... DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2160 Coagulase plasma. (a... intended for medical purposes to perform coagulase tests primarily on staphylococcal bacteria. When... staphylococci. Test results are used primarily as an aid in the diagnosis of disease caused by pathogenic...
Purpose: The antimicrobial susceptibility of 149 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates from faecal samples of children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, was evaluated in order to determine their contribution to antimicrobial resistance in the community. Methods: The isolates were identified to the species level by conventional ...
Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated from pigs and in-contact humans in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... (53/401) of the isolates were CoNS species based on confirmatory test with Microgen biochemical kit and were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing.
Krasniqi, Xhevdet; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Gashi, Masar; Berisha, Blerim; Abazi, Flora; Koçinaj, Dardan
We report a case of a 49-year-old patient who developed poststaphylococcal coagulase negative reactive arthritis. The woman presented with constitutional symptoms, arthritis, urinary infection and conjunctivitis. The blood culture was positive for the staphylococcal coagulase negative infection. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were elevated, whereas the rheumatoid factor was negative. Radiographic findings confirmed diagnosis of pleuropneumonia, and one year later of chronic asymmetric sacroileitis. Physicians should be aware of possible reactive arthritis after staphylococcal coagulase negative bacteremia.
Jurate Sleiniute; Jurate Siugzdaite
Staphylococci form part of the normal flora of humans and a wide variety of animals. Some staphylococcal species also cause infections for human and household pets. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci in humans and dogs within a common household. Coagulase-positive staphylococci could not be identified phenotypically in all cases. Molecular methods were used for the correct identification of pathogenic staphylococci. The prevalence of St...
dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva
Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification. PMID:26912749
Dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; Dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia
Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia
Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification.
Mastitis is one of the most important diseases in dairy cattle. Recently, the so-called minor pathogens, of which coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most important group of bacteria, has received more attention. This thesis focuses on the role of CNS in udder health of dairy cows. The
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognised as an important pathogen in human disease. Staphylococci infection occurs regularly in hospitalised patients and has serious consequences despite antibiotic therapy. Shortly after introduction of methicillin after clinical use Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA were identified in many countries and become one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of the study is to know the methicillin sensitivity of both coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from various samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 strains of staphylococci both coagulase positive and coagulase negative were isolated in the Department of Microbiology from various clinical samples. They were confirmed by morphology, staining methods and by using standard bacteriological procedures and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test. RESULTS Predominant species from pus were S. epidermidis (42.42% and from sputum S. haemolyticus (31.81% from blood S. haemolyticus (53.33%. 53% of strains produced beta-lactamase. Majority 47.22% by S. epidermidis from pus followed by S. haemolyticus 23.33% from pus. Beta-lactamase production was least from throat swab (5.55%. Out of 32 coagulase-positive staphylococci tested to methicillin 15 (46.87% were found to be sensitive, 17 (53.13% were found to be resistant. Out of 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci tested, 13 (19.11% were found to sensitive and 55 (80.88% were found to be resistant. 72% of strains were sensitive to novobiocin and 28% resistant to novobiocin. 43% showed drug resistance to 2 drugs. 14% to 3 drugs and 5 drugs. 6% of staphylococci sensitive to all the 10 drugs. CONCLUSION MRSA is a type of bacteria that is resistant to a number of widely used antibiotics. This means MRSA infections can be more difficult to treat than other bacterial infections. In recent years
Javid, Faizan; Taku, Anil; Bhat, Mohd Altaf; Badroo, Gulzar Ahmad; Mudasir, Mir; Sofi, Tanveer Ahmad
This study was conducted to study the coagulase gene-based genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus , isolated from different samples of cattle using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and their sequence-based phylogenetic analysis. A total of 192 different samples from mastitic milk, nasal cavity, and pus from skin wounds of cattle from Military Dairy Farm, Jammu, India, were screened for the presence of S. aureus . The presumptive isolates were confirmed by nuc gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The confirmed S. aureus isolates were subjected to coagulase ( coa ) gene PCR. Different coa genotypes observed were subjected to RFLP using restriction enzymes Hae111 and Alu1 , to obtain the different restriction patterns. One isolate from each restriction pattern was sequenced. These sequences were aligned for maximum homology using the Bioedit softwareandsimilarity in the sequences was inferred with the help of sequence identity matrix. Of 192 different samples,39 (20.31%) isolates of S. aureus were confirmed by targeting nuc gene using PCR. Of 39 S. aureus isolates, 25 (64.10%) isolates carried coa gene. Four different genotypes of coa gene, i.e., 514 bp, 595 bp, 757 bp, and 802 bp were obtained. Two coa genotypes, 595 bp (15 isolates) and 802 bp (4 isolates), were observed in mastitic milk. 514 bp (2 isolates) and 757 bp (4 isolates) coa genotypes were observed from nasal cavity and pus from skin wounds, respectively. On RFLP using both restriction enzymes, four different restriction patterns P1, P2, P3, and P4 were observed. On sequencing, four different sequences having unique restriction patterns were obtained. The most identical sequences with the value of 0.810 were found between isolate S. aureus 514 (nasal cavity) and S. aureus 595 (mastitic milk), and thus, they are most closely related. While as the most distant sequences with the value of 0.483 were found between S. aureus 514 and S. aureus 802 isolates. The study, being localized
Smith, D J; Kaplan, R L; Landau, W; Trenholme, G M
During a six month period, 191 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and heart valves were identified to species level and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Seventy-one percent of isolates were Staphylococcus epidermidis, 8% Staphylococcus warneri, 7% Staphylococcus hominis, 7% Staphylococcus haemolyticus, 4% Staphylococcus capitis, 2% Staphylococcus saprophyticus and 1% Staphylococcus cohnii. Approximately 4% of isolates were felt to be associated with infection. Overall, 18% of isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, 61% oxacillin, 98% cephalothin, 98% cefamandole, 72% cefotaxime, 95% cefsulodin, 76% gentamicin, 64% clindamycin and 98% rifampicin. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Vancomycin, rifampicin, cephalothin and cefamandole showed excellent activity against oxacillin-resistant isolates. With one exception, speciation was not helpful in determining whether or not an isolate was associated with infection.
Moniri, R; Dastehgoli, K; Akramian, A
The aim of this study was to determine Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and other bacteria for their resistance to antimicrobial agents approved for the control of pathogens involved in clinical bovine mastitis. This descriptive study was done on 106 milk samples obtained from clinical mastitis in dairy cattle husbandry from April 2006 through August 2006 in Kashan, Iran. From the total of 106 milk samples collected from clinical mastitis, 96 (90.6%) lead to positive culture. Coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated in 51 out of 96 samples (53.1%), Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 21 out of 96 (21.9%), gram negative bacilli isolated in 14 out of 96 (14.6%) and Enterococci isolated in 4 (4.2%). The highest rate of resistant CNS observed to penicillin (56.6%) and the highest rate of sensitivity to enrofloxacin 100%, followed by kanamycin, streptomycin and neomycin, 92.2, 82.3 and 82.3%, respectively. The highest rate of resistance S. aureus exhibited to penicillin (66.6%); while the highest rate of sensitivity showed to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxasole (81%), followed by kanamycin and enrofloxacin both at 76.2%. The highest rate of resistance gram negative bacilli exhibited to ampicillin and erythromycin at 71.4%. Their highest rate of sensitivity observed to enrofloxacin (78.6%), followed by kanamycin, (71.4%). In recent years, CNS is emerging as important minor mastitis pathogens and can be the cause of substantial economic losses. The high resistance rate to penicillin and other antibiotics found in this study emphasize the importance of identification of CNS when a bovine clinical mastitis is present.
Roberson, J R; Fox, L K; Hancock, D D; Gay, J M; Besser, T E
To determine prevalence and relevance of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus and S intermedius intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows and determine the ability of the 4-hour tube coagulase (TC) test to differentiate the coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Prevalence of CPS was determined for primiparous cows (point prevalence and prevalence at first parturition) and multiparous cows (point prevalence) of 2 herd groups: 10% CPS IMI prevalence = high prevalence (HP). For prevalence, cows of 22 dairy herds. For TC, 1,038 CPS strains isolated from cow milk. Speciation of CPS from aseptically collected composite milk samples was performed. Coagulase-positive isolates from 4 cow groups were tested for their ability to coagulate rabbit plasma by 4 hours: LP and HP primiparous cows at parturition, and LP and HP cows any time after first parturition. Of 487 CPS in the prevalence study, 82.1% were S aureus, 17.7% were coagulase-positive S hyicus, and 0.2% were S intermedius. Of all CPS IMI in LP herds, 34% were coagulase-positive S hyicus; of all CPS IMI in HP herds, 9% were coagulase-positive S hyicus. Coagulase-positive S hyicus appeared to persist to the end of lactation in 4 cows (mean linear somatic cell count = 3.7). The TC test was > or = 97% sensitive, < or = 33% specific, and had a predictive value positive range of 60 to 97% for S aureus isolates. Coagulase-positive S hyicus appears capable of inducing chronic, low-grade IMI. Staphylococcus intermedius does not appear to be an important mastitis pathogen. The TC test is not valid to use as the sole method to differentiate CPS species.
Full Text Available Coagulase positive staphylococci are one of the most common causes of chronic udder infection. Indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs and their presence in the environment where animals live has led to coagulase positive staphylococci strains resistant to antimicrobial means. Proper and timely treatment of sub-clinical mastitis, based on the most effective use of antimicrobial drugs, is the key to good health of the milk herd. The aim was to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of selected assets in relation to coagulase positive staphylococci isolated from samples of milk taken from individual udder quarters of cows in cases of udder infection from three farms with different mastitis prevalence. From a total of 9245 samples of milk taken from individual udder quarters of cows from three farms, 852 strains isolated were coagulase positive staphylococci. Coagulase positive staphylococci were isolated on blood agar and identified on the basis of macro-morphological characteristics and the coagulase and catalase test. The sensitivity of the coagulase positive staphylococci was tested by the Kirby Bauer agar diffusion method with the following antimicrobials: penicillin 6µg, amoxicillin / sulbactam (20 +10µg, cloxacillin 25 µg, cefalexin 30 µg, ceftiofur 30µg, linkomycin 15µg, 30 µg gentamycin and tetracycline 30 µg. Sensitivity testing of coagulase positive staphylococci, isolated in cases of intramammary cow infections, established a high degree of sensitivity in vitro towards penicilinasa resistant drugs (amoxicillin-sublactam, cloxacilin, cephalosporins of the first and third generations and linkomycin. The highest levels of resistance to penicillin (70.4% were found on a farm with a moderate prevalence of udder infection, then on the farm with the highest prevalence of intramammary infections (60.2% and the lowest on the farm with controlled levels of resistance of infection (43.7%. .
Zhang, Songlin; Maddox, Carol W.
Secreted toxins play important roles in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. In this study, we examined the presence of secreted cytotoxic factors of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from bovine clinical and subclinical mastitis. A 34- to 36-kDa protein with cell-rounding cytotoxic activity was found in many CoNS strains, especially in Staphylococcus chromogenes strains. The protein caused cell detachment and cell rounding in several cell lines, including HEp-2, Int 407, CHO-K1, and Y-1 cells. Native protein recovered from nondenatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed both cytotoxic activity and casein hydrolysis activity. The purified protein had a pH optimal at 7.2 to 7.5 and a pI of 5.1 and was heat labile. The proteolytic activity could be inhibited by zinc and metal specific inhibitors such as 1,10-phenanthroline and EDTA, indicating that it is a metalloprotease. Protein mass analysis and peptide sequencing indicated that the protein is a novel metalloprotease. Different bacterial strains expressed variable levels of 34- to 36-kDa protease, which may provide an indication of strain virulence. PMID:10678913
Full Text Available In addition to their capacity to attach to surfaces, various groups of microorganisms also produce an extracellular polymeric substance known as "slime". This slime forms a thin layer around cells known as biofilm. Thus, biofilm structure comprises bacterial cells and an extracellular polymeric substance. It also presents a defined architecture, providing the microorganisms with an excellent protective environment and favoring the exchange of genetic material between cells as well as intercellular communication. The ability to produce biofilm is observed in a large group of bacteria, including coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS which are the predominant microorganisms of normal skin flora and have been implicated as the causative agents of hospital infections. Bacteremia caused by these agents is common in immunodepressed persons, in patients with cancer, in adult and neonatal intensive care units (ICU and in patients using catheters or other prosthetic devices. The pathogenicity of CNS infections is probably related to the production of slime, which adheres preferentially to plastic and smooth surfaces, forming a biofilm that protects against attacks from the immune system and against antibiotic treatment, a fact hindering the eradication of these infections. The main objective of the present review was to describe basic and genetic aspects of biofilm formation and methods for its detection, with emphasis on biofilm creation by CNS and its relationship with diseases caused by these microorganisms which are becoming increasingly more frequent in the hospital environment.
Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4 %, followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9 % and then Staphylococcus aureus (17.1 %, whereas in subclinical mastitis S. aureus (34.2 % and coagulase-negative staphylococci were (33.2 % the most common. Bacillus species were only isolated in milk samples from subclinical mastitis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed in mixed infections with other bacteria in only 2.2 % of the 406 milk samples from clinical and subclinical mastitis where they were isolated together with Bacillus species in 6 of the 9 mixed infection cases. About 95 % of the milk samples from which 131 coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated had correspondingly high somatic cell counts. The coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated most frequently were S. chromogenes (7.9 %, S. epidermidis (7.4 % and S. hominis (5.9 %. They were all associated with high somatic cell counts. All the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin and erythromycin, and more than 90 %of the isolates were susceptible to neomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (17.6 %, followed by lincomycin (13.7 %. About 8 % of the isolates were resistant to both penicillin and streptomycin.
Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis in and around Dharwad region. A total of 310 samples were screened and 180 confirmed Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were obtained. The antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci against 10 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. The highest numbers of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were susceptible to ceftriaxone 83.88% followed by cefotaxime 79.41%, methicillin 76.47%, ciprofloxacin 73.52%, erythromycin 70.05%, amikacin 66.11%, gentamycin 42.94%, amoxicillin 36.76%, ampicillin 29.41%, and the lowest susceptibility was shown in penicillin 23.23% . The results indicated that the increase in prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis exhibited the highest degree of susceptible to ceftriaxone of all the tested antimicrobial agents. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 158-161
Full Text Available Microorganisms that cause mastitis were isolated in a herd of sheep and their sensitivity to antimicrobials was tested. Twenty-one sheep had their mammary glands monitored during lactation. Eighty-eight milk sample from CMT-positive sheep were analyzed in order to isolate the etiologic agent of mastitis. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus were isolated from 29.5% of samples. Ampicillin and penicillin were the antimicrobials with higher number of resistant strains. The importance of coagulase negative staphylococci has been demonstrated, especially S. lentus and S. sciuri as a cause of ovine mastitis.
Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Dangler, C. A.; Sordillo, L. M.
This study was conducted to investigate polymorphism of the coagulase gene of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis. One hundred eighty-seven strains of S. aureus were isolated from bovine mastitic milk samples obtained from 187 different Danish dairy farms. The isolates were characterised......% of the isolates. The ease of analysing coagulase gene polymorphisms among a large number of strains, and the multiple distinct polymorphic patterns generated, supports the use of this technique in epidemiological investigations of bovine mastitis. The predominating variants may have predelection for causing...
Dr. P.F.G. Wolffs; Ing M. Valkenburg; Dr. A.J.C. van den Brule, van den; M.Sc. A. Jansz; Drs A.J.M. Loonen; Ing J.N.B. Bergland
Five methods were compared to determine the best technique for accurate identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (n=142 strains). MALDI-TOF MS showed the best results for rapid and accurate CoNS differentiation (correct identity in 99.3%). An alternative to this approach could be
Sampimon, O.C.; Lam, T.G.J.M.; Mevius, D.J.; Schukken, Y.H.; Zadoks, R.N.
The aim of this study was to examine whether antimicrobial resistance profiles of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) species isolated from milk of dairy cows differed between bacterial species, and to compare results obtained by phenotypic and genotypic profiling of resistance to penicillin,
Sampimon, O.C.; Vernooij, J.C.A.; Mevius, D.J.; Sol, J.
During recent years the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in milk samples from Dutch dairy cows has increased. In 1999 16.2% of the bacteria isolated from milk collected from cows with subclinical mastitis were coagulasenegative staphylococci. In 2004 this proportion was 42.2%. The
Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars
The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality and 12-month mortality in patients with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) compared to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infective endocarditis (IE). We used a prospective cohort study of 66 consecutive CoNS and 170 S. aureus IE...
V. Hira (Vishal)
textabstractCoagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the leading cause of late-onset sepsis (LOS) worldwide. As antibiotic resistance is dramatically increasing in these organisms, prevention is becoming more and more important. CoNS that are isolated from blood cultures of neonates with LOS on
Fluoroquinolone susceptibilities to methicillin-resistant and susceptible coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from eye infection Suscetibilidade dos Staphylococcus coagulase negativo meticilina-resistentes e suscetíveis isolados em infecções oculares
Adália Dias Dourado Oliveira
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the fluoroquinolone susceptibilities of ocular isolate coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, identified at the Microbiology Laboratory - UNIFESP. DESIGN: Experimental laboratory investigation. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 21 strains of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS and 22 methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCoNS to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin were determined, using the E-test method standardized by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI/NCCLS. RESULTS: The MIC90s (µg/ml for the second generation of tested fluoroquinolones were higher than the fourth generation, especially for the methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci group. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci are more susceptible to quinolones than are methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and that fourth generation fluoroquinolones appear to be more potent, affecting even coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains resistant to second generation fluoroquinolones.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a suscetibilidade a fluorquinolonas dos Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo (SCoN identificados no Laboratório de Microbiologia Ocular da Unifesp. MÉTODOS: Foi determinada a concentração inibitória mínima de 21 cepas de SCoN meticilina-resistentes e 22 meticilina-sensíveis para ciprofloxacina, ofloxacina, gatifloxacina e moxifloxacina, utilizando o E-test estandartizado pelo CLSI/NCCLS. RESULTADOS: Os MIC90 (µg/ml de 43 SCoN isolados para fluorquinolonas de segunda geração foram maiores do que os de quarta geração, principalmente para o grupo dos meticilina-resistentes. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados indicam que Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo meticilina-sensíveis são mais suscetíveis às quinolonas do que os Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo meticilina
Kanellos, T S; Burriel, A R
Coagulase-negative staphylococci producing cell-damaging toxins were isolated from the milk of sheep with subclinical mastitis. The haemolytic activity of Coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains was assessed on solid and liquid culture media. More than 61% and 76% of the tested strains on solid media produced evidence of alpha- and delta- haemolysins and more than 78% produced synergistic haemolysis. However almost all isolates producing haemolysin in liquid culture media produced only very few units of haemolysin compared to the positive control of five Coagulase-positive strains of staphylococci. It was concluded that solid media are better for classifying Coagulase-negative staphylococci as producers or not of haemolysins, and liquid media for measuring the size of this activity within the first few hours of intramammary infection.
Gemmell, C G; Dawson, J E
A kit for the identification of staphylococci based on the biochemical criteria proposed by Kloos and Schleifer (W.E. Kloos and K.H. Schleifer, J. Clin. Microbiol., 1:82-88, 1975) is now available commercially. The system was used to identify 100 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from various body sites as the primary etiological agent of clinical infection. The increasing importance of staphylococci and their resistance to antibiotics provided the rationale for such an inv...
Kern, Andrea; Perreten, Vincent
Objectives To determine the antibiotic resistance and fingerprint profiles of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) from animal infections among different practices and examine the history of antibiotic treatment. Methods Isolates were identified by mass spectrometry and tested for antimicrobial resistance by broth dilution, microarrays and sequence analysis of the topoisomerases. Diversity was assessed by PFGE, icaA PCR and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SC...
Fowoyo, P T; Ogunbanwo, S T
Coagulase-negative staphylococci have become increasingly recognized as the etiological agent of some infections. A significant characteristic of coagulase-negative staphylococci especially strains isolated from animals and clinical samples is their resistance to routinely used antibiotics although, resistant strains isolated from fermented foods have not been fully reported. A total of two hundred and fifty-five CoNS isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the disc diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the isolates to the tested antibiotics was determined using the microbroth dilution method. Methicillin resistant strains were confirmed by detection of methicillin resistant genes (mecA) and also employing cefoxitin screening test. The isolates were confirmed to be methicillin resistant by the detection of mecA genes and the cefoxitin screening test. The isolates demonstrated appreciable resistance to ampicillin (86.7%), sulfomethoxazole-trimethoprim (74.9%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (52.5%) and oxacillin (35.7%). Methicillin resistance was exhibited by 13 out of the 255 isolates although no mecA gene was detected. It was also observed that the methicillin resistant isolates were prevalent in these traditional foods; iru, kindirmo, nono and wara. This study has ameliorated the incidence of multiple antibiotic resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in Nigerian fermented foods and if not tackled adequately might lead to horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance from food to man.
Hashmi, A.; Abdullah, F. E.
Objective: To determine the incidence of Coagulase- negative S. aureusin urinary tract infections and sensitivities of these isolates to antimicrobial agents. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Dr. Essa Laboratory and Immunology and Infectious Disease Research Laboratory (IIDRL), Microbiology Department, University of Karachi, from January 2009 to January 2010. Methodology: Urine specimens, suggestive of urinary tract infection (UTI), were identified. Speciation of isolates was done using API-20 Staph.system. Screening of extracellular products was done using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Hemolysin on blood-agar plates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of antibiotics was estimated by microtiter well plate method. Frequency and percentages were determined and chi-square test was used for comparing proportions with significance at p < 0.05. Results: Coagulase - negative S. aureus(CONS) were the cause of urinary tract infection in 56 out of 1866 outpatient (3 percent) and 164 of 1261 in patient (13 percent), urinary tract infections (p < 0.001). Two hundred and twenty CONS isolates were identified. The most common CONS identified was S. saprophyticus (31 percent, 68 strains). The relative frequency of Coagulase - negative S. aureus was 6 percent (13 strains). All isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. Resistance was 69 percent to Ampicillin, 53 percent to Methicillin, and 37.5 percent to Ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: CONS are a potential uropathogens, with capability of slime production and resistance to common empirical prescriptions. This also warrants formulation of an appropriate antibiotic policy that covers CONS. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, non-sporulated, lack of capsule, immovable, aerobic and anaerobic and able to tolerate high levels of salt (up to 15 percent. Therefore, foods containing salt provides an ideal environment for bacterial growth. It is also one of the most important bacterial born of spoilable food products, especially in dairy products. Lighvan traditional cheese is consumed in many regions of Iran, especially consumption of these cheeses is very high in Tehran which in the manufacture of such cheeses, the unpasteurized and raw milk is used and the sanitary conditions during processing and subsequent storage are low. So, considering the importance of this issue in the release of poisoning, the coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus contamination in Lighvan cheese on Retail Stores was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In order to perform this study, 22 samples of traditional Lighvan cheese were collected randomly from Tehran stores and according to Iran national standards and by using of bird-parker, Cook Meat cultures and coagulase test were evaluated. Results: Total of 22 samples, 14 samples (63/6% were contaminated by S. aureus over standard and 5 (22/7% were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positive. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that sanitary conditions should be observed during the production and Use of pasteurized milk in cheese production.
Full Text Available Coagulase negative staphylococci are important opportunistic pathogens. Staphylococcus epidermidis, a coagulase negative staphylococcus, is the third leading cause of nosocomial infections in the US. Surface proteins like Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs are major virulence factors of pathogenic gram positive bacteria. Here, we identified a new chimeric protein; SesJ in S. epidermidis, which represents a prototype of a new subfamily of MSCRAMMs. Structural predictions show that SesJ has structural features characteristic of a MSCRAMM along with a N-Terminal repeat region and an Aspartic acid containing repeat region, features that have not been previously observed in staphylococcal MSCRAMMs but have been found in other surface proteins from gram positive bacteria. We identified and analyzed structural homologs of SesJ in three other coagulase negative staphylococci. These homologs of SesJ have an identical structural organization but varying sequence identities within the domains. Using flow cytometry, we also show that SesJ is expressed constitutively on the surface of a representative S. epidermidis strain, from early exponential to stationary growth phase. Thus SesJ is positioned to interact with protein targets in the environment and play a role in S. epidermidis virulence.
Needham, C A; Stempsey, W
Fifty-two isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species recovered from the blood or intravenous catheters of patients with clinically significant disease were compared to 60 similar isolates from patients who were presumably colonized. All isolates were identified and evaluated for ability to adhere to smooth surfaces, and resistance to anti-staphylococcal penicillins. S. epidermidis, S. hominis, and S. haemolyticus were the most frequently occurring species, representing 65%, 15%, and 10%, respectively, of disease isolates and 57%, 25%, and 8% of colonizers. The seven other species recovered accounted for only 10% of the total in both groups. Differences in isolation rates of each species within the two groups were not significant and were reflective of their reported incidence in the normal flora. All species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (except S. capitis and S. cohnii, which were isolated in very small numbers) were capable of adhering to smooth surfaces. S. hominis disease isolates were all capable of adherence, and the difference between the disease isolates and colonizers was statistically significant (p less than 0.02). This was not true for any other species that was analyzed nor for all isolates considered as a whole. Resistance to anti-staphylococcal penicillins was documented for all coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, and was more frequent in S. epidermidis disease isolates than colonizers (p less than 0.05). No correlation was found between resistance to antistaphylococcal penicillins and ability to adhere.
Coagulase production is preserved in Staphylococcus aureus cultures although growth was strongly reduced after irradiation with 90,000 rads by a 60 Co source. Kinetic studies on the growth and coagulase formation by non-irradiated and irradiated bacteria are reported, using various antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, actinomycin D and mitomycin. Both chloramphenicol (1-50 μg/ml) and actinomycin D (0.05-0.8 μg/ml) added to S. aureus cultures reduce and finally inhibit growth rate and coagulase synthesis proportionally to their concentration in the medium; irradiated and non-irradiated cultures behave similarly to the inhibitory action of those antibiotics. Mitomycin between 0.2-9.6 μg/ml reduces growth, but enzyme production is slightly affected; high levels of coagulase are observed in non-growing cultures. Mitomycin and gamma radiation affecting DNA give similar results: inhibition of growth but not of enzyme formation. Kinetic studies show that coagulase is synthesized during the first five minutes either in irradiated or in non-irradiated cultures. Indication of a de novo synthesis, instead of a mere release of ready-formed enzyme, is given by using chloramphenicol or actinomycin which strongly inhibit coagulase production in irradiated S. aureus. Cultures treated by those antibiotics have their coagulase levels reduced to the same degree, were they irradiated or not; it is assumed that both types of cultures behave similarly, as far as enzyme production is concerned. A massive irradiation dose alone -or mitomycin in high concentrations alone- may suspend bacterial growth although enzyme synthesis continues. A similar result is obtained by combining lower irradiation doses with an appropriate antibiotic. The combined and/or synergistic actions of gamma radiation and antibiotics could successfully differentiate between the two cellular functions: growth and enzyme synthesis [fr
Tiane Martin de Moura
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcal species are pathogens that are responsible for outbreaks of foodborne diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of enterotoxin-genes and the antimicrobial resistance profile in staphylococcus coagulase-negative (CoNS and coagulasepositive (CoPS isolates from black pudding in southern Brazil. METHODS: Two hundred typical and atypical colonies from Baird-Parker agar were inoculated on mannitol salt agar. Eighty-two mannitol-positive staphylococci were submitted to conventional biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling. The presence of coagulase (coa and enterotoxin (se genes was investigated by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The isolates were divided into 2 groups: 75.6% (62/82 were CoNS and 24.4% (20/82 were CoPS. The biochemical tests identified 9 species, of which Staphylococcus saprophyticus (37.8% and Staphylococcus carnosus (15.9% were the most prevalent. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to antibiotics widely administered in humans, such as gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. The coa gene was detected in 19.5% (16/82 of the strains and 4 polymorphic DNA fragments were observed. Five CoNS isolates carrying the coa gene were submitted for 16S rRNA sequencing and 3 showed similarity with CoNS. Forty strains were positive for at least 1 enterotoxin-encoding gene, the genes most frequently detected were sea (28.6% and seb (27.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of antimicrobial resistant and enterotoxin-encoding genes in staphylococci isolates from black pudding indicated that this fermented food may represent a potential health risk, since staphylococci present in food could cause foodborne diseases or be a possible route for the transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans.
El-Razik, K A Abd; Arafa, A A; Hedia, R H; Ibrahim, E S
This study was devoted to elucidate the tetracycline resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) derived from normal and subclinical mastitic (SCM) buffaloes' milk in Egypt. A total of 81 milk samples from 46 normal buffalo milk samples and 35 SCM buffalo milk samples at private dairy farms of Egypt were used in this study. CNS were identified using phenotypic and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). CNS isolates were tested for tetracycline resistance using routine methods and multiplex PCR targeting tetracycline ( tet ) resistance genes followed by sequencing of positive PCR products and phylogenetic analysis. Isolation and identification of 28 (34.5%) CNS from normal and SCM buffaloes' milk, namely, Staphylococcus intermedius (39.2%), Staphylococcus xylosus (25.0%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (10.7%), and 3.5% to each of Staphylococcus sciuri , Staphylococcus hyicus , Staphylococcus lugdunensis , and Staphylococcus simulans . Using nested PCR, all the 28 CNS isolates revealed positive for 16srRNA gene specific for genus staphylococci and negative for thermonuclease ( nuc ) gene specific for Staphylococcus aureus species. The presence of tetracycline resistance-encoding genes ( tet K, tet L, tet M, and tet O) was detected by multiplex PCR. All isolates were negative for tet L, M, and O genes while 14 (50%) CNS isolates were positive for tet K gene, namely, S. lugdunensis (100%), S. hominis (100%), S. epidermidis (66.6%), S. intermedius (45.4%), and S. xylosus (42.8%). Nucleotide sequencing of tet K gene followed by phylogenetic analysis showed the high homology between our CNS isolates genes of tetracycline resistance with S. aureus isolates including Egyptian ones. This proves the transfer of the tetracycline resistance encoding genes between coagulase-negative and coagulase positive Staphylococcus spp. CNS isolates have distinguishingly high resistance to tetracycline. Abundant tetracycline usage for
Full Text Available Introduction: Drug resistant Staphylococci are the most important agents of nosocomial infections. In this survey, effect of different antibiotics on these bacteria and their drug resistance was investigated. Methods: The study included 500 strains of Staphylococci. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of all antibiotics was determined by the broth macro dilution technique and standard methods from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Result : Oxacillin resistance of S. aureus was 14.2% and that of coagulase-negative staphylococci was 53.4%. The activity of different antibiotics is presented in detail. Conclusion: Surveillance of strains resistant to methicillin is necessary.
Schwarz, Stefan; Alesík, Eva; Werckenthin, Christiane; Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H; Wallmann, Jürgen
A total of 248 coagulase-positive and coagulase-variable staphylococci from two indications of swine (infections of the urinary/genital tract including strains from the mastitis metritis agalactia syndrome as well as infections of the skin) as well as two indications of dogs/cats (respiratory tract infections and infections of skin/ear/mouth) were investigated for their susceptibility to numerous antimicrobial agents. Regardless of the animal origin and indication, the most frequently detected resistance properties were resistances against penicillin G (53-77%) and ampicillin (42-75%), tetracycline (33-52%) as well as erythromycin (13-27%). Oxacillin-resistant staphylococci were rarely detected.
Han, Jee Eun; Hwang, Sun Young; Kim, Ji Hyung; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Chai, Ji Young; Park, Yong Ho; Park, Se Chang
We describe coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates collected from ducklings exhibiting tremor in South Korea over the period of 2010 to 2011. Screening of antimicrobial susceptibility and analysis of SCCmec elements of CoNS were also investigated. Staphylococcus cohnii was the most frequent staphylococcus (9 isolates) and S. sciuri (4 isolates), S. lentus (3 isolate), S. simulans (1 isolate) and S. epidermidis (1 isolate) were also detected. Among the 15 antimicrobials tested in this study, resistance against oxacillin (15 isolates, 83.3%) was most frequently observed, but only one isolate (SNUDS-1) possessed mecA. This isolate was shown to possess SCCmec type III; the type 3 ccr complex and the class A mec complex. Based on these results, isolate SNUDS-1 was shown to possess SCCmec type III; the type 3 ccr complex and the class A mec complex. Although the SCCmec type III is not predominant in human, MR-CoNS (Methicillin resistance Coagulase-negative staphylococci) in food animals should be monitored to prevent the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes and resistant pathogens to the community.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci and diphtheroids are normal inhabitants of the outer surface of the human eye. These microorganisms serve as part of the defense mechanism of the ocular anatomy in preventing colonization and infection by pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, infections associated with contaminated solutions and cases became serious problems for people who wear soft contact lenses. The aim of this study is to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria, particularly, gram-negative species associated with the use of extended-wear soft contact lenses. Extended-wear contact lenses were collected, using aseptic technique, from the eyes of individuals after 30 days of extended wear (5-7 day intermittent periods) and were examined for adhered aerobic bacteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 74% of the lenses. Serratia marcescens was found at an incidence of 10% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at an incidence of 6%. The presence of species of bacteria, including P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens, which have been associated with daily wear soft contact lenses, solutions, and cases also seem to be associated with extended-wear lenses.
J. Sedef Göçmen
Full Text Available Objectives: Higher rate of slime production has been found in pathogen bacteria strains. Accordingly, the factors thatcontribute to higher slime production rate increase the infection risk, while the factors that reduce the slime productionrate will reduce the infection risk. The effect of some drugs that are administered through catheters in intensive careunits on slime production with coagulase negative Staphylococci was investigated.Materials and methods: In this study, the effect of four different preparations containing Glyceryl trinitrate (Perlinganit®, Dexmedetomidine (Precedex®, Esmolol (Brevibloc®, and Propofol (Propofol® on slime production of 24Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from blood cultures of patients, and reference strain were investigated. Slimeproduction was determined using ‘the quantitative microdilution plaque test’ described by Christensen.Results: Under controlled medium, eight strains formed slimes, and in the media containing esmolol, glyceryl trinitrate,dexmedetomidine, and propofol slimes were positive for five, 21, 15, and 18 strains, respectively. The rate of slime productionin glyceryl trinitrate, dexmedetomidine, and propofol containing media were higher than that of the controls.Conclusions: In the light of the results of this study, it is concluded that the drugs and/or additives increase the rate ofslime production. The effects of the preparations administered through catheters on slime production should be investigated,and these effects should be kept in mind during their use. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(4: 150-154Key words: Slime Production, Coagulase Negative Staphyloccoci, Parenteral drugs
Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS have been identified as a major cause of nosocomial infections. Nasal carriage of CoNS in nurses and physicians is known to be an important risk factor for potential hospital infections. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of nasal carriage of uncommon coagulase-negative staphylococci among nurse and physician staffs of Tehran University Hospitals. A total of 116 CoNS were isolated from anterior nares of the study participants working in different wards of the hospitals. Thirteen uncommon CoNS were identified using phenotypic and biochemical methods, were subsequently confirmed by API kits. Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus capitis species accounted for 53.85%, 30.77%, and 15.38% from the isolates, respectively. Six isolates (46.15% were found to be resistant to methicillin. In conclusion, screening of healthcare workers for uncommon CoNS colonization along with identification and testing for susceptibility of cultured isolates is of paramount importance in strengthening effective nosocomial infection control and prevention measures.
Full Text Available Introduction. It is very important to know the resistant bacteria to common used antibiotics in our community. Staphylococcus coagulase positive was the main cause of infection in infectious disease. This study was done to demonstrate the pattern of resistance to batalactamase antibiotics among staphiococci. Methods. During a period of five month, 38 coagulase positive staphylococcus isolates were identified from various clinical specimens from 600 patients at the AI-Zahra university hospital (affiliated to IUMSHS. Results. Betalactamase production assays using rapid acidometric and iodometric tests showed that 78.9 percent and 73.6 percent of isolates were positive, respectively. The differnce in determination rate between acidometric and iodometric tests was not statistically significant. Moreover the acidometric test was cheaper and more easy to perform than iodometric test. In vitro sensitivity testing using the disc diffusion method showed that all of isolates were resistant to carbenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin, while 7.9 percent and 13.2 percent were resistant to cefazolin and cephalexin, respectively. Discussion. We recommend use of cefazolin, cephalexin and oxacillin for treatment of patients with staphylococcus infections.
A.M.M.P Della Libera
Full Text Available Avaliou-se a sensibilidade antimicrobiana in vitro de 121 cepas de estafilococos coagulase-negativa isolada de leite de ovelhas Santa Inês, aos fármacos: penicilina, amoxicilina, ampicilina, estreptomicina, oxaciclina, neomicina, cefalotina, gentamicina e sulfonamida. A resistência à sulfonamida foi a mais frequente (27,3%, seguida pela estreptomicina (14,0% e pela oxaciclina (14,0%, enquanto da gentamicina (1,6% foi a menos frequente. Todas as cepas foram sensíveis a pelo menos um antimicrobiano, e 20,3% das cepas apresentaram resistência múltipla. Os resultados mostram a importância de Staphylococci coagulase-negativas como agentes causadores de mastite em ovinos, e o perfil de resistência múltipla indica a importância da determinação da resistência à oxaciclina como indicador da presença de ilhas de patogenicidade que contêm fatores de virulência e resistência a outros antimicrobianos que contribuem para a sobrevivência da bactéria ao tratamento.
Full Text Available The NCCLS (2004 presented a new methodology to detect, by disk-diffusion agar, oxacillin-resistance using a cefoxitin disk. We identified coagulase-negative staphylococci (SCoN to the species level and compared the use of cefoxitin disks (30 µg with oxacillin disks (1 µg, agar dilution (minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin and mecA gene detection in isolates of coagulase-negative bacteria other than Staphylococcus epidermidis (SCoNne. A total of 238 SCoNne was evaluated; oxacillin-resistance (the mecA gene was detected in 71% of the isolates. All methods gave 100% sensitivity, based on presence of the mecA gene. The specificity of the cefoxitin disk was 100%, while the oxacillin disk gave a specificity of 91% and agar dilution oxacillin gave a specificity of 88%. We conclude that the cefoxitin disk is an efficient test, and it is an easy method for use in clinical laboratories to detect oxacillin-resistance in staphylococci.
Boamah, Vivian Etsiapa; Agyare, Christian; Odoi, Hayford
The use of antibiotics in animal production has been associated with the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms including commensals. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) species, which were until recently considered non-pathogenic, have been associated with opportunistic...... usage in both animal production and in humans....... infections and high resistance to several antibiotics. This study sought to determine the prevalence, identity, and phenotypic resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. isolated from some selected poultry farms and farm workers in the Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, and Greater Accra regions of Ghana...
Full Text Available Resumo: A mastite é a principal afecção do gado destinado à produção leiteira, que impacta significativamente a cadeia produtiva do leite, com reflexos ainda para a saúde pública. Estudou-se aspectos relacionados à etiologia, celularidade e de contagem bacteriana em 10 propriedades leiteiras, localizadas no Estado de São Paulo. Foram examinadas 1148 vacas em lactação, totalizando 4584 glândulas mamárias. Foram considerados os casos, em que houve isolamento de estafilococos coagulase positiva (SCP e estafilococos coagulase negativa (SCN. Os resultados revelaram microbiota com vários patógenos e diferentes espécies de SCN (128 casos e SCP (45, Staphylococcus aureus(90, Streptococcus agalactiae(70, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (69, Streptococcus uberis(29, Corynebacteriumspp. (230, Klebsiella pneumoniae(28, Klebsiella oxytoca(2, Escherichia coli(15, Enterobactersp. (3. Os resultados de contagem de células somáticas (CCS relacionados aos SCP e SCN não mostraram diferenças entre as propriedades avaliadas, entretanto com diferenças significantes ao se avaliar a CCS entre os dois grupos de estafilococos, como pode ser evidenciado ao comparar SCN Discreto e SCP exuberante (P<0,01, SCP Discreto e SCP exuberante (P<0,001 e SCN moderado e SCP exuberante (P<0,01. A avaliação da CCS relacionada à intensidade da infecção, considerando-se como crescimento discreto o isolamento de até nove colônias, moderado de dez a 29 colônias e exuberante, com 30 ou mais colônias, revelou para ambos os grupos de estafilococos que quanto maior o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC, a CCS é mais elevada, sendo sempre maior nos casos de SCP. Conclui-se que quando há maior número de UFC, há concomitantemente maior CCS/mL de leite, no caso dos SCP e SCN, o que mostra relação direta da intensidade do processo infeccioso com a resposta da celularidade do leite, bem como pela relevância desses na etiologia das mastites e dos aspectos
K. A. Abd El-Razik
Full Text Available Aim: This study was devoted to elucidate the tetracycline resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS derived from normal and subclinical mastitic (SCM buffaloes' milk in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 milk samples from 46 normal buffalo milk samples and 35 SCM buffalo milk samples at private dairy farms of Egypt were used in this study. CNS were identified using phenotypic and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]. CNS isolates were tested for tetracycline resistance using routine methods and multiplex PCR targeting tetracycline (tet resistance genes followed by sequencing of positive PCR products and phylogenetic analysis. Results: Isolation and identification of 28 (34.5% CNS from normal and SCM buffaloes' milk, namely, Staphylococcus intermedius (39.2%, Staphylococcus xylosus (25.0%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.7%, Staphylococcus hominis (10.7%, and 3.5% to each of Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus simulans. Using nested PCR, all the 28 CNS isolates revealed positive for 16srRNA gene specific for genus staphylococci and negative for thermonuclease (nuc gene specific for Staphylococcus aureus species. The presence of tetracycline resistance-encoding genes (tetK, tetL, tetM, and tetO was detected by multiplex PCR. All isolates were negative for tetL, M, and O genes while 14 (50% CNS isolates were positive for tetK gene, namely, S. lugdunensis (100%, S. hominis (100%, S. epidermidis (66.6%, S. intermedius (45.4%, and S. xylosus (42.8%. Nucleotide sequencing of tetK gene followed by phylogenetic analysis showed the high homology between our CNS isolates genes of tetracycline resistance with S. aureus isolates including Egyptian ones. This proves the transfer of the tetracycline resistance encoding genes between coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp. Conclusion: CNS isolates have distinguishingly high resistance to tetracycline
Ultraviolet and gamma radiations, chemical mutagens, and combinations of chemical and physical mutagens were used in order to obtain mutants of Bacillus mesentericus and Trichoderma viridae with a higher production of coagulase and cellulase, respectively. It was possible to isolate mutant strains, with enzyme activity increased by a factor of 2 and 3
Bruno F. Robles
Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to evaluate the presence/production of beta-lactamases by both phenotypic and genotypic methods, verify whether results are dependent of bacteria type (Staphylococcus aureus versus coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - CNS and verify the agreement between tests. A total of 200 bacteria samples from 21 different herds were enrolled, being 100 CNS and 100 S. aureus. Beta-lactamase presence/detection was performed by different tests (PCR, clover leaf test - CLT, Nitrocefin disk, and in vitro resistance to penicillin. Results of all tests were not dependent of bacteria type (CNS or S. aureus. Several S. aureus beta-lactamase producing isolates were from the same herd. Phenotypic tests excluding in vitro resistance to penicillin showed a strong association measured by the kappa coefficient for both bacteria species. Nitrocefin and CLT are more reliable tests for detecting beta-lactamase production in staphylococci.
Tynecka, Z; Szymona, O
Sensitivity toward HgCl/sub 2/ of two coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains has been studied. Strain 15 proved to be over 10 times more resistant to HgCl/sub 2/ in the growth test than strain 31. The former showed also higher rates of endogenous respiration and more actively oxidized glucose in presence of HgCl/sub 2/. Strain 31 grew better in absence of HgCl/sub 2/ but readily underwent inhibition both in the growth and glucose oxidation experiment. Strain 31 was, however, less sensitive to HgCl/sub 2/, as detected by methylene blue reduction in presence of malate and succinate as substrates. Cysteine largely reversed the inhibitory effect of mercuric ions. Experiments with radioactive Hg/sup 203/Cl/sub 2/ did not prove the sensitive strain 31 to bind more mercuric ions than strain 15. 12 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.
Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance patterns and gene coding for methicillin resistance (mecA were determined in 25 S. aureus and 75 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS strains isolates from half-udder milk samples collected from goats with subclinical mastitis. Fourteen (56.0% S. aureus and thirty-one (41.3% CNS isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. S. aureus showed the highest resistance rate against kanamycin (28.0%, oxytetracycline (16.0%, and ampicillin (12.0%. The CNS tested were more frequently resistant to ampicillin (36.0% and kanamycin (6.7%. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was observed in eight isolates, and one Staphylococcus epidermidis was found to be resistant to six antibiotics. The mecA gene was not found in any of the tested isolates. Single resistance against β-lactamics or aminoglicosides is the most common trait observed while multiresistance is less frequent.
Mauriello, G; Moschetti, G; Villani, F; Blaiotta, G; Coppola, S
In the present paper 42 isolates from Italian salami were specified as Staphylococcus xylosus (30), Staph. capitis (1), Staph. saprophyticus (1), Staph. hominis (1), Staph. simulans (1), Staph. cohnii (1) and as Staph. spp. (7). These strains were coagulase-negative and were examined for resistance/sensitivity against 25 antibiotics including beta-lactams (7), macrolides (3), amynoglicosides (5), glycopeptides, lincosamides (4) and novobiocin, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, tetracycline, minocycline. More than 64% of the strains were resistant to lincomycin, penicillin G, amoxicillin, fusidic acid and novobiocin. All the strains were multiresistant and displayed at least three resistances. Over 75% had a multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index between 0.2 and 0.5.
de Allori, María Cristina Gaudioso; Jure, María Angela; Romero, Cintia; de Castillo, Marta Elena Cecilia
Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) strains are frequently associated with bacteremia and hospital-acquired infections. 293 CNS strains were isolated from 744 samples from a dialysis center in S. M. de Tucumán, Argentina, from hemocultures, catheters and urine and identified as S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. saprophyticus, S. hominis and S. cohnii. 13 antibiotics were tested for antibacterial resistance. 75% of S. saprophyticus, 66% of S. epidermidis and 57% of S. haemolyticus was resistant to erythromycin and 50% of S. haemolyticus was resistant to ciprofloxacin. OXA resistance was found in 43% of S. haemolyticus. Presence of PBP 2a in OXA-R strains was confirmed with the modified agglutination assay (MRSA) and presence of the mecA gene. 15 strains with intermediate halos for vancomycin and teicoplanin showed a MIC in solid and liquid medium resistance to methicillin and biofilm production are decisive for a prompt and appropriate antimicrobial therapy and limited use of inappropriate glycopeptides.
Wu, Eric C; Kowalski, Regis P; Romanowski, Eric G; Mah, Francis S; Gordon, Y Jerold; Shanks, Robert M Q
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of azithromycin (AZM) 1% ophthalmic solution in DuraSite® (AzaSite®) on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci in vitro. Susceptible and resistant clinical strains (n = 8) of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci were challenged with serial dilutions of AzaSite® and its components: AZM, benzalkonium chloride (BAK), and the DuraSite drug delivery vehicle. After 20 h of incubation, bacterial growth was quantified using a spectrophotometer (A = 600 nm). Plates were stained with crystal violet and biofilm formation was quantified spectrophotometrically at A = 590 nm. AzaSite® and AZM inhibited bacterial growth (P reduction in biofilm formation (P reduction in biofilm formation at concentrations from 1.25 to 10 mg/mL in most strains. DuraSite® inhibited biofilm formation at concentrations between 10% and 2.5% in all studied strains (P < 0.05), without affecting bacterial growth. BAK inhibited bacterial growth and biofilm formation in all strains between concentrations of 0.042 and 0.375 mg/mL (P < 0.05). AzaSite®, AZM, or BAK prevented biofilm formation by inhibiting growth of AZM-susceptible strains. AzaSite®, AZM, and DuraSite® also reduced biofilm formation at subinhibitory concentrations for growth. Our data indicate that AZM has a moderate inhibitory effect on biofilm formation, whereas DuraSite® appears to play a greater role in the inhibition of staphylococcal biofilm formation by AzaSite®.
