~ 1 g) of the un-combusted dried ground coal samples were analyzed for δ13C and δ18O by the U.S. Geological Survey Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory.The major findings of this preliminary work indicate that the isotopic signatures of δ13C (relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite scale, VPDB) of CO2 resulting from coal combustion are similar to the δ13CVPDB signature of the bulk coal (− 28.46 to − 23.86 ‰) and are not similar to atmospheric δ13CVPDB of CO2 (~ − 8 ‰, see http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/outreach/isotopes/c13tellsus.html). The δ18O values of bulk coal are strongly correlated to the coal dry ash yields and appear to have little or no influence on the δ18O values of CO2

  16. Fuel supply investment cost: coal and nuclear. Commercial electric power cost studies (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This study presents an accounting model for calculating the capital investment requirements for coal and nuclear fuel supply facilities. The study addresses mining, processing, fabrication, and transportation of coal and nuclear fuels. A generic example is provided, for coal from different sources, and for nuclear fuel. The relationship of capital investment requirements to delivered prices is included in each example

  17. Study of Natural Radioactivity in Coal Samples of Baganuur Coal Mine, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altangerel, M.; Norov, N.; Altangerel, D.

    2009-03-01

    Coal and soil samples from Baganuur Coal Mine (BCM) of Mongolia have been investigated. The activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K have been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using shielded HPGe detector. Contents of natural radionuclide elements (U, Th and K) have been determined. Also the activities and contents of radionuclide of ashes were determined which generated in Thermal Power Plant ♯3 of Ulaanbaatar from coal supplied from BCM.

  18. Limbic-thalamo-cortical projections and reward-related circuitry integrity affects eating behavior: A longitudinal DTI study in adolescents with restrictive eating disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Olivo

    Full Text Available Few studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to investigate the micro-structural alterations of WM in patients with restrictive eating disorders (rED, and longitudinal data are lacking. Twelve patients with rED were scanned at diagnosis and after one year of family-based treatment, and compared to twenty-four healthy controls (HCs through DTI analysis. A tract-based spatial statistics procedure was used to investigate diffusivity parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA and mean, radial and axial diffusivities (MD, RD and AD, respectively. Reduced FA and increased RD were found in patients at baseline in the corpus callosum, corona radiata and posterior thalamic radiation compared with controls. However, no differences were found between follow-up patients and controls, suggesting a partial normalization of the diffusivity parameters. In patients, trends for a negative correlation were found between the baseline FA of the right anterior corona radiata and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire total score, while a positive trend was found between the baseline FA in the splenium of corpus callosum and the weight loss occurred between maximal documented weight and time of admission. A positive trend for correlation was also found between baseline FA in the right anterior corona radiata and the decrease in the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory Revised total score over time. Our results suggest that the integrity of the limbic-thalamo-cortical projections and the reward-related circuitry are important for cognitive control processes and reward responsiveness in regulating eating behavior.

  19. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males’ life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  20. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  1. Study on the combustion properties of bio-coal briquette blends of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the properties of bio-coal briquette produced from blending cassava stalk and coal. The cassava stalk and coal lumps were carbonized at 160 oC, pulverized and used to produce biocoal briquettes of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 %, 60 %,70 %, 80 %, 90 % and 100 % biomasses.

  2. Study on the Inference Factors of Huangling Coking Coal Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meili; Yang, Zongyi; Fan, Jinwen

    2018-01-01

    In order to reasonably and efficiently utilize Huangling coking coal resource, coal particle, heating rate, holding time, pyrolysis temperature and others factors were dicussed for the influence of those factor on Huangling coking coal pyrolysis products. Several kinds of coal blending for coking experiments were carried out with different kinds of coal such as Huangling coking coal, Xida coal with high ash low sufur, Xinghuo fat coal with hign sulfur, Zhongxingyi coking coal with high sulfur, Hucun lean coal, mixed meager and lean coal. The results shown that the optimal coal particle size distribution was 0.5~1.5mm, the optimal heating rate was 8°C/min, the optimal holding time was 15min, the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 800°C for Huangling coking coal pyrolysis, the tar yield increased from 4.7% to 11.2%. The maximum tar yield of coal blending for coking under the best single factor experiment condition was 10.65% when the proportio of Huangling coking coal was 52%.

  3. A comparison study on the deoxygenation of coal mine methane over coal gangue and coke under microwave heating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xuan; Ren, Jun; Xie, Chuanjin; Lin, Jianying; Li, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave has great advantages of energy and time saving in CMM deoxygenation. • Microwave pretreatment results in graphitization of carbonaceous materials. • Coal gangue shows benefit in restricting CH 4 decomposition compared to coke. • Under optimal conditions, there is no residual oxygen and CH 4 is less than 2.2%. - Abstract: Microwave heating has great advantages in saving energy and time; in this study, it has been first successfully applied in the deoxidization process of coal mine methane (CMM), where carbon in coal gangue reacts with oxygen in CMM. Compared with traditional heating, microwave pretreatment resulted in rapid heating of coal gangue in CMM deoxygenation, which was attributable to the graphitization of carbonaceous materials. This prominent advantage of microwave heating can contribute to deoxygenation. In addition, deoxygenation effectiveness for both coke and coal gangue under microwave heating was investigated. It was discovered that coke acted as a catalyst to some extent to accelerate methane decomposition. However, this effect could be greatly restricted when coal gangue was used in the deoxygenation process because of its chemical inertness. Under optimal conditions (650 °C and 300 mL/min), there was no residual oxygen in the outlet gas, and methane loss was less than 2.2%

  4. Study experimental of the combustion of coal in grill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chejne j, Farid; Florez E, Whady and others

    1997-01-01

    In this article, experiments in which the temperature of the bed and emissions in the combustion chamber were registered were carried out in pilot plant. Also proximate analyses of coal sizing over the average of unburned carbon was studied in pilot plant and industrial boilers. Finally, graphics of CO vs O2, Nox vs temperature and Sox vs temperature were analyzed in order to determinate their kinetic behavior

  5. Studies on coal flotation in flotation column using statistical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.S. Jena; S.K. Biswal; K.K. Rao; P.S.R. Reddy [Institute of Minerals & Materials Technology (IMMT), Orissa (India)

    2009-07-01

    Flotation of Indian high ash coking coal fines to obtain clean coal has been reported earlier by many authors. Here an attempt has been made to systematically analyse factors influencing the flotation process using statistical design of experiments technique. Studies carried out in a 100 mm diameter column using factorial design to establish weightage of factors such as feed rate, air rate and collector dosage indicated that all three parameters have equal influence on the flotation process. Subsequently RSM-CCD design was used to obtain best result and it is observed that 94% combustibles can be recovered with 82.5% weight recovery at 21.4% ash from a feed containing 31.3% ash content.

  6. Evaluation study on rationalization of coal handling in snowy area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suesada, Yasuhiko; Yamagata, Keisuke; Kuwahara, Mitsuhiro

    1987-09-25

    The adhesion of coal to the coal handling facilities in large cool-fired power plants in the snowy area was investigated for siting them in the future. The amount of water derived from melted snow in addition to that from the rain fall were measured and the statistical amounts of rain and snow falls for the past ten years were examined. Then the amount of water derived from melted snow was calculated by regression. The result indicates that the amount of rain fall in summer is larger than that from melted snow. The moisture content of coal in a coal yard reaches the moisture content at which the coal readily adheres to the facilities after snow fall and it penetrates the pile of coal to the bottom with the lapse of time. The penetrating rate of it largely depends upon the particle distribution of coal as well as the ranks of coal. The adhesion of coal to the coal handling facilities is caused mainly by the amount of dust coal and the moisture content of coal. The amount of adhered coal estimated from the shear properties qualitatively agrees with the experimental result using a model of chute. Adding the dusting inhibitor exceeding the normal value increases the amount of of adhesion of coal. (13 figs, 3 tabs)

  7. Detection of Coal Fires: A Case Study Conducted on Indian Coal Seams Using Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    India produces majority of its electricity from coal but a huge quantity of coal burns every day due to coal fires and also poses a threat to the environment as severe pollutants. In the present study we had demonstrated the usage of Neural Network based approach with an integrated Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) inversion technique. The Self Potential (SP) data set is used for the early detection of coal fires. The study was conducted over the East Basuria colliery, Jharia Coal Field, Jharkhand, India. The causative source was modelled as an inclined sheet like anomaly and the synthetic data was generated. Neural Network scheme consists of an input layer, hidden layers and an output layer. The input layer corresponds to the SP data and the output layer is the estimated depth of the coal fire. A synthetic dataset was modelled with some of the known parameters such as depth, conductivity, inclination angle, half width etc. associated with causative body and gives a very low misfit error of 0.0032%. Therefore, the method was found accurate in predicting the depth of the source body. The technique was applied to the real data set and the model was trained until a very good correlation of determination `R2' value of 0.98 is obtained. The depth of the source body was found to be 12.34m with a misfit error percentage of 0.242%. The inversion results were compared with the lithologs obtained from a nearby well which corresponds to the L3 coal seam. The depth of the coal fire had exactly matched with the half width of the anomaly which suggests that the fire is widely spread. The inclination angle of the anomaly was 135.510 which resembles the development of the geometrically complex fracture planes. These fractures may be developed due to anisotropic weakness of the ground which acts as passage for the air. As a result coal fires spreads along these fracture planes. The results obtained from the Neural Network was compared with PSO inversion results and were found in

  8. Study on uranium leaching behavior from coal fly ash samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Police, S.; Maity, S.; Chaudhary, D.K.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2017-01-01

    Leachability of trace and toxic metals from coal fly ash (FA) poses significant environmental problems especially ground and surface water contamination. In the present study, leachability of U using batch leaching tests (i.e., at various leachate pH values) and using TCLP was studied. Results of pH variation study indicate that, U has higher leachability in acidic medium as compared to slightly alkaline medium. The leachable U concentrations observed in pH variation study are well below the WHO safety limits. In TCLP leachates, the leachable U concentrations are found to be higher than that observed in pH variation study. (author)

  9. Study on denitration technology of coal char reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie FU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to more effectively control NO emissions in coal-fired flue gas, the denitration reaction is carried out with simulated industrial boiler flue gas in a fixed bed reactor. The influence of char types, reaction conditions, the composition of flue gas and other factors on the conversion rate of NO are discussed. The result shows that the industrial semi-coke is the most suitable experimental coal in the three coals studied, and the industrial semi-coke particle size of 0.6 ~ 10 mm is relatively suitable; The conversion rate of NO increases gradually with the increase of temperature, and when the reaction temperature is 700 ℃ and the space velocity is 10 000 h-1, the conversion rate of NO can reach 99%; the conversion rate of NO decreases gradually as airspeed increases, but the airspeed change has no effect on the conversion rate of NO at 700 ℃; under anaerobic conditions,the change of NO concentration has no effect on the conversion rate of NO; at the same temperature, NO conversion rate is higher at the presence of oxygen compared with that at anaerobic situation, and the conversion rate of NO is the highest when O2 concentration is 4%; under aerobic conditions, the concentration change of SO2 and CO2 has no effect on the conversion rate of NO.

  10. Test installation for studying erosion-corrosion of metals for coal washing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoey, G. R.; Dingley, W.; Wiles, C. T.

    1979-02-15

    A test installation was constructed for investigating erosion-corrosion of metals by coal-water slurries. Erosion-corrosion tests of mild steel panels were conducted using slurries of alundum, quartz, washed coal and coal refuse. Wear rates were found to depend on type of abrasive, particle size and water conductivity and were reduced by cathodic protection and inhibitors. Cathodic protection of mild steel in coal slurries containing sulphate ion reduced wear by 90% and 86% for stationary and rotating panels, respectively. This study has demonstrated that the successful application of corrosion control techniques would reduce metal wastage in coal washing plants. The test installation is considered suitable for developing the techniques.

  11. Relationships between coal-quality and organic-geochemical parameters: A case study of the Hafik coal deposits (Sivas Basin, Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erik, N. Yalcin; Sancar, S. [Cumhuriyet University, Department of Geological Engineering, Sivas (Turkey)

    2010-09-01

    This study provides coal-quality, organic-petrographic and organic-geochemical data on Tertiary subbituminous coal of the Hafik area, northwestern part of the Sivas Basin, Turkey. Coal-petrological studies along with proximate and ultimate analyses were undertaken to determine the organic-petrographic characteristics of the Hafik coals. Huminite reflectances were found to be between 0.38 and 0.48% (corresponding to an organic-material-rich and coal layers), values characteristic of low maturity. This parameter shows a good correlation with calorific values (average 21,060 kJ/kg) and average T{sub max} (422 C) mineral-matter diagenesis, indicating immaturity. The studied coals and organic material underwent only low-grade transformation, a consequence of low lithostatic pressure. Therefore, the Hafik coals are actually subbituminous in rank. Rock-Eval analysis results show types II/III and III kerogens. The organic fraction of the coals is mostly comprised of humic-group macerals (gelinites), with small percentages derived from the inertinite and liptinite groups. In this study, organic-petrographic, organic-geochemical and coal quality data were compared. The Hafik deposit is a high-ash, high-sulfur coal. The mineral matter of the coals is comprised mainly of calcite and clay minerals. (author)

  12. Study of Coal Burst Source Locations in the Velenje Colliery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vižintin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Velenje coal mine (VCM is situated on the largest Slovenian coal deposit and in one of the thickest layers of coal known in the world. The thickness of the coal layer causes problems for the efficiency of extraction, since the majority of mining operations is within the coal layer. The selected longwall coal mining method with specific geometry, increasing depth of excavations, changes in stress state and naturally given geomechanical properties of rocks induce seismic events. Induced seismic events can be caused by caving processes, blasting or bursts of coal or the surrounding rock. For 2.5D visualization, data of excavations, ash content and calorific value of coal samples, hanging wall and footwall occurrence, subsidence of the surface and coal burst source locations were collected. Data and interpolation methods available in software package Surfer®12 were statistically analyzed and a Kriging (KRG interpolation method was chosen. As a result 2.5D visualizations of coal bursts source locations with geomechanical properties of coal samples taken at different depth in the coal seam in the VCM were made with data-visualization packages Surfer®12 and Voxler®3.

  13. Coal Transition in Spain. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Rio, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the 6 country case-studies commissioned to collect experience on past coal transitions. The 6 countries are: Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK, USA. Their role in the Coal Transitions project was to provide background information for a Synthesis Report for decision makers, and provide general lessons for national project teams to take into account in developing their coal transitions pathways for the future. Spain has had a long tradition of coal mining at least since the 18. century. However, it is also one of the jurisdictions committing to phase-out of subsidies and implementing it in recent times. This case study discusses the main features of the coal transition in Spain, the factors influencing this transition as well as the policies which both drove it and accompanied their detrimental socioeconomic effects on the workers and regions. The analysis is based on a desktop research of relevant documents, including official communications from the Ministry of Industry (MINETUR) and the European Commission as well as statements of position from the industry association (CARBUNION) and labour unions (UGT and CCOO). Documents on national coal from other institutions (Foundations, NGOs) have also been consulted. Finally, an analysis of articles in the mass media has been carried out. This contains useful statements from different types of stakeholders. A strong reduction in production and employment in the coal industry has been experienced at least in the last two decades in this country. Successive plans by the government have aimed at reducing coal production, early retirement of workers and closing mines. Caught in the middle of the mining coalition on the one hand and EU legislation and public opinion on the other, the government has had to approve drastic measures leading to phase out. On the other hand, it has tried to accompany the phase out with measures which have tried to mitigate the negative impact on the affected zones

  14. Study of the mechanical properties of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okruszek, Z

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and the results of studies of the mechanical properties of brown coal discovered in a zone adjacent to the location of the Rogowiec power plant (Poland) are described. The studies were conducted by the geotechnical laboratory of the Polytechnical Institute in the city of Lodz. Included in the program of studies were: tests of the brown coal (eight samples with a diameter to height ratio of d/h = 10.0/7.5; 11.1/7.8; 9.3/8.8; 8.1/6.8; 8.5/9.4; 8.0/8.8; 7.9/7.6 adn 8.8/8.6; dimensions in centimeters) for single axis compression (destroying stress was found to be 0.778; 0.660; 0.376; 0.804; 0.140; 0.472; 0.408 and 0.278 MPa); tests of samples (five units) for shear strength (the chip force is 0.36; 0.46; 0.39; 0.11 and 0.36 kilonewtons); tests of the samples (two samples, both with a diameter of 3.8 cm and a height of 7.6 cm) for stretching (the destructive force is 50.1 and 54.9 kilonewtons); odometric tests to determine the odometric modulus of compressibility of the brown coal (a total of four samples; three of which were loaded by a force in the range of 0.6-1.2 MPa and one in the range of 0-1.1 MPa; the odometric modulus of compressibility is in the range of 45.1 to 116.7 depending on the loading conditions) and tests for triple axial compression (two samples, both with a diameter of 3.8 cm and a height of 7.6 cm; the destroying pressure was found to be equal to 0.5 and 0.27 MPa).

  15. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  16. Productivity assessment of an opencast coal mine: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, M.K.; Bhar, C. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Management Studies

    2006-07-01

    An assessment was conducted at an opencast coalmine located in Jharia coalfield. The mine is using shovel-dumper combination for winning coal. The study covers the computation of partial productivities as well as total productivity status of the mine at an aggregate level whereas partial productivities highlight the efficiency in the use of various resources. A statistical analysis among the different productivity indices has been carried out to identify the criticality of different input factors. Accordingly appropriate strategies can be devised for improving productivity of the mine. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Functional Maps of Neocortical Local Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alex M.; Lamy, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to summarize data obtained with different techniques to provide a functional map of the local circuit connections made by neocortical neurones, a reference for those interested in cortical circuitry and the numerical information required by those wishing to model the circuit. A brief description of the main techniques used to study circuitry is followed by outline descriptions of the major classes of neocortical excitatory and inhibitory neurones and the connections that each layer makes with other cortical and subcortical regions. Maps summarizing the projection patterns of each class of neurone within the local circuit and tables of the properties of these local circuit connections are provided. This review relies primarily on anatomical studies that have identified the classes of neurones and their local and long distance connections and on paired intracellular and whole-cell recordings which have documented the properties of the connections between them. A large number of different types of synaptic connections have been described, but for some there are only a few published examples and for others the details that can only be obtained with paired recordings and dye-filling are lacking. A further complication is provided by the range of species, technical approaches and age groups used in these studies. Wherever possible the range of available data are summarised and compared. To fill some of the more obvious gaps for the less well-documented cases, data obtained with other methods are also summarized. PMID:18982117

  18. Comparative study on efficiency performance of listed coal mining companies in China and the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hong; Wu, Junjie; Zeng, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Continually rising energy prices in global markets highlights a serious concern about the need to improve energy efficiency and the efficiency in energy sector in many countries. China, as one of the fastest growing countries in the world and the largest coal producer, has high coal consumption but a low recovery rate of coal utilization. Coal efficiency and the efficiency in coal industry have therefore attracted a great deal of attention from Chinese policy makers, coal firms and academics. This study attempts to compare the relative technical efficiency performance of listed coal mining companies in China and the US using CCR and BCC models in the advanced DEA linear programming. The results show that the level of relative efficiency in Chinese coal mining enterprises, regardless of total technical efficiency or decomposed pure technical and scale efficiency, is much lower than in American coal firms. The study also highlights the input resources that cause the inefficiency of Chinese coal mining companies. Furthermore, in-depth discussion and analysis of how the institutional environments of the two countries could cause the differences are provided. (author)

  19. A STUDY ON THE GRINDABILITY OF SERBIAN COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslava D Stojiljković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants in the Republic of Serbia are making considerable efforts and even more considerable investments, not only to maintain electricity production at maximum design levels, but even to additionally increase the power output of existing generating units. Capacities of mills used in pulverized coal preparation are identified as one of the main constraints to achieving maximum mill plant capacity, while coal grindability is seen as one of the factors that directly affect capacities of the coal mills utilized in thermal power plants. The paper presents results of experimental investigation conducted for the purpose of determining Hardgrove grindability index of coal. The investigation was conducted in accordance with ISO 5074 and included analysis of approximately 70 coal samples taken from the open pit mine of Kolubara coal basin. Research results obtained indicate that coal rich in mineral matter and thus, of lower heating value is characterized by higher grindability index. Therefore, analyses presented in the paper suggest that characteristics of solid fuels analyzed in the research investigation conducted are such that the use coals less rich in mineral matter i. e. coals characterized by lower grindability index will cause coal mills to operate at reduced capacity. This fact should be taken into account when considering a potential for electricity production increase.

  20. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  1. Thermal studies on the weathering status of Lakhra coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbher, M.; Vasandani, A.G.M.; Shah, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal studies about the weathering status of Lakhra coal were conducted using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) in N/sub 2/ and air atmospheres. These studies were centered on the extent of the release of volatile matters and the determination of calorific values. The decline in these parameters, i.e. volatile matters and calorific values, cause a decline in the caking properties of coal and promote auto-ignition. The TG behavior of weathered samples in N/sub 2/ indicates a clear decline in percent moisture and volatile matters and abrupt burning of the fixed carbon. The TG curves further indicate quick decomposition of samples at various temperatures and auto-ignition with respect to time. The DTA behavior of the weathered samples in air, shows a significant difference in peak configuration, such as suppression of main endothermic peaks and shifting of shoulder peaks towards lower temperature. The N/sub 2/ atmosphere gives illusive and ill-defined events with respect to time. (author)

  2. Permeability Prediction in Deep Coal Seam: A Case Study on the No. 3 Coal Seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The coal permeability is an important parameter in mine methane control and coal bed methane (CBM) exploitation, which determines the practicability of methane extraction. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam plays a significant role in evaluating the practicability of CBM exploitation. The coal permeability depends on the coal fractures controlled by strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature which change with depth. The effect of the strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature on the coal (the coal matrix and fracture) under triaxial stress and strain conditions was studied. Then we got the change of coal porosity with strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature and established a coal permeability model under tri-axial stress and strain conditions. The permeability of the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China was predicted, which is consistent with that tested in the field. The effect of the sorption swelling on porosity (permeability) firstly increases rapidly and then slowly with the increase of depth. However, the effect of thermal expansion and effective stress compression on porosity (permeability) increases linearly with the increase of depth. The most effective way to improve the permeability in exploiting CBM or extracting methane is to reduce the effective stress. PMID:24396293

  3. Energy audit: a case study of a coal mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattoraj, P.; Sinha, S.K.; Pradhan, G.K. [PCRA-ER, Kolkata (India)

    2009-07-01

    Coal continues to be the prime source of energy in India. In the process of exploration, mine development, extraction, beneficiation, handling, and so on, an enormous amount of energy is used in the form of both electrical and thermal energy. The coal industry in India also accounts for employing the largest workforce in its operations. The energy consumed by the employees in the coal sector alone will run into a few hundred megawatts. 7 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. Coal flotation - bench-scale study. Flotacao de carvao estudo em escala de bancada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.R. de; Almeida, S L.M. de; Santos, A.T. dos

    1979-01-01

    Run-of-mine coal and pre-washed coal from Santa Catarina, Brazil, were characterized using washability curves and by particle size analysis after crushing. Bench-scale froth flotation tests were then conducted with the pre-washed coal. Kerosene and diesel oil were used as the collectors, and pine oil as the frother. The influence of starch (as depressor) on flotation was also studied. The effects of feed particle size, pH, collector addition, frother addition, depressor addition and flotation time were investigated. A 9.5% ash content coal could be obtained with a mass recovery of about 29%. (17 refs.)

  5. Case studies of slope stability radar used in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noon, D. [GroundProbe Pty Ltd., South Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents case studies about how the Slope Stability Radar (SSR) system provided adequate warning to safeguard people and equipment prior to highwall and low wall failure at two Australian coal mines. At Drayton mine, the SSR was able to provide the mine with sufficient warning to move the shovel and trucks away from the highwall, while personnel safely watched 50,000 tonnes of bulk material coming down from the wall. At Mt Owen mine, the SSR alarm allowed the mine to evacuate equipment and personnel four hours prior to a 30,000,000 tonne low wall failure. These two case studies demonstrate how the SSR system was able to continuously monitor the stability of these critical slopes, enabling greater mine productivity whilst maintaining the highest quality of safety. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. EPR- study of paramagnetic features of brown coal from Kiyakty coal deposit after mechanic activation and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Zashkvara, O.V.; Popov, S.N.; Kairbekov, Zh.K.; Ershova, Zh.R.; Kupchishin, A.I.; Kovtunets, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: It is known that prospected coal resources exceed, at least by order of magnitude, petroleum reserves decreasing steeply at last time as a result of world oil consumption rise. In this connection the manufacture of different liquid products from coal, especially brown coal, is issue of the day. Liquid fuel yield depends on physical-chemical characteristics and their changes owing to preliminary chemical, mechanical and radiation treatment. In this paper some results of paramagnetic characteristic study of Kiyakty deposit coal as initial one as after its mechanical treatment and electron irradiation are presented. It is discovered that in Kiyakty coal there are, at least, two fractions differed in EPR line width and concentration of free radical states they contained. First fraction has EPR line width ΔH 1 =4-5 Oe and mean free radical states concentration N 1 = 2.4·10 17 sp/g. For samples of second fraction the EPR line width ΔH 2 = 6.6-7.2 Oe and N 2 = 1.8·10 18 sp/g are typical. Thus, in the second fraction the EPR line width and free radical states concentration are greater than in the first case. Besides free radical states in coal EPR signals were found from trivalent iron ions with g-factor approximated 2 and with g=4.3. It the signals with g=4.3, are practically identical for both fractions, their concentrations are neighbour and line width is ΔH 1 = 250 Oe, then for the lines near g=2.0 situation is markedly different. For the first fraction ΔH 1 = 800 Oe whereas for the second case two signals in this g-factor range are observed. The first signal has line width ΔH 1 = 550 Oe and g=l .97, the second is more wide with ΔH 1 = 1000 Oe and g=2.02. We cannot discover significant dependence of free radical states concentration on mechanic activation time. Obviously, life times of complementary free radical states generated in process of coal activation are very low. As Fe 3+ ions, for both fractions it is observed intensity growth of their

  7. Studies of MHD generator performance with oxygen enriched coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Kolb, C. E.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.

    1980-07-01

    This paper presents calculations made using the Aerodyne PACKAGE (Plasma Analysis, Chemical Kinetics, and Generator Efficiency) computer code which bear on two questions which arise in connection with choices between oxygen enrichment and air preheating to attain the high combustion temperatures needed for open-cycle, coal-fired MHD power generation. The first question is which method produces the highest enthalpy extraction per unit channel length. The second is, in test facilities intended to study tradeoffs between oxygen enrichment and preheated air, can good generator performance be obtained from the same physical channel for different combustor compositions. The answer to the first question is found to depend on what combustor conditions are taken to be comparable. As for the second question, it is found that operation with channel input from off-design combustor conditions can cause serious problems, which can be partially alleviated by changing the channel load factors.

  8. Utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning based on GIS-based optimization method : study case at PT Adaro coal mine in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Anis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining activities may cause a series of environmental and socio-economic issues in communities around the mining area. Mining can become an obstacle to environmental sustainability and a major hidden danger to the security of the local ecology. Therefore, the coal mining industry should follow some specific principles and factors in achieving sustainable development. These factors include geological conditions, land use, mining technology, environmental sustainability policies and government regulations, socio-economic factors, as well as sustainability optimization for post-mining land use. Resources of the remains of the coal which is defined as the last remaining condition of the resources and reserves of coal when the coal companies have already completed the life of the mine or the expiration of the licensing contract (in accordance with government permission. This research uses approch of knowledge-driven GIS based methods mainly Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Fuzzy logic for utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning. The mining area selected for this study belongs to a PKP2B (Work Agreement for Coal Mining company named Adaro Indonesia (PT Adaro. The result shows that geologically the existing formation is dominated by Coal Bearing Formation (Warukin Formation which allows the presence of remains coal resource potential after the lifetime of mine, and the suitability of rubber plantation for the optimization of land use in all mining sites and also in some disposal places in conservation areas and protected forests.

  9. Evaluation of risk strategy and market efficiency in the International coal market: A case study of the Japanese coking coal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.

    1992-01-01

    Market efficiency and buyers' risk strategy in the Japanese coking import market are examined. The Japanese coal market is found to be inefficient. Japanese buyers traditionally have purchased coals from the United States at a high price and, since the second half of the 1980's, have paid the highest average price to Canadian producers. Given the abundant low cost Australian coals, this purchasing pattern does not meet the cost minimization criteria for efficiency. This is explained mainly by the buyers' risk management strategy. To more accurately examine price differentiation, the complexity of coal quality is considered first. A statistical method is used to estimate comparison of supply regions and a detailed investigation on market conduct is based on quality-adjusted prices, which are assumed to represent the prices of homogeneous coals. Although various reasons are used by researchers to explain Japanese buyers power, this study finds vertical integration of the Japanese companies to be the most important factor creating that power. A detailed survey of vertical integration is made. Finally, a monetary value of the risk premium is estimated by using the partial elasticity of substitution. Total payments by Japanese coking coal buyers for risk premiums are estimated. These represent the extra dollars paid by the Japanese to US and Canadian coal producers for purchasing their coals instead of Australian coals

  10. Several features of the thermobaric study of Donbass coals. [20 to 800/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babenko, V.P.; Kosinskii, V.A.; Kosourov, V.I.; Prokopov, N.S.

    1979-11-01

    Investigations were carried out to supplement existing knowledge in the thermal analysis of coals. The studies were undertaken in the 20-800 C range at a pressure of N. 10/sup -2/ mm Hg. The qualitative composition of the gases was studied using a gas chromatograph. The coal samples studied in the thermobaric research did not burn away which permitted microscopic study of the samples. The research demonstrated the feasibility of using the method for correct mixing of coking batches. Along with determining the rank of coals, the method gives information on the flow of the process of thermal destruction of coals and information on the cokability of coals. (4 refs.) (In Russian)

  11. BP and NCB to collaborate in coal liquefaction study. [Supercritical gas extraction; dissolution in anthracene oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-17

    British Petroleum and NCB are collaborating in a two year study of coal liquefaction which could result in a demonstration plant being built. The two liquefaction techniques which the NCB is developing at present are supercritical extraction, and dissolution in anthracene oil. A disadvantage of the latter process is that high grade coking coals must be used.

  12. Study on the Combustion Properties of Bio-Coal Briquette Blends of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... This study was carried out to investigate the properties of bio-coal briquette produced from blending cassava stalk and coal. ... solar, gas and kerosene will certainly take a few decades to ..... Physical Properties of. Briquettes ...

  13. The coal cleat system: A new approach to its study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1 how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2 how to determine the frequency of their connectivites. The new available and presented techniques to answer these questions have a strong computer based tool (geographic information system, GIS, able to build a complete georeferentiated database, which will allow to three-dimensionally locate the laboratory samples in the coalfield. It will also allow to better understand the coal cleat system and consequently to recognize the best pathways to gas flow through the coal seam. Such knowledge is considered crucial for understanding what is likely to be the most efficient opening of cleat network, then allowing the injection with the right spatial orientation, of pressurized fluids in order to directly drain the maximum amount of gas flow to a CBM exploitation well. The method is also applicable to the CO2 geological sequestration technologies and operations corresponding to the injection of CO2 sequestered from industrial plants in coal seams of abandoned coal mines or deep coal seams.

  14. Similar simulation study on the characteristics of the electric potential response to coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yue; Li, Zhonghui; Kong, Biao; Wang, Enyuan; Lou, Quan; Qiu, Liming; Kong, Xiangguo; Wang, Jiali; Dong, Mingfu; Li, Baolin

    2018-02-01

    An electric potential (EP) can be generated during the failure process of coal and rock. In this article, a similar physical model of coal rock was built and the characteristics of the EP responding to the process of coal mining were studied. The results showed that, at the early mining stage, the structure of coal rock strata were stable in the simulation model, the support stress of overlying coal rock strata was low and the maximum subsidence was little, while the EP change was less. With the advancement of the working face, the support stress of the overlying coal rock strata in the mined-out area changed dramatically, the maximum subsidence increased constantly, the deformation and destruction were aggravated, and cracks expanded continuously. Meanwhile, the EP response was significant with fluctuation. When significant macro damage appeared in coal rock strata, the EP signal fluctuation was violent. The overlying coal rock strata were influenced by gravity and mining activity. During the mining process, the crack growth and the friction, together with slip between coal and rock particles, resulted in the response of EP. The change in EP was closely related to the damage state and stress distribution of the coal rock strata. EP monitoring has the advantages of accurate reflection and strong anti-interference in the field. Therefore, with further study, an EP monitoring method could be applied for monitoring and early warning of coal and rock dynamic disaster, and risk evaluation in the future. The strength of the EP and its fluctuation degree could serve as the key discrimination indexes.

  15. Study on the hydrothermal treatment of Shenhua coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhicai Wang; Hengfu Shui; Zhanning Pei; Jinsheng Gao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, the hydrothermal treatment of Shenhua coal was carried out under 0.1 MPa (initial pressure) nitrogen and different temperature. Effects of hydrothermal treatment on the structure and the hydro-liquefaction activity of Shenhua coal were investigated by the ultimate and proximate analyses, the FTIR measurements and TG analyses of hydrothermally treated coals, and the characterizations of extraction and swelling properties, and the batch hydro-liquefaction of treated coal were also carried out. The results indicate that hydrothermal treatment above 200{sup o}C can increase the hydrogen content of treated coal and decrease the yield of volatiles and the content of ash, especially a large amount of CO and CH{sub 4} are found in gas products obtained by the hydrothermal treatment above 250{sup o}C. Hydrothermal treatment disrupts the weak covalent bond such as ether, ester and side-chain substituent by hydrolysis and pyrolysis, and changes the distribution of H-bond in coal. The swelling ratio and the Soxhlet extraction yield of treated coal decrease with the increase of hydrothermal treatment temperature. The conversion of liquefaction and the yield of CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent extraction at ambient temperature are enhanced by hydrothermal treatment at 300{sup o}C. Therefore hydrogen donation reactions and the rupture of non-covalent bond and weak covalent bonds present in the process of hydrothermal treatment resulting in the changes of structure and reactivity of Shenhua coal. The results show that the hydro-liquefaction activity of Shenhua coal can be improved by hydrothermal pretreatment between 250{sup o}C and 300{sup o}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Kinetic study of coals gasification into carbon dioxide atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid fuel gasification process was investigated to define chemical reactions rate and activation energy for a gas-generator designing and regime optimizing. An experimental procedure includes coal char samples of Kuznetskiy and Kansko-Achinskiy deposits consequent argon pyrolysis into argon and oxidating into carbon dioxide with different temperatures. The thermogravimetric analysis data of coal char gasification into carbon dioxide was obtained in the temperature range 900–1200 ºC. The mass loss and gasification time dependencies from temperature were defined to calculate chemical reaction frequency factor and activation energy. Two coal char gasification physico-mathematical models were proposed and recommendations for them were formed.

  17. A preliminary study of mineralogy and geochemistry of four coal samples from northern Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, F.; Sanei, H.; Stasiuk, L.D.; Reyes, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary Division, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Bagheri-Sadeghi, H. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Azad University, Central Campus, Tehran (Iran)

    2006-01-03

    This study is related to four Jurassic-age bituminous coal (0.69-1.02 Ro%) samples collected from coal mines from the west, central and east of central, Alborz in northern Iran. Geological settings played key roles in determining the geochemistry and mineralogy of coals from the central Alborz region of northern Iran. The mineralogy of coals from the eastern part of the region is dominated by kaolinite; halloysite; and carbonates such as calcite, dolomite/ankerite, and siderite. The coals were deposited in a lacustrine environment. In the western part of the region, where the depositional setting was also lacustrine with volcanic input and tonstein deposition (glass shards present), the coal primarily contains kaolinite (68%) and fluorapatite (26%). In contrast, coal from the central part of the region, which was deposited in a terrestrial environment and on eroded limestone and dolomite rocks, is dominated by dolomite (98%) with little input by kaolinite. These coals have low sulphur (0.35-0.70 wt.%), which is mostly in the organic form (0.34-0.69 wt.%). Pyritic sulphur is detected only in one coal and in small quantities. The boron contents of these coals range from 9 to 33 mg/kg, indicating that deposition occurred in a fresh water environment. Coal with higher concentrations of Ba, Sr, and P contain fluorapatite and goyazite-gorceixite series [BaAl{sub 3} (PO{sub 4}){sub 2} (OH){sub 5}, H{sub 2}O] minerals, which indicates volcanoclastic input. Compared to world coal averages, these coals exhibit low concentrations of elements of environmental concern, such as As (1.3-5.9 mg/kg), Cd (<0.02-0.06 mg/kg), Hg (<0.01-0.07 mg/kg) Mo (<0.6-1.7 mg/kg), Pb (4.8-13 mg/kg), Th (0.5-21 mg/kg), Se (<0.2-0.8 mg/kg) and U (0.2-4.6 mg/kg). Two of the northern Iranian coals have concentrations of Cl (2560 and 3010 mg/kg) that are higher than world coal average. (author)

  18. Clean coal technology - Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanhe; Liang Jie; Yu Li

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon probing technology. An analysis of the experiment results indicates that the output of air gas is 3000 m 3 /h with a heating value of about 4.18 MJ/m 3 , while the output of water gas is 2000 m 3 /h with a heating value of over 11.00 MJ/m 3 , of which H 2 content is above 40% with a maximum of 71.68%. The cyclical time of two-phase underground gasification is 16 h, with 8 h for each phase. This prolongs the time when the high-heating value gas is produced. The moving speed of the gasification working face in two alternative gasifiers is identified, i.e. 0.204 and 0.487 m/d, respectively. The success of the pilot project experiment of the underground gasification reveals the strides that have been made toward the commercialization of the UCG in China. It also further justifies the reasonability and feasibility of the new technology of long channel, big section, two-phase underground gasification. A conclusion is also drawn that the technology of the pilot project experiment can be popularized in old and discarded coal mines

  19. Pathological study of the prevalence of silicosis among coal miners in Iran: A case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Naghadehi, Masoud; Sereshki, Farhang; Mohammadi, F.

    2014-02-01

    One of the most hazardous diseases that is commonly associated with the coal mining industry is Silicosis which caused by dust inhalation. This disease occurs as a result of prolonged breathing of dust containing silica (quartz). The generation of coal mine dust during underground and surface coal mining is the most significant source of coal dust exposure. Silica dust develops scar tissue inside the lungs which reduces the lungs ability to extract oxygen from the air. All miners working in underground and surface coal mines are at risk of being exposed to mine dust containing silica. In this study, cases with pathologic diagnosis of silicosis during seven years period between 2000 and 2007 were retrieved, from the pathologic file of Department of Pathology, Massih Daneshvary Hospital in Iran. Results of this case study showed the great effects of dust exposure and inhalation from the viewpoint of symptoms especially between the miners.

  20. Reward Circuitry Function in Autism during Face Anticipation and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Richey, J. Anthony; Rittenberg, Alison M.; Sabatino, Antoinette; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate reward circuitry responses in autism during reward anticipation and outcomes for monetary and social rewards. During monetary anticipation, participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) showed hypoactivation in right nucleus accumbens and hyperactivation in right hippocampus, whereas during monetary…

  1. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report concerns our research on base-catalyzed coal solubilization and a new approach for hydrogen addition. The work on base-catalyzed, chemical solubilization is continuing. this report is focused on the hydrogenation research. Specifically it deals with the use of arene chromium carbonyl complexes as reagents for the addition of dideuterium to coal molecules. In one phase of the work, he has established that the aromatic hydrocarbons in a representative coal liquid can be converted in very good yield to arene chromium carbonyl compounds. In a second phase of the work directly related to our objective of improved methods for catalytic hydrogenation, he has established that the aromatic constituents of the same coal liquid add dideuterium in the presence of added napththalene chromium carbonyl.

  2. The coal cleat system: A new approach to its study

    OpenAIRE

    C.F. Rodrigues; C. Laiginhas; M. Fernandes; M.J. Lemos de Sousa; M.A.P. Dinis

    2014-01-01

    After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM) commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1) how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2) how to determ...