Supré, K; Haesebrouck, F; Zadoks, R N; Vaneechoutte, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S
A longitudinal study in 3 dairy herds was conducted to profile the distribution of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) species causing bovine intramammary infection (IMI) using molecular identification and to gain more insight in the pathogenic potential of CNS as a group and of the most prevalent species causing IMI. Monthly milk samples from 25 cows in each herd as well as samples from clinical mastitis were collected over a 13-mo period. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified to the species level using transfer-RNA intergenic spacer PCR. The distribution of CNS causing IMI was highly herd-dependent, but overall, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus simulans were the most prevalent. No CNS species were found to cause clinical mastitis. The effect of the most prevalent species on the quarter milk somatic cell count (SCC) was analyzed using a linear mixed model, showing that Staph. chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus induced an increase in the SCC that is comparable with that of Staphylococcus aureus. Almost all CNS species were able to cause persistent IMI, with Staph. chromogenes causing the most persistent infections. In conclusion, accurate species identification cannot be ignored when studying the effect of CNS on udder health, as the effect on SCC differs between species and species distribution is herd-specific. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus seem to be the more important species and deserve special attention in further studies. Reasons for herd dependency and possible cow- and quarter-level risk factors should be examined in detail for the different species, eventually leading to cost-benefit analyses for management changes and, if needed, treatment recommendations. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCormick, Clare C; Dajcs, Joseph J; Reed, Julian M; Marquart, Mary E; O'Callaghan, Richard J
To quantitatively determine the effectiveness of lysostaphin therapy for experimental endophthalmitis mediated by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, the leading cause of postsurgical endophthalmitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of lysostaphin were determined for 54 isolates representing the following species: S. epidermidis, S. warneri, S. haemolyticus, S. cohnii, S. simulans, and S. capitis. The effectiveness of lysostaphin therapy was tested in an experimental model of endophthalmitis by intravitreally injecting log phase bacteria (100 colony-forming units; cfu) into rabbit eyes (n = 3 eyes per group). At 8 hr postinfection (PI), lysostaphin (250 microg) was injected intravitreally, and the number of cfu/ml of vitreous was determined at 24 hr PI. Average MIC for S. epidermidis was 0.7 microg/ml for 90% of the 33 strains tested. Six methicillin-resistant strains of S. epidermidis (MRSE) had an average MIC of 0.74 micro g/ml. All other species had MIC values of =1.1 microg/ml, except for one strain of S. capitis (MIC = 15.6 microg/ml) and one S. haemolyticus (MIC = 1.41 microg/ml). At 24 hr PI, all untreated eyes had between 5.7 and 8.08 log cfu/ml vitreous humor. Treatment with lysostaphin significantly reduced the cfu/ml as compared with untreated eyes for 13 strains tested in vivo (p = 0.020), but not for two S. haemolyticus strains (p = 0.13), two MRSE strains (p = 0.544), or one S. cohnii strain (p = 0.1366). Treatment with lysostaphin reduced the cfu/ml of methicillin-sensitive S. epidermidis strains by 6 logs; for S. warneri, there was a 2 log reduction; and for the other species a 4 log reduction in cfu/ml relative to untreated eyes. Lysostaphin was mostly effective in treating coagulase-negative staphylococcal experimental endophthalmitis.
Bendahou, Abdrezzak; Abid, Mohammed; Bouteldoun, Nadine; Catelejine, Dierick; Lebbadi, Mariam
The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of enterotoxin genes (sea-seo) in Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus (CPS) isolated from unpasteurized milk and milk products. These results were compared with the results obtained by using the detection kit SET-RPLA for the specific detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA-SED). Eighty-one samples of milk and milk products were analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus strains. Forty-six coagulase positive Staphylococcus isolates were tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA-SED) by using the reversed passive latex agglutination method. The strains were also tested for the presence of se genes (sea-seo) by polymerase chain reaction. One or more classical enterotoxin products (SEA-SED) were observed in 39% of the strains tested, while se genes were detected in 56.5%. SEA and sea were most commonly detected. For newly discovered se genes among CPS isolates tested in this study, except the seh gene which was revealed in four isolates (8.7 %), none of the strains harbored any of the other se genes (see, seg, sei, sej, sek, sel, sem, seo and sen). The finding of a pathogen such as staphylococci-producing SEs and containing se genes in milk and milk products in northern Morocco may indicate a problem for public health in this region. The presence of enterotoxigenic strains in food does not always necessarily mean that the toxin will be produced. For that reason, the combination of both methods (RPLA and PCR) is a guarantee for success in diagnostic analysis tests.
Harper, Tom; Miller, Darlene; Flynn, Harry W
To compare pharmacodynamic indices and minimal inhibitory concentrations for vancomycin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, linezolid, and combined quinupristin and dalfopristin for historic and current human coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) endophthalmitis isolates. Experimental study. Fifty-nine CoNS endophthalmitis isolates retrieved from patients at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute from 1993 through 2006. Coagulase-negative staphylococcal endophthalmitis isolates were recovered from the microbiology specimen bank, rehydrated, and processed for susceptibility testing using standard microbiological protocols. E tests were used to determine and compare mean inhibitory concentration for 50% of isolates (MIC50) and mean inhibitory concentration for 90% of isolates (MIC90) values. Peak concentration (C(max)) was defined as the maximum attainable aqueous concentration using topical or oral therapy, or both. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for each antibiotic are the minimum concentrations that inhibit 50% and 90% of CoNS endophthalmitis isolates, respectively. Significance was determined by the McNemar test. Pharmacodynamic indices (C(max)/MIC) were calculated using determined MIC values and published intraocular drug concentrations for topical and oral dosing. The pharmacodynamic index was defined as the achievable aqueous humor concentration of an antibiotic divided by the concentration of the antibiotic required to inhibit a specified percentage of microbiologic isolates. Pharmacodynamic indices for new and conventional antibiotics. General in vitro susceptibility patterns in descending order were vancomycin (100%), linezolid (100%), quinupristin and dalfopristin (98%), moxifloxacin (48%), and gatifloxacin (47%). The corresponding MIC50 and MIC90 values were vancomycin, 2 microg/ml and 3 microg/ml, respectively; linezolid, 1 microg/ml and 4 microg/ml; quinupristin and dalfopristin, 0.25 microg/ml and 0.5 microg/ml; moxifloxacin, 0.75 microg/ml and > or =32 microg
Saber, Huda; Jasni, Azmiza Syawani; Jamaluddin, Tengku Zetty Maztura Tengku; Ibrahim, Rosni
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are considered low pathogenic organisms. However, they are progressively causing more serious infections with time because they have adapted well to various antibiotics owing to their ability to form biofilms. Few studies have been conducted on CoNS in both, hospital and community-acquired settings, especially in Malaysia. Thus, it is important to study their species and gene distributions. A mobile genetic element, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ), plays an important role in staphylococci pathogenesis. Among CoNS, SCC mec has been studied less frequently than Staphylococcus aureus (coagulase-positive staphylococci). A recent study (8) conducted in Malaysia successfully detected SCC mec type I to VIII as well as several new combination patterns in CoNS species, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis . However, data are still limited, and further research is warranted. This paper provides a review on SCC mec types among CoNS species.
B. K. Bansal; D. K. Gupta; T. A. Shafi; S. Sharma
Aim: The present study was planned to determine the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis in dairy cows. Antibiotic sensitivity profile will be helpful to recommend early therapy at the field level prior to availability of CST results. Materials and Methods: The milk samples from cases of clinical mastitis received in Mastitis Laboratory, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences Univer...
Jakeen K. El-Jakee
Full Text Available In Egypt, knowledge about the coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS involved in mastitic animals is limited. CNS have emerged to be pathogens causing intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy herds. Therefore, the current study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of CNS in dairy ruminants (cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. A total of 884 quarter milk samples were investigated to study the prevalence of CNS among mastitic and subclinically mastitic cows, buffalo–cows, ewes and does in Egypt. Identification of the isolates was achieved using API staph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. CNS were isolated from the examined subclinical mastitic cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats with percentages of 16.6%, 59.4%, 50% and 55.6%, respectively. Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus simulans were identified as CNS that recovered from the examined milk samples. The CNS as mastitis-causing agents could not be neglected as they can cause substantial economic losses.
Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS are an important cause of nosocomial bacteremia, specially in patients with indwelling devices or those submitted to invasive medical procedures. The identification of species and the accurate and rapid detection of methicillin resistance are directly dependent on the quality of the identification and susceptibility tests used, either manual or automated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of two automated systems MicroScan and Vitek - in the identification of CoNS species and determination of susceptibility to methicillin, considering as gold standard the biochemical tests and the characterization of the mecA gene by polymerase chain reaction, respectively. MicroScan presented better results in the identification of CoNS species (accuracy of 96.8 vs 78.8%, respectively; isolates from the following species had no precise identification: Staphylococcus haemolyticus, S. simulans, and S. capitis. Both systems were similar in the characterization of methicillin resistance. The higher discrepancies for gene mec detection were observed among species other than S. epidermidis (S. hominis, S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. cohnii, and those with borderline MICs.
Kennedy F. Chah
Full Text Available The occurrence, resistance phenotype and molecular mechanisms of resistance of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from groin swabs of 109 clinically healthy dogs in Nsukka, Nigeria were investigated. The groin swab samples were cultured on mannitol salt agar supplemented with 10 µgof cloxacillin. Sixteen methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCoNS, all harbouring the mecA gene were isolated from 14 (12.8% of the 109 dogs studied. The MRCoNS isolated were: S. sciuri subspecies rodentium, S. lentus, S. haemolyticus, and S. simulans with S. sciuri subspecies rodentium (62.5% being the predominant species. Thirteen (81.3% of the MRCoNS were resistant to tetracycline while 12 (75% and 10 (62.5% were resistant to kanamycin and trimthoprim-sulphamethoxazole respectively. None of the isolates was resistant to fusidic acid, linezolid and vancomycin. Thirteen (81.3% of the MRCoNS were multi-drug resistance (MDR. Other antimicrobial genes detected were: blaZ, tet(K, tet(M, tet(L, erm(B, lnu(A, aacA-aphD, aphA3, str, dfr(G, cat pC221,and cat pC223. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci are common colonizers of healthy dogs in Nigeria with a major species detected being S. sciuri subsp. rodentium.
Tewhey, Ryan; Gu, Bing; Kelesidis, Theodoros; Charlton, Carmen; Bobenchik, April; Hindler, Janet; Schork, Nicholas J.
ABSTRACT Linezolid resistance is uncommon among staphylococci, but approximately 2% of clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may exhibit resistance to linezolid (MIC, ≥8 µg/ml). We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize the resistance mechanisms and genetic backgrounds of 28 linezolid-resistant CoNS (21 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates and 7 Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates) obtained from blood cultures at a large teaching health system in California between 2007 and 2012. The following well-characterized mutations associated with linezolid resistance were identified in the 23S rRNA: G2576U, G2447U, and U2504A, along with the mutation C2534U. Mutations in the L3 and L4 riboproteins, at sites previously associated with linezolid resistance, were also identified in 20 isolates. The majority of isolates harbored more than one mutation in the 23S rRNA and L3 and L4 genes. In addition, the cfr methylase gene was found in almost half (48%) of S. epidermidis isolates. cfr had been only rarely identified in staphylococci in the United States prior to this study. Isolates of the same sequence type were identified with unique mutations associated with linezolid resistance, suggesting independent acquisition of linezolid resistance in each isolate. PMID:24915435
Meyer, Cornelia; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Stüber, Elisabeth; Thiel, Susanne; Märtlbauer, Erwin
Staphylococcus aureus are a hazard to human health since they can cause infections and food poisoning. Antimicrobial resistant strains render the treatment of infections problematic and contribute to the spread of antimicrobial resistance. They are therefore of great public concern. This study determined the resistance pattern of coagulase-positive S. aureus (CPSA) isolated from nasal swabs of 100 slaughter pigs from one farm in Uruguay. Out of 69 animals, 71 CPSA were collected. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 20 antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method in accordance with CLSI recommendations. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus were detected. All CPSA were resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials (i.e., multiresistant), whereby all CPSA were resistant to spectinomycin. Most of the isolates (46%) were resistant to six classes of antimicrobials. Almost all isolates were resistant to penicillin (99%), ampicillin (99%), gentamicin (96%), tetracycline (90%), and tilmicosin (87%). Very high resistance rates were observed against erythromycin (77%) and clindamycin (70%). High resistance was observed against tiamulin (40%), enrofloxacin (31%), and florfenicol (23%) and low resistance was observed against amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4%). All CPSA isolates were mecA negative. The results of the present study could be related to an overuse of antimicrobials in pig production and should encourage veterinarians and pig holders to practice a controlled administration of chemotherapeutics in pig husbandry.
Full Text Available Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS is part of the microbiota of the male genitourinary tract, sometimes it has been considered as possible pathogenic microorganism. In the 5th version of sperm manual (WHO, 2010 sperm morphology criterion is very restricted to 4% of normal heads whereas David’s criterion evaluates several spermatic forms. The abnormalities of sperm forms were evaluated according to criteria of spermatic morphology: WHO and David in semen samples with bacterial concentrations ≤ 103, 104 and ≥ 105 CFU/mL of CoNS as of other bacteria. Spermogram, sperm culture and antibodies anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgA detection in 281 semen samples men were performed. CoNS was the most frequent germ isolated in pure culture (9.25%. Semen samples with CoNS showed higher round cells and microcephalus forms by means of David’s criterion. CoNS in higher concentrations than 104 CFU/mL may have a negative impact on sperm cellularity, sperm head and probably on fertility.
Gillespie, B E; Headrick, S I; Boonyayatra, S; Oliver, S P
Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (CNS) were isolated from 11.3% (1407 of 12,412) of mammary quarter milk samples obtained from cows in three dairy research herds in 2005. Approximately 27% (383/1407) of CNS was identified to the species level. The species distribution among those CNS identified from all herds was Staphylococcus chromogenes (48%), Staphylococcus hyicus (26%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Staphylococcus simulans (7%), Staphylococcus warneri (2%), Staphylococcus hominis (2%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (1%), Staphylococcus xylosus (1%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (Staphylococcus sciuri (Staphylococcus intermedius (<1%). Staphylococcuschromogenes was the predominant CNS isolated from all three herds; however, differences were seen in the prevalence of other CNS species. A total of 158 CNS (S. chromogenesn=66, S. hyicusn=38, S. epidermidisn=37, S. simulans n=10, and S. warneri n=7) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The majority (33/41) of CNS isolated from the same mammary quarter on more than one occasion had the same PFGE pattern indicating persistence of the same infection over time. When all PFGE patterns for each CNS were analyzed, no common pulsotype was seen among the three herds indicating that CNS are quite diverse. Composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data were obtained +/-14d of when CNS were isolated. Average milk SCC (5.32 log(10)/ml) for cows in which CNS was the only bacteria isolated was significantly higher than the average milk SCC (4.90 log(10)/ml) from cows with quarter milk samples that were bacteriologically negative.
Taponen, Suvi; Supré, Karlien; Piessens, Veerle; Van Coillie, Els; De Vliegher, Sarne; Koort, Joanna M K
Thirteen Gram-positive-staining coagulase-variable staphylococci were isolated from subclinical and mild clinical mastitic bovine milk (n=12) and a teat apex (n=1). The results of sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and two housekeeping genes, rpoB and tuf, and DNA fingerprinting with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that the isolates formed a separate branch within the genus Staphylococcus. The phylogenetically most closely related species were Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus chromogenes. DNA-DNA hybridization with S. hyicus DSM 20459(T) and S. chromogenes DSM 20674(T) confirmed that the isolates belonged to a separate species. The predominant fatty acids were i-C(15:0), ai-C(15:0), i-C(17:0) and C(20:0) and the peptidoglycan type was A3α L-Lys-Gly(5). Based on the results of genotypic and phenotypic analyses, it is proposed that the thirteen isolates represent a novel species, for which the name Staphylococcus agnetis sp. nov. is proposed. Strain 6-4(T) (=DSM 23656(T)=CCUG 59809(T)) is the type strain.
Full Text Available Hitherto very few reports are available presenting identification and molecular characterization of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS from sheep milk in the subclinical stage of mastitis. Furthermore, very scanty data are available on the epidemiological status of CNS in different Slovak provinces. Milk samples from 54 sheep farms located in eastern Slovak region were screened. A total 240 CNS were identified with series of biochemical testes (STAPH-API and subjected further for genotyping with the help of pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The most frequently occurring CNS species according the biochemical characterization were: S. epidermidis (36.3 %, S. caprae (21.3 %, S. hominis (6.6 %, S. chromogenes (6.3 %, S. xylosus (5.8 %, S. warneri (5.0 % and S. capitis (4.6 %. Further PFGE-based characterization of these isolates revealed six pulsotypes of the S. epidermidis, two of S. caprae, three of S. chromogenes, nine of S. hominis, five of S. capitis and seven of S. xylosus. These results contribute to knowledge of the epidemiological situation of the CNS from the subclinical form of mastitis in Slovakia.
Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Piepers, Sofie; Leroy, Frédéric; Van Coillie, Els; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Vliegher, Sarne
Since phenotypic methods to identify coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) from the milk of ruminants often yield unreliable results, methods for molecular identification based on gene sequencing or fingerprinting techniques have been developed. In addition to culture-based detection of isolates, culture-independent methods may be of interest. On the basis of molecular studies, the five CNS species commonly causing intramammary infections (IMI) are Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus simulans and Staphylococcus xylosus. Current knowledge suggests that S. chromogenes is a bovine-adapted species, with most cases of IMI due to this bacterium being opportunistic. S. haemolyticus also appears to be an opportunistic pathogen, but this bacterium occupies a variety of habitats, the importance of which as a source of IMI remains to be elucidated. S. xylosus appears to be a versatile species, but little is known of its epidemiology. S. epidermidis is considered to be a human-adapted species and most cases of IMI appear to arise from human sources, but the organism is capable of residing in other habitats. S. simulans typically causes contagious IMI, but opportunistic cases also occur and the ecology of this bacterium requires further study. Further studies of the ecology and epidemiology of CNS as a cause of IMI in cattle are required, along with careful attention to classification of these bacteria and the diseases they cause. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Souza Antunes, Ana Lúcia; Secchi, Carina; Reiter, Keli Cristine; Rodrigues Perez, Leandro Reus; Peixoto de Freitas, Ana Lúcia; Alves d'Azevedo, Pedro
Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. was considered nonpathogenic until the emergence of multiresistance and the demonstration of their participation as infectious agents. In Brazil, oxacillin resistance may be present in over 80% of isolates, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standardized a disk-diffusion method to predict this resistance in Staphylococcus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability among commercial disks of oxacillin (1 microg) and cefoxitin (30 microg) widely used in clinical laboratories of microbiology, compared with mecA gene and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin. The use of oxacillin and cefoxitin disks simultaneously allowed the detection of important differences, particularly, in less frequent species such as S. cohnii, S. haemolyticus, S. saprophyticus, and S. sciuri. Disks of cefoxitin of the brand 2 displayed good correlation with the mecA gene (98.7%) and oxacillin MIC (97.8%), while major discrepancies were observed using disks of brand 1. One of the critical points in the diffusion disk test is the quality of the disks: the use of better quality disks associated with molecular methods lead to better results to define the best antibiotic therapy.
Jarløv, J O; Højbjerg, T; Busch-Sørensen, C; Scheibel, J; Møller, J K; Kolmos, H J; Wandall, D A
The distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from blood cultures was examined in samples from hospitals covering most of Denmark. A total of 499 CoNS isolates were detected in 477 blood cultures from 340 patients and speciated as Staphylococcus epidermidis, 285; Staphylococcus hominis, 61; Staphylococcus haemolyticus, 43; Staphylococcus warneri, 12; Staphylococcus cohnii, 7; Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 4; Staphylococcus capitis, 2 and Staphylococcus lugdunensis, 1. Seventy-eight isolates could not be identified to species level and six were Micrococcus spp. In 108 (22.6%) blood culture sets, more than one CoNS strain were found, as detected by species identification, antibiogram and biotyping. Significantly more blood cultures from patients in university hospitals were drawn from central venous catheters. Comparing university and non-university hospitals, the overall antibiotic susceptibility among CoNS was only slightly different, except for methicillin and amikacin. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant strains was 35.1% in the university hospital strains vs. 25.3% in the non-university hospital strains. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistance was 32%. Great geographic variation in both species distribution and antibiotic resistance was observed. The high prevalence of S. epidermidis makes subtyping of this species important.
Gemmell, C G; Dawson, J E
A kit for the identification of staphylococci based on the biochemical criteria proposed by Kloos and Schleifer (W.E. Kloos and K.H. Schleifer, J. Clin. Microbiol., 1:82-88, 1975) is now available commercially. The system was used to identify 100 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from various body sites as the primary etiological agent of clinical infection. The increasing importance of staphylococci and their resistance to antibiotics provided the rationale for such an investigation. Over 90% of the Staphylococcus isolates were easily identified as to their species on the basis of their reaction profile to 19 biochemical tests included in the kit. The remainder, which showed minor variations, could also be assigned to the various species. Identification of the isolates was as follows: S. epidermidis, 54; S. haemolyticus, 5; S. simulans, 2; S. hominis, 1; S. capitis, 4; S. cohnii, 2; S. warneri, 2; S. xylosus, 8; and S. saprophyticus, 22. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns were determined for each of the isolates. Novobiocin resistance was detected in strains of S. saprophyticus and S. xylosus, a property hitherto recognized in Micrococcus sp. type 3 causing bacteriuria in young women. Resistance to penicillin was widespread among strains of several species, whereas resistance to tetracycline was mainly confined to strains of S. epidermidis. General resistance to sulfamethoxazole and nalidixic acid was found among all strains, with almost uniform sensitivity to the other drugs tested.
Szymańska, Grazyna; Szemraj, Magdalena; Szewczyk, Eligia M
The activity of beta-lactam antibiotics (oxacillin, cloxacillin, cephalotin), vancomycin, gentamicin and rifampicin applied in vitro individually and in combination against 37 nosocomial methicillin-resistant strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) was assessed to demonstrate the heterogeneity of this group of bacteria and estimate the chance of the efficacy of such therapy. The strains belonged to four species: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus hominis. They originated from a hospital environment and from the skin of medical staff of the intensive care unit of a paediatric ward at a university hospital. All strains were methicillin-resistant, according to CLSI standards, but individual strains differed in MIC(ox) values. Susceptibility to other tested antibiotics was also characteristic for the species. The increased susceptibility to antibiotics in combinations, tested by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index, concerned 26 out of 37 investigated strains and it was a feature of a particular species. Combinations of vancomycin and cephalotin against S. epidermidis and oxacillin with vancomycin were significant, as well as cephalotin and rifampicin in growth inhibition of multiresistant S. haemolyticus strains.
Ana Lúcia Souza Antunes
Full Text Available Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. was considered nonpathogenic until the emergence of multiresistance and the demonstration of their participation as infectious agents. In Brazil, oxacillin resistance may be present in over 80% of isolates, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standardized a disk-diffusion method to predict this resistance in Staphylococcus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability among commercial disks of oxacillin (1 µg and cefoxitin (30 µg widely used in clinical laboratories of microbiology, compared with mecA gene and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of oxacillin. The use of oxacillin and cefoxitin disks simultaneously allowed the detection of important differences, particularly, in less frequent species such as S. cohnii, S. haemolyticus, S. saprophyticus, and S. sciuri. Disks of cefoxitin of the brand 2 displayed good correlation with the mecA gene (98.7% and oxacillin MIC (97.8%, while major discrepancies were observed using disks of brand 1. One of the critical points in the diffusion disk test is the quality of the disks: the use of better quality disks associated with molecular methods lead to better results to define the best antibiotic therapy.
Balandin, Bárbara; Lobo, Beatriz; Orden, Beatriz; Román, Federico; García, Elena; Martínez, Rocío; Valdivia, Miguel; Ortega, Alfonso; Fernández, Inmaculada; Galdos, Pedro
The aim of this study was to report the emergence of linezolid-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in an intensive care unit. An observational study was conducted in critically ill patients with colonization or infection by linezolid-resistant CoNS between January 2010 and December 2014. We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical features, and the mechanism of resistance to linezolid. We also evaluated the association between the incidence of linezolid-resistant CoNS strains and the consumption of linezolid in the study period. During the study period 49 patients had a linezolid-resistant CoNS strain isolated from clinical samples (blood in 42 cases, urine in 6, peritoneal fluid in 1). Molecular study showed a combination of mechanisms of resistance. Most patients were critically ill (APACHE II score = 21.9 ± 8.3) and nearly all had undergone surgery and invasive procedures, and had prior exposure to antibiotics. Linezolid-resistant CoNS were considered to be contaminants in 42 patients and associated with infection in 7 patients, comprising bacteremia and septic shock in most of them. They were successfully treated with glycopeptides or daptomycin. A modest significant correlation was observed between the decrease in linezolid consumption and the lower incidence of resistant isolates. Linezolid-resistant CoNS had emerged in critically ill patients with severe underlying diseases and prior antibiotic exposure. Most isolates represented colonization; however, linezolid-resistant CoNS can produce serious infections in critically ill patients. Glycopeptides and daptomycin seem to provide useful alternatives for therapy of these infections. A relationship was found between linezolid consumption and the incidence of linezolid-resistant CoNS strains.
Klimiene, I; Virgailis, M; Pavilonis, A; Siugzdiniene, R; Mockeliunas, R; Ruzauskas, M
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci were evaluated by breakpoint values specific to the species (EU-CAST). The presence of resistance-encoding genes was detected by multiplex PCR. A total of 191 CNS isolates were obtained. The CNS isolates were typically resistant to penicillin (67.4%), tetracyc-line (18.9%), and erythromycin (13.7%). CNS isolates (78.0%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial compound, and 22.0% were multiresistant. The multiresistant isolates were predominantly Staphylococcus chromogenes (28.6%), Staphylococcus warneri (19%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (14.3%). According to MIC pattern data, multiresistant isolates showed the highest resistance (p<0.05) rates to penicillin (85.7%), tetracycline (66.7%), and erythromycin (48.2%), but all of them were sensitive to daptomycin, oxacillin, qiunupristin/dalfopristin, and vancomycin. S. chromogenes (9.5%), S. haemolyticus (4.8%), and S. capitis ss capitis (2.4%) strains were resistant to methicillin; their resistance to oxacillin and penicillin was more than 8 mg/l. A high rate of resistance to penicillin was linked to a blaZ gene found in 66.6% of the isolated multiresistant CNS strains. Resistance to tetracycline via the tetK (38.1%) gene and penicillin via the mecA (23.8%) gene were detected less frequently. Gene msrAB was responsible for macrolides and lincosamides resistance and detected in 28.6% of the CNS isolates. Antimicrobial resistance genes were identified more frequently in S. epidermidis, S. chromogenes, and S. warneri.
Ciro C. Rossi
Full Text Available The claimed role of gene reservoir of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS could be contradicted by estimates that CRISPR/Cas systems are found in the genomes of 40–50% of bacteria, as these systems interfere with plasmid uptake in staphylococci. To further correlate this role with presence of CRISPR, we analyzed, by computational methods, 122 genomes from 15 species of CoNS. Only 15% of them harbored CRISPR/Cas systems, and this proportion was much lower for S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, the CoNS most frequently associated with opportunistic infections in humans. These systems are of type II or III, and at least two of them are located within SCCmec, a mobile genetic element of Staphylococcus bacterial species. An analysis of the spacers of these CRISPRs, which come from exogenous origin, allowed us to track the transference of the SCCmec, which was exchanged between different strains, species and hosts. Some of the spacers are derived from plasmids described in Staphylococcus species that are different from those in which the CRISPR are found, evidencing the attempt (and failure of plasmid transference between them. Based on the polymorphisms of the cas1 gene in CRISPRs of types II and III, we developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR suitable to screen and type CRISPR systems in CoNS. The PCR was tested in 59 S. haemolyticus strains, of which only two contained a type III cas1. This gene was shown to be expressed in the exponential growth, stationary phase and during biofilm formation. The low abundance of CRISPRs in CoNS is in accordance with their role as gene reservoirs, but when present, their spacers sequence evidence and give an insight on the dynamics of horizontal genetic transfer among staphylococci.
Kern, Andrea; Perreten, Vincent
To determine the antibiotic resistance and fingerprint profiles of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) from animal infections among different practices and examine the history of antibiotic treatment. Isolates were identified by mass spectrometry and tested for antimicrobial resistance by broth dilution, microarrays and sequence analysis of the topoisomerases. Diversity was assessed by PFGE, icaA PCR and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and multilocus sequence typing. Clinical records were examined retrospectively. MRCoNS were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=20), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (n=17), Staphylococcus hominis (n=3), Staphylococcus capitis (n=1), Staphylococcus cohnii (n=1) and Staphylococcus warneri (n=1). PFGE identified one clonal lineage in S. hominis isolates and several in S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis. Fourteen sequence types were identified in S. epidermidis, with sequence type 2 (ST2) and ST5 being predominant. Ten isolates contained SCCmec IV, seven contained SCCmec V and the others were non-typeable. ACMEs were detected in 11 S. epidermidis isolates. One S. hominis and 10 S. epidermidis isolates were icaA positive. In addition to mecA-mediated β-lactam resistance, the most frequent resistance was to gentamicin/kanamycin [aac(6')-Ie-aph(2')-Ia, aph(3')-III] (n=34), macrolides/lincosamides [erm(C), erm(A), msr, lnu(A)] (n=31), tetracycline [tet(K)] (n=22), streptomycin [str, ant(6)-Ia] (n=20), trimethoprim [dfr(A), dfr(G)] (n=17), sulfamethoxazole (n = 34) and fluoroquinolones [amino acid substitutions in GyrA and GrlA] (n=30). Clinical data suggest selection through multiple antibiotic courses and emphasize the importance of accurate diagnosis and antibiograms. MRCoNS from animal infection sites are genetically heterogeneous multidrug-resistant strains that represent a new challenge in the prevention and therapy of infections in veterinary
S. S. Vijayasri Badampudi
Full Text Available Background: Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CONS are increasingly recognized as significant nosocomial pathogens. Their ability of biofilm formation and multiple drug resistance are causing serious human infections. Aim and Objectives: To isolate, identify, speciate clinically significant CONS from various specimens, to study antibiotic resistance pattern and biofilm production. Material and Methods: Specimens were collected aseptically, processed and identified upto the species level by a simple scheme of tests urease, novobiocin resistance, mannose and mannitol fermentation, ornithine decarboxylase. Antibiotic sensitivity was done with special reference to methicillin resistance. Biofilm formation was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA method and Tube Method (TM. Results: Study groupOf 100 isolates majority were pus (40, followed by urine (28, blood (16, CSF (5, body fluids (4 and catheter tips and implants (7. The most common species isolated was S. epidermidis (40% followed by S. haemolyticus (26%, S. saprophyticus (15%, S. schleiferi (13%, S. simulans (2%, S. cohnii (2% and S. warneri and S. capitis each 1%. Resistance to penicillin was 91% followed by ampicillin (79%, cotrimoxazole (67%. Methicillin resistance was 72%. Biofilm producers were 69% by CRAmethod and 33% by TM with majority species S. epidermidis (82.5%- CRA and 55%-TM. Biofilm production was significantly associated with MRCONS (p value 0.0036. Control group-Of 30 isolates were S. epidermidis 66.6% followed by S. haemolyticus (16.66%. Biofilm producers were 53.33% by CRA method and 26.65% by TM with majority species S. epidermidis (65%-CRA and 30%-TM.Methicillin resistance was 26.6%. Conclusion: Clinical significance of CONS is increasing day by day, so there is a need for accurate identification to species level and their antibiogram to avoid multidrug resistance. Biofilm producing CONS species pose a risk and CRA method for screening biofilm can be used in all conventional
Beytullah Kenar*, Yahya Kuyucuoğlu and Esra Şeker
Full Text Available A total of 572 California Mastitis Test (CMT positive milk samples were collected from 423 lactating cows on 18 private farms in the Middle Western Anatolia. Coagulase–negative staphylococci colonies and CNS species identification was performed based on conventional biochemical techniques and using the API Staph test. Slime production was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA method. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines (NCCLS. A total of 67 (11.7% coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were isolated from CMT positive milk samples. In total, 11 CNS species: S. epidermidis (n=18, S. simulans (n=14, S. warneri (n=10, S. hominis (n=5, S. chromogenes (n=4, S. caprae (n=4, S. xylosus (n=3, S. haemolyticus (n=3, S. hyicus (n=3, S. cohnii (n=2, and S. capitis (n=1 were identified. The most commonly identified CNS species were Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.8% and Staphylococcus simulans (20.8% followed by Staphylococcus warneri (14.9%. Out of 67 CNS isolates, slime production was found in 37 (55.2% CNS strains. CNS isolates were the most resistance to trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole (76.2%, erythromycin (73.2%, oxacillin and ampicillin (70.2% followed by penicillin (58.3%, gentamicin (53.8%, tetracycline (52.3%, vancomycin (51.8%, ciprofloxacin (26.9%, cefoxitim (23.9%, and cephalothin (13.5%. These results indicate that CNS species are resistant at high rates to the beta-lactam antibiotics which are intensively used in the prevention and treatment of mastitis without any antibiotic susceptibility test in the Middle Western of Turkey.
Deyno, Serawit; Fekadu, Sintayehu; Seyfe, Sisay
Antimicrobial resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) have limited treatment options, rendered diseases untreatable and made hospitals to be reservoirs of the resistant strains. The aim of this study was to estimate the pooled prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of clinical isolates of CoNS from Ethiopia. The electronic database search yielded 6511 articles of which 21 met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of CoNS from Ethiopia was 12% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8, 16%). The analyses revealed high level of CoNS resistance to methicilin (37%[95% CI: 21, 55%]), vancomycin (911%[95% CI: 0, 35%]), penicillin (58%[95% CI: 42, 74%]), amoxicillin (42%[95% CI: 23, 61%]), amoxicillin-clavulanate (27%[95% CI: 2, 27%]), ampicillin (64%[95% CI: 46, 80%]), tetracycline (60% [95% CI: 49, 70%]), doxycycline (36%[95% CI:19,55%]), Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (50%[95% CI: 36, 64%]), ceftriaxone (27% [95% CI: 18, 38%]), cephalothin (32% [95% CI: 7, 62%]), norfloxacin (39%[95% CI: 24, 56%]), chloramphenicol (40%[95% CI: 23, 58%]), clindamycin (11% [95% CI: 2, 27%]), ciprofloxacin (14%[95% CI: 6, 22%]), gentamicin (27%[95% CI:19,36%]) and erythromycin (30%[95% CI:20%,42%]). High heterogeneity, I 2 ranging from 69.04 to 96.88%; p-values ≤0.01, was observed. Eggers' test did not detect publication bias for the meta-analyses and low risk of bias was observed in included studies. CoNS has gotten resistant to commonly used antimicrobials from Ethiopia. There is a need of launching national antimicrobial treatment, development and implementation of policy guidelines to contain the threat. Further research focusing on factors promoting resistance and the effect of resistance on treatment outcome studies are warranted.
Engelhard, D; Elishoov, H; Strauss, N; Naparstek, E; Nagler, A; Simhon, A; Raveh, D; Slavin, S; Or, R
The purpose of this study was to examine coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients with central vein catheters by investigating incidence, clinical relevance, risk factors, methicillin resistance, clinical impact of initial empiric antimicrobial therapy without vancomycin, and management of documented catheter-related infections. A 5-year prospective study was conducted with daily evaluation of 242 BMT patients during hospitalization, including clinical assessment and blood culture via the Hickman/Broviac catheter. If fever or infected appearance occurred, peripheral blood cultures or exit site cultures, respectively, were done. Results showed a septicemia incidence of 7.0%, including in 6 patients following colonization, in 1 patient with tunnel infection, in 1 patient with thrombophlebitis, in 1 patient with exit site infection, and in 8 patients with septicemia of unknown origin. Total colonization incidence was 7%, with colonization only in 11 patients who had 16 episodes; incidence of exit site infection was 3.7%. Age > or = 18 years was the only identified risk factor for developing staphylococcal infection (P = 0.03). Despite a methicillin resistance rate of 45% and omission of vancomycin from the routine initial empiric antimicrobial regimen, the clinical course of coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections was relatively benign. A single patient, who experienced marrow rejection, died on day +31 with septicemia and only one patient experienced microbiological failure with recurrent colonization. Bacteria grown in both aerobic and anaerobic bottles were more likely true bacteremia than contaminant (P = 0.03). We conclude that the hazard of coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection does not mandate inclusion of a glycopeptide in the initial empiric antimicrobial regimen in BMT patients, even during febrile neutropenia. Hickman/Broviac-related staphylococcal infections, except for tunnel infection or
Brandão,Marcelo Luiz Lima; Costa,Juliana de Castro Beltrão da; Farias,Felipe Miceli de; Rosas,Carla de Oliveira; Bricio,Silvia Maria Lopes; Nascimento,Janaína dos Santos; Cardarelli-Leite,Paola
O uso de materiais de referência (MR) é uma das principais ferramentas utilizadas para garantia e controle da qualidade de laboratórios de microbiologia de alimentos. No Brasil, a RDC n.º 12/01 da Anvisa prevê como um dos parâmetros para a avaliação da qualidade de queijos a enumeração de estafilococos coagulase positiva (ECP). O grande desafio na produção de MR destinados a ensaios microbiológicos é a instabilidade natural dos micro-organismos, o que dificulta o desenvolvimento e a manutençã...
Jacqueline Ellen Camelo Batista
A espécie Anomalocardia brasiliana é encontrada em abundância nas praias da costa brasileira e bastante apreciada na culinária nordestina. Neste estudo, objetivou-se a caracterização molecular de enterotoxinas e do gene de resistência mecA de Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-negativos isolados de amostras da carne de A. brasiliana na região metropolitana do Recife, Brasil. Isolados de amostras in natura (n=9), coletados no balneário de Mangue Seco, Igarassu-PE, foram identificados como Staphyloc...
Kajikawa, Shunsuke; Oeda, Tomoko; Park, Kwiyoung; Yamamoto, Kenji; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sawada, Hideyuki
A 77-year-old man visited our hospital with unstable gait following 2 months of anorexia. Brain MRI showed multiple infarcts; cardiac echocardiography revealed mitral-valve vegetation; and blood culture revealed methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci. The patient was diagnosed with infective endocarditis (IE). Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) developed ten days after antibiotic treatment. Intracranial aneurysm was not found. We speculated that chronic inflammation of the cerebral arterial walls by bacteria of low virulence was associated with SAH complication. The vegetation disappeared following additional gentamicin administration and the patient recovered to walk.
Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated from mastitic cattle in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativa isoladas de leite de bovinos com mastite no Brasil
Full Text Available Um total de 109 cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativa foi isolado de leite de vacas com mastite clínica e subclínica, em 35 fazendas, situadas em nove estados brasileiros, no período de fevereiro a maio de 2005. Os isolados foram investigados em relação a susceptibilidade in vitro a diversos agentes antimicrobianos. A resistência à penicilina foi a observação mais freqüente (93,5%, seguida por sulfonamida (88,9%, novobiocina (88,6% e ampicilina (85,3%. Todas as cepas examinadas mostraram resistência a pelo menos uma das drogas antimicrobianas testadas. Cepas apresentando resistência múltipla foram extremamente comuns, com 10,0% dos microrganismos isolados apresentando resistência a todas as drogas antimicrobianas. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativas, isoladas no Brasil, apresentaram um alto grau de resistência a antimicrobianos. Estes resultados são, provavelmente, uma conseqüência da pressão devida ao uso intensivo de drogas antimicrobianas.
Frey, Yvonne; Rodriguez, Joan Peña; Thomann, Andreas; Schwendener, Sybille; Perreten, Vincent
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; n=417) were isolated from bovine milk and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Nineteen different species were identified, and Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus sciuri were the most prevalent species. Resistance to oxacillin (47.0% of the isolates), fusidic acid (33.8%), tiamulin (31.9%), penicillin (23.3%), tetracycline (15.8%), streptomycin (9.6%), erythromycin (7.0%), sulfonamides (5%), trimethoprim (4.3%), clindamycin (3.4%), kanamycin (2.4%), and gentamicin (2.4%) was detected. Resistance to oxacillin was attributed to the mecA gene in 9.7% of the oxacillin-resistant isolates. The remaining oxacillin-resistant CNS did not contain the mecC gene or mecA1 promoter mutations. The mecA gene was detected in Staphylococcus fleurettii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staph. haemolyticus, and Staph. xylosus. Resistance to tetracycline was attributed to the presence of tet(K) and tet(L), penicillin resistance to blaZ, streptomycin resistance to str and ant(6)-Ia, and erythromycin resistance to erm(C), erm(B), and msr. Resistance to tiamulin and fusidic acid could not be attributed to an acquired resistance gene. In total, 15.1% of the CNS isolates were multidrug resistant (i.e., resistant to 2 or more antimicrobials). The remaining CNS isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials commonly used in mastitis treatment. Methicillin-resistant CNS isolates were diverse, as determined by mecA gene sequence analysis, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Arginine catabolic mobile element types 1 and 3 were detected in both methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staph. epidermidis and were associated with sequence types ST59 and ST111. Because this study revealed the presence of multidrug-resistant CNS in a heterogeneous CNS population, we recommend antibiogram analysis
Sawant, A A; Gillespie, B E; Oliver, S P
Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates (n=168) obtained from milk from heifers and dairy cows were screened for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. Of the 10 CNS species included in the study, the predominant species were Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=61), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=37), Staphylococcus hyicus (n=37), and Staphylococcus simulans (n=16). The majority of CNS was susceptible to ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, and ceftiofur. Erythromycin and pirlimycin were also very effective in vitro inhibitors of CNS. The only exception was observed with S. epidermidis. Of 37 S. epidermidis evaluated, 13 (35%) exhibited efflux-based resistance to erythromycin (> or =16 microg/ml) encoded by msrA and one isolate carried ermC encoding ribosomal methylase-based resistance to both erythromycin (> or =64 microg/ml) and pirlimycin (> or =64 microg/ml). A total of 17 S. epidermidis, 11 S. chromogenes, and one S. hyicus exhibited phenotypic resistance to ampicillin (> or =0.5 microg/ml). Constitutive beta-lactamase production was observed in all ampicillin resistant isolates except 4 S. epidermidis that exhibited inducible beta-lactamase production. Induced beta-lactamase production was also observed in 13 S. epidermidis that were phenotypically susceptible to the entire MIC panel. All isolates that produced beta-lactamase either constitutively or by induction carried blaZ. S. epidermidis (n=12, 32%) that were resistant to methicillin (oxacillin > or =0.5 microg/ml) carried low affinity penicillin-binding protein encoded by mecA. Most multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. epidermidis (> or =2 resistance genes) were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin and methicillin. All except one MDR S. epidermidis had icaAB, which encodes for polysaccharide intercellular adhesion. Based on pulsed field gel electrophoresis, MDR S. epidermidis were closely related genotypically, and were isolated from different cows on the
Haro, Juan Luis; Lomas, José M; Plata, Antonio; Ruiz, Josefa; Gálvez, Juan; de la Torre, Javier; Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Reguera, José M; Márquez, Manuel; Martínez-Marcos, Francisco; de Alarcón, Arístides
To describe the epidemiological, clinical, and prognostic characteristics of patients with left-sided native valve endocarditis (LNVE) caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Prospective multicenter study of endocarditis cases reported in the Andalusian Cohort for the Study of Cardiovascular Infections between 1984 and 2005. Among 470 cases of LNVE, 39 (8.3%) were caused by CoNS, a number indicating a 30% increase in the incidence of this infection over the last decade. The mean age of affected patients was 58.32 +/- 15 years and 27 (69.2%) were men. Twenty-one patients (53.8%) had previous known valve disease and half the episodes were considered nosocomial (90% of them from vascular procedures). Median time interval from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 14 days (range: 1-120). Renal failure (21 cases, 53.8%), intracardiac damage (11 cases, 28.2%), and central nervous system involvement (10 cases, 25.6%) were the most frequent complications. There were only 3 cases (7.7%) of septic shock. Surgery was performed in 18 patients (46.2%). Nine patients (23.1%) died, overall. Factors associated with higher mortality in the univariate analysis were acute renal failure (P = 0.023), left-sided ventricular failure (P = 0.047), and time prior to diagnosis less than 21 days (P = 0.018). As compared to LNVE due to other microorganisms, the patients were older (P = 0.018), had experienced previous nosocomial manipulation as the source of bacteremia (P < 0.001), and developed acute renal failure more frequently (P = 0.001). Mortality of LNVE due to CoNS was lower than mortality in Staphylococcus aureus infection, but higher than in Streptococcus viridans infection. Left-sided native valve endocarditis due to CoNS is now increasing because of the ageing of the population. This implies more frequent invasive procedures (mainly vascular) as a consequence of the concomitant disease. Nonetheless, the mortality associated with LNVE due to CoNS does not seem to be
Adilson de Oliveira
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS. Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus. Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB. Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4% S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8% that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6% strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40% to erythromycin, 18 (51.4% to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8% to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and Co
Full Text Available Four methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS, one Staphylococcus haemolyticus and three Staphylococcus cohnii, from infections of humans collected via the Ministry of Health National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Net (Mohnarin program in China were identified as linezolid-resistant. These four isolates were negative for the 23S rRNA mutations, but positive for the gene cfr. Mutations in the gene for the ribosomal protein L3, which resulted in the amino acid exchanges Gly152Asp and Tyr158Phe, were identified in S. haemolyticus 09D279 and S. cohnii NDM113, respectively. In each isolate, the cfr gene was located on a plasmid of ca. 35.4 kb, as shown by S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting experiments. This plasmid was indistinguishable from the previously described plasmid pSS-02 by its size, restriction pattern, and a sequenced 14-kb cfr-carrying segment. Plasmid pSS-02 was originally identified in staphylococci isolated from pigs. This is the first time that a cfr-carrying plasmid has been detected in MRCoNS obtained from intensive care patients in China. Based on the similarities to the cfr-carrying plasmid pSS-02 from porcine coagulase-negative staphylococci, a transmission of this cfr-carrying plasmid between staphylococci from pigs and humans appears to be likely.
Cui, Lanqing; Wang, Yang; Li, Yun; He, Tao; Schwarz, Stefan; Ding, Yujing; Shen, Jianzhong; Lv, Yuan
Four methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), one Staphylococcus haemolyticus and three Staphylococcus cohnii, from infections of humans collected via the Ministry of Health National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Net (Mohnarin) program in China were identified as linezolid-resistant. These four isolates were negative for the 23S rRNA mutations, but positive for the gene cfr. Mutations in the gene for the ribosomal protein L3, which resulted in the amino acid exchanges Gly152Asp and Tyr158Phe, were identified in S. haemolyticus 09D279 and S. cohnii NDM113, respectively. In each isolate, the cfr gene was located on a plasmid of ca. 35.4 kb, as shown by S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting experiments. This plasmid was indistinguishable from the previously described plasmid pSS-02 by its size, restriction pattern, and a sequenced 14-kb cfr-carrying segment. Plasmid pSS-02 was originally identified in staphylococci isolated from pigs. This is the first time that a cfr-carrying plasmid has been detected in MRCoNS obtained from intensive care patients in China. Based on the similarities to the cfr-carrying plasmid pSS-02 from porcine coagulase-negative staphylococci, a transmission of this cfr-carrying plasmid between staphylococci from pigs and humans appears to be likely.
Zapotoczna, Marta; McCarthy, Hannah; Rudkin, Justine K; O'Gara, James P; O'Neill, Eoghan
High-level resistance to antimicrobial drugs is a major factor in the pathogenesis of chronic Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated, medical device-related infections. Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis revealed that biofilms grown for ≤ 24 hours on biomaterials conditioned with human plasma under venous shear in iron-free cell culture medium were significantly more susceptible to antistaphylococcal antibiotics. Biofilms formed under these physiologically relevant conditions were regulated by SaeRS and dependent on coagulase-catalyzed conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin. In contrast, SarA-regulated biofilms formed on uncoated polystyrene in nutrient-rich bacteriological medium were mediated by the previously characterized biofilm factors poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, fibronectin-binding proteins, or autolytic activity and were antibiotic resistant. Coagulase-mediated biofilms exhibited increased antimicrobial resistance over time (>48 hours) but were always susceptible to dispersal by the fibrinolytic enzymes plasmin or nattokinase. Biofilms recovered from infected central venous catheters in a rat model of device-related infection were dispersed by nattokinase, supporting the important role of the biofilm phenotype and identifying a potentially new therapeutic approach with antimicrobials and fibrinolytic drugs, particularly during the early stages of device-related infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Detecção do gene mecA em estafilococos coagulase negativa resistentes à oxacilina isolados da saliva de profissionais da enfermagem Detection of mecA gene in oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from the saliva of nursing professionals
Juliana de Oliveira Rosa
Full Text Available Estafilococos coagulase negativa estão frequentemente associados às infecções nosocomiais e os profissionais da saúde podem ser reservatório e dissemina-los no hospital e comunidade. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar espécies de estafilococos coagulase negativa isolados da saliva de profissionais da enfermagem, determinar o perfil de resistência e detectar o gene mecA. Foram selecionados 100 estafilococos coagulase negativa, sendo 41 identificados como Staphylococcus epidermidis, 25 Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 18 Staphylococcus haemolyticus, 8 Staphylococcus cohnii, 4 Staphylococcus lugdunenses, 3 Staphylococcus capitis, e 1 Staphylococcus Simulans. Desses, 32% apresentaram resistência à oxacilina, 84,4% à mupirocina, 32% à cefoxitina, e todos sensíveis a vancomicina. Dos estafilococos coagulase negativa resistentes à oxacilina, 93,7% desenvolveram-se no agar oxacilina (6µg/ml e o gene mecA foi detectado em 75%. Os resultados sinalizam que maiores investimentos devem ser direcionados a identificação das espécies de estafilococos coagulase negativa nas instituições de saúde e na comunidade.Coagulase-negative staphylococci are frequently associated with nosocomial infections, and healthcare professionals can be reservoirs and spread them in hospitals and in the community. The aim of this study was to identify species of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from the saliva of nursing professionals, determine the resistance profile and detect the mecA gene. One hundred coagulase-negative staphylococci were selected: 41 were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, 25 as Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 18 as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, eight as Staphylococcus cohnii, four as Staphylococcus lugdunenses, three as Staphylococcus capitis and one as Staphylococcus simulans. Of these, 32% presented oxacillin resistance, 84.4% mupirocin resistance and 32% cefoxitin resistance, and all were vancomycin sensitive. Among the
Boamah, Vivian Etsiapa; Agyare, Christian; Odoi, Hayford; Adu, Francis; Gbedema, Stephen Yao; Dalsgaard, Anders
The use of antibiotics in animal production has been associated with the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms including commensals. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) species, which were until recently considered non-pathogenic, have been associated with opportunistic infections and high resistance to several antibiotics. This study sought to determine the prevalence, identity, and phenotypic resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. isolated from some selected poultry farms and farm workers in the Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, and Greater Accra regions of Ghana. Poultry litter samples and oral swabs of poultry farm workers were collected, from which bacterial species were isolated, identified, and analyzed. Various selective media were used for the presumptive identification of the different species. Confirmation of bacterial identity was done using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Zones of growth inhibition were interpreted based on the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines. Two hundred and fifty-six coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., comprising S. sciuri (42.97%), S. lentus (35.94%), S. gallinarum (6.64%), S. xylosus (4.30%), S. haemolyticus (3.91%), S. saprophyticus (1.95%), and S. cohnii (0.39%) were confirmed by MALDI-TOF. CoNS were isolated from samples from the Brong Ahafo (48.83%), Ashanti (33.59%), and Greater Accra (17.78%) regions. Isolates from poultry litter constituted 55.47%, and farm workers 44.53%. All the isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and amikacin. The isolates exhibited high resistance toward tetracycline (57.03%), doxycycline (43.75%), and oxacillin (43.36%). Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was observed in 19.14% of the isolates. MDR was higher in isolates obtained from poultry farm
Full Text Available Vivian Etsiapa Boamah,1 Christian Agyare,1 Hayford Odoi,1 Francis Adu,1 Stephen Yao Gbedema,1 Anders Dalsgaard2 1Microbiology Section, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; 2Section of Food Safety and Zoonoses, Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederisksberg, Denmark Abstract: The use of antibiotics in animal production has been associated with the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms including commensals. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS species, which were until recently considered non-pathogenic, have been associated with opportunistic infections and high resistance to several antibiotics. This study sought to determine the prevalence, identity, and phenotypic resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. isolated from some selected poultry farms and farm workers in the Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, and Greater Accra regions of Ghana. Poultry litter samples and oral swabs of poultry farm workers were collected, from which bacterial species were isolated, identified, and analyzed. Various selective media were used for the presumptive identification of the different species. Confirmation of bacterial identity was done using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Zones of growth inhibition were interpreted based on the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST guidelines. Two hundred and fifty-six coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., comprising S. sciuri (42.97%, S. lentus (35.94%, S. gallinarum (6.64%, S. xylosus (4.30%, S. haemolyticus (3.91%, S. saprophyticus (1.95%, and S. cohnii (0.39% were confirmed by MALDI-TOF. CoNS were isolated from samples
Nielsen, J; Kolmos, H J; Rosdahl, V T
Surveillance cultures for the demonstration of coagulase-negative staphylococci in patients on catheter haemodialysis were performed in an attempt to predict dialysis catheter-related septicaemia. In all, 43 patients with 67 haemodialysis catheters were followed for a 1-y period. Once a week, swab...
Prof. Dr. C.A. Bruggeman; Drs H. Kreeftenberg; Dr. Ir. P.F.G. Wolffs; Drs A.J.M. Loonen; Dr. A.J.C. van den Brule, van den; Drs A.R. Jansz
To accelerate differentiation between Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS), this study aimed to compare six different DNA extraction methods from 2 commonly used blood culture materials, i.e. BACTEC and Bact/ALERT. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of reduced blood
Mulder, JG; Kosterink, JGW; Degener, JE
Antibiotic use is a cause of selection of multiresistant bacterial strains. Over three years (1990-1992) we studied the relation between the use of flucloxacillin, vancomycin, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin and the susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) recovered from blood
Nikolina Velizarova Rusenova
Full Text Available The present study aimed to detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus among other coagulase positive staphylococci from animal origin by using conventional methods (biochemical tests and latex agglutination and a molecular method, based on the nuc gene, as the gold standard and to assess the usefulness of these methods. For this purpose, total of 344 staphylococcal isolates were collected and analysed. A total of 156 isolates suspicious for S. aureus were detected by a conventional biochemical method – 88 from cows, 18 from goats, 7 from pigs, 17 from poultry, 7 from rabbits and 19 from dogs. The majority of S. aureus strains gave typical biochemical reactions with the exception of 30 (19.2% and 25 (16% that were VP negative and weak positive in fermenting mannitol, respectively. Twelve strains were found to be non-haemolytic (7.7% and four strains did not ferment trehalose (2.6%. Other staphylococci were identified as S. pseudintermedius (n = 103, S. hyicus (n = 23 and the rest were coagulase-negative staphylococci. Latex agglutination test resulted in rapid positive reactions with S. aureus with exception of 5 strains (3.2% from cow mastitis milk. Positive agglutination reactions were also established with S. pseudintermedius, and S. hyicus. PCR confirmed all strains that were preliminary identified as S. aureus by amplification of 270 bp fragment of nuc gene specific for this species. The atypical reactions in certain strains established in this study have shown that the precise detection of S. aureus from animal origin should be done by combination of conventional and molecular methods.
Sidhu, Shailpreet K; Malhotra, Sita; Devi, Pushpa; Tuli, Arpandeep K
Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) is frequently isolated from blood cultures but their significance is difficult to interpret. CoNS bacteria which are often previously dismissed as culture contaminants are attracting greater importance as true pathogens in the past decades. Clinical evaluation of these isolates suggests that although there is a relative increase of CoNS associated bloodstream infections in recent years, the microorganisms still remain the most common contaminants in blood cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of CoNS isolated from blood cultures. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the rate of contamination in blood cultures in a tertiary care hospital. The paired specimens of blood were cultured using conventional culture methods and the isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci were identified by standard methodology. Clinical data, laboratory indices, microbiological parameters and patient characteristics were analyzed. Of 3503 blood samples, CoNS were isolated from blood culture of 307 patients (8.76%). The isolates were reported as true pathogens of bloodstream infections in only 74 out of 307 cases (24.1%). In the vast majority, 212 of 307 (69.0%), they were mere blood culture contaminants and reported as insignificant/contaminant. Determining whether a growth in the blood culture is a pathogen or a contaminant is a critical issue and multiple parameters have to be considered before arriving at a conclusion. Ideally, the molecular approach is for the most part a consistent method in determining the significant isolates of CoNS. However, in countries with inadequate resources, species identification and antibiogram tests are recommended when determining significance of these isolates.
Mediano, Pilar; Fernández, Leonides; Jiménez, Esther; Arroyo, Rebeca; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M; Marín, María
Lactational mastitis constitutes a significant cause of premature weaning. However, its etiology, linked to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, has been scarcely reported. Research aim: The aim of this study was to describe the microbial diversity in milk samples from women suffering from lactational mastitis and to identify more accurately a collection of isolates belonging to coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, and coryneform bacteria. This is a cross-sectional descriptive one-group study. A total of 5,009 isolates from 1,849 mastitis milk samples was identified by culture, biochemical, and/or molecular methods at the species or genus level. A more precise identification of a collection of 211 isolates was carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Mean total bacterial count in milk samples was 4.11 log 10 colony-forming units/ml, 95% confidence interval [4.08, 4.15]. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species being isolated from 91.56% of the samples, whereas Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 29.74%. Streptococci and corynebacteria constituted the second (70.20%) and third (16.60%) most prevalent bacterial groups, respectively, found in this study. In contrast, Candida spp. was present in only 0.54% of the samples. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a high diversity of bacterial species among identified isolates. Many coagulase-negative staphylococci, viridans group streptococci, and corynebacteria, usually dismissed as contaminant bacteria, may play an important role as etiologic agents of mastitis. Proper diagnosis of mastitis should be established after performing microbiological testing of milk based on standardized procedures. A reliable analysis must identify the mastitis-causing pathogen(s) at the species level and its(their) concentration(s).
Osman, Kamelia; Badr, Jihan; Al-Maary, Khalid S; Moussa, Ihab M I; Hessain, Ashgan M; Girah, Zeinab M S Amin; Abo-Shama, Usama H; Orabi, Ahmed; Saad, Aalaa
The use of antibiotics in farm management (growing crops and raising animals) has become a major area of concern. Its implications is the consequent emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and accordingly their access into the human food chain with passage of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to the normal human intestinal microbiota and hence to other pathogenic bacteria causative human disease. Therefore, we pursued in this study to unravel the frequency and the quinolone resistance determining region, mec A and cfr genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) and methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCNS) isolated from the retail trade of ready-to-eat raw chicken meat samples collected during 1 year and sold across the Great Cairo area. The 50 Staphylococcus isolated from retail raw chicken meat were analyzed for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile on 12 antibiotics (penicillin, oxacillin, methicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and vancomycin) and their endorsement of the quinolone resistance determining region, mec A and cfr genes. The isolation results revealed 50 isolates, CPS (14) and CNS (36), representing ten species ( S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. epidermedius, S. lugdunensis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominus, S. schleiferi, S. cohnii, S. intermedius , and S. lentus ). Twenty seven isolates were methicillin-resistant. Out of the characterized 50 staphylococcal isolates, three were MRSA but only 2/3 carried the mec A gene. The ARG that bestows resistance to quinolones, β-lactams, macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B [MLS( B )] in MRSA and MR-CNS were perceived. According to the available literature, the present investigation was a unique endeavor into the identification of the quinolone
E. L. Pizzolitto
Full Text Available
A produção de slime é um importante fator de virulência dos estafilococos coagulase-negativa, permitindo-lhes aderir sobre as superfícies lisas de biomateriais, e por isso, é associada aos processos de infecção de implantes. No presente estudo a produção de slime em 27 cepas de estafilococos coagulase-negativa foi investigada por cultura em ágar vermelho Congo (77,7% de positividade, método espectrofotométrico ou da microplaca (81,4% de positividade e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (88,9% de positividade. Foi também avaliada a resistência de estafilococos coagulasenegativa a vários antimicrobianos usando a técnica do disco difusão. A porcentagem de resistência à penicilina G, oxacilina, eritromicina, clindamicina e gentamicina em estafilococos produtores de slime foi respectivamente de 88,9%; 70,4%; 81,5%; 66,7% e 59,2%; todos os estafilococos coagulase-negativa foram vancomicina sensíveis. As cepas isoladas de cateter venoso central foram identificadas por método convencional e sistema API Staph. Os 27 estafilococos coagulase-negativa foram identificados como: S. saprophyticus (3,7%, S. xylosus (7,4%, S. haemolyticus (14,8%, S. epidermidis (37,0%, S. warneri (14,8%, S. lugdunensis (7,4%, S. hominis (7,4%, S. schleiferi (3,7% e S. chromogenes (3,7%. Pode-se concluir que entre a maioria das espécies Staphylococcus coagulase-negativa houve associação entre a produção de slime, origem nosocomial das cepas e reduzida sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos, sugerindo potencial patogênico no ambiente hospitalar. Palavras-chave: estafilococos coagulase-negativa; slime; fatores de virulência; polissacarídeo extracelular; biofilme; sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos.
Etiology of canine otitis media and antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-positive Staphylococci in Fortaleza city, Brazil Etiologia da otite média canina e susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva em Fortaleza, Brasil
Lis Christina de Oliveira
Full Text Available This study evaluated the middle ear microbiota and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from strains isolated from dogs with otitis media. A total of 62 dogs obtained from Zoonoses Control Center of Fortaleza City Ceará State / Brazil were studied over a 10-month period (August/2003 to June/2004. Of the total, 46.8% (n=30 of the animals were positive for otitis media and the infection was monomicrobial in 76.6% of them. The most frequent isolated agents were coagulase-positive Staphylococci (CPS-55% and Pseudomonas sp (10%. For S. intermedius (n=13 and S. aureus subsp aureus (n=9, respectively, the greater resistance rates were observed using penicillin G (30.76% and 44.44%, ampicillin (7.69% and 44.44%, erythromycin (23.07% and 44.44%, clindamycin (23.07% and 44.44% and thrimethropim/sulfamethoxazol (15.38% and 33.33%.O presente trabalho avaliou a microbiota do ouvido médio e os perfis de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de cepas isoladas de cães com otite média. Um total de 62 cães obtidos no Centro de Controle de Zoonoses de Fortaleza Ceará / Brasil foram estudados no período de 10 meses (agosto/2003 a junho/2004. Do total de animais, 46.8% (n=30 foram positivos para otite media e a infecção envolvida era monomicrobiana em 76,6% dos casos. Os agentes isolados com maior frequência foram Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva (CPS-55% e Pseudomonas sp (10%. Considerando-se S. intermedius (n=13 e S. aureus subsp aureus (n=9, respectivamente, as mais elevadas taxas resistência foram observadas frente a: penicilina G (30,76% e 44,44%, ampicilina (7,69% e 44,44%, eritromicina (23,07% e 44,44%, clindamicina (23,07% e 44,44% e trimetropim/sulfametoxazol (15,38% e 33,33%.
Desenvolvimento de material de referência para microbiologia de alimentos contendo estafilococos coagulase positiva em matriz queijo Development of reference material for the microbiology of foods containing coagulase-positive Staphylococcus in a cheese matrix
Marcelo Luiz Lima Brandão
Full Text Available O uso de materiais de referência (MR é uma das principais ferramentas utilizadas para garantia e controle da qualidade de laboratórios de microbiologia de alimentos. No Brasil, a RDC n.º 12/01 da Anvisa prevê como um dos parâmetros para a avaliação da qualidade de queijos a enumeração de estafilococos coagulase positiva (ECP. O grande desafio na produção de MR destinados a ensaios microbiológicos é a instabilidade natural dos micro-organismos, o que dificulta o desenvolvimento e a manutenção desses MR. O objetivo deste estudo foi produzir um MR quantitativo destinado ao ensaio de enumeração de ECP em matriz queijo. Uma amostra de queijo ultrafiltrado com contagem de ECP The use of reference materials (RM is one of the principal tools used for assurance and quality control in food microbiology laboratories. In Brazil, Anvisa RDC nº 12/01 specifies the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococcus (CPS as one of the parameters for evaluating cheese quality. The main challenge in the production of RM destined for microbiological assays is the natural instability of the microorganisms, which makes it difficult to develop and maintain them. This study aimed to produce a quantitative RM for use in enumeration assays of CPS in cheese matrixes. A sample of an ultra-filtered cheese with a CPS count of <10 CFU/g and a total nº of viable aerobes of 1.2 × 10³ CFU/g was used as the matrix to produce the RM. The matrix was distributed in flasks, contaminated with specific concentrations of the target bacteria and submitted to freeze-drying. Sucrose was used as the cryo-protector. The RM produced was considered homogeneous and stable at < -70ºC during the entire study period (10 months. The material was shown to be stable at 4, 25, 30 and 35 ºC for 4 days, although the results indicated a decrease in cell concentration at 35 ºC. At -20 ºC the RM was stable for 48 days. It was concluded that the material showed all the necessary
Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil Bacteremias por Staphylococcus coagulase negativos oxacilina resistentes em um hospital na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil
Full Text Available In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5, S. haemolyticus (3, S. hominis (1, S. warneri (1 and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1. A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.Staphylococcus coagulase negativos (SCoN, especialmente Staphylococcus epidermidis tem se tornado causa importante de infecções da corrente circulatória nas últimas décadas. Além disso, percentuais de resistência a meticilina entre os SCoN têm aumentado significativamente, levando ao uso de glicopeptídeos nestes pacientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar onze casos consecutivos de bacteremia clinicamente relevantes por SCoN oxacilina resistentes em um hospital localizado na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Cinco diferentes espécies foram identificadas por diferentes métodos fenotípicos, incluindo S. epidermidis (5, S. haemolyticus (3, S. hominis (1, S. warneri (1 e S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1. Diferentes perfis
Dufour, S; Dohoo, I R; Barkema, H W; Descôteaux, L; Devries, T J; Reyher, K K; Roy, J-P; Scholl, D T
Objectives of this study were to identify the manageable risk factors associated with the lactational incidence, elimination, and prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) intramammary infections (IMI) while taking into account the difficulties inherent to their diagnosis. A second objective was to evaluate the effect of CNS IMI misclassification in mastitis research. A cohort of 90 Canadian dairy herds was followed throughout 2007 to 2008. In each herd, series of quarter milk samples were collected from a subsample of cows and bacteriological culture was performed to identify prevalent, incident, and eliminated CNS IMI. Practices used on farms were captured using direct observations and a validated questionnaire. The relationships between herd CNS IMI prevalence and herd incidence and elimination rates were explored using linear regression. Manageable risk factors associated with the prevalence, incidence, or elimination of CNS IMI were identified via Bayesian analyses using a latent class model approach, allowing adjustment of the estimates for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of bacteriological culture. After adjustment for the diagnostic test limitations, a mean CNS IMI quarter prevalence of 42.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 34.7, 50.1] and incidence and elimination rates of 0.29 new IMI/quarter-month (95% CI: 0.21, 0.37) and 0.79 eliminated IMI/quarter-month (95% CI: 0.66, 0.91), respectively, were observed. Considerable biases of the estimates were observed when CNS IMI misclassification was ignored. These biases were important for measures of association with risk factors, were almost always toward the null value, and led to both type I and type II errors. Coagulase-negative staphylococci IMI incidence appeared to be a stronger determinant of herd IMI prevalence than IMI elimination rate. The majority of herds followed were already using blanket dry cow treatment and postmilking teat disinfection. A holistic approach considering
Seng, Rathanin; Leungtongkam, Udomluk; Thummeepak, Rapee; Chatdumrong, Wassana; Sitthisak, Sutthirat
The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize the molecular epidemiology of the methicillin-resistant staphylococci in the general university environment, where all five locations; the library, restrooms, canteens, computer rooms and outdoor surfaces, are in common use by a large population of students. We used Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) supplemented with 4 μg/ml of oxacillin to screen the methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The species level was identified by PCR of rdr (Staphylococcus epidermidis), groESL (Staphylococcus haemolyticus) and nuc (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus warneri) genes and DNA sequencing of tuf and dnaJ genes. The susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined using the disk diffusion method. Antibiotic and disinfectant resistance genes, together with SCCmec types, were detected by the PCR method. The methicillin resistant-staphylococci were isolated from 41 of 200 samples (20.5%), and all of them were found to be methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS). The library had the highest percentage of contamination, with 43.3% of the samples found to be contaminated. All isolates belonged to 6 different species including S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis, S. warneri, S. cohnii, S. saprophyticus and S. hominis. The antimicrobial resistance rates were highest against penicillin (100%), then cefoxitin (73.1%), erythromycin (73.1%) and oxacillin (68.3%). Altogether, the isolates were approximately 61.0% multidrug resistant (MDR), with the S. epidermidis isolates being the most multidrug resistant. The prevalence of the qacA/B gene was detected in 63.4% of the isolates, and SCCmec could be typed in 43.9% (18/41) of the isolates. The type range was: II (n = 1), IVd (n = 1), I (n = 2), V (n = 6), IVa (n = 8) and untypeable (n = 23). This result indicates that these university environments are contaminated with methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci that carry various SCCmec types and
Kamelia Mahmoud Osman
Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in farm management (growing crops and raising animals has become a major area of concern. Its implications is the consequent emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB and accordingly their access into the human food chain with passage of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG to the normal human intestinal microbiota and hence to other pathogenic bacteria causative human disease. Therefore, we pursued in this study to unravel the frequency and the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS and methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCNS isolated from the retail trade of ready-to-eat raw chicken meat samples collected during one year and sold across the Great Cairo area. The 50 Staphylococcus isolated from retail raw chicken meat were analyzed for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile on 12 antibiotics (penicillin, oxacillin, methicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and vancomycin and their endorsement of the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes. The isolation results revealed 50 isolates, CPS (14 and CNS (36, representing ten species (S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. epidermedius, S. lugdunensis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominus, S. schleiferi, S. cohnii, S. intermedius and S. lentus. Twenty seven isolates were methicillin-resistant. Out of the characterized 50 staphylococcal isolates, three were MRSA but only 2/3 carried the mecA gene. The ARG that bestows resistance to quinolones, β-lactams, macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLS(B in MRSA and MR-CNS were perceived. According to the available literature, the present investigation was a unique endeavor into the identification of the quinolone
Marlice Teixeira Ribeiro
Full Text Available RESUMO O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na Zona da Mata - MG, durante três meses. De quatro rebanhos utilizados, trabalhou-se com 16 animais mestiços e 19 holandeses. O objetivo foi caracterizar Staphylococcus coagulase negativos, isolados de quartos mamários de vacas, que inicialmente reagiam à prova do "Califórnia Mastitis Test" (CMT, em quatro testes consecutivos, a intervalo de uma semana. A caracterização das 116 amostras encontradas, correspondentes a Staphylococcus coagulase negativo, foram: S. epidermidis (71,55%, S. hyicus subsp. chromogenes (6,03%, S. simulans (6,03%, S. warneri (4,31%, S. hominis (3,45%, S. cohnii (3,45%, S. sciuri (3,45% e S. haemolyticus (1,73%.
Oud, L; Krimerman, S; Salam, N; Srugo, I
The impact of blood culture systems on the detection of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in critically ill patients prior to and following the introduction of the Bactec 9240 blood culture system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, USA), which replaced the Bactec NR 730 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems), was investigated over a 3-year period. Following the introduction of the new culture system, the incidence of bloodstream infections doubled (P<0.001). Patient demographics, severity of illness, and mortality remained unchanged, while the annual standardized mortality ratio decreased significantly. These data suggest that blood culture systems may have a major impact on the perceived incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in this population.
Christensen, G D; Simpson, W A; Younger, J J; Baddour, L M; Barrett, F F; Melton, D M; Beachey, E H
The adherence of coagulase-negative staphylococci to smooth surfaces was assayed by measuring the optical densities of stained bacterial films adherent to the floors of plastic tissue culture plates. The optical densities correlated with the weight of the adherent bacterial film (r = 0.906; P less than 0.01). The measurements also agreed with visual assessments of bacterial adherence to culture tubes, microtiter plates, and tissue culture plates. Selected clinical strains were passed through ...
Horstkotte, M A; Knobloch, J K; Rohde, H; Mack, D
The detection of PBP 2a by the MRSA-Screen latex agglutination test with 201 clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci had an initial sensitivity of 98% and a high degree of specificity for Staphylococcus epidermidis strains compared to PCR for mecA. Determination of oxacillin MICs evaluated according to the new breakpoint (0.5 microg/ml) of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards exhibited an extremely low specificity for this population.
Horstkotte, Matthias A.; Knobloch, Johannes K.-M.; Rohde, Holger; Mack, Dietrich
The detection of PBP 2a by the MRSA-Screen latex agglutination test with 201 clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci had an initial sensitivity of 98% and a high degree of specificity for Staphylococcus epidermidis strains compared to PCR for mecA. Determination of oxacillin MICs evaluated according to the new breakpoint (0.5 μg/ml) of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards exhibited an extremely low specificity for this population.
JAY, J M
From 34 retail grocery stores and meat markets, 209 samples of nonfrozen meats were obtained and analyzed for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, employing six selective media. Sixty-seven (38.7%) of 173 samples obtained from 27 stores yielded S. aureus. No coagulase-positive S. aureus was isolated from 36 samples obtained from 7 of the stores. The 67 meats yielded 272 isolates from 10 different kinds of meats. There were 162 physiological strains represented when classified by store and 36 strains classified without regard to store of origin. The larger stores yielded fewer meats with staphylococci than the smaller stores. The meats from which S. aureus was recovered in the order of frequency of percentage recovery are as follows: chicken, pork liver, fish, spiced ham, round beef steak, hamburger, beef liver, pork chops, veal steak, and lamb chops. The following seven meats did not yield staphylococci: bologna, shucked oysters, olive and pickle loaf, salami, wieners, and chopped ham. Eighty-eight per cent of the isolates produced pigment, 85% were gelatinase positive, only 1 strain failed to form a precipitate on egg yolk agar, 92% formed deoxyribonuclease, 87% produced bound coagulase, 91% produced the alpha-hemolysin, 70% the delta-, 22% the beta-, and 6% were nil in this regard. The isolates are compared with hospital and other food strains, and their possible source in the meats is discussed.
Cai, Jia Chang; Hu, Yan Yan; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Hong Wei; Chen, Gong-Xiang
Seventeen meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), including ten Staphylococcus capitis, four Staphylococcus cohnii, two Staphylococcus haemolyticus and one Staphylococcus sciuri, and an Enterococcus faecium isolate with various levels of linezolid resistance were isolated from intensive care units in a Chinese hospital. PFGE indicated that the four S. cohnii isolates belonged to a clonal strain, and that nine of the S. capitis isolates were indistinguishable (clone A1) and the other one was closely related (clone A2). A G2576T mutation was identified in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene in the E. faecium isolate. Besides the G2576T mutation, a novel C2104T mutation was detected in the nine clone A1 S. capitis isolates. The cfr gene was detected in all the staphylococci except an S. sciuri isolate, whose 23S rRNA gene contained the G2576T mutation. There was a clonal dissemination of linezolid-resistant MRCoNS in intensive care units of our hospital, and this is the first report, to our knowledge, of linezolid-resistant staphylococci and enterococci in China.
B. K. Bansal
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was planned to determine the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis in dairy cows. Antibiotic sensitivity profile will be helpful to recommend early therapy at the field level prior to availability of CST results. Materials and Methods: The milk samples from cases of clinical mastitis received in Mastitis Laboratory, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana and those of subclinical mastitis collected during routine screening of state dairy farms, were subjected to microbial culture. Identification of CNS organisms was done by standard biochemical tests. Antibiotic sensitivity testing, based on 30 antibiotics belonging to 12 groups, was done on 58 randomly selected CNS isolates (clinical isolates: 41, subclinical isolates: 17. Results: Isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol (98.3%, gentamicin (93.1%, streptomycin (91.4%, linezolid (91.4%, ceftixozime (87.9%, cloxacillin (86.2%, clotrimazole (86.2%, bacitracin (86.2%, enrofloxacin (84.5% and ceftrioxone + tazobactum (70.7%, while resistance was observed against amoxicillin (77.6%, penicillin (75.9%, ampicillin (74.1% and cefoperazone (51.7%. Overall, isolates from clinical cases of mastitis had a higher resistance than subclinical isolates. Conclusion: CNS isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and streptomycin, while higher resistance was recorded against routinely used penicillin group.
Raquel Soares Casaes Nunes
Full Text Available The risks of contracting staphylococci food poisoning by the consumption of improperly manufactured salami and the possibility of this food being reservoirs for antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Nineteen coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS strains were found in commercial and artisanal salami. The species in commercial salami were S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri, S. xylosus, and S. carnosus. Artisanal salami showed S. succinus, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis but no S. carnosus. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the strains into three major staphylococcal species groups, comprised of 4 refined clusters with similarities superior to 90%. Fifteen strains harbored multiple enterotoxin genes, with high incidence of seb/sec and sea, 57% and 50%, respectively, intermediate incidence of sed/seh/selm and sei/seln/tst-H, 33% and 27%, correspondingly, and low incidence of see/selj/selo and seg, of respectively 13% and 1%. Real time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays confirmed the enterotoxigenicity of the strains, which expressed and produced enterotoxins in vitro. The CNS strains showed multiresistance to several antimicrobials of therapeutic importance in both human and veterinarian medicine, such as β-lactams, vancomycin, and linezolid. The effective control of undue staphylococci in fermented meat products should be adopted to prevent or limit the risk of food poisoning and the spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains.
Yazgi, H; Uyanik, M H; Ayyildiz, A
This study investigated the colonization of slime-producing coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) in 80 patient wards in Turkey (40 vinyl and 40 ceramic tile floors). A total of 480 samples that included 557 CoNS isolates were obtained. Slime production was investigated with the Christensen method and methicillin-susceptibility was tested by the disk-diffusion method. There was a significant difference in the percentage of slime-producing CoNS isolates on vinyl (12.4%) versus ceramic tile flooring (4.4%). From vinyl flooring, the percentage of slime producing methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) (8.9%) was significantly higher than for methicillin-sensitive CoNS (MSCoNS) (3.6%), whereas there was no difference from ceramic tile flooring (2.5% MRCoNS versus 1.8% MSCoNS). The most commonly isolated slime-producing CoNS species was S. epidermidis on both types of flooring. It is concluded that vinyl flooring seems to be a more suitable colonization surface for slime-producing CoNS than ceramic tile floors. Further studies are needed to investigate bacterial strains colonized on flooring materials, which are potential pathogens for nosocomial infections.
Piessens, V; De Vliegher, S; Verbist, B; Braem, G; Van Nuffel, A; De Vuyst, L; Heyndrickx, M; Van Coillie, E
Although many studies report coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) as the predominant cause of subclinical bovine mastitis, their epidemiology is poorly understood. In the current study, the genetic diversity within four CNS species frequently associated with bovine intramammary infections, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, S. simulans, S. chromogenes, and S. epidermidis, was determined. For epidemiological purposes, CNS genotypes recovered from bovine milk collected on six Flemish dairy farms were compared with those from the farm environment, and their distribution within the farms was investigated. Genetic diversity was assessed by two molecular typing techniques, amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Subtyping revealed the highest genetic heterogeneity among S. haemolyticus isolates. A large variety of genotypes was found among environmental isolates, of which several could be linked with intramammary infection, indicating that the environment could act as a potential source for infection. For S. simulans, various genotypes were found in the environment, but a link with IMI was less obvious. For S. epidermidis and S. chromogenes, genetic heterogeneity was limited and the sporadic isolates from environment displayed largely the same genotypes as those from milk. The higher clonality of the S. epidermidis and S. chromogenes isolates from milk suggests that specific genotypes probably disseminate within herds and are more udder-adapted. Environmental sources and cow-to-cow transmission both seem to be involved in the epidemiology of CNS, although their relative importance might substantially vary between species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Isaac, Paula; Bohl, Luciana Paola; Breser, María Laura; Orellano, María Soledad; Conesa, Agustín; Ferrero, Marcela Alejandra; Porporatto, Carina
Bovine mastitis, considered the most important cause of economic losses in the dairy industry, is a major concern in veterinary medicine. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main pathogens associated with intramammary infections, and bacterial biofilms are suspected to be responsible for the persistence of this disease. CNS from the udder are not necessarily associated with intramammary infections. In fact, some commensal CNS have been shown to have biological activities. This issue led us to screen exoproducts from commensal Staphylococcus chromogenes for anti-biofilm activity against different mastitis pathogens. The cell-free supernatant from S. chromogenes LN1 (LN1-CFS) was confirmed to display a non-biocidal inhibition of pathogenic biofilms. The supernatant was subjected to various treatments to estimate the nature of the biofilm-inhibiting compounds. The results showed that the bioactive compound >5KDa in mass is sensitive to thermal treatment and proteinase K digestion, suggesting its protein properties. LN1-CFS was able to significantly inhibit S. aureus and CNS biofilm formation in a dose-independent manner and without affecting the viability of bovine cells. These findings reveal a new activity of the udder microflora of healthy animals. Studies are underway to purify and identify the anti-biofilm biocompound and to evaluate its biological activity in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Carvalho, Laura; Tempera, Carolina; Fernandes, Maria H; Fernandes, Maria J; Elias, Miguel; Barreto, António S; Fraqueza, Maria J
The manufacture of dry fermented sausages is an important part of the meat industry in Southern European countries. These products are usually produced in small shops from a mixture of pork, fat, salt, and condiments and are stuffed into natural casings. Meat sausages are slowly cured through spontaneous fermentation by autochthonous microbiota present in the raw materials or introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the technological and safety features of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from Portuguese dry fermented meat sausages in order to select autochthonous starters. Isolates (n = 104) obtained from 2 small manufacturers were identified as Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus carnosus. Genomically diverse isolates (n = 82) were selected for further analysis to determine the ability to produce enzymes (for example, nitrate-reductases, proteases, lipases) and antibiotic susceptibility. Autochthonous CNS producing a wide range of enzymes and showing low antibioresistance were selected as potential starters for future use in the production of dry fermented meat sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®
Bansal, B K; Gupta, D K; Shafi, T A; Sharma, S
The present study was planned to determine the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis in dairy cows. Antibiotic sensitivity profile will be helpful to recommend early therapy at the field level prior to availability of CST results. The milk samples from cases of clinical mastitis received in Mastitis Laboratory, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana and those of subclinical mastitis collected during routine screening of state dairy farms, were subjected to microbial culture. Identification of CNS organisms was done by standard biochemical tests. Antibiotic sensitivity testing, based on 30 antibiotics belonging to 12 groups, was done on 58 randomly selected CNS isolates (clinical isolates: 41, subclinical isolates: 17). Isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol (98.3%), gentamicin (93.1%), streptomycin (91.4%), linezolid (91.4%), ceftixozime (87.9%), cloxacillin (86.2%), clotrimazole (86.2%), bacitracin (86.2%), enrofloxacin (84.5%) and ceftrioxone + tazobactum (70.7%), while resistance was observed against amoxicillin (77.6%), penicillin (75.9%), ampicillin (74.1%) and cefoperazone (51.7%). Overall, isolates from clinical cases of mastitis had a higher resistance than subclinical isolates. CNS isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and streptomycin, while higher resistance was recorded against routinely used penicillin group.
Guggenberger, Christoph; Wolz, Christiane; Morrissey, Julie A.; Heesemann, Jürgen
Staphylococcus aureus is a pyogenic abscess-forming facultative pathogenic microorganism expressing a large set of virulence-associated factors. Among these, secreted proteins with binding capacity to plasma proteins (e.g. fibrinogen binding proteins Eap and Emp) and prothrombin activators such as Coagulase (Coa) and vWbp are involved in abscess formation. By using a three-dimensional collagen gel (3D-CoG) supplemented with fibrinogen (Fib) we studied the growth behavior of S. aureus strain Newman and a set of mutants as well as their interaction with mouse neutrophils by real-time confocal microscopy. In 3D-CoG/Fib, S. aureus forms microcolonies which are surrounded by an inner pseudocapsule and an extended outer dense microcolony-associated meshwork (MAM) containing fibrin. Coa is involved in formation of the pseudocapsule whereas MAM formation depends on vWbp. Moreover, agr-dependent dispersal of late stage microcolonies could be observed. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the pseudocapsule and the MAM act as mechanical barriers against neutrophils attracted to the microcolony. The thrombin inhibitor argatroban is able to prevent formation of both pseudocapsule and MAM and supports access of neutrophils to staphylococci. Taken together, this model can simulate specific stages of S. aureus abscess formation by temporal dissection of bacterial growth and recruitment of immune cells. It can complement established animal infection models in the development of new treatment options. PMID:22253592
Braem, G; De Vliegher, S; Verbist, B; Piessens, V; Van Coillie, E; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F
Swab samples (n=72) obtained from the teat apex of lactating dairy cows without visual signs of inflammation (n=18) were gathered on 2 well-managed Flemish dairy herds (herds 1 and 2) during the same month to assess the bacterial diversity of teat apices before milking. A combination of both culture-dependent [plating and (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting of the colonies] and culture-independent [denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)] techniques indicated that the teat apices contain a wide diversity of bacterial genera. Despite a low bacterial load, 20 bacterial genera of 3 phyla (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria) were present. The most prevalent bacteria were the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), encompassing a total of 15 species, which were identified to the species level using a combination of (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting, gene sequencing (16S ribosomal RNA and rpoB genes), and a novel PCR-DGGE technique based on the tuf-PCR amplicon. Overall bacterial diversity did not differ significantly between the herds or between noninfected and subclinically infected quarters in herd 1. In herd 1, borderline significant lower CNS species diversity was found on teat apices of noninfected quarters compared with subclinically infected quarters. The most prevalent CNS species were Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus equorum in both herds and Staphylococcus carnosus in herd 2. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lis, Danuta O; Pacha, Jerzy Z; Idzik, Danuta
The persons having contact with a hospital environment (hospital personnel workers and discharged patients) are highly exposed to colonization with multidrug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the airborne Staphylococcus genus features in homes in which inhabitants have had contact with the hospital environment. Airborne bacteria were collected using a 6-stage Anderson impactor. The Staphylococcus species composition and resistance to methicillin, and other antimicrobial agents among 3 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species (S cohnii spp cohnii, S epidermidis, S hominis), were determined. Antibiotic resistance of isolates was tested using the agar screen method with methicillin, the polymerase chain reaction technique to detect the mecA gene, and the disk diffusion method. A higher prevalence of methicillin-resistant (MR) strains among the species isolated (40% of S epidermidis, 40% of S hominis, and 60% of S cohnii spp cohnii) was found in homes of persons who had contact with a hospital environment compared with the reference homes (only 12% of S hominis). The mecA gene was revealed in all MR S epidermidis strains and in some MR S hominis (50%) and S cohnii spp cohnii (33%) strains. All isolated MR CNS strains were susceptible to vancomycin, rifampicin, and linezolid. High numbers of airborne multidrug-resistant MR CNS in the homes of persons having contact with a hospital environment indicates that such inhabitants pose a risk of intrafamilial spreading of MR strains via air.
Rota, Ada; Corrò, Michela; Drigo, Ilenia; Bortolami, Alessio; Börjesson, Stefan
Among the coagulase-positive, potentially pathogenic staphylococci, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius has been frequently isolated from bitches' milk. This organism colonizes the mammary gland or causes infection, while S. aureus has been only occasionally reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence and persistence of coagulase-positive staphylococci in the colostrum and milk of postpartum bitches, either treated or untreated with antimicrobials, and to assess the incidence, antibiotic resistance profile and genetic type of the methicillin-resistant strains. On postpartum D1, D7 and D15, drops of secretion were collected from the mammary glands of 27 postpartum bitches, nine of which were treated with antimicrobials. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified, antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of mecA were tested and the genetic profile of methicillin-resistant strains was assessed. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was the only coagulase-positive staphylococcus isolated, and its presence was detected in 21 out of 27 bitches and in 66 out of 145 swabs. In a single bitch, it caused puerperal mastitis. In untreated bitches, the frequency of isolation was lower in colostrum than in milk. All of the isolates except one were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes, while 14 out of 66 S. pseudintermedius strains were methicillin-resistant mecA positive (MRSP) and were isolated from eight bitches housed in the same breeding kennel. A significant association was found between antimicrobial treatment and the presence of MRSP. Six of the 12 typed isolates belonged to spa-type t02 carrying SCCmec II/III, and another six were non-typeable with spa carrying SCCmec IV. The t02-SCCmec II/III isolates were sequence type (ST) 71; four NT-SCCmec IV isolates were ST258 and two were ST369. PFGE showed that isolates from the same dog had identical band patterns, while isolates from different dogs had unique band patterns. MRSP strains
Full Text Available Background: Otitis externa is a common inflammatory ear disease in dogs caused by a variety of pathogens, and coagulase-positive staphylococci are frequently isolated from such infections. Objective: To identify antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and methicillin-resistant strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from otitis externa in dogs. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed over 2 years on 114 client-owned dogs presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a primary complaint of ear infections. Swabs were obtained from both ears and cultured for staphylococci which were subsequently confirmed as coagulase-positive using rabbit plasma. Antimicrobial susceptibility assays were assessed on all isolates followed by subsequent genetic analysis for species identification and detection of the mecA gene. Results: Sixty-five coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 114 client-owned dogs. The isolates exhibited resistance against neomycin (58.5%, streptomycin (49.2%, penicillin (49.2%, polymyxin B (44.6%, tetracycline (36.9%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (33.8%, kanamycin (33.8%, doxycycline (32.3%, norfloxacin (23.1%, amoxicillin/clavulanate (20%, ciprofloxacin (20%, enrofloxacin (18.5%, gentamicin (16.9%, and cephalothin (9.2%. Forty (61.5% of the isolates were resistant to at least three or more antimicrobials and 10 were sensitive to all. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay based on species-specific regions of the thermonuclease (nuc gene, 38/65 (58.5% isolates were classified as Staphylococcus aureus, 23/65 (35.4% as S. pseudintermedius, 2/65 (3.1% as S. intermedius, and 2/65 (3.1% as S. schleiferi. Analysis for the mecA gene revealed two positive isolates of S. pseudintermedius which were oxacillin-resistant, representing a first report of such organisms in the Caribbean. Conclusion: Despite the relatively high prevalence of multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci in
Maria de Lourdes R.S. Cunha
Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a significância clínica de estafilococos coagulase-negativa (ECN isolados de processos infecciosos em recém-nascidos da unidade neonatal do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu. Método: as linhagens de ECN isoladas foram identificadas e classificadas em significativas e contaminantes, com base em uma série de dados clínicos e laboratoriais obtidos dos prontuários dos pacientes internados na unidade neonatal. Foram pesquisados os dados referentes a fatores perinatais de risco para infecção, evolução clínica, alterações do hemograma e/ou positividade de proteína C-reativa e antibioticoterapia. Resultados: das 117 linhagens de ECN isoladas, 60 (51,3% foram classificadas como significativas, e 57 (48,7% como contaminantes. Das 54 crianças com infecção por ECN, 43 (79,6% eram prematuras, e 27 (50,0% tiveram peso ao nascimento Conclusões: a maioria dos recém-nascidos com infecção por ECN apresentou fatores predisponentes importantes para a instalação do processo infeccioso, incluindo o peso de nascimento Objective: to evaluate the clinical significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS isolated from newborns’ infections at Neonatal Unit of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu. Methods: the CNS strains isolated were identified and classified as clinically significant and contaminant, based on a series of clinical and laboratory data obtained from patients who stayed in the Neonatal Unit. The following data were analyzed: risk factors for infections, clinical evolution, abnormal blood cell counts and/or C-reactive protein e antibiotic therapy. Results: among the 117 CNS strains isolated, 60 (51.3% were classified as significant and 57 (48.7% as contaminant. Among the 54 infants infected by CNS, 43 (79.6% presented very low birthweight (< 1,500g. Most of the infants infected by CNS were submitted to two or more invasive procedures (77.8%, including use of
De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main cause of bovine intramammary infections (IMI) in many countries. Despite a high prevalence of CNS IMI at parturition, species-specific risk factor studies, relying on accurate identification methods, are lacking. Therefore, this observational study aimed at determining the prevalence and distribution of different CNS species causing IMI in fresh heifers and dairy cows in Flemish dairy herds and identifying associated species- and subgroup-specific risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level. The effect on udder health was investigated as well. Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. sciuri, and S. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species. The only CNS species causing IMI in fresh heifers and dairy cows in all herds was Staphylococcus chromogenes, whereas large between-herd differences in distribution were observed for the other species. Quarters from heifers and quarters with an inverted teat end had higher odds of being infected with S. chromogenes, S. simulans, or S. xylosus as well as with S. chromogenes solely. Prepartum teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes increased the likelihood of S. chromogenes IMI in the corresponding quarters at parturition. Quarters with dirty teat apices before calving were more likely to be infected with S. cohnii, S. equorum, S. saprophyticus, or S. sciuri, supporting the environmental nature of these CNS species. Three species (S. chromogenes, S. simulans, and S. xylosus) were associated with a higher quarter somatic cell count at parturition as compared with uninfected quarters. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Staphylococcal mastitis is a major and costly problem of dairy cattle all over the world. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the main staphylococcal species causing bovine mastitis in 7 dairy herds located in 4 different areas of East and West Azerbaijan provinces, Iran. Of the 158 mastitic milk samples collected, 113 staphylococcal isolates were identified (71.5% on the basis of cultural and biochemical features as well as by genus specific PCR. Then, species level identification of staphylococcal isolates was carried out using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of the gap gene (933 bp. On the basis of polymerase chain reaction-RFLP, 10 different patterns were identified. Of 113 isolates, 5 (4.4% were Staphylococcus aureus and 108 (95.6% were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS. Overall, nine different species of CoNS were identified as: 44 Staphylococcus haemolyticus (40.7%, 17 Staphylococcus chromogenes (15.7%, 11 Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus cohnii each (10.2%, 6 Staphylococcus simulans (5.5%, 4 Staphylococcus hominis (3.7%, 3 Staphylococcus capitis (2.7% and 1 Staphylococcus xylosus (0.9%. S. haemolyticus, S. chromogenes and S. warneri were the only species identified from clinical mastitis. No significant difference in staphylococcal IMI was found among the studied herds and regions. This study demonstrated that CoNS, especially S. haemolyticus and S. chromogenes, were predominant and thus be considered as emerging pathogens causing mastitis in the North West of Iran. Our results also revealed that the gap PCR-RFLP was useful for identifying staphylococcal isolates derived from bovine mastitis at species level.
De Visscher, Anneleen; Supré, Karlien; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Zadoks, Ruth N; Piessens, Veerle; Van Coillie, Els; Piepers, Sofie; De Vliegher, Sarne
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are abundantly present in the dairy farm environment and on bovine skin and mucosae. They are also the most prevalent bacteria causing bovine intramammary infections (IMI). Reservoirs and transmission routes of CNS are not yet fully unraveled. The objectives of this study were to explore the distribution of CNS in parlor-related extramammary niches and to compare it to the distributions of CNS causing IMI in those herds. Niches that were targeted in this study were cows' teat apices, milking machine unit liners, and milker's skin or gloves. Each of the three herds had its own CNS microbiota in those niches. The most prevalent species in the parlor-related extramammary niches were Staphylococcus cohnii, S. fleurettii, and S. equorum in the first, second, and third herd, respectively, whereas S. haemolyticus and S. sciuri were found in all herds. S. cohnii and S. fleurettii, as well as S. haemolyticus, which was present in each herd, were also frequently found in milk samples. By contrast, S. chromogenes, S. simulans, and S. xylosus favored the mammary gland, whereas S. equorum was more common in the parlor-associated niches. Within each herd, species distribution was similar between teat apices and milking machine unit liners. In conclusion, some of the extramammary niches related to the milking process might act as infection sources for IMI-causing CNS. This study provides further evidence that the group of CNS species is comprised of environmental, opportunistic and host-adapted species which differ in ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Garza-González, Elvira; López, Daniel; Pezina, Cesar; Muruet, Walter; Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; Muñoz, Ivan; Ramírez, Camilo; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge M
The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements in meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) isolated from a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico and to examine the relationship to drug resistance. Fifty selected MR-CoNS isolates collected from catheters (n=15), blood (n=15), bone (n=9), bronchial lavage (n=2) and urine (n=2) and one isolate each from an abscess, cerebrospinal fluid, eye, pleural effusion, synovial fluid, tracheal aspirate and wound secretion were examined. Susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution method. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR and PFGE was carried out as described previously for Staphylococcus aureus. Among the MR-CoNS strains studied, the most frequently isolated species were Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=26) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (n=13). Staphylococcus cohnii (n=5), Staphylococcus hominis (n=3), Staphylococcus sciuri (n=1), Staphylococcus pasteuri (n=1) and the recently described species Staphylococcus pettenkoferi (n=1) were also identified. The most frequent MR-CoNS genotype identified was SCCmec type IVa in S. epidermidis isolates, which also showed a high diversity in their PFGE patterns. A clone was found that amplified both SCCmec III and V elements in five isolates examined. The single MR S. pettenkoferi isolate harboured SCCmec type IVd and the single MR S. pasteuri isolate harboured SCCmec type I. The carriage of SCCmec type III was associated with resistance or intermediate resistance to meropenem (P <0.05). These results confirm the high prevalence of S. epidermidis SCCmec IVa and the high genetic diversity among MR-CoNS strains. As far as is known, this is the first report describing the newly identified S. pettenkoferi possessing SCCmec IVd and S. pasteuri harbouring SCCmec type I. MR-CoNS harbouring SCCmec type III were found to be more resistant to meropenem.