  3. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  4. A comparative study on prediction methods for China's medium- and long-term coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bing-Bing; Liang, Qiao-Mei; Wang, Jin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Given the dominant position of coal in China's energy structure and in order to ensure a safe and stable energy supply, it is essential to perform a scientific and effective prediction of China's medium- and long-term coal demand. Based on the historical data of coal consumption and related factors such as GDP (Gross domestic product), coal price, industrial structure, total population, energy structure, energy efficiency, coal production and urbanization rate from 1987 to 2012, this study compared the prediction effects of five types of models. These models include the VAR (vector autoregressive model), RBF (radial basis function) neural network model, GA-DEM (genetic algorithm demand estimation model), PSO-DEM (particle swarm optimization demand estimation model) and IO (input–output model). By comparing the results of different models with the corresponding actual coal consumption, it is concluded that with a testing period from 2006 to 2012, the PSO-DEM model has a relatively optimal predicted effect on China's total coal demand, where the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) is close to or below 2%. - Highlights: • The prediction effects of five methods for China's coal demand were compared. • Each model has acceptable prediction results, with MAPE below 5%. • Particle swarm optimization demand estimation model has better forecast efficacy.

  5. Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.; Tian, L.W.; Zheng, T.Z.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.Z.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (USA)

    2009-02-15

    In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80 years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340-0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215-0.937). Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it.

  6. Mapping the Brain’s Metaphor Circuitry:Is Abstract Thought Metaphorical Thought?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eLakoff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry.

  7. Preliminary Study on Benzoic Acid Adsorption from Crude Active Coals and Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbes Boucheta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the adsorption of pollutant benzoic acid by the modified bentonite of Maghnia (west of Algeria, and coal (Coal from the mines, southwest of Algeria, Bechar area under three forms, crude and activated. Kinetic data show that the balance of bentonite (as amended adsorbs organic acids better than activated and raw coal. Indeed, the intercalation of bentonite with benzoic acid causes an improvement in the texture of porous material, which allows its use in the adsorption of organic compounds. The adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich indicate that the adsorption of benzoic acid by the coal and bentonite yielded results favorably. The results obtained showed the practical value of using the activated coal and bentonite (as amended in the field of remediation of water contaminated with organic pollutants

  8. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  9. Fast neutron activation analysis and radioisotope X-ray fluorescence study on KALEWA and NAMMA coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naing-Win

    1981-07-01

    Kalewa coal was studied with Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) technique, employing KAMAN A-710 neutron generator and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 30 MCA. Sequential irradiation and dual aluminium foil monitoring method was employed. Simultaneous multielement analysis was carried out. Namma Coal was studied with radioisotope X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique, employing Co-57 exciter source and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 40 MCA. In both FNAA and XRF study, the results obtained were compared to that obtained with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) technique. Finally, the results were reviewed together with those obtained from similar work on coal with FNAA and XRF techniques. (author)

  10. Fast neutron activation analysis and radioisotope X-ray fluorescence study on KALEWA and NAMMA coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naing-Win, [Arts and Science University, Yangon (Myanmar)

    1981-07-01

    Kalewa coal was studied with Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) technique, employing KAMAN A-710 neutron generator and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ``Canberra`` series 30 MCA. Sequential irradiation and dual aluminium foil monitoring method was employed. Simultaneous multielement analysis was carried out. Namma Coal was studied with radioisotope X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique, employing Co-57 exciter source and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ``Canberra`` series 40 MCA. In both FNAA and XRF study, the results obtained were compared to that obtained with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) technique. Finally, the results were reviewed together with those obtained from similar work on coal with FNAA and XRF techniques. (author).

  11. The origin of behavioral bursts in decision-making circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sorribes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From ants to humans, the timing of many animal behaviors comes in bursts of activity separated by long periods of inactivity. Recently, mathematical modeling has shown that simple algorithms of priority-driven behavioral choice can result in bursty behavior. To experimentally test this link between decision-making circuitry and bursty dynamics, we have turned to Drosophila melanogaster. We have found that the statistics of intervals between activity periods in endogenous activity-rest switches of wild-type Drosophila are very well described by the Weibull distribution, a common distribution of bursty dynamics in complex systems. The bursty dynamics of wild-type Drosophila walking activity are shown to be determined by this inter-event distribution alone and not by memory effects, thus resembling human dynamics. Further, using mutant flies that disrupt dopaminergic signaling or the mushroom body, circuitry implicated in decision-making, we show that the degree of behavioral burstiness can be modified. These results are thus consistent with the proposed link between decision-making circuitry and bursty dynamics, and highlight the importance of using simple experimental systems to test general theoretical models of behavior. The findings further suggest that analysis of bursts could prove useful for the study and evaluation of decision-making circuitry.

  12. Sex differences in the development of emotion circuitry in adolescents at risk for substance abuse: a longitudinal fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Jillian E; Cope, Lora M; Munier, Emily C; Welsh, Robert C; Zucker, Robert A; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2017-06-01

    There is substantial evidence for behavioral sex differences in risk trajectories for alcohol and substance use, with internalizing factors such as negative affectivity contributing more to female risk. Because the neural development of emotion circuitry varies between males and females across adolescence, it represents a potential mechanism by which underlying neurobiology contributes to risk for substance use. Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted in males and females (n = 18 each) with a family history of alcohol use disorders starting at ages 8-13 years. Participants performed an affective word task during functional magnetic resonance imaging at 1- to 2-year intervals, covering the age range of 8.5-17.6 years (3-4 scans per participant). Significant age-related sex differences were found in the right amygdala and right precentral gyrus for the negative vs neutral word condition. Males showed a significant decrease in both amygdala and precentral gyrus activation with age, whereas the response in females persisted. The subjective experience of internalizing symptomatology significantly increased with age for females but not for males. Taken together, these results reveal sex differences in negative affect processing in at-risk adolescents, and offer longitudinal neural evidence for female substance use risk through internalizing pathways. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Study on the radiological Impact of Coal Fired Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. A.; Vasco, J.; Guillen, J.

    2008-01-01

    The study is part of the goal set forth in Title VII of the European Basic Safety Standards and the Spanish regulations on radiation protection related to work activities that may involve a significant increase in exposure of workers and the public to natural radiation. Coal contains small quantities of radionuclides in the series of uranium, thorium and potassium which in the industrial process can lead to radiological exposure. This work presents the measurements and evaluations conducted in one of the power plants object of study: The Unidad Termica de Produccion de Litoral in the Almeria Province. The maximum dose assessed for workers are in the order of 0.14 mSv per year and in the order of 0.05 mSv per year for the public in the realistic scenarios considered. These values are well below the 1mSv per year reference levels, recommended in Europe to have some interest from the radiation protection point of view. (Author) 52 refs

  14. A study of coal-solid waste blend reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayibe Guerrero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method was used for analysing coal-solid waste blend reactivity in an oxidising atmosphere. The presence of biomass strongly affected coal combustion kinetics when the blend contained more than 30% of it. Activation energy values (evaluated by different blends were 28.7495 kJ/mol for 0% biomass, 31.3915 kJ/mol for 30% biomass, 39.0365 kJ/mol for 50% biomass, 102.431 kJ/mol for 70% biomass and 107.8075 kJ/mol for 100% biomass; these values were close to those reported in the literature. First-order kinetics correlated the data ve-ry well for the 100% coal sample and the blend having 30% biomass and 70% coal. Eighth-order kinetics were more suitable for correlating the experimental data for the 70% biomass-30% coal blend and the 100% biomass sample. Combustion was done without previous pyrolysis of the blends; however segregation of phenomena could be appre-ciated. This seems to indicate that combustion and devolatilisation are independent processes which should be taken into account when building equipment using these kinds of blend.

  15. Study on infrasonic characteristics of coal samples in failure process under uniaxial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Jia

    Full Text Available To study the precursory failure infrasonic characteristics of coal samples, coal rock stress loading system and infrasonic wave acquisition system were adopted, and infrasonic tests in uniaxial loading process were made for the coal samples in the studied area. Wavelet filtering, fast Fourier transform, and relative infrasonic energy methods were used to analyze the characteristics of the infrasonic waves in the loading process, including time domain characteristics, and relative energy. The analysis results demonstrated that the frequencies of the infrasonic signals in the loading process mainly distribute within 5–10 Hz, which are significantly different from noise signals. The changes of the infrasonic signals show clear periodic characters in time domain. Meanwhile, the relative energy changes of the infrasonic wave also show periodic characters, which are divided into two stages by the yield limit of coal samples, and are clear and easy to be recognized, so that they can be used as the precursory characteristics for recognizing coal sample failures. Moreover, the infrasonic waves generated by coal samples have low frequency and low attenuation, which can be collected without coupling and transmitted in long distance. This study provides an important support for the further in-situ prediction of coal rock failures. Keywords: Infrasound, Relative energy, Time-frequency analysis, Failure prediction, Identification feature

  16. Evaluation of paranasal sinus mucosa in coal worker's pneumoconiosis - A computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, H.; Altin, R.; Mahmutyazicioglu, K.; Kart, L.; Uzun, L.; Savranlar, A.; Davcanci, H.; Gundogdu, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2004-09-01

    Objective: To evaluate by computed tomographic scanning the paranasal mucosal changes of coal workers with and without pneumoconiosis. Methods: Examination of images and scores from paranasal computed tomographic scans. The study participants were 26 coal workers with pneumoconiosis, 29 coal workers without pneumoconiosis, and 20 controls. All were men. The extent and patterns of inflamatory paranasal sinus disease were evaluated on computed, tomographic scans by 2 radiologists using the terminology and definitions of Newman and associates. Results: Interobserver agreement for the presence of abnormalities was from good to excellent (K, 0.63-0.89). The mucosal scores of individuals and groups were higher for coal workers than for control subjects. Both scores were significantly higher in the pneumoconiosis group than in the 2 other groups. Conclusions: This study shows that paranasal sinuses were affected more severely in coal workers than in control subjects. In coal workers with pneumoconiosis, the affection was most severe. The relationship between coal dust exposure and paranasal mucosal changes needs further study.

  17. Study of the Radiological Impact of the Coal Fired Power Plants on the Environment. The As Pontes coal-fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the Study carried out to determine the radiological impact of the four main Spanish coal-fired power plants, the Study on the As Pontes Coal-Fired Coal Power Plant was finalized. In the Report containing the study are included every measurement performed, as well as the modelling and evaluations carried out in order to assess the radiological impact. The general conclusion obtained is that under a radiological point of view, the impact of this installation on the public and the environment is very small. Also the radiological impact on the workers of the installation was assessed, obtaining too very small increases over the natural background. (Author) 61 refs.

  18. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  19. Bioconversion of Coal: Hydrologic indicators of the extent of coal biodegradation under different redox conditions and coal maturity, Velenje Basin case study, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Grassa, Fausto; Lazar, Jerneja; Jamnikar, Sergej; Zavšek, Simon; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Underground mining of coal and coal combustion for energy has significant environmental impacts. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, other lower -carbon energy sources must be utilized. Coalbed methane (CBM) is an important source of relatively low-carbon energy. Approximately 20% of world's coalbed methane is microbial in origin (Bates et al., 2011). Interest in microbial CBM has increased recently due to the possibility of stimulating methanogenesis. Despite increasing interest, the hydrogeochemical conditions and mechanisms for biodegradation of coal and microbial methane production are poorly understood. This project aims to examine geochemical characteristics of coalbed groundwater and coalbed gases in order to constrain biogeochemical processes to better understand the entire process of coal biodegradation of coal to coalbed gases. A better understanding of geochemical processes in CBM areas may potentially lead to sustainable stimulation of microbial methanogenesis at economical rates. Natural analogue studies of carbon dioxide occurring in the subsurface have the potential to yield insights into mechanisms of carbon dioxide storage over geological time scales (Li et al., 2013). In order to explore redox processes related to methanogenesis and determine ideal conditions under which microbial degradation of coal is likely to occur, this study utilizes groundwater and coalbed gas samples from Velenje Basin. Determination of the concentrations of methane, carbondioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, argon was performed with homemade NIER mass spectrometer. Isotopic composition of carbon dioxide, isotopic composition of methane, isotopic composition of deuterium in methane was determined with Europa-Scientific IRMS with an ANCA-TG preparation module and Thermo Delta XP GC-TC/CF-IRMS coupled to a TRACE GC analyzer. Total alkalinity of groundwater was measured by Gran titration. Major cations were analyzed by ICP-OES and anions by IC method. Isotopic composition of

  20. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fletcher, Thomas [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pugmire, Ronald [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, Philip [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sutherland, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, Jeremy [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hunsacker, Isaac [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Li, Suhui [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Puntai, Naveen [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reid, Charles [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Schurtz, Randy [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-10-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical (Subtask 4.4) and physical (Subtask 4.5) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation.

  1. Study on melting available silicone from coal gangue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-tao Hou; Sheng-quan Wang; Xiao-fei Xie [Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an (China). College of Geology and Environment

    2009-12-15

    Available silicone was melted from coal gangue samples from Hancheng diggings through calcination, digestion, and other means. The best calcination temperature was determined from a range of 550-1150{sup o}C; and the best time, from a range of 0.5-5 h by colorimetry method. The proper ratio of coal gangue, limestone, sodium carbonate, and caustic soda was then determined through orthogonal experiment. The results show that the proper extraction condition for available silicone is the ratio of coal gangue, limestone, sodium carbonate, and caustic soda at 1:0.5:0.1:0.05, calcination temperature at 700{sup o}C, and calcination time at 2 h. In this condition, the available silicone content can be more than 19.65%. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Productivity Improvement in Underground Coal Mines - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Prasad Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of productivity has become an important goal for today's coal industry in the race to increase price competitiveness. The challenge now lying ahead for the coal industry is to identify areas of waste, meet the market price and maintain a healthy profit. The only way to achieve this is to reduce production costs by improving productivity, efficiency and the effectiveness of the equipment. This paper aims to identify the various factors and problems affecting the productivity of underground coal mines adopting the bord and pillar method of mining and to propose suitable measures for improving them. The various key factors affecting productivity, namely the cycle of operations, manpower deployment, machine efficiency, material handling and management of manpower are discussed. In addition, the problem of side discharge loader (SDL cable handling resulting in the wastage of precious manpower resources and SDL breakdown have also been identified and resolved in this paper.

  3. Comparing maceral ratios from tropical peatlands with assumptions from coal studies. Do classic coal petrographic interpretation methods have to be discarded?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Raphael A.J.; Hawke, Michelle I.; Marc Bustin, R. [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Tropical Peat Research Group, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, V6T 1Z4 Vancouver, B.C. (Canada)

    2001-12-01

    Petrographic investigations of tropical peat deposits from the Tasek Bera Basin, Malaysia, show that petrographic methods can contribute valuable information about paleoecological settings of mire deposits. Comparing modern peat-forming environments and the pre-maceral composition of peat samples allows the reconstruction of paleoecological conditions, such as floral composition, fires, microbial activity, etc., and gives insight into paleodepositional environments. In the past, maceral ratios of coals have been used to interpret paleodepositional settings of coal deposits. Such a procedure assumes that coal texture and coal maceral composition are dictated solely by the depositional environment, and thus different depositional environments should be clearly discriminated based on maceral ratios. In the modern peat deposits of Tasek Bera, divergent petrographic results occur in similar depositional environments, hence, poor correlation occurs between the petrography, the degree of decomposition, and the depositional environment. Furthermore, from the time of peat deposition, peat is subject to considerable alteration. During subsequent diagenesis, preservation of structured and strongly altered material, such as inertinite, gelified material or funginite, is favoured and results in biased coal maceral compositions. Because maceral indexes in modern peat studies are of little utility in the reconstruction of paleoenvironmental settings, it follows that coal maceral indexes should not be utilized in the future to interpret paleodepositional environments of coals.

  4. A study of thermal reactions of coal with polyamides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Náhunková, Jana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2004), s. 239-243 ISSN 1211-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2046902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : coal * kinetics * polyamides Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  5. A case study of PFBC for low rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, S.A. [ABB Carbon AB, Finspong (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Combined-Cycle (PFBC) technology allows the efficient and environmentally friendly utilization of solid fuels for power and combined heat and power generation. With current PFBC technology, thermal efficiencies near 46%, on an LHV basis and with low condenser pressures, can be reached in condensing power plants. Further efficiency improvements to 50% or more are possible. PFBC plants are characterized by high thermal efficiency, compactness, and extremely good environmental performance. The PFBC plants which are now in operation in Sweden, the U.S. and Japan burn medium-ash, bituminous coal with sulfur contents ranging from 0.7 to 4%. A sub- bituminous {open_quotes}black lignite{close_quotes} with high levels of sulfur, ash and humidity, is used as fuel in a demonstration PFBC plant in Spain. Project discussions are underway, among others in Central and Eastern Europe, for the construction of PFBC plants which will burn lignite, oil-shale and also mixtures of coal and biomass with high efficiency and extremely low emissions. This paper will provide information about the performance data for PFBC plants when operating on a range of low grade coals and other solid fuels, and will summarize other advantages of this leading new clean coal technology.

  6. FY 2000 Feasibility study on the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems as part of the international project for coal utilization measures. Feasibility study on supporting introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems in Vietnam (Model project for introduction of advanced coal preparation systems); 2000 nendo kokusai sekitan riyo taisaku jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa jigyo Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (kodo sentan system donyu model jigyo kanosei chosa jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a model project in Vietnam, aimed at solving the environmental pollution problems resulting from use of coal by demonstrating and disseminating the Japan's environmental technologies in the Southeast Asian countries. The feasibility study was conducted for the Cua Ong Coal Preparation Enterprise, which has the largest coal preparation capacity in Vietnam and port facilities. It is treating raw coal from 10 coal mines for classification and preparation, and shipping coal of various types that meet the standards for domestic use and export. The survey results point out that unrecovered coal remains in waste water discharged from the coal preparation plants to pollute the sea area, and that quantity of the refuse increases because of the unrecovered coal it contains. The environmental technologies needed to introduce include modification to variable wave pattern type jigging separator, refuse height measuring instrument and automatic controller, circulating heavy medium gravimeter, highly functional settling pond, and flocculent facilities. (NEDO)

  7. Human brain evolution and the "Neuroevolutionary Time-depth Principle:" Implications for the Reclassification of fear-circuitry-related traits in DSM-V and for studying resilience to warzone-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracha, H Stefan

    2006-07-01

    exception and are likely to be followed by PTSD rates approaching those that follow warzone exposure. During bioevents, Amygdala-driven and locus-coeruleus-driven epidemic pseudosomatic symptoms may be an order of magnitude more common than infection-caused cytokine-driven symptoms. Implications for the red cross and FEMA are discussed. It is also argued that hospital phobia as well as dog phobia, bird phobia and bat phobia require re-taxonomization in DSM-V in a new "overconsolidational disorders" category anchored around PTSD. The overconsolidational spectrum category may be conceptualized as straddling the fear circuitry spectrum disorders and the affective spectrum disorders categories, and may be a category for which Pitman's secondary prevention propranolol regimen may be specifically indicated as a "morning after pill" intervention. Predictions are presented regarding obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (e.g., female-pattern hoarding vs. male-pattern hoarding) and "culture-bound" acute anxiety symptoms (taijin-kyofusho, koro, shuk yang, shook yong, suo yang, rok-joo, jinjinia-bemar, karoshi, gwarosa, Voodoo death). Also discussed are insights relevant to pseudoneurological symptoms and to the forthcoming Dissociative-Conversive disorders category in DSM-V, including what the author terms fright-triggered acute pseudo-localized symptoms (i.e., pseudoparalysis, pseudocerebellar imbalance, psychogenic blindness, pseudoseizures, and epidemic sociogenic illness). Speculations based on studies of the human abnormal-spindle-like, microcephaly-associated (ASPM) gene, the microcephaly primary autosomal recessive (MCPH) gene, and the forkhead box p2 (FOXP2) gene are made and incorporated into what is termed "The pre-FOXP2 Hypothesis of Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia." Finally, the author argues for a non-reductionistic fusion of "distal (evolutionary) neurobiology" with clinical "proximal neurobiology," utilizing neurological heuristics. It is noted that the value of re

  8. Study on the Low-Temperature Oxidation Law in the Co-Mining Face of Coal and Oil Shale in a Goaf—A Case Study in the Liangjia Coal Mine, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-temperature oxidation law of coal and rock mass is the basis to study spontaneous combustion in goafs. In this paper, the low-temperature oxidation laws of coal, oil shale, and mixtures of coal and oil shale were studied by using laboratory programmed heating experiments combined with a field beam tube monitoring system. The results from the programmed heating experiments showed that the heat released from oil shale was less than that from coal. Coal had a lower carbon monoxide (CO-producing temperature than oil shale, and the mixture showed obvious inhibiting effects on CO production with an average CO concentration of about 38% of that for coal. Index gases were selected in different stages to determine the critical turning point temperature for each stage. The field beam tube monitoring system showed that the temperature field of the 1105 co-mining face of coal and oil shale in the goaf of the Liangjia Coal Mine presented a ladder-like distribution, and CO concentration was the highest for coal and lower for the mixture of coal and oil shale, indicating that the mixture of coal with oil shale had an inhibiting effect on CO production, consistent with the results from the programmed heating experiments.

  9. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  10. Lighting up the brain's reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Mary Kay

    2012-07-01

    The brain's reward circuit is critical for mediating natural reward behaviors including food, sex, and social interaction. Drugs of abuse take over this circuit and produce persistent molecular and cellular alterations in the brain regions and their neural circuitry that make up the reward pathway. Recent use of optogenetic technologies has provided novel insights into the functional and molecular role of the circuitry and cell subtypes within these circuits that constitute this pathway. This perspective will address the current and future use of light-activated proteins, including those involved in modulating neuronal activity, cellular signaling, and molecular properties in the neural circuitry mediating rewarding stimuli and maladaptive responses to drugs of abuse. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  12. Packaging and interconnection for superconductive circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacker, W.

    1976-01-01

    A three dimensional microelectronic module packaged for reduced signal propagation delay times including a plurality of circuit carrying means, which may comprise unbacked chips, with integrated superconductive circuitry thereon is described. The circuit carrying means are supported on their edges and have contact lands in the vicinity of, or at, the edges to provide for interconnecting circuitry. The circuit carrying means are supported by supporting means which include slots to provide a path for interconnection wiring to contact the lands of the circuit carrying means. Further interconnecting wiring may take the form of integrated circuit wiring on the reverse side of the supporting means. The low heat dissipation of the superconductive circuitry allows the circuit carrying means to be spaced approximately no less than 30 mils apart. The three dimensional arrangement provides lower random propagation delays than would a planar array of circuits

  13. Case study on ground surface deformation induced by CO2 injection into coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Tang Chun'an

    2010-01-01

    To monitor a geomechanical response of injecting CO 2 into relatively shallow coal seams, tiltmeters were set as an array to cover the ground surface area surrounding the injection well, and to measure the ground deformation during a well fracturing stimulation and a short-term CO 2 injection test. In this paper, an attempt to establish a quantitative relationship between the in-situ coal swelling and the corresponding ground deformation was made by means of numerical simulation study. (authors)

  14. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  15. Kinetic Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Pyrolysis Using Thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Chaudharib, Kiran [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Turtonb, Richard [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2013-10-29

    The objectives of this study are to investigate thermal behavior of coal and biomass blends in inert gas environment at low heating rates and to develop a simplified kinetic model using model fitting techniques based on TGA experimental data. Differences in thermal behavior and reactivity in co-pyrolysis of Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal and pelletized southern yellow pine wood sawdust blends at low heating rates are observed. Coal/wood blends have higher reactivity compared to coal alone in the lower temperature due to the high volatile matter content of wood. As heating rates increase, weight loss rates increase. The experiment data obtained from TGA has a better fit with proposed two step first order reactions model compared single first order reaction model.

  16. Comparative study of bitumoids of Irkutsk sapropelite and of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkov, V.F.; Randin, O.I.; Kushnarev, D.F.; Polonov, V.M.; Kalabin, G.A.; Tuturina, V.V.

    1986-05-01

    Complex physical-chemical methods are reviewed used to study sapropelite and brown coal alcohol-benzine and chloroform bitumoids from coal of various origins, and to determine their chemical structure. Tests were made on bitumoids obtained by a 100 h extraction in Soxhlet apparatus from natural Budgaovsk sapropelite and Azeisk and Mugunsk brown coal, which have a similar degree of metamorphism. Elemental composition, chloroform bitumoids and mass spectra were determined using Bruker-WP-200 SY, Varian-MAT and Specord apparatus. Considerable variation in aromatic carbon content among sapropelite and brown coal bitumoids was established. The presence of paraffin isomeric structure is identified in hydrocarbon part of bitumoid. Triterpane hydrocarbons were detected in all samples. Elemental composition of bitumoids, composition of hydrocarbon fractions, and others, are given. 11 references.

  17. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  18. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Kalivas, Benjamin C.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumben...

  19. Study on hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction by tritium and carbon-14 tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitoh, Osamu; Kabe, Toshiaki; Kabe, Yaeko.

    1985-01-01

    For the analysis of mechanism of hydrogenation and cracking of coal, the liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal using tritium labeled gaseous hydrogen and tritium labeled tetralin with small amounts of carbon-14 labeled naphthalene has been studied. Taiheiyo coal(25g) was thermally decomposed in tetralin or naphthalene solvent(75g) at 400--440 0 C under the initial hydrogen pressure of 5.9MPa for 30min with Ni-Mo-Al 2 O 3 catalyst(0--5g). The reaction mixture in an autoclave was separated by filtration, distillation and solvent extraction. Produced gas, oils and the solvent were analyzed by gas chromatography. The tritium and carbon-14 contents of separated reaction products were measured with a liquid scintilation counter to study the hydrogen transfer mechanism. The distribution of reaction products and the amount of hydrogen transfer from gas or solvent to the products were also determined. In hydrogen donor solvent such as tetralin, the coal liquefaction yield was independent from the catalyst, but the catalyst was effective in hydrocracking of preasphaltene and asphaltene. In naphthalene solvent, the coal liquefaction reaction hardly occured in the absence of the catalyst, because hydrogen transfer from both the solvent and gaseous hydrogen was scarce. Tritium distribution in the reaction products showed that complicated hydrogen exchange reactions between gaseous hydrogen, coal liquids and solvent came out by the presence of coal liquids and catalyst. The very small amounts of carbon-14 transferred to the liquefaction products showed that carbon exchange or transfer between solvent and coal did not take place. (author)

  20. Study on dynamic multi-objective approach considering coal and water conflict in large scale coal group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qing; Lu, Li

    2018-01-01

    In the process of coal mining, destruction and pollution of groundwater in has reached an imminent time, and groundwater is not only related to the ecological environment, but also affect the health of human life. Similarly, coal and water conflict is still one of the world's problems in large scale coal mining regions. Based on this, this paper presents a dynamic multi-objective optimization model to deal with the conflict of the coal and water in the coal group with multiple subordinate collieries and arrive at a comprehensive arrangement to achieve environmentally friendly coal mining strategy. Through calculation, this paper draws the output of each subordinate coal mine. And on this basis, we continue to adjust the environmental protection parameters to compare the coal production at different collieries at different stages under different attitude of the government. At last, the paper conclude that, in either case, it is the first arrangement to give priority to the production of low-drainage, high-yield coal mines.

  1. Mass spectrometric and chemometric studies of thermoplastic properties of coals. 1. Chemometry of conventional, solvent swelling and extraction data of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, A.; Czajkowska, S.; Moszynski, J.; Schulten, H.-R. (Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice (Poland). Inst. of Coal Chemistry)

    Twenty-seven coals from Carboniferous seams in Poland were studied with the aim to find links between thermoplastic properties and chemical characteristics of the coals. Three sets of data were obtained for all the coals: (1) thermoplastic properties measured using the Gieseler plastometer; (2) yields of pyridine extractables and swelling measurements for pyridine residues; (3) ultimate, proximate, and petrographic analyses. The three data sets were evaluated using chemometric techniques with the purpose of looking for significant correlations between all the data. Temperature of softening is a linear regression of pyridine extractables and hydrogen content in coals as well as of swelling data. Temperatures of maximum fluidity and resolidification are correlated with each other and with oxygen, exinite, and moisture contents of the coals as well as with the swelling data. It has been concluded that temperature of softening is a colligative property and indicates a phase transition resulting in an increase of thermal induced mobility of coal material; the energy demand of the transition is dependent on contents of bulk components of coal system that were specified in this study. Temperatures of maximum fluidity and resolidification appear to have the same chemical background; i.e. the temperatures depend on the content of the same structural units or components. However, the means of chemical characterization of coal material used in this study were not capable of identifying them. Volatile matter and petrographic composition showed rather limited value as predictive means for some (T{sub F(max)} and T{sub R}) and no predictive value for the other thermoplastic properties. 20 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. Resource recovery from coal fly ash waste: an overview study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Matsuda, M.; Miyake, M. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Graduate School of Environmental Science

    2008-02-15

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a useful byproduct of the combustion of coal. It is composed primarily of almost perfectly spherical aluminosilicate glass particles. This spherical characteristic and other characteristics of CFA should be exploited, rather than simply using CFA as inert filler for construction. Unfortunately, the presence of carbon residues and high levels of heavy metals has so far limited the uses of CFA. Forced leaching methods have been used to improve the technical and environmentally friendly qualities of CFA, but these processes do not seem to be economically viable. Actually, CFA is a major source of Si and Al for the synthesis of industrial minerals. Potential novel uses of CFA, e.g., for the synthesis of ceramic materials, ceramic membrane filters, zeolites, and geopolymers, are reviewed in this article with the intention of exploring new areas that will

  3. Coal pyrolysis in a continuous fluidized bed - process development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, N N; Akmal, M A.K.; Vaidyeswaran, R

    1981-10-01

    The paper deals with the development of a process development unit (PDU) for the fluid bed pyrolysis of non-caking slack coal obtained from Singareni and Talcher coalfields. Preheated air is used as the fluidizing medium. It is necessary to avoid its maldistribution by a suitable design of the gas distributor. In this regard perforated conical distributors appear to play an important role. In the low temperature carbonization of coal an operation around 500 C gives optimum yields of char and tar of desirable quality. Carbonization reactions are generally completed within about 20 min of the feed entry into the fluidized bed and the char attains an equilibrium volatile matter content. Since air is used as the fluidizing medium carbonization gas is diluted with nitrogen and non-combustibles. The heating value of the gas is low. (5 refs.)

  4. Study of ammonia removal from coal-gasified fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takeharu; Sato, Mikio [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    In integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power-generation (IGCC) systems, ammonia in gasified fuel is passed through a hot/dry type gas clean-up facility into a gas turbine. The ammonia is converted to nitrogen oxides in the gas turbine combustion process. Therefore, ammonia removal from coal-gasified fuel effectively reduces NO{sub x} emissions in IGCC systems. The authors clarified the optimum NO/NH{sub 3} ratio, the optimum concentration of added O{sub 2}, and the influence of CO, H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} in the coal-gasified fuel on NH{sub 3} decomposition and NO reduction through experiments using a tubular flow reactor and numerical analysis based on reaction kinetics. The main results were as follows: (1) The optimum NO/NH{sub 3} ratio for maximizing NH{sub 3} decomposition and NO reduction was about 1. (2) The NH{sub 3} decomposition ratio depended only on H{sub 2}, and decreased rapidly with increasing H{sub 2} concentration. (3) The NO reduction ratio decreased with an increasing H{sub 2} concentration. (4) The remaining CH{sub 4}, which was not decomposed by pyrolysis, increased with an increasing CH{sub 4} concentration and caused the reaction temperature to rise, as opposed to cases of CO and H{sub 2}. (5) The method was effective in decreasing total fixed nitrogen (TFN) by up to 40% and minimizing the total concentration of remaining NH{sub 3} and NO in air-blown, coal-gasified fuel.

  5. Flow loop studies with AMAX coal-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildman, D.J.; Ekmann, J.M.

    1984-03-01

    The coal-water mixtures (CWM) with a stabilizer and the CWM without stabilizers were successfully transported through a flow loop facility under a variety of conditions. The handling characteristics of both CWM were reasonable. The mix tank mixer was not needed during nontesting hours to prevent settling of either material. After several days of transporting the nonstabilized material in the loop facility, the viscosity-reducing agent became ineffective. It was necessary to increase the concentration of the viscosity-reducing agent. The material with stabilizer could not be transported through the loop facility at mass flow rates greater than 209 lb/min until overnight shearing of the CWM in the tank. The CWM without a stabilizer appeared to be slightly shear-thickening, whereas the stabilized CWM initially exhibited shear-thinning behavior. The pressure losses measured for the nonstabilized material were similar to the pressure losses measured for CWM prepared at PETC with three or four percent higher concentration of Pittsburgh seam coal. Tests performed with the stabilized CWM experienced pressure losses similar to CWM prepared at PETC with Pittsburgh seam coal of five to seven percent higher concentration. Tests 1A, 2A, 1B, and 2B were not included in the comparison of in-house-prepared CWM due to differences in pretest handling procedures. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  6. Study on feasible technical potential of coal to electricity in china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dexiang; Tan, Xiandong

    2017-01-01

    The control of bulk coal is one of the important work of air pollution control in China’s future. Existing research mainly focuses on the adaptability, economy, construction and renovation plan, and operation optimization of specific energy substitution utilization, and lacks the strategy research of long-term layout of energy substitution utilization in large area. This paper puts forward a technical potential prediction method of coal to electricity based on the thermal equivalent method, which is based on the characteristics of regional coal consumption, and combined with the trend of adaptability and economy of energy substitution utilization. Also, the paper calculates the comprehensive benefit of coal to electricity according to the varieties of energy consumption and pollutant emission level of unit energy consumption in China’s future. The research result shows that the development technical potential of coal to electricity in China is huge, about 1.8 trillion kWh, including distributed electric heating, heat pump and electric heating boiler, mainly located in North China, East China, and Northeast China. The implementation of coal to electricity has remarkable comprehensive benefits in energy conservation and emission reduction, and improvement of energy consumption safety level. Case study shows the rationality of the proposed method.

  7. Spectroscopy study of electron spin resonance of coal oxidation of different rank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enciso Prieto, Hector Manuel

    1992-01-01

    The present work constitutes an initial step for the knowledge of the coal oxidation, with the purpose of preventing the adverse influences caused by this phenomenon in the physical-chemical characteristics and in the tendency to the spontaneous combustion. Since the knowledge the influence of the free radicals in this process, their relative concentration was measured by means of the use of the technique of resonance spin electron. This technique measures the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, generally in the microwaves region, for the materials that not have electrons matched up in a strong magnetic field. In the essays of oxidation three coal of different range and different characteristics of mass were used and it was studied the influence of the temperature, particle size and the range. The results showed that the coal of Guacheta (bituminous low in volatile) it presents bigger concentration of free radicals, after the reaction with the atmospheric oxygen, with regard to the coal of the Cerrejon (bituminous high in volatile B) and Amaga (bituminous high in volatile C). Although this doesn't indicate that the coal of Guacheta is that more easily is oxidized, but rather it possibly presents stabilization of radicals for resonance. It concluded that there are differences in the oxidation mechanism between coal of different rank and different agglomeration properties

  8. Molecular Epidemiology Study in Xuanwei: the Relationship among
Coal Type, Genotype and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua LI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that the lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei County, China was among the highest in the country and has been associated with exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This risk may be modified by variation in genetic polymorphisms and coal subtypes. Our objective was to use molecular epidemiological techniques to investigate the relationship among genetic polymorphisms, coal subtype and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei County. Methods On the basis of two population-based case-control studies in residents of Xuanwei County, China, questionnaires covering demographic information, smoking history, family and personal medical history, and information on other variables were administered and buccal cells and sputum samples were collected separately from each subject enrolled to extract DNA. GST superfamily, AKR1C3 superfamily, OGG1 superfamily and other genotype were scanned by useing PCR method. ORs and 95%CIs were used to estimate the association between genotypes, coal subtypes and lung cancer risk factors by conditional Logistic regression using Statistical Analysis Software. Results Compared with subjects who using smokeless coal or wood, smoky coal use was statistically significantly associated with lung cancer risk (OR=7.7, 95%CI: 4.5-13.3. There was marked heterogeneity in risk estimates for specific subtypes of smoky coal. Estimates were highest for coal from the Laibin (OR=24.8, Longtan (OR=11.6 and Baoshan (OR=6.0 coal types, and lower for coal from other types; the risk within the same subtype of coal in male and female were similar. The GSTM1-null genotype, the AKR1C3 (Ex1-70C>G, OGG1 (Ex6-315C>G genotypes were closely associated with increased risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei County, and their odds ratios (95%CI were 2.3 (1.3-4.2, 1.8 (1.0-3.5 and 1.9 (1.1-3.3, respectively. Compared to subjects who with GSTM1-positive and used less than

  9. Study on the coal mixing ratio optimization for a power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. A.; Cheng, J. W.; Bai, Q.; Li, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    For coal-fired power plants, the application of blended coal combustion has been a great issue due to the shortage and rising prices of high-rank coal. This paper describes the optimization of blending methods between Xing'an lignite coal, Shaltala lignite coal, Ura lignite coal, and Inner Mongolia bituminous coal. The multi-objective decision-making method based on fuzzy mathematics was used to determine the optimal blending ratio to improve the power plant coal-fired economy.

  10. Cofiring of biofuels in coal fired boilers: Results of case study analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, D.A. [Ebasco Environmental, Sacramento, CA (United States); Hughes, E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gold, B.A. [TVA, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Ebasco Environmental and Reaction Engineering, under contract to EPRI, performed a case study analysis of cofiring biomass in coal-fired boilers of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The study was also sponsored by DOE. This analysis included evaluating wood fuel receiving, preparation, and combustion in pulverized coal (PC) boilers and cyclone furnaces and an assessment of converting wood into pyrolysis oil or low Btu gas for use in a new combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) installation. Cofiring wood in existing coal-fired boilers has the most immediate potential for increasing the utilization of biofuels in electricity generation. Cofiring biofuels with coal can potentially generate significant benefits for utilities including: (1) reducing emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}; (2) reducing the net emissions of CO{sub 2}; (3) potentially reducing the fuel cost to the utility depending upon local conditions and considering biomass is potentially exempt from the proposed Btu tax and may get a 1.5 cent/kWh credit for energy generated by wood combustion; (4) supporting local industrial forest industry; and (5) providing a long term market for the development of a biofuel supply and delivery industry. Potential benefits are reviewed in the context of cofiring biofuel at a rate of 15% heat input to the boiler, and compares this cofiring strategy and others previously tested or developed by other utilities. Other issues discussed include: (1) wood fuel specifications as a function of firing method; (2) wood fuel receiving and preparation system requirements; (3) combustion system requirements for cofiring biofuels with coal; (4) combustion impacts of firing biofuels with coal; (5) system engineering issues; (6) the economics of cofiring biofuel with coal. The Allen, TN 330 MW(e) cyclone boiler and Kingston, TN 135 MW(e) Boiler {number_sign}1, a tangentially fired PC unit, case studies are then summarized in the paper, highlighting the cofiring opportunities.

  11. PirB regulates asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Ukai

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain structure; however, the molecular basis of brain asymmetry remains unclear. We recently identified structural and functional asymmetries in mouse hippocampal circuitry that result from the asymmetrical distribution of two distinct populations of pyramidal cell synapses that differ in the density of the NMDA receptor subunit GluRε2 (also known as NR2B, GRIN2B or GluN2B. By examining the synaptic distribution of ε2 subunits, we previously found that β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, which lack cell surface expression of the vast majority of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI proteins, do not exhibit circuit asymmetry. In the present study, we conducted electrophysiological and anatomical analyses on the hippocampal circuitry of mice with a knockout of the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB, an MHCI receptor. As in β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, the PirB-deficient hippocampus lacked circuit asymmetries. This finding that MHCI loss-of-function mice and PirB knockout mice have identical phenotypes suggests that MHCI signals that produce hippocampal asymmetries are transduced through PirB. Our results provide evidence for a critical role of the MHCI/PirB signaling system in the generation of asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.

  12. Coal in Europe: what future?: prospects of the coal industry and impacts study of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudianto, E.

    2006-12-01

    From the industrial revolution to the 1960's, coal was massively consumed in Europe and its utilization was constantly raised. In the aftermath of World War II, coal had also an important part in reconstruction of Western Europe's economy. However, since the late 1960's, its demand has been declining. There is a (mis)conception from a number of policy makers that saying coal mining and utilizations in Europe is unnecessary. Therefore in the European Union (EU) Green Paper 2000, coal is described as an 'undesirable' fuel and the production of coal on the basis of economic criteria has no prospect. Furthermore, the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol in reducing greenhouse gases emission has aggravated this view. Faced with this situation, the quest for the future of coal industry (mining and utilization) in the lines of an energy policy is unavoidable. This dissertation did a profound inquiry trying to seek answers for several questions: Does the European Union still need coal? If coal is going to play a part in the EU, where should the EU get the coal from? What should be done to diminish negative environmental impacts of coal mining and utilization? and finally in regard to the CO 2 emission concerns, what will the state of the coal industry in the future in the EU? To enhance the analysis, a system dynamic model, called the Dynamics Coal for Europe (the DCE) was developed. The DCE is an Energy-Economy-Environment model. It synthesizes the perspectives of several disciplines, including geology, technology, economy and environment. It integrates several modules including exploration, production, pricing, demand, import and emission. Finally, the model emphasizes the impact of delays and feed-back in both the physical processes and the information and decision-making processes of the system. The calibration process for the DCE shows that the model reproduces past numbers on the scale well for several variables. Based on the results of this calibration process, it can

  13. A study of the evolution of nitrogen compounds during coal devolatilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Moreno, A.H.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain). Dept. of Energy and Environment

    2001-07-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides during combustion are a major environmental problem. The chemically bound nitrogen in fuel accounts for up to 80% of total NOx emissions. In this respect, fundamental studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms and to identify the different species that are precursors in the formation of the NOx. In this work, two methodologies were employed. Simultaneous thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric (TG-MS) analysis was used to study the pyrolysis behaviour of three coals of varying rank. The release of different nitrogen compounds was followed by means of temperature-programmed pyrolysis experiments. The influence of coal rank on the evolution of volatile compounds was also considered. In addition, a series of coal chars with different burn-off degrees were obtained in a bench scale fluidised bed reactor, using the same parent coal. The evolution of gaseous compounds arising from the thermal treatment of the partially burned chars was studied in the TG-MS system. It was found that the different chemical structure of the chars exerted some influence on the evolution of the gaseous compounds during the devolatilisation process. Finally, the evolution of the volatile compounds was also studied in the bench scale fluidised bed reactor. Special attention was given to the formation of N{sub 2}O during the pyrolysis of the coals used. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Refining and end use study of coal liquids I - pilot plant studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, J.; Moulton, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Office of Fossil Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center is examining the ways in which coal liquids may best be integrated into the refinery of the 2000-2015 time frame and what performance and emission properties will prevail among the slate of fuels produced. The study consists of a Basic Program administered by Bechtel Group, Inc. to build a linear programming refinery model and provide processing and fuel properties data through subcontractors Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and M.W. Kellogg Company. The model will be used in an Option 1 to devise a slate of test fuels meeting advanced specifications, which will be produced and tested for physical ASTM-type properties, engine performance, and vehicle emissions. Three coal liquids will be included: a direct liquid from bituminous coal, another from subbituminous, and a Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction product. This paper reports the work to date on fractions of the first direct liquid including naphtha hydrotreating, heavy distillate hydrotreating, FCC of the heavy distillate hydrotreater products. Also reported are the first stages of work on the indirect liquefaction wax including feed preparation and FCC tests of blends with petroleum FCC feed.

  15. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloza, Julia; Molina, Jorge; Mejia, Humberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  16. Groundwater impact studies at three Ontario Hydro coal ash landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, H.M.; Vorauer, A.G.; Chan, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has produced on the order of 21 million Mg of coal fly ash over the past 40 years, of which, 80% has gone to various landfill sites in the province of Ontario. Hydrogeologic investigations have been performed in the vicinity of three Ontario Hydro coal ash landfill sites to assess the environmental impact of fly ash landfilling on the local groundwater regime. Two of the waste management facilities are associated with thermal generating stations (Lambton TGS and Nanticoke TGS) and are founded on relatively impermeable clay deposits. The third site, Birchwood Park, is a former sand and gravel pit for which the landfill design did not incorporate the use of a liner material. The rates of groundwater flow through the overburden materials a the three sites vary from less than 1 cm/a at the Lambton TGS site, to between 3.45 cm/a and 115 cm/a at contaminant transport at these sites also varies from being controlled by molecular diffusion to advection. This paper discusses the migration rates of contaminants from fly ash leachate at each of the three sites with implications to landfill containment and design

  17. Study of the technology of heat pipe on prevention wildfire of coal gangue hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jun; Li, Bei; Ding, Ximei; Ma, Li

    2017-04-01

    Self-ignitable coal gangue hill (CGH) is one kind of special combustion system, which has the characteristics of low self-ignite point, large heat storage, and easy reignition. The currently industrial fire extinguishing methods, such as inhibiting tendency of coal self-ignition, loessial overburden, and cement grouting, had unsatisfied effects for dispersing the heat out in time. Correspondingly, the CGH will lead reignition more frequently with the passage of time. The high underground temperature of CGH threatens the process of ecological and vegetation construction. Therefore, the elimination of high temperature is a vital issue to be solved urgently for habitat restoration. To achieve the ultimately ecological management goal of self-ignitable CGH - extinguishing the fire completely and never reignited, it is crucial to break the heat accumulation. Heat-pipe (HP) has a character of high efficient heat transfer capacity for eliminating the continuously high temperature in CGH. An experimental system was designed to test the heat transfer performance of HP for preventing and extinguishing the spontaneous combustion of coal gangue. Based on the heat transfer theory, the resistance network of the coal-HP heat removal system was analyzed for studying the cooling effect of HP. The experimental results show that the HP can accelerate the heat release in coal gangue pile. The coal temperature could be controlled at 59.6 ˚ C with HP in 7 h and the highest cooling value is 39.4 % with HP in 150 h, which can effectively cool the temperatures of high temperature zones. As a powerful heat transfer components, as soon as HPs were inserted into the CGH with a reasonable distance, it can completely play a vital role in inhibiting the coal self-ignition process.

  18. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  19. Addiction: beyond dopamine reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  20. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  1. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  2. United in Diversity : A Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Subpopulations in the Basal Ganglia Circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Viereckel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Basal Ganglia consist of a number of different nuclei that form a diverse circuitry of GABAergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurons. This complex network is further organized in subcircuits that govern limbic and motor functions in humans and other vertebrates. Due to the interconnection of the individual structures, dysfunction in one area or cell population can affect the entire network, leading to synaptic and molecular alterations in the circuitry as a whole. The studies in this ...

  3. Experimental study of Coal Pyrolysis 2.: Experimental characterisation of volatile matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugony, F.; Migliavacca, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper considerations about experiments conducted through T G-Ftir are reported, in order to study the gas composition coming from coal pyrolysis. In particular qualitative and semi-qualitative evaluation of hydrocarbon evolution rate, as CH4, C2H4 and C3H6 are reported. It has been observed a strict relation between the evolution rate of the listed compounds, the coal rank and their elementary composition. The reported data constitute a good support to the validation of the predictive models of coal devolatilization. To complete the study two papers will be published in the next months: one containing experimental data from pyrolysis process in a fixed bed reactor and another one concerning the NMR analysis of the produced char. [it

  4. Residence time of contaminants released in surface coal mines -- a wind-tunnel study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Surface coal mining operations (blasting, shoveling, loading, trucking, etc.) are sources of airborne particles. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct the EPA to analyze the accuracy of the Industrial Source Complex model and the AP-42 emission factors, and to make revisions as may be necessary to eliminate any significant over-prediction of air concentration of fugitive particles from surface coal mines. A wind-tunnel study was performed at the US EPA`s Fluid Modeling Facility to investigate dispersion from surface coal mines in support of the dispersion modeling activities. Described here is the portion of the study directed at determining the residence time that material released near the floor of a mine will stay within the mine.

  5. A comparative study between the coal-biomass briquette and raw coal in SO{sub 2} pollution and adverse effects in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Shuqun; Zhou Yanrong; Wang Yi' nan; Wang Xun; Liu Yuanfu; Iwao Uchiyama; Wang Qiangyue; Kazuhiki Sakamoto [Chongqing University of Medical Sciences. Chongqing (China). School of Public Health

    2006-12-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the adverse health effects on rabbits exposed to SO{sub 2} emitted indoors from burning coals, and compare differences between coal-biomass briquette (BB) and raw coal (RC). Thirty-six male rabbits were divided equally into three groups at random, and then exposed to burning RC, BB, and the third without burning coal (Control) for 90 days. Data showed that the average concentration of SO{sub 2} in 24 h in RC was 13.04 mg m{sup -3}, which was 5-fold greater than BB and 31-fold higher than control (0.41 mg m{sup -3}). After 45 days, the numbers of rabbits, with increased frequency of Comet cell was highest in RC. After 90 days, the % positive Comet cell was significant at 10.36% in RC, 5.42% in BB, and 1.73% in Control. There was a nonlinear dose-effect relationship between % positive Comet cell and the concentration of SO{sub 2}. The incidence of interstitial pneumonia was 6/12 in RC and 4/12 in BB showing severe squamous metaplasia with atypical hyperplasia in bronchial epithelia in RC animals. The results of study indicate that use of BB reduced the emission of SO{sub 2}; but the smoke emitted from burning coal still produced DNA damage.

  6. Experimental Study on Properties of Methane Diffusion of Coal Block under Triaxial Compressive Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Bao

    2014-01-01

    Taking the standard size coal block samples defined by ISRM as research objects, both properties of methane diffusion of coal block under triaxial compressive stress and characteristic influences caused by methane pressure were systematically studied with thermo-fluid-solid coupling with triaxial servocontrolled seepage equipment of methane-containing coal. The result shows the methane diffusion property of coal block under triaxial compressive stress was shown in four-stage as follow, first is sharply reduce stage, second is hyperbolic reduce stage, third is close to a fixed value stage, fourth stage is 0. There is a special point making the reduced rate of characteristic curve of methane diffusion speed become sharply small; the influences of shape of methane diffusion speed characteristic curve caused by methane pressure are not obvious, which only is shown in numerical size of methane diffusion speed. Test time was extended required by appear of the special point makes the reduce rate of methane diffusion speed become sharply small. The fitting four-phase relation of methane diffusion of coal block under triaxial compressive stress was obtained, and the idea is proposed that influences of the fitting four-phase relation caused by methane pressure were only shown in value of fitting parameters. PMID:25531000

  7. In Situ Test Study of Characteristics of Coal Mining Dynamic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination of coal mining dynamic load and high static stress can easily induce such dynamic disasters as rock burst, coal and gas outburst, roof fall, and water inrush. In order to obtain the characteristic parameters of mining dynamic load and dynamic mechanism of coal and rock, the stress wave theory is applied to derive the relation of mining dynamic load strain rate and stress wave parameters. The in situ test was applied to study the stress wave propagation law of coal mine dynamic load by using the SOS microseismic monitoring system. An evaluation method for mining dynamic load strain rate was proposed, and the statistical evaluation was carried out for the range of strain rate. The research results show that the loading strain rate of mining dynamic load is in direct proportion to the seismic frequency of coal-rock mass and particle peak vibration velocity and is in inverse proportion to wave velocity. The high-frequency component damps faster than the low-frequency component in the shockwave propagating process; and the peak particle vibration velocity has a power functional relationship with the transmitting distance. The loading strain rate of mining dynamic load is generally less than class 10−1/s.

  8. A study on measures to reduce production cost of long-running collieries and coal mining mechanization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the working get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the remaining 11 coal mines after the rationalization of the industry, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. This report consists of 3 subjects. 1) Designing of the bord and pillar mining method to extract gently inclined seams of the Dogye coal mine. 2) Mechanization of coal cutting by plough. 3) Achievement of the mechanization of coal mining compared to the previous year. (author). 27 refs.

  9. Interactions of coal gangue and pine sawdust during combustion of their blends studied using differential thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhu, Mingming; Cheng, Fangqin; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-08-01

    The interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust during the combustion process were studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The effect of the blending ratio, oxygen concentration and heating rate on the weight loss (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (TGA) profiles was examined. The TG and DTG curves of the blends were not additives of those of the individual materials, suggesting that interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust had occurred during the combustion, especially in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Kinetic analysis confirmed that the combustion of coal gangue, pine sawdust and their blends was chemical reaction controlled. Further analysis revealed that the interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust were primarily due to thermal effects rather than structural changes, with the thermal inertia of coal gangue dominating over the behaviour of the blends. The interactions decreased with decreasing the coal gangue ratio in the blend, oxygen concentration and heating rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis and study on the membrane method of CO2 removal of coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fangqin, Li; Henan, Li; Jianxing, Ren; Jiang, Wu; Zhongzhu, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one kind of harmful substances from the burning process of fossil fuel. CO 2 emissions cause serious pollution on atmospheric environment, especially greenhouse effect. In this paper, CO 2 formation mechanism and control methods were researched. Membrane technology was studied to control CO 2 emissions from coal-fired boilers. The relationship between CO 2 removal efficiency and parameters of membrane contactor was analyzed. Through analysis and study, factors affecting on CO 2 removal efficiency were gotten. How to choose the best parameters was known. This would provide theoretical basis for coal-fired utility boilers choosing effective way of CO 2 removal. (author)

  11. Study of flame combustion of off-design binary coal blends in steam boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustyanskii, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Changes in the structure of the fuel consumption by the thermal power stations of Ukraine caused by failure in supplying anthracite from the Donets Basin are analyzed and the major tasks of maintaining the functioning of the coal industry are formulated. The possibility of using, in the near future, the flame combustion of off-design solid fuels in the power boilers of the thermal power plants and combined heat and power plants is studied. The article presents results of expert tests of the TPP-210A and TP-15 boilers under flame combustion of mixtures of anthracites, lean coal, and the coal from the RSA in various combinations. When combusting, such mixtures have higher values of the combustibles yield and the ash fusibility temperature. The existence of the synergetic effect in the flame combustion of binary coal blends with different degrees of metamorphism is discussed. A number of top-priority measures have been worked out that allow for switching over the boilers designed to be fired with anthracite to using blends of coals of different ranks. Zoned thermal analysis of the TP-15 boiler furnace was performed for numerical investigation of the temperature distribution between the furnace chamber zones and exploration of the possibility of the liquid slag disposal and the temperature conditions for realization of this process. A positive result was achieved by combusting anthracite culm (AC), the coal from the RSA, and their mixtures with lean coal within the entire range of the working loads of the boilers in question. The problems of normalization of the liquid slag flow were also successfully solved without closing the slag notch. The results obtained by balance experiments suggest that the characteristics of the flame combustion of a binary blend, i.e., the temperature conditions in the furnace, the support flame values, and the degree of the fuel burnout, are similar to the characteristics of the flame of the coal with a higher reactive capacity, which

  12. Studies on the effect of coal particle size on biodepyritization of high sulfur coal in batch bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sradhanjali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The moderate thermophilic mix culture bacteria were used to depyritize the Illinois coal of varying particle sizes (-100 μm, 100-200 μm, +200 μm. Mineral libration analysis showed the presence of pyrite along with other minerals in coal. Microbial depyritization of coal was carried out in stirred tank batch reactors in presence of an iron-free 9K medium. The results indicate that microbial depyritization of coal using moderate thermophiles is an efficient process. Moreover, particle size of coal is an important parameter which affects the efficiency of microbial depyritization process. At the end of the experiment, a maximum of 75% pyrite and 66% of pyritic sulphur were removed from the median particle size. The XRD analysis showed the absence of pyrite mineral in the treated coal sample. A good mass balance was also obtained with net loss of mass ranging from 5-9% showing the feasibility of the process for large scale applications.

  13. Feasibility studies of in-situ coal gasification in the Warrior coal field. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, G.W.; McKinley, M.D.

    1979-03-01

    Laboratory studies on a research combustor were used in an attempt to determine the length of oxidation and reduction zones. Unfortunately the buoyant effects of the heated gases caused the burn to proceed along the upper portion of the horizontal combustor. This made the interpretation of uncertain value. Methods of measuring the thermal conductivity and chemical reactivity of coke are discussed. A bibliography of the physical and chemical properties of coke is appended. (LTN)

  14. Characteristic Study of Some Different Kinds of Coal Particles Combustion with Online TG-MS-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guanfu

    2018-01-01

    Four kinds of pulverized coal samples from China and Indonesia were studied by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-MS-FTIR). The thermal behaviors and gaseous emissions of these coals were analyzed in this work. The results indicate that the relative lower values of H/C ratios, which normally represent the degree of aromatization and ring condensation in coal samples, could lead to the relative more intense thermal reaction. The time-evolved profiles of some typical gas products (i.e., CO, SO2, CH4, NO, NO2, NH3 and etc.) were provided by TG-MS-FTIR, and their variations are different. For all the samples, the releases of SO2 and COS can be found at lower temperature than those of NO and CO. As the temperature increases, the possible conversion of NO2 and NH3 to NO is deduced in this work.

  15. Efficient and large scale synthesis of graphene from coal and its film electrical properties studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingpeng; Ma, Yanfeng; Wang, Yan; Huang, Lu; Li, Na; Zhang, Tengfei; Zhang, Yi; Wan, Xiangjian; Huang, Yi; Chen, Yongsheng

    2013-02-01

    Coal, which is abundant and has an incompact structure, is a good candidate to replace graphite as the raw material for the production of graphene. Here, a new solution phase technique for the preparation of graphene from coal has been developed. The precursor: graphene oxide got from coal was examined by atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction, the results showed the GO was a small and single layer sheet. The graphene was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, graphene films have been prepared using direct solution process and the electrical conductivity and Hall effect have been studied. The results showed the conductivity of the films could reach as high as 2.5 x 10(5) Sm(-1) and exhibited an n-type behavior.

  16. Methodology for studying molecular and supramolecular structures of coals and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.B. Skripchenko [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Russia Institute for Fossil Fuels - Science and Technology Center for Complex Processing of Solid Fossil Fuels

    2009-07-01

    Those studying coals have to account for petrographic nonuniformity (the optical structural level), different types of chemical bonding between structural fragments, the existence of aromatic clusters in the organic matter, the appearance of a supramolecular order between aromatic clusters, and further orientation ordering of crystallites under the action of the geological pressure. Combinations of conventional chemical strategies with advanced physicochemical methods, such as IR, NMR, EPR, and X-ray spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction; electronic and scanning microscopy; and some others, are pertinent for structure determination. The appearance of supramolecular structures is a manifestation of molecular-level structural rearrangements, which are characteristic of coals, cokes, pitches, and various pyrolytic carbons. This necessitates the use of optical, electronic, and scanning microscopy along with other chemical methods. The occurrence of mineral components in coals can appreciably limit the resolution of IR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.

  17. The Study of Cross-layer Optimization for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks Implemented in Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Shi, Lei; Han, Jianghong; Lu, Jingting

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks deployed in coal mines could help companies provide workers working in coal mines with more qualified working conditions. With the underground information collected by sensor nodes at hand, the underground working conditions could be evaluated more precisely. However, sensor nodes may tend to malfunction due to their limited energy supply. In this paper, we study the cross-layer optimization problem for wireless rechargeable sensor networks implemented in coal mines, of which the energy could be replenished through the newly-brewed wireless energy transfer technique. The main results of this article are two-fold: firstly, we obtain the optimal relay nodes’ placement according to the minimum overall energy consumption criterion through the Lagrange dual problem and KKT conditions; secondly, the optimal strategies for recharging locomotives and wireless sensor networks are acquired by solving a cross-layer optimization problem. The cyclic nature of these strategies is also manifested through simulations in this paper. PMID:26828500

  18. Impact on CCGT plants of the use of decarbonised syngas from coal gasification - a retrofit study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.; Goy, C.; Periselneris, J. [E.ON UK, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Power Technology

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a feasibility study of the modification of an existing combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) unit to fire on a coal-derived syngas, both with and without pre-combustion carbon capture. It includes plant reliability study and the estimation of capital and operating costs for the converted unit. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Study of the bullwhip effect in Chinese coal supply chain under fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xiao Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management is important for coal companies and organizations to improve their business and enhance competitiveness in the Chinese marketplace. The bullwhip effect problem of coal supply chain systems with all demands, lead times, and ordering quantities in an uncertain environment is addressed in this paper. To simulate the bullwhip effect, the Hong Fuzzy Time Series approach and Genetic Algorithm module are preferred as a superior forecasting model. And then a back propagation Neural Network module is added to defuzzify the output of the proposed model. So the bullwhip effect is calculated and analyzed here. The effectiveness and flexibility of proposed method is verified through simulation study.

  20. Exergetic and Parametric Study of a Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar-aided coal-fired power plant realizes the integration of a fossil fuel (coal or gas and clean energy (solar. In this paper, a conventional 600 MW coal-fired power plant and a 600 MW solar-aided coal-fired power plant have been taken as the study case to understand the merits of solar-aided power generation (SAPG technology. The plants in the case study have been analyzed by using the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics principles. The solar irradiation and load ratio have been considered in the analysis. We conclude that if the solar irradiation was 925 W/m2 and load ratio of the SAPG plant was 100%, the exergy efficiency would be 44.54% and the energy efficiency of the plant (46.35%. It was found that in the SAPG plant the largest exergy loss was from the boiler, which accounted for about 76.74% of the total loss. When the load ratio of the unit remains at 100%, and the solar irradiation varies from 500 W/m2 to 1,100 W/m2, the coal savings would be in the range of 8.6 g/kWh to 15.8 g/kWh. If the solar irradiation were kept at 925 W/m2 while the load ratio of the plant changed from 30% to 100%, the coal savings could be in the range of 11.99 g/kWh to 13.75 g/kWh.

  1. Effect of a Dispersant Agent in Fine Coal Recovery from Washery Tailings by Oil Agglomeration (Preliminary Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Özüm; Uslu, Tuncay

    2017-12-01

    Among the fine coal cleaning methods, the oil agglomeration process has important advantages such as high process recovery, more clean product, simple dewatering stage. Several coal agglomeration studies have been undertaken recently and effects of different variables on the process performance have been investigated. However, unlike flotation studies, most of the previous agglomeration studies have not used dispersing agents to minimize slime coating effects of clays. In this study, agglomeration process was applied for recovery of fine coals from coal washery tailings containing remarkable amount of fine coal. Negative effect of fine clays during recovery was tried to be eliminated by using dispersing agent instead of de-sliming. Although ash reductions over 90 % were achieved, performance remained below expectations in terms of combustible matter recovery. However, this study is a preliminary one. It is considered that more satisfied results will be obtained in the next studies by changing the variables such as solid ratio, oil dosage, dispersant type and dosage.

  2. Fiscal 1985 research report. Feasibility study on overseas coal mine development (La Loma coal field, Cesar province, Columbia); 1985 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Columbia Censar shu La Loma tanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Tomen Corp. was proposed in April 1985 to join in the additional exploration of La Loma mine lot in 1986 through Greenley Co. in America, one of the members of Siminera- Greenley Association which has promoted the survey and exploration of La Loma coal mine lot (20,000ha), Cesar province, Columbia since 1979. In answer to this proposal, Tomen obtained the fiscal 1985 feasibility study subsidy for foreign coal development, and made surveys on the coal seam, coal property, coal deposit, recoverable deposit and profitability of La Loma coal field including La Loma coal mine lot, and further surveys on infrastructure improvement for the future coal development, the policy of Columbian government and various laws concerned. Based on the above survey results, for assessment of this coal field, Tomen Corp. made field survey on the coal field and infrastructures, document collection and hearing from Columbian and U.S. governments and companies, further collection of other documents concerned and information, and analysis of the survey results. As a result, the assessment of La Loma coal field was completed. (NEDO)

  3. Geology and coal resources of the Hanging Woman Creek Study Area, Big Horn and Powder River Counties, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, William Craven; Hatch, Joseph R.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    In an area of 7,200 acres (29 sq km) In the Hanging Woman Creek study area, the Anderson coal bed contains potentially surface minable resources of 378 million short tons (343 million metric tons) of subbituminous C coal that ranges in thickness from 26 to 33 feet (7.9-10.1 m) at depths of less than 200 feet (60 m). Additional potentially surface minable resources of 55 million short tons (50 million metric tons) are contained in the 9-12 foot (2.7-3.7 m) thick Dietz coal bed which lies 50-100 feet (15-30 m) below the Anderson. Analyses of coal from 5 core holes indicates that the Anderson bed contains 0.4 percent sulfur, 5 percent ash, and has a heating value of 8,540 Btu/lb (4,750 Kcal/kg). The trace element content of the coal is generally similar to other coals in the Powder River Basin. The two coal beds are in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age which consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal beds, and locally impure limestone. A northeast-trending normal fault through the middle of the area, downthrown on the southeast side, has displaced the generally flat lying strata as much as 300 feet (91 m). Most of the minable coal lies northwest of this fault.

  4. Commission on energy and the environment. Coal study. An overview paper by the NCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The environmental effects of deep-mined production and opencast coal production are examined. Methods of using coal and some environmental consequences of coal utilisation are considered. Finally it describes the geographical pattern of coal production and exploration and deals briefly with the planning and employment implications - particularly for new capacity. (25 refs.) Available from IEA Coal Research, please quote ICTIS/M0105.

  5. Solvent refined coal studies: effects and characterization of treated solvent refined coal effluent. Progress report, FY 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.; Woodfield, W.G.; Strand, J.A.

    1978-07-01

    The Freshwater Sciences Section of PNL has initiated biologically oriented studies at the P and M solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant on the Fort Lewis Reservation in western Washington. Essentially, the study objectives are to identify residual components in the treated SRC process and assess potential for adverse impact on water quality and aquatic biota. Since inception of research in mid-1976, six static toxicity tests with treated SRC process effluent have been conducted. Toxic components, not yet specifically identified, sometimes occur in the effluent. It is believed these components involve organic hydrocarbons of the phenol and cresol groups. Analyses have been obtained on inorganic and organic constituents in partially-treated and treated process effluent. Concentrations of inorganics identified in the effluent did not differ greatly from their concentrations in Lake Sequalitchew or SRC plant tap water, but the low concentrations may be due primarily to dilution with freshwater before discharge. Organics identified in the effluent are similar to those found in samples contaminated with petroleum, and involve many complex hydrocarbons.

  6. The Development of Micromachined Gyroscope Structure and Circuitry Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunzhu Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs, piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs, surface acoustic wave (SAW gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs, magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs, micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs, micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs, micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs, and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail.

  7. Life cycle assessment of opencast coal mine production: a case study in Yimin mining area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Jinman; Feng, Yu

    2018-03-01

    China has the largest coal production in the world due to abundant resource requirements for economic development. In recent years, the proportion of opencast coal mine production has increased significantly in China. Opencast coal mining can lead to a large number of environmental problems, including air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste occupation. The previous studies on the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production were focused on a single production process. Moreover, mined land reclamation was an important process in opencast coal mine production; however, it was rarely considered in previous research. Therefore, this study attempted to perform a whole environmental impact analysis including land reclamation stage using life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The Yimin opencast coal mine was selected to conduct a case study. The production of 100 tons of coal was used as the functional unit to evaluate the environmental risks in the stages of stripping, mining, transportation, processing, and reclamation. A total of six environmental impact categories, i.e., resource consumption, acidification, global warming, solid waste, eutrophication, and dust, were selected to conduct this assessment. The contribution rates of different categories of environmental impacts were significantly different, and different stages exhibited different consumption and emissions that gave rise to different environmental effects. Dust was the most serious environmental impact category, and its contribution rate was 36.81%, followed by global warming and acidification with contribution rates of 29.43% and 22.58%, respectively. Both dust and global warming were mainly affected in mining stage in Yimin opencast coal mine based on comprehensive analysis of environmental impact. Some economic and feasible measures should be used to mitigate the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production, such as water spraying, clean transportation, increasing processing

  8. Study on hydropyrolysis of maceral from Shenmu coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q.; Li, W.; Chen, H.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion

    2002-02-01

    Hydropyrolysis of maceral concentrates from Shenmu coal was systematically investigated using TGA at final temperature of 900{degree}C with heating rate of 20{degree}C/min under pressure of 0.1Mpa to 3Mpa. The effect of pressure on TG/DTG curve, distribution of elements in semi-cokes and removal of sulfur and nitrogen was investigated. The results indicated that the remarkable weight loss was observed in range from 378{degree}C to 718{degree}C, the peak temperature of the maximum reaction rate was 496{degree}C and 522{degree}C for V-C and F-C respectively, and V-C has larger weight loss rate. With increasing pressure the diffusion of hydrogen increased markedly, which led to increase of weight loss. For the element distribution in the semi-coke, the C content increased, H and O content decreased, while the S content changed little. The desulfurization and denitrogenation also increased with increase in pressure. At pressure of 3 MPa, V-C had higher desulfurization than F-C. With increased pyrolysis pressure, the combustion reactivity of semi-coke first decreased and then increased. V-C semi-coke had higher combustion reactivity than F-C semi-coke under the same conditions. 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. CO2-ECBM and CO2 Sequestration in Polish Coal Seam – Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Baran

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: The results indicate successful sorption of carbon dioxide in each experiment. This provides the rationale to study the application of the coal tested to obtain methane genetic origin genetic methane with the use of the CO2 injection.

  10. Particle-based characterisation of pulverised coals and chars for carbon burnout studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbins, J.R.; Seitz, M.H.; Kennedy, S.M.; Beeley, T.J.; Riley, G.S. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Mechanical Engineering Department

    1999-07-01

    The study of individual particle properties, as opposed to averaged behaviour of differing particles, was carried out for the combustion of coals and chars using optical microscopy and digital image processing. Chars from entrained flow reactors and corresponding pulverized fuel samples were characterized to examine possible char particle origins for real heterogeneous particles. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Presentation of the health impact evaluation study of atmospheric emissions of a major coal combustion installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnard, R.

    2004-12-01

    In the framework of a working group on the major installations, a study has been realized on a today coal combustion installation. The direct risk by inhalation and the risks bond to indirect exposure of atmospheric releases were analyzed. The calculation method is explained and the uncertainties are discussed to present the results. (A.L.B.)

  12. Risk of lung cancer associated with domestic use of coal in Xuanwei, China: retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barone-Adesi, F.; Chapman, R.S.; Silverman, D.T.; He, X.; Hu, W.; Vermeulen, R.; Ning, B.; Fraumeni, J.F.; Rothman, N.; Lan, Q.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of lung cancer associated with the use of different types of coal for household cooking and heating. SETTING: Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, China. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study (follow-up 1976-96) comparing mortality from lung cancer between lifelong users of

  13. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary. [using coal or coal derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A data base for the comparison of advanced energy conversion systems for utility applications using coal or coal-derived fuels was developed. Estimates of power plant performance (efficiency), capital cost, cost of electricity, natural resource requirements, and environmental intrusion characteristics were made for ten advanced conversion systems. Emphasis was on the energy conversion system in the context of a base loaded utility power plant. All power plant concepts were premised on meeting emission standard requirements. A steam power plant (3500 psig, 1000 F) with a conventional coal-burning furnace-boiler was analyzed as a basis for comparison. Combined cycle gas/steam turbine system results indicated competitive efficiency and a lower cost of electricity compared to the reference steam plant. The Open-Cycle MHD system results indicated the potential for significantly higher efficiency than the reference steam plant but with a higher cost of electricity.

  14. Study of boron behaviour in two Spanish coal combustion power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-González, Raquel; Cuesta, Aida Fuente; Córdoba, Patricia; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Font, Oriol; López-Antón, M Antonia; Querol, Xavier; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa; Giménez, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    A full-scale field study was carried out at two Spanish coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurisation (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of boron in coals, solid by-products, wastewater streams and flue gases. The results were obtained from the simultaneous sampling of solid, liquid and gaseous streams and their subsequent analysis in two different laboratories for purposes of comparison. Although the final aim of this study was to evaluate the partitioning of boron in a (co-)combustion power plant, special attention was paid to the analytical procedure for boron determination. A sample preparation procedure was optimised for coal and combustion by-products to overcome some specific shortcomings of the currently used acid digestion methods. In addition boron mass balances and removal efficiencies in ESP and FGD devices were calculated. Mass balance closures between 83 and 149% were obtained. During coal combustion, 95% of the incoming boron was collected in the fly ashes. The use of petroleum coke as co-combustible produced a decrease in the removal efficiency of the ESP (87%). Nevertheless, more than 90% of the remaining gaseous boron was eliminated via the FGD in the wastewater discharged from the scrubber, thereby causing environmental problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis

  16. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of phosphorus and boron in coals and combustion residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchill, P.; Howarth, O.W.; Richards, D.G.; Sword, B.J. (British Coal Corporation, Stoke Orchard (UK). Coal Research Establishment)

    1990-04-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with magic angle spinning (MAS-n.m.r.) was used to study the occurrence of phosphorus and boron in coal, and their fate on combustion. These elements are only minor components of coal, but may significantly influence the utilization properties. {sup 31} P MAS-n.m.r. spectroscopy has confirmed that phosphorus is present in coal predominantly as apatite. This mineral is thermally stable under oxidizing conditions, and survives largely unaltered in high temperature ashes. However, under the semi-reducing bed conditions of certain stoker-fired boilers, it may be decomposed, volatilizing the phosphorus. The {sup 31}P MAS-n.m.r. spectra of bonded deposits show phosphorus in a markedly different coordination environment to that in apatite, the chemical shift suggesting aluminium phosphate or boron phosphate. {sup 11}B MAS-n.m.r. spectra of coals exhibit resonances due to both trigonal and tetrahedrally coordinated boron. Trigonal boron is probably present as tourmaline, but the nature of the tetrahedral boron is less certain; it may be held in tetrahedral sites within certain clay minerals. In common with phosphorus, boron may be volatilized during combustion. The {sup 11}B MAS-n.m.r. spectra of bonded deposits show a tetrahedral resonance with a chemical shift quite consistent with that of boron phosphate. 39 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric study on the evolution of nitrogen compounds during coal devolatilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J. [Department of Energy and Environment, Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides during coal combustion are a major environmental problem. The chemically bound nitrogen in fuel accounts for up to 80% of total NO{sub x} emissions. In this respect, fundamental studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms and to identify the different species that are precursors in the formation of the NO{sub x}. Mass spectrometry (MS) has been used for decades as a successful technique in evolved gas analysis. However, MS is normally used to identify typical volatile compounds formed during coal pyrolysis (i.e. H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) but very few works on the detection by MS of nitrogen compounds during coal devolatilisation can be found. In this work, the possibility of detecting different nitrogen compounds by means of thermogravimetric-MS during the temperature-programmed pyrolysis of coal was evaluated. Interferences in the N-compounds MS signals were determined. The use of model compounds provided additional information on the MS response factors of the volatile compounds produced.

  18. Study on bubble column humidification and dehumidification system for coal mine wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Penghui; Zhang, Meng; Du, Yuji; Cheng, Bo; Zhang, Donghai

    2018-04-01

    Water is important resource for human survival and development. Coal mine wastewater (CMW) is a byproduct of the process of coal mining, which is about 7.0 × 10 10 m 3 in China in 2016. Considering coal mine wastewater includes different ingredients, a new bubble column humidification and dehumidification system is proposed for CMW treatment. The system is mainly composed of a bubble column humidification and dehumidification unit, solar collector, fan and water tank, in which air is used as a circulating medium. The system can avoid water treatment component blocking for reverse osmosis (RO) and multi effect distillation (MED) dealing with CMW, and produce water greenly. By analysis of heat and mass transfer, the effects of solar radiation, air bubble velocity and mine water temperature on water treatment production characteristics are studied. Compared with other methods, thermal energy consumption (TEC) of bubble column humidification and dehumidification (BCHD) is moderate, which is about 700 kJ/kg (powered by solar energy). The results would provide a new method for CMW treatment and insights into the efficient coal wastewater treatment, besides, it helps to identify the parameters for the technology development in mine water treatment.

  19. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  20. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  1. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Fdez- Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Leão, Felipe B. de; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Madariaga, Juan M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ► Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ► The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements.

  2. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luis F.O.; Fdez- Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa; Oliveira, Marcos L.S.; Sampaio, Carlos H.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de; Leão, Felipe B. de; Taffarel, Silvio R.; Madariaga, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ► Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ► The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements

  3. Study on the influence of electromagnetic field on the property of coal combustion burnout in circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Y. [Ruiping Coal and Electric Power Ltd. Co., Ruzhou (China)

    2008-08-15

    To study the influences of electromagnetism field pretreatment of pulverized Coal (EFPPC) on the properties of its combustion, thermogravimetric analysis, a Muffle furnace experiment and an X-ray diffraction experiment were carried out for three Coal banks. It was shown that EFPPC will induce the molecular structure of Coal to change into amorphous carbon, which causes an increase in the rate of oxygen absorption during the initial stages of Coal burning and reaction activity. It is also shown that the residual carbon of bituminous Coal would be increased by about 0.33% - 0.41%, i.e, the loss of standard Coal is about 3,000 t/a for double 480 t/h boilers, when applying EFPPC for 1 min at a temperature of 800 - 1,000 {sup o}C. When the temperature increases 200 {sup o}C, the residual carbon increases by about 2.07% but the effect of EFPPC is less than 0.21% for bituminous Coal and residual carbon is about 1.47% and the effect of EFPPC is less than 0.05% for lean Coal. Therefore the effect of increasing the temperature of EFPPC on residual carbon is less than that of increasing the time of EFPPC. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  5. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Final report, August 1981-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.I.; Tierney, J.W.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Huang, S.; Qamar, I.; Venkatadri, R.

    1984-12-01

    Fine coal in slurry form must be dewatered to minimize handling and transportation problems and be reduced to a desirable level for subsequent preparation of coal/water mixtures as a substitute utility fuel. The current practice is inadequate for the dewatering of fine coal, particularly for coal particles with sizes smaller than 400 mesh. Therefore, it is most desirable to develop improved mechanical methods for reducing the moisture content of fine coal. In the light of this, a fundamental study of the dewatering of fine coal/refuse was initiated in June 1979 and continued through 1984. The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of the basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and the microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal. During the past year, filter cakes from coals with widely varying size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. Modules of the network model for calculating single phase and two phase permeabilities were formulated and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for 1984-1985; detailed description of technical progress; and appendices. 21 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Emissions tradeoffs associated with cofiring forest biomass with coal: A case study in Colorado, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, Dan; Anderson, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Case study using audited fuel consumption and emissions data from a coal mine and power plant. • Model emissions tradeoffs of cofiring forest biomass with coal up to 20% by heat input value. • Substituting forest biomass with coal displaces fossil energy with an otherwise waste material. • Substantially less system emissions overall are generated when cofiring forest biomass. • Cofiring forest biomass has positive global and local greenhouse gas and human health implications. - Abstract: Cofiring forest biomass residues with coal to generate electricity is often cited for its potential to offset fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but the extent to which cofiring achieves these objectives is highly dependent on case specific variables. This paper uses facility and forest specific data to examine emissions from cofiring forest biomass with coal ranging up to 20% substitution by heat value in southwest Colorado, USA. Calculations for net system emissions include five emissions sources: coal mining, power plant processes, forest biomass processes, boiler emissions, and forest biomass disposal. At the maximum displacement of 20% of heat demand using 120,717 t of forest biomass per year, total system emissions are projected to decrease by 15% for CO 2 , 95% for CH 4 , 18% for NO X , 82% for PM 10 , and 27% for SO X . PM 10 and CH 4 emissions benefits are closely tied to reducing open burning for residue disposal. At maximum displacement, 189,240 t of CO 2 emissions equivalent to the annual CO 2 emissions from 36,200 passenger vehicles, 440,000 barrels of oil, or nearly 990 railcars of coal are avoided. When forest biomass is not cofired, emissions equivalent to144,200 t of CO 2 are emitted from open burning. In addition to exploring the details of this case, we provide a methodology for assessing the emissions tradeoffs related to using forest biomass for cogeneration that incorporates the operational aspects of managing forest

  7. Study on Transfer Rules of Coal Reservoir Pressure Drop Based on Coalbed Methane Well Drainage Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    A pumping test was carried out to explore the transfer rules of pressure drop in coal reservoir during the drainage. The experiment was divided into three stages. In the first stage, the pump displacement of 3m3/h was used to reduce the bottom hole flowing pressure and stopped until the continuous gas phase was produced; Undertaking the first stage, in the second stage, when the gas phase was continuously produced, the pump was stopped immediately. As the bottom hole flowing pressure going up without gas phase, pumping started again for a week. In the third stage ,the well pumping was carried out at the bottom hole pressure drop rate of 30Kpa/d after two months' recovery. Combined with the data of regional geology and fractured well, taking the characteristics of macroscopic coal rocks, development of pore and fracture in coal and isothermal adsorption test as the background, the features of reservoir output in each stage of the experiment were analyzed and compared, and then the transfer rules of pressure drop contained in the differences of the output was studied further. In the first and third stage of the experiment, the output of liquid phase was much larger than the space volume of coal reservoir pore and fracture in the range of 100m2. In the second stage, the output of the continuous gas phase appeared around 0.7Mpa when the continuous gas phase appears below the critical desorption pressure of 0.25Mpa during the whole experiment. The results indicate that, the transfer of pressure drop in the coal reservoir of this well is mainly horizontal, and the liquid phase produced in the reservoir mainly comes from the recharge of the reservoir at the far end of the relative high pressure area; the adsorption space of coalbed methane in the coal matrix as well as the main migration channel of fluid in the reservoir doesn't belong to the same pressure system and there exists the communication barrier between them. In addition, the increasing of the effective stress

  8. Flat-flame burner studies of pulverized-coal combustion. Experimental results on char reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, R.E.; Shi, L.