Janssens, M; Van der Mijnsbrugge, A; Sánchez Mainar, M; Balzarini, T; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F
The ability of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) to use alternative energy sources in meat may partially explain their occurrence in fermented meats. Of 61 CNS strains tested, all metabolized adenosine and inosine in a meat simulation medium (MSM). The ability to catabolize arginine via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway varied between strains. All tested strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis possessed an arcA gene and showed ADI activity, whereas other species, such as Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus, did not. Arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), as in the positive control S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, were uncommon and only found in Staphylococcus xylosus 3PA6 (sausage isolate) and Staphylococcus chromogenes G222 (teat apex isolate). Monoculture experiments were performed in MSM with S. carnosus 833 and SS3-4, S. xylosus G211, and S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 and 2S7-4. At all pH values tested (5.3, 5.8, and 6.5), the strains of S. carnosus catabolized arginine faster than the strains of S. xylosus and S. epidermidis. Only at pH 6.5 could a low ADI activity be found for S. xylosus G211. Increased ADI activity occurred in the case of the ACME-positive S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, when compared to the ACME-negative S. epidermidis 2S7-4. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are normal commensals of human skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of CNS among clinical isolates, characterize them up to species level, compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation, and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.Materials and methods: CNS were obtained from various clinical samples including blood, urine, central venous catheter tips, endotracheal tube aspirate, and pus during a 1-year period (July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015. Characterization up to species level was done using biochemical tests, and biofilm formation was detected by tube adherence, Congo red agar, and tissue culture plate method. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.Results: A total of 71 CNS isolates, comprising of seven species were obtained. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species followed by S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. We detected biofilm formation in 71.8% of isolates. Considering the fact that tissue culture plate method is the gold standard, sensitivity of tube adherence method and Congo red agar method was found as 82% and 78%, respectively. The isolates exhibited high resistance toward penicillin (90%, azithromycin (60%, co-trimoxazole (60%, and ceftriaxone (40%, while all were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Biofilm former isolates showed higher resistance than the non-formers.Conclusion: Among 71 CNS isolated, S. epidermidis was the most common isolate followed by S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. Biofilm formation was detected in 71.8% of the isolates. All of the methods were effective in detecting biofilm-producing CNS strains. The
Robert D. Wojtyczka
Full Text Available Microorganisms present in different environments have developed specific mechanisms of settling on various abiotic and biotic surfaces by forming a biofilm. It seems to be well justified to search for new compounds enabling biofilm reduction, which is highly resistant to antibiotics. This study was thus an initial assessment of the antibacterial activity of two new quinoline derivatives of a structure of 3-thioacyl 1-methyl 4-arylaminoquinolinium salts against coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS isolated from a hospital environment, in a form of both biofilms and in planktonic form. Thirty-three stains of CoNS isolated from the hospital environment (air, surfaces and seven reference strains from the ATCC collection were selected for the study. The mean MIC value for 1-methyl-3-benzoylthio-4-(4-chlorophenylaminoquinolinum chloride (4-chlorophenylamino derivative was 42.60 ± 19.91 μg/mL, and in the case of strains subjected to 1-methyl-3-benzoylthio-4-(4-fluorophenylaminoquinolinum chloride (4-fluorophenylamino derivative activity, the mean MIC value was 43.20 ± 14.30 μg/mL. The mean concentration of 4-chlorophenylamino derivative that inhibited biofilm formation was 86.18 ± 30.64 μg/mL. The mean concentration of 4-fluorophenylamino derivatives that inhibited biofilm formation was higher and amounted to 237.09 ± 160.57 μg/mL. Based on the results, both derivatives of the examined compounds exhibit high antimicrobial activity towards strains growing both in planktonic and biofilm form.
Vanderhaeghen, W; Piepers, S; Leroy, F; Van Coillie, E; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S
The aim of this review is to assess the effect of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species on udder health and milk yield in ruminants, and to evaluate the capacity of CNS to cause persistent intramammary infections (IMI). Furthermore, the literature on factors suspected of playing a role in the pathogenicity of IMI-associated CNS, such as biofilm formation and the presence of various putative virulence genes, is discussed. The focus is on the 5 CNS species that have been most frequently identified as causing bovine IMI using reliable molecular identification methods (Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Although the effect on somatic cell count and milk production is accepted to be generally limited or nonexistent for CNS as a group, indications are that the typical effects differ between CNS species and perhaps even strains. It has also become clear that many CNS species can cause persistent IMI, contrary to what has long been believed. However, this trait appears to be quite complicated, being partly strain dependent and partly dependent on the host's immunity. Consistent definitions of persistence and more uniform methods for testing this phenomenon will benefit future research. The factors explaining the anticipated differences in pathogenic behavior appear to be more difficult to evaluate. Biofilm formation and the presence of various staphylococcal virulence factors do not seem to (directly) influence the effect of CNS on IMI but the available information is indirect or insufficient to draw consistent conclusions. Future studies on the effect, persistence, and virulence of the different CNS species associated with IMI would benefit from using larger and perhaps even shared strain collections and from adjusting study designs to a common framework, as the large variation currently existing therein is a major problem. Also within-species variation should
De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main cause of bovine intramammary infections and are also abundantly present in extramammary habitats such as teat apices. Teat apex colonization (TAC) with CNS has already been explored in lactating dairy cows at the species level, whereas this is not true for dry cows and end-term heifers. Therefore, the aim of this observational study was to describe CNS TAC in nonlactating dairy cows and end-term heifers in Flemish dairy herds and to identify associated risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level. All CNS were molecularly identified to the species level using transfer RNA intergenic spacer PCR (tDNA-PCR) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, allowing for species-specific statistical analyses using multivariable, multilevel logistic regression. Staphylococcus devriesei, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus equorum were the most frequently isolated species. Staphylococcus chromogenes was the sole species colonizing teat apices of cows and heifers in all herds, whereas large between-herd differences were observed for the other species. Teat apices of red and white Holstein Friesians, of quarters dried off without an internal teat sealer, and swabbed in months with lower precipitation and higher ambient temperature were significantly more likely to be colonized by S. devriesei. Slightly dirty teat apices and teat apices swabbed in months with lower precipitation had higher odds of being colonized by S. chromogenes, whereas teat apices sampled in months with lower precipitation and higher ambient temperature were more likely to be colonized by S. haemolyticus. Dirty teat apices and teat apices swabbed in months with lower ambient temperature in combination with low precipitation had higher odds of being colonized by S. equorum. Diverse factors explaining CNS TAC, yet mostly related to humidity, ambient temperature, and hygiene, substantiate differences in epidemiological
Ajitkumar, Praseeda; Barkema, Herman W; Zadoks, Ruth N; Morck, Douglas W; van der Meer, Frank J U M; De Buck, Jeroen
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens isolated from bovine milk. In this study, we report a rapid assay for species identification of CNS using high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) of 16S rDNA sequences. Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment, spanning the variable region V1 and V2, was performed with a resulting amplicon of 215 bp. A library of distinct melt curves of reference strains of 13 common CNS species was created using HRMA. Sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, and, when needed, tuf gene, of 100 CNS isolates obtained from Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network was done to determine their species identity, allowing for subsequent evaluation of the performance of HRMA for field isolates of bovine CNS. A combination of HRMA and sequencing revealed that Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. xylosus, S. simulans, and S. sciuri had multiple genotypes, complicating their resolution by HRMA. As the 3 genotypes of S. chromogenes had distinct melt curves, the 3 distinct genotypes were employed as reference strains in a blinded trial of 156 CNS isolates to identify S. chromogenes. HRMA correctly identified all S. chromogenes isolates which were later confirmed by sequencing. Staphylococcus chromogenes (68%) was most frequently found among the CNS isolates, followed by S. haemolyticus (10%) and S. xylosus (6%). The present study revealed that HRMA of 16S rRNA gene (V1-V2) could be used as a rapid, efficient, low-cost, and minimally cumbersome technique for S. chromogenes identification, the most common CNS derived from bovine milk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morioka, Shinichiro; Ichikawa, Mika; Mori, Keita; Kurai, Hanako
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common contaminants of blood cultures, however, we sometimes have difficulties in determining their clinical significance. It is still controversial that there is a significant difference between the contamination group and the true bacteraemia group in the time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures. We validated the relationship between a TTP and the presence of CoNS bacteraemia in cancer patients by using an objective, non-judgmental definition for CoNS contamination. We retrospectively reviewed 175 sets of blood cultures drawn from 95 patients that yielded CoNS from October 2011 to March 2013. We considered as contamination if an isolate of CoNS was identified in one out of multiple sets of blood cultures. We investigated the TTP, the threshold values and corresponding likelihood ratios to distinguish CoNS bacteraemia from contamination. The median TTP in CoNS bacteraemia group was significantly shorter than that in contamination group (14 h 45 min and 20 h 31 min, respectively, p = .0157). A TTP of ≤16 h had a specificity of 83% for predicting CoNS bacteraemia, and that of >20 h had a sensitivity of 86% for predicting CoNS contamination. We validated that the median TTP in CoNS bacteraemia group was significantly shorter than that in their contamination group, and that a TTP of ≤16 h was associated with CoNS bacteraemia, while that of >20 h was associated with CoNS contamination, if evaluated with an objective, non-judgmental definition for CoNS contamination.
Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from non–healthcare environments, is a potential problem to public health. In our survey a total of 71 coagulase negative staphylococci belonging to 11 different species were isolated from 3 large hotels in London, UK. The most prevalent species was Staphylococcus haemolyticus, with S. hominis, S. warneri, S.cohnii and S. epidermidis commonly detected. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and carriage of the mecA gene were determined for all of these isolates. Most (85.9% staphylococci were resistant to multiple antibiotics with all displaying increased susceptibility towards penicillin, fusidic acid, erythromycin and cefepime. 21 (29.5% of the isolates were mecA positive, however MIC values to oxacillin, normally associated with the carriage of mecA, varied widely in this group (from 0.06 mg/L to 256 mg/L. 15 of the 21 mecA positive isolates carried SCCmec of these 7 were type V, 1 type I, 1 type II and 1 type IV. Additionally, five of these 15 isolates carried a previously unreported type, 1A, which involves an association between class A mec complex and ccr type 1. The remaining 6 of the 21 isolates were non-typeable and carried a combination of class A mec complex and ccrC. In addition to this, we also report on new MLST types which were assigned for 5 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. 4 out of these 5 isolates had MICs between 0.06 to 256 mg/L to oxacillin and would be regarded as clinically susceptible but one isolate had a high oxacillin MIC of 256 mg/L. We demonstrated widespread multiple drug resistance among different staphylococcal species isolated from non-healthcare environments highlighting the potential for these species to act as a reservoir for methicillin and other forms of drug resistance.
Koksal, F; Yasar, H; Samasti, M
The aim of this study is to determine antibiotic resistance patterns and slime production characteristics of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) caused nosocomial bacteremia. A total of 200 CoNS strains were isolated from blood samples of patients with true bacteremia who were hospitalized in intensive care units and in other departments of Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Hospital between 1999 and 2006. Among 200 CoNS isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most prevalent species (87) followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus (23), Staphylococcus hominis (19), Staphylococcus lugdunensis (18), Staphylococcus capitis (15), Staphylococcus xylosus (10), Staphylococcus warneri (8), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5), Staphylococcus lentus (5), Staphylococcus simulans (4), Staphylococcus chromogenes (3), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), Staphylococcus schleiferi (1), and Staphylococcus auricularis (1). Resistance to methicillin was detected in 67.5% of CoNS isolates. Methicillin-resistant CoNS strains were determined to be more resistant to antibiotics than methicillin-susceptible CoNS strains. Resistance rates of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible CoNS strains to the antibacterial agents, respectively, were as follows: gentamicin 90% and 17%, erythromycin 80% and 37%, clindamycin 72% and 18%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 68% and 38%, ciprofloxacin 67% and 23%, tetracycline 60% and 45%, chloramphenicol 56% and 13% and fusidic acid 25% and 15%. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Slime production was detected in 86 of 200 CoNS strains. Resistance to methicillin was found in 81% of slime-positive and in 57% of slime-negative strains. Our results indicated that there is a high level of resistance to widely used agents in causative methicillin-resistant CoNS strains. However fusidic acid has the smallest resistance ratio, with the exception of glycopeptides. Additionally, most S. epidermidis strains were slime
Song, Yunjia; Lv, Yuan; Cui, Lanqing; Li, Yun; Ke, Qian; Zhao, Yixuan
Three linezolid-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (LR-CoNS), including two Staphylococcus cohnii and one Staphylococcus capitis, were isolated from 1104 clinical staphylococcal isolates across China in 2013-2014. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the bacteria were determined by the agar dilution method. PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to determine the potential molecular mechanism of linezolid resistance. The two linezolid-resistant S. cohnii isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to investigate their genetic relatedness. Primer walking, S1 nuclease PFGE and Southern blot hybridisation were conducted to ascertain the location and environment of the cfr gene. All three isolates were positive for the cfr gene. Amino acid mutations S158F and S158Y in the ribosomal protein L3 were identified in S. cohnii 13B289 and 13L105, respectively, both of which also had an additional substitution (D159Y) in L3. PFGE indicated that the two S. cohnii isolates belonged to diverse clonal strains. S1 nuclease PFGE and Southern blotting experiments indicated that the cfr gene of the three isolates resided on plasmids of similar size (ca. 35.4kb). The cfr-harbouring segments of S. capitis 13G350 and S. cohnii 13L105 were identical to plasmid pSS-01 reported previously. The cfr-carrying fragment of S. cohnii 13B289 was indistinguishable from the formerly described plasmid pSS-02. In conclusion, the presence of the cfr gene located on a plasmid was the main mechanism contributing to resistance to linezolid in the three staphylococcal isolates. Hence, timely detection and judicious use of antibiotics are essential to prevent further transmission of this resistance mechanism. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xu, Zhen; Mkrtchyan, Hermine V; Cutler, Ronald R
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from non-healthcare environments, is a potential problem to public health. In our survey a total of 71 coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) belonging to 11 different species were isolated from three large hotels in London, UK. The most prevalent species was Staphylococcus haemolyticus, with S. hominis, S. warneri, S. cohnii, and Staphylococcus epidermidis commonly detected. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and carriage of the mecA gene were determined for all of these isolates. Most (85.9%) staphylococci were resistant to multiple antibiotics with all displaying increased susceptibility toward penicillin, fusidic acid, erythromycin, and cefepime. Twenty-one (29.5%) of the isolates were mecA positive, however MIC values to oxacillin, normally associated with the carriage of mecA, varied widely in this group (from 0.06 to 256 mg/L). Fifteen of the twenty-one mecA positive isolates carried SCCmec of these seven were type V, one type I, one type II, and one type IV. Additionally, five of these 15 isolates carried a previously unreported type, 1A, which involves an association between class A mec complex and ccr type 1. The remaining six of the 21 isolates were non-typeable and carried a combination of class A mec complex and ccrC. In addition to this, we also report on new MLST types which were assigned for five S. epidermidis isolates. Four out of these five isolates had MICs between 0.06 and 256 mg/L to oxacillin and would be regarded as clinically susceptible but one isolate had a high oxacillin MIC of 256 mg/L. We demonstrated widespread multiple drug resistance among different staphylococcal species isolated from non-healthcare environments highlighting the potential for these species to act as a reservoir for methicillin and other forms of drug resistance.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS species isolated from bovine mastitis, through phenotypic and PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polimerase Chain Reaction methods and to compare both techniques to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS technique. Among them, the PCR-RFLP method, using a partially conserved sequence of the groEL gene, is a promising alternative, because of its reproducibility and reliability. On the other hand, the proteomic technique MALDI-TOF MS provides an accurate and much faster diagnosis and has been increasingly employed in microbiological identification. The pheno-genotypic profiles of beta-lactam resistance were also investigated, this characterization is important, considering that the use of antimicrobials is a key element for mastitis control in dairy farms. The concordance of the phenotypic, PCR-RFLP and MALDI-TOF MS assays to identify CoNS species was 77,5% (31/40. S. chromogenes was the species most frequently isolated. Antibiotic resistance rate was relatively low, registering values of 25.5% to penicillin, 9.6% to oxacillin and 6.2% to cefoxitin. Resistance to imipenem, cephalotin and amoxicillin+clavulanate was not observed. The mecA gene and its variant were detected in 7.6% and 4,1% of the isolates respectively. The blaZ gene was found in 43.2% of the strains resistant to penicillin.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA as nosocomial pathogens have been causing severe and deadly diseases around the world. Coagulase is an important virulence factor for this bacterium and exisist in all staphylococcus aureus isolates. In recent years, studies carried out into the effects of medicinal plants, nanoparticles against bacteria and pathogenic bacteria’s expression genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of satureja mutica hydroalcoholic extract, zinc oxide nanoparticle, and zinc complex on the coagulase gene expression in clinical and standard isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study, using micro dilution and MTT, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of hydro-alcoholic extracts of satureja mutica and zinc oxide nanoparticles were tested against MRSA strains. By polymerase chain reaction ((RT- PCR coa gene expression in satureja mutica extract and zinc oxide nanoparticles treated were qualitatively evaluated. Data were analyzed using statistical tests Results: The MIC of hydro alcoholic extract of Satureja mutica for standard strains and clinical S. aureus were 3000 and 1500 µg/ml respectively, whereas, the MIC of nanoparticle zinc oxide on Standards and clinical isolates were 40 and 20 µg/ml.The hydro alcoholic extract of Satureja mutica on MIC concentration has significant inhibitory effect on coagulase gene expression but no effect was seen for clinical and standard MRSA. Conclusion: The results show a decline in the coa gene expression in vitro by RT- PCR method using satureja mutica , but no effect on gene expression Housekeeping arc C. An inhibitory effect was observed on bacterial growth by zinc oxide nanoparticles, but no inhibitory effect on gene expression was seen.
Gibson, Ashley; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Vallejo, Jesus G
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a common cause of pediatric ventricular shunt infections. The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends vancomycin serum troughs of 15-20 µg/mL when treating CoNS shunt infections in adult patients. We report a series of pediatric cases of CoNS shunt infections in which clinical cure was obtained with troughs < 15 µg/mL. These findings question the relevance of this recommendation in pediatric patients. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are generally considered to be opportunistic pathogens. Controlling CNS mastitis is difficult because the epidemiology is not clear, and the CNS group consists of about 40 different Staphylococcus species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coagulasenegative staphylococci in milk of the cows with subclinical mastitis, as well as to determine different CNS species isolated from quarter milk samples for their susceptibility to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. On the farm where there was found an increase of somatic cells in bulk milk, 112 dairy cows were examined by mastitis test. From 52 udder quarters where mastitis test showed an increase of somatic cells, milk samples were taken for bacteriological examination. For isolating the causes of mastitis there was used blood agar. Identification of the causative agents of mastitis was carried out on the basis of colony appearance on blood agar and their physiological characteristics. Coagulasepositive staphylococci sensitivity which cause mastitis was tested by Kirby Bauer method. For susceptibility testing there were used commercially produced discs containing: 10 IU penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (20 +10 μg, cloxacillin 25 μg, 30 μg amoxicillin, cephalexin 30 μg, ceftiofur 30 μg, 15 μg lincomycin, gentamicin and tetracycline 30 μg. The sensitivity of microorganisms was evaluated on the basis of inhibition zone diameter recommended by the manufacturer and was labeled as sensitive (S moderately sensitive (I or resistant (R. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 61.53% of samples from cows with subclinical mastitis, making them the most common cause of subclinical mastitis. The highest resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to penicillin G (58.33% of isolates. Full sensitivity of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (100% of
Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS have become increasingly recognised as opportunistic pathogens that limit therapeutic options in companion animals. The frequency of methicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates on an Australia-wide level is unknown. This study determined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for CoPS isolated from clinical infections in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses as part of the first nation-wide survey on antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens in Australia for a one-year period (January 2013 to January 2014. Clinical Staphylococcus spp. isolates (n = 888 obtained from 22 veterinary diagnostic laboratories were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 16 antimicrobials, representing 12 antimicrobial classes. Potential risk factors associated with methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs were analysed based on demographic factors and clinical history, including gender, age, previous antimicrobial treatment, chronic and/or recurrent diseases and site of infections. The most commonly identified CoPS were S. pseudintermedius (70.8%; dogs n = 616, cats n = 13 and S. aureus (13.2%, horses n = 53, dogs n = 47 and cats n = 17. Overall, the frequency of methicillin resistance among S. pseudintermedius (MRSP and S. aureus (MRSA was 11.8% and 12.8%, respectively. MRSP isolates were strongly associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones (OR 287; 95%CI 91.2-1144.8 and clindamycin (OR 105.2, 95%CI 48.5-231.9. MRSA isolates from dogs and cats were also more likely to be resistant to fluoroquinolones (OR 5.4, 95%CI 0.6-252.1, whereas MRSA from horses were more likely to be resistant to rifampicin. In multivariate analysis, MRSP-positive status was significantly associated with particular infection sites, including surgical (OR 8.8; 95%CI 3.74-20.7, and skin and soft tissue (OR 3.9; 95%CI 1.97-7.51. S
Saputra, Sugiyono; Jordan, David; Worthing, Kate A; Norris, Jacqueline M; Wong, Hui S; Abraham, Rebecca; Trott, Darren J; Abraham, Sam
Methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) have become increasingly recognised as opportunistic pathogens that limit therapeutic options in companion animals. The frequency of methicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates on an Australia-wide level is unknown. This study determined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for CoPS isolated from clinical infections in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) as part of the first nation-wide survey on antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens in Australia for a one-year period (January 2013 to January 2014). Clinical Staphylococcus spp. isolates (n = 888) obtained from 22 veterinary diagnostic laboratories were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 16 antimicrobials, representing 12 antimicrobial classes. Potential risk factors associated with methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs were analysed based on demographic factors and clinical history, including gender, age, previous antimicrobial treatment, chronic and/or recurrent diseases and site of infections. The most commonly identified CoPS were S. pseudintermedius (70.8%; dogs n = 616, cats n = 13) and S. aureus (13.2%, horses n = 53, dogs n = 47 and cats n = 17). Overall, the frequency of methicillin resistance among S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and S. aureus (MRSA) was 11.8% and 12.8%, respectively. MRSP isolates were strongly associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones (OR 287; 95%CI 91.2-1144.8) and clindamycin (OR 105.2, 95%CI 48.5-231.9). MRSA isolates from dogs and cats were also more likely to be resistant to fluoroquinolones (OR 5.4, 95%CI 0.6-252.1), whereas MRSA from horses were more likely to be resistant to rifampicin. In multivariate analysis, MRSP-positive status was significantly associated with particular infection sites, including surgical (OR 8.8; 95%CI 3.74-20.7), and skin and soft tissue (OR 3.9; 95%CI 1.97-7.51). S
Piessens, V; Van Coillie, E; Verbist, B; Supré, K; Braem, G; Van Nuffel, A; De Vuyst, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Vliegher, S
In many parts of the world, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant pathogens causing intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows. The cows' environment is thought to be a possible source for CNS mastitis and this was investigated in the present paper. A longitudinal field study was carried out in 6 well-managed dairy herds to determine the distribution and epidemiology of various CNS species isolated from milk, causing IMI and living freely in the cows' environment, respectively. In each herd, quarter milk samples from a cohort of 10 lactating cows and environmental samples from stall air, slatted floor, sawdust from cubicles, and sawdust stock were collected monthly (n=13). Isolates from quarter milk samples (n=134) and the environment (n=637) were identified to species level using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping. Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis, and S. simulans accounted for 81.3% of all CNS milk isolates. Quarters were considered infected with CNS (positive IMI status) only when 2 out of 3 consecutive milk samples yielded the same CNS AFLP type. The species causing IMI were S. chromogenes (n=35 samples with positive IMI status), S. haemolyticus (n=29), S. simulans (n=14), and S. epidermidis (n=6). The observed persistent IMI cases (n=17) had a mean duration of 149.4 d (range 63.0 to 329.8 d). The CNS species predominating in the environment were S. equorum, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, and S. fleurettii. Herd-to-herd differences in distribution of CNS species were observed in both milk and the environment, suggesting that herd-level factors are involved in the establishment of particular species in a dairy herd. Primary reservoirs of the species causing IMI varied. Staphylococcus chromogenes and S. epidermidis were rarely found in the environment, indicating that other reservoirs were more important in their epidemiology. For S. haemolyticus and S. simulans, the environment was found as a
Singh, S; Dhawan, B; Kapil, A; Kabra, S K; Suri, A; Sreenivas, V; Das, B K
Recent years have seen a rise of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from common contaminants to agents of nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI's). Molecular typing and establishing a correlation with antibiotic resistance is essential particularly in countries like India where genotyping studies for drug-resistant CoNS are sparse. A prospective study was done over 18 months, wherein 42,693 blood samples were received, and 59 patients with BSI due to CoNS were evaluated. The isolates recovered were identified by a biochemical test panel and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Baur disc diffusion method and E-test strips. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) element was characterised by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for all methicillin-resistant (MR) isolates. The majority of CoNS isolated were constituted by Staphylococcus haemolyticus (47.5%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (33.9%), Staphylococcus hominis (11.86%), Staphylococcus cohnii (5.08%) and Staphylococcus warneri (1.69%). Among all isolates 57.6% were MR with statistically significant higher resistance versus methicillin sensitive-CoNS. This difference was significant for erythromycin (76% vs. 44%, P = 0.011), rifampicin (50% vs. 12%,P= 0.002) and amikacin (26.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.023), ciprofloxacin (64.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.001) and cotrimoxazole (55.9% vs. 20%, P = 0.006). SCCmec type I was predominant (61.8%, P = 0.028) and exhibited multidrug resistance (76.2%). Coexistence of SCCmec type I and III was seen in 8.82% MR isolates. CoNS exhibit high antimicrobial resistance thereby limiting treatment options. The presence of new variants of SCCmec type in hospital-acquired CoNS may predict the antibiotic resistance pattern. This is the first evaluation of the molecular epidemiology of CoNS causing BSI from India and can serve as a guide in the formulation of hospital infection
Full Text Available Introduction: Recent years have seen a rise of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS from common contaminants to agents of nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI's. Molecular typing and establishing a correlation with antibiotic resistance is essential particularly in countries like India where genotyping studies for drug-resistant CoNS are sparse. Methods: A prospective study was done over 18 months, wherein 42,693 blood samples were received, and 59 patients with BSI due to CoNS were evaluated. The isolates recovered were identified by a biochemical test panel and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time of flight mass spectrometry followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby–Baur disc diffusion method and E-test strips. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec element was characterised by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for all methicillin-resistant (MR isolates. Results: The majority of CoNS isolated were constituted by Staphylococcus haemolyticus (47.5% followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (33.9%, Staphylococcus hominis (11.86%, Staphylococcus cohnii (5.08% and Staphylococcus warneri (1.69%. Among all isolates 57.6% were MR with statistically significant higher resistance versus methicillin sensitive-CoNS. This difference was significant for erythromycin (76% vs. 44%, P = 0.011, rifampicin (50% vs. 12%,P= 0.002 and amikacin (26.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.023, ciprofloxacin (64.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.001 and cotrimoxazole (55.9% vs. 20%, P = 0.006. SCCmec type I was predominant (61.8%, P = 0.028 and exhibited multidrug resistance (76.2%. Coexistence of SCCmec type I and III was seen in 8.82% MR isolates. Conclusion: CoNS exhibit high antimicrobial resistance thereby limiting treatment options. The presence of new variants of SCCmec type in hospital-acquired CoNS may predict the antibiotic resistance pattern. This is the first evaluation of the molecular epidemiology of CoNS causing BSI from India and can serve as a
Breyne, K; De Vliegher, S; De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Meyer, E
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a group of bacteria classified as either minor mastitis pathogens or commensal microbiota. Recent research suggests species- and even strain-related epidemiological and genetic differences within the large CNS group. The current pilot study investigated in 2 experiments whether a mouse mastitis model validated for bovine Staphylococcus aureus can be used to explore further differences between CNS species and strains. In a first dose titration experiment, a low inoculum dose of S. aureus Newbould 305 (positive control) was compared with increasing inoculum doses of a Staphylococcus chromogenes strain originating from a chronic bovine intramammary infection to a sham-inoculated mammary glands (negative control). In contrast to the high bacterial growth following inoculation with S. aureus, S. chromogenes was retrieved in very low levels at 24 h postinduction (p.i.). In a second experiment, the inflammation inflicted by 3 CNS strains was studied in mice. The host immune response induced by the S. chromogenes intramammary strain was compared with the one induced by a Staphylococcus fleurettii strain originating from cow bedding sawdust and by a S. chromogenes strain originating from a teat apex of a heifer. As expected, at 28 and 48 h p.i., low bacterial growth and local neutrophil influx in the mammary gland were induced by all CNS strains. As hypothesized, bacterial growth p.i. was the lowest for S. fleurettii compared with that induced by the 2 S. chromogenes strains, and the overall immune response established by the 3 CNS strains was less pronounced compared with the one induced by S. aureus. Proinflammatory cytokine profiling revealed that S. aureus locally induced IL-6 and IL-1β but not TNF-α, whereas, overall, CNS-inoculated glands lacked a strong cytokine host response but also induced IL-1β locally. Compared with both other CNS strains, S. chromogenes from the teat apex inflicted a more variable IL-1β response
Coagulase-negative staphylococci from non-mastitic bovine mammary gland: characterization of Staphylococcus chromogenes and Staphylococcus haemolyticus by antibiotic susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
Pate, Mateja; Zdovc, Irena; Avberšek, Jana; Ocepek, Matjaž; Pengov, Andrej; Podpečan, Ožbalt
During routine microbiological examination of milk samples from dairy cows without clinical signs of mastitis, quarter milk samples of 231 dairy cows from 12 herds were investigated for the presence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The isolates were identified on the basis of colony morphology, Gram staining, catalase and coagulase test and the commercial kit, API Staph. CNS was detected in 29% (67/231) of the cows. A total of seven CNS species were identified with the most prevalent being Staphylococcus (Staph.) chromogenes (30%) and Staph. haemolyticus (28·8%), followed by Staph. simulans (11·2%), Staph. xylosus (11·2%), Staph. epidermidis (7·5%), Staph. hyicus (6·3%) and Staph. sciuri (5%). The predominant species, Staph. chromogenes and Staph. haemolyticus, were further characterized by antibiotic susceptibility testing using the agar disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer) and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Considerable resistance to ampicillin and penicillin was observed in both species. Isolates with identical or highly similar PFGE profiles were detected at the herd level despite a marked heterogeneity seen for both species. On the basis of somatic cell count, absence of clinical signs of inflammation and heterogeneity of genotypes, we assume that CNS isolated in this study could not be considered as important causative agents of the bovine mammary gland inflammation.
Comparação entre o sistema Petrifilm RSA® e a metodologia convencional para a enumeração de estafilococos coagulase positiva em alimentos Comparison of Petrifilm RSA system with the traditional methodology for the enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus in foods
Anderson de Souza Sant'ana
Full Text Available A pesquisa de estafilococos coagulase positiva em alimentos é feita através de sua detecção e enumeração em meios seletivos e diferenciais e posterior caracterização pelos testes de coagulase, termonuclease, Gram e catalase. Estes testes podem requerer até quatro dias para obtenção dos resultados finais, além do tempo e material dispensados ao seu uso. As placas Petrfilm® RSA são uma alternativa a esta metodologia. No presente estudo, foram analisadas 62 amostras de diferentes alimentos comparando-se a metodologia tradicional (ABP, seguido dos testes de coagulaseou Staphytect Plus e o sistema Petrifilm. O sistema Petrifilm® RSA diferiu significativamente da metodologia tradicional, dando médias de contagem superiores. Ao se considerar colônias típicas e atípicas, o ABP seguido de confirmação pelo Staphytect Plus diferiu significativamente dos demais métodos testados. O Petrifilm RSA é uma alternativa para a enumeração de estafilococos coagulase positivos em alimentos, em virtude do menor tempo (aproximadamente 31 horas, para obter-se resultados realmente quantitativos. Deve-se testar tanto colônias típicas quanto atípicas crescidas no ABP, para se evitar falhas na quantificação dos resultados. Esta contagem é mais significativa ao se usar o teste de aglutinação em látex (Staphytect Plus. A análise de estafilococos em alimentos apresenta diversas limitações.Foods are examined for the presence of coagulase-positive staphylococci using selective and differential media followed by characterization for coagulase, thermoestable nuclease, Gram and catalase tests. These tests may require up to four days to obtain the results, besides time and material used. The Petrifilm® rapid S.aureus count plate is a alternative to traditional methodology. In this study, 62 samples of several foods were analysed comparing the BPA method followed by coagulase or latex agglutination tests and Petrifilm® RSA method. The Petrifilm
De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become the main pathogens causing bovine mastitis in recent years. A huge variation in species distribution among herds has been observed in several studies, emphasizing the need to identify subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors to improve our understanding of the differences in ecological and epidemiological nature between species. The use of bulk milk samples enables the inclusion of a large(r) number of herds needed to identify herd-level risk factors and increases the likelihood of recovering enough isolates per species needed for conducting subgroup- and, eventually, species-specific analyses at the same time. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of CNS species in bulk milk samples and to identify associated subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors. Ninety percent of all bulk milk samples yielded CNS. Staphylococcus equorum was the predominant species, followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A seasonal effect was observed for several CNS species. Bulk milk samples from herds with a loose-pack or a tiestall housing system were more likely to yield CNS species compared with herds with a freestall barn, except for S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus cohnii. In September, herds in which udders were clipped had lower odds of yielding Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, the CNS species assumed to be most relevant for udder health, in their bulk milk than herds in which udder clipping was not practiced. Bulk milk of herds participating in a monthly veterinary udder health-monitoring program was more likely to yield these 3 CNS species. Herds always receiving their milk quality premium or predisinfecting teats before attachment of the milking cluster had lower odds of having S. equorum in their bulk milk. Herds not using a single dry cotton or paper towel for each cow during premilking udder
Ocurrence of Vibrio spp., positive coagulase staphylococci and enteric bacteria in oysters (Crassostrea gigas harvested in the south bay of Santa Catarina island, Brazil Ocorrência de Vibrio spp., estafilococos coagulase positivo e bactérias entéricas em ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivadas na baía sul da ilha de Santa Catarina, Brasil
Roberta Juliano Ramos
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of oysters (Crassostrea gigas, harvested in six different regions of the South Bay of Santa Catarina Island, with Coliforms at 45 ºC, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., positive coagulase staphylococci, and Salmonella sp. over a period of one year. One hundred eighty oyster samples were collected directly from their culture sites and analyzed. Each sample consisted of a pool of 12 oysters. All of the samples analyzed showed absence of Salmonella, 18 (10% samples showed presence of Escherichia coli, 15 (8.3% samples were positive for V. alginolyticus, and Vibriocholerae was detected in 4 samples (2.2%. The counts of positive-coagulase staphylococci varied from O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminação de ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivadas em diferentes regiões da Baía Sul da Ilha de Santa Catarina, por coliformes a 45 ºC, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp. Estafilococos coagulase positiva e Salmonella sp., durante o período de um ano. Foram analisadas 180 amostras, coletadas diretamente no local de cultivo. Todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram ausência de Salmonella, 18 (10% amostras apresentaram presença de Escherichia coli, 15 (8,3% amostras positivas para Vibrio alginolyticus e V. cholerae foi detectado em 4 amostras (2,2%. As contagens de Estafilococos coagulase positiva variaram de <10 a 1,9 x 102 UFC.g-1, enquanto que as contagens de coliformes a 45 ºC e E. coli variaram de <3 a 1,5 x 102 NMP.g-1 e <3 e 4,3 x 10 NMP.g-1, respectivamente. As contagens de V. parahaemolyticus e V. vulnificus variaram de <3 a 7 NMP.g-1, para ambos os microrganismos, sugerindo um monitoramento tanto destas espécies quanto da temperatura das águas marinhas nas regiões de cultivo. Com base nos resultados das análises microbiológicas, as amostras analisadas mostraram qualidade bacteriológica aceitável, ou seja, dentro dos parâmetros estabelecidos na legislação brasileira.
SUSCEPTIBILITIES/RESISTANCE OF Staphylococcus coagulase POSITIVE AND Streptococcus sp. ISOLATED FROM THE MILK OF COWS PRESENTING CLINICAL MASTITIS IN MILK BASIN OF GOIÂNIA RESISTÊNCIA DE Staphylococcus coagulase POSITIVA E Streptococcus sp. ISOLADOS DO LEITE DE VACAS COM MASTITE CLÍNICA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA
Luiz Antônio Franco da Silva
Full Text Available
It was verified the spectrum of susceptibilities/resistance of 76 samples of Staphylococcus coagulase positive and 51 samples of Streptococcus sp., isolated from milk of 231 cows presenting clinical mastitis. The diffusion method was used in plate of Kirby-Bauer, being tested ten active principles used in cases of clinical mastitis. Natural penicillin, chloranphenicol, tetraciclyne, kanamicyn, gentamicyn, nitrofurantoin, trimetopryn + sulfametoxazol, enrofloxacyn, perlimicyn and ceftiofur were tested. The samples of Staphylococcus coagulase positive presented a spectrum of larger resistance for the penicillin (78.9%, followed by trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (59.2% and nitrofurantoin (57.8%. The largest susceptibility frequency was found in enrofloxacyn (96%, in perlimicyn (94% and in ceftiofur (94%. For the samples of Streptococcus sp. there was a profile resistance for penicillin (92%, chloranphenicol (74.5% and trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (52%. A sensibility profile was also verified for enrofloxacyn (96%, ceftiofur (92% and perlimicyn (92%.
KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; resistance; susceptibilities.
Verificou-se o espectro de sensibilidade/resistência de 76 cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e 51 cepas de Streptococcus sp., isolados do leite proveniente de 231 vacas que apresentaram mastite clínica. Utilizou-se o método de difusão em placa, segundo Kirby-Bauer, testando-se 10 princípios ativos: penicilina natural, cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, kanamicina, gentamicina, nitrofurantoína, trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol, enrofloxacina, perlimicina e ceftiofur. As cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva apresentaram um espectro de resistência maior para a penicilina (78,9%, vindo a seguir trimetoprim + sulfametoxazol (59,2% e
Peer, M A; Nasir, R A; Kakru, D K; Fomda, B A; Bashir, G; Sheikh, I A
Linezolid, a viable alternative to vancomycin against methicillin resistant staphylococcal isolates, has been in use for a decade around the globe. However, resistance against staphylococci remains extremely rare and unreported from most of the Asian countries. Herein, we report two cases of linezolid resistant, coagulase negative staphylococcal sepsis for the first time from India. The first case was an 18-year-old burn patient, who, after a major graft surgery, landed in sepsis, and linezolid resistant Staphylococcus cohnii with an minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of >256 μg/ml by both broth microdilution and Etest, was isolated from multiple blood cultures. The second patient was a 60-year-old male with an intracranial bleed and sepsis, from whose blood cultures, linezolid resistant Staphylococcus kloosii was repeatedly isolated. Linezolid MIC was >32 μg/ml by broth microdilution and >16 μg/ml by Etest.
M A Peer
Full Text Available Linezolid, a viable alternative to vancomycin against methicillin resistant staphylococcal isolates, has been in use for a decade around the globe. However, resistance against staphylococci remains extremely rare and unreported from most of the Asian countries. Herein, we report two cases of linezolid resistant, coagulase negative staphylococcal sepsis for the first time from India. The first case was an 18-year-old burn patient, who, after a major graft surgery, landed in sepsis, and linezolid resistant Staphylococcus cohnii with an minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of >256 μg/ml by both broth microdilution and Etest, was isolated from multiple blood cultures. The second patient was a 60-year-old male with an intracranial bleed and sepsis, from whose blood cultures, linezolid resistant Staphylococcus kloosii was repeatedly isolated. Linezolid MIC was >32 μg/ml by broth microdilution and >16 μg/ml by Etest.
Lerbeck, Anne Mette; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Styrishave, Bjarne
for the determination of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in Ghana by using solid-phase extraction in combination with HPLC-MS/MS using electron spray ionization. The highest frequency of resistance to CoNS was observed for penicillin V (98%), trimethoprim (67%), and tetracycline (63%). S. haemolyticus......596 respectively) from patients in two hospitals in Ghana. CoNS were identified using Gram staining, coagulase test, and MALDI-TOF/MS, and the antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion. Moreover an analytical method was developed...... agents were detected in 64% of the analysed urine samples (n5121) where the most frequently detected antimicrobials were ciprofloxacin (30%), trimethoprim (27%), and metronidazole (17%). The major findings of this study was that the prevalence of detected antimicrobials in urine was more frequent than...
Taponen, S.; Simojoki, H.; Haveri, M.
The coagulase-negative staphylococcal species causing mastitis in lactating cattle were identified and possible differences in the clinical characteristics or persistence of mastitis caused by different CNS were evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial treatment was also assessed. In addition, AFLP...... of these species. Approximately half of the mastitis cases were clinical, and in the majority clinical signs were mild. The severity and persistence of intramammary infection were unaffected by CNS species. Fifty-nine percent of the quarter cases were treated with antimicrobials, and the rest were left without...... treatment. Mastitis due to P-lactamase-negative CNS was treated with penicillin G and that due to beta-lactamase-positive CNS with cloxacillin. Nineteen percent of the isolates were P-lactamase-positive. The bacterial cure rate for quarters treated with antimicrobials was high, 85.9%, as opposed to only 45...
Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja
The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of
Short communication: Prevalence of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk milk on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.
Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Belomestnykh, N; Gamroth, M; Ruegg, P L; Tikofsky, L; Schukken, Y H
The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. in bulk tank milk samples from 288 organic and conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon from March 2009 to May 2011. Due to recent publications reporting the presence mecC (a mecA homolog not detected by traditional mecA-based PCR methods), a combination of genotypic and phenotypic approaches was used to enhance the recovery of methicillin-resistant organisms from bulk tank milk. In total, 13 isolates were identified as methicillin resistant: Staph. aureus (n=1), Staphylococcus sciuri (n=5), Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=3), Staphylococcus agnetis (n=1), and Macrococcus caseolyticus (n=1). The single methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus isolate was identified from an organic farm in New York, for an observed 0.3% prevalence at the farm level. The methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci prevalence was 2% in the organic population and 5% in the conventional population. We did not identify mecC in any of the isolates from our population. Of interest was the relatively high number of methicillin-resistant Staph. sciuri recovered, as the number of isolates from our study was considerably higher than those recovered from other recent studies that also assessed milk samples. Our research suggests that the presence of a potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus reservoir in milk, and likely the dairy farm population in the United States, is independent of the organic or conventional production system. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anne Mette Lerbech
Full Text Available Development of antimicrobial resistance has been assigned to excess and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Staphylococci are part of the normal flora but are also potential pathogens that have become essentially resistant to many known antibiotics. Resistances in coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS are suggested to evolve due to positive selective pressure following antibiotic treatment. This study investigated the presence of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in human urine from outpatients in two hospitals in Ghana in relation to CoNS resistance. Urine and CoNS were sampled (n = 246 and n = 96 respectively from patients in two hospitals in Ghana. CoNS were identified using Gram staining, coagulase test, and MALDI-TOF/MS, and the antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion. Moreover an analytical method was developed for the determination of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in Ghana by using solid-phase extraction in combination with HPLC-MS/MS using electron spray ionization. The highest frequency of resistance to CoNS was observed for penicillin V (98%, trimethoprim (67%, and tetracycline (63%. S. haemolyticus was the most common isolate (75%, followed by S. epidermidis (13% and S. hominis (6%. S. haemolyticus was also the species displaying the highest resistance prevalence (82%. 69% of the isolated CoNS were multiple drug resistant (≧ 4 antibiotics and 45% of the CoNS were methicillin resistant. Antimicrobial agents were detected in 64% of the analysed urine samples (n = 121 where the most frequently detected antimicrobials were ciprofloxacin (30%, trimethoprim (27%, and metronidazole (17%. The major findings of this study was that the prevalence of detected antimicrobials in urine was more frequent than the use reported by the patients and the prevalence of resistant S. haemolyticus was more frequent than other resistant CoNS species when antimicrobial
VOGES-PROSKAUER AND COAGULASE TESTS TO THE LABORATORIAL DIAGNOSTIC OF Staphylococcus aureus INCLUDED IN THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BOVINE MASTITIS UTILIZAÇÃO DO TESTE DE VOGES-PROSKAUER E DA COAGULASE PARA O DIAGNÓSTICO LABORATORIAL DE Staphylococcus aureus ENVOLVIDOS NA EPIDEMIOLOGIA DA MASTITE BOVINA
Luiz Francisco Zafalon
Full Text Available Diagnostic characteristics of acetoin production to the Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk of mammary quarters of cows with mastitis, orifices of teats and mouthpieces of the liners were studied, in agreement to different coagulation grades presented by strains in the tube coagulase test with rabbit plasma and different rain levels in the environment of the herd. The production of acetoin and the coagulase test were performed after growth on blood agar base supplemented with sheep blood, Gram staining and catalase production. All strains were confirmed by molecular identification at species level by species-specific PCR. Among 329 samples identified, 167 were isolated from milk, 117 from teat orifices and 45 from mouthpieces of the liners. Among these samples, 85.0%, 71.1% and 69.2% strains originated from the milk, mouthpieces and orifices, respectively, presented whole coagulation in the coagulase test. Reduced specificities were obtained to the acetoin production to different coagulation grades on the few rains period as well as on the many rains period. Sensitivities to the acetoin production were higher on the few rains period to all sources and coagulation grades, except to strains from orifices with incomplete coagulation and strains from mouthpieces with complete coagulation. It is recommended the acetoin production test how a good diagnostic strategy to the S. aureus identification, combined with other tests how coagulase, mainly in the milk samples originated from mastitic mammary quarters and on periods with little occurrence of rains.
Mohammad Reza Arabestani
Full Text Available Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS were considered as contaminats previously, but, during the past decade considered as one of the most common photogenic bacteria in hospital. Resistance to beta-lactams especially methicillin in staphylococcus species is being worrying in hospitals. Rapid identification of mechanisms of resistance and confirmation of their resistance to methicillin is a basic principle for antibiotic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance, frequency of mecA gene, and determination of SCCmec types in CoNS isolates from teaching hospitals in Iran. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out one hundred clinical samples isolated from patients with an average age of 7-69 years at teaching hospitals in Hamadan City, Iran, from September 2014 to February 2015. After confirmation of isolates by microbiological standard biochemical tests, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. After extraction of isolated genomicm, mecA gene was detected. Then, the types of SCCmec were performed by PCR. Results: In this study, 387 clinical samples were collected which among 100 CoNS isolated, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most prevalent species with frequency 55 (55%, followed by S. haemolyticus 40(40% and S. saprophyticus 5(5%. The highest antibiotic susceptibility was to rifampin 96(96% and the lowest resistance was detected for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX 47(47%. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin. Resistance to methicillin was detected in 50% of CoNS isolates. Typing of SCCmec was performed by The polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Frequency types of SCCmec was type III with frequency 13(13%, type V 11(11%, type II 6(6%, type IV 4 (4%, type I 3(3% respectively. Thirteen isolated was not typable in this study. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that a large percentage of coagulase
Estudo da produção de beta -lactamase e sensibilidade às drogas em linhagens de estafilococos coagulase-negativos isolados de recém-nascidos Study of production of beta-lactamase and drugs susceptibility in strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated of neonates
Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
Full Text Available Os estafilococos coagulase-negativos (ECN, embora reconhecidos como saprófitas por muito tempo, têm emergido como agentes etiológicos de uma série de infecções, sendo atualmente os principais responsáveis por sepse em UTI neonatal. Tendo em vista estas características, este estudo objetivou a identificação de estafilococos coagulase-negativos isolados de processos infecciosos em recém-nascidos, bem como a determinação da produção de beta-lactamase e sensibilidade às drogas pelas linhagens isoladas. O Staphylococcus epidermidis foi a espécie mais freqüentemente isolada (77,8%. O estudo da produção de beta-lactamase revelou esta característica na maioria das linhagens de ECN isoladas (71,8%. As linhagens de ECN mostraram, ainda, resistência múltipla aos antibióticos utilizados, com 63,2% dos isolados apresentando resistência a cinco ou mais drogas. A elevada transmissibilidade de plasmídios entre estas linhagens e o uso abusivo de drogas antimicrobianas têm-se constituído em importantes fatores na seleção de amostras multirresistentes e na transferência de genes de resistência.Although coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS have been recognized as saprophytes for a long time, they had emerged as etiologic agents of infections. They have currently been the most frequently isolated pathogen in sepsis in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This study aimed the identification of CNS strains isolated from newborns' infections and to determination of beta-lactamase and drugs susceptibility. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated species (77,8%. The study of the beta-lactamase production revealed this characteristic in the most of the strains of CNS isolated (71,8%. The strains isolated in this study presented multiple resistance to the antibiotics tested, with 63,2% of isolates presenting resistance to five or more drugs. The high transmissibility of plasmids among those strains and the abusive use of
Caracterização fenotípica da resistência a antimicrobianos e detecção do gene mecA em Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-negativos isolados de amostras animais e humanas Phenotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance and detection of the mecA gene in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. isolates from animal and human samples
Lidiane de Castro Soares
Full Text Available Os estafilococos coagulase-negativos (ECN fazem parte da microbiota normal da pele e, apesar de terem sido considerados saprófitas por muito tempo, o seu significado clínico como agente etiológico tem aumentado com o passar dos anos. Neste estudo, foram obtidos 72 isolados de ECN a partir de amostras do conduto auditivo de cães, de mastite bovina e de infecções humanas. Staphylococcus xylosus foi o microrganismo mais isolado, nas amostras animais, e S. cohnii subsp. cohnii em humanos. Os isolados foram avaliados de modo a traçar o perfil fenotípico de sua resistência aos antimicrobianos mais indicados no tratamento de infecções estafilocócicas. Foi detectado um elevado nível de resistência à penicilina e ampicilina. A gentamicina, a vancomicina e a associação ampicilina+sulbactam foram eficientes frente aos isolados testados. A resistência à oxacilina foi avaliada por meio dos testes de difusão em disco modificada, ágar screen, microdiluição em caldo e diluição em ágar para constatar, se à semelhança do que ocorre com os estafilococos coagulase-positivo, esta pode ser mediada pelo gene mecA e apresentada de forma heterogênea. A presença do gene mecA foi determinada pelo método da Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase (PCR, sendo 5,6% dos isolados mecA positivos.Coagulase-negative staphylococci (SCN make part of the normal microbiota skin and although they have been considered saprophytics for years, nowadays their clinical significance as an etiologic agent has increased. In this study, 72 SCN isolates obtained from external ear canals of dogs, bovine mastitis and human nosocomial infections were evaluated. Staphylococcus xylosus was the most prevalent microorganism in animal samples and S. cohnii subsp. cohnii in human samples. SCN isolates were evaluated in order to establish a phenotypical resistance pattern towards the most indicated antibiotics for staphyloccocal infections. A high level of resistance to penicillin
Rigatti, Fabiane; Tizotti, Maísa Kraulich; Hörner, Rosmari; Domingues, Vanessa Oliveira; Martini, Rosiéli; Mayer, Letícia Eichstaedt; Khun, Fábio Teixeira; de França, Chirles Araújo; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi
This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and susceptibility profile to oxacillin-resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococci strains isolated from blood cultures in a teaching hospital, located in Santa Maria, RS. In addition, different methodologies for phenotypic characterization of mecA-mediated oxacillin resistance were compared with genotypic reference testing. After identification (MicroScan - Siemens), the isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity using disk diffusion and automation (MicroScan - Siemens). The presence of mecA gene was identified by the polymerase chain reaction molecular technique. The most common species was Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=40, 67%). The mecA gene was detected in 54 (90%) strains, while analysis of the sensitivity profiles revealed a high rate of resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobial drugs. However, all isolates were uniformly sensitive to vancomycin and tigecycline. The cefoxitin disk was the phenotypic method that best correlated with the gold standard. Analysis of the clinical significance of CoNS isolated from hemocultures and the precise detection of oxacillin resistance represent decisive factors for the correct choice of antibiotic therapy. Although vancomycin constitutes the normal treatment in most Brazilian hospitals, reduction in its use is recommended.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate identification of isolates belonging to genus Enterococcus, Streptococcus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Lactococcus at the species level is necessary to provide a better understanding of their pathogenic potential, to aid in making clinical decisions, and to conduct epidemiologic investigations,especially when large blind samples must be analyzed. It is useful to simultaneously identify species in different genera using a single primer pair. Methods We developed a primer pair based on the tuf gene (encoding elongation factor sequence to identify 56 Gram-positive cocci isolates. Results The target sequences were amplified from all 56 samples. The sequencing results and the phylogenetic tree derived from the partial tuf gene sequences identified the isolates as three enterococcal species, two lactococcal species, two staphylococcal species, and six streptococcal species, as well as eight isolates that were novel species of the genus Streptococcus. Partial gene sequence analysis of the sodA, dnaK, and 16S RNA genes confirmed the results obtained by tuf gene sequencing. Conclusion Based on the uniform amplification of the tuf gene from all samples and the ability to identify all isolates at both the genus and species levels, we conclude that the primer pair developed in this research provides a powerful tool for identifying these organisms in clinical laboratories where large blind samples are used.
d’Azevedo, P.A.; Secchi, C.; Antunes, A.L.S.; Sales, T.; Silva, F.M.; Tranchesi, R.; Pignatari, A.C.C.
In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant. PMID:24031279
Olendzki, A N; Barros, E M; Laport, M S; Dos Santos, K R N; Giambiagi-Demarval, M
The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the MicroScan WalkAway PosCombo21 (PC21) system for the identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains and the detection of oxacillin resistance. Using molecular and phenotypic methods, 196 clinical strains were evaluated. The automated system demonstrated 100 % reliability for the identification of the clinical strains Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus cohnii; 98.03 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis; 70 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus lugdunensis; 40 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus warneri; and 28.57 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus capitis, but no reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus simulans and Staphylococcus xylosus. We concluded that the automated system provides accurate results for the more common CNS species but often fails to accurately identify less prevalent species. For the detection of oxacillin resistance, the automated system showed 100 % specificity and 90.22 % sensitivity. Thus, the PC21 panel detects oxacillin-resistant strains, but is limited by the heteroresistance that is observed when using most phenotypic methods.
Cerca, Nuno; Martins, Silvia; Cerca, Filipe; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Pier, Gerald B; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana
To quantitatively compare the antibiotic susceptibility of biofilms formed by the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus with the susceptibility of planktonic cultures. Several CoNS strains were grown planktonically or as biofilms to determine the effect of the mode of growth on the level of susceptibility to antibiotics with different mechanisms of action. The utility of a new, rapid colorimetric method that is based on the reduction of a tetrazolium salt (XTT) to measure cell viability was tested by comparison with standard bacterial enumeration techniques. A 6 h kinetic study was performed using dicloxacillin, cefazolin, vancomycin, tetracycline and rifampicin at the peak serum concentration of each antibiotic. In planktonic cells, inhibitors of cell wall synthesis were highly effective over a 3 h period. Biofilms were much less susceptible than planktonic cultures to all antibiotics tested, particularly inhibitors of cell wall synthesis. The susceptibility to inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis was affected by the biofilm phenotype to a lesser degree. Standard bacterial enumeration techniques and the XTT method produced equivalent results both in biofilms and planktonic assays. This study provides a more accurate comparison between the antibiotic susceptibilities of planktonic versus biofilm populations, because the cell densities in the two populations were similar and because we measured the concentration required to inhibit bacterial metabolism rather than to eradicate the entire bacterial population. While the biofilm phenotype is highly resistant to antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis, it is fairly susceptible to antibiotics that target RNA and protein synthesis.
Lívia Viganor da Silva
Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp (CNS are the most common pathogens that cause serious long term infections in patients. Despite the existence of new antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, vancomycin (VAN remains the standard therapy for the treatment of infections caused by these multidrug-resistant strains. However, the use of VAN has been associated with a high frequency of therapeutic failures in some clinical scenarios, mainly with decreasing concentration of VAN. This work aims to evaluate the synergic potential of VAN plus sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT, VAN plus rifampin (RIF and VAN plus imipenem (IPM in sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations against 22 clinical strains of MRSA and CNS. The checkerboard method showed synergism of VAN/RIF and VAN/SXT against two and three of the 22 strains, respectively. The combination of VAN with IPM showed synergistic effects against 21 out of 22 strains by the E-test method. Four strains were analyzed by the time-kill curve method and synergistic activity was observed with VAN/SXT, VAN/RIF and especially VAN/IPM in sub-inhibitory concentrations. It would be interesting to determine if synergy occurs in vivo. Evidence of in vivo synergy could lead to a reduction of the standard VAN dosage or treatment time.
Souza, F N; Piepers, S; Della Libera, A M M P; Heinemann, M B; Cerqueira, M M O P; De Vliegher, S
Bacteria adherence seems to be an essential first stage for the internalization of bacteria into the cytoplasm of the host cell, which is considered an important virulence strategy enabling bacteria to occupy a microenvironment separated from host defense mechanisms. Thus, this study aimed to explore the difference in the capacity of 4 bovine-associated staphylococci species or strains to adhere to and internalize into bovine mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Three different isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were used: one strain of Staphylococcus fleurettii isolated from sawdust and considered an environmental opportunistic bacterium, and 2 dissimilar Staphylococcus chromogenes isolates, one cultured from a heifer's teat apex (Staph. chromogenes TA) and the other originating from a chronic intramammary infection (Staph. chromogenes IM). Also, one well-characterized strain of Staphylococcus aureus (Newbould 305) was used for comparison with a major mastitis pathogen. The CNS species and strains adhered to and internalized into MEC slower than did Staph. aureus. Still, we observed high variation in adhesion and internalization capacity among the different CNS, with Staph. chromogenes IM showing a greater ability to adhere to and internalize into MEC than the 2 CNS strains isolated from extramammary habitats. In conclusion, the 3 well-characterized bovine-associated CNS species and strains originating from distinct habitats showed clear differences in their capacity to adhere to and internalize into MEC. The observed differences might be related to their diversity in ecology and epidemiological behavior. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
S. Pehlivanlar Onen
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine enterotoxin producing ability and antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase negative staphylococci CNS in goats bulk milk cheese and salted yoghurt. CNS strains were identified by using GP card in VITEK 2 system. The presence of enterotoxins was determined by enzyme immunoassay test by using RIDASCREEN test kit. Antibiotic susceptibility in CNS strains was detected by using AST-P640 card in VITEK 2 system. A total of 100 CNS strains were isolated in 22 55 bulk milk samples and in 23 57.5 cheese samples. Staphylococcus spp. could not be isolated from salted yoghurt samples. The most encountered species were S. caprae 51.9 S. chromogenes 11.5 and S. xylosus 9.6 from milk samples and S. saprophyticus 60.4 S. xylosus 12.5 and S. haemolyticus 8.3 from cheese samples. Four CNS strains 4 isolated from samples were capable of producing enterotoxin. While all isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic 74 of CNS strains showed resistance to two or more antibiotics. Enterotoxin production ability and high antibiotic resistance of the CNS strains isolated from goat bulk milk and cheese can lead to a risk for public health.
Braem, G; Stijlemans, B; Van Haken, W; De Vliegher, S; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F
To explore antibacterial activities of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from teat apices of dairy cows towards mastitis-causing pathogens. Of 254 CoNS, 38 displayed bacteriocin-like activity after a first screening. Seven of these strains displayed activity against at least one mastitis-related pathogen (Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus). Staphylococcus chromogenes L217 displayed the strongest inhibitory effect, being active against all tested mastitis-related pathogens and most tested CoNS. Based on cation exchange and reversed-phase chromatography, in addition to N-terminal Edman degradation and PCR, the antibacterial peptide was identified as a nukacin-type bacteriocin and named nukacin L217. Although staphylococcal bacteriocins are generally found in the cell-free supernatants of liquid cultures, Staph. chromogenes L217 only led to detectable activity when grown on agar medium. Bacteriocin-like activities are not uncommon among CoNS from teat apices and may inhibit mastitis-causing pathogens, as found for nukacin L217 production by Staph. chromogenes L217. Nukacin L217 is the first identified bacteriocin of the species Staph. chromogenes and displays unusual production kinetics, that is, requiring surface growth of its producer. The fact that nukacins are produced by different CoNS species suggests a role in the teat skin ecosystem. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Wang, Lin; Bi, Chongwei; Wang, Tiedong; Xiang, Hua; Chen, Fuguang; Hu, Jinping; Liu, Bingrun; Cai, Hongjun; Zhong, Xiaobo; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Dacheng
Sortase A (SrtA) is a cysteine transpeptidase and virulence factor from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) that catalyses the attachment and display of surface proteins on the cell wall, thereby mediating bacterial adhesion to host tissues, host-cell entry and evasion of the immune response. As a result, SrtA has become an important target in the development of therapies for S. aureus infections. In this study, we used the new reference strain S. aureus Newman D2C to investigate the role of SrtA in a murine model of bloodstream infection, when the impact of coagulase and haemolysin is excluded. The results suggested that deletion of SrtA reduced the bacterial burden on the heart, liver and kidneys by blunting the host proinflammatory cytokine response at an early point in infection. Kidneys, but not heart or liver, formed abscesses on the sixth day following non-lethal infection, and this effect was diminished by SrtA mutation. These findings indicate that SrtA is a determining virulence factor in lethality and formation of renal abscesses in mice followed by S. aureus bloodstream infection. We have thus established a convenient in vitro and mouse model for developing SrtA-targeted therapeutic strategies. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cameron, M; Perry, J; Middleton, J R; Chaffer, M; Lewis, J; Keefe, G P
This study evaluated MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and a custom reference spectra expanded database for the identification of bovine-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). A total of 861 CNS isolates were used in the study, covering 21 different CNS species. The majority of the isolates were previously identified by rpoB gene sequencing (n = 804) and the remainder were identified by sequencing of hsp60 (n = 56) and tuf (n = 1). The genotypic identification was considered the gold standard identification. Using a direct transfer protocol and the existing commercial database, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed a typeability of 96.5% (831/861) and an accuracy of 99.2% (824/831). Using a custom reference spectra expanded database, which included an additional 13 in-house created reference spectra, isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry with 99.2% (854/861) typeability and 99.4% (849/854) accuracy. Overall, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry using the direct transfer method was shown to be a highly reliable tool for the identification of bovine-associated CNS. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Os estafilococos coagulase-negativos (ECN são importantes agentes etiológicos das bacteremias hospitalares e freqüentemente considerados como contaminantes de hemoculturas. No período de outubro de 1990 a setembro de 1992, foram estudadas 300 hemoculturas positivas para ECN no Hospital São Paulo, sendo 141 bacteremias consideradas de origem hospitalar. Com o objetivo de diferenciar as bacteremias hospitalares verdadeiras das contaminantes por ECN, foram definidos critérios clínicos e microbiológicos. Apenas 20,6% das bacteremias hospitalares por ECN foram consideradas como verdadeiras. A maior freqüência de recém-nascidos internados na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal, a presença de cateter intravascular e a utilização de nutrição parenteral foram achados significativos. Não houve diferença significante quanto a resistência a oxacilina e produção de SLIME entre os ECN isolados das bacteremias verdadeiras e contaminantes. O critério clínico e a positividade da hemocultura até 48 horas após a incubação, utilizados em nossa definição, foram úteis para caracterizar as bacteremias verdadeiras por ECN.
Full Text Available Established preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery is ineffective against methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS. This case–control study aimed to determine factors predicting deep sternal wound infections due to methicillin-resistant CoNS. All cardiac surgery patients undergoing sternotomy between June 2009 and March 2013 prospectively documented in a Swiss tertiary care center were included. Among 1999 patients, 82 (4.1% developed deep sternal wound infection. CoNS were causal in 36 (44% patients, with 25/36 (69% being methicillin resistant. Early reintervention for noninfectious causes (odds ratio (OR 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.9–9.5 was associated with methicillin-resistant CoNS deep sternal wound infection. Among CoNS deep sternal wound infection, perioperative antimicrobial therapy (p 0.002, early reintervention for noninfectious causes (OR 7.9; 95% CI 0.9–71.1 and time between surgery and diagnosis of infection over 21 days (OR 10.8; 95% CI 1.2–97.8 were associated with methicillin resistance. These findings may help to better tailor preoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis.
Full Text Available Eighty-nine isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS of eight species from subclinical bovine mastitis were screened for the phenotypic and genotypic methicilline-resistance. In addition, all methicillin-resistant (MR isolates indicating the mecA gene were examined by PCR for the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec types were also determined by multiplex PCR. A total of 21 (23.6% CoNS isolates were found to be resistant to oxacillin in broth microdilution assay. All isolates phenotypically resistant to oxacillin did not have the mecA gene, which was only found in 14.6% (13 of the isolates. Most MR-CoNS isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin (92.3%, fusidic acid (84.6%, penicillin (76.9%, and rifampycin (61.5%, and susceptible to mupirocin (100%, tetracycline (100%, vancomycin (100%, clindamycin (92.3%, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (69.2%. In conclusion, a high rate of antimicrobial resistance among MR-CoNS isolated from food producing animals emphasises the need for periodic surveillance of their resistance.
Lidiane C. Soares
Full Text Available The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS species isolated from dairy cows milk, specially concerning to oxacillin. Of 100 CNS isolates, the S. xylosus was the prevalent species, followed by S. cohnii, S. hominis, S. capitis and S. haemolyticus. Only 6% were phenotypically susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested in disk diffusion assay. Penicillin and ampicillin resistance rates were significantly higher than others antimicrobials. Four isolates were positive to mecA gene (4%, all represented by the S. xylosus species. The blaZ gene was detected in 16% of the isolates (16/100. It was noticed that all mecA + were also positive to this gene and the presence of both genes was correlated to phenotypic beta-lactamic resistance. We conclude that CNS species from bovine milk presented significantly distinct antimicrobial resistance profiles, evaluated by phenotypic and genotypic tests, which has implications for treatment and management decisions.
Laboratory detection methods for methicillin resistance in coagulase negative Staphylococcus isolated from ophthalmic infections Métodos laboratoriais para a detecção da resistência à meticilina nos Staphylococcus coagulase negativos de infecções oculares
Adália Dias Dourado Oliveira
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate different methods of oxacillin susceptibility testing of ocular isolates, considering polymerase chain reaction (PCR as the 'gold standard', and to compare the in vitro susceptibility to oxacillin with that of other antimicrobials used in ophthalmologic practice. METHODS: The Vitek gram-positive identification card was used to identify ocular coagulase negative Staphylococcus species. The presence of the mecA gene was determined by the polymerase chain reaction assay with a combination of two primer sets (mecA and 16S rRNA in a single region. Results were analyzed and compared with other oxacillin susceptibility methods: PBP2a detection by rapid slide latex agglutination test (SLA; oxacillin E-test; the Vitek automated gram-positive susceptibility card (GPS-105; the oxacillin salt agar screening test (OSAS at a concentration of 6.0, 1.0 and 0.75 µg oxacillin per ml and the cefoxitin disk diffusion test (CDD. Automated susceptibility was also determined to other antimicrobial agents (fluoroquinolones, penicillin G, amoxicillin-ampicillin, cefazolin, ampicillin-sulbactam, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin and rifampin. RESULTS: Of the 69 CoNS isolates tested, 71% were mecA-positive and 29% mecA-negative. All methods tested had a statistically significant agreement with polymerase chain reaction. There was a tendency of positive polymerase chain reaction predomination among the S. epidermidis isolates in comparison to non-epidermidis isolates, although this was not statistically significant (78.3% vs. 56.5%; chi2= 2.54; P= 0.11. The oxacillin salt agar screening test (0.75 µg oxacillin/ml showed the best performance, with 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value; 95% specificity and 98% positive predictive value. Using the E-test, the mecA-positive isolates were statistically significantly more resistant to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin and
Batista, Jacqueline Ellen Camelo; Ferreira, Ewerton Lucena; Nascimento, Danielle Cristina de Oliveira; Ventura, Roberta Ferreira; de Oliveira, Wagner Luis Mendes; Leal, Nilma Cintra; Lima-Filho, José Vitor
The marine clam Anomalocardia brasiliana is a candidate as a sentinel animal to monitor the contamination levels of coliforms in shellfish-harvesting areas of Brazil's northeastern region. The aim of the present study was to search enterotoxin-encoding genes plus the mecA gene among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates from shellfish meats of A. brasiliana. The specimen clam (n=48; 40 clams per sample) was collected during low tide in the bay area of Mangue Seco from April through June 2009, and random samples of chilled and frozen shelled clam meat (n=33; 250 g per sample) were obtained from retail shops from January through March 2012. Seventy-nine CNS isolates were identified, including Staphylococcus xylosus, S. cohnii spp. urealyticus, S. sciuri, and S. lentus. A high percentage of isolates resistant to erythromycin (58.5%), penicillin (51.2%), and tetracycline (43.9%), and the fluoroquinolones levofloxacin (39%) and ciprofloxacin (34.1%) were recorded from those environmental samples. Isolates from retail shops were particularly resistant to oxacillin (55.3%) and penicillin (36.8%). All CNS resistant to oxacillin and/or cefoxitin were positive for the presence of the mecA gene, but phenotypically susceptible to vancomycin. Also, the enterotoxin-encoding genes seg and seh were detected through multiplex-polymerase chain reaction in 77.7% and 88.8% of the isolates from environmental samples, versus 90.5% and 100% of the isolates from retail shops, respectively. The data reveal the risk to public health due to consuming raw or undercooked shellfish containing enterotoxigenic plus methicillin-resistant CNS.
Cidral, Thiago André; Carvalho, Maria Cícera; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; de Melo, Maria Celeste Nunes
The aim of this article were to determinate the mechanism of linezolid resistance in coagulase-negative methicillin-resistant staphylococci from hospitals in the northeast of Brazil. We identified the isolates using VITEK(®) 2 and MALDI-TOF. Susceptibility to antibiotics was measured by the disk-diffusion method and by Etest(®) . Extraction of the whole genome DNA was performed, followed by screening of all the strains for the presence of mecA and cfr genes. The domain V region of 23S rRNA gene was sequenced and then aligned with a linezolid-susceptible reference strain. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) macro-restriction analysis was performed. Three linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus hominis and two linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were analyzed. The isolates showed two point mutations in the V region of the 23S rRNA gene (C2190T and G2603T). We did not detect the cfr gene in any isolate by PCR. The S. hominis showed the same pulsotype, while the S. epidermidis did not present any genetic relation to each other. In conclusion, this study revealed three S. hominis and two S. epidermidis strains with resistance to linezolid due to a double mutation (C2190T and G2603T) in the domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. For the first time, the mutation of C2190T in S. epidermidis is described. This study also revealed the clonal spread of a S. hominis pulsotype between three public hospitals in the city of Natal, Brazil. These findings highlight the importance of continued vigilance of linezolid resistance in staphylococci. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shrestha, Lok Bahadur; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Khanal, Basudha
Coagulase negative staphylococci were long regarded non-pathogenic as they are the commensals of human skin and mucosa but the recent changes in the medical practice and changes in underlying host populations, they are being considered significant pathogens associated with number of nosocomial infections. The objective of the study was to determine the species, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biofilm forming ability of the clinically significant CoNS isolates and to compare the different methods for the detection of biofilm formation. A total of 52 clinically significant CoNS isolates obtained from different units during a year period were studied. Characterization was done using standard microbiological guidelines and antimicrobial susceptibility was done following CLSI guidelines. Biofilm formation was detected by using three methods i.e. tissue culture plate method, congo red agar method and tube adherence method. Among 52 isolates , S. epidermidis (52%) was the most common species which was followed by S. saprophyticus (18%) and S. haemolyticus (14%). Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CoNS documented resistance of 80% to ampicillin. Resistance to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone was observed in 58% of the isolates. Biofilm formation was observed in 65.38% of the isolates. The accuracy of Congo red agar and tube adherence method for the detection of biofilm formation was 82% and 76% respectively. CoNS isolates obtained from clinical samples should be processed routinely and antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be performed. Multidrug-resistant CoNS are prevalent. All the three methods i.e. tissue culture plate, Congo red agar and tube adherence method can be used in detecting biofilm formation.
Lok Bahadur Shrestha
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coagulase negative staphylococci were long regarded non-pathogenic as they are the commensals of human skin and mucosa but the recent changes in the medical practice and changes in underlying host populations, they are being considered significant pathogens associated with number of nosocomial infections. The objective of the study was to determine the species, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biofilm forming ability of the clinically significant CoNS isolates and to compare the different methods for the detection of biofilm formation. Methods A total of 52 clinically significant CoNS isolates obtained from different units during a year period were studied. Characterization was done using standard microbiological guidelines and antimicrobial susceptibility was done following CLSI guidelines. Biofilm formation was detected by using three methods i.e. tissue culture plate method, congo red agar method and tube adherence method. Results Among 52 isolates, S. epidermidis (52% was the most common species which was followed by S. saprophyticus (18% and S. haemolyticus (14%. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CoNS documented resistance of 80% to ampicillin. Resistance to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone was observed in 58% of the isolates. Biofilm formation was observed in 65.38% of the isolates. The accuracy of Congo red agar and tube adherence method for the detection of biofilm formation was 82% and 76% respectively. Conclusion CoNS isolates obtained from clinical samples should be processed routinely and antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be performed. Multidrug-resistant CoNS are prevalent. All the three methods i.e. tissue culture plate, Congo red agar and tube adherence method can be used in detecting biofilm formation.
Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Barreiro, Juliana Regina; Braga, Patrícia Aparecida de Campos; Prada e Silva, Luis Felipe; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are among the main pathogens causing bovine intramammary infection (IMI) in many countries. However, one of the limitations related to the specific diagnosis of CoNS is the lack of an accurate, rapid, and convenient method that can differentiate the bacterial species comprising this group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to accurately identify CoNS species in dairy cow IMI. In addition, the study aimed to determine the frequency of CoNS species causing bovine IMI. A total of 108 bacterial isolates were diagnosed as CoNS by microbiological cultures from two milk samples collected from 21 dairy herds; the first sample was collected at the cow level (i.e., 1,242 composite samples from all quarters), while the second sample was collected at the mammary quarter level (i.e., 1,140 mammary samples collected from 285 cows). After CoNS isolation was confirmed by microbiological culture for both samples, all CoNS isolates (n = 108) were genotypically differentiated by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of a partial groEL gene sequence and subjected to the MALDI-TOF MS identification procedure. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified 103 (95.4%) of the CoNS isolates identified by PCR-RFLP at the species level. Eleven CoNS species isolated from bovine IMI were identified by PCR-RFLP, and the most prevalent species was Staphylococcus chromogenes (n = 80; 74.1%). In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS may be a reliable alternative method for differentiating CoNS species causing bovine IMI. PMID:24622096
Raspanti, Claudia G; Bonetto, Cesar C; Vissio, Claudina; Pellegrino, Matías S; Reinoso, Elina B; Dieser, Silvana A; Bogni, Cristina I; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM). The prevalence of CNS species causing SCM identified by genotyping varies among countries. Overall, the antimicrobial resistance in this group of organisms is increasing worldwide; however, little information exists about a CNS species resistant to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize CNS at species level and to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of CNS species isolated from bovine SCM in 51 dairy herds located in the central region of the province of Cordoba, Argentina. In this study, we identified 219 CNS isolates at species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the groEL gene. Staphylococcus chromogenes (46.6%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (32%) were the most prevalent species. A minimum of three different CNS species were present in 41.2% of the herds. S. chromogenes was isolated from most of the herds (86.3%), whereas S. haemolyticus was isolated from 66.7% of them. The broth microdilution method was used to test in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Resistance to a single compound or two related compounds was expressed in 43.8% of the isolates. S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus showed a very high proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin. Resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials was found in 30.6% of all CNS. S. haemolyticus exhibited a higher frequency of resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials than S. chromogenes. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Li, Ling; Chen, Zhiyao; Guo, Dan; Li, Shunming; Huang, Jingya; Wang, Xiaolin; Yao, Zhenjiang; Chen, Sidong; Ye, Xiaohua
This study aimed to explore the association between occupational pig contact and human methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) carriage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of pig exposed participants and controls in Guangdong, China, using a multi-stage sampling design. Participants provided a nasal swab for MRCoNS analysis and resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The dose-response relation was examined using log binomial regression or Poisson regression models. The adjusted prevalence of MRCoNS carriage in pig exposed participants was 1.67 times (95% CI: 1.32-2.11) higher than in controls. The adjusted average number of resistance to different antibiotic classes of MRCoNS isolates from pig exposed participants was 1.67 times (95% CI: 1.46-1.91) higher than those from controls. Notably, we found the frequency and duration of occupational pig contact was associated with increased prevalence and increased number of resistance to different antibiotic classes of MRCoNS in a dose-response manner. When examining these relations by MRCoNS species, there was still evidence of similar exposure-response relations. Additionally, the proportion of tetracycline-resistant and tet(M)-containing MRCoNS isolates was significantly higher in pig exposed participants than in controls. These findings suggested a potential transmission of MRCoNS from livestock to humans by occupational livestock contact, and the presence of phenotypic and genotypic tetracycline resistance may aid in the differentiation of animal origins of MRCoNS isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Loonen, A J M; Jansz, A R; Kreeftenberg, H; Bruggeman, C A; Wolffs, P F G; van den Brule, A J C
To accelerate differentiation between Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), this study aimed to compare six different DNA extraction methods from two commonly used blood culture materials, i.e. BACTEC and BacT/ALERT. Furthermore, we analysed the effect of reduced blood culture incubation for the detection of staphylococci directly from blood culture material. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) duplex assay was used to compare the six different DNA isolation protocols on two different blood culture systems. Negative blood culture material was spiked with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Bacterial DNA was isolated with automated extractor easyMAG (three protocols), automated extractor MagNA Pure LC (LC Microbiology Kit M(Grade)), a manual kit MolYsis Plus and a combination of MolYsis Plus and the easyMAG. The most optimal isolation method was used to evaluate reduced bacterial incubation times. Bacterial DNA isolation with the MolYsis Plus kit in combination with the specific B protocol on the easyMAG resulted in the most sensitive detection of S. aureus, with a detection limit of 10 CFU/ml, in BacT/ALERT material, whereas using BACTEC resulted in a detection limit of 100 CFU/ml. An initial S. aureus or CNS load of 1 CFU/ml blood can be detected after 5 h of incubation in BacT/ALERT 3D by combining the sensitive isolation method and the tuf LightCycler assay.
Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, several studies have described the clinical impact of bacterial infection associated with transfusion of platelet concentrates (PCs. Among the blood components, PCs are responsible for the highest rates of bacterial contamination as well as septic transfusion reactions. We assessed antimicrobial susceptibility profile, resistance to methicillin (MRCoNS, and resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins of group B (MLSB of 16 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS isolates from an investigation in 691 PCs bags. We then compared conventional and automated phenotypic methods, disc diffusion test (DD and VITEK(r 2, respectively as well as phenotypic and genotypic methods (Polymerase Chain Reaction - PCR. All CoNS were susceptible to vancomycin. The disc diffusion test characterized 18.75% as MRCoNS and 37.5% with inducible resistance to MLSB (iMLSB, and with VITEK(r 2, 6.3% and 31.25%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 18.75% and the erm gene in 31.25% of the isolates. In this study, we found equal percentage values between presence of the mecA gene by PCR and resistance to methicillin using cefoxitin by DD test, evidence of the erm gene by PCR, and iMLSB resistance by automation (VITEK(r 2. Moreover, we identified three strains with beta-lactamase overproduction, and the occurrence of a bigger mistake was verified when automation was compared with DD test. And we observed that D-test was the most reliable for the detection of iMLSB resistance in Staphylococcus sp.
Novel Multiplex PCR Assay for Detection of Chlorhexidine-Quaternary Ammonium, Mupirocin, and Methicillin Resistance Genes, with Simultaneous Discrimination of Staphylococcus aureus from Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci.
McClure, Jo-Ann; Zaal DeLongchamp, Johanna; Conly, John M; Zhang, Kunyan
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a clinically significant pathogen that is resistant to a wide variety of antibiotics and responsible for a large number of nosocomial infections worldwide. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently recommended the adoption of universal mupirocin-chlorhexidine decolonization of all admitted intensive care unit patients rather than MRSA screening with targeted treatments, which raises a serious concern about the selection of resistance to mupirocin and chlorhexidine in strains of staphylococci. Thus, a simple, rapid, and reliable approach is paramount in monitoring the prevalence of resistance to these agents. We developed a simple multiplex PCR assay capable of screening Staphylococcus isolates for the presence of antiseptic resistance genes for chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds, as well as mupirocin and methicillin resistance genes, while simultaneously discriminating S. aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). The assay incorporates 7 PCR targets, including the Staphylococcus 16S rRNA gene (specifically detecting Staphylococcus spp.), nuc (distinguishing S. aureus from CoNS), mecA (distinguishing MRSA from methicillin-susceptible S. aureus ), mupA and mupB (identifying high-level mupirocin resistance), and qac and smr (identifying chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium resistance). Our assay demonstrated 100% sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in a total of 23 variant antiseptic- and/or antibiotic-resistant control strains. Further validation of our assay using 378 randomly selected and previously well-characterized local clinical isolates confirmed its feasibility and practicality. This may prove to be a useful tool for multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus monitoring in clinical laboratories, particularly in the wake of increased chlorhexidine and mupirocin treatments. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Szczuka, Ewa; Jabłońska, Lucyna; Kaznowski, Adam
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens that particularly cause infections in patients with implanted medical devices. The present research was performed to study the virulence potential of 53 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus caprae. All clinical strains were clonally unrelated. Isolates carried genes encoding resistance to β-lactam (mecA) (15 %), aminoglycoside [aac(6')/aph(2″)(11 %), aph (3')-IIIa (15 %), ant(4')-Ia (19 %)] and macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB) [erm(A) (4 %), erm(B) (13 %), erm(C) (41 %), msr(A) (11 %)] antibiotics. CoNS isolates (64 %) were able to form biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that these biofilms formed a three-dimensional structure composed mainly of living cells. All biofilm-positive strains carried the ica operon. In vitro studies demonstrated that a combination treatment with tigecycline and rifampicin was more effective against biofilms than one with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. The minimum biofilm eradication concentration values were 0.062-0.5 µg ml-1 for tigecycline/rifampicin and 0.250-2 µg ml-1 for ciprofloxacin/rifampicin. All CoNS strains adhered to the human epithelial cell line HeLa, and more than half of the isolates were able to invade the HeLa cells, although most invaded relatively poorly. The virulence of CoNS is also attributed to their cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. Incubation of HeLa cells with culture supernatant of the CoNS isolates resulted in cell death. The results indicate that the pathogenicity of S. capitis, S. auricularis, S. lugdunensis, S. cohnii and S. caprae is multi-factorial, involving the ability of these bacteria to adhere to human epithelial cells, form biofilms and invade and destroy human cells.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS are of increasing importance to animal and public health. In veterinary medicine and along the meat and milk production line, only limited data were so far available on MR-CNS characteristics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MR-CNS, to identify the detected staphylococci to species level, and to assess the antibiotic resistance profiles of isolated MR-CNS strains. Results After two-step enrichment and growth on chromogenic agar, MR-CNS were detected in 48.2% of samples from livestock and chicken carcasses, 46.4% of samples from bulk tank milk and minced meat, and 49.3% of human samples. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, 414 selected MR-CNS strains belonged to seven different species (S. sciuri, 32.6%; S. fleurettii, 25.1%; S. haemolyticus, 17.4%; S. epidermidis, 14.5%, S. lentus, 9.2%; S. warneri, 0.7%; S. cohnii, 0.5%. S. sciuri and S. fleurettii thereby predominated in livestock, BTM and minced meat samples, whereas S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus predominated in human samples. In addition to beta-lactam resistance, 33-49% of all 414 strains were resistant to certain non-beta-lactam antibiotics (ciproflaxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline. Conclusions A high prevalence of MR-CNS was found in livestock production. This is of concern in view of potential spread of mecA to S. aureus (MRSA. Multiresistant CNS strains might become an emerging problem for veterinary medicine. For species identification of MR-CNS isolated from different origins, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a fast and reliable tool and is suitable for screening of large sample amounts.
Licheniocin 50.2 and Bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis BGBU1-4 Inhibit Biofilms of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci and Listeria monocytogenes Clinical Isolates.
Cirkovic, Ivana; Bozic, Dragana D; Draganic, Veselin; Lozo, Jelena; Beric, Tanja; Kojic, Milan; Arsic, Biljana; Garalejic, Eliana; Djukic, Slobodanka; Stankovic, Slavisa
Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Listeria monocytogenes have important roles in pathogenesis of various genital tract infections and fatal foetomaternal infections, respectively. The aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of two novel bacteriocins on biofilms of CoNS and L. monocytogenes genital isolates. The effects of licheniocin 50.2 from Bacillus licheniformis VPS50.2 and crude extract of bacteriocins produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis BGBU1-4 (BGBU1-4 crude extract) were evaluated on biofilm formation and formed biofilms of eight CoNS (four S. epidermidis, two S. hominis, one S. lugdunensis and one S. haemolyticus) and 12 L. monocytogenes genital isolates. Licheniocin 50.2 and BGBU1-4 crude extract inhibited the growth of both CoNS and L. monocytogenes isolates, with MIC values in the range between 200-400 AU/ml for licheniocin 50.2 and 400-3200 AU/ml for BGBU1-4 crude extract. Subinhibitory concentrations (1/2 × and 1/4 × MIC) of licheniocin 50.2 inhibited biofilm formation by all CoNS isolates (p < 0.05, respectively), while BGBU1-4 crude extract inhibited biofilm formation by all L. monocytogenes isolates (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Both bacteriocins in concentrations of 100 AU/mL and 200 AU/mL reduced the amount of 24 h old CoNS and L. monocytogenes biofilms (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001). This study suggests that novel bacteriocins have potential to be used for genital application, to prevent biofilm formation and/or to eradicate formed biofilms, and consequently reduce genital and neonatal infections by CoNS and L. monocytogenes.
Sánchez Mainar, María; Leroy, Frédéric
The cured colour of European raw fermented meats is usually achieved by nitrate-into-nitrite reduction by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), subsequently generating nitric oxide to form the relatively stable nitrosomyoglobin pigment. The present study aimed at comparing this classical curing procedure, based on nitrate reductase activity, with a potential alternative colour formation mechanism, based on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, under different acidification profiles. To this end, meat models with and without added nitrate were fermented with cultures of an acidifying strain (Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494) and either a nitrate-reducing Staphylococcus carnosus strain or a rare NOS-positive CNS strain (Staphylococcus haemolyticus G110), or by relying on the background microbiota. Satisfactory colour was obtained in the models prepared with added nitrate and S. carnosus. In the presence of nitrate but absence of added CNS, however, cured colour was only obtained when L. sakei CTC 494 was also omitted. This was ascribed to the pH dependency of the emerging CNS background microbiota, selecting for nitrate-reducing Staphylococcus equorum strains at mild acidification conditions but for Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains with poor colour formation capability when the pH decrease was more rapid. This reliance of colour formation on the composition of the background microbiota was further explored by a side experiment, demonstrating the heterogeneity in nitrate reduction of a set of 88 CNS strains from different species. Finally, in all batches prepared with S. haemolyticus G110, colour generation failed as the strain was systematically outcompeted by the background microbiota, even when imposing milder acidification profiles. Thus, when aiming at colour formation through CNS metabolism, technological processing can severely interfere with the composition and functionality of the meat-associated CNS communities, for both nitrate reductase and NOS activities
De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are frequently isolated from quarters with subclinical mastitis, teat apices, and the cows' environment. Virulence, ecology, epidemiological behavior, and effect on udder health vary between different CNS species. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus are frequently present in milk and have a more substantial effect on quarter milk somatic cell count than other species. Therefore, these species are considered the "more relevant" CNS. As species-specific factors associated with CNS intramammary infection (IMI) have not yet been identified and susceptibility for IMI differs between cows and quarters, this study aimed to identify predictors for CNS IMI at the cow and quarter level (some of them changing over time) with a specific focus on the aforementioned more relevant CNS. Precise data were available from a longitudinal study (3,052 observations from 344 quarters from 86 dairy cows belonging to 3 commercial dairy herds). All CNS were molecularly identified to the species level, and multivariable, multilevel logistic regression models taking into account the longitudinal nature of the data, were fit to study the likelihood of infection. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species from CNS IMI in older cows, whereas Staph. chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. simulans were the main species found in IMI in heifers. Quarters from heifers (as opposed to multiparous cows), from heifers and multiparous cows in third or fourth month in lactation (as opposed to early lactation, <60 d in milk), and with an increasing quarter milk SCC were more likely to be infected with the more relevant CNS species. Quarter milk SCC was identified as the sole statistically significant predictor for IMI with other CNS species, although the size of the effect was lower [odds ratio of 1.6 (1.4-1.9) vs. 2.1 (1.8-2.5)] than the effect for IMI with the more relevant CNS
Faghri, Jamshid; Razavi, Mohamad Reza
Disposable soft contact lenses that are commonly used after laser refractive surgery are known to be colonized by bacteria and play a key role in Bacterial Keraitis (BK) pathogenesis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have been found to be the most common pathogen involved in this postoperative infection. In this study a rapid and a simple assay was developed for studying attachment and accumulation of CoNS on soft contact lenses in vitro using [3H] thymidine. Thirty-five isolates of CoNS were obtained from 27 laser refractive surgery patients. Twenty-five of these thirty-five CoNS were isolated in multiple cultures. Ten CoNS were isolated in cultures from patients who underwent reoperation. The assay was optimized using a biofilm-producing strain, S. epidermidis RP62A, which was subcultured overnight at 37 degrees C on blood agar medium. Quantitative determination of biofilm production was tested. Presence of the genes icaADB and icaD was determined in all isolates. All isolates were biochemically analyzed using the Phene Plate (PhP) system modified for typing of CoNS. The CoNS isolates were further characterized to species level using ID32Staph.Mann-Whitney rank sum test and chi-square test were used to identify statistical differences in adherence, index, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and biofilm production or presence of the ica operon between clinically significant isolates and non-postoperative BK isolates. No differences in attachment and accumulation were found between isolates causing BK after laser refractive surgery and contaminant isolates. In addition, there were no differences in the distribution of the ica operon between the two groups, as determined by polymerase chain reaction. Nevertheless, the ability to produce biofilm was found to be present significantly more frequently among BK isolates than among non-postoperative BK isolates. This study shows that the method using radioactive thymidine to analyze adherence of CoNS to soft
Piepers, S; Opsomer, G; Barkema, H W; de Kruif, A; De Vliegher, S
Intramammary infections (IMI) in recently calved dairy heifers are more common than was formerly believed but their relevance for future performance has been studied only rarely. In the present study, the association between the IMI status of fresh heifers and their subsequent udder health, milk production, and culling in first lactation was explored. Quarter milk samples were collected between 1 and 4 d in milk (DIM) and between 5 and 8 DIM from 191 dairy heifers in 20 dairy herds for bacteriological culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) analysis. Monthly milk recording data including composite milk SCC and test-day milk yield (MY) were obtained for the first 285 DIM or until culling. Farmer-recorded clinical mastitis cases were available. Data were analyzed using mixed models and survival analysis. Approximately 80% of the fresh heifers (79.8%) had at least one culture-positive quarter. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently isolated pathogens (72%), followed by esculin-positive streptococci (4.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3.5%). Overall geometric mean SCC at quarter level decreased between the first and second samplings from 348,000 to 116,000 cells/mL. Heifers infected with CNS had an intermediate average test-day SCC (84,000 cells/mL) during the first 285 DIM compared with noninfected heifers (53,000 cells/mL) and heifers infected with major pathogens (195,000 cells/mL). Heifers infected with major pathogens had a much lower average daily MY (18.3kg) during first lactation compared with noninfected animals (21.3kg). That CNS-infected heifers out-produced their noninfected counterparts could be at least partially explained by their significantly lower incidence of clinical mastitis (incidence risk 3.6 vs. 21.0%) during first lactation compared with noninfected heifers. We conclude that although CNS cause the majority of IMI in heifers around calving, they should not be a reason for serious concern. Copyright 2010 American Dairy
Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis has been very well investigated worldwide. However, there are only limited reports on the characterization of methicillin resistant and sensitive coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS across the globe. Hence, in the present study, we aim to determine the phenotypic traits based on antimicrobial susceptibility profile and genotypic characterization by verifying the presence of resistance determinants, virulence and toxin genes present in the CoNS causing clinical mastitis. We obtained 62 CoNS isolates from 167 mastitic milk samples collected from three different states of India. The 62 isolates comprises of 10 different CoNS species S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. chromogenes, S. saprophyticus, S. xylosus, S. simulans, S. agnetis, S. epidermidis, S. gallinarum, and S. cohinii. Susceptibility screening against 11 antibiotics determined 45.16% isolates as multidrug resistant (resistant to more than two class of antibiotic, 46.74% resistant (one or two antibiotic class and 8.06% isolates were pan-sensitive (sensitive to all drugs. High resistance was observed against oxacillin and cefoxitin, whereas all isolates were susceptible toward vancomycin and linezolid. Fifty three isolates were methicillin resistant and 9 isolates were sensitive as determined by oxacillin susceptibility assay. The methicillin resistance gene, mecA was found in 95.16% isolates and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing predominantly revealed Type III (n = 34 and Type V (n = 18. Interestingly, 11.9% of mecA positive isolates were oxacillin susceptible and referred as oxacillin susceptible mecA positive staphylococci (OS-MRS. Additionally, genes encoding for enterotoxin, (sea, seb, seh, see toxic shock syndrome (tsst, exfoliatin (eta, etb, etd and virulence (pvl, Y-hlg were also screened. Of all the genes examined, 67.74% of isolate were positive for the Y-hlg gene, followed by the sea gene in
Bacteremias por Staphylococcus coagulase negativos oxacilina resistentes em um hospital escola na cidade de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci bacteremia at a teaching hospital in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Neste estudo, objetivou-se caracterizar a prevalência e o perfil de suscetibilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase negatives resistentes à oxacilina isoladas de culturas de sangue, em um hospital escola, localizado na Cidade de Santa Maria. Além disso, buscou-se comparar ao teste genotípico de referência, diferentes metodologias fenotípicas para a caracterização da resistência mediada pelo gene mecA. MÉTODOS: Após identificação (MicroScan® - Siemens, os isolados foram submetidos a testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana a partir da difusão do disco e automação (MicroScan® - Siemens. A presença do gene mecA foi evidenciada através da técnica molecular de reação em cadeia da polimerase. RESULTADOS: A espécie prevalente foi Staphylococcus epidermidis (67%. O gene mecA foi detectado em 90% das cepas e conforme análise dos perfis de sensibilidade, observou-se um índice elevado de resistência a várias classes de antimicrobianos. Contudo, todos os isolados mostraram-se uniformemente sensíveis à vancomicina e tigeciclina. O disco de cefoxitina foi a metodologia fenotípica que melhor correlacionou-se com o padrão ouro. CONCLUSÕES: A análise da significância clínica de SCN isolados de hemoculturas e a detecção precisa da resistência à oxacilina representam fatores decisivos para a instituição correta da antibioticoterapia. Apesar da vancomicina constituir o tratamento usual na maioria dos hospitais brasileiros, tem a redução de seu emprego recomendada.INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and susceptibility profile to oxacillin-resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococci strains isolated from blood cultures in a teaching hospital, located in Santa Maria, RS. In addition, different methodologies for phenotypic characterization of mecA-mediated oxacillin resistance were compared with genotypic reference testing. METHODS: After identification (MicroScan® - Siemens, the
Use of genotypic identification by sodA sequencing in a prospective study to examine the distribution of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species among strains recovered during septic orthopedic surgery and evaluate their significance.
Sivadon, V; Rottman, M; Chaverot, S; Quincampoix, J-C; Avettand, V; de Mazancourt, P; Bernard, L; Trieu-Cuot, P; Féron, J-M; Lortat-Jacob, A; Piriou, P; Judet, T; Gaillard, J-L
A total of 212 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strains recovered prospectively during 119 surgeries for proven or suspected bone and joint infection (BJI) were identified by sodA sequencing. These strains were identified as 151 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates, 15 S. warneri isolates, 14 S. capitis isolates, 9 S. hominis isolates, 6 S. lugdunensis isolates, 5 S. haemolyticus isolates, 4 S. caprae isolates, 4 S. pasteuri isolates, 3 S. simulans isolates, and 1 S. cohnii isolate. Only S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. capitis, and S. caprae were found to be infecting organisms and were involved, respectively, in 35 (81.4%), 3 (7.0%), 3 (7.0%), and 2 (4.6%) cases of BJI.
Piessens, V; De Vliegher, S; Verbist, B; Braem, G; Van Nuffel, A; De Vuyst, L; Heyndrickx, M; Van Coillie, E
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the main coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species involved in bovine intramammary infections (IMI) possess specific characteristics that promote colonization of the udder. Virulence markers associated with biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance, and biocide tolerance were compared between typically contagious CNS species (Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus simulans) and those rarely causing IMI (Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus equorum, and others) to find possible associations with pathogenicity. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates (n=366) belonging to 22 different species were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the biofilm-associated genes bap and icaA, and the methicillin resistance gene mecA. A selection of 82 isolates was additionally tested for their susceptibility to 5 antibiotics and 2 commercial teat dip products. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials were determined by Etest (AB bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), and a microdilution method was optimized to determine minimum biocidal concentrations of teat dips. The bap, icaA, and mecA genes were detected significantly more in isolates from CNS species typically living in the cows' environment than in isolates from IMI-causing species. Antimicrobial resistance was mainly against erythromycin (23%) or oxacillin (16%), and was detected more often in the environmental species. The isolates least susceptible to the teat dips belonged to the IMI-causing species Staph. chromogenes and Staph. simulans. We concluded that carriage of biofilm genes and antimicrobial resistance were not associated with the ability to colonize the mammary gland because free-living CNS species constituted a more significant reservoir of biofilm and resistance determinants than did IMI-causing species. In contrast, increased tolerance to biocides may favor the establishment of
Species identification, slime production and oxacillin susceptibility in coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from nosocomial specimens Identificação de espécies, produção de "slime" e sensibilidade a oxacilina em amostras de Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo isoladas de espécimes nosocomiais
Lucía E. Alcaráz
Full Text Available Ninety-two coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS (forty-five of clinical origin and forty-seven of environmental origin, collected in a hospital in San Luis, Argentina, from March to June, 1999, were identified to species level by the ID 32 Staph and API Staph System (bioMérieux. Slime production was investigated by the quantitative and qualitative methods. Oxacillin susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion test (1 µg, the agar dilution method (0.125 to 4 mg/ml and agar screen (6 µg/ml. The presence of mecA gene was investigated by PCR. The clinical CNS species most commonly isolated were S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis and S. saprophyticus. The frequency of slime production by clinical and environmental isolates was similar (25/45 and 27/47, respectively and the results obtained by the quantitative and the qualitative methods correlated well. The mecA gene was detected in all S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus and S. hominis isolates, which were resistant to oxacillin by the phenotypic methods. However, this gene was not present in S. klossii, S. equorum, S. xylosus and S. capitis strains. The gene was neither found in two out of the six S. saprophyticus isolates, in two out of three S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum isolates and in two out of five S. cohnii subsp. cohnii isolates, all of which resulted oxacillin resistant according to MIC. The gene was not found in oxacillin-susceptible strains either. Most of the CNS isolates (enviromental and clinical that were slime producers were found to be oxacillin resistant, which makes the early detection of these microorganisms necessary to prevent their dissemination in hospitals, particularly among immunocompromised patients.Noventa e duas amostras de Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (SCN, (45 amostras clínicas e 47 ambientais, coletadas em um hospital de San Luis, Argentina, durante o período de março a junho de 1999, foram identificadas até espécies, empregando-se os
Full Text Available We investigated bacterial findings from intraoperative tissue samples taken during revision due to infection after total hip arthroplasty (THA. The aim was to investigate whether the susceptibility patterns changed during the period from 1993 through 2007. Reported revisions due to infection in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR were identified, and 10 representative hospitals in Norway were visited. All relevant information on patients reported to the NAR for a revision due to infection, including bacteriological findings, was collected from the medical records. A total of 278 revision surgeries with bacterial growth in more than 2 samples were identified and included. Differences between three 5-year time periods were tested by the chi-square test for linear trend. The most frequent isolates were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS (41%, 113/278 and Staphylococcus aureus (19%, 53/278. The proportion of CoNS resistant to the methicillin-group increased from 57% (16/28 in the first period, 1993–1997, to 84% (52/62 in the last period, 2003–2007 (P = 0.003. There was also significant increase in resistance for CoNS to cotrimoxazole, quinolones, clindamycin, and macrolides. All S. aureus isolates were sensitive to both the methicillin-group and the aminoglycosides. For the other bacteria identified no changes in susceptibility patterns were found.