    1996-12-01

    Structure of laminar, premixed pulverized-coal flames in a 1-D reactor has been studied with emphasis on char reactivity. A 1.1-meter-long tube furnace accommodated high-temperature environments and long residence times for the laminar flames produced by a flat-flame, coal-dust burner. Experiments were conducted at different operating conditions (fuel type/size, fuel-air ratio). Measurements included solid sample composition, major gas species and hydrocarbon species concentrations, and gas- and particle-phase line-of-sight temperatures at different axial locations in flames. Degree of char burnout increased with coal volatiles content and decreased with coal particle size. Combustion in furnace was in oxidizer-deficient environment and higher burnout was achieved as the fuel-air ratio neared stoichiometric. For 0-45 {mu}m particles most of the fixed carbon mass loss occurred within 5 cm of the furnace inlet, and char reaction was slow downstream due to low oxidizer concentrations. Fixed carbon consumption of the 45-90 {mu}m particles generally was slower than for the small particles. About 40%-80% of the fixed carbon was oxidized in the furnace. Primary volatiles mass loss occurred within the first 4.5 cm, and more than 90% of the volatiles were consumed in the flames. The flames stabilized in the furnace produced less CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} in the burnt gas than similar unconfined flames. NO concentrations were found to decrease along the furnace and to increase with decreasing fuel/air ratio. Temperature measurement results showed that gas-phase temperatures were higher than solid-phase temperatures. Temperatures generally decreased with decreasing volatiles content and increased as the equivalence ratio approached one. The results can be used to interpret thermochemical processes occurring in pulverized-coal combustion. (au) 15 refs.

  9. Study on acoustic-electric-heat effect of coal and rock failure processes under uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hui; Lou, Quan; Wang, En-Yuan; Liu, Shuai-Jie; Niu, Yue

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, coal and rock dynamic disasters are becoming more and more severe, which seriously threatens the safety of coal mining. It is necessary to carry out an depth study on the various geophysical precursor information in the process of coal and rock failure. In this paper, with the established acoustic-electric-heat multi-parameter experimental system of coal and rock, the acoustic emission (AE), surface potential and thermal infrared radiation (TIR) signals were tested and analyzed in the failure processes of coal and rock under the uniaxial compression. The results show that: (1) AE, surface potential and TIR have different response characteristics to the failure process of the sample. AE and surface potential signals have the obvious responses to the occurrence, extension and coalescence of cracks. The abnormal TIR signals occur at the peak and valley points of the TIR temperature curve, and are coincident with the abnormities of AE and surface potential to a certain extent. (2) The damage precursor points and the critical precursor points were defined to analyze the precursor characteristics reflected by AE, surface potential and TIR signals, and the different signals have the different precursor characteristics. (3) The increment of the maximum TIR temperature after the main rupture of the sample is significantly higher than that of the average TIR temperature. Compared with the maximum TIR temperature, the average TIR temperature has significant hysteresis in reaching the first peak value after the main rapture. (4) The TIR temperature contour plots at different times well show the evolution process of the surface temperature field of the sample, and indicate that the sample failure originates from the local destruction.

  10. Study on the transformed strategy of “life field” for aged in coal mine community——A case sstudy of ccommunity rrenewal ddesign of Sihe coal mine in Jincheng, Shanxi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Minghui; Wang, Chenghao; Zhang, Shanshan

    2017-06-01

    Coal mine community is driven by the coal mine industry, and it mainly relies on coal mining enterprises to provide benefits for residents. Under the background of increasing serious global aging problem, the problems in the field of elderly people’s health, life, entertainment, communication, retirement and re-employment and other aspects become more acute and urgently to be solved. So it is necessary to make a more detailed study on how to transform the coal mine community according to the special needs of the elderly miners. This article takes renewal design of SiHe coal mine in JinCheng of ShanXi province as an example and takes the community’s “life field” as a clue, trying to put forward the transformed strategy of “life field” for aged in coal mine community and to come up with a method to update the community throughout the whole atmosphere to the personal space.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of ancient buried wood-II. Observations on the origin of coal from lignite to bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Breger, I.A.; Szeverenyi, N.; Maciel, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Coalified logs ranging in age from Late Pennsylvania to Miocene and in rank from lignite B to bituminous coal were analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) utilizing the cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning technique, as well as by infrared spectroscopy. The results of this study indicate that at least three major stages of coalification can be observed as wood gradually undergoes transformation to bituminous coal. The first stage involves hydrolysis and loss of cellulose from wood with retention and differential concentration of the resistant lignin. The second stage involves conversion of the lignin residues directly to coalified wood of lignitic rank, during which the oxygen content of intermediate diagenetic products remains constant as the hydrogen content and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to involve loss of methoxyl groups, water, and C3 side chains from the lignin. In the third major stage of coalification, the coalified wood increases in rank to subbituminous and bituminous coal; during this stage the oxygen content decreases, hydrogen remains constant, and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to result from loss of soluble humic acids that are rich in oxygen and that are mobilized during compaction and dewatering. Relatively resistant resinous substances are differentially concentrated in the coal during this stage. The hypothesis that humic acids are formed as mobile by-products of the coalification of lignin and function only as vehicles for removal of oxygen represents a dramatic departure from commonly accepted views that they are relatively low-molecular-weight intermediates formed during the degradation of lignin that then condense to form high-molecular-weight coal structures. ?? 1982.

  12. Influence of thermoplastic properties on coking pressure generation: Part 1 - A study of single coals of various rank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Duffy; Merrick R. Mahoney; Karen M. Steel [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre

    2010-07-15

    In this study a number of high coking pressure coals with different fluidities were evaluated alongside a number of low pressure coals also with differing fluidities. This was to establish rheological parameters within which a coal may be considered potentially dangerous with regards to coking pressure. The results have confirmed and elaborated on previous findings which show that parallel plate displacement ({Delta}L) and axial force profiles can be used to distinguish between high and low pressure coals, with peak values indicating cell rupture and subsequent pore network formation. This is thought to correspond with plastic layer compaction in the coke oven. For low pressure coals pore coalescence occurs quite early in the softening process when viscosity/elasticity are decreasing and consequently a large degree of contraction/collapse is observed. For higher pressure coals the process is delayed since pore development and consequently wall thinning progress at a slower rate. If or when a pore network is established, a lower degree of contraction/collapse is observed because the event occurs closer to resolidification, where viscosity and elasticity are increasing. For the higher fluidity, high coking pressure coals, a greater degree of swelling is observed prior to cell rupture, and this is considered to be the primary reason for the high coking pressure observed with these coals. An additional consequence of these events is that high pressure coals are likely to contain a higher proportion of closed cells both at and during resolidification, reducing permeability in both the semi-coke and high temperature plastic layers, respectively. Using a rheological mapping approach to follow viscoelastic changes during carbonisation it has been possible to identify specific regions associated with dangerous coals. 76 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Study of the Korean anthracite for utilization and the coal mine data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petrographic study of the Korean anthracite for utilization (5): This research was initiated for the development of filtering materials those can be used in waste water treatment sites The small scale of filtration tester was built on the waste water treatment site of Chungjoo electric Co. to use waste water processed by purifying system for the feasibility study. (2) Study of the closed coal mine data management: Underground maps about 1700 adits of 100 coal mines, and related graphic data have been collected in the database. And all those data were entered into the database in vectorial form, coordinates obtaining from the digitizing tablet. Detailed works are described in the other report, including the discussions of graphic database and data handling of graphical mine data. Comments about the GIS is also provided in the volume. (author). 25 refs., 45 figs., 50 tabs., 3 maps.

  14. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  15. Study of the raw material base for a by-product coke plant by the method of thermal degradation of coal in a centrifugal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epimakhov, N.M.; Kardashova, V.F.; Sulimova, E.I.

    1982-01-01

    Coals from the Donbass and Karaganda basins, being supplied to a Bagley by-product coke plant were studied. A sharp distinction between coals of different degrees of metamorphism in respect to the yield of liquid nonvolatile products was demonstrated. A difference in respect to this index was recognized for individual coals from one and the same technological group from a single basin.

  16. Role of the Brain's Reward Circuitry in Depression: Transcriptional Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports an important role for the brain's reward circuitry in controlling mood under normal conditions and contributing importantly to the pathophysiology and symptomatology of a range of mood disorders, such as depression. Here we focus on the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical component of the brain's reward circuitry, in depression and other stress-related disorders. The prominence of anhedonia, reduced motivation, and decreased energy level in most individuals with depression supports the involvement of the NAc in these conditions. We concentrate on several transcription factors (CREB, ΔFosB, SRF, NFκB, and β-catenin), which are altered in the NAc in rodent depression models--and in some cases in the NAc of depressed humans, and which produce robust depression- or antidepressant-like effects when manipulated in the NAc in animal models. These studies of the NAc have established novel approaches toward modeling key symptoms of depression in animals and could enable the development of antidepressant medications with fundamentally new mechanisms of action. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synaptic plasticity in drug reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Danny G; Egli, Regula E; Schramm, Nicole L; Matthews, Robert T

    2002-11-01

    Drug addiction is a major public health issue worldwide. The persistence of drug craving coupled with the known recruitment of learning and memory centers in the brain has led investigators to hypothesize that the alterations in glutamatergic synaptic efficacy brought on by synaptic plasticity may play key roles in the addiction process. Here we review the present literature, examining the properties of synaptic plasticity within drug reward circuitry, and the effects that drugs of abuse have on these forms of plasticity. Interestingly, multiple forms of synaptic plasticity can be induced at glutamatergic synapses within the dorsal striatum, its ventral extension the nucleus accumbens, and the ventral tegmental area, and at least some of these forms of plasticity are regulated by behaviorally meaningful administration of cocaine and/or amphetamine. Thus, the present data suggest that regulation of synaptic plasticity in reward circuits is a tractable candidate mechanism underlying aspects of addiction.

  18. Fiscal 2000 coal engineer training program. Report on research study of general training course; 2000 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yosei jigyo. Ippan kosu kenshu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-22

    In connection with fiscal 2000 coal engineer training program, a research study of the general course was implemented with eight participants for the period from June 12 to November 22. In the field training, lectures were given at International Resources University by speakers from related companies, universities and laboratories, on such subjects as coal geology, coal mining technology, coal probing technology, marine cargo transportation, analysis, coal utilization technology, environmental preservation technology, overseas coal mine development project, and foreign coal situations. Also, in the seminar, on-the-spot training was conducted at such places as Taiheiyo Tanko Kushiro mining station, Nippon Kokan KK Keihin ironworks, Electric Power Development Co., Isogo thermal power station, Idemitsu Kosan Co., coal laboratory, MITI Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. In the overseas training, research study in China was carried out during the period from July 2 to July 7 while research study in the U.S./Canada and Australia/Indonesia were conducted separately by two groups through 35 day trip from Oct 7 to November 10. The major places for visit were energy-related organizations, coal mining companies, railway companies, coal handling harbors, coal thermal power stations, coal analysis companies, etc.. (NEDO)

  19. Study on multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal in fixed-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Li, W.; Li, B.-Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion

    1999-07-01

    The composition and quantity of the oil in hydropyrolysis (HyPy) and multi-stage HyPy with high and slow heating rate were compared and the effect of multistage HyPy process on desulfurization was investigated. Multistage HyPy of lignite and high sulphur coal were investigated and the effects of residence time, heating rate and pressure on product yields were studied. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  1. Feasibility Study for Bioethanol Co-Location with a Coal Fired Power Plant: 29 November 2001--28 July 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-12-01

    This study looks at the feasibility of co-locating 30, 50, and 70 million gallon per year bioethanol facilities with coal fired power plants in Indiana and Nebraska. Corn stover is the feedstock for ethanol production in both cases.

  2. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ping

    Full Text Available Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced.

  3. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jianhua; Yan, Shiyan; Gu, Pan; Wu, Zening; Hu, Caihong

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced.

  4. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U 3 O 8 resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed

  5. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed.

  6. Calcipotriol versus coal tar: a prospective randomized study in stable plaque psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V.; Kaur, I.; Kumar, B. [Postgraduate Institute of Medicinal Education & Research, Chandigarh (India)

    2003-10-01

    Topical therapies are the first line of treatment for patients with stable plaque psoriasis (SPP) affecting a limited body surface area. Very few trials comparing newer agents, such as 0.005% topical calcipotriol, with conventional modes of therapy, such as coal tar ointment, have been reported. A prospective, right-left randomized, investigator-blinded study with a 12-week treatment period and an 8-week follow-up period was performed. It was found that 0.005% calcipotriol ointment produced a faster initial response and had better cosmetic acceptability in patients, although after a long period of treatment, i.e. 12 weeks, 5% coal tar ointment had comparable efficacy. There was no statistically significant difference in the relapse rates between the two modalities.

  7. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  8. Liquid hydrocarbons from coal beds – risk factor for the underground work environment - Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid hydrocarbons from the coal bed and surrounding rocks, besides the stored gases, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon oxide, generate the increase of the risk factor from the occupational health and safety point of view. If for reducing the gas concentrations level and the methane emissions in order to increase the safety in exploitation exist well-known solutions and methods, the oxidation or self-oxidation of the hydrocarbons from the coal bed generate a series of compounds, reaction products over maximum admitted concentrations which give birth to a toxic atmosphere and which is hazardous for workers, at the same time inducing an error in noting the occurrence of a spontaneous combustion phenomena, a major risk for the workers and for the mineral resource. This paper represents a case study performed in one underground mine unit from Jiu Valley and presents the analysis for underground environment factors monitoring and for solutions for diminishing the OHS risk factors.

  9. Study of the equilibrium of air-blown gasification of biomass to coal evolution fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium model validated for coals, torrefied/green biomasses, in different gasifiers. • Maps of syngas composition, LHV and CGE for ER = 0–0.6, T = 500–2000 K, EBP = 0.004–0.158. • Effect of unconverted carbon, fuel moisture and overoxidation quantified. • Parameters for the maximum efficiency determined as functions of EBP. • EBP proven to be a good parameter for the quantitative comparison of different fuels. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric equilibrium model based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy was used to study the isothermal and adiabatic air-blown gasification of solid fuels on a carbonization curve from fossil (hard/brown coals, peat) to renewable (green biomasses and cellulose) fuels, including torrefied biofuels. The maps of syngas composition, heating value and process efficiency were provided as functions of equivalent ratio (oxygen-to-fuel ratio) in the range 0–0.6, temperature in 500–2000 K, and a fuel parameter, which allowed different cases to be quantitatively compared. The effect of fuel moisture, unconverted carbon and conditions to limit the tar formation was also studied. Cold gas efficiency >0.75 can be achieved for coals at high temperature, using entrained beds (which give low unconverted carbon), and improved by moisture/added steam. The bigger efficiency of green biomasses is only potential, as the practical limits (high temperature required to limit tar formation, moisture content and unconverted carbon in small gasifiers) strongly reduce the gasification performance. Torrefied biomasses (and plastics having an intermediate fuel parameter between coals and green biomasses) can attain high efficiency also in real conditions. The results shown in this work can be useful to evaluate the most promising feedstock (depending on its composition and possible pre-treatment/upgrading), define the operating conditions for maximizing the syngas heating value or the global efficiency, assess the

  10. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Grammelis; N. Koukouzas; G. Skodras; E. Kakaras; A. Tumanovsky; V. Kotler [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), Ptolemaida (Greece)

    2006-11-15

    The paper reviews the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and presents two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NOx abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station. 11 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Tests and studies of USSR materials at the US coal burning MHD facility UTSI-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, G P; Romanov, A I; Rekov, A I; Spiridonov, E G; Barodina, T I; Vysotsky, D A

    1978-10-01

    In accordance with the overall program of the US--USSR cooperation in the field of MHD power generation tests of Soviet electrode materials were conducted at the coal burning MHD facility UTSI-2 of the University of Tennessee Space Institute. The main purposes of the tests are evaluation of electrode materials behavior in the channel of the MHD generator operating with combustion products of coal containing ionizing alkali seed, study of thermal and physical stability of materials in the presence of corrosive slag, study of electrophysical characteristics of electrode materials when they are subjected to the passage of current through the plasma-slag-electrode system. Tests were conducted on electrodes made of silicon carbide doped with titanium and LaCrO/sub 3/--Cr cermet. Results are reported on the phase and chemical composition and structure of these two materials, their thermophysical and electrophysical properties, and the electrode fabrication methods. The MHD facility UTSI-2, where the tests were conducted is one of few utilizing actual coal as the fuel. A description of this facility is given, and its main operating parameters and the methods used to conduct electrode tests with and without an applied current are described.

  12. Nanometre-sized pores in coal: Variations between coal basins and coal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurovs, Richard; Koval, Lukas; Grigore, Mihaela; Sokolava, Anna; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2018-01-01

    We have used small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate the differences in methane and hexane penetration in pores in bituminous coal samples from the U.S., Canada, South Africa, and China, and maceral concentrates from Australian coals. This work is an extension of previous work that showed consistent differences between the extent of penetration by methane into 10–20 nm size pores in inertinite in bituminous coals from Australia, North America and Poland.In this study we have confirmed that there are differences in the response of inertinite to methane and hexane penetration in coals sourced from different coal basins. Inertinite in Permian Australian coals generally has relatively high numbers of pores in the 2.5–250 nm size range and the pores are highly penetrable by methane and hexane; coals sourced from Western Canada had similar penetrability to these Australian coals. However, the penetrability of methane and hexane into inertinite from the Australian Illawarra Coal Measures (also Permian) is substantially less than that of the other Australian coals; there are about 80% fewer 12 nm pores in Illawarra inertinite compared to the other Australian coals examined. The inertinite in coals sourced from South Africa and China had accessibility intermediate between the Illawarra coals and the other Australian coals.The extent of hexane penetration was 10–20% less than CD4 penetration into the same coal and this difference was most pronounced in the 5–50 nm pore size range. Hexane and methane penetrability into the coals showed similar trends with inertinite content.The observed variations in inertinite porosity between coals from different coal regions and coal basins may explain why previous studies differ in their observations of the relationships between gas sorption behavior, permeability, porosity, and maceral composition. These variations are not simply a demarcation between Northern and Southern Hemisphere coals.

  13. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  14. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  15. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Studying the melting behavior of coal, biomass, and coal/biomass ash using viscosity and heated stage XRD data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Folkedahl, B.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    by the cocombustion tests appeared to be somewhat different compared to that of the laboratory-prepared ash samples. The heated stage XRD data provide useful information regarding the reactions among the various ash compounds and the phase transformations during the heating and cooling of the ash samples and helped...... a high-temperature rotational viscometer and a hot stage XRD. The produced data were used to calculate the operating temperature of a pilot-scale entrained flow reactor during the cocombustion of biomass/ coal samples in order to ensure the slag flow and to avoid corrosion of the walls due to liquid slag...

  17. Study of Acoustic Emission and Mechanical Characteristics of Coal Samples under Different Loading Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of loading rate on mechanical properties and acoustic emission characteristics of coal samples, collected from Sanjiaohe Colliery, the uniaxial compression tests are carried out under various levels of loading rates, including 0.001 mm/s, 0.002 mm/s, and 0.005 mm/s, respectively, using AE-win E1.86 acoustic emission instrument and RMT-150C rock mechanics test system. The results indicate that the loading rate has a strong impact on peak stress and peak strain of coal samples, but the effect of loading rate on elasticity modulus of coal samples is relatively small. When the loading rate increases from 0.001 mm/s to 0.002 mm/s, the peak stress increases from 22.67 MPa to 24.99 MPa, the incremental percentage is 10.23%, and under the same condition the peak strain increases from 0.006191 to 0.007411 and the incremental percentage is 19.71%. Similarly, when the loading rate increases from 0.002 mm/s to 0.005 mm/s, the peak stress increases from 24.99 MPa to 28.01 MPa, the incremental percentage is 12.08%, the peak strain increases from 0.007411 to 0.008203, and the incremental percentage is 10.69%. The relationship between acoustic emission and loading rate presents a positive correlation, and the negative correlation relation has been determined between acoustic emission cumulative counts and loading rate during the rupture process of coal samples.

  18. 3-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION AND FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BIOMASS/COAL CO-COMBUSTION BURNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya DUNAYEVSKA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of solid biomass mixed with coal in existing boilers not only reduces harmful emissions, but also allows diversifying the available fuel base. Such technology allows to implement the efficient use of food industry solid wastes, which otherwise would be dumped in piles, and thus produce harmful environmental impact. The geometrical models of research reactor and a burner thermal preprocessing of pulverized coal were developed and calculational meshes were generated. The geometrical model of the VGP-100Vpresents only fluid domain whereas the effect of cooled walls was substituted by the equivalent biudary conditions deruved on the basis of direct experimentation. The model of the VGP-100V allowed accounting for the specifics of radiative heat transfer by comparison of experimental thermo-couple measurements to the simulated by the model one. A model has been developed allowing the determination of actual temperatures of combustion gases flow based upon the reading of unsheathed thermo-couples by taking into account the reradiation of the thermo-couple beads to the channel walls. Based on the ANSYS 3-D process model in the burner of the Trypilska Thermal Power Plant (TPP for the combustion of low-reactive coal with the thermochemical preparation of the design of an actual burner has been developed. On the basis of the experimental studies of the actual burner and the above-mentioned CFD calculations, the burner draft of the 65 MW for TPP-210A boiler aimed at the implementation of biomass-coal co-combustion was designed.

  19. Technology Efficiency Study on Nuclear Power and Coal Power in Guangdong Province Based on DEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yinong Li; Dong Wang

    2006-01-01

    Guangdong Province has taken the lead in embarking on nuclear power development to resolve its dire lack of primary resources. With the deepening of the on-going structural reform in the electric power sector in China, the market competition scheme is putting electricity generation enterprises under severe strain. Consequently, it is incumbent upon the nuclear power producers to steadily upgrade management, enhance technical capabilities, reduce cost and improve efficiency. At present, gradual application of such efficiency evaluation methodology has already commenced in some sectors in China including the electric power industry. The purpose of this paper is to use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a cutting-edge approach in the efficiency evaluation field - to study the technological efficiency between nuclear power and coal power in Guangdong Province. The DEA results demonstrate that, as far as Guangdong Province is concerned, the technological efficiency of nuclear power is higher than that of coal power in terms of Technological Efficiency (TE), Pure Technology Efficiency (PTE) and Scale Efficiency (SE). The reason is that nuclear power technology is advanced with a much higher equipment availability factor. Under the same scale, the generation output of nuclear power is far higher than that of equivalent coal power generation. With the environmental protection and sustainable development requirements taken into full account, nuclear power constitutes a clean, safe and highly-efficient energy form which should be extensively harnessed in Guangdong Province to fuel its future continuing economic growth. (authors)

  20. Cross sectional and longitudinal study on selenium, glutathione peroxidase, smoking, and occupational exposure in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadif, R.; Oryszczyn, M.P.; Fradier-Dusch, M.; Hellier, G.; Bertrand, J.P.; Pham, Q.T.; Kauffmann, F. [INSERM, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Faculty of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the variations of selenium (Se) concentration relative to changes in occupational exposure to coal dust, taking into account age and changes in smoking habits in miners surveyed twice, in 1990 and 1994. It was found that selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activities (GSH-Px) activities were significantly lower in active than in retired miners. Moreover, Se concentration was lower in miners exposed to high compared with those exposed to low dust concentrations. In miners exposed to high dust concentrations, Se concentration was significantly lower whereas erythrocyte GSH-Px activity was significantly higher in the subgroup with estimated cumulative exposure {gt} 68 mg/m{sup 3}.y. In all miners, plasma GSH-Px activity was correlated with Se concentration. The 4 year Se changes were negatively related to exposure to high dust concentrations and positively related to change in exposure from high to retirement and to change from smoker to ex-smoker. The variations of Se concentration in relation to changes in occupational exposure to coal dust and in smoking habits, and the close correlation found between plasma Se concentration and GSH-Px activity suggest that both are required in antioxidant defence. These results agree well with the hypothesis that the decrease in Se concentration reflects its use against reactive oxygen species generated by exposure to coal mine dust and by smoking.

  1. Comparative study of combustion product emissions of Pakistani coal briquettes and traditional Pakistani domestic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, E.A.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W. III; Wilson, D.L.; DePriest, J.C.; Wade, J.; Ahmad, N.; Sibtain, F.; Zahid Raza, M.

    1992-10-01

    A comparative emissions study was conducted on combustion products of various solid domestic cooking fuels; the objective was to compare relative levels of organic and inorganic toxic emissions from traditional Pakistani fuels (wood, wood charcoal, and dried animal dung) with manufactured low-rank coal briquettes (Lakhra and Sor- Range coals) under conditions simulating domestic cooking. A small combustion shed 12 m 3 internal volume, air exchange rate 14 h -1 was used to simulate south Asian cooking rooms. 200-g charges of the various fuels were ignited in an Angethi stove located inside the shed, then combusted to completion; effluents from this combustion were monitored as a function of time. Measurements were made of respirable particulates, volatile and semi-volatile organics, CO, SO 2 , and NO x . Overall it appears that emissions from coal briquettes containing combustion amendments (slaked lime, clay, and potassium nitrate oxidizer) are no greater than emissions from traditional fuels, and in some cases are significantly lower; generally, emissions are highest for all fuels in the early stages of combustion

  2. Studies on the catalysts for coal liquefaction. ; Rheological studies of coal liquefaction process. Sekitan ekikayo shokubai ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Sekitan ekika process no rheology teki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, T; Oda, H; Yokokawa, C [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-11-07

    Hydrogenolysis of different rank coals as Taiheiyo coal (75.7C%) and Pittston coal (85.4C%) were conducted in the presence of four kinds of catalysts (CuCrO4, Fe2O3+S, MoO3-TiO2 and MoS3-Al2O3) with an addition of tetralin as vehicle. The variation in viscosity in every reaction system was traced in the initial stage of the reaction by a torque meter attached to an autoclave. As a result, in every system, the torque decreased in the initial stage of temperature rise because of reduction of a solvent viscosity. The torque subsequently increased with temperature indicating two peaks before the following gradual decrease. In Taiheiyo coal, both peaks were low, and its coal conversion was more than 85%, while in Pittston coal, both peaks were sharp and high, and both subsequent torque reduction and coal conversion were smaller than those of Taiheiyo coal. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems in sectors except the coal industry in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sekitan kogyo igai no bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of working out a comprehensive master plan for application of the coal utilization system, the paper surveyed and studied the coal utilization system in terms of environmental measures and efficiency improvement in the utilization of coal. As a result of the discussion with NEDO and the National Planning Committee of China, Liaoning Province (the whole China) and Shenyang City were selected as a model area and a model city for the survey and study. As energy conservation measures taken in the former, desirable are intensifying/capacity-increase of boilers, kilns, etc. and adoption of new-type/high-efficient equipment. Also expected are reinforcement of combustion control and improvement of efficiency by using coal preparation, industrial use coal briquette, etc. Measures taken in the latter are the same as those taken in the whole China. As SOx reduction measures for Liaoning Province, desirable is installation of dry-type desulfurization equipment and simple desulfurization equipment. As dust prevention measures for it, desirable is installation of electrostatic precipitators or high-functional bag filters. SOx reduction measures for Shenyang City are the same as those taken in the whole China. SOx can be reduced by using coal-prepared low-sulfur coal and industrial use coal briquette added with desulfurizing agent. 88 figs., 163 tabs.

  4. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression.

  5. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in India); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Indo ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was conducted of the present situation of coal utilization and the present coal situation such as the environmental state of India which is a coal producing/consuming country next to China in Asia. The paper studied a feasibility of the introduction of the environmental friendly type coal utilization system` to be planned in India. The items for survey are the present situation of economy and energy and the future trend, environmental problems on coal utilization, the present status of the coal distribution system and study subjects, the present status of coal utilization by field and study subjects, a possibility of briquette use, a possibility of coal fluidization, electric power development plans and coal combustion technology in each industry, etc. The subjects are the obligation of coal preparation to coal thermal power plants 1000 km away from coal mines starting 2001, measures taken for effective ash use, measures taken for superannuated gas furnaces, etc. Based on the results of these site surveys and reports of the investigation under consignment from CMPDI, the paper studied/analyzed possibilities of introducing the coal utilization system having actual introduction results in Japan to India, and made an investigational report. 39 refs., 12 figs., 56 tabs.

  6. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  7. Report on the coal group in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Studies on a coal treatment technology in the initial process in liquefaction; 1989 nendo ekika shoki kotei ni okeru sekitan shori gijutsu no kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988 in studies on the studies of the initial process in liquefaction. It is intended to identify the swelling phenomenon in coal particles in the coal slurry preparation and preheating processes, and change in the slurry viscosity associated with the heating. The slurry viscosity starts decreasing from around 300 degrees C at which the liquefying reaction begins, and decreases sharply at around 350 degrees C. Therefore, rise in the viscosity at temperatures below 300 degrees C is caused by factors other than the liquefying reaction. The rise starting at 100 to 120 degrees C is due to absorption of the solvent by coal. The rise starting at 210 to 260 degrees C requires further discussions. The equilibrium swelling ratio was measured on different types of coals by using the hydrogenated anthracene oil solvent. No coals swelled at 100 degrees C. The temperature of 200 degrees C largely divides coals into those swelling and those not swelling. At 300 degrees C, the coals were divided into those shrinking after largely swelling, those not swelling and those swelling monotonously. For consideration of the utilization as an auxiliary solvent, petroleum-based heavy oil was used to perform coal liquefaction to discuss effects of the solvent on the liquefaction rates. (NEDO)

  8. A study of Multistage/Multifunction Column for Fine Coal Cleaning CRADA PC93-005, Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph Lai; Shiao-Hung Chiang; Daxin He; Yuru Feng

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of the this research project is to explore the potential applicability of a multistage column for fine coal cleaning and other applications in fluid particle separation. The research work identifies the design parameters and their effects on the performance of the separation device. The results of this study provide an engineering data basis for further development of this technology in coal cleaning and in general areas of fluid and particle separations

  9. Mössbauer study of the effect of gamma irradiation on the removal of pyrite from Colombian coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejía, J A; Palacio, C A; Caballero, F Reyes; Dávila, H Olaya; Ovalle, S A Martínez; De Grave, E

    2014-01-01

    The removal of sulfur from the coals is necessary before using it. It is due to the environmental and technological problems that it causes. In this work, the results of the study by Mössbauer spectroscopy of the gamma-irradiation effect on the pyrite in three Colombian coals are analyzed. They were exposed to different gamma-irradiation doses using a 60 Co source

  10. Monitoring coal mine changes and their impact on landscape patterns in an alpine region: a case study of the Muli coal mine in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Dawen; Yan, Changzhen; Xing, Zanpin; Xiu, Lina

    2017-10-14

    The Muli coal mine is the largest open-cast coal mine in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and it consists of two independent mining sites named Juhugeng and Jiangcang. It has received much attention due to the ecological problems caused by rapid expansion in recent years. The objective of this paper was to monitor the mining area and its surrounding land cover over the period 1976-2016 utilizing Landsat images, and the network structure of land cover changes was determined to visualize the relationships and pattern of the mining-induced land cover changes. In addition, the responses of the surrounding landscape pattern were analysed by constructing gradient transects. The results show that the mining area was increasing in size, especially after 2000 (increased by 71.68 km 2 ), and this caused shrinkage of the surrounding lands, including alpine meadow wetland (53.44 km 2 ), alpine meadow (6.28 km 2 ) and water (6.24 km 2 ). The network structure of the mining area revealed the changes in lands surrounding the mining area. The impact of mining development on landscape patterns was mainly distributed within a range of 1-6 km. Alpine meadow wetland was most affected in Juhugeng, while alpine meadow was most affected in Jiangcang. The results of this study provide a reference for the ecological assessment and restoration of the Muli coal mine land.

  11. Microstructures and microtextures of natural cokes: A case study of heat-affected coking coals from the Jharia coalfield, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K. [Central Fuel Research Institute, CSIR, Dhanbad-828108 (India); Singh, Mahendra P. [Department of Geology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Sharma, Mamta; Srivastava, Sunil K.

    2007-07-02

    In Jharia coalfield, nearly 1250 Mt of coking coal has been devolatilized due to igneous intrusives and {proportional_to} 1900 Mt due to mine fires. This paper is an effort to investigate the effect of carbonization in two intrusive affected coal seams of Ena (seam XIII) and Alkusa (seam XIV) collieries of this coalfield. Through petrographic studies by microscopy, characterization of normal and heat-affected coals was carried out. The microstructures and microtextures produced due to extraneous heat have been related to nature and extent of heat, location of heating source, and quality and quantity of natural coke produced. Based on the results of this study and earlier studies, an effort has been made to study the classification scheme for microtextures of natural cokes generated through in-situ carbonization of the coal seams. It has been observed that in case of such heat effects under overburden pressure, the anisotropy is much more pronounced as compared to laboratory-carbonized cokes. In the mildly carbonized coals (pre-plastic phase, < 300 C) the vitrinite attained higher reflectance than normal vitrinite, liptinite started disappearing, and inertinite remained unaffected. In the moderately affected coals (plastic phase, 300-500 C), mesophase spheres and fused natural cokes were generated from the reactives (vitrinite and liptinite maceral groups), the liptinites disappeared, and structurally, the inertinites remained almost unchanged with slight increase in the reflectance value. In the severely heat-affected coals (post plastic phase, > 500 C) the identified microtextures were mesophase spheres, different shapes and sizes of natural cokes, graphitic sphaeroliths, pyrolytic carbons, inerts with morpho-structural changes and slightly higher reflectance values, and altered and unaltered mineral matters. A gradual change in the heat-affected coals with increasing temperature was observed with respect to location of intrusive body. It has been concluded that

  12. Focusing on optic tectum circuitry through the lens of genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Linda M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The visual pathway is tasked with processing incoming signals from the retina and converting this information into adaptive behavior. Recent studies of the larval zebrafish tectum have begun to clarify how the 'micro-circuitry' of this highly organized midbrain structure filters visual input, which arrives in the superficial layers and directs motor output through efferent projections from its deep layers. The new emphasis has been on the specific function of neuronal cell types, which can now be reproducibly labeled, imaged and manipulated using genetic and optical techniques. Here, we discuss recent advances and emerging experimental approaches for studying tectal circuits as models for visual processing and sensorimotor transformation by the vertebrate brain.

  13. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  14. Task rotation in an underground coal mine: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Olivia F; James, Carole L

    2018-01-01

    Task rotation is used to decrease the risk of workplace injuries and improve work satisfaction. To investigate the feasibility, benefits and challenges of implementing a task rotation schedule within an underground coalmine in NSW, Australia. A mixed method case control pilot study with the development and implementation of a task rotation schedule for 6 months with two work crews. A questionnaire including The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, The Need for Recovery after Work Scale, and The Australian WHOQOL- BREF Australian Edition was used to survey workers at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A focus group was completed with the intervention crew and management at the completion of the study. In total, twenty-seven participants completed the survey. Significant improvements in the psychological and environmental domains of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire were found in the intervention crew. Musculoskeletal pain was highest in the elbow, lower back and knee, and fatigue scores improved, across both groups. The intervention crew felt 'mentally fresher', 'didn't do the same task twice in a row', and 'had more task variety which made the shift go quickly'. Task rotation was positively regarded, with psychological benefits identified. Three rotations during a 9-hour shift were feasible and practical in this environment.

  15. Studies of coal liquefaction (50). Catalysis of iron compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Tomoyuki; Ogata, Eisuke; Kamiya, Yoshio

    1956-10-23

    A study is made to determine the catalytic actions and changes in grain size and surface area of various iron compound catalysts used for hydrogenation of phenanthrene. Effects of oxygen-containing compounds on the reaction are also investigated. Reactions of phenanthrene or CLB samples are performed in decalin or 1-methylnaphthalene as solvent. The solid reaction residue, including the catalyst used, is filtered and washed in acetone to provide specimens for SEM, surface area measurement (BET) and XRD. Three of the iron catalysts examined, CGS, FE(CO)/sub 5/ and FeS/sub 2/, are found to be highly effective for both phenanthrene hydrogenation and CLB decomposition, while Fe/sub 3/C does not work effectively for either of them. Fe (zero valene) and Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ are found effective for phenanthrene hydrogenation but not for CLB decomposition. (7 tabs)

  16. Report for fiscal 1993 on feasibility study for development of overseas coal. Bowen coal field, Australia; 1993 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Australia koku Bowen tanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    Discussions were given on the possibility of development as a coal supply source for Japan on the area centering around the Bowen coal field, whose coal exploration right was made open by the state government of Queensland, Australia in March 1993. Surveys were performed on information about the release of restrictions and the bid on the coal exploration right area RA55, the current status of the coal industry in Queensland, infrastructures, and the coal related government organizations. The following conclusions were arrived as a result of the surveys: the RA55 area to which the coal exploration right was made open has mining areas remaining, which are possible of supplying coals for an extended period of time from both of quantity and quality aspects; particularly in the 12 mining areas under the open bid, high-quality ordinary coal and raw material coal are in existence, whose potential is high; the state government and the related organizations are enthusiastic in promoting the development because the coal industry is the largest industry in the state; for new coal development, such assistance is expected as improvement in the infrastructures, deregulation, and favorable taxation system; and implementations are desired on acquisition of the exploration right, and exploration activities for new coal development. (NEDO)

  17. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  18. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Grasping the present situation of coal utilization technology in the Philippines, the paper proposed a feasibility study of introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system which seems to be needed in the future. (1) Introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the electric power generation sector: there are only four full-scale running coal thermal power plants in the Philippines. In the future, several coal thermal plants are planned to be constructed by 2005, but for the new installation, it is desirable to adopt fluidized bed boilers with wide application to coal kinds. In case of 0.3-1.0 million MW class plants, it is planned to adopt high grade import coals, and it will be natural to fire pulverized coal. For the processing of flue gas, it is a must to install desulfurization facilities and smoke/soot removal devices. (2) Utilization/development of domestic low grade coals: at the mine-mouth generating plant, it is necessary to investigate the economically minable amount of coal, confirm productivity, survey coal quality, etc., and select boiler. As to coal briquetting technology, it is necessary to examine coal quality for tests and make a thorough study of what technology is most suitable. 50 figs., 78 tabs.