Study on Prevalence, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and tuf Gene Sequence-Based Genotyping of Species-Level of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Isolated From Keratitis Caused by Using Soft Contact Lenses.
Faghri, Jamshid; Zandi, Alireza; Peiman, Alireza; Fazeli, Hossein; Esfahani, Bahram Nasr; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian; Hosseini, Nafiseh Sadat; Mobasherizadeh, Sina; Sedighi, Mansour; Burbur, Samaneh; Oryan, Golfam
To study on antibiotic susceptibility and identify coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) species based on tuf gene sequencing from keratitis followed by using soft contact lenses in Isfahan, Iran, 2013. This study examined 77 keratitis cases. The samples were cultured and the isolation of CoNS was done by phenotypic tests, and in vitro sensitivity testing was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility method. Thirty-eight of isolates were conveniently identified as CoNS. In this study, 27 (71.1%), 21 (55.3%), and 16 (42.1%) were resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, respectively. One hundred percent of isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, and 36 (94.7%) and 33 (86.8%) of isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Also, resistances to cefoxitin were 7 (18.4%). Analysis of tuf gene proved to be discriminative and sensitive in which all the isolates were identified with 99.0% similarity to reference strains, and Staphylococcus epidermidis had the highest prevalence among other species. Results of this study showed that CoNS are the most common agents causing contact lens-associated microbial keratitis, and the tuf gene sequencing analysis is a reliable method for distinguishing CoNS species. Also gentamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin are more effective than the other antibacterial agents against these types of bacteria.
Dastmalchi Saei, H.
Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS are often associated with bovine mastitis and may be resistant to antimicrobial therapy. The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of blaZ (responsible for penicillin resistance and mecA (responsible for methicillin resistance genes among 108 CoNS belonging to 9 different species isolated from bovine mastitis in seven dairy herds (H1-H7. Of 108 CoNS isolates, 44 were Staphylococcus haemolyticus, 17 S. chromogenes, 11 S. epidermidis, 11 S. warneri, 11 S. cohnii, 6 S. simulans, 4 S. hominis, 3 S. capitis, and 1 S. xylosus. The blaZ was detected in 65.7% (n=71 of all Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Five isolates were positive for the presence of mecA gene (4.6%, including 2 S. hominis, 1 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. epidermidis, and 1 S. warneri. All mecA-carrying CoNS were also positive for the blaZ gene and were recovered from two studied herds (H3 and H6. Some variations were also observed in distribution of both blaZ and mecA genes between CoNS species. This study demonstrates that CoNS from bovine mastitis can be reservoirs of blaZ gene. This study also provides evidence of the presence of methicillin resistant CoNS (MR-CoNS and emphasizes the need for their epidemiological monitoring, in order to prevent the risk of spread to human through direct contact and/or consumption of contaminated food.
Rapid differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci and meticillin susceptibility testing directly from growth-positive blood cultures by multiplex real-time PCR.
Jukes, Leanne; Mikhail, Jane; Bome-Mannathoko, Naledi; Hadfield, Stephen J; Harris, Llinos G; El-Bouri, Khalid; Davies, Angharad P; Mack, Dietrich
This study evaluated a multiplex real-time PCR method specific for the mecA, femA-SA and femA-SE genes for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and meticillin susceptibility testing directly in positive blood cultures that grew Gram-positive cocci in clusters. A total of 100 positive blood cultures produced: 39 S. aureus [12 meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 31% of all the S. aureus]; 30 S. epidermidis (56.6% of the CoNS), 8 Staphylococcus capitis (15.1%), 3 Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5.7%), 4 Staphylococcus hominis (7.5%), 3 Staphylococcus haemolyticus (5.7%), 2 Staphylococcus warneri (3.8%), 1 Staphylococcus cohnii (1.9%) and 2 unidentified Staphylococcus spp. (3.8%); and 1 Micrococcus luteus in pure culture. Two blood cultures had no growth on subculture and five blood cultures grew mixed CoNS. For the 95 blood cultures with pure growth or no growth on subculture, there was very good agreement between real-time PCR and the BD Phoenix identification system for staphylococcal species categorization in S. aureus, S. epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis CoNS and meticillin-resistance determination (Cohen's unweighted kappa coefficient κ=0.882). All MRSA and meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were correctly identified by mecA amplification. PCR amplification of mecA was more sensitive for direct detection of meticillin-resistant CoNS in positive blood cultures than testing with the BD Phoenix system. There were no major errors when identifying staphylococcal isolates and their meticillin susceptibility within 2.5 h. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical benefit of using such a rapid test on the consumption of glycopeptide antibiotics and the alteration of empiric therapy in the situation of positive blood cultures growing staphylococci, and the respective clinical outcomes.
Species level identification of coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. from buffalo using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and cydB real-time quantitative PCR.
Pizauro, Lucas J L; de Almeida, Camila C; Soltes, Glenn A; Slavic, Durda; Rossi-Junior, Oswaldo D; de Ávila, Fernando A; Zafalon, Luiz F; MacInnes, Janet I
Incorrect identification of Staphylococcus spp. can have serious clinical and zoonotic repercussions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine if matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and/or cydB real- time quantitative PCR (qPCR) could be used to accurately identify coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS) obtained from buffalo milk and milking environment samples. Seventy-five of 84 CoNS isolates could be identified to the species level (score value >1.99) using MALDI-TOF MS. However, as determined by cytochrome d ubiquinol oxidase subunit II (cydB) qPCR and by 16S RNA and cydB gene sequencing, 10S. agnetis strains were wrongly identified as S. hyicus by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, 9 isolates identified by MALDI-TOF only to the genus level (score values between 1.70 and 1.99) could be identified to species by cydB qPCR. Our findings suggest that MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable method for rapid identification of S. chromogenes and S. epidermidis (species of interest both in human and veterinary medicine) and may be able to correctly identify other Staphylococcus spp. However, at present not all Staphylococcus spp. found in buffalo milk can be accurately identified by MALDI-TOF MS and for these organisms, the cydB qPCR developed in the current study may provide a reliable alternative method for rapid identification of CoNS species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Epidemiology of drug resistance: The case of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci infections Epidemiología de la resistencia bacteriana: el caso de Staphylococcus aureus y las infecciones Staphylococcus coagulasa negativas
Full Text Available Objective. To study the activity of several antibiotics against Staphylococcus spp. Material and Methods. The study included 1209 strains of Staphylococcus spp. from two institutions; Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (National Institute of Pediatrics and Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (Mexico City Children's Hospital. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of all antibiotics were determined by the agar macrodilution technique and standard methods from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results. Resistance of S. aureus was 14.2% and that of coagulase-negative staphylococci was 53.4%. The activity of different antibiotics is presented in detail. Conclusions. Surveillance of strains resistant to methicillin is necessary.Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de la resistencia a la meticilina y la actividad de varios antibióticos. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron 1 209 cepas de Staphylococcus spp. procedentes de pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Pediatría y del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Se utilizó la técnica de dilución en placas con agar. El procedimiento e interpretación fueron acordes con lo establecido por el National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Resultados. La frecuencia de la resistencia de S. aureus fue de 14.2% y de 53.4% en los Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa. La actividad de otros antimicrobianos se presenta en el texto. Conclusiones. Es necesario vigilar continuamente la progresión de la resistencia de Staphylococcus spp. a la meticilina.
Short communication: Identification of coagulase-negative staphylococcus species from goat milk with the API Staph identification test and with transfer RNA-intergenic spacer PCR combined with capillary electrophoresis.
Koop, G; De Visscher, A; Collar, C A; Bacon, D A C; Maga, E A; Murray, J D; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S; Haesebrouck, F; Rowe, J D; Nielen, M; van Werven, T
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most commonly isolated bacteria from goat milk, but they have often been identified with phenotypic methods, which may have resulted in misclassification. The aims of this paper were to assess the amount of misclassification of a phenotypic test for identifying CNS species from goat milk compared with transfer RNA intergenic spacer PCR (tDNA-PCR) followed by capillary electrophoresis, and to apply the tDNA-PCR technique on different capillary electrophoresis equipment. Milk samples were collected from 416 does in 5 Californian dairy goat herds on 3 occasions during lactation. In total, 219 CNS isolates were identified at the species level with tDNA-PCR and subjected to the API 20 Staph identification test kit (API Staph; bioMérieux, Durham, NC). If the same species was isolated multiple times from the same udder gland, only the first isolate was used for further analyses, resulting in 115 unique CNS isolates. According to the tDNA-PCR test, the most prevalent CNS species were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus caprae, and Staphylococcus simulans. Typeability with API staph was low (72%). Although the API Staph test was capable of identifying the majority of Staph. epidermidis and Staph. caprae isolates, sensitivity for identification of Staph. simulans was low. The true positive fraction was high for the 3 most prevalent species. It was concluded that the overall performance of API Staph in differentiating CNS species from goat milk was moderate to low, mainly because of the low typeability, and that genotypic methods such as tDNA-PCR are preferred. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparison of growth on mannitol salt agar, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, VITEK® 2 with partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci.
Ayeni, Funmilola A; Andersen, Camilla; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels
Mannitol salt agar (MSA) is often used in resources' limited laboratories for identification of S. aureus however, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) grows and ferments mannitol on MSA. 171 strains of CoNS which have been previously misidentified as S. aureus due to growth on MSA were collected from different locations in Nigeria and two methods for identification of CoNS were compared i.e. ViTEK 2 and MALDI-TOF MS with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing as gold standard. Partial tuf gene sequencing was used for contradicting identification. All 171 strains (13 species) grew on MSA and ferments mannitol. All tested strains of S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. nepalensis, S. pasteuri, S. sciuri,, S. warneri, S. xylosus, S. capitis were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF while variable identification were observed in S. saprophyticus and S. cohnii (90%, 81%). There was low identification of S. arlettae (14%) while all strains of S. kloosii and S. gallinarum were misidentified. There is absence of S. gallinarum in the MALDI-TOF database at the period of this study. All tested strains of S. epidermidis, S. gallinarum, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri,, S. warneri, S. xylosus and S. capitis were correctly identified by ViTEK while variable identification were observed in S. saprophyticus, S. arlettae, S. cohnii, S. kloosii, (84%, 86%, 75%, 60%) and misidentification of S. nepalensis, S. pasteuri. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used as gold standard for most strains except S. capitis and S. xylosus where the two species were misidentified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA contrary to MALDI-TOF and ViTEK identification. Tuf gene sequencing was used for correct identification. Characteristic growth on MSA for CoNS is also identical to S. aureus growth on the media and therefore, MSA could not differentiate between S. aureus and CoNS. The percentage accuracy of ViTEK was better than MALDI-TOF in identification of CoNS. Although partial sequencing of
Comparative effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin as definitive antibiotic therapy for heterogeneously resistant vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococcal central-line-associated bloodstream infections in a neonatal intensive care unit.
Blanchard, A C; Fortin, E; Laferrière, C; Goyer, I; Moussa, A; Autmizguine, J; Quach, C
Heterogeneously resistant vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci (hVICoNS) are emerging pathogens causing central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients. Given the burden of disease associated with CLABSI and the current lack of therapeutic guidelines, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin used as the definitive antibiotic therapy for hVICoNS CLABSI. We performed a retrospective cohort study of infants with hVICoNS CLABSI from a single NICU between 2009 and 2014, treated with either linezolid or vancomycin as definitive antibiotic therapy. CLABSI duration, early and late recurrence and in-hospital mortality were compared using propensity score-adjusted proportional hazards and logistic regression models. Of 89 infants with hVICoNS CLABSI, 33 (37.1%) treated with linezolid were compared with 56 (62.9%) treated with vancomycin. The median duration of CLABSI was 5 (range 1-12) versus 4 days (range 0-14) ( P = 0.11), early recurrences were 3.0% versus 7.1% ( P = 0.42), late recurrences 0% versus 14.3% ( P = 0.02) and mortality 27.3% versus 28.6% ( P = 0.90), when treated with linezolid versus vancomycin, respectively. When adjusting using a continuous propensity score, linezolid had an HR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.48-1.27) for CLABSI duration, an OR of 0.23 (95% CI 0.02-2.56) for early recurrence and an OR of 0.9 (95% CI 0.3-2.67) for mortality, relative to vancomycin. There was no statistically significant difference between linezolid and vancomycin when used as definitive treatment for hVICoNS CLABSI in NICU patients, in terms of CLABSI duration, recurrence or all-cause mortality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
S. aureus is associated with many clinical syndromes including tenosynovitis, omphalitis, femoral head necrosis, .... Markey, 2008) where occurrence of multidrug ... Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in. Denmark. Veterinary.
Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many countries, it ... humans and animals (Casey et al., 2007). ... of widespread use of antibiotics in animals for ... Laboratory Standards Institute methods (CLSI, 2010). Briefly ...
instrumentation, pregnancy , kidney stones, diabetes, anatomical abnormalities, invasive procedures, etc.) VI. Physician’s Diagnosis: (If UTI , do symptoms or...NS species, Stap h ccus saprophyticus, has been reported as the second most tivnan cause of urinary tract infections ( UTIs ) in young women in...understanding of vir- ulence factors possibly involved in S. saprophyticus UTIs . v * V V
Robert D. Wojtyczka
Full Text Available Synergistic interactions between commonly used antibiotics and natural bioactive compounds may exhibit therapeutic benefits in a clinical setting. Berberine, an isoquinoline-type alkaloid isolated from many kinds of medicinal plants, has proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. The aim of the presented work was to assess the antibacterial activity of berberine chloride in light of the effect exerted by common antibiotics on fourteen reference strains of Staphylococccus spp., and to evaluate the magnitude of interactions of berberine with these antistaphylococcal antibiotics. In our study minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of berberine chloride against CoNS ranged from 16 to 512 µg/mL. The most noticeable effects were observed for S. haemolyticus ATCC 29970, S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, S. capitis subsp. capitis ATCC 35661, S. galinarium ATCC 700401, S. hominis subsp. hominis ATCC 27844, S. intermedius ATCC 29663 and S. lugdunensis ATCC 49576. The most significant synergistic effect was noticed for berberine in combination with linezolid, cefoxitin and erythromycin. The synergy between berberine and antibiotics demonstrates the potential application of compound combinations as an efficient, novel therapeutic tool for antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.
Soeorg, Hiie; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Eelmäe, Imbi; Metsvaht, Hanna Kadri; Treumuth, Sirli; Merila, Mirjam; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Lutsar, Irja
Human milk is the preferred nutrition for neonates and a source of bacteria. Research aim: The authors aimed to characterize the molecular epidemiology and genetic content of staphylococci in the human milk of mothers of preterm and term neonates. Staphylococci were isolated once per week in the 1st month postpartum from the human milk of mothers of 20 healthy term and 49 preterm neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and multilocus sequence typing were used. The presence of the mecA gene, icaA gene of the ica-operon, IS 256, and ACME genetic elements was determined by PCR. The human milk of mothers of preterm compared with term neonates had higher counts of staphylococci but lower species diversity. The human milk of mothers of preterm compared with term neonates more often contained Staphylococcus epidermidis mecA (32.7% vs. 2.6%), icaA (18.8% vs. 6%), IS 256 (7.9% vs. 0.9%), and ACME (15.4% vs. 5.1%), as well as Staphylococcus haemolyticus mecA (90.5% vs. 10%) and IS 256 (61.9% vs. 10%). The overall distribution of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) types and sequence types was similar between the human milk of mothers of preterm and term neonates, but a few mecA-IS 256-positive MLVA types colonized only mothers of preterm neonates. Maternal hospitalization within 1 month postpartum and the use of an arterial catheter or antibacterial treatment in the neonate increased the odds of harboring mecA-positive staphylococci in human milk. Limiting exposure of mothers of preterm neonates to the hospital could prevent human milk colonization with more pathogenic staphylococci.
Wojtyczka, Robert D; Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kępa, Małgorzata; Kubina, Robert; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Mularz, Tomasz; Idzik, Danuta
Synergistic interactions between commonly used antibiotics and natural bioactive compounds may exhibit therapeutic benefits in a clinical setting. Berberine, an isoquinoline-type alkaloid isolated from many kinds of medicinal plants, has proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. The aim of the presented work was to assess the antibacterial activity of berberine chloride in light of the effect exerted by common antibiotics on fourteen reference strains of Staphylococccus spp., and to evaluate the magnitude of interactions of berberine with these antistaphylococcal antibiotics. In our study minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of berberine chloride against CoNS ranged from 16 to 512 µg/mL. The most noticeable effects were observed for S. haemolyticus ATCC 29970, S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, S. capitis subsp. capitis ATCC 35661, S. galinarium ATCC 700401, S. hominis subsp. hominis ATCC 27844, S. intermedius ATCC 29663 and S. lugdunensis ATCC 49576. The most significant synergistic effect was noticed for berberine in combination with linezolid, cefoxitin and erythromycin. The synergy between berberine and antibiotics demonstrates the potential application of compound combinations as an efficient, novel therapeutic tool for antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.
Beytullah Kenar*, Yahya Kuyucuoğlu and Esra Şeker
A total of 572 California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive milk samples were collected from 423 lactating cows on 18 private farms in the Middle Western Anatolia. Coagulase–negative staphylococci colonies and CNS species identification was performed based on conventional biochemical techniques and using the API Staph test. Slime production was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA) method. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards...
Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Scott, N. L.; Sordillo, L. M.
This study investigated the functional capabilities of neutrophils against different Staphylococcus aureus genotypes isolated from cows with mastitis. Six strains of S. aureus were chosen for use in the study, two with a common genotype, two with an intermediate genotype, and two with a rare......; rare type, 10.5/cell). These findings suggest that one of the reasons for the variation in prevalence of different genotypes of S. aureus in the mammary gland is due to the superior ability of some types to resist phagocytosis and/or killing by bovine neutrophils...
Olsen, John E.; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller
and sequences retrieved from public databases were compared. A phylogenetic tree showed that blaZ exists in three evolutionary lines: one group was of plasmid origin, one group was of chromosomal origin and one intermediate group. Sixty-nine sequence types were demonstrated. They translated into 11 BlaZ protein...... types. The major types all contained strains of both human and bovine origin, and more than one Staphylococcus species, demonstrating a shared gene pool. In a comparison of S. aureus and CoNS obtained from five Danish cattle herds, the same type of blaZ was only detected in one case. Conclusions...
Soeorg, Hiie; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Eelmäe, Imbi; Merila, Mirjam; Treumuth, Sirli; Huik, Kristi; Jürna-Ellam, Marika; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Lutsar, Irja
BackgroundWe aimed to determine the genetic relatedness between Staphylococcus epidermidis colonizing breast milk (BM) and BM-fed neonates during the first month of life.MethodsS. epidermidis was isolated from the stool and skin swabs of 20 healthy term and 49 preterm neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit and from the BM of mothers once a week and typed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis. Virulence-related genes were determined by PCR.ResultsThe gut (95%) and skin (100%) of term neonates were colonized with strains genetically similar to those in BM and carrying mecA and IS256 at low rate (both skin (34.7%) and in the gut in the first week of life (14.3%), but the prevalence of mecA (>90.6%) and IS256 (>61.7%) was high. By the fourth week, in the gut of preterm neonates the prevalence of mecA (73.8%) and IS256 (18.4%) decreased, but colonization with strains genetically similar to those in BM increased (83.7%).ConclusionDuring early life, the skin and gut of preterm neonates is colonized with S. epidermidis that is distinct from strains found in BM, but gradually the gut is enriched with strains genetically similar to those in BM, as in term neonates.
Coton, Emmanuel; Mulder, Niels; Coton, Monika; Pochet, Sylvie; Trip, Hein; Lolkema, Juke S.
A multiplex PCR method, aimed at the detection of genes associated with biogenic amine production, identified the odc gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase in 1 of 15 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The ability of the positive strain, S. epidermidis 2015B, to produce putrescine in vitro was
Jahanban-Esfahlan, R.; Seidi, K.; Monhemi, H.; Adli, A.D.F.; Minofar, Babak; Zare, P.; Farajzadeh, D.; Farajnia, S.; Behzadi, R.; Abbasi, M.M.; Zarghami, N.; Javaheri, T.
Roč. 7, AUG 15 (2017), s. 1-14, č. článku 8126. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : TISSUE-FACTOR * FACTOR-VIIA * STAPHYLOCOAGULASE Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016
Jarløv, J O; Rosdahl, V T; Mortensen, I
-level of the isoxazolyl penicillins showed a high degree of uniformity. However more strains were resistant to cloxacillin and oxacillin than to dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin. Only a weak correlation was found between beta-lactamase production, and resistance to the six antibiotics. Methicillin was the most stable...
Osman, Kamelia; Badr, Jihan; Al-Maary, Khalid S.; Moussa, Ihab M. I.; Hessain, Ashgan M.; Girah, Zeinab M. S. Amin; Abo-shama, Usama H.; Orabi, Ahmed; Saad, Aalaa
The use of antibiotics in farm management (growing crops and raising animals) has become a major area of concern. Its implications is the consequent emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and accordingly their access into the human food chain with passage of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to the normal human intestinal microbiota and hence to other pathogenic bacteria causative human disease. Therefore, we pursued in this study to unravel the frequency and the quinolone resista...
Periodontal status and bacteremia with oral viridans streptococci and coagulase negative staphylococci in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients: a prospective observational study
Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.; Laheij, Alexa M. G. A.; Epstein, Joel B.; Epstein, Matthew; Geerligs, Gerard M.; Wolffe, Gordon N.; Blijlevens, Nicole M. A.; Donnelly, J. Peter
This study was aimed to investigate whether any association could be found between the presence of an inflamed and infected periodontium (e.g., gingivitis and periodontitis) and the development of bacteremia during neutropenia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim; Svennesen, Line; Pedersen, Karl
) to identify the predisposing cow level risk factors for specific CNS IMI and teat colonization.In each herd, 30- 40 cows with somatic cell counts > 200,000 cells/ml in the previous milk recording are randomly selected and teat skin swabs and aseptic quarter foremilk samples are taken. Teat skin swabs...... are collected using a modified wet-dry method. First a wet swab immersed in ¼ Ringer’s solution followed by a dry swab are rotated 360° around the teat canal orifice and both swab tips transferred into one tube with 2 ml of ¼ Ringer’s solution. Samples are transported on ice for culturing in the laboratory...
Prevalence of Resistance Mechanisms against Macrolides and Lincosamides in Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in the Czech Republic and Occurrence of an Undefined Mechanism of Resistance to Lincosamides
Novotná, Gabriela; Adámková, V.; Janata, Jiří; Melter, O.; Spížek, Jaroslav
Roč. 49, č. 8 (2005), s. 3586-3589 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/04/0801; GA AV ČR IAA600200519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : resistance * macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.379, year: 2005
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes. From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328, we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%, Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%, Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21, and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%. The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19, and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%. S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each, and hlb (32.5% genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%. In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%, the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12.5% exhibiting the presence of egc-like variants. In two animals, we also noted the gene encoding the TSST-1 toxin. The results of the study showed that free-living animals may be a significant reservoir of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that, among the animals species studied, the red fox constitutes the most important source of infections.
Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Zięba, Przemysław; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Gnat, Sebastian; Muszyńska, Marta; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Majer Dziedzic, Barbara; Ulbrych, Łukasz; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra
The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon) for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes). From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328), we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%), Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%), Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%). The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19), and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis) were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%). S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each), and hlb (32.5%) genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%). In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%), the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12.5% exhibiting the presence of egc-like variants. In two animals, we also noted the gene encoding the TSST-1 toxin. The results of the study showed that free-living animals may be a significant reservoir of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that, among the animals species studied, the red fox constitutes the most important source of infections.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that affects dairy cattle worldwide causing economic losses. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are the predominant cause of this type of infection. We have recently showed that coagulase-positive staphylococci could be misidentified. So, the aim of this study was to characterize the Staphylococcus spp. strains initially classified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci, isolated from buffalo with subclinical mastitis. Milk of buffaloes with mastitis in herds was collected and 9 strains were identified as CNS by phenotypic tests. Molecular methodologies latter identified the strains as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus chromogenes (5, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus (2 and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus (2. Our results strongly support the need to identify the isolates to a species level in order to avoid misidentification and to be aware of the classification using the coagulase test alone.
Bina Pani Gupta
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the emerging and prevalent pathogen causing serious infections in community and hospital associated diseases. S. aureus resistant to methicillin is nowadays a big and expanding problem of concern in India. Amongst the different pathogens, S. aureus is being studied for prevalence of infections and drug resistance behavior. The present study describes the dominance of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in the clinical samples of TMU, Moradabad, India. The study showed the isolation of 450 cultures of S. aureus from different samples. Amongst which, 234 isolates of S. aureus were from pus, 164 isolates were from blood, 15 isolates were from respiratory fluid samples, 33 isolates were from urine samples and 04 isolates were from ear swabs and nasal swabs. These strains of S. aureus were screened for characteristic coagulase assay. The strains were found to be coagulase positive and coagulases negative both. It was observed that, amongst, 450 isolates of Staphylococci, 185 (41.11% strains were coagulase positive and 265 (58.88% were coagulase negative. A total of 142 (76.75% of the coagulase positive staphylococci strains shows resistance to methicillin and 202 (76.22% coagulase negative strains showed methicillin resistance. Methicillin resistance was consistent when tested with other antibiotics in coagulase positive strains but when studied about coagulase negative strains, about 12.5% strains showed sensitivity with other antibiotics although they were found resistant when checked with methicillin. It was determined that, on an average, 85 (18.88% Staphylococci strains were resistant.
Shrestha, Nabin K; Tuohy, Marion J; Padmanabhan, Ravindran A; Hall, Gerri S; Procop, Gary W
We evaluated the Roche LightCycler Staphylococcus M(GRADE) kits to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci in blood cultures growing clusters of gram-positive cocci. Testing 100 bottles (36 containing S. aureus), the assay was 100% sensitive and 98.44% specific for S. aureus and 100% sensitive and specific for coagulase-negative staphylococci.
Aug 30, 2012 ... identification were determined every day of storage until samples were adjudged spoiled. .... examining colonies macroscopically on their cultural properties ... test, coagulase test, indole test, starch fermentation test, gram.
Jan 5, 2012 ... culture experiments, two types of the transconjugants were obtained. Transconjugants .... were brought together in coagulase-negative staphylo- cocci (CoNS) ..... pathogen to contagious bovine mastitis bacteria. PLoS ONE ...
Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.
The ability to detect mastitis pathogens based on their volatile metabolites was studied. Milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli were collected. In
... of terminalia ivorensis (Combretaceae), a commercial and medicinal specie, ... Terminalia ivorensis, of Combretaceae family plant, is widely used traditional ... strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, coagulase-negative S. and ...
... (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, and beta-hemolytic streptococci). [66 FR 712, Jan. 4, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 15370, Mar. 31...
BASSO, ANA P.; MARTINS, PAULA D.; NACHTIGALL, GISELE; SAND, SUELI VAN DER; MOURA, TIANE M. DE; FRAZZON, ANA PAULA G.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the species distribution, antibiotic-resistance profile and presence of enterotoxin (SE) genes in staphylococci isolated from the Dilúvio stream in South Brazil. Eighty-eight staphylococci were identified, 93.18% were identified as coagulase-negative (CNS) and 6.82% coagulase-positive (CPS). Fourteen Staphylococcus species were detected and the most frequently were Staphylococcus cohnii (30.48%) and S. haemolyticus (21.95%). Resistance to erythromycin was...
Thaís Teresa Brandão Cavalheiro Ribeiro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of tofu sold in supermarkets in Porto Alegre/Brazil. Bacteria counts were performed for Bacillus cereus , mesophilic, coliforms and Staphylococcus coagulase positive and negative. The presence of Listeria sp. was also evaluated. Two different brands of tofu (A and B were collected, one lot per month, for six months. Five samples from each lot were analyzed. All lots presented mesophilic aerobic counts above 4.3x105CFU g-1. Four of the six lots from brand A and all lots from brand B showed E. coli and/or Staphylococcus coagulase positive counts above the Brazilian law accepted limits. The Staphylococcus coagulase negative counts were higher than those of coagulase positive in all lots. In all lots where Staphylococcus coagulase positive counts were above the legal limit, there were counts of coagulase negative above 104CFU g-1. B. cereus and Listeria sp. were not found in either brand. The majority of lots of brand A and all lots of brand B were unsuitable for human consumption. Our results showed that there are problems in tofu manufacturing in both industries analyzed. There is a need of improvement on its microbial quality to avoid problems of food-borne illness, and finally the need of a better control by the Brazilian inspection services.
Mariante, Afonso Ravanello
Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal microbiology of healthy individuals is not much documented. Its knowledge allows to determine the nasosinusal colonizing agents and to monitor the patterns of bacterial resistance. Objective: To evaluate the microbiology of the middle meatus in healthy individuals and to compare it with that of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Method: 61 healthy individuals were included. The samples were collected under endoscopic view and Gram stained with leucocytes count and aerobic, anaerobic and fungus cultures. 114 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis formed the control group. Results: In healthy individuals 58 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequent ones were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Fungi were cultivated in 10%. There were rare or no white blood cells in all samples. There was penicillin resistance in 75% of the Staphylococcus aureus and 69% of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. As for oxacillin, 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and 92% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were sensitive. In the control group 158 microorganisms were cultivated. The most common ones were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Gram-negatives represented 26% of the aerobics. 73% of the samples with positive cultures presented a few or many white blood cells. Conclusion: Rare or no white blood cell, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium were more frequent in healthy individuals and Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobics and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Gram-negative were more frequent in the control group.
Detection of different Staphylococcus aureus strains in bovine milk from subclinical mastitis using PCR and routine techniques Detecção de diferentes cepas de Staphylococcus aureus de mastite bovina subclínica através da técnica de PCR e técnicas tradicionais
Full Text Available Contamination of fresh milk with Staphylococcus aureus was assessed comparatively through routine phenotypic (coagulase tube test and coagulase slide test and genotypic (PCR screening of 128 S. aureus strains isolated from 555 milk samples. These samples were collected from 362 cows with subclinical mastitis, hosted in different dairy herds at various locations of the Northern and Northeastern rural areas of the State of Rio de Janeiro, 39.7% of which were CMT-positive. All S. aureus isolates tested positive for the presence of the coagulase gene by PCR and the isolates could be grouped into four distinct classes according to the size of the PCR product. The strains also yielded variable results when assayed with coagulase test. Taken together, these data indicate the existence of extensive polymorphism at the coagulase gene locus in the genus Staphylococcus and exemplifies the extent of molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity associated with the strains circulating in rural herds.Quinhentas e cinqüenta e cinco amostras de leite, provenientes de 362 vacas com mastite subclínica em diferentes propriedades rurais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, de 1995 a 1997, foram submetidas ao teste "Califórnia Mastitis Test" (CMT. 39,7% das amostras foram positivas, das quais foram isoladas 128 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus. Todas as cepas isoladas foram positivas para o gene da coagulase utilizando a técnica de PCR, todavia, resultados de coagulase através das técnicas em tubo e "coagulase slide test" foram variáveis. Após a amplificação do gen de coagulase através da técnica de PCR utilizando iniciadores específicos para o referido gen, fragmentos com diferentes pesos moleculares foram vistos através de análise em gel de agarose, sugerindo a ocorrência de polimorfismo genético. O estudo também sugere a ocorrência de diferentes cepas da bactéria atuando nos rebanhos leiteiros causando mastite bovina.
T V Ramani
Full Text Available One hundred new cases of pyodenna attending King George Hospital, Vishakhapatnam were investigated bacteriologically with antibiotic sensitivity of all the strains isolated and phage typing of coagulm positive staphylocci. Among these 50 had impetigo and 15 each ahd furunculosis and fouiculitis. The remaining included various other clinical entities. Children under 10 years were observed to have high incidence of pyoderma. A total of 88 strains of staphylococci (77 coagulase positive and 11 coagulase negative strains 25 strains of beta haemolytic streptococci and 3 strains of Klebsiella were isolated. Staphylococci were found to be the commonest aetiological agents either single or in association with other organisms. Of the 76 strains of coagulase positive staphylococci 32 strains were not phage typable and among the 44 typable strains 17 (38% belonged to group III and 15 (36.5% to mixed group. Coagulase positive staphylococci showed high sensitivity to garamycin, kanamycin and erythromycin and high resistance to penicillin and streptomycin. Multiple drug resistance was also high among these strains. Coagulase negative staphylococci were found to be more sensitive with less incidence of multiple drug resistance. Most of multiple drug resistant strains belonged to group III phage types. Beta haemolytic streptococci were found to be highly sensitive to all the antibiotics tested.
Bendahou, Abdrezzak; Lebbadi, Mariam; Ennanei, Latifa; Essadqui, Fatima Z; Abid, Mohammed
To investigate the incidence and antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal strains isolated from milk and milk products and to trace the ecological origin of the Staphylococcus aureus isolated. Eighty-one samples of raw milk, lben (whey) and jben (cheese) were analyzed for the presence of staphylococcal strains. Isolates were identified by Gram stains, tests for coagulase, the API staph system and the WalkAway 40/96, which also determines the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. The S. aureus strains were biotyped, and variable regions of the coagulase gene were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. The identification results showed a predominance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (54 %). Coagulase-positive staphylococci that were identified were divided into 3 groups comprising S. aureus (40%), Staphylococcus intermedius (2 %) and Staphylococcus hyicus (4%). Among the S. aureus that was isolated, biotype C was the predominant biotype. Among 40 coagulase gene PCR-amplification products, 37 produced a single band, while 3 isolates produced two bands. The antimicrobial susceptibility-profile of the staphylococcal strains revealed a high incidence of S. aureus to penicillin G. In addition, Staphylococcus lentus presented considerable resistance to the oxacillin, erythromycin and lincomycin. The presence of staphylococci in raw milk, lben and jben in areas of northern Morocco poses a health hazard, so it is necessary for the public health inspectors to properly examine the conditions during production, storage and commercialization of all products made with unpasteurized milk.
Khan, A.; Javed, M.T.; Mahmood, F.; Hussain, R.
The present study was undertaken to determine the distribution and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from naturally occurring mastitis in cattle and buffaloes. For this purpose a total of 1445 lactating cattle (653) and buffaloes (792) present at two experimental livestock farms Okara (Bahadarnagar) and Sahiwal (Qadiarabad), in and around district Faisalabad and slaughtered at an abattoir due to low milk yield and were screened for mastitis. California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used to detect sub clinical mastitis. The positive quarter milk samples were collected for culturing of S. aureus isolates. taphylococcus aureus isolates were identified on the basis of growth features, biochemical characteristics, coagulase test and as well as amplification of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes specific to its virulence. S. aureus isolates (n=265) were characterized by Polymerase chain reaction to determine the frequency of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes. From these isolates the amplification of the coagulase (coa) gene yielded three different PCR products approximately 204bp to 490bp while spa (spa-X) gene produced five different products ranging in size from 190bp to 320bp. PCR revealed that from all the coagulase positive S. aureus isolates 261(98.5%) had spa (spa-X) gene. The results of the present study indicated that S. aureus isolates recovered from bovine mastitis were genetically different within and among the various herds which may provide essential and valuable strategies to control staphylococcal infections in future. (author)
Khan, A.; Javed, M. T.; Mahmood, F. [University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Pathology; Hussain, R. [The Islamia Univ. of Bahawalpur, Pakistan (Pakistan). Dept. of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
The present study was undertaken to determine the distribution and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from naturally occurring mastitis in cattle and buffaloes. For this purpose a total of 1445 lactating cattle (653) and buffaloes (792) present at two experimental livestock farms Okara (Bahadarnagar) and Sahiwal (Qadiarabad), in and around district Faisalabad and slaughtered at an abattoir due to low milk yield and were screened for mastitis. California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used to detect sub clinical mastitis. The positive quarter milk samples were collected for culturing of S. aureus isolates. taphylococcus aureus isolates were identified on the basis of growth features, biochemical characteristics, coagulase test and as well as amplification of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes specific to its virulence. S. aureus isolates (n=265) were characterized by Polymerase chain reaction to determine the frequency of coagulase (coa) and spa (spa-X) genes. From these isolates the amplification of the coagulase (coa) gene yielded three different PCR products approximately 204bp to 490bp while spa (spa-X) gene produced five different products ranging in size from 190bp to 320bp. PCR revealed that from all the coagulase positive S. aureus isolates 261(98.5%) had spa (spa-X) gene. The results of the present study indicated that S. aureus isolates recovered from bovine mastitis were genetically different within and among the various herds which may provide essential and valuable strategies to control staphylococcal infections in future. (author)
Nowak, Tonmasz; Szewczyk, Eligia M
The high occurence of coagulase-negative staphylococci among bacteria responsible for hospital infections is unquestioned. Studies on the poorly-known novobiocin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus cohnii were undertaken. The possibilities of optimizing conditions for determination of susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics of this species were researched. In the case of S. cohnii the new cefoxitin test for detection of methicillin resistant strains, introduced by the National Reference Centre for Antibiotics in Poland was found as a good and of credible quality. It was also shown, that application in in vitro examination conditions stimulating the mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, supplies credible results relating to their true susceptibility. The necessity of establishing individual conditions for susceptibility determination in different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci was suggested.
Andrea Pinto Loguercio
Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis.The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (94.4% and Streptococcus sp. (85.2% showed susceptibility to propolis extract.
Full Text Available Given the inappropriate use of antibiotics and prevalence of resistant bacteria, there is urgent need for antibacterial drugs that have fewer side effects than antibiotics. Satureja bachtiarica is a medicinal plant which had many uses in traditional medicine. In this research, the ethanol extract of leave of Satureja bachtiarica is tested on coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, after collecting and drying the plant extract, the ethanolic extract of the plant was extracted by soxhelet method. Then, the antibiotic resistance pattern of coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains to Cefoxitin, Tobramycin, Kanamycin, Amikacin, Gentamicin, was assessed. To evaluate the antibacterial activity, the minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed by using micro dilution broth method.The results of this study showed that the antimicrobial effect of Satureja extract is concentration dependent. The results of the antimicrobial activity of extracts, indicate that alcoholic extract in all dilutions have an antimicrobial effect on the coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains. The results show that coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains have highest resistance against Cefoxitin (0.39 mg/ml and highest sensitivity to Amikacin (0.035 μl/ml. However, in 200 and 100 mg/ml concentrations the extract has higher antibacterial effect. According to the results of this study, ethanol extracts of leave of Satureja bachtiarica had growth inhibitory effect on coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains. Therefore this plant has the potential to be evaluated as an alternative or adjunct to antibiotics to treat coagulase-negative staphylococcus infections.
Full Text Available We report a case of a patient who experienced a catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by Staphylococcus condimenti, which was first isolated from soy sauce mash. This is the first reported case of human infection. Although blood culture isolates and the catheter tip tube did not reveal coagulase or clumping factor, false-positive results were obtained from latex agglutination tests for clumping factor and protein A due to self-agglutination. Care is needed when performing only latex agglutination test without a coagulase test. Further studies are needed to determine the pathogenic potential of S. condimenti based on appropriate identification.
Full Text Available A majority of cochlear implant infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Reported here is a pediatric patient with a cochlear implant infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus that has only recently been determined to be clinically relevant (1988. Unlike other coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, it is more aggressive, carrying a greater potential for tissue destruction. In pediatrics, the organism is uncommon, poorly described, and generally pan-susceptible. Described herein is the presentation and management of this unusual organism in a pediatric setting.
Ungureanu, C.M.; Angoue, O.; Blagosklonov, O.; Boulahdour, H. [CHU Jean-Minjoz, Service de medecine nucleaire, 25 - Besancon (France); Pauchot, J. [CHU Jean-Minjoz, Service de chirurgie orthopedique, traumatologique, plastique et readaptation fonctionnelle, 25 - Besancon (France)
Decreased uptake of ischion osteitis with Sulesomab scintigraphy. We report the case of a 28-year-old man, who underwent surgery for a left gluteal muscle abscess. During the surgery multiple specimens were taken from the abscess and the left ischion. These specimens revealed a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus abscess and a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus ischion osteitis. Bone scintigraphy showed an increased uptake in the ischion, while Sulesomab scintigraphy demonstrated a decreased uptake in the same area. If a decreased uptake of Sulesomab has already been described in bone spine infection, it has not yet been described in extra spinal infectious osteitis, to our knowledge
Howell, J M; Dalsey, W C
The American opossum inflicts bite injuries both when hunted for food and when accidentally provoked when handled in captivity. This study involved aerobically culturing organisms from the mouths of seven wild opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Isolates included streptococci, coagulase-positive and -negative staphylococci, Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter freundii, Eikenella corrodens, and Escherichia coli.
Howell, J M; Dalsey, W C
The American opossum inflicts bite injuries both when hunted for food and when accidentally provoked when handled in captivity. This study involved aerobically culturing organisms from the mouths of seven wild opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Isolates included streptococci, coagulase-positive and -negative staphylococci, Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter freundii, Eikenella corrodens, and Escherichia coli. PMID:2229365
Rajeshkumar J. Tirpude
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteria isolated from different clinical presentations of staphylococcosis in rabbits were examined for the production of various virulence factors using biochemical and immunological tests. In the total of 106 S. aureus isolates; toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, staphylococcal enterotoxin-C, DNase, α-haemolysin, β-haemolysin, δ-haemolysin, protein A and clumping factor were observed with a frequency of 33.2, 16.98, 83.96, 69.81, 36.79, 100, 78.30 and 54.72 percent, respectively. No SE-A, SE-B and SE-D producing isolates were recovered in this study. All the S. aureus isolates from acute staphylococcosis produced TSST-1, SE-C and protein A. While δ–haemolysin and clumping factor were not detected in any acute isolates, these factors were observed at a relatively higher frequency in isolates from sub-acute and sub-clinical staphylococcosis. Coagulase type III was observed more predominantly with a frequency of 45.28%, while coagulase types V and VII were not observed in any isolate. Most of the virulence factors belonged to coagulase type III followed by type VI. TSST-1 and SE-C along with coagulase types III and VI could be correlated with the acute and sub-acute staphylococcal infections in rabbits in this study.
Butin, Marine; Martins-Simões, Patricia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Laurent, Frédéric
A multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone, NRCS-A, has been isolated from neonatal intensive care units in 17 countries throughout the world. S. capitis NRCS-A prevalence is high in some neonatal intensive care units in France. These data highlight the worldwide endemicity and epidemiologic relevance of this multidrug-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci clone.
Indrakova, A.; Mašlaňová, I.; Kováčová, Viera; Doškař, J.; Pantůček, R.
Roč. 71, č. 11 (2016), s. 1195-1203 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : coagulase-negative staphylococci * aureus st398 * maximum-likelihood * genome sequence Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016
Two hundred isolates of Presumed Staphylococcus aureus from routine clinical specimens, collected from two government hospitals in Abha, Saudi Arabia, had their identity verified. We used the tube coagulase test as our gold standard. Twenty (10%) of the isolates were mis-identified. Reliance by the two laboratories on ...
No resistance was detected to linezolid and vancomycin in all isolates. Coagulase negative staphylococci carriage was 87% in all our volunteers and was highest in the HCWs (93%). In conclusion, the study shows the need for a periodic screening of both the community and hospital personnel to adopt strategies for treating ...
Items 301 - 350 of 458 ... F.C. Thomas, O.S. Aduloju, B Okediran, E.S. Ajibola, E.N. Maduagwu. Vol 37, No 3 (2016), Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated from pigs and in-contact humans in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria, Abstract PDF. A.H. Momoh, J. K. P. Kwaga, M. Bello, ...
Sørensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas; Madsen, P.
_170) or 300 d (LASCC_300) after calving, and the mastitis traits were unspecific mastitis (all mastitis treatments, both clinical and subclinical, regardless of the causative pathogen) and mastitis caused by either Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS...
Staphylococcus hyicus demonstrated characteristic bacteriolytic activities towards a Micrococcus luteus reference strain. This lytic activity was demonstrated on medium containing M. luteus cells as large zones of transparency around the culture streak. Smaller zones of transparency were observed with Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and some strains of Staphylococcus aureus but not with other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. The distribution and extent of the...
Fry, Pamela R; Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Suntrup, Douglas G; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C; Middleton, John R
Coagulase-negative staphylococcal species are a common cause of subclinical bovine mastitis, with Staphylococcus chromogenes being one of the most frequently identified species in these cases. The draft genome sequence of an S. chromogenes isolate (MU 970) recovered from the milk of a cow with a chronic intramammary infection is reported here. Copyright © 2014 Fry et al.
Fry, Pamela R.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Suntrup, Douglas G.; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.; Middleton, John R.
Coagulase-negative staphylococcal species are a common cause of subclinical bovine mastitis, with Staphylococcus chromogenes being one of the most frequently identified species in these cases. The draft genome sequence of an S. chromogenes isolate (MU 970) recovered from the milk of a cow with a chronic intramammary infection is reported here.
Fry, Pamela R.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Suntrup, Douglas G.; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.
Coagulase-negative staphylococcal species are a common cause of subclinical bovine mastitis, with Staphylococcus chromogenes being one of the most frequently identified species in these cases. The draft genome sequence of an S. chromogenes isolate (MU 970) recovered from the milk of a cow with a chronic intramammary infection is reported here. PMID:25125652
Boretti, Vanessa Stolf; Corrêa, Renata Nunes; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Gonçalves e Silva, Célia Regina
To evaluate the presence of microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus and Streptococcus on toys in the playroom of a teaching hospital, as well to as analyze the antimicrobial from the isolated strains. Samples were collected from 60 toys, using wet swabs, soon after being used by the children. The samples were inoculated in enriched and selective agar for isolation and later identification of the microorganisms. Antibiogram testing was performed by agar diffusion technique. The genus Staphylococcus was present in 87.0% (52/60) of the toys. Seventythree strains were isolated, with 29.0% (21/73) coagulase-positive and 71.0% (52/73) coagulase-negative. Among the coagulase-negative strains, 90.4% were resistant to penicillin, 65.4% to oxacillin, 28.8% to clarithromycin, 61.5% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. Among the coagulase-positive strains, 76.2% were resistant to penicillin, 23.8% to oxacillin, 23.8% to clarithromycin, 47.6% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. The genus Streptococcus was not detected in any of the evaluated toys. Toys can be contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria with antimicrobial resistance, representing a possible source of nosocomial infection for patients who are already debilitated. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Bruun, B; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Hovgaard, D
of coagulase-negative staphylococci was higher in the latter period while that of Staphylococcus aureus was lower. Of 67 strains of Enterobacteriaceae tested for an aminoglycoside, 6% were found to be resistant, whereas 8% of 48 Enterobacteriaceae strains were found to be cefotaxime resistant. Methicillin...
Piepers, S.; Peeters, K.; Opsomer, G.; Barkema, H.W.; Frankena, K.; Vliegher, de S.
Risk factors for intramammary infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, contagious major pathogens and environmental major pathogens in early lactating heifers were evaluated at the herd, heifer and quarter levels. In total, 764 quarters of 191 dairy heifers in 20 randomly selected
Occurrence of bovine mastitis and isolation of Staphyloccocus species from ... the samples that were positive for CMT were found to be culture positive and out of ... S. aureus and 12.3% (12/97) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS).
Faria, Nuno A; Conceição, Teresa; Miragaia, Maria
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are believed to function as reservoirs, as well as possible sources of staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) to Staphylococcus aureus, but the frequency, preferred partners, and factors promoting SCCmec transfer are not known. Such postulated...
Methods: 507 microorganisms which have been previously identified as S. aureus in 8 States in Southern Nigeria through characteristic morphology on blood agar, Gram staining, growth and fermentation on Mannitol Salt Agar and coagulase formation were collected. All the isolates were identified in this study through ...