  19. Organic geochemical studies of the transformation of gymnospermous xylem during peatification and coalification to subbituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.; Verheyen, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    It is generally recognized that xylem from trees that are buried in peat swamps is transformed first to huminite macerals in brown coal and then to vitrinite macerals in bituminous coal by processes collectively known as coalification. In order to understand the chemical nature of coalification of xylem and the chemical structures that eventually evolve in coal, we examined a series of gymnospermous xylem samples coalified to varying degrees. The samples included modern fresh xylem, modern degraded xylem in peat, and xylem coalified to ranks of brown coal (lignite B), lignite A, and subbituminous coal. The organic geochemical methods used in this study included solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The NMR method provided average compositional information, and the pyrolysis provided detailed molecular information. Although the samples examined include different plants of different geologic ages, they all share a common feature in that they are gymnospermous and presumably have or had a similar kind of lignin. The data obtained in this study provide enough details to allow delineation of specific coalification pathway for the xylem is microbial degradation in peat (peatification), leading to selective removal of cellulosic components. These components constitute a large fraction of the total mass of xylem, usually greater than 50%. Although cellulosic components can survive degradation under certain conditions, their loss during microbial degradation is the rule rather than exception during peatification. As these components of xylem are degraded and lost, lignin, another major component of xylem, is selectively enriched because it is more resistant to microbial degradation than the cellulosic components. Thus, lignin survives peatification in a practically unaltered state and becomes the major precursor of coalified xylem. During its transformation to brown coal and lignite A, lignin in xylem is altered

  20. Compartment modeling of coal gasification in an entrained flow gasifier: A study on the influence of operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Zhong, Weimin; Du, Wenli; Qian, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gasification of Shenfu coal in an industrial Texaco gasifier for syngas production. • An equivalent compartment model is developed using Aspen Plus. • Effects of operating parameters on gasification performance indices are studied. • Choosing a reasonable ROC to enhance the gasification efficiency can be flexible. - Abstract: Coal gasifiers are core components of coal-based polygeneration systems for power and chemical production. To study the effects of operational parameters on the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers, this paper presents an equivalent compartment model (CM) using the Aspen Plus process simulator. The CM blocking is established based on gasifier flow field analysis, using a number of compartments. A simple configuration of these compartments involving material recirculation should be able to simulate the main flow and provide the temperature and gas component distributions. The model predictions exhibit good agreement with industrial data in the model validation. The influences of the oxygen-to-carbon ratio (ROC) and the coal slurry concentration on the gasification performance are discussed. Within the calculation range, the increase in the coal slurry concentration enhances the yield of the effective compositions in product gas. For a given slurry concentration of 62%, the efficient gas yield is a maximum for ROC of 1.43 kg/kg, whereas the oxygen consumption is a minimum for ROC of 1.37 kg/kg. According to the intended final use, however, choosing a reasonable ROC to obtain a higher efficient syngas yield and lower oxygen consumption can be flexible

  1. Preliminary study of realizability of Karazhyra open pit coal fines briquetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryavko, I.I.; Perepelkin, I.G.; Chuprunov, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Main properties of brown coals in Karazhyra open pit upper and lower packs are determined. Characteristics of these coals briquette-ability are evaluated. A conceptual possibility to obtain high-quality briquettes from open pit coal fines is shown. (author)

  2. Cuttability of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1978-01-01

    The process of cutting dull M, dull bright MB, bright dull BM, and bright B coal under various compressive stress conditions was studied in laboratory tests. The efficiency of ploughs depends much more on the natural mining conditions than does that of shearer-loaders. For seams of medium workability, it is difficult to forecast whether ploughs will be successful. Cuttability tests are a good way of determining whether ploughs can be used. The effort necessary to cut coal in a stressed condition depends not only on such properties as the workability defined by the Protodyakonov index or compressive strength, but also, and mainly, on the petrographic structure and elastic properties of the coal. In bright coals with high elastic strain, and with BM and MB coals, a much greater increment of effort is necessary with increase in compressive stresses. The cuttability of dull coals from difficult mines was not very different.

  3. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  4. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  5. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  6. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pommy, Jessica M; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-04-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  7. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingshi; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Binbin; Li Shehong; Wu Daishe; Hu Jun

    2006-01-01

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  8. Too Much Coal, Too Little Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick van der Ploeg; Cees Withagen

    2011-01-01

    Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. "Preference reversal" can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil, before using oil and coal together, and finally coal on its own, The "laissez-faire" outcome uses coal forever or ...

  9. Disrupted Working Memory Circuitry in Adolescent Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Eckfeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ consistently show deficits in spatial working memory (WM and associated atypical patterns of neural activity within key WM regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC and parietal cortices. However, little research has focused on adolescent psychosis (AP and potential age-associated disruptions of WM circuitry that may occur in youth with this severe form of illness. Here we utilized each subject’s individual spatial WM capacity to investigate task-based neural dysfunction in 17 patients with AP (16.58 ± 2.60 years old as compared to 17 typically developing, demographically comparable adolescents (18.07 ± 3.26 years old. AP patients showed lower behavioral performance at higher WM loads and lower overall WM capacity compared to healthy controls. Whole-brain activation analyses revealed greater bilateral precentral and right postcentral activity in controls relative to AP patients, when controlling for individual WM capacity. Seed-based psychophysiological interaction (PPI analyses revealed significantly greater co-activation between the left dlPFC and left frontal pole in controls relative to AP patients. Significant group-by-age interactions were observed in both whole-brain and PPI analyses, with AP patients showing atypically greater neural activity and stronger coupling between WM task activated brain regions as a function of increasing age. Additionally, AP patients demonstrated positive relationships between right dlPFC neural activity and task performance, but unlike healthy controls, failed to show associations between neural activity and out-of-scanner neurocognitive performance. Collectively, these findings are consistent with atypical WM-related functioning and disrupted developmental processes in youth with AP.

  10. Use of a fluidized bed combustor and thermogravimetric analyzer for the study of coal ignition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ávila, Ivonete; Crnkovic, Paula M.; Luna, Carlos M.R.; Milioli, Fernando E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Coal ignition tests were conducted in a fluidized bed and thermogravimetric conditions. • The use of two different ignition criteria showed a similar coal ignition temperature. • Coal ignition temperature was obtained by the changes of gas concentrations in FBC. • Ignition temperatures were associated with the activation energy of coal combustion. - Abstract: Ignition experiments with two bituminous coals were carried out in an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed combustor (FBC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). In the FBC tests, the rapid increase in O_2, CO_2, and SO_2 concentrations is an indication of the coal ignition. In the TGA technique, the ignition temperature was determined by the evaluation of the TGA curves in both combustion and pyrolysis processes. Model-Free Kinetics was applied and the coal ignition temperatures were associated with changes in the activation energy values during the combustion process. The results show the coal with the lowest activation energy also showed the lowest ignition temperature, highest values of volatile content and a higher heating value. The application of two different ignition criteria (TGA and FBC) resulted in similar ignition temperatures. The FBC curves indicated the high volatile coal ignites in the freeboard, i.e. during the feeding in the reactor, whereas the low volatile coal ignites in the bed. Finally, the physicochemical characteristics of the investigated coal types were correlated with their reactivities for the prediction of the ignition temperatures behaviors under different operating conditions as those in FBC.

  11. CFD study of temperature distribution in full scale boiler adopting in-furnace coal blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, S S A; Hasini, H; Shuaib, N H

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of temperature characteristics of an in-furnace combustion using different coals in a 700 MW full scale boiler. Single mixture fraction approach is adopted for combustion model of both primary and secondary coals. The primary coal was based on the properties of Adaro which has been used as the design coal for the boiler under investigation. The secondary blend coal was selected based on sub-bituminous coal with higher calorific value. Both coals are simultaneously injected into the furnace at alternate coal burner elevations. The general prediction of the temperature contours at primary combustion zone shows identical pattern compared with conventional single coal combustion in similar furnace. Reasonable agreement was achieved by the prediction of the average temperature at furnace exit. The temperature distribution is at different furnace elevation is non-uniform with higher temperature predicted at circumferential 'ring-like' region at lower burner levels for both cases. The maximum flame temperature is higher at the elevation where coal of higher calorific value is injected. The temperature magnitude is within the accepTable limit and the variations does not differ much compared to the conventional single coal combustion.

  12. Oxytocin reduces neural activity in the pain circuitry when seeing pain in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.A.; Montoya, E.R.; Hermans, E.; Keysers, C.; Honk, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Our empathetic abilities allow us to feel the pain of others. This phenomenon of vicarious feeling arises because the neural circuitry of feeling pain and seeing pain in others is shared. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is considered a robust facilitator of empathy, as intranasal OXT studies have

  13. Oxytocin reduces neural activity in the pain circuitry when seeing pain in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Hermans, Erno J; Keysers, C.; van Honk, Jack

    Our empathetic abilities allow us to feel the pain of others. This phenomenon of vicarious feeling arises because the neural circuitry of feeling pain and seeing pain in others is shared. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is considered a robust facilitator of empathy, as intranasal OXT studies have

  14. Study of catalytic effects of mineral matter level on coal reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, Nestor J.; Klunder, Edgar B.; Krastman, Donald

    1981-03-01

    Coal liquefaction experiments using a 400-lb/day bubble-column reactor tested the catalytic effects of added mineral matter level on coal conversion, desulfurization, and distillate yields in continuous operation under recycle conditions, with specific emphasis on the use of a disposable pyrite catalyst indigenous to the feed coal. Western Kentucky No. 11 run-of-mine (ROM) and washed coals were used as feedstocks to determine the effects of levels of mineral matter, specifically iron compounds. Liquefaction reactivity as characterized by total distillate yield was lower for washed coal, which contained less mineral matter. Liquefaction reactivity was regained when pyrite concentrate was added as a disposable catalyst to the washed coal feed in sufficient quantity to match the feed iron concentration of the run-of-mine coal liquefaction test run.

  15. [The spectrum studies of structure characteristics in magma contact metamorphic coal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dun; Sun, Ruo-Yu; Liu, Gui-Jian; Yuan, Zi-Jiao

    2013-10-01

    The structural parameters evolution of coal due to the influence of intrusions of hot magma was investigated and analyzed. X-ray diffraction and laser confocal microscope Raman spectroscopy were used to test and analyze 4 coal samples undergoing varying contact-metamorphism by igneous magmas in borehole No. 13-4 of Zhuji coal mine, Huainan coalfield. The result showed that coal XRD spectrum showed higher background intensity, with the 26 degrees and 42 degrees nearby apparent graphite diffraction peak. Two significant vibration peaks of coal Raman spectra were observed in the 1 000-2 000 cm(-1) frequency range: broad "D" peak at 1 328-1 369 cm(-1) and sharp "G" peak at 1 564-1 599 cm(-1). With the influence of magma intrusion, the relationship between coal structural parameters and coal ranks was excellent.

  16. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  17. Restoration of a coal-mine overburden dump - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.S.; Chaulya, S.K.; Tewary, B.K.; Dhar, B.B. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1996-03-01

    For the restoration of a coal-mine overburden dump, five tree species viz Delgergia sisoo, Azadirachta indica, Albizia procera, Delonix regia and Acacia nilotica were seeded to evaluate their germination and growth performance. Dalbergia sisoo was found to be the best early successional leguminous plant species showing maximum increase in shoot length and diameter on the mine dump. Therefore, it is recommended that the findings of this study be implemented on mass scale in the dry tropics of India. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Study on the evaluation system for the coal safety management based on risk pre-control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-chun; XU Hai-xia; WANG Pei; SONG Xue-feng

    2009-01-01

    The new type of risk management is process management.First,the hazard sources are identified before coal mine accidents occur,and then the pre-control measure and information monitoring method based on classifying the hidden hazard sources are given.Lastly,the risk pre-alarm and risk control method are confirmed,the management standard and management measure are used to eliminate the hidden hazard sources.In this study,an evaluation system is built to evaluate the result of risk management.

  19. Groundwater composition fluctuation within technogenic zones (case study: flooded coal mines in Primorsky Krai, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, I. A.; Zinkov, A. V.; Vakh, E. A.; Vetoshkina, A. V.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers groundwater composition fluctuation within technogenic zones based on evidence from the flooded coal mines of Primorye. The authors have determined the regularities of hydrogeochemical processes, specified the groundwater composition fluctuation within the technogenic complexes located in the liquidated mine areas, and identified the equilibrium phases between the studied waters and specific secondary minerals. It has been proved that water within natural-technogenic complexes in the liquidated mine areas are saturated with silicates, carbonates, sulfates, oxides, and hydroxides, which should be taken into account when designing technologies for groundwater treatment.

  20. Coal liquefaction still a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overberg, H

    1982-03-19

    Liquefaction of coal is not profitable in West Germany and will not be so far some time to coal. This is true for West German and imported coal. The result may be improved but not changed by combined conversion of coal and top residues of distilleries. These are the main statements of a study carried out by Messrs. Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen, on behalf of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. The results of the study are presented in 20 volumes.

  1. Nanocantilever based mass sensor integrated with cmos circuitry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Abadal, G.; Campabadal, F.

    2003-01-01

    We have demonstrated the successful integration of a cantilever based mass detector with standard CMOS circuitry. The purpose of the circuitry is to facilitate the readout of the cantilever's deflection in order to measure resonant frequency shifts of the cantilever. The principle and design...... of the mass detector are presented showing that miniaturization of such cantilever based resonant devices leads to highly sensitive mass sensors, which have the potential to detect single molecules. The design of the readout circuitry used for the first electrical characterization of an integrated cantilever...... with CMOS circuitry is demonstrated. The electrical characterization of the device shows that the resonant behavior of the cantilever depends on the applied voltages, which corresponds to theory....

  2. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.L.; Wu, Z.E.; Du, Q.G.; Petsonk, E.L.; Peng, K.L.; Li, Y.D.; Li, S.K.; Han, G.H.; Atffield, M.D. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the group x time interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines.

  4. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report No. 7, April 1--July 1, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1993-07-14

    In our last report we discussed observations in our cell concerning the behavior or Illinois No. 6 coal in tetralin to 460{degrees}C. We noted that there were possibly two distinct types of particles comprising the organic phase, reacting respectively at 420{degrees}--430{degrees}C, and at 450{degrees}--460{degrees}C. Alternatively we could interpret the data as describing a range of reactivity bounded by those temperatures. As evidenced by the contraction of the particles, the reactions were rapid. The particles lost half of their substance within 1 min, and we suggested that the rates were too fast to be accommodated by the commonly held scheme for coal liquefaction involving thermolytic scission of weak, bibenzyl-like bonds. Our analyses were aided by our use of Adobe Photoshop, which allows us to store, digitized versions of our recorded images. The images can then be manipulated at will to provide quantitative data on morphological changes. We noted in our last report that printer limitations prevented us from presenting images with the desirable quality, and we are at present attempting to find access to equipment which will provide satisfactory figures. Accordingly our progress will be described here without any photographs, and we expect to present a more complete account of our work in our next report. The work reported here includes studies of Illinois No. 6 coal with water as the medium, and a control run with argon as medium. Our temperature ramping was like that used last time, 25{degrees}C/min to 250{degrees}C, and then 10{degrees}C/min to 450{degrees}C. The results from the earlier work and the data presented here can therefore be directly compared.

  5. Study on structuring the supervision system of coal mine associated with radionuclides in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Guangwen; Jia Xiahui

    2012-01-01

    Xinjiang is one of China's rich coal provinces (areas) and it accounts for about 40% national coal reserves. In the long-term radioactive scientific research, monitoring and environmental impact assessment works, we found parts of Yili and Hetian's coal was associated with higher radionuclide, and parts of coal seam even reached nuclear mining level. However the laws and regulations about associated radioactive coal mine supervision were not perfect, and the supervision system is still in the exploration. This article mainly started with the coal mine enterprises' geological prospecting reports, radiation environmental impact assessment and monitoring report preparation for environment acceptance checking and supervisory monitoring, controlled the coal radioactive pollution from the sources, and carried out the research of building Xinjiang associated radioactive coal mine supervision system. The establishment of supervision system will provide technical guidance for the enterprises' coal exploitation and cinders using on the one hand, and on the other hand will provide decision-making basis for strengthening the associated radioactive coal mine supervision for Xinjiang environmental regulators. (authors)

  6. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  7. Study of otoacoustic emissions in workers of various professional groups of the coal industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shydlovska T.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Noise influence takes one of the leading roles in the development of sensorineural hearing loss (SHL. At the same time professional deafness steadily occupies the 5th place in the structure of occupational diseases in Ukraine over the past few years. Of special importance is the problem of pre-clinical and early diagnosis of occupational hearing deterioration, in sense of timely prophylactic and rehabilitation measures in “risk group” workers. The objective research methods play an important role in the diagnosis of auditory analyzer state. Many scientific studies have shown the diagnostic effectiveness of method of otoacoustic emissions recording in the early diagnosis of lesions of receptor part of auditory analyzer. It is known that SHL of noise genesis largely affects the receptor part of the auditory analyzer, for which the OAE method has great practical diagnostic significance. Objective: to study informativity indicators of otoacoustic emission for the diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss in various occupational groups of coal workers in Ukrainian mines. Materials and Methods: Auditory function of 87 workers of the coal industry (drifters, miners and longwall miners with different levels of industrial noise and hygienic conditions in their workplaces was: 28 studied drifters (group 1, 25 miners (group 2 and 34 longwall miners (group 3. Work experience in noise in these groups was 17,9±1,0; 23,1±1,0 and 22,2±2,0 accordingly. Noise ratio in drifters was 93,6±4,9 dBA, in miners – 92,9±5,5 dBA and in longwall miners – 86,5±6,04 dBA accordingly, while the maximum permitted level is 80 dBA. The research was conducted on the analyzing system "Eclipse" "Interacoustics" (Denmark. All patients underwent registratiov of the caused OAE at frequency distortion product (DPOAE at frequencies 1-6 kHz. The results were rated using variation statistics Student's test. Results: The most prominent violation of the receptor part of the

  8. Experimental study of desulfurization of Zhong Liang Shau high sulfur coal by flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Z.; Huang, B.; Cao, J. [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1994-12-01

    Emission of large amount of SO{sub 2} from combustion of high sulfur coal causes serious environmental pollution. Pre-combustion desulfurization of high sulfur coal has become a necessity. This paper reports test results of fine coal desulfurization with different flotation technology and the effect of pyrite depressant. Test work showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shau was processed with a Free Jet Flotation Column its pyritic sulfur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0.84%, with 72.22% recovery of combustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurization Efficiency Index E{sub ds} for comprehensive evaluation of desulfurization process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction of clean coal and the recovery of combustible matters. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. 57Fe NGR studies on three-stage hydroliquefaction of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamond, M.; Bacaud, R.; Bussiere, P.; Charcosset, H.; Nickel-Pepin-Donat, B.

    1990-01-01

    Iron Moessbauer spectroscopy has been performed on liquefaction residues of two different French coals. In a three-stage liquefaction of high volatile bituminous coal (Freyming), without an added catalyst, the coal pyrite is not entirely converted into pyrrhotites, whereas in the presence of an added catalyst, coal pyrite is totally transformed into more dispersed pyrrhotites than those from the sample without an added catalyst; furthermore, the whole added catalyst precursor is reduced into pyrrhotites. In the case of liquefaction of subbituminous coal (Gardanne), full conversion of coal pyrite into pyrrhotites (even without an added catalyst) occurs. In addition, in the presence of the added catalyst, besides pyrrhotites, FeS is evidenced. When molybdenum-iron oxide is added as a catalyst precursor, no mixed Fe-Mo phase is detected. (orig.)

  10. Energy conservation in coal conversion. Final report, September 15, 1977--September 1, 1978. Selected case studies and conservation methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcupile, J.C.

    1978-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the methodologies developed in the Energy Conservation in Coal Conversion August, 1977 Progress Report - Contract No. EY77S024196 - to an energy efficient, near-term coal conversion process design, and to develop additional, general techniques for studying energy conservation and utilization in coal conversion processes. The process selected for study was the Ralph M. Parsons Company of Pasadena, California ''Oil/Gas Complex, Conceptual Design/Economic Analysis'' as described in R and D Report No. 114 - Interim Report No. 4, published March, 1977, ERDA Contract No. E(49-18)-1975. Thirteen papers representing possible alternative methods of energy conservation or waste heat utilization have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  11. Design and implementation of a field pilot study on using coal fly ash to prevent oxidation of reactive mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.L.; Shang, J.Q.; Xu, Y.Q.; Yanful, E.K. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Hmidi, N. [Goldcorp Inc., Musselwhite Mine, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a pilot scale study that investigated the feasibility of using coal fly ash in mine tailings management and acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment at Goldcorp's Musselwhite Mine site in northern Ontario. The principles and key aspects of the fly ash application in mine tailings management were described. Fly ash from the Atikokan coal-fired power generating plant was added to the Musselwhite tailings as a mixture as well as intermediate and top layers. The physical, chemical and hydrogeological effects of the two approaches were monitored. The paper provided details of the design, implementation, monitoring, sampling and testing over 2 years. The objectives were to evaluate the optimum mass ratio of coal fly ash and mine tailings, effectiveness in reducing the infiltration of precipitation, and projected long-term durability and performance on tailings oxidation prevention. The pilot study was designed based on the principles of cementitious materials formation and secondary mineral formation by the reactions of coal fly ash and water/AMD. Calcium oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and ferric oxide are major components of coal fly ash. The preliminary test results revealed that water did not accumulate and cracks did not form on top of 4 tanks. The settlements of the mixing approaches were lower than that of the stratified approach and the temperature distributions in the 4 tanks were comparable. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  12. Design and implementation of a field pilot study on using coal fly ash to prevent oxidation of reactive mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.L.; Shang, J.Q.; Xu, Y.Q.; Yanful, E.K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reported on a pilot scale study that investigated the feasibility of using coal fly ash in mine tailings management and acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment at Goldcorp's Musselwhite Mine site in northern Ontario. The principles and key aspects of the fly ash application in mine tailings management were described. Fly ash from the Atikokan coal-fired power generating plant was added to the Musselwhite tailings as a mixture as well as intermediate and top layers. The physical, chemical and hydrogeological effects of the two approaches were monitored. The paper provided details of the design, implementation, monitoring, sampling and testing over 2 years. The objectives were to evaluate the optimum mass ratio of coal fly ash and mine tailings, effectiveness in reducing the infiltration of precipitation, and projected long-term durability and performance on tailings oxidation prevention. The pilot study was designed based on the principles of cementitious materials formation and secondary mineral formation by the reactions of coal fly ash and water/AMD. Calcium oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and ferric oxide are major components of coal fly ash. The preliminary test results revealed that water did not accumulate and cracks did not form on top of 4 tanks. The settlements of the mixing approaches were lower than that of the stratified approach and the temperature distributions in the 4 tanks were comparable. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  13. Aromatization of oils from coal-tyre cothermolysis. Part 2. PAH content study as a function of the process variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Callen, S.; Garcia, T.; Navarro, M.V. [Department of Energy and Environmental, Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, P.O. Box 589, C/Maria de Luna, 12, 50015, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2000-10-01

    In this work, the PAH content in the oils obtained from hydro-cothermolysis have been analysed. The influence of the process variables (H{sub 2} pressure, 1 and 10 MPa, different feed materials: coal, tyre and a blend of coal-tyre (1:1 in organic matter) in two reactors, tubing bomb and autoclave reactors (TBR, AR)), on PAH formation has been studied.Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is used as the main analytical technique after fractionation into four chemical fractions using neutral alumina column chromatography (CC). As the complementary technique, thin layer chromatography with flame ionisation detector (TLC/FID) was used to compare the analytical tool on the total aromatic compounds, leading to the conclusion that the nature of synthetic oils is also dependent on the analytical technique.In relation to the variables studied, the lower the pressure the higher the concentration of PAH detected. The hydrogen abundance reduces the PAH content. The hydropyrolysis of tyre, coal, and a blend of coal-tyre at the same conditions show that coal produces higher concentrations of PAH at hydrogenating conditions. PAHs that contain three and four cycles are the main PAHs detected regardless of the feed.

  14. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Annual report, August 1982-August 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.J.; Tierney, J.W.; Adams, J.; Bhat, N.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Kakwani, R.; Qamar, I.

    1983-09-01

    The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal with experiments also being conducted with Upper Freeport and Illinois No. 6 coals. During the past year, filter cakes from the above coals with widely varied size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. A module of the network model for calculating single phase permeabilities was completed and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for the 1983-84; detailed descriptions of technical progress for particle/filter cake characterization; theoretical modeling, and enhanced dewatering methods; and appendices. 11 references, 35 figures, 11 tables.

  15. Fiscal 1995 coal production/utilization technology promotion subsidy/clean coal technology promotion business/regional model survey. Study report on `Environmental load reduction measures: feasibility study of a coal utilization eco/energy supply system` (interim report); 1995 nendo sekitan seisan riyo gijutsu shinkohi hojokin clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa. `Kankyo fuka teigen taisaku: sekitan riyo eko energy kyokyu system no kanosei chosa` chosa hokokusho (chukan hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The coal utilization is expected to make substantial growth according to the long-term energy supply/demand plan. To further expand the future coal utilization, however, it is indispensable to reduce environmental loads in its total use with other energies, based on the coal use. In this survey, a regional model survey was conducted as environmental load reduction measures using highly cleaned coal which were taken in fiscal 1993 and 1994. Concretely, a model system was assumed which combined facilities for mixed combustion with coal and other energy (hull, bagasse, waste, etc.) and facilities for effective use of burned ash, and potential reduction in environmental loads of the model system was studied. The technology of mixed combustion between coal and other energy is still in a developmental stage with no novelties in the country. Therefore, the mixed combustion technology between coal and other energy is an important field which is very useful for the future energy supply/demand and environmental issues. 34 refs., 27 figs., 48 tabs.

  16. Participatory Communication and Sustainability Development: Case Study of Coal Mining Environment in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inda Fitryarini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries to analyze about participatory communication, especially those currently practiced in coal mining communities in Samarinda, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. In addition, specific practices to facilitate participatory communication are identified and discussed. This essay is based on the author's research on environmental conflicts in coal mining areas. The conclusion of this essay is that community participatory communication in coal mining industry area is still at a pseudo participatory stage.

  17. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  18. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins; Jasna Tomic

    2000-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of the roles of a solid catalyst and the solvent in Direct Coal Liquefaction, a small reactor was equipped with a porous-walled basket which was permeable to the solvent but was not permeable to the coal or solid catalyst. With this equipment and a high volatile bituminous coal it was found that direct contact between the catalyst in the basket and the coal outside the basket is not required for catalyzed coal liquefaction. The character of the solvent in this system makes a significant difference in the conversion of the coal, the better solvents being strong donor solvents. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory, it was noted that the peak temperature for volatiles evolution from coal was a reliable measure of coal rank. Because of this observation, a variety of coals of a range of ranks was investigated. It was shown in this work that measuring the peak temperature for volatiles evolution was a quite precise indicator of rank and correlated closely with the rank value obtained by measuring vitrinite reflectance, a more difficult measurement to make. This prompted the desire to know the composition of the volatile material evolved as a function of coal rank. This was then measured by coupling a TGA to a mass spectrometer using laser activation and photoionization detection TG-PI-MS. The predominant species in volatiles of low rank coal turned out to be phenols with some alkenes. As the rank increases, the relative amounts of alkene and aromatic hydrocarbons increases and the oxygenated species decrease. It was shown that these volatiles were actually pyrolytic products and not volatilization products of the coal. Solvent extraction experiments coupled with Thermogravimetric-photoionization-mass spectrometry (TG-PI-MS) indicated that the low boiling and more extractable material are essentially similar in chemical types to the non-extractable portions but apparently higher molecular weight

  19. Study on Load-displacement Test of Rubber Pads of Coal Mine Roadway Constructed by Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Chen, Xiaoguo; Yang, Liyun

    2017-12-01

    Shield method construction of coal mine roadway is the future trend of the development of deep coal mining. The main shaft supporting is the segment. There is rubber pads between segment and segment. The performance of compression deformation of rubber pad is essential for the overall stability of lining. Through load test, displacement of the rubber pad under load, the thrust force law of the rubber pad deformation, and provide a theoretical basis for the stability analysis of coal mine tunnel shield construction.

  20. A case study of multi-seam coal mine entry stability analysis with strength reduction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Ihsan Berk; Esterhuizen, Gabriel S; Klemetti, Ted; Murphy, Michael M; Sumner, James; Sloan, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the advantage of using numerical models with the strength reduction method (SRM) to evaluate entry stability in complex multiple-seam conditions is demonstrated. A coal mine under variable topography from the Central Appalachian region is used as a case study. At this mine, unexpected roof conditions were encountered during development below previously mined panels. Stress mapping and observation of ground conditions were used to quantify the success of entry support systems in three room-and-pillar panels. Numerical model analyses were initially conducted to estimate the stresses induced by the multiple-seam mining at the locations of the affected entries. The SRM was used to quantify the stability factor of the supported roof of the entries at selected locations. The SRM-calculated stability factors were compared with observations made during the site visits, and the results demonstrate that the SRM adequately identifies the unexpected roof conditions in this complex case. It is concluded that the SRM can be used to effectively evaluate the likely success of roof supports and the stability condition of entries in coal mines.

  1. Conceptual study of hydrogen donor solvent in the NEDOL coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzu, M.; Onozaki, M.; Oi, S. [Mitsui SRC Co Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    A 150 ton/day coal liquefaction pilot plant (PP) of the NEDOL process, supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), was operated successfully for a total of 269 days at Kashima, Japan. With a great number of data obtained through the operation, the design procedure for the NEDOL process was studied. Middle and heavy oils from the coal employed were recycled as a hydrogen-donor solvent after hydrotreatment over Ni Mo/gamma-Al2O{sub 3} in a trickle bed reactor. The hydrogen donating ability of the solvent was high enough to obtain higher oil yield (50-58 wt%) at the aromaticity of ca. 0.45. Life expectancy of solvent hydrotreatment catalyst, requisite to the hydrotreater design, was estimated under PP operating conditions. In addition, physical properties of the solvent required for process design were determined, and hydrodynamics in the liquefaction bubble column reactors were examined. Taking the obtained hydrodynamics and thermal behavior into consideration, a design procedure of the liquefaction bubble column reactors was establsihed using a process simulator (CARD) validated by the product yields of PP. The simulation including distillation and solvent hydrotreatment showed that the content of heavy oil fraction (b.p. 350 - 538{degree} C) in the solvent was a determinant factor in the design of a large scale plant based on the NEDOL process.

  2. Study on Fluid-solid Coupling Mathematical Models and Numerical Simulation of Coal Containing Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Hao, Meng; Jin, Hongwei

    2018-02-01

    Based on coal seam gas migration theory under multi-physics field coupling effect, fluid-solid coupling model of coal seam gas was build using elastic mechanics, fluid mechanics in porous medium and effective stress principle. Gas seepage behavior under different original gas pressure was simulated. Results indicated that residual gas pressure, gas pressure gradient and gas low were bigger when original gas pressure was higher. Coal permeability distribution decreased exponentially when original gas pressure was lower than critical pressure. Coal permeability decreased rapidly first and then increased slowly when original pressure was higher than critical pressure.

  3. Experimental study on the gasification characteristics of coal and orimulsion in 0.5 T/D gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Young; Kim, Jong Young; An, Dal Hong; Park, Tae Jun [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    For the construction of commercial plant for IGCC imported from aboard in near future, it is aimed to get gasification data, practice the gasification design capability, and develop a fundamental key technology through the experiments for different kinds of coals (Datong, Roto, Alaska) by 0.5 T/D gasifier. We performed the experiments for physical properties and reactivities on selected coals by means of Drop Tube Reactor, numerical analysis for the reactor. Throughout the characteristic studies of orimulsion gasification, feasibility studies for orimulsion gasification as a fuel for power plant be performed. With the six experiment runs for the coal gasifier, several problems were found to remedy. After remedies, the gasifier could run at good operating conditions maintaining with 200% design feed rate over 1200-1550 degree. The third and fourth gasification runs with Roto were satisfactorily completed, during which gross heating values from produced gas were 7200-8200 Kcal/Nm{sup 3}. (author). 118 refs., 145 figs.

  4. Experimental study on the gasification characteristics of coal and orimulsion in 0.5 T/D gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Young; Kim, Jong Young; An, Dal Hong; Park, Tae Jun [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    For the construction of commercial plant for IGCC imported from aboard in near future, it is aimed to get gasification data, practice the gasification design capability, and develop a fundamental key technology through the experiments for different kinds of coals (Datong, Roto, Alaska) by 0.5 T/D gasifier. We performed the experiments for physical properties and reactivities on selected coals by means of Drop Tube Reactor, numerical analysis for the reactor. Throughout the characteristic studies of orimulsion gasification, feasibility studies for orimulsion gasification as a fuel for power plant be performed. With the six experiment runs for the coal gasifier, several problems were found to remedy. After remedies, the gasifier could run at good operating conditions maintaining with 200% design feed rate over 1200-1550 degree. The third and fourth gasification runs with Roto were satisfactorily completed, during which gross heating values from produced gas were 7200-8200 Kcal/Nm{sup 3}. (author). 118 refs., 145 figs.

  5. Studies on characteristics of fluid dynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor; Sekitan ekika hanno tonai no ryudo tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakawaki, K.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tachikawa, N.; Moki, T.; Ishikawa, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To design the coal liquefaction reactor of large scale plant in future, it is important to understand characteristics of fluid dynamics within the coal liquefaction reactor. In this study, to measure the fluid dynamics of liquid phase within the coal liquefaction reactor operated under high temperature and high pressure coal liquefaction condition, neutron attenuating tracer (NAT) technique, one of the tracer test methods, was applied using 1 t/d coal treating PSU. The residence time of liquid phase within the reactor can be measured by utilizing property of neutron of being absorbed by materials. The tracer was injected at the inlets of first and third reactors, and the neutron was counted at each outlet. The concentration of tracer was derived from the discrete value, to determine the residence time distribution of liquid phase. The mean residence time of liquid phase in the single first reactor and in the total three reactors were prolonged under the severe operation conditions of liquefaction. The more severe the liquefaction operation condition was, the more active the mixing of liquid phase was in the first reactor. It was found that the progress of reaction was accelerated. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Online study on the co-pyrolysis of coal and corn with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yue-Xi; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Pan, Yang; Tian, Zhen-Yu

    2017-11-01

    With the aim to support the experimental tests in a circulating fluidized bed pilot plant, the pyrolysis processes of coal, corn, and coal-corn blend have been studied with an online pyrolysis photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Py-PI-TOFMS). The mass spectra at different temperatures (300-800°C) as well as time-evolved profiles of selected species were measured. The pyrolysis products such as alkanes, alkenes, phenols, aromatics, as well as nitrogen- and sulfur-containing species were detected. As temperature rises, the relative ion intensities of high molecular weight products tend to decrease, while those of aromatics increase significantly. During the co-pyrolysis, coal can promote the reaction temperature of cellulose in corn. Time-evolved profiles demonstrate that coal can affect pyrolysis rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of corn in blend. This work shows that Py-PI-TOFMS is a powerful approach to permit a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  8. Elemental composition of coal fly ash: Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province in South Africa case study using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, Ch.P.; Fatoba, O.; Madzivire, G.; Petrik, L.F.; Ostrovnaya, T.M.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Nechaev, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis along with ICP-OES, LA ICP-MS, and XRF were used to determine the elemental composition of coal fly ash from the Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. A total of 54 major, trace and rare-earth elements were obtained by the four analytical techniques. The results were compared and the discrepancies discussed to show the merits and drawbacks of each of the techniques. It was shown that the elemental content of this particular coal fly ash is of the same order as the NIST standard reference material Coal Fly Ash 1633b

  9. Dustfall design of open coal yard in the power plant-a case study on the closed reconstruction project of coal storage yard in shengli power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Ji, Weidong; Zhang, Feifei; Yu, Wei; Zheng, Runqing

    2018-02-01

    This thesis, based on the closed reconstruction project of the coal storage yard of Shengli Power Plant which is affiliated to Sinopec Shengli Petroleum Administration, first makes an analysis on the significance of current dustfall reconstruction of open coal yard, then summarizes the methods widely adopted in the dustfall of large-scale open coal storage yard of current thermal power plant as well as their advantages and disadvantages, and finally focuses on this project, aiming at providing some reference and assistance to the future closed reconstruction project of open coal storage yard in thermal power plant.

  10. Impact of rent-seeking on productivity in Chinese coal mine safety supervision: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Feng, Qun; Zhu, Dandan; Han, Shuai; Long, Ruyin

    2016-01-01

    During the “golden decade” (2001–2011) of the coal industry in China, rent-seeking increased in coal mine safety supervision alongside significant improvements in coal mine safety status and increased economic benefits in the coal industry. To explore this internal relationship, we developed a Matlab simulation system and simulated the impact of rent-seeking from each level of the supervision department on coal mine productivity in different scenarios. The results showed the following. (1) Rent-seeking had no significant influence on the average level of material productivity but it had an adverse effect on the average level of mental productivity. Due to the effects of rent-seeking, productivity tended to exhibit unstable and destructive fluctuations, and rent-seeking had the dual effect of promoting and restraining productivity in a wide range with a high frequency. (2) In the supervision scenario, supervision by the high-level department was efficient, and productivity was promoted more by the national and provincial supervision department. (3) In the rent-seeking scenario, each level of the department had an intensity threshold above which coal mine accidents occurred. We also propose suggestions that focuses on the improved supervision of Chinese coal mine safety in three areas based on the “new normal” safety concept. - Highlights: •We discussed rent-seeking behavior in Chinese coal mine safety supervision. •We explored the characteristics of coal mine productivity. •We investigated the impact of rent-seeking on coal mine productivity in three scenarios. •We found rent-seeking led to great fluctuations in productivity with a dual effect. •We proposed a model strategy for Chinese coal mine safety supervision in three areas.

  11. A study on the reduction in the production cost of the long-running collieries and mechanization of coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Hong, Jee Sang; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and production cost. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies on mining technology have been carried out. Investigations and analyses on the technologies used in Hanbo Colliery which was designated one of the long term running mines were done and recommendations were made. And also a site test of plough were implemented at the KyungDong Colliery. The mechanization program of 1994 were analyzed and evaluated separately. (author). 38 refs.

  12. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Thailand; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Tai ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper investigated and studied the present situation and future trend of coal utilization and distribution in Thailand, and the present situation of environmental effects and the measures taken for environmental protection. Around 2010, coal will probably be produced only at EGAT`s Mae Moh (MM) coal mine. Demand for overseas coal is expected to be 40-50 million tons in 2011, and preparation of the coal center becomes a subject. For general industry use coal, pretreatment such as coal preparation, coal blending and briquetting is needed, considering coal quality, usage, transport distance and environmental effects. Brown coal of MM coal mine is a lignite with high sulfur, high ash content and low heating value. Wide spread of its use can be expected if upgrading is possible such as desulfurization, deashing, increasing heating value. In the electric power generation field, the absorber was installed at the existing boiler of the mine-mouth generating plant to conduct a verification test on high grade desulfurization of ultra-high sulfur lignite. In the industry field, the circulating fluidized bed boiler was adopted. In the residential/commercial field, introduction of briquette was proposed. 80 refs., 84 tabs.

  13. Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Tian, L.; Zheng, T.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective

  14. A kinetic study of reactions of coal with polypropylene and polystyrene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Náhunková, Jana; Brožová, Zuzana; Zubková, H.

    12(126) (2002), s. 81-84 ISSN 1211-1929 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2046902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : coal * kinetics * polypropylene Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  15. Studies for the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures. Final report, August 1978-May 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsaris, G.D.; Glazman, Y.M.; Adams-Viola, M.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures (COM) was developed. Aggregation of the coal particles was determined to control both the sedimentation and rheological properties of the COM. Sedimentation stability of COM prepared with coal, 80% < 200 mesh, is achieved by particle aggregation, which leads to the formation of a network of particles throughout the oil. The wettability of coal powders was evaluated by the Pickering emulsion test and a spherical agglomeration test to assess its effect on the stability of various COM formulations. Sedimentation stability of hydrophilic coal-oil-water mixtures (COWM) involves the formation of water bridges between the coal particles, while less stabilization of oleophilic COWM is achieved by the formation of an emulsion. Anionic SAA were least sensitive to the coal type and enhanced the aggregation stability of the suspension. The effect of cationic SAA, nonionic SAA and polymer additives depended upon the specific chemical structure of the SAA, the water content of the COM and the type of coal. The sedimentation stability of ultrafine COM was not directly due to the fineness of the powder but due to the formation of a network of flocculated particles.