Fanny Herrera A.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the incidence of coagulase-positive strains of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus in doble crema (double cream cheese samples produced in Pamplona. Materials and methods. Bacterial isolation was performed following the routine method for coagulase positive Staphylococcus provided by the Colombian Technical Standard 4779, by using Baird Parker medium with confirmation of typical colonies by performing the coagulase test. Detection of genes for principal enterotoxins was done by PCR. Results. The prevalence of coagulase positive Staphylococcus in cheese samples was 31%, with 27% of the samples failing to meet the requirements of the NTC 750. In 24.6% of the studied isolates, genes for enterotoxin production were detected. The presence, in the isolated strains, of genes for SEB, SEA and SED was 18.5%, 4.6% and 3.0%, respectively. Conclusions. The significant presence of enterotoxigenic genes found in the isolates obtained from samples of double cream cheese made in Pamplona, suggests an important hazard to the health of consumers.
Moreover, this study compared the efficacy of the different identification tests with gold standard, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The tests used were tube coagulase, DNase agar test, antibiogram, several routine biochemical identification tests and PCR assays. PCR assay used specific primers for resistance or ID ...
Full Text Available The population dynamics of Staphylococcus spp. was studied during the ripening of Canastra Minas cheese at three farms located in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The presence of coagulase (coa, thermonuclease (nuc, and enterotoxin (sea, seb, sec, and sed genes was investigated in Staphylococcus strains isolated during the 60-day cheese-ripening period. The presence of the staphylococcal enterotoxins A, C, and D was also investigated in the cheese samples. Cheese samples that were matured for 0, 7, 15, 30, and 45 days presented staphylococci counts from 10³ to 10(8cfu/g. All isolates considered coagulase-positive by physiological tests had the coa gene. However, no association was observed between the results obtained with biochemical tests and those obtained by PCR using gene-specific primers for coagulase-negative strains. Coagulase and thermonuclease genes occurred simultaneously in 41.3% of Staphylococcus spp. tested. None of the investigated Staphylococcus strains expressed enterotoxins SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED. Enterotoxins A, C, and D were not detected in any of the cheese samples.
Ulanová, Dana; Novotná, Jitka; Smutná, Yvona; Kameník, Zdeněk; Gažák, Radek; Šulc, Miroslav; Sedmera, Petr; Kadlčík, Stanislav; Plháčková, Kamila; Janata, Jiří
Roč. 54, č. 2 (2010), s. 927-930 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08064; GA AV ČR IAA500200810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI * ERYTHROMYCIN RESISTANCE * SUBSTRATE-SPECIFICITY Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.672, year: 2010
Full Text Available We report a case of pyomyositis of the paraspinal neck muscles caused by two coagulase-negative staphylococci: Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus saccharolyticus. Inflammation in the spermatic cords was an additional feature of this infection. Treatment with six weeks of first-generation cephalosporin therapy resulted in complete clinical and radiological resolution.
would also assist in rationalising antibiotic use, so as to prevent overprescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... deemed to be likely contaminants (coagulase-. negativeStaphylococcus and Bacillus spp.).Blood cultures .... References. 1. Graneto JW. Emergent management of pediatric patients with fever. 30 January 2014.
This thesis will focus on nosocomial transmission and resistance of S. aureus and CoNS. After the general introduction on S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, part II focuses on the nosocomial transmission capacity of different MRSA clones in the hospital setting. In chapter 2 the
Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Karlsmark, Tonny
species present were identified. More than one bacterial species were detected in all the ulcers. The most common bacteria found were Staphylococcus aureus (found in 93.5% of the ulcers), Enterococcus faecalis (71.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (52.2%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (45.7%), Proteus...
Gram staining, catalase test and coagulase test were done on the resulting colonies to further confirm the strains as S. aureus. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by agar disc diffusion method using sterile Mueller- Hinton agar plates before and after treatment with laboratory dilutions of thioridaxine. S. aureus strains 1, ...
Conclusion: The most prevalent bacterial isolate among the blood cultures of patients was Pseudomonas. The patients more than 50 years were more susceptible to blood stream infections. The most bacteria were isolated from the internal medicine department of hospital. The antibiotic resistance was also increasing especially in Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus coagulase negative, Escherichia coil and Klebsiella
Conclusion: By evaluating the infectious agents during the period of the study, it was found that due to the focus on treatment of Gram negative bacteria, Gram positive bacteria especially Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus have at least doubled. This increase in two important nosocomial infections is a next threat of infection and septicemia for burn victims.
A total of 377 samples; raw milk (n = 100), nasal swabs (n=133) and environmental swabs (n = 144) were screened for the presence of S. aureus. California mastitis test (CMT) was used to establish the status of mastitis. Gram staining, oxidase, catalase, DNase, haemolysis and coagulase tests were employed for bacterial ...
while 17 were positive in the tube coagulase test; MALDI TOF mass spectrometry and PCR amplification of the spa gene showed excellent concordance ... been used to study the evolution of the MRSA clones that have emerged since the ... ed into a tube containing horse plasma (SSI, Denmark) and incubated at 370C for 4 ...
Infants, children and the aged are among the groups most vulnerable to microbial infections more so when these microbial agents become resistant to antimicrobials. The antibiotic resistant profile of Staphylococcus aureus and selected coagulase negative staphylococci were determined by standard methods. Of the 178 ...
Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford
Full Text Available Os alimentos são passíveis de contaminação por diferentes agentes etiológicos, podendo levar a doenças manifestadas por ação de microorganismos patogênicos ou suas toxinas. Pesquisou-se a ocorrência de cepas de Staphylococcus, assim como a sua capacidade para produção de enterotoxinas em leite produzido e/ou comercializado no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram isoladas e selecionadas 109 cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e negativa de leite in natura. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi realizada por meio de testes morfológicos e bioquímicos, como: testes de catalase, coagulase, hemólise, DNAse, termonuclease, produção de acetoína (VP e metabolismo de carboidratos (glicose, maltose e manitol. Das 77 cepas coagulase positivas foram identificadas S. aureus (30, S. hyicus (3, S. intermedius (16, S. aureus identificação presuntiva (13 e Estafilococos Coagulase Positiva (SCP (15. Das 32 cepas coagulase negativa foram identificadas S. capitis (2, S. carnosus (1, S. chromogenes (6, S. hyicus (1, S. schleiferi (1 e Estafilococos Coagulase Negativa (SCN (21. Foram selecionadas 43 cepas que apresentaram reações de termonuclease evidentes, para análise de enterotoxinas estafilocócicas, realizada pelo teste imunoenzimático ELISA. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram dez cepas com reação negativa para enterotoxinas: S. aureus (4, S. carnosus (1, S. chromogenes (2, S. hyicus (2 e S. intermedius (1. Entre as cepas enterotoxina positiva, foram encontrados: S. aureus (17, S. chromogenes (2, S. hyicus (1, S. intermedius (8, S. aureus identificado presuntivamente (2, cepas do grupo SCP (1 e as do SCN (2. As espécies que apresentaram maior número de linhagens enterotoxigênicas foram: S. aureus e S. intermedius. Esses resultados podem ser atribuídos à manipulação inadequada do leite e/ou à recontaminação durante o seu armazenamento e distribuição.Foods are susceptible to contamination for different etiological
Sivasailam, Asok; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Kollannur, Justin Davis; Syam, Radhika
Dairy cows affected with subclinical mastitis can be sources of virulent, antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococci to humans because of the excretion of the bacteria through their milk. This study focussed on the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance patterns of Staphylococci isolated from dairy cows in early dry period. Among 96 isolates of Gram positive cocci from 157 cows, 76 were identified as Coagulase Negative Staphylococci and the remaining 20 were Staphylococcus aureus. Typical amplicons of coagulase gene were obtained for all 20 samples of S. aureus with three major coagulase types being identified as giving 627 bp (40%), 910 bp (35%) and 710 bp (25%) long PCR products. The groEL gene was amplified in PCR of all 76 isolates of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci, and incubation of PCR products with restriction enzyme PvuII yielded three distinct PCR-RFLP fragment patterns bearing resemblance to S. chromogenes and S. hyicus. Highest sensitivity of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci was noted for Azithromycin (92.5%) and the least to Tetracyclines (76.3%), whereas for S. aureus, it was Cefoperazone (95%) and Azithromycin (72.2%) respectively. Phenotypic resistance to Oxacillin (25 isolates), and Cefoxitin (11 isolates) was detected by dilution method with a commercial strip (Ezy MICTM). Genotypic resistance to β-Lactam antibiotics was found in 65 (34 with mecA gene and 31 with blaZ gene) isolates. Eighteen isolates possessed both the genes, with the PVL gene for virulence being detected in five of them. Nine isolates which had mecA gene were phenotypically susceptible to oxacillin while phenotypic resistance to oxacillin was observed in seven isolates that did not have either mecA or blaZ gene. This is the first report of persistent Staphylococcal infections possessing PVL gene and high level of genotypic resistance to β-Lactam antibiotics in small- holder dairy cattle from India. PMID:29091956
Joyce Bruna Paiva Silva
Full Text Available Goat’s milk is an excellent food that can guarantee beneficial effects to human health, but its characteristics are easily altered by the action of microorganisms and by manipulation. The present study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of goat milk in 11 farms in the region of Macaíba/RN. Samples of milk and swabs from the hands of milkers, utensils and goat teats were collected and transported in a thermal box (10 ºC – 12 ºC to the Laboratory of Food Engineering of UFRN. The microorganisms studied were the aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic, coagulase positive and negative staphylococci, coliforms at 35 ºC and 45 ºC. Regarding the hands of milkers, 56% presented contamination by aerobic mesophilic bacteria. In the analyzed utensils were found, in 18.2%, coliforms at 45 ºC and coagulase positive staphylococci, as well as coagulase negative staphylococci (63.6% and coliforms at 35 ºC in 27.3% of the samples. For cold raw goat milk, 10% of the samples presented contamination with psychrotrophic and 17% with coliforms at 45 ºC. Regarding goat teats, 52% of the samples had aerobic mesophilic bacteria counts above 103 CFU/ceiling, 61% presented coagulase negative staphylococci and 10% coagulase positive staphylococci, this one of the main agents causing mastitis. Thus, these values indicate that hygienic procedures need to be adopted appropriately in the milking of raw goat milk, requiring guidelines that enable producers to obtain higher quality milk.
Jafari, Maryam; Salari, Samira; Pakshir, Keyvan; Zomorodian, Kamiar
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or vaginal candidiasis is a common fungal infection of the genitals causing inflammation, irritation, itching, and vaginal discharge. Common yeast infections are caused by the yeast species C. albicans. However, there are other species of Candida such as C. dubliniensis which are considered as the causative agents of this infection. Hydrolytic enzymes such as proteinase and coagulase are known as virulence factors. The aim of this study was the molecular confirmation and differentiation of C. dubliniensis among C. albicans strains isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and the evaluation of proteinase and coagulase activities. A total of 100 C. albicans strains isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis referred to Shiraz medical clinics were enrolled in the study. All the isolates were primarily identified by conventional methods. PCR-RFLP method was used for the confirmation and identification of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. Moreover, in vitro proteinase and coagulase activities of these isolates were evaluated using bovine serum albumin media and classical rabbit plasma tube test. As a result, PCR-RFLP identified 100% of the isolates as C. albicans, and no C. dubliniensis could be identified in this study. 84% of the isolates showed proteinase activity, whereas coagulase activity was only detected in 5% of the isolates. This study reveals that C. dubliniensis plays no role in vaginal candidiasis in Iranian patients. Proteinase production could be an essential virulence factor in C. albicans pathogenicity, but coagulase activity has less potential in this matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Dairy cows affected with subclinical mastitis can be sources of virulent, antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococci to humans because of the excretion of the bacteria through their milk. This study focussed on the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance patterns of Staphylococci isolated from dairy cows in early dry period. Among 96 isolates of Gram positive cocci from 157 cows, 76 were identified as Coagulase Negative Staphylococci and the remaining 20 were Staphylococcus aureus. Typical amplicons of coagulase gene were obtained for all 20 samples of S. aureus with three major coagulase types being identified as giving 627 bp (40%, 910 bp (35% and 710 bp (25% long PCR products. The groEL gene was amplified in PCR of all 76 isolates of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci, and incubation of PCR products with restriction enzyme PvuII yielded three distinct PCR-RFLP fragment patterns bearing resemblance to S. chromogenes and S. hyicus. Highest sensitivity of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci was noted for Azithromycin (92.5% and the least to Tetracyclines (76.3%, whereas for S. aureus, it was Cefoperazone (95% and Azithromycin (72.2% respectively. Phenotypic resistance to Oxacillin (25 isolates, and Cefoxitin (11 isolates was detected by dilution method with a commercial strip (Ezy MICTM. Genotypic resistance to β-Lactam antibiotics was found in 65 (34 with mecA gene and 31 with blaZ gene isolates. Eighteen isolates possessed both the genes, with the PVL gene for virulence being detected in five of them. Nine isolates which had mecA gene were phenotypically susceptible to oxacillin while phenotypic resistance to oxacillin was observed in seven isolates that did not have either mecA or blaZ gene. This is the first report of persistent Staphylococcal infections possessing PVL gene and high level of genotypic resistance to β-Lactam antibiotics in small- holder dairy cattle from India.
Etiologia e perfil de sensibilidade de bactérias isoladas de ovelhas com mastite na região nordeste do estado do Pará Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from sheep with mastitis in northeastern Pará, Brazil
Natália da Silva e Silva
Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a etiologia da mastite em ovelhas na região nordeste do Pará, além de estabelecer o perfil de sensibilidade das bactérias isoladas frente a antimicrobianos. Foram examinadas 176 ovelhas da raça Santa Inês, em lactação, mantidas em sistema semi-intensivo, pertencentes a sete propriedades especializadas na criação de ovinos. Foi realizado o exame clínico da glândula mamária, o exame macroscópico da secreção láctea por meio do Teste da Caneca Telada, o California Mastitis Test (CMT, o exame microbiológico do leite e o antibiograma. Das 352 metades mamárias estudadas (176 ovelhas, 21 (5,97% apresentaram mastite clínica, 26 (7,39% apresentaram mastite subclínica e 305 (86,64% metades mamárias foram negativas. A maioria dos animais acometidos pela mastite estava no terço médio da lactação, com menor número de crias e maior número de lactações. Na mastite clínica (MC as bactérias isoladas foram Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo (42,9%; Staphylococcus aureus (9,52%; Streptococcus spp. (4,76% e Escherichia coli (4,76%. As associações observadas foram Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus spp. (4,76%; Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo não hemolítica, Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo hemolítica e Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo pigmento não hemolítica (4,76%. Já na mastite subclínica (MSC, as bactérias isoladas foram Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo (26,9%; Staphylococcus aureus (15,4%; Streptococcus spp. (7,69%; Escherichia coli (7,69% e Citrobacter freundii (11,5%. A associação observada foi Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo não hemolítica e Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo hemolítica (3,85%. Os antimicrobianos com maior eficácia contra os agentes isolados Gram positivos foram penicilina/novobiocina (100%, cefalotina (100% e florfenicol (100% e contra o Citrobacter freundii foram a ampicilina (100% e florfenicol (100%. Já em
Perfil de contaminação por Staphylococcus e suas enterotoxinas e monitorização das condições de higiene em uma linha de produção de queijo de coalho Contamination profile for staphylococci and its enterotoxins and monitorization of the conditions of hygiene in a ‘coalho' cheese production line
Maria de Fatima Borges
Full Text Available Avaliou-se o perfil de contaminação por Staphylococcus e suas enterotoxinas e monitorou-se as condições de higiene em uma linha de produção de queijo de coalho por meio da técnica de bioluminescência (ATP. A população de Staphylococcus sp. variou de This research aimed to evaluate the contamination by staphylococci and its enterotoxins as well as to monitor the conditions of hygiene from a coalho cheese production line, using ATP bioluminescence assay. Staphylococcus sp. population varied from <1CFU mL-1, in pasteurized milk to 1.5 x 107CFU mL-1, in raw milk, whereas coagulase-positive staphylococci count ranged from <1CFU mL-1, in pasteurized milk to 5.0 x 106CFU mL-1 in raw milk. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were detected in 100% (25/25 of the raw milk samples and in 8% (2/25 of cheese samples. Twelve Staphylococcus species were identified within the selected 68 isolates, being nine negative and three positive for coagulase. Raw milk samples showed a high rate of coagulase-positive, being S. aureus the most common, whereas other product samples and equipment surfaces, pieces of furniture, utensils and manipulator gloves samples presented a high frequency of coagulase-negative and low frequency of coagulase-positive. Staphylococcal enterotoxin was detected in 20% of the raw milk samples and therefore in pasteurized milk, curd and cheese. ATP measurement permitted to assess the effectiveness of the surfaces cleaning, being considered adequate in 62.1% (36/95, "alert state" in 23.2% (22/95 and inadequate in 14.7% (14/95 of surfaces evaluated. Detection of staphylococci species with enterotoxigenic potential as well as enterotoxin presence reveal dissemination of contamination at the "coalho" cheese production line, possibly due inappropriate Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP from the initial milking step until the final cheese production.
Iulia Maria BUCUR
Full Text Available Keywords: chromogen, methicillin, MRSA, resistance Introduction: Currently, both in staphylococci isolated from animals with different diseases, as well as in humans, the MRSA strains (Methicillin Resistant S. aureus are monitored, as the methicillin resistance is associated with the resistance to other antibiotic groups. Methicillin resistance is encoded by mec staphylococcal chromosomal cassettes (SCCmec, which are islands of resistance. These strains can be identified by molecular biology tests and tests that reveal several phenotypic characteristics. The research was made in order to characterize and identify phenotypically the MRSA staphylococci strains isolated from animals. Materials and Methods: Researches were made on 240 coagulase positive and coagulase negative strains of staphylococci. Mannitol fermentation was tested on Champan medium, free coagulase was revealed on Baird-Parker medium and to identify S. aureus subsp. aureus was used the chromogenic medium Chromatic Staph. Methicillin-resistant strains were detected by disc diffusion method, using biodiscs with methicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin. Also, to identify the MRSA strains, was used the chromogenic medium Chromatic MRSA. Results: The isolates were positive to mannitol and produced complete haemolysis or were unhaemolytic. A total of 44 strains produced free coagulase on Baird-Parker medium, considered coagulase positive strains, while 196 were coagulase negative strains. The isolates conducted differently to methicillin: 22,08% of strains were resistant, 51,25% of strains were susceptible and 26,66% had intermediate resistance, while the resistant strains to oxacillin were 42,91%. The increased frequency of methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci and, particularly, MRSA strains, determined using the cefoxitin disk diffusion test, which is more reliable than methicillin and oxacillin. On the MRSA chromogenic medium, the methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a qualidade microbiológica do queijo-de-minas artesanal do Serro e a variação da microbiota do queijo recém-fabricado e no último dia de validade, após estocagem sob as condições recomendadas no rótulo. Foram analisadas 40 amostras de queijo, sendo 20 analisadas frescas, imediatamente após a coleta, e 20 no último dia de validade, após estocagem em câmara fria a 10ºC. As amostras foram analisadas para coliformes a 35ºC e 45ºC, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, Salmonella spp. e Listeria monocytogenes. Trinta e sete amostras (92,5% encontraram-se impróprias para o consumo humano, de acordo com os parâmetros estabelecidos pela resolução: RDC ANVISA nº12/01, sendo a principal causa de condenação a contagem de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva. Nenhuma das amostras analisadas apresentou contaminação por Salmonella sp. ou Listeria monocytogenes. As contagens de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva dos queijos frescos foram mais altas (PThe microbiological quality of artisanal minas cheese produced in the region of Serro-MG was evaluated. Cheeses were analyzed fresh and at the end of the shelf life, under specific storage conditions (30 days, 10ºC. Forty samples of minas cheese were analyzed, twenty still fresh, and 20 after storage at 10ºC. The microbiological analyses were counts of fecal and total coliforms, and Staphylococcus coagulase positive; and search of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Twenty-seven samples (92.5% were in disagreement with the Brazilian Standard, Resolution nº 12 of January 12, 2001, from ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency, and Staphylococcus coagulase positive was the major contaminant. No sample was contaminated by Salmonella sp. or Listeria monocytogenes. During the storage, there was a decrease of countings in the population of Staphylococcus coagulase positive (P<0.01.
Fernandes, A P; Perl, T M; Herwaldt, L A
Coagulase-negative staphylococci have become increasingly important causes of infection in predisposed hosts. such as patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy and broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs, patients who have prosthetic devices, or those who have prolonged hospital or intensive care unit stays. However, human infections caused by Staphylococcus cohnii rarely have been reported in the literature. In this report, we review the current literature and describe a 38 year-old immunosuppressed woman who developed catheter-related S. cohnii bacteremia. The case illustrates why microbiology laboratories under certain circumstances should identify coagulase-negative staphylococci to the species level. This information may be critical because it may allow clinicians to identify the source of the infecting organism and to choose appropriate antibiotics. Yet in this era of cost containment many laboratories may decrease costs by decreasing services, including species identification.
Full Text Available Totally, 47 strains of S. aureus and 578 coagulase negative staphylococci were detected in samples from raw ewe milk. The 35 out 47 isolates of S. aureus from ewe milk were positive for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes: sea(4 %, sec (48 % a sed (48 %. Staphylococcus epidermis (33.04%, Staphylococcus caprae (21.28% were more prevalent. Staphylococcus chromogenes (7.44 %, Staphylococcus hominis (7.09%, Staphylococcus xylosus (6,92 %, a Staphylococcus warneri (6.40 % were isolated also in ewes milk. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (3.11 %, Staphylococcus capitis (2.94 %, Staphylococcus simulans (2.08 % and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (1.73 % were isolated very rarely from the taken individual milk ewe samples. Sporadically, only in few cases, the others coagulase negative staphylococci were isolated (Staphylococcus cohnii cohnii, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus closii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus auricularis and Staphylococcus equorum. doi:10.5219/24
Brignardello, Silvana; Sabiu, Rosangela; Tedde, Tiziana; Cocco, Enrica; Pitzalis, Gabriella; Meli, Clara; Cogoni, Maria Paola
During this research 159 samples of ready-to-eat and precooked food were examined for the detection of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes , Escherichia coli , coagulase-positive staphylococci and Enterobacteriaceae , bacterial count. All samples were negative for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes ; although a low count of coagulase-positive staphylococci (no. 5 samples) and E. coli (no. 3) was found. We proceeded with the identification of the isolates on every sample with high, moderate and low-count of Enterobacteriaceae , to better understand the microbial ecology. The Enterobacteriaceae species most frequently detected were Pantoea spp. (29.62%), Enterobacter cloacae (20.37%) and Serratia liquefaciens (12.96%); other different species of Enterobacteriaceae were detected with a ready-to-eat and precooked food, to proceed with the identification of every microorganism.
Sørensen, Lars Peter; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomasen, J.R.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) and QTL affecting somatic cell score (SCS) exhibit pathogen-specific effects on the incidence of mastitis. Bacteriological data on mastitis pathogens were used to investigate...... pathogen specificity of QTL affecting treatments of mastitis in first parity (CM1), second parity (CM2), and third parity (CM3), and QTL affecting SCS. The 5 most common mastitis pathogens in the Danish dairy population were analyzed: Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase...... against coagulase-negative staphylococci and Strep. uberis. Our results show that particular mastitis QTL are highly likely to exhibit pathogen-specificity. However, the results should be interpreted carefully because the results are sensitive to the sampling method and method of analysis. Field data were...
Silvia Maria Rodrigues Querido
Full Text Available Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37ºC. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp.
Novak, Franz Reis; de Almeida, João Aprígio Guerra; de Souza e Silva, Rosana
To study the microbiology of banana peel being sold in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in an attempt to determine the possibility that the peel may represent a source of infection for women who use it to treat nipple fissures. The following microorganisms were studied in 20 banana peel samples: mesophiles, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lipolytic and proteolytic microorganisms, molds and yeasts, lactic bacteria, and coagulase-positive staphylococcus. The microbiological analyses revealed the occurrence of several typical groups of microorganisms, with the following distribution of positive results being detected in banana peel samples: mesophiles, 100%; total coliforms, 20%; coagulase-positive staphylococcus, 25%; molds and yeasts, 30%; proteolytic microorganisms, 70%; lipolytic microorganisms, 30%, and lactic bacteria, 95%. Fecal coliforms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not isolated. The results show the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in levels which could compromise the microbiological quality of the banana peel. Its use for the treatment of nipple fissures can initiate an infectious process.
Fausto Rodrigo Victorino
Full Text Available This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of propolis-based toothpastes used as intracanal medication in endodontic treatment. The propolis-based toothpastes were prepared using an extract established in previous studies (identified as A70D and D70D. Calcium hydroxide paste was used as a control. The bacteria employed were Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Kocuria rhizophila (ATCC 9341, Escherichia coli (ATCC 10538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Enterococcus hirae (ATCC 10541, Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175. Five field strains isolated from saliva were used: Staphylococcus spp. (23.1 - coagulase positive, Staphylococcus spp. (23.5 - coagulase negative, Staphylococcus spp. (26.1 - coagulase positive, Staphylococcus spp. (26.5 - coagulase negative and Staphylococcus epidermidis (6epi. The diffusion-well method on double-layer agar was used in a culture medium of Tryptic Soy Agar. The plates were kept at room temperature for two hours to allow the diffusion of pastes in the culture medium, and then incubated at 35º C for twenty-four hours in aerobiosis and in microaerophilia (S. mutans. After this period, the total diameter of the inhibition halo was measured. The results were analyzed by ANOVA analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey test at pO objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana de formas farmacêuticas a base de própolis para uso no tratamento endodôntico como medicação intracanal. As formulações de própolis, em forma de pastas, foram preparadas a partir de um extrato pré-estabelecido em estudos anteriores e identificadas como A70D e D70D. Como controle, foi utilizado pasta de hidróxido de cálcio. As bactérias utilizadas foram: Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Kocuria rhizophila (ATCC 9341, Escherichia coli (ATCC 10538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853
Marcelo Souza Xavier
Full Text Available A avaliação da contaminação, de estetoscópios utilizados em setores pediátricos de hospital e emergência, mostrou que 87% dos estetoscópios apresentaram diafragmas contaminados. O microrganismo mais freqüentemente isolado foi Staphylococcus coagulase negativo. A resistência aos antibióticos mostra que o estetoscópio deve ser considerado um importante veículo de bactérias resistentes aos antibióticos.Evaluation of the contamination of stethoscopes used in pediatric units of a hospital and emergency service showed that 87% of them presented contaminated diaphragms. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the microorganism most frequently isolated. The resistance to antibiotics indicates that stethoscopes should be considered to be an important vehicle for disseminating bacteria resistant to antibiotics.
Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin
Meadow, W.L.; Schwartz, I.K.
We have determined the time course of radiometric detection of microbial growth in 2348 positive blood culture specimens obtained at Wyler Children's Hospital during a 5-year interval. Overall 72 and 88% of isolates were detected within 48 and 72 hours after sampling, respectively. For pathogenic organisms aerobic detection was generally more rapid and more inclusive than anaerobic detection. At 48 hours of incubation the detection of six potential pathogens (Salmonella sp., Haemophilus influenzae, Group D streptococci, Neisseria meningitidis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Candida sp.) was significantly delayed compared with detection of other pathogenic organisms recovered from blood. At 72 hours of incubation the detection rates remained less than 95% for H. influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., coagulase-negative staphylococci, Group D streptococci and Candida sp. These data should assist clinical decisions regarding duration of antibiotic therapy for the presumptive diagnosis of bacteremia in children
Meadow, W.L.; Schwartz, I.K.
We have determined the time course of radiometric detection of microbial growth in 2348 positive blood culture specimens obtained at Wyler Children's Hospital during a 5-year interval. Overall 72 and 88% of isolates were detected within 48 and 72 hours after sampling, respectively. For pathogenic organisms aerobic detection was generally more rapid and more inclusive than anaerobic detection. At 48 hours of incubation the detection of six potential pathogens (Salmonella sp., Haemophilus influenzae, Group D streptococci, Neisseria meningitidis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Candida sp.) was significantly delayed compared with detection of other pathogenic organisms recovered from blood. At 72 hours of incubation the detection rates remained less than 95% for H. influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., coagulase-negative staphylococci, Group D streptococci and Candida sp. These data should assist clinical decisions regarding duration of antibiotic therapy for the presumptive diagnosis of bacteremia in children.
Mohammed, Jibril; Ziwa, Michael Henry; Hounmanou, Yaovi Mahuton Gildas; Kisanga, Adela; Tuntufye, Huruma Nelwike
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw milk can be transmitted from animals to humans, and in Tanzania raw milk is sold in local markets and consumed as purchased. This study was performed to determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA strains isolated from raw bovine milk sold at local markets in Tanzania. A total of 117 raw milk samples were cultured on Baird-Parker medium to isolate S. aureus and PCR was used for amplification of gltB gene for S. aureus identification and the presence of mecA gene for methicillin-resistant strains. Coagulase-negative (CN) S. aureus were reconfirmed using tube coagulase, DNase, and API Staph tests. MRSA isolates were spa typed whereas antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion method. Forty-six coagulase positives (CP) and two CN S. aureus were identified. Most strains were resistant to penicillin (72%), and 3 isolates: 2 CN S. aureus and 1 coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS), were phenotypically resistant to vancomycin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin and were confirmed to carry mecA. Resistance to clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline was 23.9%, 30.4%, and 41.3%, respectively. Twelve isolates exhibited multidrug resistance; however, only one mecA positive strain among the three was typeable and belonged to spa type t2603. This study reports for the first time the presence of CN variant of MRSA, which was assigned the spa type t2603, and the presence of multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates from bovine milk in Morogoro, Tanzania.
Shahandeh, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid; Sadighian, Farahnaz
Background: Stphylococcus cohnii is an organism of coagulase negative species which is considered as normal flora. However, it has been isolated from urinary tract infections and surgical prostheses but its relation with staghorn stones has not been reported, yet. Case Presentation: A 50-years-old woman presented with left renal staghorn stone in June 2014. She had bilateral staghorn stones 7 years ago. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum were detected from a removed stone. After 7 y...
d'Azevedo,Pedro Alves; Antunes,Ana Lúcia Sousa; Martino,Marinês Dalla Valle; Pignatari,Antonio Carlos Campos
Staphylococcus coagulase negativos tem surgido como importantes agentes em infecções de pacientes hospitalizados. Neste estudo, relatamos o caso de bacteremia associada a cateter venoso central devido a Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus isolado em hemocultura de um paciente do sexo masculino, 53 anos, internado em hospital geral da cidade de São Paulo. Discutimos nesse relato a dificuldade em identificar rotineiramente esse microrganismo no Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica. Staphyloco...
d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves [UNIFESP; Antunes, Ana Lúcia Sousa; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos [UNIFESP
Staphylococcus coagulase negativos tem surgido como importantes agentes em infecções de pacientes hospitalizados. Neste estudo, relatamos o caso de bacteremia associada a cateter venoso central devido a Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus isolado em hemocultura de um paciente do sexo masculino, 53 anos, internado em hospital geral da cidade de São Paulo. Discutimos nesse relato a dificuldade em identificar rotineiramente esse microrganismo no Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica. Staphyloco...
Community-acquired meningitis due to coagulase-negative staphylococci in adults has been rarely reported and generally develops in patients with ventricular shunts or after neurosurgery or neurotrauma. Staphylococcus capitis is a rare cause of adult meningitis. We describe a patient with community-acquired meningitis due to S. capitis, in the absence of traditional risk factors, with atypical presentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Paulo Eduardo Pardo
Full Text Available Foram analisadas 664 amostras de leite de 83 vacas primíparas da raça Holandesa. As amostras foram colhidas no primeiro e no sétimo dia após o parto. Das 664 amostras analisadas, 488 (73,50% foram bacteriologicamente negativas e 176 (26,50%, positivas para microrganismos aeróbios. Foi observado um alto índice de mastite clínica (20,48%. Os agentes isolados com maior freqüência foram os Staphylococcus spp coagulase negativo (64,20%, Staphylococcus spp coagulase positivo (8,52%, Streptococcus spp (7,96%, Actinomyces pyogenes (4,55%, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (3,40% e Escherichia coli (2,84%. Foi observado um maior índice de isolamento de patógenos no primeiro dia (17,62% em relação ao sétimo (8,88%.A total of 664 foremilk samples from 83 Holstein cows were cultured. Quarter samples were collected at parturition and 7 days post the first parturition. From 664 milk samples examined, 488 (73.50% were bacteriologically negative and 176 (26.50% were positive. A high incidence (20.48% of clinical mastitis was observed. The most frequently encountered isolates were coagulase negative staphylococci (64.20%, coagulase positive staphylococci (8.52%, streptococci (7.96%, Actinomyces pyogenes (4.55%, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (3.40% and Escherichia coli (2.84%. The frequency of mastitis pathogen isolation was highest at parturition (17.62% and decreased markedly during the first week (8.88%.
Larsson, Marie C.; Karlsson, Ewa; Woksepp, Hanna; Frolander, Kerstin; Mårtensson, Agneta; Rashed, Foad; Annika, Wistedt; Schön, Thomas; Serrander, Lena
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic tests in order to introduce a diagnostic strategy to identify the most common gram-positive bacteria (pneumococci, enterococci, β-haemolytic streptococci and S. aureus) found in blood cultures within 6 hours after signalling growth. METHODS: The tube coagulase test was optimized and several latex agglutination tests were compared and evaluated before a validation period of 11 months was performed on consecutive positive blood cultur...
Full Text Available Processing of alpine milk in malga farms is carried out under conditions that can favor contamination by coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci, or pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With the aim to improve the hygienic characteristics and safety of cheese produced in four malga farms the use of lyophilized Natural Milk Culture prepared with selected strains was tested. Two cheesemaking tests were carried out in the same day always starting from the same milk: in the first case following the malga recipe that uses either Natural Whey Culture or without the addition of a starter, in the second one using a Natural Milk Culture. Cheesemaking were carried out in four malga farms located in the west area of Trentino region within the same week. For hygienic and safety evaluation, aerobic colony count, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Escherichia coli, staphylococcal toxins, Listeria monocytogenes , and Salmonella spp, pH and aw were determined in raw milk from evening and morning milking, curd in vat, curd after extraction and two months-ripened cheese. Pathogens or toxins, high values of coagulase- positive staphylococci and E. coli were not found in cheese samples. However, in the curd coagulase-positive staphylococci reached values almost of 5 Log CFU/g in the two malga without starter cultures. The use of Natural Milk Culture reduced E. coli counts. In addition, DNA was extracted from cheese samples and from Natural Milk Culture and the composition of the microbial community determined by Next Generation Sequencing method. The determination of cheese microbial communities demonstrated that the use of Natural Milk Culture exerted different effects in the different malga, in any case preserving bacterial biodiversity.
Sivaraman, Umadevi; Subramanian, Pramodhini; Ramakrishnan, Kalaivani; Seetha, K S
Kocuria species were placed previously under the genus Micrococcus, are skin and oropharynx commensals in mammals, including man. A rare bacteria, Kocuria kristinae isolated from a new born with umbilical sepsis. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility was done by Vitek 2 compact system (Biomerieux). The isolate was sensitive to higher antibiotics like vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. As this new pathogen resembles coagulase negative staphylococcus, it should not be misidentified.
Kimura, Masato; Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo
Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 mont...
Piccart , Kristine; Verbeke , Joren; De Visscher , Anneleen; Piepers , Sofie; Haesebrouck , Freddy; De Vliegher , Sarne
International audience; AbstractCoagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The CNS inhabit various ecological habitats, ranging between the environment and the host. In order to obtain a better insight into the host response, an experimental infection was carried out in eight healthy heifers in mid-lactation with three different CNS strains: a Staphylococcus fleurettii strain originating from sawdust bedding, an intramammary Staphylococc...
one (0.9%) was Streptococcus mutans , and one (0.9%) was an unidentified Enterococcus species. Organisms having MIC ≥ 2 μg/mL (as measured by the...coagulase-negative Staphylo- coccus, 13 (12.3%) were Enterococcus faecium, five (4.7%) were Enterococcus faecalis, four (3.8%) were Streptococcus ...pneumoniae, two (1.9%) were Strepto- coccus viridans, two (1.9%) were Streptococcus aga- lactiae, two (1.9%) were nonenterococcal Group D Streptococci
Kathia Brienza Badini
Full Text Available Foram submetidas às contagens de microrganismos mesófilos, Staphylococccus coagulase positiva, e às determinações do número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e de coliformes fecais, 60 amostras de leite cru comercializado clandestinamente nos Municípios de Botucatu e de São Manuel, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram a ocorrência de 41 (68,3% e 50 (83,3% amostras com contagens de microrganismos mesófilos e de coliformes totais, respectivamente, acima dos limites máximos estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Saúde para o leite pasteurizado tipo C. Evidenciaram, ainda, a presença de 30 (50,0% e 11 (18,3% amostras contaminadas por cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e por coliformes fecais, respectivamente. Apenas 5 (8,3% amostras mostraram-se dentro dos referidos padrões legais.Sixty raw milk samples commercialized without due authorization in the counties of Botucatu and S. Manuel, State of S. Paulo (Brazil, were submitted to mesophilic microorganism and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and most probable number of total coliform and fecal coliform counts. Forty-one (68.3% and 50 (83.3% of the samples were found, respectively to contain mesophilic microorganisms and total coliforms above the maximum limits established by the Health Ministry for type C pasteurized milk. Thirty (50.0% and 11 (18.3% of the samples were found, respectively, to the contaminated by coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and fecal coliforms. Only 5 (8.3% samples were found to comply with the required legal standards. The results showed the unsatisfactory hygienic and sanitary conditions of the raw milk and suggest the existence of great risk to the health of the consumers, especially when the product is taken without being boiled.
Zeinhom, Mohamed M A; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Jordan, Kieran
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) can cause mastitis in cattle and, therefore, can be present in milk. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of coagulase positive S. aureus and its enterotoxin genes sea, seb, and sec in isolates recovered from raw milk, feta cheese, and human hand swabs of milk and cheese handlers in Beni-Suef province, Egypt. A total of 100 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of pasteurized-milk feta cheese were collected. In addition, 50 hand swabs from milk handlers and 25 hand swabs from cheese handlers were examined for the presence of coagulase positive S. aureus. The isolates were characterized by multiplex PCR for detection of sea, seb, and sec genes, and for resistance to 5 classes of commonly used antibiotics. Twelve (12/100), 12 (6/50), and 17% (13/75) of milk, cheese, and hand swab samples, respectively, were positive for coagulase positive S. aureus. One isolate was obtained from each positive sample (31 isolates), and none contained genes for SEA or SEC production. Twenty-five percent, 33%, and 31%, respectively, of the isolates contained the genes for SEB, resulting in 3%, 4%, and 5% of samples being positive for toxin producing coagulase positive S. aureus, respectively. At least one isolate was resistant to each of the antibiotics tested. Despite the low potential for SEB production shown, preventative measures, such as maintenance of the cold-chain and good hygienic practices should be implemented to further reduce the potential risk to public health from SEB, and to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Thatcher, A.; Petrovski, K.; Shadbolt, N.; Martin, N.
Mastitis in two herds managed as a comparison between organic and conventional dairy farming systems was monitored for 9 years utilising regular bacterial culture of milk samples, individual and bulk somatic cell counts and observation by farm staff. The most important isolates in pure cultures were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Bacillus spp. Positive cultures were generally not associated with subclinical mastitis. The objective was to dev...
Full Text Available Staphylococcus caprae was originally isolated from goat milk. This uncommon coagulase-negative staphylococcus, usually associated with animals, has only infrequently been detected in human clinical specimens. Its association with acute otitis media has not been demonstrated so far. The study reports the first isolation of S. caprae from the middle ear fluid of a 12-month-old infant with recurrent, bilateral acute otitis media. Biochemical traits and susceptibility pattern of the isolated strain are also presented
Galati, Paula Cristina; Lataro, Renata Cristina; Souza, Vanessa Maciel; de Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira; Chiarello, Paula Garcia
Objective This study aimed to analyze and compare the microbiological profile and vitamin C content of raw and cooked foods destined for neutropenic inpatients. Methods Three vegetables and nine fruits, raw and boiled, washed and sanitized were examined. Heat-tolerant coliforms and coagulase-positive staphylococci were counted and the presence of Salmonella spp was investigated. The vitamin C content was analyzed by a colorimetric reaction. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) s...
Galati, Paula Cristina; Lataro, Renata Cristina; Souza, Vanessa Maciel; Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira de; Chiarello, Paula Garcia
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze and compare the microbiological profile and vitamin C content of raw and cooked foods destined for neutropenic inpatients. METHODS: Three vegetables and nine fruits, raw and boiled, washed and sanitized were examined. Heat-tolerant coliforms and coagulase-positive staphylococci were counted and the presence of Salmonella spp was investigated. The vitamin C content was analyzed by a colorimetric reaction. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)...
Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Ednie, Lois M; Appelbaum, Peter C
The MICs of LBM415, a new peptide diformylase inhibitor, were =0.06 to 4.0 microg/ml for 258 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. LBM415 MICs were similar irrespective of whether the strains were methicillin susceptible or resistant. All strains were also susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid, ranbezolid, daptomycin, oritavancin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. LBM415 at the MIC was bacteriostatic after 24 h.
Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica Staphylococcus epidermidis is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) that often colonizes the skin and mucous membranes of the human body, as part of its normal microflora. However, when a rupture of the cutaneous surface occurs, by any type of trauma or insertion of a medical device, staphylococci can enter the host and become pathogenic. Therefore, S. epidermidis has emerged in recent years as a major nosocomial pathogen associate...
Oliveira, Jana Luíza Toscano Mendes de; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Melo; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; Souza, Evandro Leite de; Trajano, Vinícius Nogueira; Santos, Bernadete Helena Cavalcante
This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare L. and O. majorana L. essential oils on Staphylococcus aureus, S. coagulase negative, Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. isolated from the patients with conjunctivitis. The results showed a prominent inhibitory effect of both the essential oils on all the bacterial strains, noted by the large bacterial growth inhibition zones (15-32mm). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) valu...
Ormerod, L. D.; Gomez, D. S.; Schanzlin, D. J.; Smith, R. E.
In a series of 227 consecutive, non-referred patients with microbial keratitis an analysis of the accumulated hospital records showed that one-third were associated with chronic alcoholism. The diagnosis of alcoholism was usually unsuspected on admission to hospital. The microbial pathogenesis in these patients was distinctive; coagulase-negative staphylococci, alpha- and beta-streptococci, moraxellae, enteric Gram-negative bacilli, and polymicrobial infections were unusually prominent. Pseud...
Full Text Available Context: Under morphogenesis-inducing conditions, Candida spp. begins to undergo yeast-to-hypha switch. This shift from commensal to pathogenic state is dependent on several virulence factors. Aim: To find out whether the isolated Candida spp. were pathogens causing vulvovaginal candidiasis or mere bystanders. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study conducted on 275 symptomatic hospital patients in Tripura between August 2012 and April 2015. Subjects and Methods: Discharge was collected from patients and identified by Grams staining and wet mount test. Culturing was done in Sabouraud dextrose agar followed by speciation. To test for virulence factors, assays for adherence, plasma coagulase, phospholipase, lipase, protease, hemolysin, and biofilm formation were carried out. Statistical Analysis Used: Significance between two groups was compared using one-way analysis of variance along with Tukey test, and Chi-square 2 × 2 contingency table at 95% confidence interval. Results: Fifty-six Candida spp. could be isolated in the study which was used for further virulence tests. One hundred percent of isolates expressed adherence. Among other virulence factors, maximum virulence 25 (45% was shown through protease production. Hemolysin production and biofilm formation were the second most 22 (39% expressed virulence factors. In a comparison of virulence factors between biofilm-forming isolates and planktonic cells, significant difference was seen for plasma coagulase and hemolysin production. Conclusions: All the isolates expressed one or more virulence factors. Adherence was expressed in all isolates but highest number was observed for Candida albicans. Furthermore, C. albicans strain number was highest for protease, hemolysin and coagulase expression and biofilm formation. Candida krusei isolates were the least in number for expressing any of the virulence factors. Significantly higher number of biofilm forming isolates produced
Full Text Available Stapphylococcus sp., is bacteria that caused subclinical mastitis in Ettawa Grade (EG goat. Thepurpose of this study was to determine virulance factor Stapphylococcus sp., which was isolated fromsubclinical mastitis EG goat’s milk in Sleman regency, Yogyakarta. A total of 7 isolate Stapphylococcussp., were isolated from subclinical mastitis EG goat’s milk were determinated by several virulancefactors such as haemolysin, clumping factor, and coagulase. Haemolysin was determinated by culture inblood agar plate and incubated in the temperature of 37°C for 24 hours. Clumping factor wasdeterminated by mixing the rabbit plasma with Stapphylococcus sp., in the glass objects. Coagulase wasdeterminated by mixing the rabbit plasma and broth culture of Stapphylococcus sp. After incubated inthe temperature of 37°C for 24 hours in tube, then the gel formation was observed. Haemolytic type ßwas yielded from 5 isolate Stapphylococcus sp., whereas 2 isolates were not haemolytic. Clumpingfactor and coagulase were produced from 2 isolate Stapphylococcus sp. This study showed that not all ofStapphylococcus sp., isolate causing subclinical mastitis in EG goat have virulance factor.
Full Text Available Context: Staphylococci spp, are enterotoxin-producing zoonotic agents causing a variety of infections such as mastitis in animals and wound bite infections in humans. This review was conducted to determine the prevalence of Staphylococci infections especially to uncover enterotoxin-producing species in Iran. Evidence acquisition: for this review, words of "Staphylococcus", "zoonotic", "prevalence", "animals", "human" and "Iran" were searched in the internet engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Google, Science Direct and so on. Patients with no history of contact with animals were also included in the study for comparison aims. Both veterinary and human coagulase positive isolates were included. Data was analyzed with Graph Pad Prism 6, meta-analysis section. A total of 20 previous studies (450 clinical samples were found. S. intermedius was the predominant isolate identified in veterinary sources. Other coagulase positive spp such as S. hycus and S. simulans were isolated with lower prevalence, but S. delphini has not been detected. Conclusion: S. intermedius was the most isolate identified in veterinary sources with potential of causing infections in humans. Other coagulase positive spp such as S. hycus and S. simulans were isolated with lower prevalence, but S. delphini was not detected.
Boretti, Vanessa Stolf; Corrêa, Renata Nunes; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Silva, Célia Regina Gonçalves e
Objective: To evaluate the presence of microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus and Streptococcus on toys in the playroom of a teaching hospital, as well to as analyze the antimicrobial resistance from isolated strains. Methods: Samples were collected from 60 toys, using wet swabs, soon after being used by the children. The samples were inoculated in enriched and selective agar for isolation and later identification of the microorganisms. Antibiogram testing was performed by agar diffusion technique. Results: The genus Staphylococcus was present in 87.0% (52/60) of the toys. Seventy-three strains were isolated, with 29.0% (21/73) coagulase-positive and 71.0% (52/73) coagulasenegative. Among the coagulase-negative strains, 90.4% were resistant to penicillin, 65.4% to oxacillin, 28.8% to clarithromycin, 61.5% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. Among the coagulase-positive strains, 76.2% were resistant to penicillin, 23.8% to oxacillin, 23.8% to clarithromycin, 47.6% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. The genus Streptococcus was not detected in any of the evaluated toys. Conclusions: Toys can be contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria with antimicrobial resistance, representing a possible source of nosocomial infection for patients who are already debilitated. PMID:25479842
Hettinga, K A; van Valenberg, H J F; Lam, T J G M; van Hooijdonk, A C M
The ability to detect mastitis pathogens based on their volatile metabolites was studied. Milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli were collected. In addition, samples from cows without clinical mastitis and with low somatic cell count (SCC) were collected for comparison. All mastitis samples were examined by using classical microbiological methods, followed by headspace analysis for volatile metabolites. Milk from culture-negative samples contained a lower number and amount of volatile components compared with cows with clinical mastitis. Because of variability between samples within a group, comparisons between pathogens were not sufficient for classification of the samples by univariate statistics. Therefore, an artificial neural network was trained to classify the pathogen in the milk samples based on the bacterial metabolites. The trained network differentiated milk from uninfected and infected quarters very well. When comparing pathogens, Staph. aureus produced a very different pattern of volatile metabolites compared with the other samples. Samples with coagulase-negative staphylococci and E. coli had enough dissimilarity with the other pathogens, making it possible to separate these 2 pathogens from each other and from the other samples. The 2 streptococcus species did not show significant differences between each other but could be identified as a different group from the other pathogens. Five groups can thus be identified based on the volatile bacterial metabolites: Staph. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci (Strep. uberis and Strep. dysgalactiae as one group), E. coli, and uninfected quarters.