  16. Experimental study of reduce of nitrogen oxides emission in the Environment at the Ekibastuz coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korabejnikova, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    For revealing conditions decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxide in an environment at three-stage burning of coal dust Ekibastuz coal with use two-line burners (on were the experimental research of test on fiery the stand as a result of which acknowledgement of theoretical results is received. (author)

  17. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  18. Comparative study of the performance of conventional and column flotation when treating coking coal fines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, M.S.; Biswal, S.K.; Das, S.P.; Reddy, P.S.R. [Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar - 751 013 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Investigations were carried out on coking coal fines by conventional cell and column flotation techniques. The effects of different operating parameters were evaluated for both conventional and column flotation. The coal fines were collected from Bhojudih washery, India. These coal fines averaged 24.4% ash, 19.8% volatile matter and 53.8% fixed carbon on a dry basis. A commercial grade sodium silicate, light diesel oil and pine oil were used as depressant, collector and frother respectively. The flotation performance was compared with release analysis. The conventional flotation results indicated that a clean coal with 14.4% ash could be obtained at 78.0% yield with 88.4% combustible recovery. The ash of the clean coal could be further reduced to 10.1% at 72.0% yield with 85.6% combustible recovery by using column flotation. The column flotation results were close to those obtained by release analysis. (author)

  19. Study on coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longkang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the coal mine safety production situation in our country improved year by year, but severe accidents still occurred; the accidents caused great economic loss to the national economy. According to statistical analysis, almost all of the coal mine accidents will expose the hidden danger in before, most of the accidents caused due to safety management not reaching the designated position and the hidden danger management does not take any decision in time. Based on the coal mine safety management holes in our country, the coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system was established in this paper, which includes meaning and conception of the theories of the macro, meso and micro safety management, and also includes the matching hardware equipment, in order to achieve the hidden danger's closed-loop control and dynamic early warning in the process of coal mine production.

  20. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  1. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  2. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Coal energy (Studies on coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil); 1988 nendo sekitan ekikayo shokubai oyobi ekikayu binsekiho no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    The present study, as part of the studies on coal liquefying technologies, was originally intended to develop optimal catalysts that make it possible to manufacture a liquid fuel from hydrogenation treatment of coal, and establish optimal reaction operation for the liquefaction process. To achieve the intentions, studies were moved forward on the following four sub-themes: (1) fundamentals and developmental research on catalysts for the direct liquefaction, (2) chemical structures of organic constituents in the coal liquefaction process, (3) research on the optimal reaction operation in the direct coal liquefaction process, and (4) studies on nature and behavior of ash constituent in the coal liquefaction process. The current fiscal year has performed the discussions on the following items based on the achievements attained by fiscal 1987: 1. as a study on liquefaction catalysts, (1) a study on properties of liquefaction catalysts, and (2) a study on characteristics of the liquefying reaction; 2. as a study on the analytic method, (1) a study on the liquefying reaction analyzing method, and (2) a study on the liquefied oil property analyzing method. In Item 1-(1), a prototype zeolite-based catalyst having high hydrogenating decomposition activity was used to execute a reaction to lighten the liquefied oil. As a result, it was revealed that the liquefied oil can be lightened efficiently by having the oil go through a two-stage reforming reaction. (NEDO)

  3. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report - Part 10. Variability in the inorganic content of United States' coals: a multivariate statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glick, D.C.; Davis, A.

    1984-07-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques of correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and cluster analysis, implemented by computer programs, can be used to process a large data set and produce a summary of relationships between variables and between samples. These techniques were used to find relationships for data on the inorganic constituents of US coals. Three hundred thirty-five whole-seam channel samples from six US coal provinces were analyzed for inorganic variables. After consideration of the attributes of data expressed on ash basis and whole-coal basis, it was decided to perform complete statistical analyses on both data sets. Thirty variables expressed on whole-coal basis and twenty-six variables expressed on ash basis were used. For each inorganic variable, a frequency distribution histogram and a set of summary statistics was produced. These were subdivided to reveal the manner in which concentrations of inorganic constituents vary between coal provinces and between coal regions. Data collected on 124 samples from three stratigraphic groups (Pottsville, Monongahela, Allegheny) in the Appalachian region were studied using analysis of variance to determine degree of variability between stratigraphic levels. Most variables showed differences in mean values between the three groups. 193 references, 71 figures, 54 tables.

  4. Study on the Relationship between the Inhalable Fine Particulate Matter of Xuanwei Coal Combustion and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiapeng YANG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The high incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China, has become an important restricting factor for livelihood development, thus exerting local social and economic impacts. Coal is the main fuel of the local community and also the main source of indoor pollution. This study aims to explore the coal combustion inhalable fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and its component output differences in different areas of Xuanwei, Yunnan. Moreover, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between inhalation of fine particles and high incidence of local lung cancer. Methods For combustion test, coal mines designated as C1, K7 and M30 were collected from LaoLin Colliery of Laibing Town, Huchang Colliery of Baoshan Town, and Taiping Colliery of Wenxing Town in Xuanwei, respectively. PM2.5 of indoor air was weighed, analyzed for elemental composition, and morphologically compared. The pathological specimen of lung cancer patients in Xuanwei who underwent operation was observed through electron microscope. Results The PM2.5 concentrations in indoor air were (8.244 ±1.460 mg/m3 (C1, (5.066±0.984 mg/m3 (K7, and (5.071±1.460 mg/m3 (M30. The differences among pairwise comparisons were statistically significant (P=0.029. The filter impurities of C1 coal seam primarily include Si- and O-enriched compounds. Moreover, three membranes that comprised other elements, including C, S, and Si, were observed. These membranes were evident from the aggregation of silica and a Ca-Al membrane. Compared with that of other coal seams, C1 coal generated a mass of impurities, in which several particles have irregular shape. We found nanoscale fine particles in some specimens of Xuanwei lung cancer patients. Conclusion The produced combustion of C1 coal was different from that of K7 and M30 coal. PM2.5 composition may be associated with the high local incidence of lung cancer.

  5. Experimental Study on Methane Desorption from Lumpy Coal under the Action of Hydraulic and Thermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture and thermal are the key factors for influencing methane desorption during CBM exploitation. Using high-pressure water injection technology into coalbed, new fractures and pathways are formed to transport methane. A phenomenon of water-inhibiting gas flow existed. This study is focused on various water pressures impacted on gas-adsorbed coal samples, and then the desorption capacity could be revealed under different conditions. And the results are shown that methane desorption capacity was decreased with the increase in water pressure at room temperature and the downtrend would be steady until water pressure was large enough. Heating could promote gas desorption capacity effectively, with the increasing of water injection pressures, and the promotion of thermal on desorption became more obvious. These results are expected to provide a clearer understanding of theoretical efficiency of heat water or steam injection into coalbed, and they can provide some theoretical and experimental guidance on CBM production and methane control.

  6. Simulation study of coal mine safety investment based on system dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Lei; Dou Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    To generate dynamic planning for coal mine safety investment, this study applies system dynamics to decision-making, classifying safety investments by accident type. It validates the relationship between safety investments and accident cost, by structurally analyzing the causality between safety investments and their influence factors. Our simulation model, based on Vensim software, conducts simulation anal-ysis on a series of actual data from a coalmine in Shanxi Province. Our results indicate a lag phase in safety investments, and that increasing pre-phase safety investment reduces accident costs. We found that a 24%increase in initial safety investment could help reach the target accident costs level 14 months earlier. Our simulation test included nine kinds of variation trends of accident costs brought by different investment ratios on accident prevention. We found an optimized ratio of accident prevention invest-ments allowing a mine to reach accident cost goals 4 months earlier, without changing its total investment.

  7. Basic study of catalyst aging in the H-coal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, T.L.; Massoth, F.E.; Thomas, M.G.

    1985-04-01

    Samples of CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts used in an H-coal process demonstration run were studied to determine causes of catalyst deactivation. Physical and surface properties of the aged and regenerated catalysts were examined. Model compounds were used to assess four catalyst activity functions, viz., hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrogenation, cracking and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). Other tests were performed to study the effects of coke and metals separately on the four catalyst activity functions. Catalyst coke content and metal deposits first increased rapidly, then more gradually with exposure time in the process run. Surface area and pore volume markedly decreased with exposure time. Catalyst activities of aged catalysts showed a rapid decline with exposure time. One-day exposure to coal resulted in significant losses in HDS and hydrogenation activities and nearly complete loss in cracking and HDO activities. Although metal deposits caused some permanent catalyst deactivation, coke had a much greater effect. Regenerated catalysts showed less recovery of catalytic activity as processing time increased. These results agreed well with product inspections from the process run. Oxygen chemisorption on aged-regenerated catalysts decreased with catalyst exposure time, indicating a significant loss of active sites. However, ESCA results showed no evidence of extensive sintering of the active MoS/sub 2/ phase. Permanent deactivation of the longer-time exposed catalysts can be ascribed, at least partly, to lateral growth of the active molybdenum sulfide phase. In addition, some loss in cobalt promotion occurred early in the process, which may account for the rapid loss in HDS and HDO activity in regenerated catalysts. 24 references.

  8. Study Improving Performance of Centrifugal Compressor In Paiton Coal Fired Power Plant Unit 1 And 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yuriadi; Permana, Dadang S.

    2018-03-01

    The compressed air system becomes part of a very important utility system in a Plant, including the Steam Power Plant. In PLN’S coal fired power plant, Paiton units 1 and 2, there are four Centrifugal air compressor types, which produce compressed air as much as 5.652 cfm and with electric power capacity of 1200 kW. Electricity consumption to operate centrifugal compressor is 7.104.117 kWh per year. This study aims to measure the performance of Centrifugal Compressors operating in Paiton’s coal fired power plant units 1 and 2. Performance Compressor is expressed by Specific Power Consumption (SPC) in kW/100 cfm. For this purpose, we measure the compressed air flow rate generated by each compressor and the power consumed by each compressor. The result is as follows Air Compressor SAC 2B : 15.1 kW/100 cfm, Air Compressor SAC 1B : 15.31 kW/100 cfm,Air Compressor SAC 1A : 16.3 kW/100 cfm and air Compressor SAC 2C : 18.19 kW/100 cfm. From the measurement result, air compressor SAC 2B has the best performance that is 15.1 kW / 100 cfm. In this study we analyze efforts to improve the performance of other compressors to at least match the performance of the SAC 2B air compressor. By increasing the Specific Power Consumption from others Compressor, it will get energy saving up to 284,165 kWh per year.

  9. Industrial use of coal and clean coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibson, I; Plante, J J.M.

    1990-06-01

    This report builds upon two reports published in 1988, namely {ital The use of Coal in the Industrial, Commercial, Residential and Transportation Sectors} and {ital Innovative Clean Coal Technology Deployment}, and provides more specific recommendations pertaining to coal use in the US industrial sector. The first chapter addresses industrial boilers which are common to many industrial users. The subsequent nine chapters cover the following: coke, iron and steel industries; aluminium and other metals; glass, brick, ceramic, and gypsum industries; cement and lime industries; pulp and paper industry; food and kindred products; durable goods industry; textile industry; refining and chemical industry. In addition, appendices supporting the contents of the study are provided. Each chapter covers the following topics as applicable: energy overview of the industry sector being discussed; basic processes; foreign experience; impediments to coal use; incentives that could make coal a fuel of choice; current and projected use of clean coal technology; identification of coal technology needs; conclusions; recommendations.

  10. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  11. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  12. Lung cancer among coal miners, ore miners and quarrymen : smoking-adjusted risk estimates from the synergy pooled analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taeger, Dirk; Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Dahmann, Dirk; Siemiatycki, Jack; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Olsson, Ann; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Tardón, Adonina; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Mukeriya, Anush; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Gustavsson, Per; Field, John; Marcus, Michael W; Fabianova, Eleonora; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Rudnai, Peter; Bencko, Vladimir; Janout, Vladimir; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Foretova, Lenka; Forastiere, Francesco; John McLaughlin, John McLaughlin; Paul Demers, Paul Demers; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Joachim Schüz, Joachim Schüz; Kurt Straif, Kurt Straif; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Working in mines and quarries has been associated with an elevated lung cancer risk but with inconsistent results for coal miners. This study aimed to estimate the smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk among coal miners and compare the risk pattern with lung cancer risks among ore miners and

  13. Heterogeneity of neuroblastoma cell identity defined by transcriptional circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeva, Valentina; Louis-Brennetot, Caroline; Peltier, Agathe; Durand, Simon; Pierre-Eugène, Cécile; Raynal, Virginie; Etchevers, Heather C; Thomas, Sophie; Lermine, Alban; Daudigeos-Dubus, Estelle; Geoerger, Birgit; Orth, Martin F; Grünewald, Thomas G P; Diaz, Elise; Ducos, Bertrand; Surdez, Didier; Carcaboso, Angel M; Medvedeva, Irina; Deller, Thomas; Combaret, Valérie; Lapouble, Eve; Pierron, Gaelle; Grossetête-Lalami, Sandrine; Baulande, Sylvain; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Barillot, Emmanuel; Rohrer, Hermann; Delattre, Olivier; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Neuroblastoma is a tumor of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, derived from multipotent neural crest cells (NCCs). To define core regulatory circuitries (CRCs) controlling the gene expression program of neuroblastoma, we established and analyzed the neuroblastoma super-enhancer landscape. We discovered three types of identity in neuroblastoma cell lines: a sympathetic noradrenergic identity, defined by a CRC module including the PHOX2B, HAND2 and GATA3 transcription factors (TFs); an NCC-like identity, driven by a CRC module containing AP-1 TFs; and a mixed type, further deconvoluted at the single-cell level. Treatment of the mixed type with chemotherapeutic agents resulted in enrichment of NCC-like cells. The noradrenergic module was validated by ChIP-seq. Functional studies demonstrated dependency of neuroblastoma with noradrenergic identity on PHOX2B, evocative of lineage addiction. Most neuroblastoma primary tumors express TFs from the noradrenergic and NCC-like modules. Our data demonstrate a previously unknown aspect of tumor heterogeneity relevant for neuroblastoma treatment strategies.

  14. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  15. Development and aging of human spinal cord circuitries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    development and to what extent they are shaped according to the demands of the body that they control and the environment that the body has to interact with. We also discuss how ageing processes and physiological changes in our body are reflected in adaptations of activity in the spinal cord motor circuitries....... The complex, multi-facetted connectivity of the spinal cord motor circuitries allow that they can be used to generate vastly different movements and that their activity can be adapted to meet new challenges imposed by bodily changes or a changing environment. There are thus plenty of possibilities...

  16. Study on electromagnetic radiation and mechanical characteristics of coal during an SHPB test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengwu, Li; Qifei, Wang; Pingyang, Lyu

    2016-06-01

    Dynamic loads provided by a Split Hopkinson pressure bar are applied in the impact failure experiment on coal with an impact velocity of 4.174-17.652 m s-1. The mechanical property characteristics of coal and an electromagnetic radiation signal can be detected and measured during the experiment. The variation of coal stress, strain, incident energy, dissipated energy and other mechanical parameters are analyzed by the unidimensional stress wave theory. It suggests that with an increase of the impact velocity, the mechanical parameters and electromagnetic radiation increased significantly and the dissipated energy of the coal sample has a high discrete growing trend during the failure process of coal impact. Combined with the received energy of the electromagnetic radiation signal, the relationship between these mechanical parameters and electromagnetic radiation during the failure process of coal burst could be analyzed by the grey correlation model. The results show that the descending order of the gray correlation degree between the mechanical characteristics and electromagnetic radiation energy are impact velocity, maximum stress, the average stress, incident energy, the average strain, maximum strain, the average strain rate and dissipation energy. Due to the correlation degree, the impact velocity and incident energy are relatively large, and the main factor affecting the electromagnetic radiation energy of coal is the energy magnitude. While the relationship between extreme stress and the radiation energy change trend is closed, the stress state of coal has a greater impact on electromagnetic radiation than the strain and destruction which can deepen the research of the coal-rock dynamic disaster electromagnetic monitoring technique.

  17. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  18. Fluidised bed gasification of high-ash South African coals: An experimental and modelling study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available model (CeSFaMB). The predictive capability of the model was analysed in terms of the degree of variation between experimental and simulated results for each test. The calibrated model was used to design a 15 MW fluidised bed coal gasifier...-scale BFBG are given in Figure 1 and Table 1. Process description Coal, air, oxygen and steam are the input streams to the process which produce the output streams: gas and char (ash). Coal is fed to the gasifier by means of a screw conveyor at a...

  19. Studies on classifying Indian coals. Part II. A new system for grading and pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluri, S.G.; Shrikhande, S.K.; Rao, S.K.; Haque, R.

    1985-07-01

    The new system is self-complete through grading to pricing. It grades non-coking coal by moisture and ash contents. Coking coal is graded by GKLT coke type and ash content. Volatile matter content is used as a supporting indexer, where necessary. Through the grade data, a coal is evaluated into a single numeral which depicts the coaly matter content and its nature or effectiveness. This value, called effective coaly matter, is converted to a relative rupee value or price index/price. Pragmatics and versatility of the system are discussed.

  20. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  1. Pillar size optimization design of isolated island panel gob-side entry driving in deep inclined coal seam—case study of Pingmei No. 6 coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Xufeng; Fan, Gangwei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Jianbin, Cui

    2018-06-01

    There is a perception that deep roadways are difficult to maintain. To reverse this and to improve the recovery rate of coal resources, gob-side entry driving is widely used in coal mines, especially deep-mining coal mines, in China. Determination of the reasonable pillar size through in situ observation and experimentation plays a vital role for roadway maintenance. Based on the geological conditions of Pingmei No.6 coal seam, a theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and industrial experiments are carried out to calculate the reasonable width of chain pillars, analyze the lateral support stress distribution law near the gob side, investigate the relationship between the coal pillar stress distribution, roadway surrounding rock stress distribution, roadway surrounding rock deformation and the coal pillar width. The results indicate that 5 m wide coal pillars can ensure that the chain pillars are at a lower stress level and the deformation of roadway surrounding rock is in a more reasonable range. Industrial experiments show that when the chain pillar width is 5 m, the deformation of roadway surrounding rock can meet the requirements of working face safe production. The numerical results agreed well with field measurement and observations, and the industrial experiments results further validated the results of the numerical simulation.

  2. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Malaysia Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This survey arranged the status of coal utilization technology and the status of coal production, supply, etc. in Malaysia and Vietnam, examined/studied coal utilization systems in both countries, and finally assessed feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. As a country of primary energy source which is abundant in crude oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, coal, etc., Malaysia now depends on crude oil and natural gas for 80% of its energy, and places emphasis on exploration of natural gas and oil refining. In electric power and cement industries where coal is consumed, effectiveness and environmental issues in association with coal utilization are future subjects. In Vietnam, the north is abundant in hydroelectric power and anthracite, and the south in oil and gas resource, but the north and central districts are in a state of undevelopment. Coal is used for coal thermal power generation, cement industry, and residential/commercial fuel. In the future, effective coal utilization and environmental issues will be subjects. 16 refs., 38 figs., 75 tabs.

  3. Comprehensive Technical Support for High-Quality Anthracite Production: A Case Study in the Xinqiao Coal Mine, Yongxia Mining Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective production of high-quality anthracite has attracted increasing global attention. Based on the coal occurrence in Yongxia Mining Area and mining conditions of a coalface in Xinqiao Coal Mine, we proposed a systematic study on the technical support for the production of high-quality anthracite. Six key steps were explored, including coal falling at the coalface, transport, underground bunker storage, main shaft hoisting, coal preparation on the ground, and railway wagon loading. The study resulted in optimized running parameters for the shearers, and the rotating patterns of the shearer drums was altered (one-way cutting was employed. Mining height and roof supporting intensity were reduced. Besides, loose presplitting millisecond blasting and mechanized mining were applied to upgrade the coal quantity and the lump coal production rate. Additionally, the coalface end transloading, coalface crush, transport systems, underground storage, and main shaft skip unloading processes were improved, and fragmentation-prevention techniques were used in the washing and railway wagon loading processes. As a result, the lump coal production rate was maintained at a high level and fragmentation was significantly reduced. Because of using the parameters and techniques determined in this research, high-quality coal production and increased profits were achieved. The research results could provide theoretical guidance and methodology for other anthracite production bases.

  4. Coal flotation technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, N. [C. Clarkson & Associates Pty. Ltd., Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    The Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) recently commissioned a study into the status of flotation in coal preparation, in order to direct limited funds to areas of maximum benefit. The primary purpose of the study was the assessment of new flotation technologies, including those commercially available and those still under development. Technologies examined included: the Jameson Cell, Microcel, and Ekof cell. Problems and advantages are discussed, with suggestions for future areas of research. 3 figs.

  5. Rock Mechanics Studies During Continuous Miner Bases Coal Pillar Extraction in Indian Coalfields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ram, S.; Kumar, D.; Koníček, Petr; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, A. Kr.; Singh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 111, April 2014-March 2015 (2015), s. 89-104 ISSN 0254-8003 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : mining * mechanized depillaring scenario * rock mechanics Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  6. Effects of privatization: A case study from Cayirhan coal district, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyyuboglu, E. Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Privatization of lignite coal-fired power plants in Turkey began in the middle of 1990 and is still an ongoing process. Among the 10 power plants offered to bidders in 1996, only Cayirhan power plant bundled with the coal mine was privatized. Considerable improvements have been obtained following the privatization of both the power plant and the coal mine. In view of its success, it is considered that Cayirhan experience could serve as a model for further privatization in energy sector, planned to be completed by the end of 2006 according to the agenda issued by government. This paper deals with the overall improvements following the privatization of both the power plant and the coal mine. In particular, mechanized roadway drivage performances before and after privatization are compared in order to highlight the specific effects of privatization in this area. It is found that competition, organizational and operational changes are the main causes of improvements attained in the post-privatization period

  7. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  8. Preliminary Beneficiation and Washability Studies on Ghouzlou's Low-Ash Coal Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataallah Bahrami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present research work, a low-ash coal, from Ghouzlou deposit in Iran, with an average ash content of 12% was subjected to some beneficiation experiments such as heavy media separation and flotation. Sieve analysis showed that 62.3% of the coal sample with the size of +2 mm had around 7.3% ash contents. Also, heavy media tests carried out on five size fractions revealed that by setting the separation density at 1.4 g/cm3 for the coarse fraction (+1 mm, a 5% ash product with more than 70% coal recovery was obtainable. Samples with lower ash content (5% based on the Mayer curves to produce a 5% coal product. Moreover, flotation tests on -1 mm fraction could reduce the ash content from more 13.2% to 10.4%.

  9. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods. Tenth quarterly report, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-12-31

    This report concerns our research on base-catalyzed coal solubilization and a new approach for hydrogen addition. The work on base-catalyzed, chemical solubilization is continuing. this report is focused on the hydrogenation research. Specifically it deals with the use of arene chromium carbonyl complexes as reagents for the addition of dideuterium to coal molecules. In one phase of the work, he has established that the aromatic hydrocarbons in a representative coal liquid can be converted in very good yield to arene chromium carbonyl compounds. In a second phase of the work directly related to our objective of improved methods for catalytic hydrogenation, he has established that the aromatic constituents of the same coal liquid add dideuterium in the presence of added napththalene chromium carbonyl.

  10. Characterization of Coal Porosity for Naturally Tectonically Stressed Coals in Huaibei Coal Field, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoshi; Hou, Quanlin; Li, Zhuo; Wei, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    The enrichment of coalbed methane (CBM) and the outburst of gas in a coal mine are closely related to the nanopore structure of coal. The evolutionary characteristics of 12 coal nanopore structures under different natural deformational mechanisms (brittle and ductile deformation) are studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The results indicate that there are mainly submicropores (2~5 nm) and supermicropores (coal and mesopores (10~100 nm) and micropores (5~10 nm) in brittle deformed coal. The cumulative pore volume (V) and surface area (S) in brittle deformed coal are smaller than those in ductile deformed coal which indicates more adsorption space for gas. The coal with the smaller pores exhibits a large surface area, and coal with the larger pores exhibits a large volume for a given pore volume. We also found that the relationship between S and V turns from a positive correlation to a negative correlation when S > 4 m2/g, with pore sizes coal. The nanopore structure (coal. PMID:25126601

  11. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  12. Thermal analysis/mass spectrometry as a tool for studying environmental pollution by coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuschek, G.; Kettrup, A.A. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, GmbH, Institut fuer Oekologische Chemie, Neuherberg, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Five different German standard coals were investigated. A simultaneous thermal analyzer/mass spectrometer was used for the characterization of the coal samples and the identification of the volatiles evolved during the heating of the sample up to 1400C. The TG and DTA results were discussed for the investigations under different atmospheres. The on line recorded mass spectra were interpreted with respect to the evolution of hazardous substances

  13. Thermal analysis/mass spectrometry as a tool for studying environmental pollution by coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuschek, G.; Kettrup, A.A. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, GmbH, Institut fuer Oekologische Chemie, Neuherberg, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Five different German standard coals were investigated. A simultaneous thermal analyzer/mass spectrometer was used for the characterization of the coal samples and the identification of the volatiles evolved during the heating of the sample up to 1400C. The TG and DTA results were discussed for the investigations under different atmospheres. The on line recorded mass spectra were interpreted with respect to the evolution of hazardous substances.

  14. Estimating externalities of coal fuel cycles. Report No. 3 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles: a study by the US Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The report, one of a series of eight reports, is primarily about a methodology for estimating coal fuel cycle externalities. The study considered the stages of a typical coal fuel cycle and identified the more important ones: coal mining coal transportation, and electric power generation. Chapter headings are: introduction; alternative contexts for the study; prior studies of damages and benefits; methods development; organization, interpretation and use of results; reference technology and sites; priority impact-pathways for the coal fuel cycle; estimating the externalities of coal mining; estimating coal transportation externalities; estimating-the externalities of electric power generation; tabulation of numerical results; and fundings, conclusions, and recommendations. The study demonstrated the application of the damage function approach to estimating the externalities of coal fuel cycles. A number of analytical methods were applied within that framework to several impact-pathways. 580 refs., 40 figs., 130 tabs., 3 apps

  15. Study of the effects of collector-type and collectors mixing in coal flotation; Etude des effets du type de collecteur et de melanges de collecteurs en flottation de charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salch, A.M.; Ramadan, A.M.; Moharam, M.R. [Universite Al-Azhar, Le Caire (Egypt)

    2001-03-01

    This study deals with the effect of different types of collectors in the improvement of coal flotation process for the removal of impurities during the processing of poor quality coals. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  16. Analysis of thermal coal pricing and the coal price distortion in China from the perspective of market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Herui; Wei, Pengbang

    2017-01-01

    The price of thermal coal has always been the focus of the debate between coal mining industry and electric power industry. The thermal coal price is always lower than other same quality coal, and this phenomenon of thermal coal price distortion has been existing in China for a long time. The distortion coal price can not reflect the external cost and the resource scarcity of coal, which could result in environment deteriorating and inefficient resource allocation. This paper studied the phenomenon of thermal coal price distortion through economic theoretical modeling and empirical cointegration analysis from the perspective of market forces. The results show that thermal coal price is determined by electricity price, the prediction elasticity of a electricity enterprise, price elasticity of demand of electricity, the input prediction elasticity of a electricity enterprise and the price elasticity of supply of thermal coal. The main reason of coal price distortion is the unbalance market force of coal industry and thermal coal generation industry. The distortion rate of coal price is positively related to the market force of electric power industry and negatively related to the industrial concentration of coal industry. - Highlights: • This paper studied thermal coal pricing and the coal price distortion in China. • The main reason of coal price distortion is the unbalance market force. • Thermal coal price is also influenced by electricity price and price elasticity of demand of electricity. • The distortion rate of coal price is negatively related to the industrial concentration of coal industry.

  17. Monetization of External Costs Using Lifecycle Analysis—A Comparative Case Study of Coal-Fired and Biomass Power Plants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structures of external costs are built in line with coal-fired and biomass power plant life cycle activities in Northeast China. The external cost of coal-fired and biomass power plants was compared, using the lifecycle approach. In addition, the external costs of a biomass power plant are calculated for each stage for comparison with those of a coal-fired power plant. The results highlight that the external costs of a coal-fired plant are 0.072 US $/kWh, which are much higher than that of a biomass power plant, 0.00012 US$/kWh. The external cost of coal-fired power generation is as much as 90% of the current price of electricity generated by coal, while the external cost of a biomass power plant is 1/1000 of the current price of electricity generated by biomass. In addition, for a biomass power plant, the external cost associated with SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 are particularly lower than those of a coal-fired power plant. The prospect of establishing precise estimations for external cost mechanisms and sustainable energy policies is discussed to show a possible direction for future energy schemes in China. The paper has significant value for supporting the biomass power industry and taxing or regulating coal-fired power industry to optimize the energy structure in China.

  18. A study on the abundance of quartz in thermal coals of India and its relation to abrasion index: Development of predictive model for abrasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandopadhyay, A.K. [Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research Digwadih Campus, P.O.-FRI, Dhanbad-828108, Jharkhand (India)

    2010-10-01

    The quartz content of each of the 61 thermal coals used in power stations in India has been determined using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy. It has been observed that quartz is abundant in the thermal coals and its proportion varies from 5 to 20% by wt. The abrasion index (AI), a measure of abrasion caused by coals, has been determined for each coal according to the procedure laid down in Indian Standard IS: 9949-1986. The data generated on abrasion together with ash and quartz percentages of the coals studied have been subjected to regression and correlation analysis. Positive correlations have been found between AI and quartz content and between AI and ash yield, but the correlation between AI and ash (A) and quartz (Q) percentages has been observed to be the most significant (R{sup 2} = 0.86). The linear regression model AI = 1.00A + 1.35Q thus developed has the ability to predict AI of the thermal coals within {+-} 10 mg/kg at 95.5% confidence level. Results of application of the model to predicting abrasion of a limited number of foreign coals with different origins have been found to be encouraging. Integration of other variables like the size and the shape of the abrading particles along with other physical properties of coal, like the bulk density and the grindability, with the model, in addition to the variables already considered, has been suggested for improved prediction. (author)

  19. An experimental study on the hazard assessment and mechanical properties of porous concrete utilizing coal bottom ash coarse aggregate in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Bum; Jang, Young Il; Lee, Jun; Lee, Byung Jae

    2009-07-15

    This study evaluates quality properties and toxicity of coal bottom ash coarse aggregate and analyzes mechanical properties of porous concrete depending on mixing rates of coal bottom ash. As a result, soundness and resistance to abrasion of coal bottom ash coarse aggregate were satisfied according to the standard of coarse aggregate for concrete. To satisfy the standard pertaining to chloride content, the coarse aggregates have to be washed more than twice. In regards to the result of leaching test for coal bottom ash coarse aggregate and porous concrete produced with these coarse aggregates, it was satisfied with the environment criteria. As the mixing rate of coal bottom ash increased, influence of void ratio and permeability coefficient was very little, but compressive and flexural strength decreased. When coal bottom ash was mixed over 40%, strength decreased sharply (compressive strength: by 11.7-27.1%, flexural strength: by maximum 26.4%). Also, as the mixing rate of coal bottom ash increased, it was confirmed that test specimens were destroyed by aggregate fracture more than binder fracture and interface fracture. To utilize coal bottom ash in large quantities, it is thought that an improvement method in regards to strength has to be discussed such as incorporation of reinforcing materials and improvement of aggregate hardness.

  20. Progress toward the maintenance and repair of degenerating retinal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugler, Anthony A

    2010-01-01

    Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa remain major causes of severe vision loss in humans. Clinical trials for treatment of retinal degenerations are underway and advancements in our understanding of retinal biology in health/disease have implications for novel therapies. A review of retinal biology is used to inform a discussion of current strategies to maintain/repair neural circuitry in age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis. In age-related macular degeneration/retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive loss of rods/cones results in corruption of bipolar cell circuitry, although retinal output neurons/photoreceptive melanopsin cells survive. Visual function can be stabilized/enhanced after treatment in age-related macular degeneration, but in advanced degenerations, reorganization of retinal circuitry may preclude attempts to restore cone function. In Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis, useful vision can be restored by gene therapy where central cones survive. Remarkable progress has been made in restoring vision to rodents using light-responsive ion channels inserted into bipolar cells/retinal ganglion cells. Advances in genetic, cellular, and prosthetic therapies show varying degrees of promise for treating retinal degenerations. While functional benefits can be obtained after early therapeutic interventions, efforts should be made to minimize circuitry changes as soon as possible after rod/cone loss. Advances in retinal anatomy/physiology and genetic technologies should allow refinement of future reparative strategies.

  1. Study on Al2O3 extraction from activated coal gangue under different calcination atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ling; Liang, Xinxing; Song, Qiang; Gao, Gewu; Song, Lihua; Shu, Yuanfeng; Shu, Xinqian

    2017-12-01

    Coal gangue was calcinated under air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, air-hydrogen, and hydrogen atmospheres. The effects of different calcination temperatures and atmospheres on the mineral composition of activated coal gangue were investigated by X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the acid leaching kinetics of aluminum oxide from coal gangue was investigated with sulfuric acid. It showed that the air atmosphere promoted kaolinite decomposition during coal gangue calcination. The hydrogen atmosphere promoted the activation and decomposition of kaolinite at reaction temperatures exceeding 650°C. The carbon dioxide atmosphere eliminated the influence of residual carbon on coal gangue. When the ratio of acid/coal gangue was 1.5 and reaction temperature was 650°C, the sulfuric acid leaching rate under air, air-hydrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen atmospheres were 93.66%, 90.90%, 84.06%, 81.91% and 77.54% respectively. The acid leaching reaction process conformed to unreacted shrinking core model of particle unchanged, and was controlled by the interfacial chemical reaction. The reaction kinetic equation for the leaching process was 1-(1-x)1/3=kt with an apparent activation energy of 48.97 kJ/mol.

  2. Analytical study on U/G coal mine CPT and inferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, N.C.; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Bengal Engineering College, Howrath (India). Dept. of Mining and Geology

    1999-08-01

    The analytical aspects of underground CPT (coal mine cost per tonne), which varies from mine to mine due to the different weightages of various contributing factors, are described. The CPT is not only dictated by the increasing wages but also by the availability of man-hour and accountability of machine utilization. An optimal blend of labour-intensive and machine-intensive methods involving least investment and operating cost, is a challenge for the coal industry. Technology upgradation and implementation, higher skill and morale, excellence in planning and monitoring, optimization in capacity utilization, and better consumer acceptability of coal will consistently improve the financial health of the coal mining sector. Other factors which will help improve the financial health of coal mining industries are (1) cost propaganda like safety week celebration; (2) cost consciousness at all levels; (3) noticeboard comprising the cost of man-hour and machine- hour; (4) no idle time for men as well as machine; (5) care to increase the life of machines; (6) scope of target amendment in a year; (7) prior to introducing costly machines, due weightage to be given on coal grade, mine life, geo-mining conditions; and (8) award to most economic mine and punishment to others rated below the BEP (break- even point). 2 refs., 3 figs.

  3. A study on the hydrotreating of coal hydro liquefaction residue and its kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Lu, X.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydro-conversion of coal hydro liquefaction residue obtained from a 6 t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydro liquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 {sup o}C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydro liquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydro liquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ-mol{sup -1}. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. (authors)

  4. A Study on the Hydrotreating of Coal Hydroliquefaction Residue and its Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Gao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-conversion of coal hydroliquefaction residue obtained from a 6t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydroliquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 °C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydroliquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydroliquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ•mol-1. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values.

  5. A Combined Raman Spectroscopic and Thermogravimetric Analysis Study on Oxidation of Coal with Different Ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy and nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA measurements have been reported for different rank coals (lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite and the relationship between the measurements was examined. It was found that the Raman spectra parameters can be used to characterize structure changes in the different rank coals, such as the band area ratios based on the curve-fitted results. Higher ranked coal was found to have higher values of IGR/IAll and IG+GR/IAll but lower values of ID/I(G+GR, IDL/I(G+GR, IS+SL/I(G+GR, and I(GL+GL'/I(G+GR. The oxidation properties of the coal samples were characterized by the reactivity indexes Tig, T20%, and Tmax from TGA data which were found to correlate well with the band area ratios of IGR/IAll, IG+GR/IAll, and IS+SL/I(G+GR. Based on these correlations, the Raman band area ratios were found to correlate with the oxidation activity of coal providing additional structural information which can be used to understand the changes in the TGA measurements.

  6. A Combined Raman Spectroscopic and Thermogravimetric Analysis Study on Oxidation of Coal with Different Ranks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqing; Jiang, Shuguang; Hardacre, Christopher; Goodrich, Peter; Wang, Kai; Shao, Hao; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy and nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements have been reported for different rank coals (lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite) and the relationship between the measurements was examined. It was found that the Raman spectra parameters can be used to characterize structure changes in the different rank coals, such as the band area ratios based on the curve-fitted results. Higher ranked coal was found to have higher values of I GR/I All and I (G + GR)/I All but lower values of I D/I (G+GR), I DL/I (G+GR), I (S + SL)/I (G+GR), and I (GL+GL')/I (G+GR). The oxidation properties of the coal samples were characterized by the reactivity indexes T ig, T 20%, and T max from TGA data which were found to correlate well with the band area ratios of I GR/I All, I (G + GR)/I All, and I (S + SL)/I (G+GR). Based on these correlations, the Raman band area ratios were found to correlate with the oxidation activity of coal providing additional structural information which can be used to understand the changes in the TGA measurements.

  7. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  8. A Developmental Shift from Positive to Negative Connectivity in Human Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Dylan G.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Telzer, Eva H.; Shapiro, Mor; Hare, Todd A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Recent human imaging and animal studies highlight the importance of frontoamygdala circuitry in the regulation of emotional behavior and its disruption in anxiety-related disorders. While tracing studies have suggested changes in amygdala-cortical connectivity through the adolescent period in rodents, less is known about the reciprocal connections within this circuitry across human development, when these circuits are being fine-tuned and substantial changes in emotional control are observed. The present study examined developmental changes in amygdala-prefrontal circuitry across the ages of 4 to 22 years using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results suggest positive amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in early childhood that switches to negative functional connectivity during the transition to adolescence. Amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity was significantly positive (greater than zero) among participants younger than ten, whereas functional connectivity was significantly negative (less than zero) among participants ten years and older, over and above the effect of amygdala reactivity. The developmental switch in functional connectivity was paralleled by a steady decline in amygdala reactivity. Moreover, the valence switch might explain age-related improvement in task performance and a developmentally normative decline in anxiety. Initial positive connectivity followed by a valence shift to negative connectivity provides a neurobiological basis for regulatory development and may present novel insight into a more general process of developing regulatory connections. PMID:23467374

  9. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  10. Studies on the catalysts for coal liquefaction. ; Specific behaviours of coals of different ranks in their hydrogenolysis reactions catalyzed by various kinds of catalysts. Sekitan ekikayo shokubai ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Suisoka bunkai seiseibutsu sosei ni oyobosu kakushu shokubai no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takechi, Y; Ikenaga, N; Oda, H; Yokokawa, C [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-11-07

    Three kinds of coals with different rank of 76, 85 and 87C% were hydrocracked to study the specific reaction behavior of four kinds of 1coal liquefaction catalysts such as CuCrO4, Fe2O3+S, MoO3-TiO2 and MoS3-Al2O3. The reaction was conducted without any solvent to find out the specific phenomenon of each combination of coal and catalyst, and terminated at the point where nearly 30% of an initial amount of coal is converted to benzene-soluble. The products were separated by GPC into four fractions, and their average molecular weights and intrinsic viscosities were measured to study characteristics of each combination. As a result, the molecular weight distribution was obviously dependent on the combination of coal and catalyst, and no specific relation was observed between the molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity. The molecular of each fraction had a bar shape with an elliptic section indicating no apparent correlation with the molecular weight. 3 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Clean Coal Day '94 Hokkaido International Seminar; Clean coal day '94 Hokkaido kokusai seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The lectures given at the seminar were 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Clean coal technology in the United Kingdom, and 3) How clean coal should be in Australia. In lecture 1), remarks are made on the importance of coal and its future, coal that protects forest, whether coal is a dirty fuel, coal combustion tests started relative to environmental pollution, acid rain in China and coal combustion, briquets effective in energy conservation, etc. In lecture 2), remarks are made on the importance of coal utilization in the United Kingdom, current state of coal utilization in power generation, problems related to gasification furnaces, problems related to combustors, problems related to high-temperature gas cleaning, function of cleaning filters, advantages of high-temperature gas treatment, actualities of gas combustors, studies of gas combustors, etc. In lecture 3), remarks are made on Australia's coal situation, problems related to clean coal technology, problems related to coal preparation technology, potentialities of Australian brown coal, coal utilization in power generation, need of new technology development, current state of coal utilization in Australia, coal utilization in metal-making industry, international cooperation on technology, etc. (NEDO)

  12. Clean Coal Day '94 Hokkaido International Seminar; Clean coal day '94 Hokkaido kokusai seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The lectures given at the seminar were 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Clean coal technology in the United Kingdom, and 3) How clean coal should be in Australia. In lecture 1), remarks are made on the importance of coal and its future, coal that protects forest, whether coal is a dirty fuel, coal combustion tests started relative to environmental pollution, acid rain in China and coal combustion, briquets effective in energy conservation, etc. In lecture 2), remarks are made on the importance of coal utilization in the United Kingdom, current state of coal utilization in power generation, problems related to gasification furnaces, problems related to combustors, problems related to high-temperature gas cleaning, function of cleaning filters, advantages of high-temperature gas treatment, actualities of gas combustors, studies of gas combustors, etc. In lecture 3), remarks are made on Australia's coal situation, problems related to clean coal technology, problems related to coal preparation technology, potentialities of Australian brown coal, coal utilization in power generation, need of new technology development, current state of coal utilization in Australia, coal utilization in metal-making industry, international cooperation on technology, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Studies on the decomposition of ethyl diazoacetate and its reaction with coal. Formation of a new tetrameric product and reagent access within the coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, M.; Rooney, P.

    A new tetrameric pyrazoline, 10, has been observed in the thermal and Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/-catalyzed decomposition of ethyl diazoacetate (2) as well as when several coal samples were treated thermally with 2 under various conditions. Identification of 10 was based on spectral properties and an independent synthesis. A comparison of the amounts of diethyl fumarate (3), diethyl maleate (4), the trimeric pyrazoline 5, triethyl trans-cyclopropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate (8), and the tetrameric pyrazoline 10 formed in the coal reactions with the relative quantities produced in the thermal and Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/-catalyzed reactions of 2, both neat and diluted with p-xylene, showed that there were several successive and competing reactions occurring, one of which was independent of the concentration of 2. Further, on the basis of the observation that the product distribution of 3-5, 8, and 10 in the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/-catalyzed decomposition of 2 in relatively dilute solution is similar to that observed in the coal reactions, with cyclopropane 8 being the major product in both cases, and that 2 is reacting mainly with the coal, it is concluded that 2 is fairly well dispersed within the coal. In addition, it is clear that swelling of the coal with dioxane did very little to facilitate access of 2 into the coal. Instead the dioxane merely acted to allow for more complete extraction of the products after 2 had reacted with the coal, presumably by keeping the matrix structure more open, than when the dioxane was not used. 26 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. A strategic approach to selecting policy mechanisms for addressing coal mine methane emissions: A case study on Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd; Ruiz, Felicia; Kholod, Nazar

    2017-12-01

    Coal production globally is projected to grow in the foreseeable future. Countries with heavy reliance on coal could reduce methane and other emissions through the capture and utilization of coal mine methane (CMM) in the short and medium term, while they pursue structural and long-term economic changes. Several countries have successfully implemented policies to promote CMM capture and utilization; however, some countries still struggle to implement projects. This paper outlines key factors to consider in adapting policies for CMM mitigation. The authors propose an approach for selecting adequate mechanisms for stimulating CMM mitigation that involves reviewing global best practices and categorizing them functionally either as mechanisms needed to improve the underlying conditions or as CMM-specific policies. It is important to understand local policy frameworks and to consider whether it is more feasible to improve underlying policy conditions or to provide targeted incentives as an interim measure. Using Kazakhstan as a case study, the authors demonstrate how policymakers could assess the overall policy framework to find the most promising options to facilitate CMM projects. Kazakhstan’s emissions from underground coal mines have been increasing both in total and per tonne of coal production, while overall production has been declining. CMM mitigation presents an opportunity for the country to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions in the near and medium term, while the government pursues sustainable development goals. Analysis shows that policymakers in Kazakhstan can leverage existing policies to stimulate utilization by extending feed-in tariffs to cover CMM and by developing working methodologies for companies to obtain emission reduction credits from CMM projects.

  15. Rational Design of Mixed-Metal Oxides for Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal via Coupled Computational-Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Amit [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Li, Fanxing [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Santiso, Erik [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-09-18

    Energy and global climate change are two grand challenges to the modern society. An urgent need exists for development of clean and efficient energy conversion processes. The chemical looping strategy, which utilizes regenerable oxygen carriers (OCs) to indirectly convert carbonaceous fuels via redox reactions, is considered to be one of the more promising approaches for CO2 capture by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). To date, most long-term chemical looping operations were conducted using gaseous fuels, even though direct conversion of coal is more desirable from both economics and CO2 capture viewpoints. The main challenges for direct coal conversion reside in the stringent requirements on oxygen carrier performances. In addition, coal char and volatile compounds are more challenging to convert than gaseous fuels. A promising approach for direct conversion of coal is the so called chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) technique. In the CLOU process, a metal oxide that decomposes at the looping temperature, and releases oxygen to the gas phase is used as the OC. The overarching objective of this project was to discover the fundamental principles for rational design and optimization of oxygen carriers (OC) in coal chemical looping combustion (CLC) processes. It directly addresses Topic Area B of the funding opportunity announcement (FOA) in terms of “predictive description of the phase behavior and mechanical properties” of “mixed metal oxide” based OCs and rational development of new OC materials with superior functionality. This was achieved through studies exploring i) iron-containing mixed-oxide composites as oxygen carriers for CLOU, ii) Ca1-xAxMnO3-δ (A = Sr and Ba) as oxygen carriers for CLOU, iii) CaMn1-xBxO3-δ (B=Al, V, Fe, Co, and Ni) as oxygen carrier for CLOU and iv) vacancy creation energy in Mn-containing perovskites as an indicator chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling.

  16. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  17. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  18. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bežovská Mária

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  19. Brown coal derived humate inhibits contact hypersensitivity; An efficacy, toxicity and teratogenicity study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Snyman, J.R.; Mokoele, T.; Cromarty, A.D. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Faculty of Health Science

    2007-10-15

    The effects of two humate products were compared to that of prednisolone on a contact hypersensitivity rat model. Rats, sensitized with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), were placed on a daily oral treatment of 61 mg/kg BW of humate derived from either leonardite or bituminous coal or on prednisolone at one mg/kg BW and challenged 6 days later with a topical application of DNFB to the right ear. The inflamed ears were measured daily. In a toxicity study rats were exposed to daily oral treatment of leonardite humate at 1,000 mg/kg BW for 1 month. A teratogenicity study was done where pregnant rats were treated with 500 mg/kg BW on days 5 to 17 of pregnancy. Only the leonardite humate compared favourably with prednisolone in suppressing contact hypersensitivity. No signs of toxicity were observed and weight gain was normal during the 6-day and 1 month treatments and during the teratogenicity study with the leonardite humate. However, the rats on the other two products experienced slower weight gain. The identification of a naturally occurring nontoxic compound with anti-inflammatory activity is exciting and merits further evaluation in the treatment of patients suffering from inflammatory conditions.

  20. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  1. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    There are several aspects of the Direct Coal Liquefaction process which are not fully understood and which if better understood might lead to improved yields and conversions. Among these questions are the roles of the catalyst and the solvent. While the solvent is known to act by transfer of hydrogen atoms to the free radicals formed by thermal breakdown of the coal in an uncatalyzed system, in the presence of a solid catalyst as is now currently practiced, the yields and conversions are higher than in an uncatalyzed system. The role of the catalyst in this case is not completely understood. DOE has funded many projects to produce ultrafine and more active catalysts in the expectation that better contact between catalyst and coal might result. This approach has met with limited success probably because mass transfer between two solids in a fluid medium i.e. the catalyst and the coal, is very poor. It is to develop an understanding of the role of the catalyst and solvent in Direct Liquefaction that this project was initiated. Specifically it was of interest to know whether direct contact between the coal and the catalyst was important. By separating the solid catalyst in a stainless steel basket permeable to the solvent but not the coal in the liquefaction reactor, it was shown that the catalyst still maintains a catalytic effect on the liquefaction process. There is apparently transfer of hydrogen atoms from the catalyst through the basket wall to the coal via the solvent. Strong hydrogen donor solvents appear to be more effective in this respect than weak hydrogen donors. It therefore appears that intimate contact between catalyst and coal is not a requirement, and that the role of the catalyst may be to restore the hydrogen donor strength to the solvent as the reaction proceeds. A range of solvents of varying hydrogen donor strength was investigated. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory in was noted that the peak

  2. Sex Differences in Stress Response Circuitry Activation Dependent on Female Hormonal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M.; Jerram, Matthew; Abbs, Brandon; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    Understanding sex differences in stress regulation has important implications for understanding basic physiological differences in the male and female brain and their impact on vulnerability to sex differences in chronic medical disorders associated with stress response circuitry. In this fMRI study, we demonstrated that significant sex differences in brain activity in stress response circuitry were dependent on women's menstrual cycle phase. Twelve healthy Caucasian premenopausal women were compared to a group of healthy men from the same population, based on age, ethnicity, education, and right-handedness. Subjects were scanned using negative valence/high arousal versus neutral visual stimuli that we demonstrated activated stress response circuitry (amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices (OFC and mPFC), and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Women were scanned twice based on normal variation in menstrual cycle hormones (i.e., early follicular (EF) compared with late follicular-midcycle menstrual phases (LF/MC)). Using SPM8b, there were few significant differences in BOLD signal changes in men compared to EF women, except ventromedial (VMN) and lateral (LHA) hypothalamus, left amygdala, and ACG. In contrast, men exhibited significantly greater BOLD signal changes compared to LF/MC women on bilateral ACG and OFC, mPFC, LHA, VMN, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray, with largest effect sizes in mPFC and OFC. Findings suggest that sex differences in stress response circuitry are hormonally regulated via the impact of subcortical brain activity on the cortical control of arousal, and demonstrate that females have been endowed with a natural hormonal capacity to regulate the stress response that differs from males. PMID:20071507

  3. Statins Promote Long-Term Recovery after Ischemic Stroke by Reconnecting Noradrenergic Neuronal Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Joo Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase (statins, widely used to lower cholesterol in coronary heart and vascular disease, are effective drugs in reducing the risk of stroke and improving its outcome in the long term. After ischemic stroke, cardiac autonomic dysfunction and psychological problems are common complications related to deficits in the noradrenergic (NA system. This study investigated the effects of statins on the recovery of NA neuron circuitry and its function after transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI. Using the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA transgene technique combined with the recombinant adenoviral vector system, NA-specific neuronal pathways were labeled, and were identified in the locus coeruleus (LC, where NA neurons originate. NA circuitry in the atorvastatin-treated group recovered faster than in the vehicle-treated group. The damaged NA circuitry was partly reorganized with the gradual recovery of autonomic dysfunction and neurobehavioral deficit. Newly proliferated cells might contribute to reorganizing NA neurons and lead anatomic and functional recovery of NA neurons. Statins may be implicated to play facilitating roles in the recovery of the NA neuron and its function.

  4. A spatial analysis of China's coal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Dunguo; Li Zhi

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of China's energy structure and the distribution of its coal resources make coal transportation a very important component of the energy system; moreover, coal transportation acts as a bottleneck for the Chinese economy. To insure the security of the coal supply, China has begun to build regional strategic coal reserves at some locations, but transportation is still the fundamental way to guaranty supply security. Here, we study China's coal transportation quantitatively with a linear programming method that analyses the direction and volume of China's coal flows with the prerequisite that each province's supply and demand balance is guaranteed. First, we analyse the optimal coal transportation for the status quo coal supply and demand given the bottleneck effects that the Daqin Railway has on China's coal flow; second, we analyse the influence of future shifts in the coal supply zone in the future, finding that China's coal flows will also change, which will pressure China to construct railways and ports; and finally, we analyse the possibility of exploiting Yangtze River capacity for coal transportation. We conclude the paper with suggestions for enhancing China's coal transportation security. - Highlights: ► We use linear programming to study China's coal transportation. ► First, analyse the optimal coal flow under the status quo condition. ► Second, analyse influences of coal supply zone shifts to Neimeng and Xinjiang. ► Third, analyse the influence of using Yangtze River for coal transportation. ► At last, we give suggestions about infrastructure construction to guaranty China's long-run coal supply security.

  5. US and world coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, B

    1988-07-01

    This paper reviews the US's coal trade with other countries in the world. Despite being pressed to support domestic coal producers, US utilities are looking towards Colombia for more of their supplies. Whilst the amount of Colombian coal imported into the US is small, it is a combination of this and coal imported from Australia, Canada and China which is causing concern. Studies indicate that the volume of coal imported into the US may rise to 3 Mt/year within three years. Coal exports may suffer if Brazil bans the import of significant quantities of US coking coal in retaliation against American trade sanctions against Brazilian computer import barriers. Also, Romania is expected to impose tariffs on US imports which will have an impact on US coal exported to Romania. US remains the top coal exporter to the European Communities but its lead was cut back due to a big rise of Australian export. A portion of EC market has also been lost to the USSR and Poland. Meanwhile, Japan is resisting buying US's steam coal because it is too expensive.

  6. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  7. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua LI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China. The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei, and there is no report about whether the epidemic levels and the pathogen of lung cancer in other area of eastern Yunnan is similar to that in xuanwei. The aim of this study is to epidemic levels and cause of lung cancer in coal-producing area in the east of Yunnan province. Methods 382 study units (nature villages were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from coalproducing area in eastern Yunnan province, China. The villagers who were aged 30-79 years with no history of lung cancer were enrolled. All the participants received an initial single-view posterior-anterior chest radiograph and administered a questionnaire survey (which involves the information of demography, household and fuel use, lifestyle, tobacco and occupational exposure history, family and personal medical history, etc. The subjects with a positive screen by chest x-ray underwent to have a computed tomography scan of the chest and biopsy examination. The confidence interval of the standardized rate ratio were adopted to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in different regions. Results 52,833 villagers were surveyed and screened with X-ray. 604 of them were suspicious lung cancer with an initial chest radiograph, 541 underwent CT scan (362 were diagnosed by CT and 109 were diagnosed by histology. The adjusted positive rates for lung cancer screening with CT is 763.08 per 100,000, the age-standardized rate (ASR with the world standard population is 426.28 per 100,000 (95% confidence

  8. Potential minability and economic viability of the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, north-central Armenia; a prefeasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas W.; Pierce, Brenda S.

    2000-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a coal resource assessment of several areas in Armenia from 1997 to 1999. This report, which presents a prefeasibility study of the economic and mining potential of one coal deposit found and studied by the USGS team, was prepared using all data available at the time of the study and the results of the USGS exploratory work, including core drilling, trenching, coal quality analyses, and other ongoing field work. On the basis of information currently available, it is the authors? opinion that a small surface coal mine having about a 20-year life span could be developed in the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, specifically at the Dzoragukh site. The mining organization selected or created to establish the mine will need to conduct necessary development drilling and other work to establish the final feasibility study for the mine. The company will need to be entrepreneurial, profit oriented, and sensitive to the coal consumer; have an analytical management staff; and focus on employee training, safety, and protection of the environment. It is anticipated that any interested parties will be required to submit detailed mining plans to the appropriate Armenian Government agencies. Further development work will be required to reach a final decision regarding the economic feasibility of the mine. However, available information indicates that a small, economic surface mine can be developed at this locality. The small mine suggested is a typical surface-outcropstripping, contour mining operation. In addition, auger mining is strongly suggested, because the recovery of these low-cost mining reserves will help to ensure that the operation will be a viable, economic enterprise. (Auger mining is a system in which large-diameter boreholes are placed horizontally into the coal seam at the final highwall set as the economic limit for the surface mining operation). A special horizontal boring machine, which can be imported from

  9. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  10. Study on adsorption performance of coal based activated carbon to radioactive iodine and stable iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junbo; Hao, Shan; Gao, Liping; Zhang, Youchen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The impregnated coal-based activated carbons as adsorbent for removing methyl iodide. • The coal-based activated carbons to remove stable iodine. • Iodine residues are under 0.5 μg/ml after adsorption treatment. • The decontamination factor is much higher than 1000. - Abstract: Nuclear power plant, nuclear reactors and nuclear powered ship exhaust contains a large amount of gaseous radioactive iodine, and can damage to the workplace and the surrounding environment. The quantitative test to remove methyl iodide and the qualitative test for removing stable iodine were investigated using the impregnated coal-based activated carbons and coal-based activated carbons as adsorbents. The research conducted in this work shows that iodine residues were under 0.5 μg/ml after adsorption treatment and the decontamination factor of the coal-based activated carbon for removing the stable iodine was more than 1000, which can achieve the purpose of removing harmful iodine, and satisfy the requirement of gaseous waste treatment of nuclear powered vessel and other nuclear plants

  11. A preliminary high-pressure thermogravimetric study of combustion reactivity of a Collie coal char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Yii Leng; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Dongke [Western Australia Univ., Crawley, WA (Australia). Centre for Energy (M473); Luan, Chao [Western Australia Univ., Crawley, WA (Australia). Centre for Energy (M473); Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering; You, Changfu [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The effect of pressure(up to 20 bar)on the reactivity of a char(150-160 {mu}m) produced from Western Australian Collie coal has been studied using a high-pressure thermogravimetric analyser (HP TGA). The pressure demonstrated a positive effect in enhancing char combustion reactivities.Kinetic parameters have been determined from the experimental data.The apparent reaction order was found to be approximately 0.7 and the apparent activation energies were 91.0 kJ/mol at atmospheric pressure and 1.5 kJ/mol at an elevated pressure(10 bar),indicating a shift in the control regimes of the reaction at elevated pressures.The lumped effect of the sample size, bulk diffusion,interparticle and intraparticle diffusion at the elevated pressures played an important role in reducing the mass transfer during the HP-TGA experimentation.Thus the activation energy calculated at elevated pressures may not represent the intrinsic activation energy of the char particles but the apparent values of the bulk of the samples.

  12. Study on the change law of soil in subsidence area of horizontal coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfeng; Wang, Shugang; Liu, Wei

    2017-11-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for land reclamation in subsidence area, the mining subsidence area is divided into three areas: zone I (stretching zone), zone II (compression zone) and zone III (neutral zone). On this basis, the change characteristics of the soil in the three areas of the horizontal coal seam mining subsidence area are studied. The results show that: due to stretching, soil of zone I cracks was developed, the soil continuity damage, poor integrity, serious leakage of soil Water Leakage fertilizer, the area shows the soil water holding capacity decreased, the decline of soil fertility, soil coarsening and barren trend. The soil mass in zone II is compressed and the soil structure is relatively complete, but the soil bulk density increases correspondingly, while the soil porosity decreases gradually and the permeability decreases. The main soil layer in the zone III is vertical deformation, and the soil integrity is better. But the influence of mined out area leads to the movement of water and nutrients to the lower part of the soil. This paper suggests that in the land reclamation process should adopt corresponding reclamation method based on the variation law of the three soil area of reclamation area of mining subsidence, for improving soil physicochemical properties, so as to achieve the purpose of effective reclamation.

  13. Chemical reaction engineering studies on cocracking of petroleum vacuum residue with coal, plastics, and biomass (bagasse and petrocrop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2007-07-01

    This article deals with the studies on cocracking of petroleum vacuum residue (XVR) with thermosetting plastic, I. e., bakelite (BL), Samla coal (SC), biomass, I. e., bagasse (BG) or C. procera (CL) and their binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The kinetic studies were performed using the Coats and Redfern kinetic modeling equation. The overall activation energies obtained were 25 kJ/mole for petroleum vacuum residue, 99 kJ/mole for polypropylene, 21 kJ/mole for coal, 23 kJ/mole for Calotropis procera, and 25 kJ/mole for the combination of these four materials. However, other models, such as van Krevelan et al. and Horowitz and Metzger have also been used in some cases to compare the results with those obtained by the Coats and Redfern kinetic models. In the present work, the effect of catalysts on the cracking of Basra vacuum residue (BVR) has also been reported.

  14. World coal perspectives to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In Summer 2004, The World Energy Council published a Study on 'Sustainable Global Energy Development: the Case of Coal'. The Study aims at developing an internationally consistent reply to the question whether and to what extent coal use could be economic and sustainable in meeting global energy demand to 2030 and beyond. It covers markets, trade and demand, mining and combustion technologies, restructuring and international policies, and perspectives. It considers both, the contribution that coal could make to economic development as well as the need for coal adapt to the exigencies of security of supply, local environmental protection and mitigation of climate change. (Author)

  15. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  16. A study of trends in occupational risks associated with coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoudru, C.

    1980-01-01

    The coal industry is well known as a major source of specific types of risk and harmful effects including, for instance, harm to the environment, pollution from various surface installations and hazards associated with the actual task of mining. We shall confine our attention to the third group and discuss only the occupational risks facing miners and ex-miners. Unlike the nuclear and oil industries, coal-mines employ very large work-forces, and the risks associated with mining therefore have a considerable impact. Mining is also a highly integrated industry: a mine's own work-force carries out all the underground engineering work (preparatory excavations, installation work, etc.) as well as maintenance. In this narrow field, a distinction should immediately be drawn between two main areas: industrial accidents; and occupational diseases, which include silicosis or, more precisely, coal-miner's pneumoconiosis

  17. Co-gasification of Colombian coal and biomass in fluidized bed: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhon F. Velez; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Eder J. Emery; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    The main results of an experimental work on co-gasification of Colombian biomass/coal blends in a fluidized bed working at atmospheric pressure are reported in this paper. Several samples of blends were prepared by mixing 6-15wt% biomass (sawdust, rice or coffee husk) with coal. Experimental assays were carried out by using mixtures of different steams/blends (Rvc) and air/blend (Rac) ratios showing the feasibility to implement co-gasification as energetic alternative to produce fuel gas to heat and to generate electricity and the possibility of converting clean and efficiently the refuse coal to a low-heating value gas. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. An isotopic study of the role of carbon dioxide in outbursts in coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.W.; Gould, K.W.

    1980-01-01

    The occurrence of instantaneous outbursting in the Bulli coal seam at the West Cliff Colliery, Appin, NSW can be correlated directly with an increase in concentration (0.5 to 75%) and a related decrease in the 13 C content (delta 13 C + 16 to -0.8% PDB) of the CO 2 in the seam gas. Two sources of CO 2 are required. The greater incidence of outbursting in CO 2 -rich zones is explained by the conversion to bicarbonate of cleat and fracture filling calcite deep within the coal and the transport of this bicarbonate in water to mine openings. The weakening of the resistance of the coal to shear by this removal of carbonate is an additional factor to be considered in assessing outbursting situations. (author)

  19. A study on the char burnout characteristics of coal and biomass blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdad Moghtaderi [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment

    2007-10-15

    The char burnout characteristics of coal/biomass blends under conditions pertinent to pulverised fuel combustors were investigated by a combined modelling and experimental approach. Results indicate that blending of coal with biomass increases the likelihood of char extinction (i.e. extinction potential of the char particle in the blend), in turn, decreasing the char burnout level. Our modelling results attribute this to a reduction in the char particle size to levels below a critical dimension which appears to be a strong function of the fuel blending ratio (the weight percentage of biomass in the blend), fuel reactivity, char cloud shape and particle density number. It is demonstrated here that the drop in the char burnout level during co-firing can be effectively resolved when a more reactive secondary coal is added to the blend to minimise its extinction potential. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Study on HOPE Management Mode of Coal Enterprises Based on Systematic Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoran, Zhang; Tianzhu, Zhang; Wenjing, Tong

    2018-02-01

    The extensive management mode of coal enterprises is no longer applicable to the demand of enterprise development under the new economic situation. Combined with the characteristics of coal mine production, based on the system of thinking, integration of lean, people, comprehensive, job management theory, formed HOPE management model, including a core system and three support systems and 18 elements. There are three stages in the development and implementation of this model. To 6S site management for the initial stage to job process reengineering for the intermediate stage to post value process control for the advanced stage. The successful implementation of HOPE model in coal enterprises needs comprehensive control from five aspects: lean culture construction, flattening organizational structure, cost control system, performance appraisal system and lean information management platform. HOPE model can be implemented smoothly and make “win-win” between enterprises and employees.

  1. A Study of Coal Miners’ Safety Psychological Elements Based on Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zeng-bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the production process, the instability of safety psychological elements of coal miners contributes to unsafe behaviors that may result in fatal accident. To search the dominant psychological elements, three types of unsafe psychology, comprising 18 unsafe psychological elements, are obtained by theoretical analysis and site survey. Then, an assessment model is established, and a matched questionnaire is applied to two large modern coal mines in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Based on questionnaire survey results and analytic hierarchy process (AHP, assessment judgment matrixes are constructed, effect weight is calculated, and consistency check is conducted. The analysis results show that safety psychology elements of defective type are the dominant elements that trigger unsafe behaviors of coal miners.

  2. Case studies in public/private cooperation to revitalize America: coal. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The committee found that coal is the preferred fuel to (1) bridge the gap until renewable energy supplies are adequate, and (2) support economic growth. It also found that the US is in a good position to expand coal production and export, which would help to revitalize American industry and improve the US balance of payments. To do this, they feel the government must increase its support of mining and coal-use research and developments, encourage the development and use of safer and less-polluting technology, grant eminent domain for slurry-pipeline construction, improve port facilities, establish national environmental standards with special assistance to states as needed, and accelerate research on the effects and alleviation of acid rain. The private and public sectors must cooperate to finance these efforts, with the government filling the role of catalyst. 30 references. (DCK)

  3. Addiction Circuitry in the Human Brain*

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S.; Tomasi, Dardo

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person’s risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circ...

  4. Ambitious coal to gasoline plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, P

    1979-06-20

    A design study carried out by Badger Energy concludes that the first US commercial gasoline from coal facility could be completed in eight years. The cost of gasoline would be 1.09 US dollars/gal. in 1990 with coal at 25 US dollars/ton. The process involves oxygen-blown coal gasification, conversion to methanol by the Mobil process, gas fractionation and HF alkylation.

  5. An Ecological Study on the Introduction of the Banded Sculpin Into a Coal Flyash Impacted Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, B.A.; Ryon, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    A number of banded sculpins [Cottus carolinae (Gill)] were obtained from a population in a reference stream, marked with subcutaneous acrylic paint injections, and introduced into McCoy Branch, a small second-order stream located on the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee, which was inhabited by only a few banded sculpins prior to the study. McCoy Branch had received deposits of coal ash slurry for a prolonged period, however, there were some indications of recovery in the macroinvertebrate community due to improvements in water quality. Stream habitat characteristics and water chemistry parameters were monitored in McCoy Branch and a reference stream for a three-year period. Feeding patterns and reproductive activities of the banded sculpins were also monitored during the study. Sculpin population parameters including density, condition factor, and young-of-year (YOY) abundance and survival were studied. The results of the study show that the introduced fish have survived and appear to be in good condition. The sculpins have maintained a density of approximately 0.12 fish per square meter of stream, a figure similar to that found in other headwater streams located in the region. Colonization rates and sculpin densities in McCoy Branch were lower than expected, perhaps due to physical habitat degradation and reduced macroinvertebrate abundance. Evidence of sculpin reproduction in McCoy Branch was seen in the presence of gravid female sculpins (1994 and 1995) and YOY fish (1993 through 1995 year classes). This study indicates that McCoy Branch continues to recover from past perturbations to the point where it can now support a viable population of banded sculpins

  6. An Ecological Study on the Introduction of the Banded Sculpin Into a Coal Flyash Impacted Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrico, B.A.; Ryon, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    A number of banded sculpins [Cottus carolinae (Gill)] were obtained from a population in a reference stream, marked with subcutaneous acrylic paint injections, and introduced into McCoy Branch, a small second-order stream located on the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee, which was inhabited by only a few banded sculpins prior to the study. McCoy Branch had received deposits of coal ash slurry for a prolonged period, however, there were some indications of recovery in the macroinvertebrate community due to improvements in water quality. Stream habitat characteristics and water chemistry parameters were monitored in McCoy Branch and a reference stream for a three-year period. Feeding patterns and reproductive activities of the banded sculpins were also monitored during the study. Sculpin population parameters including density, condition factor, and young-of-year (YOY) abundance and survival were studied. The results of the study show that the introduced fish have survived and appear to be in good condition. The sculpins have maintained a density of approximately 0.12 fish per square meter of stream, a figure similar to that found in other headwater streams located in the region. Colonization rates and sculpin densities in McCoy Branch were lower than expected, perhaps due to physical habitat degradation and reduced macroinvertebrate abundance. Evidence of sculpin reproduction in McCoy Branch was seen in the presence of gravid female sculpins (1994 and 1995) and YOY fish (1993 through 1995 year classes). This study indicates that McCoy Branch continues to recover from past perturbations to the point where it can now support a viable population of banded sculpins.

  7. Report on the coal type committee meetings in fiscal 1988; 1989 nendo tanshu iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a report on the coal type committee meetings in fiscal 1988. It summarizes the report mainly on the data distributed at the first and second coal type committee meetings. It describes liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals in the coal type selection and investigation. In order to develop jointly by Japan and China the coal liquefaction technology, liquefaction tests have been performed on Chinese coals since fiscal 1982 by using the small continuous testing equipment (0.1 t/d) installed in the Beijing Soot and Coal Science Research Institute. The test is now in the third phase. The first sub-committee meeting reported the result on the Shenmu Simengou coal. The coal type investigation has analyzed coal samples collected from the world, classified them into brown coal, sub-bituminous coal of low coal rank, sub-bituminous coal, highly volatile bituminous coal of low coal rank, and highly volatile bituminous coal, and presented a list of candidate coals for liquefaction. Regarding the liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals, the second coal type committee meeting reported the result on the Fuxin Qinghemen coal, and the result on the Tianzhu coal as revealed by using the NEDOL process BSU. The paper also presents the interim report on the research achievements in fiscal 1988 on the liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals and the research achievements of the investigation and study in fiscal 1988 on the treatment technologies for coals used for coal gasification 'coal type selection and investigation'. (NEDO)

  8. Research of coal flash hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Zhu, H.; Wu, Y.; Tang, L.; Cheng, L.; Xu, Z. [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2001-02-01

    Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses the organic sufur of seven different Chinese coals and their semi-cokes from flash hydropyrolysis were studied. The results showed that the organic sulfur in coal was alkyal sulfur and thiophene with the peak of XPS located in 163.1-163.5 eV and 164.1-164.5 eV. The relative thiophene content in coal increased with the coal rank. The type of organic sulfur in semi-coke in flash hydropyrolysis was generally thiophene species; its XPS peak also located in 164.1-164.5 eV, and was in accord with its corresponding coal. Total alkyl sulfur and some thiophene sulfur were removed during the flash hydropyrolysis process. The alkyl sulfur had very high activity in hydrogenation reaction. Flash hydropyrolysis was an important new clean-coal technique and had notable desulfurization effect. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Study on Resources Assessment of Coal Seams covered by Long-Distance Oil & Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Wei; Hou, Hanfang

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of mineral resources covered by construction projects plays an important role in reducing the overlaying of important mineral resources and ensuring the smooth implementation of construction projects. To take a planned long-distance gas pipeline as an example, the assessment method and principles for coal resources covered by linear projects are introduced. The areas covered by multiple coal seams are determined according to the linear projection method, and the resources covered by pipelines directly and indirectly are estimated by using area segmentation method on the basis of original blocks. The research results can provide references for route optimization of projects and compensation for mining right..

  10. A study of trends in occupational risks associated with coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoundru, C.

    1980-10-01

    The occupational risks associated with underground coal mining can be categorized as either industrial accidents or occupational diseases. Since 1957, the number of fatal accidents per million tons of coal produced has dropped by a factor of four. The number of industrial accidents in general decreased by 30% during 1967-75. The main occupational diseases affecting miners are arthrosis, deafness, and pneumoconiosis. To make an objective comparison with the health hazards from other sources of energy, the probable risks facing workers in a modern mine should be compared with those currently confronting workers in other industries.

  11. Evaluation of environmental stress imposed by a coal-ash effluent: Wisconsin power plant impact study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, K.E.; Forbes, A.M.; Magnuson, J.L.

    1985-06-01

    Effluent discharged from the coal-ash settling basin of the Columbia Generating Station (Wisconsin) modified water chemistry (increased trace metal concentrations, suspended solids and dissolved materials) and substrate quality (precipitation of chemical floc) in the receiving stream, the ash pit drain. To test the hypothesis that habitat avoidance could account for declines in macroinvertebrate density observed after discharge began, drift rates of two species were measured in laboratory streams containing combinations of reference and coal-ash-modified substrate and water. Contrary to the hypothesis, drift was uniformly lower in laboratory streams containing modified substrate and/or water compared to the reference condition for Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and Asellus racovitzai.

  12. Experimental study of Coal Pyrolysis 1.: Review of the experimental information from the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugony, F.; Migliavacca, G.

    2007-01-01

    A brief analysis of some of the main experimental works published in the past decades about coal pyrolysis is here reported. In particular the results of some series of experiments are cited and reported in details, coming from the activity of some important international research teams; they supply a survey wide and complete enough of the different operating and experimental conditions proposed in this field. With the aim of giving a comparison benchmark for the original experimental data published in the companion paper of this series and in order to grant a good support to the validation of the predictive models of coal devolatilization [it

  13. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianwei, Lan; Hongwei, Zhang; Sheng, Li; Weihua, Song; Batugin, A. C.; Guoshui, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  14. Adaptive Pulvinar Circuitry Supports Visual Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Holly; Leopold, David A; Bourne, James A

    2016-02-01

    The pulvinar is the largest thalamic nucleus in primates and one of the most mysterious. Endeavors to understand its role in vision have focused on its abundant connections with the visual cortex. While its connectivity mapping in the cortex displays a broad topographic organization, its projections are also marked by considerable convergence and divergence. As a result, the pulvinar is often regarded as a central forebrain hub. Moreover, new evidence suggests that its comparatively modest input from structures such as the retina and superior colliculus may critically shape the functional organization of the visual cortex, particularly during early development. Here we review recent studies that cast fresh light on how the many convergent pathways through the pulvinar contribute to visual cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

    2011-09-27

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

  16. Studies in coal liquefaction with application to the SRC and related processes. Quarterly report, May-July 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.

    1984-03-01

    This report examines liquid-phase adsorption as a possible method of studying the interactions between coal liquids and hydrotreating catalysts. The duel purposes of this work are to develop a method to determine specific surface areas of porous catalysts and to examine how compounds commonly found in coal liquids are adsorbed on hydrotreating catalysts. The liquid-phase adsorption studies were performed at room temperature in tubing bomb reactors. Adsorption isotherms obtained from these experiments were assumed to follow Langmuir-type behavior. Compounds used in these studies included PNA compounds, a basic nitrogen containing compound, and an acidic oxygen containing compound. Various commercial grade catalysts as well as presulfided CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and presulfided iron oxide were used as adsorbents. Experiments have shown that quinoline, a basic nitrogen containing compound, appears to be an excellent compound for surface area determination via liquid-phase adsorption. Adsorption of compounds such as pyrene, a PNA compound, and phenol, an acidic oxygen containing compound, may be used to determine the relative areas of different types of sites on catalyst surfaces. The sensitivity of this liquid-phase adsorption technique was evaluated by adsorbing different solutes on various catalyst surfaces. This technique shows that the adsorptivity of different coal liquids is a distinct function of the individual properties of the adsorbate as well as the properties of adsorbent used. Comparison of the adsorption properties of these coal liquids on various adsorbents may give insights as to how they adsorb on hydrotreating catalysts, how they compete for the active catalyst sites, and what types of sites the adsorbed molecules occupy. 29 references, 37 figures, 41 tables.

  17. Low Power/Low Voltage Interface Circuitry for Capacitive Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furst, Claus Efdmann

    This thesis focuses mainly on low power/low voltage interface circuits, implemented in CMOS, for capacitive sensors. A brief discussion of demands and possibilities for analog signal processing in the future is presented. Techniques for low power design is presented. This is done by analyzing power...... power consumption. It is shown that the Sigma-Delta modulator is advantageous when embedded in a feedback loop with a mechanical sensor. Here a micro mechanical capacitive microphone. Feedback and detection circuitry for a capacitive microphone is presented. Practical implementations of low power....../low voltage interface circuitry is presented. It is demonstrated that an amplifier optimized for a capacitive microphone implemented in a standard 0.7 micron CMOS technology competes well with a traditional JFET amplifier. Furthermore a low power/low voltage 3rd order Sigma-Delta modulator is presented...

  18. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  19. Influence of coal mine tips on the chalk aquifer. Sampling methods for three dimensional sulphate infiltration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrez, F.; Mania, J.; Mansy, J.L.; Piwakowski, B.

    2005-01-01

    The coal basin of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) shows a very strong deterioration of the Chalk aquifer quality. In order to better model the hydro-dynamism and to improve knowledge on the chemical interactions, sampling according to depth of the groundwater is undertaken. The low-flow sampling and the profiles of the in-situ physicochemical parameters allow the observation of various vertical heterogeneities of the aquifer. The areas where the coal mine tips are localised appear very interesting to study. The sulphates released by the pyrite oxidation allow a 'artificial tracing' and give a visualization of the flow as well as information on the implied chemical processes between the oxidizing and reducing zones. (authors)

  20. Biological carbon fixation: A study of Isochrysis sp. growth under actual coal-fired power plant's flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, Liyana; Chik, Muhammad Nazry; Pang, Mohd Asyraf Mohd Azmir

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary study on the growth of marine microalgae Isochrysis sp. was carried out using actual flue gas from a coal-fired power station. The species was cultured using a 2×10-L customized bubble column photobioreactor skid under specified culture conditions. With an initial culture density of 0.459 Abs (optical density at 560 nm wavelength), the species was found able to survive – observed by increases in optical densities, number of cells and weights – in the presence of actual coal-fired flue gas containing on average 4.08 % O 2 , 200.21 mg/m 3 SO 2 , 212.29 mg/m 3 NO x , 4.73 % CO 2 and 50.72 mg/m 3 CO. Results thus add value to the potential and capability of microalgae, especially for Isochrysis sp., to be the biological carbon fixer in neutralizing carbon emissions from power plants.

  1. Influence of coal mine tips on the chalk aquifer. Sampling methods for three dimensional sulphate infiltration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrez, F.; Mania, J. [Polytech' Lille, Dept. Genie Civil, UMR CNRS 8107 (LML), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Mansy, J.L. [Lille-1 Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et de Geodynamique, UMR CNRS 8110 (PBDS), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Piwakowski, B. [Ecole Centrale de Lille, Groupe Electronique Acoustique IEMN-DOAE, UMR CNRS 8520, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2005-07-01

    The coal basin of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) shows a very strong deterioration of the Chalk aquifer quality. In order to better model the hydro-dynamism and to improve knowledge on the chemical interactions, sampling according to depth of the groundwater is undertaken. The low-flow sampling and the profiles of the in-situ physicochemical parameters allow the observation of various vertical heterogeneities of the aquifer. The areas where the coal mine tips are localised appear very interesting to study. The sulphates released by the pyrite oxidation allow a 'artificial tracing' and give a visualization of the flow as well as information on the implied chemical processes between the oxidizing and reducing zones. (authors)

  2. Analysis and study on the performance variation of SCR DeNOx catalyst of Coal-Fired Boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianxing, Ren; Fangqin, Li; Jiang, Wu; Qingrong, Liu; Yongwen, Yang; Zhongzhu, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are one kind of harmful substances from the burning process of fossil fuel and air at high temperature. NO x emissions cause serious pollution on atmospheric environment. In this paper, coal-fired utility boilers were chosen as the object, NO x formation mechanism and control were studied, and SCR deNO x technology was used to control NO x emissions from coal-fired boilers. Analyzed the relationship between deNO x efficiency and characteristics of SCR DeNO x catalyst. Through analysis, affecting SCR DeNO x catalyst failure factors, change law of catalytic properties and technical measures to extend the service life of the catalyst were gotten. (author)

  3. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production-Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammelis, P.; Koukouzas, N.; Skodras, G.; Kakaras, E.; Tumanovsky, A.; Kotler, V.

    2006-01-01

    The paper aims to present the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NO x abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station

  4. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production-Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammelis, P. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece) and Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: pgra@central.ntua.gr; Koukouzas, N. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Skodras, G. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Kakaras, E. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Tumanovsky, A. [VTI All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (Russian Federation); Kotler, V. [VTI All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-15

    The paper aims to present the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NO {sub x} abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station.

  5. A case study of long-term geochemical evolution of coal waste rock drainage and its remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, A.P.; Gandy, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    The geochemical evolution of drainage from an 35 hectare orphan waste rock pile over a 15-year period was described. Spoil material at the site was generated during coal mining at 2 collieries between 1922 and 1970, and was comprised of grey and black shale, ash, coal, and coal dust. The heap was founded on an impermeable clay layer. Located in northern England, drainage from the rock heap was intercepted by a small compost wetland system installed in 1997. The waste rock heap was selectively capped in 1998. Water samples were collected and analyzed. Anion concentrations were determined using an ion chromatograph. The samples were filtered periodically. Acidity concentrations and flow rates were determined. Results of the study showed measurable improvements in water quality as a result of capping the heap. The study demonstrated that a combination of selective spoil capping and wetland treatment can serve as a low-cost solution to acid mine drainage at some abandoned mine sites. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  6. A case study of long-term geochemical evolution of coal waste rock drainage and its remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, A.P.; Gandy, C.J. [Newcastle Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach Group

    2010-07-01

    The geochemical evolution of drainage from an 35 hectare orphan waste rock pile over a 15-year period was described. Spoil material at the site was generated during coal mining at 2 collieries between 1922 and 1970, and was comprised of grey and black shale, ash, coal, and coal dust. The heap was founded on an impermeable clay layer. Located in northern England, drainage from the rock heap was intercepted by a small compost wetland system installed in 1997. The waste rock heap was selectively capped in 1998. Water samples were collected and analyzed. Anion concentrations were determined using an ion chromatograph. The samples were filtered periodically. Acidity concentrations and flow rates were determined. Results of the study showed measurable improvements in water quality as a result of capping the heap. The study demonstrated that a combination of selective spoil capping and wetland treatment can serve as a low-cost solution to acid mine drainage at some abandoned mine sites. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  7. Bioenergetic studies of coal sulfur oxidation by extremely thermophilic bacteria. Final report, September 15, 1992--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.M.; Han, C.J.

    1997-12-31

    Thermoacidophilic microorganisms have been considered for inorganic sulfur removal from coal because of expected improvements in rates of both biotic and abiotic sulfur oxidation reactions with increasing temperature. In this study, the bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon, Metallosphaera sedula, to environmental changes have been examined in relation to its capacity to catalyze pyrite oxidation in coal. Given an appropriate bioenergetic challenge, the metabolic response was to utilize additional amounts of energy sources (i.e., pyrite) to survive. Of particular interest were the consequences of exposing the organism to various forms of stress (chemical, nutritional, thermal, pH) in the presence of coal pyrite. Several approaches to take advantage of stress response to accelerate pyrite oxidation by this organism were examined, including attempts to promote acquired thermal tolerance to extend its functional range, exposure to chemical uncouplers and decouplers, and manipulation of heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic tendencies to optimize biomass concentration and biocatalytic activity. Promising strategies were investigated in a continuous culture system. This study identified environmental conditions that promote better coupling of biotic and abiotic oxidation reactions to improve biosulfurization rates of thermoacidophilic microorganisms.

  8. Next-generation coal utilization technology development study. Environmentally-friendly coal combustion technology; O2/CO2 combustion technology; Sekitan riyo jisedai gijutsu kaihatsu chosa. Kankyo chowagata sekitan nensho gijutsu (sanso nensho gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    For the purpose of developing combustion systems in which environmental pollutants are less emitted from coal-fired boilers, conducted in fiscal 1994 were a study of load followability of oxygen producing equipment, and element and basic tests on oxygen combustion systems. Dynamic simulations were made to confirm load followability of low-purity oxygen producing equipment. Further, a test was made on starting time of oxygen producing equipment. As a result of the simulation, favorable load followability was confirmed except for some of the process. The width of variation of the product oxygen purity was {plus_minus} 0.7% at maximum. In the element test on oxygen combustion systems, an experiment on the oxygen combustion using pulverized coal was conducted to study heat collection characteristics of furnace and response to multi-kind of coal. A study of balance of S content, experiments on characteristics of crushing/transporting pulverized coal, etc. were added. There were seen no peculiar differences in CO2 transport and air transport. 216 figs., 31 tabs.

  9. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  10. Area 3, SRC-II coal slurry preheater studies report for the technical data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    This report reviews the raw data gathered from the Preheater B test runs at Ft. Lewis, and also the Preheater B results presented in the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2 of Slurry Preheater Design, SRC-II Process and the Ft. Lewis Slurry Preheater Data Analysis, 1 1/2 Inch Coil by Gulf Science and Technology Corporation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. attempts were made to correlate several variables not previously considered with slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity. Only partial success was realized. However, in the process of attempting to correlate these variables an understanding of why some variables could not be correlated was achieved. An attempt was also made, using multiple linear regression, to correlate coal slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity with several independent variables among which were temperature, coal concentration, total solids, coal type, slurry residence time, shear rate, and unit size. The final correlations included some, but not all, of these independent variables. This report is not a stand alone document and should be considered a supplement to work already done. It should be read in conjunction with the reports referenced above.

  11. Studies of coal slurries property; Slurry no seijo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, M.; Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Hirosue, H. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously found that the increase of slurry temperature provides a significant effect of slurry viscosity reduction for the coal slurry with high concentration of 50 wt%. To investigate the detailed influence of slurry temperature for the coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt%, influence of temperature on the successive change of apparent viscosity was observed at the constant shear rate. When the concentration of coal was increased from 45 wt% to 50 wt%, viscosity of the slurry was rapidly increased. When heated above 70{degree}C, the apparent viscosity decreased during heating to the given temperature, but it increased successively after reaching to the given temperature. The apparent viscosity showed higher value than that of the initial viscosity. The coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt% showed the fluidity of Newtonian fluid at the lower shear rate region, but showed the fluidity of pseudo-plastic fluid at the higher shear rate region. The slurry having high apparent viscosity by the successive change showed higher apparent viscosity with increasing the higher even by changing the shear rate. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  12. Studies of materials found in products and wastes from coal-conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, M.R.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have been investigating materials from synthetic fossil-fuel processes. During this past year, solids from the Lignite Gasification Pilot Plant and samples from the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant (SRC-II mode) have been analyzed for organic and inorganic constituents. Observations on these samples are summarized

  13. A multi-instrumental geochemical study of anomalous uranium enrichment in coal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Machovič, Vladimír; Mizera, Jiří; Sýkorová, Ivana; Borecká, Lenka; Kopecký, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 137, November (2014), s. 52-63 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-18482S Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : uranium * coal * organic matter * Sokolov Basin Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.483, year: 2014

  14. Emissions tradeoffs associated with cofiring forest biomass with coal: A case study in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Cofiring forest biomass residues with coal to generate electricity is often cited for its potential to offset fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but the extent to which cofiring achieves these objectives is highly dependent on case specific variables. This paper uses facility and forest specific data to examine emissions from cofiring forest biomass with...

  15. A study on the measurement of coal moisture by the neutron method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yonghe

    1985-01-01

    The paper reports the result of measuring coal moisture by the neutron method. A deducting intercept method is used to eliminate the effects of the structural hydrogen and the matrix effect. A measuring device has been developed and its measuring accuracy is less than 1%

  16. Studies on catalytic hydrotreating of recycled solvents from coal liquefaction process. Part 1. Characteristics changes of recycled solvents during hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimura, Y.; Nakata, S.; Yokota, Y.; Shirota, Y.; Nakamura, M. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Mitarai, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Y. [Nippon Ketjen Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    A bituminous coal liquefaction process, called the NEDOL process, is under development by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Important features of this process include the capacity to produce hydrogen-donatable solvents, obtained by hydrogenation of middle distillates of coal derived oils, and to recycle these solvents to a liquefaction stage as hydrogen donor solvents. These recycled solvents, obtained by liquefaction of Wandoan coal, and their catalytic hydrotreated oils, have been extensively characterized, using a variety of analytical methods. The following items have been examined and are discussed in this study: (1) Influence of chemical hydrogen consumption on the reactivities of hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrogenation of aromatic-rings, during hydrotreating; (2) Changes in composition of hydrocarbon types, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds, as a function of chemical hydrogen consumption; (3) Changes of average molecular weights; (4) Characteristics changes of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds, and reactivities of HDO and HDN; (5) Characteristics changes of donatable hydrogen as a function of a degree of hydrogenation ({delta}fa). 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. FTIR spectroscopy and reflectance of modern charcoals and fungal decayed woods: implications for studies of inertinite in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    1998-09-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of laboratory produced charcoals, natural charcoals, fungal decayed woods and inertinite from a variety of Western Canadian coals were investigated using FTIR and standard petrologic techniques. The studies confirm and extend earlier work in showing that almost all inertinite macerals can be attributed to wildfire in peat swamps, and that variation in the petrological characteristics of inertinite are a product of temperature, duration of heating and the nature of the initial plant material. The relationships between reflectance and temperature, as well as heating duration of charcoal formation are established as a reference for the examination of inertinite, and the probable temperature of inertinite precursor (fossil charcoal) formation in paleo-widlfire. Fungi do not directly contribute to the formation of charcoal and inertinite apart from the fungal bodies themselves (funginite: sclerotia and hyphae) and perhaps by increasing the extent of shrinkage and cracking (increasing surface area) of the plant materials and thus susceptibility to charring. Evidence of fungal activity progressively decreases with increasing degree of charing in response to duration of heating or increased charing temperature. The reflectance values and FTIR spectral characteristics of inertinites in Western Canadian coal suggest that most inertinite formed by wildfires at temperatures over 400{degree}C. The great abundance of semifusinite in Western Canadian coal may reflect frequent but short duration wildfires in precursor peat swamps. 44 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  19. Experimental study on the response characteristics of coal permeability to pore pressure under loading and unloading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Dingyi; Zhang, Cun; Wang, Chen

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the response characteristics of coal permeability to pore pressure, seepage experiments under different simulated in situ stresses on loading and unloading paths are carried out using the self-developed Gas Flow and Displacement Testing Apparatus (GFDTA) system. Based on the analysis of the experimental data, the relationship between average pore pressure and permeability is found to basically obey the function distribution of a two degree polynomial. In this paper, two aspects of the relationship between permeability and pore pressure are explained: the Klinbenberg effect and expansion, and the penetration of the initial fracture. Under low pore pressure, the decrease in the Klinbenberg effect is the main reason for the decrease in permeability with increased pore pressure. Under relatively high pore pressure, the increase in pore pressure leads to the initial fracture expansion and penetration of the coal sample, which causes an increase in permeability. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the permeability response to pore pressure changes, the permeability dispersion and pore pressure sensitivity coefficients are defined. After the sensitivity analysis, it was concluded that the loading history changed the fracture structure of the original coal sample and reduced its permeability sensitivity to pore pressure. Under low pore pressure, the Klinbenberg effect is the reason for the decrease in pore pressure sensitivity. Lastly, the permeability-pore pressure relationship is divided into three stages to describe the different response characteristics individually.

  20. A study on hydrogen bond in coal macerals with in situ diffuse reflectance FTIR by using a new experimental method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.T.; Li, W.; Sun, Q.L.; Li, B.Q. [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China). Inst. for Coal Chemistry

    2003-04-01

    A new method using the small porcelain as the reactor combined with increasing the flow rate of carrier gas was proposed, which has the advantage of excluding the condensation of volatile produced by heated solid samples on the windows during in situ diffuse reflectance FTIR experiment. Moreover, the feasibility of this method was also discussed. Using this method, the distribution and thermal stability of hydrogen bonds in coal macerals obtained from two coals were studied. The results show that the differences between the distribution of hydrogen bonds formed by hydroxyl group in the macerals of two coals were very similar. For the vitrinites the thermal stability of SH-N, carboxylic acid dimmers and self-associated OH is higher than those in inertinites but for OH-N and hydroxyl tetramers and OH-OR{sub 2} there are no obvious laws. For OH-{pi}, its content increased with increasing temperature to 350-380{sup o}C, and then decreased with further heating. The variation of hydrogen bonds in macerals reflects the difference in their structure.

  1. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  2. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  3. The study of partitioning of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of sewage sludge and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Lopes, M.H.; Abelha, P.; Cabrita, I.; Oliveira, J.F.S. [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-06-15

    The behavior of Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg during the combustion tests of a dry granular sewage sludge on a fluidized bed combustor pilot (FBC) of about 0.3 MW was evaluated. The emissions of these heavy metals from mono-combustion were compared with those of co-combustion of the sludge with a bituminous coal. The effect of the addition of limestone was also studied in order to retain sulphur compounds and to verify its influence on the retention of heavy metals (HM). Heavy metals were collected and analyzed from different locations of the installation, which included the stack, the two cyclones, and the material removed from the bed. The results showed that the volatility of metals was rather low, resulting in emissions below the legal limits of the new directive on incineration, with the exception of Hg during the mono-combustion tests. The partitioning of metals, except for Hg, appeared to follow that of ashes, amounting to levels above 90% in the bed streams in the mono-combustion case. For co-combustion, there was a lower fixation of HM in the bed ashes, mostly originating essentially from the sewage sludge, ranging between 40% and 80%. It is believed that in this latter case, a slightly higher temperature could have enhanced the volatilization, especially of Cd and Pb. However these metals were then retained in fly ashes captured in the cyclones. In the case of Hg, the volatilisation was complete. The bed ashes were free of Hg and part of Hg was retained in the cyclones and the rest was emitted either with fine ash particles or in gaseous forms. In mono-combustion the Hg emissions from the stack (particles and gas) accounted, for about 50%. This appeared to have significantly decreased in the case of co-combustion, as only about 75% has been emitted, due to the retention effect of cyclone ashes.

  4. The study of partitioning of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of sewage sludge and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Lopes, M. Helena; Abelha, Pedro; Cabrita, Isabel; Oliveira, J.F. Santos

    2003-07-01

    The behaviour of Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Pb, Zn and Hg during the combustion tests of granular dry sewage sludges on a pilot FBC of about 0,3 MW was evaluated. The emissions of these heavy metals from mono-combustion were compared with those of co-combustion of the sludge with a bituminous coal. The effect of the addition of limestone was also studied in order to retain sulphur compounds and to verify its influence on the retention of heavy metals. Heavy metals were collected and analysed from different locations of the installation, which included the stack, the two cyclones and the material removed from the bed. The results showed that the volatility of metals was rather low, resulting in emissions below the legal limits of the new directive on incineration, with the exception of Hg during the mono-combustion tests. The partitioning of metals, except for Hg, appeared to follow that of ashes, amounting to levels above 90% in the bed streams in the mono-combustion case. For co-combustion, there was a lower fixation of HM in the bed ashes, mostly originating essentially from the sewage sludge, ranging between 40 and 80%. It is believed that in this latter case, a slightly higher bed temperature could have enhanced the volatilisation, especially of Cd and Pb. However these metals were then retained in cyclone ashes. In the case of Hg, the volatilisation was complete. The bed ashes were free of Hg and part of it was retained in the cyclone and emitted as both fine ash particles and in gaseous forms. In mono-combustion the Hg emissions from the stack (particles and gas) accounted for about 50%, although there was a significant amount unaccounted for. This appeared to have significantly decreased in the case of co-combustion, as only about 15% has been emitted, due to the retention effect of cyclone ashes which presented high quantities of unburned carton and possibly condensed sulphur species.

  5. Smog chamber study on the evolution of fume from residential coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chunmei; Wang, Kun; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jianhua; Liu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hongjie

    2012-01-01

    Domestic coal stoves are widely used in countryside and greenbelt residents in China for heating and cooking, and emit considerable pollutants to the atmosphere because of no treatment of their exhaust, which can result in deteriorating local air quality. In this study, a dynamic smog chamber was used to investigate the real-time emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants during the combustion process and a static smog chamber was used to investigate the fume evolution under simulate light irradiation. The real-time emissions revealed that the total hydrocarbon (THC) and CO increased sharply after ignition, and then quickly decreased, indicating volatilization of hydrocarbons with low molecular weight and incomplete combustion at the beginning stage of combustion made great contribution to these pollutants. There was evident shoulder peak around 10 min combustion for both THC and CO, revealing the emissions from vitrinite combustion. Additionally, another broad emission peak of CO after 30 min was also observed, which was ascribed to the incomplete combustion of the inertinite. Compared with THC and CO, there was only one emission peak for NOx, SO2 and particular matters at the beginning stage of combustion. The fume evolution with static chamber simulation indicated that evident consumption of SO2 and NOx as well as new particle formation were observed. The consumption rates for SO2 and NOx were about 3.44% hr(-1) and 3.68% hr(-1), the new particle formation of nuclei particles grew at a rate of 16.03 nm/hr during the first reaction hour, and the increase of the diameter of accumulation mode particles was evident. The addition of isoprene to the diluted mixture of the fume could promote 03 and secondary particle formation.

  6. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-05-15

    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  7. Studies on the catalysts for coal liquefaction. ; Kinetic discussion in initial stage of coal liquefaction. Sekitan ekikayo shokubai ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Sekitan ekika shoki dankai no sokudoronteki kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, T; Ikenaga, N; Oda, H; Yokokawa, C [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1990-11-29

    Discussions were given on features of various kinds of coal liquefaction catalysts exhibited by them in hydrocracking of coal (Taiheiyo coal), and particularly on selectivity of the reaction in its initial stage. Four kinds of catalysts were tested: Adkins catalyst which is an oxide of copper and chromium, Fe2O3+S, Mo-TiO2 and MoS3-Al2O3. Three grams of coal and 0.3 gram each of the catalysts were charged into an autoclave reactor and experiment was conducted under an initial hydrogen pressure of 10 MPa, temperatures from 653 K to 693 K and for durations of 0 to 120 minutes to derive apparent reaction rate constants. The MoS3-Al2O3 catalyst has promoting the reaction apparently in the primary reaction at any temperature, while the other catalysts had the rate constants varied in the initial and the later stages. It was recognized that the temperature dependence of rate constants varies considerably according to the types of catalyst. Particularly the MoO3-TiO3 catalyst has small temperature dependence in the rate constants, and high molecular weight reducing power. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix A (Part 2). Coal preparation and cleaning assessment study appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report presents the results of integrating coal washability and coal reserves data obtained from the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Two computer programs were developed to match the appropriate entries in each data set and then merge the data into the form presented in this report. Approximately 18% of the total demonstrated coal reserves were matched with washability data. However, about 35% of the reserves that account for 80% of current production were successfully matched. Each computer printout specifies the location and size of the reserve, and then describes the coal with data on selected physical and chemical characteristics. Washability data are presented for three crush sizes (1.5 in., /sup 3///sub 8/ in., and 14 mesh) and several specific gravities. In each case, the percent recovery, Btu/lb, percent ash, percent sulfur, lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu, and reserves available at 1.2 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu are given. The sources of the original data and the methods used in the integration are discussed briefly.

  9. Concentrations of lithium in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuzhuang; Li, Yanheng; Zhao, Cunliang; Lin, Mingyue; Wang, Jinxi; Qin, Shenjun [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China). Key Laboratory of Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province

    2010-04-15

    Lithium is an important energy metal. Its concentrations in coals have been studied by many geologists. Its average content is only 14 mg/kg in the coals of the world. Lithium has never been reported as a coal associated deposit before. In order to study the concentrations in Chinese coals, 159 coal and gangue samples were taken from six coal mines and were determined by ICP-MS and the minerals in the samples were identified by X-ray powder diffraction. The results indicate that the Li contents in the coal samples from the Antaibao Coal Mine have reached the industry grade of coal associated deposits. In Tongxing Coal Mine, Li contents in the coal floor rock samples have reached the industry grade of independent lithium deposits. Main minerals are polylithionite, triphylite, zinnwaldite, lithionite and cookeite, which were transported into the peats. Therefore, lithium enriched is most likely in the synsedimentary stage in both coal mines. Furthermore, a revised average Li content in Chinese coals was given.

  10. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jayesh [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Hess, Fernando [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Horzen, Wessel van [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Williams, Daniel [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Peevor, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Dyer, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Frankel, Louis [Canonsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and

  11. Slagging behavior of upgraded brown coal and bituminous coal in 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Katsuya; Pak, Haeyang; Takubo, Yoji [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Kobe (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.; Tada, Toshiya [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Takasago (Japan). Coal and Energy Technology Dept.; Ueki, Yasuaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Energy Science Div.; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate behaviors of ash deposition during combustion of Upgraded Brown Coal (UBC) and bituminous coal in a 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler. A blended coal consisting 20 wt% of the UBC and 80 wt% of the bituminous coal was burned for the combustion tests. Before the actual ash deposition tests, the molten slag fractions of ash calculated by chemical equilibrium calculations under the combustion condition was adopted as one of the indices to estimate the tendency of ash deposition. The calculation results showed that the molten slag fraction for UBC ash reached approximately 90% at 1,523 K. However, that for the blended coal ash became about 50%. These calculation results mean that blending the UBC with a bituminous coal played a role in decreasing the molten slag fraction. Next, the ash deposition tests were conducted, using a practical pulverized coal combustion boiler. A water-cooled stainless-steel tube was inserted in locations at 1,523 K in the boiler to measure the amount of ash deposits. The results showed that the mass of deposited ash for the blended coal increased and shape of the deposited ash particles on the tube became large and spherical. This is because the molten slag fraction in ash for the blended coal at 1,523 K increased and the surface of deposited ash became sticky. However, the mass of the deposited ash for the blended coal did not greatly increase and no slagging problems occurred for 8 days of boiler operation under the present blending conditions. Therefore, appropriate blending of the UBC with a bituminous coal enables the UBC to be used with a low ash melting point without any ash deposition problems in a practical boiler.

  12. The driving factors behind coal demand in China from 1997 to 2012: An empirical study of input-output structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ya; Zhang, Wanying

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, especially the constant progress in industrialisation and urbanisation, China's energy consumption has increased annually. Coal consumption, which accounts for about 70% of total energy consumption, is of particular concern. Hence, it is crucial to study the driving factors behind coal demand in China. This work uses an input-output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) model to decompose the increments of coal demand in China from 1997 to 2012 into the sum of the weighted average for eight driving factors from three aspects, including: domestic demand, foreign trade and industrial upgrading. Results show that: during the research period, the demand for coal increases by 153.3%, which is increased by 185.4% and 76.4% respectively due to the driving forces of domestic demand and foreign trade; in addition, industrial upgrading can effectively restrain the growth in coal demand with a contribution rate of −108.6%. On this basis, we mainly studied the driving factors of coal demand in six high energy-consuming industries, namely the electrical power, energy processing, metals, mining, building materials and chemical industries. Finally, we proposed targeted policy suggestions for the realisation of energy conservation and emissions reduction in China. - Highlights: •The driving factors behind coal demand in China from 1997 to 2012 are studied. •An input-output structural decomposition analysis is developed. •A fresh perspective of domestic demand, foreign trade, and industrial upgrading is employed. •The influences of these affecting factors on China's coal demand from six high energy-consuming industries are investigated. •Targeted policy suggestions for energy conservation and emissions reduction are suggested.

  13. A comparative study of health hazards and environmental impacts for electricity generation through nuclear energy hidroelectricity and coal fired thermoeletrical generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental impacts and health hazards were comparatively assessed in regard to electricity generation via nuclear energy, hidraulic dams and coal firing. The main aspects covered the nuclear reactor and its associated nuclear fuel cycle, coal fired thermoelectrical power plant its associated coal industry, and hidroelectrical power plant and its dam. Besides specific comparisons of impacts in the air, water, soil and health hazards an evaluation for the Brazilian case was made based on a forecast of electricity demand up to the year 2020. For the nuclear option the consequences were analysed based on American data since no data is yet available for Brazil. Coal firing option was also analised for based heavily on American data due to small Brazilian experience in this sector of energy generation. For hydroelectrical option Brazilian data were used mostly from CESP for comparative purposes. These alternatives for generation of electricity considered in this study are the most relevant for the next four decades for Brazil. (Author) [pt

  14. Experimental studies on the group ignition of a cloud of coal particles: Volume 2, Pyrolysis and ignition modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work are to formulate a model to simulate transient coal pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion of a cloud of coal particles and to compare results of the program with those reported in the literature elsewhere.

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans Male Copulation Circuitry Incorporates Sex-Shared Defecation Components To Promote Intromission and Sperm Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L. Rene

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism can be achieved using a variety of mechanisms, including sex-specific circuits and sex-specific function of shared circuits, though how these work together to produce sexually dimorphic behaviors requires further investigation. Here, we explore how components of the sex-shared defecation circuitry are incorporated into the sex-specific male mating circuitry in Caenorhabditis elegans to produce successful copulation. Using behavioral studies, calcium imaging, and genetic manipulation, we show that aspects of the defecation system are coopted by the male copulatory circuitry to facilitate intromission and ejaculation. Similar to hermaphrodites, male defecation is initiated by an intestinal calcium wave, but circuit activity is coordinated differently during mating. In hermaphrodites, the tail neuron DVB promotes expulsion of gut contents through the release of the neurotransmitter GABA onto the anal depressor muscle. However, in the male, both neuron and muscle take on modified functions to promote successful copulation. Males require calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS)/unc-31, a dense core vesicle exocytosis activator protein, in the DVB to regulate copulatory spicule insertion, while the anal depressor is remodeled to promote release of sperm into the hermaphrodite. This work shows how sex-shared circuitry is modified in multiple ways to contribute to sex-specific mating. PMID:28031243

  16. Study on the flotation technology for deep-cleaning of coal slime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Xiao-heng; Shan Xiao-yun; Jiang He-jin; Li Xiang-li [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The paper introduced the basic principle and special features of deep-cleaning of coal slime by flotation, first, separating the slime by conventional flotation to give a relatively low ash concentrate, a tailing containing an ash as high as possible, followed by flocculation-flotation to recover additional low ash concentrate. The regressive release flotation test and microphoto indicated that the middling consists mainly of intergrowth particles of coal and minerals. Comparison between deep-cleaning and conventional flotation results denoted that, at approximately same concentrate ash, its yield by deep-cleaning was 46.06 percent point higher, and at similar yield, its concentrate ash, 1.78 percent point lower. The performance by deep-cleaning is even better than that by regressive release flotation test. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Study of gas holdup and pressure characteristics in a column flotation cell using coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, S.C.; Kundu, G.; Mukherjee, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-15

    Present work has been carried out to observe the effect of process variables (gas flow rate, feed flow rate, solid concentration and frother concentration) on gas holdup and pressure characteristics in flotation column using coal. Gas holdup has been estimated using phase separation method while piezometers have been used to obtain column's axial pressure profile. It was observed that gas holdup in collection zone was affected by both air as well as feed flow rates. Up to 6% change in gas holdup may occur when the feed flow rate changes from 1-2 cm/s. It was also observed that addition of coal decreased the gas holdup while addition of methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) had opposite effect. Almost linear variation in columns axial pressure characteristics has been observed with gas flow rate. An empirical relationship between gas holdup in the flotation column with column's axial pressure difference was developed.

  18. Study on intelligent prediction of broken rock zone thickness of coal mine roadways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, G.; Jing, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Architecture and Civil Engineering

    2005-03-01

    Considering the problem of obtaining the thickness of broken rock zone, a booming intelligent prediction method with ANFIS (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) was introduced into the thickness prediction. A stand-alone program with functions of creating and applying prediction systems was designed on the platform of MATLAB6.5. Then the program was used to predict the broken rock zone thickness of dips in the 12th coal mine, Pingdingshan Group Company of Coal Industry. The results show that the predicted values correlate well with the in-situ measured ones. Thereby the validity of the program is validated and it can provide a new approach to obtaining the broken zone thickness. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Coal-nuclear energy system. Method of study. Examples of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneuve, F.; Le Penhuizic, B.

    1981-01-01

    Given the outlook for hydrocarbon depletion, three primary energy sources could enable supplies to be diversified, i.e. nuclear energy, coal and solar energy. These primary energy sources can rarely be used directly and must be converted into energy carriers such as electricity, hydrogen, substitute natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons derived from coal, etc. The nature of future gas carriers and their position in the national energy balance must be examined. Within the framework of an overall energy pattern. Many of the potential conversion processes are often interrelated through their production and consumption. Likewise, seasonal variations in consumption make it necessary to design production plants for peak demand or to create large-scale storage facilities. An initial model taking these interactions into consideration has been worked out to represent the variety of solutions possible. This model can be used to evaluate the technical paths to be followed within the framework of different assumptions concerning the future [fr

  20. Study on the Concentration Measurement of the Pollution Gases from Coal-Fired Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L J; Li, W

    2006-01-01

    CO 2 is a main kind of pollution gases discharged from coal-fired power station. The relationship between gas concentration and pressure, temperature is deduced base on the law of Beer-Lambert and the theory of gas line-shape. The tunable diode laser spectral technology is used to analyze the changing regularity of the peak, half-peak width of the absorption curve with pressure and temperature

  1. Characteristic Study of Shenmu Bituminous Coal Combustion with Online TG-MS-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guanfu

    2018-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of Shenmu bituminous pulverized coal (SBC) were comprehensively investigated with a combined TG-MS-FTIR system by considering the effect of particle size, heating rate and total flowrate. The combustion products were accurately quantified by normalization and numerical analysis of MS results. The results indicate that the decrease of the particle size, heating rate and total flowrate result in lower ignition and burnout temperatures. The activation energy tends to be lower with smaller particle size, lower heating rate and total flowrate. The MS and FTIR results demonstrate that lower concentrations of different products, such as NO, NO2, HCN, CH4 and SO2 were produced with smaller particle size, slower heating rate and lower total flowrate. The decrease of particle size would lead to more contact area with oxygen and slower heating rate could provide more sufficient time for the diffusion. High total flowrate would reduce the oxygen adsorbability on the coal particle surface and shorten the residence time of oxygen, which makes the ignition difficult to occur. This work will guide to understand the combustion kinetics of pulverized coals and be beneficial to control the formation of pollutants.

  2. Study on Economic Aspects and the Introduction of Clean Coal Technologies with CCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Haruki; Nakata, Toshihiko

    The advantages of coal are the largest reserves among any other fossil fuels, and can be found in many places including some developed countries. Due to the weak energy security of Japan, it is necessary to use coal as an energy source. We have designed the detailed energy model of electricity sector in which we take both energy conversion efficiency and economic aspects into consideration. The Japan model means an energy-economic model focusing on the structure of the energy supply and demand in Japan. Furthermore, the most suitable carbon capture and storage (CCS) system consisting of CO2 collection, transportation, storages are assumed. This paper examines the introduction of clean coal technologies (CCT's) with CCS into the electricity market in Japan, and explores policy options for the promotion of CCT's combined with CCS. We have analyzed the impacts of carbon tax where each fossil technology, combined with CCS, becomes competitive in possible market. CO2 mitigation costs for all plants with CCS are detailed and compared.

  3. Study on the propagation law of shock wave resulting from coal and gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kai; ZHOU Ai-tao; ZHANG Pin; LI Chuan; GUO Yan-wei

    2011-01-01

    According to the formation of shock wave resulting from coal and gas outburst, the gas flow of coal and gas outburst was transformed from an unsteady flow to a steady one based on selected appropriate reference coordinates, and the mathematical expressions were then established by applying mass conservation, momentum conservation equation, and energy conservation equation. On this basis, analyzed gas flow mitigation of variable cross-section area and the outburst intensity, and the relations between cross-section area, velocity, and density; the relations between overpressures and outburst intensity were deduced. Furthermore, shock waves resulting from coal and gas outburst and outburst intensity were measured by experimental setup, the overpressure and outburst intensity of different gas pressures were obtained, and the similar conditions of the experiment were numerically simulated. The averaged overpressure and gas flow velocity of variable cross-section under different gas pressures were numerically derived. The results show that the averaged overpressure and outburst intensity obtained from simulation are in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, the gas flow velocity of variable cross-sections approximates to the theoretical analysis.

  4. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Narcea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. a.; Corbacho, J. a.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Narcea coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  5. Coal mining and agriculture: a study in environmental impact assessment. [On agriculture in UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selman, P.H.

    1986-03-01

    Coal mining activities in the U.K. are reported to be extending into areas of comparatively unspoilt countryside. Despite reductions in the National Coal Board's programme of future expansion, it is considered that the scale of impact of new mining activities on agriculture is still likely to be significant. The major impact will be associated with land alienation, but a wide range of other adverse effects will also be encountered. In view of the controversy likely to accompany new mining proposals, it is recommended that methods of environmental impact assessment (EIA) should be adopted. The nature and components of EIA are reviewed, and a framework appropriate to mining-agriculture conflicts is advanced. This approach is more closely examined In relation to recent developments in Leicestershire, U.K. It is found that the magnitude of agricultural impact is small in national terms, but may be severe at the local and - if mining activities become geographically concentrated - even at the sub-regional level. Systematic scrutiny of major coaling proposals by EIA will therefore become essential. (115 refs.)

  6. Study on Roadheader Cutting Load at Different Properties of Coal and Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of cutting process of roadheader with cutting head was researched, and the influences of properties of coal and rock on cutting load were deeply analyzed. Aimed at the defects of traditional calculation method of cutting load on fully expressing the complex cutting process of cutting head, the method of finite element simulation was proposed to simulate the dynamic cutting process. Aimed at the characteristics of coal and rock which affect the cutting load, several simulations with different firmness coefficient were taken repeatedly, and the relationship between three-axis force and firmness coefficient was derived. A comparative analysis of cutting pick load between simulation results and theoretical formula was carried out, and a consistency was achieved. Then cutting process with a total cutting head was carried out on this basis. The results show that the simulation analysis not only provides a reliable guarantee for the accurate calculation of the cutting head load and improves the efficiency of the cutting head cutting test but also offers a basis for selection of cutting head with different geological conditions of coal or rock.

  7. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  8. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  9. Impact of Sulphur Content on Coal Quality at Delta Plain Depositional Environment: Case study in Geramat District, Lahat Regency, South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Linda Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in Geramat District of Lahat Regency, South Sumatra. An evaluation of the geological condition of the research area shown that the coal deposits were found in Muara Enim Formation as a coal-bearing formation. The method used was literature study, field observation and the laboratory work includes proximate and petrography analysis. The aim of this research is to determine the environmental condition of coal based on the change of total sulphur content and to know the relation between ash content to calorific value.  As the result of proximate analysis conducted on five samples of coal, the research area obtained total sulphur (0,21-1,54% adb, ash content (3,16 - 71,11% adb and gross calorific value (953 - 5676 cal/g. adb. Based on the result of maceral analysis showed the maceral percentage of coal in research area composed by vitrinite (77,8-87,4 %, liptinite (0,6 %, inertinite (8,0 – 17,6 % and mineral matter concentration in the form of pyrite (1,6-4,6 %. The average reflectance value of vitrinite (Rv of coal in the research area (0.54%. the results analysis shows that the coal in Muara Enim Formation on the research area is in the transitional lower delta plain depositional environment phase. Any changes in the sedimentary environment affected by sea water will be followed by changes in total sulphur and the higher ash content, on the contrary, the lower calorific value of the coal.

  10. Fiscal 1997 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. In the modification of facilities, equipment and devices were procured for the product oil reforming facilities and their installation was partly accomplished. In the coal injection operation, a 60-day slurry operation was conducted, using coal types of the upper limit and lower limit qualities, for expanding the scope of coal types applicable to the NEDOL process and for exploring optimum conditions, and another operation of 37 days was conducted using Chinese coal and Chinese-prepared liquefaction catalysts, and the two operations were studied for difference in yields and in operationality. Characteristics of the liquefaction reactors were investigated and basic studies were made relative to the physical property of the yielded coal oil. In the operation for maintenance, the 1st liquefaction reactor was singly operated for an 8-day slurry operation, which was to check the progress of liquefaction in a 1-reactor setup. Concerning the reforming of the product oil, the hydrogenation reactors were checked for their response to temperature control. Moreover, hydrogenation solvents were produced for the PSU and for China. (NEDO)

  11. A retrospective mortality study of workers exposed to radon in a Brazilian coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, Lene Holanda Sadler

    2004-08-01

    High levels of radon concentration were found in the underground workplace of an underground coal mine in Parana state, which has been in activity since 1942. Many of these workers were exposed for a long period of time to a work atmosphere with high radon, and radon decay products concentration. Taking this into account, it was decided to carry on a historical cohort, study with the workers' of this mining universe (underground and surface) in. order to evaluate the possible health effects related to this exposure, by means of a retrospective study of mortality. Through multiple strategies, it was possible to trace the vital status of 90% of the cohort. The causes of the deaths were identified by active search, of Death Declarations in the Health Office of Parana state and also in and other states. The success rate of cause of death identification was 100%. The final, cohort included 1946 underground workers and 910 surface workers. Standard mortality ratio (SMR) analysis showed lower mortality from all causes for both underground (SMR-88, 95%CI=78-98) and surface workers (SMR=96, 95%CI=81- 113). A highly significant SMR was observed for pneumonia cause of death among surface ((SMR=284, 95%CI=118-684) and underground miners (SMR-254, 95%CI=140-459), while a highly significant lung cancer mortality risk was observed only for underground miners (SMR=177, 95%CI=105-299) with a significant trend in relation to years of underground work (duration of exposure). Taking into account that mortality from smoking-related cancers other than lung cancer is not elevated in underground workers and diesel equipment were not used at this mine, the results suggest that the exposure to radon daughters may have been responsible for the lung cancer excess among underground workers. This work consists of the first historical Brazilian cohort involving miners exposed to radon and one of the few historical cohorts built in Brazil. It should be considered the fact that many workers of

  12. Combustion studies in a fluidised bed-The link between temperature, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O formation, char morphology and coal type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentim, B.; Lemos de Sousa, M.J. [Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Praca de Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002, Porto (Portugal); Abelha, P.; Boavida, D.; Gulyurtlu, I. [Departamento de Engenharia Energetica e Controlo Ambiental (DEECA), Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao (INETI), Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, Edif. J, 1649-038, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-06-06

    Five commercially available high volatile bituminous coals from different origins were studied with the objective of characterizing their petrographic nature with respect to emissions of NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. The chars produced [at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 {sup o}C] from these coals were also petrographic ally analyzed to assess the contribution of char to NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O formation during combustion. Vitrinite-rich coals produced higher porous chars (cenospheres and tenuinetworks) than those that are rich in inertinite. The former coals were, however, found to release lower concentrations of NO. Consistent with previous works, N{sub 2}O emissions were observed to decrease significantly with temperature, however, on the whole, the N{sub 2}O emissions from vitrinite-rich high volatile coals were less than those from inertinite-rich coals. Additionally, high porous chars were found to give rise to lower emissions of NO and N{sub 2}O. (author)

  13. Spectroscopy study of electron spin resonance of coal oxidation of different rank; Estudio por espectroscopia de resonancia espin electron de la oxidacion de carbones de diferente rango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enciso Prieto, Hector Manuel

    1992-07-01

    The present work constitutes an initial step for the knowledge of the coal oxidation, with the purpose of preventing the adverse influences caused by this phenomenon in the physical-chemical characteristics and in the tendency to the spontaneous combustion. Since the knowledge the influence of the free radicals in this process, their relative concentration was measured by means of the use of the technique of resonance spin electron. This technique measures the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, generally in the microwaves region, for the materials that not have electrons matched up in a strong magnetic field. In the essays of oxidation three coal of different range and different characteristics of mass were used and it was studied the influence of the temperature, particle size and the range. The results showed that the coal of Guacheta (bituminous low in volatile) it presents bigger concentration of free radicals, after the reaction with the atmospheric oxygen, with regard to the coal of the Cerrejon (bituminous high in volatile B) and Amaga (bituminous high in volatile C). Although this doesn't indicate that the coal of Guacheta is that more easily is oxidized, but rather it possibly presents stabilization of radicals for resonance. It concluded that there are differences in the oxidation mechanism between coal of different rank and different agglomeration properties.

  14. Thermogravimetric study of the combustion of Tetraselmis suecica microalgae and its blend with a Victorian brown coal in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Arash; Kassim, Mohd Asyraf; Yu, Jianglong; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-12-01

    The combustion characteristics of microalgae, brown coal and their blends under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres were studied using thermogravimetry. In microalgae combustion, two peaks at 265 and 485°C were attributable to combustion of protein and carbohydrate with lipid, respectively. The DTG profile of coal s