Full Text Available Six hundred and thirty clinically-normal milk samples from dairy goat flocks comprising a mixed population of German Alpine, Toggenburg, Saanen and Galla crosses were exam-ined over a 3-month period to determine the prevalence of bacterial organisms. Bacteria were isolated in 28.7 % of the milk samples (181/630 either singly (92.8 % or in combination (7.2 %. The most prevalent bacterial organisms were Staphylococcus spp. (60.3 %, followed by Micrococcus spp. (17.7 %, Acinetobacter spp. (5 %, Actinomyces spp. (5% and Streptococcus spp. (1.1 %. The Staphylococcus spp. were mainly coagulase negative (64.3 %. Coagulase-- negative staphylococci and coagulase-positive staphylococci accounted for 37.5 % and 22.7 % respectively of the total bacteria isolated. The isolation of bacteria, some of which are important in clinical and subclinical mastitis, in apparently normal caprine milk, indicates that particular attention should be given to the management of these dairy goat flocks in order to avoid the development of cases of clinical mastitis.
Frank, Kristi L.; del Pozo, José Luis; Patel, Robin
Staphylococcus lugdunensis has gained recognition as an atypically virulent pathogen with a unique microbiological and clinical profile. S. lugdunensis is coagulase negative due to the lack of production of secreted coagulase, but a membrane-bound form of the enzyme present in some isolates can result in misidentification of the organism as Staphylococcus aureus in the clinical microbiology laboratory. S. lugdunensis is a skin commensal and an infrequent pathogen compared to S. aureus and S. epidermidis, but clinically, infections caused by this organism resemble those caused by S. aureus rather than those caused by other coagulase-negative staphylococci. S. lugdunensis can cause acute and highly destructive cases of native valve endocarditis that often require surgical treatment in addition to antimicrobial therapy. Other types of S. lugdunensis infections include abscess and wound infection, urinary tract infection, and infection of intravascular catheters and other implanted medical devices. S. lugdunensis is generally susceptible to antimicrobial agents and shares CLSI antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints with S. aureus. Virulence factors contributing to this organism's heightened pathogenicity remain largely unknown. Those characterized to date suggest that the organism has the ability to bind to and interact with host cells and to form biofilms on host tissues or prosthetic surfaces. PMID:18202439
Ratnumnoi, Ravee; Keorochana, Narumon; Sontisombat, Chavalit
This study aimed to evaluate the normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity. This was a prospective cross-sectional study. A prospective study was conducted on 120 patients who underwent cataract surgery at the Phramongkutklao Hospital from September 2014 to October 2014. Conjunctival and lid margin swabs were obtained from patients before they underwent cataract surgery. These swabs were used to inoculate blood agar and chocolate agar plates for culturing. After growth of the normal flora, the antibiotic sensitivity method using tobramycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and cefazolin was applied. Normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, along with its antibiotic sensitivity, from patients who underwent cataract surgery was assessed. A total of 120 eyes were included in this study, and bacterial isolation rates were identified. Five bacteria from the lid margin were cultured, namely, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (58.33%), Streptococcus spp. (2.5%), Corynebacterium (1.67%), Micrococcus spp. (1.67%), and Staphylococcus aureus (0.83%). Two bacteria from the conjunctiva were cultured, namely, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (30%) and Streptococcus spp. (0.83%). Results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolated bacteria are sensitive to cefazolin 100%, tobramycin 98.67%, levofloxacin 100%, and moxifloxacin 100%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most common bacteria isolated from conjunctiva and lid margin.
Full Text Available To describe the trends in pathogens and antibacterial resistance of corneal culture isolates in infectious keratitis during a period of 13 years at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center.A Retrospective analysis of bacterial corneal isolates was performed during the months of January 2002 to December 2014 at Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center. Demographics, microbiological data and antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were collected.A total of 943 corneal isolates were analyzed during a 13 year period. A total of 415 positive bacterial cultures and 37 positive fungal cultures were recovered, representing 48% of the total cultures. The Annual incidence was 34.78 ± 6.54 cases. The most common isolate was coagulase-negative staphylococcus (32%, which had a significant decrease in trend throughout the study period (APC = -8.1, p = 0.002. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA appears to have a decrease trend (APC = -31.2, P = 0.5. There was an increase in the resistance trend of coagulase-negative staphylococci to penicillin (APC = 5.0, P = <0.001. None of the pathogens had developed any resistance to Vancomycin. (P = 0.88.Coagulase negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria isolated from patients with keratitis. There was no significant change in the annual incidence of cases of bacterial keratitis seen over the past 13 years. Keratitis caused by MRSA appeared to decrease in contrast to the reported literature.
Rinaldo Aparecido Mota
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the occurrence of the bacteria Staphylococcus in the etiology of bovine mastitis in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil. A total of 1,080 samples were collected from 15 farms located in Zona de Mata, Agreste, and Metropolitan Recife Regions of the State of Pernambuco. Milk samples were spread on an agar base enriched with 5% sheep’s blood and incubated at 37ºC, with readings at 24, 48 and 72 hours. The morphological characteristics of the colonies were used to identify the bacteria, as well as the morphostaining chacteristics, using the Gram technique. Biochemical tests were carried out, such as production of free coagulase, DNase, catalysis, acetonin production test, glucose (anaerobiose and manitol (aerobiose and anaerobiose fermentation. Of the 1,080 samples analyzed, 740 (68.5% were positive upon microbiological examination and 340 (31.5% negative. The Staphylococcus bacteria were isolated in 291 (39.3% of the samples. Of these, 170 (58.4% were classified as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (SCN, 84 (28.9% as Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus and 37(12.7% as coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (SCP. The results of the present study indicated that Staphylococcus spp has a high participation in the epidemiology of bovine mastitis in the region selected and suggests that medium and long-term training take place to prepare specialists to control and prevent contagious mastitis.
Rossini, Fernanda de Paula; de Andrade, Denise; Santos, Lissandra Chaves de Sousa; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Tieppo, Caroline; Watanabe, Evandro
ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the use of peripheral venous catheters based on microbiological analysis of devices (dressing and three-way stopcocks) and thus contribute to the prevention and infection control. Methods: this was a prospective study of microbiological analysis of 30 three-way stopcocks (external surfaces and lumens) and 30 dressing used in maintaining the peripheral venous catheters of hospitalized adult patients. Results: all external surfaces, 40% of lumens, and 86.7% of dressing presented bacterial growth. The main species isolated in the lumen were 50% coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 14.3% Staphylococcus aureus, and 14.3% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fifty nine percent of multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated of the three-way stopcocks, 42% of the lumens, and 44% of the dressing with a predominance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus resistant to methicillin. Besides, 18% gram-negative bacteria with resistance to carbapenems were identified from multidrug-resistant bacteria on the external surfaces of the three-way stopcocks. Conclusion: it is important to emphasize the isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and gram-negative bacteria resistant to methicillin and carbapenems in samples of devices, respectively, which reinforces the importance of nursing care in the maintenance of the biologically safe environment as well as prevention and infection control practices. PMID:28513768
Fernanda de Paula Rossini
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the use of peripheral venous catheters based on microbiological analysis of devices (dressing and three-way stopcocks and thus contribute to the prevention and infection control. Methods: this was a prospective study of microbiological analysis of 30 three-way stopcocks (external surfaces and lumens and 30 dressing used in maintaining the peripheral venous catheters of hospitalized adult patients. Results: all external surfaces, 40% of lumens, and 86.7% of dressing presented bacterial growth. The main species isolated in the lumen were 50% coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 14.3% Staphylococcus aureus, and 14.3% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fifty nine percent of multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated of the three-way stopcocks, 42% of the lumens, and 44% of the dressing with a predominance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus resistant to methicillin. Besides, 18% gram-negative bacteria with resistance to carbapenems were identified from multidrug-resistant bacteria on the external surfaces of the three-way stopcocks. Conclusion: it is important to emphasize the isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and gram-negative bacteria resistant to methicillin and carbapenems in samples of devices, respectively, which reinforces the importance of nursing care in the maintenance of the biologically safe environment as well as prevention and infection control practices.
Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Abu-Khattab, Mohammed; Almaslamani, Eman Abdulrahman; Hassan, Abubaker Ahmed; Mohamed, Shehab Fareed; Elbuzdi, Abdurrahman Ali; Elmaki, Nada Yagoub; Anand, Deshmukh; Sanjay, Doiphode
Bacterial meningitis is a common medical condition in Qatar. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of bacterial meningitis, the frequency of each pathogen, and its sensitivity to antibiotics and risk factors for death. This retrospective study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013. We identified 117 episodes of acute bacterial meningitis in 110 patients. Their mean age was 26.4 ± 22.3 years (range: 2-74) and 81 (69.2%) of them were male patients. Fifty-nine episodes (50.4%) were community-acquired infection and fever was the most frequent symptom (94%), whereas neurosurgery is the most common underlying condition. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common causative agent, of which 95% were oxacillin-resistant, while 63.3% of Acinetobacter spp. showed resistance to meropenem. The in-hospital mortality was 14 (12%). Only the presence of underlying diseases, hypotension, and inappropriate treatment were found to be independent predictors of mortality. Acute bacterial meningitis predominantly affected adults and coagulase-negative staphylococci species were the common causative agent in Qatar with majority of infections occurring nosocomially. More than 90% of all implicated coagulase-negative staphylococci strains were oxacillin-resistant.
Fahmi Yousef Khan
Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Bacterial meningitis is a common medical condition in Qatar. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of bacterial meningitis, the frequency of each pathogen, and its sensitivity to antibiotics and risk factors for death. Patients and Methods. This retrospective study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013. Results. We identified 117 episodes of acute bacterial meningitis in 110 patients. Their mean age was 26.4±22.3 years (range: 2–74 and 81 (69.2% of them were male patients. Fifty-nine episodes (50.4% were community-acquired infection and fever was the most frequent symptom (94%, whereas neurosurgery is the most common underlying condition. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common causative agent, of which 95% were oxacillin-resistant, while 63.3% of Acinetobacter spp. showed resistance to meropenem. The in-hospital mortality was 14 (12%. Only the presence of underlying diseases, hypotension, and inappropriate treatment were found to be independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion. Acute bacterial meningitis predominantly affected adults and coagulase-negative staphylococci species were the common causative agent in Qatar with majority of infections occurring nosocomially. More than 90% of all implicated coagulase-negative staphylococci strains were oxacillin-resistant.
Hussain, Muzaffar; von Eiff, Christof; Sinha, Bhanu; Joost, Insa; Herrmann, Mathias; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten
The cell surface-associated extracellular adherence protein (Eap) mediates adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to host extracellular matrix components and inhibits inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis. A well-characterized collection of S. aureus and non-S. aureus staphylococcal isolates (n = 813) was tested for the presence of the Eap-encoding gene (eap) by PCR to investigate the use of the eap gene as a specific diagnostic tool for identification of S. aureus. Whereas all 597 S. aureus isolates were eap positive, this gene was not detectable in 216 non-S. aureus staphylococcal isolates comprising 47 different species and subspecies of coagulase-negative staphylococci and non-S. aureus coagulase-positive or coagulase-variable staphylococci. Furthermore, non-S. aureus isolates did not express Eap homologs, as verified on the transcriptional and protein levels. Based on these data, the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed PCR targeting the eap gene were both 100%. Thus, the unique occurrence of Eap in S. aureus offers a promising tool particularly suitable for molecular diagnostics of this pathogen.
Rota, Ada; Milani, Chiara; Drigo, Ilenia; Drigo, Michele; Corrò, Michela
The overuse of antimicrobials can select resistant bacteria strains; staphylococci have the ability to become resistant to all beta-lactam antimicrobials and are a significant concern in human medicine and a growing issue for veterinary medicine. Because antimicrobials are sometimes incorrectly used in breeding kennels, the objective of the work was to assess the occurrence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci in breeding dogs. The research was carried out in 13 kennels that were allotted to three categories according to the intensity of antimicrobial use. Vaginal and milk swabs were taken from 87 healthy bitches around parturition and also from multiple organs of 27 of their pups that died within the first 2 weeks. Standard bacteriological examinations were carried out and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified. All the coagulase-positive staphylococci resulted to be Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Susceptibility to oxacillin and the presence of the mecA gene were tested. Nine out of 89 strains (six isolated from the bitches' milk and three from dead puppies, all belonging to kennels characterized by an excessive use of antimicrobials) were multidrug-resistant, methicillin-resistant and mecA positive. Our results confirm that excessive use of antimicrobials entails the risk of selecting resistant staphylococci strains. Our data also indicate that the bacterial flora of healthy dogs belonging to specific populations may act as a reservoir of resistance genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
N S Ozen
Full Text Available Purpose: Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci is very important in blood stream infections. Identification of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS from blood cultures takes generally 18-24 h after positive signaling on continuously monitored automated blood culture system. In this study, we evaluated the performance of tube coagulase test (TCT, slide agglutination test (Dry Spot Staphytect Plus, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and LightCycler Staphylococcus MGrade kit directly from blood culture bottles to achieve rapid identification of S. aureus by using the BACTEC 9240 blood culture system. Materials and Methods: A total of 129 BACTEC 9240 bottles growing gram-positive cocci suggesting Staphylococci were tested directly from blood culture broths (BCBs with TCT, Dry Spot Staphytect Plus, conventional PCR and LightCycler Staphylococcus MGrade kit for rapid identification of S. aureus. Results: The sensitivities of the tests were 99, 68, 99 and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggested that 2 h TCT was found to be simple and inexpensive method for the rapid identification of S. aureus directly from positive blood cultures.
Ozen, N S; Ogunc, D; Mutlu, D; Ongut, G; Baysan, B O; Gunseren, F
Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from coagulase-negative staphylococci is very important in blood stream infections. Identification of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from blood cultures takes generally 18-24 h after positive signaling on continuously monitored automated blood culture system. In this study, we evaluated the performance of tube coagulase test (TCT), slide agglutination test (Dry Spot Staphytect Plus), conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and LightCycler Staphylococcus MGrade kit directly from blood culture bottles to achieve rapid identification of S. aureus by using the BACTEC 9240 blood culture system. A total of 129 BACTEC 9240 bottles growing gram-positive cocci suggesting Staphylococci were tested directly from blood culture broths (BCBs) with TCT, Dry Spot Staphytect Plus, conventional PCR and LightCycler Staphylococcus MGrade kit for rapid identification of S. aureus. The sensitivities of the tests were 99, 68, 99 and 100%, respectively. Our results suggested that 2 h TCT was found to be simple and inexpensive method for the rapid identification of S. aureus directly from positive blood cultures.
Gelasakis, A I; Angelidis, A S; Giannakou, R; Filioussis, G; Kalamaki, M S; Arsenos, G
The objectives of this study were (1) to record the major pathogens associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM), (2) to calculate their incidence during the milking period, and (3) to estimate the effect of SCM on daily milk yield (DMY) for goats reared under low-input management schemes. Dairy goats (n=590) of Skopelos and indigenous Greek breeds from 4 herds were randomly selected for the study. The study included monthly monitoring, milk yield recording, and bacteriological analyses of milk of individual goats during the course of 2 successive milking periods. Incidence and cumulative incidence were calculated for SCM cases. Moreover, 2 mixed linear regression models were built to assess the effects of (1) SCM and (2) different pathogens isolated from SCM cases, on DMY. The estimated incidence and cumulative incidence of SCM for the first and the second year of the study were 69.5 and 96.4 new cases of SCM/1,000 goat-months, and 24.1 and 31.7%, respectively. A total of 755 milk samples were subjected to microbiological examination, resulting in 661 positive cultures. Coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 50.2 and 34.5% of the positive cultures, respectively. The incidence of infections (new infections per 1,000 goat-months) for the first and the second year of the study were 34 and 53 for coagulase-negative staphylococci, 23 and 28 for coagulase-positive staphylococci, 3 and 5 for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp., and 5.5 and 9.1 for gram-negative bacteria. Goats with SCM had lower DMY when compared with goats without SCM (ca. 47g/d, corresponding to a 5.7% decrease in DMY). In particular, goats with SCM due to coagulase-positive staphylococci infection produced approximately 80g/d less milk (a reduction of ca. 9.7%) compared with uninfected ones, whereas SCM due to gram-negative bacteria resulted in approximately 15% reduction in DMY. Investigating the epidemiology of SCM and its effects on production traits is critical for
Kits para aerossol em um serviço de saúde: uma análise microbiológica após reprocessamento Kits para aerosol en un servicio de salud: un análisis microbiológico post procesamiento Aerosol kits in a health service: a post-processing microbiologic analysis
Patrícia Staciarini Anders
Full Text Available Kits para aerossol são artigos utilizados na terapêutica de afecções do trato respiratório e requerem no mínimo desinfecção de nível intermediário para reuso. Os objetivos deste estudo foram verificar uma possível contaminação microbiana em kits para aerossol pós-reprocessamento e identificar os microrganismos isolados. Estudo transversal, experimental realizado na unidade pediátrica de um hospital em Goiânia-GO. Coletaram-se amostras de três segmentos (máscara, copo, interior da extensão de 15 kits previamente desinfetados, que foram semeadas em diferentes meios de culturas e os microrganismos isolados foram identificados por provas bioquímicas. Dos 15 kits analisados, 13 copos, nove extensões e 13 máscaras estavam contaminados. Isolou-se no total 101 UFC, 39 provindos dos copos, 20 das extensões e 42 das máscaras. Dentre os patógenos isolados destaca-se: Staphylococcus coagulase positivo, Staphylococcus coagulase negativo, Bastonetes Gram negativo fermentadores, Bastonetes Gram negativo não fermentadores, micrococose leveduras. A detecção microbiana indica prováveis falhas no reprocessamento desses artigos.Kits para aerosol son artículos utilizados en la terapéutica de afecciones del tracto respiratorio y requieren en lo mínimo desinfección a nivel intermediario para volver a ser usado. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron verificar una posible contaminación microbiológica en kits para aerosol post-reprocesamiento e identificar los microorganismos aislados. Se trata de un estudio transversal, experimental realizado en la unidad pediátrica de un hospital en Goiânia-GO. Se recolectaron muestras de tres segmentos (máscara, vaso, interior de la extensión de 15 kits previamente desinfectados, que fueron sembradas en diferentes medios de cultivo y los microorganismos aislados fueron identificados por pruebas bioquímicas. De los 15 kits analizados, 13 vasos, nueve extensiones y 13 máscaras estaban contaminados
Aline Silveira Moriyama
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Contact lens-associated microbial keratitis is a severe condition with sight-threatening potential and increasing incidence. Information regarding the etiological agents is essential in guiding management and may vary geographically. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological results of corneal scrapings collected from patients presenting with contact lens-associated microbial keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the records of all patients who were clinically diagnosed with contact lens-associated microbial keratitis and had corneal scrapings sent to the Laboratory of Ocular Microbiology, UNIFESP/EPM during a 5-year period from January 2002 to December 2007. RESULTS: The etiological agent was identified in 239 patients. Bacterial isolates accounted for 166 (69.46% cases, Acanthamoeba for 95 (39.75% cases and fungi for 4 (1.67% cases. Among the bacterial infections, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was demonstrated in 74 cases, while Pseudomonas spp was found in 32 patients. All coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Resistance to gentamicin was documented in a single case of Pseudomonas. Fourth-generation flouoroquinolone resistance was not observed among Pseudomonas cases. CONCLUSION: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most frequent isolate, and such data must be considered when determining empiric treatment. Second-generation fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and fourth-generation fluoroquinolones moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin showed a good antibacterial profile and therefore could be good options for initial management.OBJETIVO: A ceratite microbiana associada ao uso de lente de contato é uma condição clínica grave, com risco de perda visual e cuja incidência vem aumentando progressivamente. Os principais agentes etiológicos podem variar geograficamente e informações referentes aos agentes causais são essenciais para
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Staphylococcus species in bloodstream infections and to assess their susceptibility to methicillin. Material and Methods: Between January 1st 2008 - December 31st 2010, 7424 blood culture sets were submitted to the Laboratory Department of the Hospital for Clinical Infectious Diseases in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The blood cultures were performed using BacT/Alert until January 2010 and BacT/Alert 3D automated system (bioMérieux after that date. The blood culture bottles were incubated at 37°C in a continuously monitoring system for up to 7 days. The strain identifications were performed by conventional methods, ApiStaph galleries and Vitek 2 Compact system. Susceptibility to methicillin was determined by disk diffusion method with cefoxitin disk and by using Vitek 2 Compact system. Results: From the total number of performed blood cultures, 568 were positive with Staphylococcus species. From 168 bacteriemic episodes 103 were with Staphylococcus aureus. Among 65 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated species (34, followed by Staphylococcus hominis (15, Staphylococcus haemolyticus (8, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (3, Staphylococcus cohnii (1, Staphylococcus auricularis (1, and 3 strains that were not identified at species level. Methicillin resistance was encountered in 53.40% of Staphylococcus aureus strains and in 80% of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusions: An important percentage of blood cultures were contaminated with Staphylococcus species. The main species identified in true bacteriemia cases were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The percentage of methicillin-resistance, proved to be high not only for coagulase-negative staphylococci but also for Staphylococcus aureus.
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB antimicrobial agents are used in the treatment of staphylococcal infections. They prevent the microbial protein synthesis system through binding to 23 S rRNA. The aim of this study was to apply molecular methods to detect inducible clindamycin resistance genes among staphylococcal strains isolated from clinical specimens. Methods : Two hundred staphylococcus strains were isolated from nose and throat swabs of patients in Toohid and Besat hospitals in Sanandaj . Antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolates were determined using disc diffusion method, agar screen test and D-Test. A multiplex PCR was performed using primers specific for erm (A, B, C, TR genes. Results: Out of 200 isolates, 18.5 % were MRSA and 32% were MRCNS (methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci. Of 80 erythromycin resistant isolates, 48 were coagulase negative and 32 were S. aureus. Among the 48 coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS isolates, 11.63% expressed the MLSB-inducible phenotypes. Using PCR, the frequency of different genes in the collection of isolates were as follows: ermA 5.41 % , erm B 5.41 % , and erm C 3.13%. The ermTR gene was negative in all isolates. Among the 32 S. aureus isolates, 9.38% expressed the MLSB-nducible phenotype. Using PCR, these isolates harbored erm A (2.22%, ermB (2.22%, ermC (2.22% and ermTR (2.22% . Conclusion: This is the first study to show the rate of inducible clindamycin clinical isolates of staphylococci harboring erm genes in Sananadaj. It also demonstrated the frequency of erm genes was higher among CONS isolates than S. aureus. This data suggested the transfer of resistance gene from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains is likely to happen. Therefore, screening and control of these resistance genes is recommended at clinical laboratories.
Wedley, Amy L; Dawson, Susan; Maddox, Thomas W; Coyne, Karen P; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Clegg, Peter; Jamrozy, Dorota; Fielder, Mark D; Donovan, David; Nuttall, Tim; Williams, Nicola J
This study investigated the prevalence of nasal carriage of staphylococci in dogs and determined the characteristics of the isolates. A total of 724 dogs from 87 veterinary practices across the mainland UK were screened for carriage of Staphylococcus spp. All isolates were examined for meticillin resistance (MR) and the presence of the mecA gene investigated in those isolates showing resistance. All coagulase-positive staphylococci and MR coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Spa typing and DNA microarray analysis of resistance and virulence genes was carried out on all MR S. aureus (MRSA) and a subset of meticillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Staphylococci were isolated from 399 (55.1%) of the dogs; only seven (1%) carried MRSA, all of which were identified as the dominant UK healthcare-associated strain (EMRSA-15, ST22). MSSA was identified in 47 (6.5%) dogs, the sequence types of which have been suggested as precursors to successful MRSA clones. Forty (5.5%) dogs carried MRCoNS, while no dogs carried MR S. pseudintermedius, although this is increasingly reported in mainland Europe. Resistance to antimicrobials among the isolates varied between species, with multidrug resistance (MDR) in 87.5% of MRCoNS and 21.8% of coagulase positive staphylococci. Microarray analysis of MRSA and a subset of MSSA isolates identified numerous virulence genes associated with pathogenesis, which are commonly identified in isolates of human origin. However, no isolates carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. This study suggests that MRSA carriage is low in the vet visiting dog population, but there is a diverse range of virulence and resistance determinants in canine S. aureus and MRCoNS isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mehdi Rashki Ghalehnoo
Full Text Available Background: During the last decade, the prevalence of insect borne diseases due to contaminated food as well as the outbreaks of diseases due to enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus (ETSA strains has increased. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate, enterotoxigenecity, and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolated from M. domestica collected from the residential areas of nine districts broiler farms in Zabol, Iran. Materials and Methods: The flies were captured with a sterile nylon net and washed twice with distilled water. The contents were streaked onto selective media and S. aureus was identified using the conventional biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using CLSI guideline. Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs, SEA, SEB, SEC and SED, was detected by the reverse passive latex agglutination (PRLA method. Coagulase typing was performed with coagulase typing kit. Results: A total of 87 (17% S. aureus was isolated from 450 samples. The ability to synthesize staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs was determined in 62 of 87 (71% isolates. SE type B was the most common enterotoxin found in the isolated S. aureus (45%, followed by SE type A (26%, SE type C (5%, SE type D (8%, SEA + SEC (7% and SEA + SEB (7%. Among the antibiotic tested, Penicillin was the most resistant antibiotic tested. Sixty seven percent of isolates belonged to coagulase type III, VI, VII, VIII, IV, and V. Conclusions: Our results suggest that S. aureus, including ETSA, is being carried by house flies such as M. domestica and may contribute to the spread of pathogenic isolates, with an impact on public health.
Wong, T L; Whyte, R J; Graham, C G; Saunders, D; Schumacher, J; Hudson, J A
To obtain preliminary data on the microbiology and hurdles to pathogen growth in the traditional Pacific Island food, povi masima, which is essentially beef brisket cured in brine. Six containers of povi masima were prepared and two were inoculated with five enterotoxigenic strains of Staphyloccocus aureus. The povi masima were divided into two lots each containing two uninoculated control and an inoculated container. Lot 1 was incubated at room temperature (20 degrees C) and lot 2 under refrigeration (4-5 degrees C) for up to 98 days. During storage, samples were removed and tested for aerobic plate count, coagulase-producing Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, staphylococcal enterotoxin and various chemical parameters of the food. Coagulase-producing Staphylococci and aerobic plate counts grew to high levels in both the inoculated and uninoculated lots stored at room temperature, but enterotoxin was only detected at one time point in these lots and this may represent a false positive result. The concentration of NaCl in the meat increased with time as concentrations equilibrated, and nitrite was rapidly lost in those lots stored at room temperature. Storage at 4-5 degrees C prevented proliferation of coagulase-producing Staphylococci. For safe curing and storage, this food should be kept under refrigeration as this prevented growth of staphylococci. Optimum storage would also be achieved with improved attempts to ensure equal distribution of NaCl prior to storage. Under conditions traditionally used to cure and store this food, enterotoxigenic staphylococci can grow to numbers where toxigenesis might occur, especially during the early stages of curing where the salt has not diffused from the brine into the meat.
Vanessa Stolf Boretti
Full Text Available Objetivo: Observar a presença de microrganismos dos gêneros Staphylococcus e Streptococcus em brinquedos de uma brinquedoteca de unidade pediátrica hospitalar, bem como analisar o perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos das cepas isoladas. Métodos: Foram realizadas coletas de 60 brinquedos, utilizando swab umedecido em solução fisiológica, logo após a utilização pelas crianças. As amostras coletadas foram semeadas em meios de cultura para proporcionar o isolamento dos microrganismos e posterior identificação. Foi realizado o antibiograma para todas as bactérias identificadas, com a técnica de difusão em agar. Resultados: O gênero Staphylococcus estava presente em 87% (52/60 dos brinquedos analisados. Foram isoladas 73 cepas, sendo 29% (21/73 de Staphylococcus coagulasepositiva e 71% (52/73 de Staphylococcus coagulase-negativa. Neste estudo, 90,4% das cepas coagulase-negativas apresentaram resistência à penicilina, 65,4% à oxacilina, 28,8% à claritromicina, 61,5% à clindamicina e nenhuma à vancomicina. Das cepas coagulase-positivas, 76,2% apresentaram resistência à penicilina, 23,8% à oxacilina, 23,8% à claritromicina, 47,6% à clindamicina e nenhuma à vancomicina. Não foram detectadas bactérias do gênero Streptoccocus nos brinquedos estudados. Conclusões: Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os brinquedos podem apresentar contaminação por bactérias potencialmente patogênicas com resistência aos antimicrobianos, representando uma possível fonte de infecção nosocomial para pacientes que normalmente já se encontram debilitados.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. carriage among hospital personnel and hospital environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance. A total of 205 samples from hospital personnel and environment were collected from casualty, oncology and multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal. Samples were collected using sterile cotton wool swabs and inoculated into brain heart infusion broth. Subcultures were done onto blood agar and MacConkey′s agar. Isolates were identified by standard methods up to species level. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to standardized disc diffusion Kirby-Bauer method. Each of the isolates was screened for methicillin resistance using oxacillin disc on Mueller Hinton agar plate followed by MIC for methicillin and cefoxitin susceptibility test by disc diffusion method. Sixty five out of 205 strains (31.7% were Staphylococcus spp. and all of them were coagulase negative. Most of the strains belonged to S.epidermidis 49.23%(32/65 followed by S. saprophyticus 26.15%(17/65. Maximum isolates of S.epidermidis were from anterior nares 28.12%(9/32 strains of S.epidermidis . Highest number of methicillin resistant coagulase negative strains (3/9, 33.33% were isolated from stethoscope of multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward followed by carriers in the anterior nares (2/9, 22.22%. Methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci are prevalent in anterior nares of hospital personnel and in the hospital environment thereby providing a definite source for hospital acquired infection. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and amikacin.
Claudete I. Locatelli
Full Text Available Bacterial isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out in ocular material collected with swab and polimethylmethacrylate (PMMA or silicone intraocular lenses (IOL from forty six patients submitted to cataract surgery. Seventy six isolates and seven different microorganisms were identified. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were the predominant microorganisms isolated from swabs (71.4% of cases, PMMA lenses (81.3% and silicon lenses (77.8%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates revealed high resistance to penicillin G followed by tetracycline, chloramphenicol and aminoglicosides. However, these isolates displayed great susceptibility to vancomycin, cephalothin and ofloxacin. Except for penicillin G, Staphylococcus aureus was very sensitive to the antimicrobial agents including oxacillin. Among Gram-negatives, Proteus mirabilis was prevalent and presented high resistance to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Enterococcus isolates were vancomycin sensitive.A partir de material ocular coletado de 46 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata foram realizados isolamento, identificação e teste de susceptibilidade de microrganismos frente a antimicrobianos, utilizando-se suabes e lentes intraoculares (LIO. Foram obtidos 76 isolados e identificados 7 tipos de microrganismos. Estafilococos coagulase-negativos (CNS foram os microrganismos mais freqüentemente detectados de suabes (71,4% dos casos, lentes de PMMA (81,3% e lentes de silicone (77,8%. Isolados de CNS apresentaram elevada resistência à penicilina G, seguida por tetraciclina, cloranfenicol e aminoglicosídeos. No entanto, estes isolados mostraram grande sensibilidade à vancomicina, cefalotina e ofloxacina. Com exceção da penicilina G, os isolados de Staphylococcus aureus foram bastante sensíveis aos agentes antimicrobianos, incluindo a oxacilina. Entre as gram-negativas, Proteus mirabilis foi a bactéria mais freqüente e também se mostrou
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o papel da água utilizada durante a produção do leite como via de transmissão de Staphylococcus sp., fez-se a contagem de Staphylococcus coagulase negativa e Staphylococcus aureus nas amostras de água das fontes, dos reservatórios e dos estábulos de 30 propriedades leiteiras situadas na região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. As maiores ocorrências de isolamentos (10,0 e 16,6% e os maiores valores médios (4,3×10(4 e 2,5×10(4 de contagens desses microrganismos foram encontrados nas amostras de água dos estábulos utilizada na obtenção de leite. Estes resultados são importantes pois evidenciam a possibilidade de contaminação do leite ou dos animais por cepas patogênicas.With the objective to verify the role of the water in the transmission of Staphylococcus sp., the counting of coagulase negative staphylococci, and Staphylococcus aureus in the water samples of the sources, reservoirs, and stables of 30 dairy farms, located in the Northeast region of the State of São Paulo was carried out. The major occurrence of coagulase negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, 10.0%, and 16.6%, were found in the water used for milking, with the major average of counting of 4.3×10(4 and 2.5×10(4. The results show the risk of water as a vehicle for transmission of mastitis, and the possibility of milk contamination by strains responsible for foodborne diseases.
Full Text Available between 2006 and 2007 881 samples of “malga” (little mountain dairies milk products were analysed to estimate their hygienic characteristics. Several samples showed high counts for Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci, while Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were absent in all of the samples; 0,9% of cheese samples, 4,1% of butter samples and 4,7% of “ricotta” samples were positive for Listeria monocytogenes, so as 14,7% of cheese samples for staphylococcal enterotoxins.
Vimberg, Vladimír; Lenart, Jakub; Janata, Jiří; Balíková Novotná, Gabriela
Roč. 59, č. 6 (2015), s. 3611-3614 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA ČR GPP302/12/P632; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI * ZINC-BINDING DOMAIN * STRESS TOLERANCE Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.415, year: 2015
Full Text Available Abstract Background Kocuria, established by Stackebrandt et al., previously was classified into Micrococcus. Only two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae are reported to be associated as pathogenic and found with catheter-related bacteremia and acute cholecystitis. Case presentation We herein report the first case of brain abscess caused by Kocuria varians, a gram-positive microorganism, in a 52-year-old man. Hematogenous spread is the probable pathogenesis. Conclusions This report presents a case of Kocuria varians brain abscess successfully treated with surgical excision combined with antimicrobial therapy. In addition, Vitek 2 system has been used to identify and differentiate between coagulase-negative staphylococcus.
d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Antunes, Ana Lúcia Sousa; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos
Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus has emerged as an important agent in nosocomial infections. In this study, we report a case of bacteremia associated with a central venous catheter, caused by Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus that was isolated in blood cultures from a 53-year-old male patient who was admitted to a general hospital in the city of São Paulo. We discuss in this report the difficulty in routinely identifying this microorganism in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus is a microorganism found in human skin as part of the normal microbiota, and it can cause serious infections in humans, in some situations.
Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Agersø, Yvonne; Ahrens, Peter
of conventional biochemical testing and 16S rDNA sequencing. The most common species were Staphylococcus aureus (83), Staphylococcus hyicus (11), Staphylococcus xylosus (9) and Staphylococcus cohnii (6). The isolates were susceptible to most antimicrobials tested. A high frequency of S. aureus (30%) was resistant...... to ciprofloxacin. Only six (7%) S. aureus isolates and one Staphylococcus saprophyticus were penicillin resistant. Resistance to sulphamethoxazole was observed among 16 (19%) of S. aureus isolates and two coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS). Twenty (24%) of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to erythromycin...
Mastroianni, A; Coronado, O; Nanetti, A; Manfredi, R; Chiodo, F
Coagulase-negative staphylococci recently have been implicated as a cause of serious infections in immunocompromised individuals. An unusual case of community-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus cohnii in an HIV-infected drug user is described. Results of a study conducted to examine the prevalence of infection due to Staphylococcus cohnii strains and their antibiotic-sensitivity patterns show a low frequency but a high morbidity. These results and a brief review of the literature emphasize the importance of these organisms and other staphylococcal species as emerging opportunistic pathogens in patients with AIDS.
Basaglia, Giancarlo; Moras, Laura; Bearz, Alessandra; Scalone, Simona; Paoli, Paolo De
A coagulase-negative staphylococcal strain was isolated from peripheral blood and central venous catheter blood of a febrile patient with cancer. This isolate, initially classified by a commercial test as Staphylococcus kloosii, was definitively assigned to Staphylococcus cohnii by physiological and molecular tests. The strain lacked virulence factors, such as biofilm production and haemagglutination, and was sensitive to the antibiotics tested. The data suggest that rare micro-organisms with low pathogenic potential can cause severe illness in cancer patients; reference identification is required, however, to describe correctly the epidemiological characteristics and virulence factors of these clinical isolates.
O. A. Kolenchukova
Full Text Available Nasal mucous membrane microbiocenosis Research amongst patients with polypous rhinosinusitis is conducted. Patients with polypous rhinosinusitis (PRS, n = 58 aged from 18 till 64 years and group of control (n = 156. For an microflora assessment of nasal mucous membrane during an exacerbation of a disease carried out crops of microorga nisms on nutrient differential and diagnostic agars. When studying the microflora received from nasal mucous membrane 407 cultures of microorganisms at PRS were revealed. In control group of 174 microorganisms cultures are revealed. Among isolates were established 6 genera of 9 species of bacteria at PRS against 6 genera and 8 species in group of control. Microflora quantitative structure research of nasal mucous membrane at PRS of rather control group considerable prevalence of the microorganisms belonging to the sorts Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, and also to Enterobacteriaceae was revealed. It is also revealed increase S. pneumoniae. When determining specific accessory of the microorganisms relating to the Staphylococcus genera in PRS group concerning control the increase in total number of the strains of S. aureus relating to coagulase-positive and S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis relating to coagulase-negative staphylococcus was established. A big variety the coagulase-negative of Staphylococcus is also revealed: S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. cohnii, S. capitis, S. hyicius and S. xylosus. In control group of such types as S. capitis and S. hyicius it isn’t revealed. Thus at a polypous rhinosinusitis nasal mucous membrane the expressed dysbacteriosis takes place. The analysis of frequency of occurrence of the microorganisms belonging to different childbirth showed that in PRS group bacteria of the sort Streptococcus and this Nesseria, and also S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes were most often allocated concerning control. The frequency prevalence analysis of the gene ra Staphylococcus related
Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção
Full Text Available The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk samples from each teat were collected fortnight in sterile tubes, previously identified, during two months. In each herd 240 samples were obtained, except on the farm A, where an extra collection was done, in a total amount of 300 samples. On the farm A, the sampling was done in a period of transition between the dry and rainy season. On the farm B, samples were collected mostly in the season of high temperatures. On the farm C the collections were made over a period of heat and humidity. On the farm D, on a period of warmer temperatures and reduced rainfall. The isolation and identification of microorganisms were conducted at Laboratory of Milk Quality from Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil. Aliquots of 100 mL of milk were grown on plates with 5% sheep blood agar. After incubation, they were used for the production of catalase and Gram stain. Gram positive and catalase positive samples were classified as Corynebacterium spp. (Coryne.. Gram positive cocci and catalase negative samples were classified as Streptococcus spp. (Strepto.. Milk were then proceeded to coagulase test in rabbit plasma. Gram-positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase-negative were classified as Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (SCN. Gram positive, catalase positive and coagulase positive samples were subsequently subjected to biochemical tests: mannitol salt agar, maltose, trehalose, and acetoin production. Strains that were positive for these tests were
Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or
Rebrošová, K.; Šiler, Martin; Samek, Ota; Růžička, F.; Bernatová, Silvie; Holá, V.; Ježek, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel; Sokolová, J.; Petráš, P.
Roč. 7, NOV (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 14846. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : coagulase-negative staphylococci * Raman spectroscopy * rapid identification Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016
Pereira,Murilo Anderson; Nunes,Márcia Menezes; Nuernberg,Leonardo; Schulz,Denys; Batista,Cleide Rosana Vieira
Oysters are filter feeders able to ingest particles in suspension that may carry pathogenic microorganisms. In this respect, the consumption of raw oysters can cause foodborne diseases in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of Crassostrea gigas oysters cultivated and commercialized in the coastal region of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. The study comprised counts of coliforms at 35ºC and at 45ºC, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci, a...
Franz Reis Novak
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar a microbiota da casca de banana prata, comercializada na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, tentando correlacioná-la com a possibilidade de que seja uma fonte de infecção para a mulher que a utiliza como terapia para fissuras mamilares. MÉTODOS: foram estudados, em 20 amostras de casca de banana, os seguintes microrganismos: mesófilos, coliformes totais, coliformes fecais, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lipolíticos, proteolíticos, bolores e leveduras, bactérias lácticas e estafilococos coagulase-positiva. RESULTADOS: as análises microbiológicas revelaram a ocorrência de diversos grupos clássicos de microrganismos. A distribuição percentual dos resultados positivos nas amostras de casca de banana, em função das contagens, foram: mesófilos, 100%; coliformes totais, 20%; estafilococos coagulase-positiva, 25%; bolores e leveduras, 30%; proteolíticos, 70%; lipolíticos, 30% e bactérias lácticas, 95%. Coliformes fecais e Pseudomonas aeruginosa não foram isolados. CONCLUSÃO: a avaliação conjunta dos resultados revela a presença de microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos em níveis capazes de comprometer a qualidade microbiológica da casca de banana. A sua aplicação sobre fissuras mamilares para o tratamento destas pode favorecer o início de um processo infeccioso.OBJECTIVE: the objective of the present investigation is to study the microbiology of banana peel being sold in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in an attempt to determine the possibility that the peel may represent a source of infection for women who use it to treat nipple fissures. METHODS: the following microorganisms were studied in 20 banana peel samples: mesophiles, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lipolytic and proteolytic microorganisms, molds and yeasts, lactic bacteria, and coagulase-positive staphylococcus. RESULTS: the microbiological analyses revealed the occurrence of
Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Su, Shou-hsin; Cheng, Yu-Hsin; Chou, Yu-lin; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Lieu, Ann-Shung
Kocuria, established by Stackebrandt et al., previously was classified into Micrococcus. Only two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae are reported to be associated as pathogenic and found with catheter-related bacteremia and acute cholecystitis. We herein report the first case of brain abscess caused by Kocuria varians, a gram-positive microorganism, in a 52-year-old man. Hematogenous spread is the probable pathogenesis. This report presents a case of Kocuria varians brain abscess successfully treated with surgical excision combined with antimicrobial therapy. In addition, Vitek 2 system has been used to identify and differentiate between coagulase-negative staphylococcus.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the results of milk samples obtained from South African dairy herds during the period 1996 to April 2007 in order to identify possible trends in isolates of microorganisms and their pathogenicity under field conditions. Milk samples were obtained from 7 of the 9 provinces in South Africa where there are low numbers of dairy cows. Although there is scientific limitation to a country wide survey, such as the variation in herd size, management skills, parity, milk yield, milking frequency and other parameters, the size of this database helps to give a fair indication of general udder health in South Africa. Cytology and routine bacteriology were performed on 379 000 milk samples of lactating cows and bacteriology on 11 946 samples from non-lactating cows. According to the results obtained, mastitis did not decrease in South Africa over the test period. The prevalence of mastitis and teat canal infection was lowest in 2002. Mastitis and teat canal infection increased from 2002 to 2006 from 8.1 % and 24.1 % to 15.4 and 30.0 % respectively. The percentage of mastitogenic pathogens isolated from cows over these years also varied. Previously unknown or almost eradicated mastitogenic pathogens such as αβ haemolytic Staphylococcus aureus which is thought to be of human origin, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus canis were responsible for numerous mastitis outbreaks seen in the test samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria in milk samples from both lactating and dry cows, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Although Staphylococcus aureus remained the principal mastitogenic pathogen in South Africa, owing to its chronic nature and resultant economic losses, most cases of mastitis were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. This finding increases the importance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (formerly described as a
Full Text Available Raw milk at vending machine is surging in popularity amongst consumers of Northern Italy; indeed in Piedmont Region there are more than 100 vending machines. In June 2008 Piedmont Region set out a specific monitoring plan to check the milk quality. From June to December 2008, 113 raw milk samples were collected at vending machines. Samples were analysed for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., coagulase positive staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter. Moreover, 100 samples were analysed for the quantification of aflatoxin M1. 26 samples have been resulted Not Conform for the hygienic criteria and 1 exceeded the aflatoxin M1 limit.
Full Text Available A clinic pathological study was conducted on 50 patients of pemphigus of various types attending skin OPD. Assam Medical College in last two years. There were 20 males and 30 females. Pemphigus vulgaris, the commonest type was seen in 42 patients. Majority of the patients were from 31 to 50 years of age groups and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Pemphigus vulgaris was the most severe variety and secondary bacterial infection was the commonest complication. Bacterial pathogen commonly involved was coagulase positive staphylococcus aureus. Oral mucosal involvement was noted in 39 patients. Cutaneous lesions were seen 4.5 months (average after initiation of oral lesions.
Bay, Lene; Kragh, Kasper N.; Eickhardt, Steffen R.
for culturing from the wounds and adjacent skin, and the wounds including adjacent skin were excised. Tissue sections were stained with peptide nucleic acid (PNA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, counterstained by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and evaluated by confocal laser scanning...... microscopy (CLSM). Results: No bacterial aggregates were detected at day 0. At day 4, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the sole bacteria identified by CLSM/PNA-FISH and culturing. CoNS was isolated from 78% of the wound swabs and 48% of the skin swabs. Bacterial aggregates (5–150 μm) were...
A K Sharma
Full Text Available One hundred patients with moderate to severe pyoderma were treated with oral oxytetracycline. The most common organism isolated were coagulase positive Staph pyogenes and Str betahemolyticus. Of 100 patients; 87 showed a successful therapeutic response. The predictive value of in vitro test for bacterial susceptibility to oxytetracycline (30 mcg disc was 88% for "sensitive" reports but 17% for "resistant" reports.Judged by clinical response the incidence of false sensitive reports was 12% (9/87 but that of false resistant reports was 83 (22/26.
Demir, Feyza; Kuştimur, Semra
The frequency of fungal infections have increased recently in parallel to prolonged survival of patients with chronical infections, common use of the broad-spectrum antibiotics and cytotoxic drugs and surgical interventions. Fungi such as Trichosporon, Fusarium and Geotrichum that were previously evaluated as contaminant/colonization, become important causes of morbidity and mortality especially in neutropenic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of virulence factors such as acid proteinase, phospholipase, esterase, coagulase and hemolytic activity among Trichosporon species. A total of 40 Trichosporon strains, of them 24 (60%) were T.asahii, 6 (15%) were T.inkin and 10 (25%) were the other species (one of each of T.aquatile, T.asteroides, T.coremiiforme, T.cutaneum, T.dermatis, T.faecale, T.japonicum, T.montevideense, T.mucoides, T.ovoides) were included in the study. Identification of the isolates was performed according to microscopic morphology (blastospores, arthrospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae) on corn meal agar media, and carbohydrate assimilation patterns (API ID32C; bioMérieux, France). Secretory acid proteinase, phospholipase and esterase activities of the strains were evaluated by 1% bovine serum albumin containing agar, by egg yolk containing solid medium, and by Tween 80 containing solid medium, respectively. Hemolytic activity of the isolates were evaluated by 5-10% sheep blood Sabouraud dextrose agar. Coagulase enzyme activity was determined by using human and rabbit plasma. In our study, all of the 40 Trichosporon spp. strains were found negative in terms of acid proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activity, however all were positive for esterase enzyme activity. Hemolytic enzyme activity were identified in a total of 15 (37.5%) strains, being "+++" in three strains (2 T.asahii, 1 T.japonicum), and "++" in 12 isolates (9 T.asahii, 1 T.inkin, 1 T.asteroides, 1 T.mentevideense). Although 11 of those 15 positive
Marcus Vinícius Romero Marques
Full Text Available A bumblefoot outbreak with different prognosis according to host species was studied in captive aquatic avian species. Six wood ducks (Aix sponsa, three scarlet-ibis (Eudocimus ruber, two black-swans (Cygnus atratus, five white-faced ducks (Dendrocygna viduata and two roseate spoonbills (Platalea ajaja were kept in a common pen with abrasive pavement pond margin, predisposing to podal skin wear. Incoordination and mortality occurred in the two roseate spoonbils and one black swan. Coagulase-positive penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the synovial fluid and from the liver. All birds sharing the pen presented active or cicatricial foot lesions, indicating a possible challenge to the environmental Staphylococci. However, except for the roseate spoonbill and the black swan, which had fatal disease, for all other species the case did not evolve to a clinically debilitating or fatal disease. The different susceptibility to a fatal Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positive infection is discussed.Este trabalho relata um surto de esparavão em aves aquáticas cativas com prognóstico variado conforme a espécie de ave. Foram examinados um marreco carolina (Aix sponsa, três guarás (íbis vermelha (Eudocimus ruber, dois cisnes negros (Cygnus atratus, cinco marrecas piadeiras (Dendrocygna viduata e dois colhereiros (Platalea ajaja mantidos em recinto comunitário, em cativeiro e em criatório. No recinto, a piscina é margeada por borda de cimento abrasivo que possibilita a abrasão da pele podal. Todas as aves apresentaram erosões da pele na face de apoio dos pés, indicando fator predisponente (erosão similar e possível semelhante desafio infeccioso. Entretanto, incoordenação e mortalidade ocorreram em colhereiros e no cisne negro, mas não nas outras espécies. Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positivo e resistente à penicilina foi isolado do líquido sinovial e do fígado das aves recém-mortas e conservadas em geladeira
Carlos Magno C. Oliveira
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi pesquisar a prevalência e a etiologia da mastite bovina na bacia leiteira do município de Rondon do Pará, bem como avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade e resistência dos agentes isolados frente aos antimicrobianos. Foram avaliadas 237 vacas mestiças de aptidão leiteira, pertencentes a nove propriedades, as quais utilizavam ordenha manual uma vez ao dia e sistema de criação extensivo em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, com fornecimento de sal mineral e água ad libitum. Realizou-se o exame clínico da glândula mamária, o teste da caneca telada e o California Mastitis Test. Dos 935 quartos mamários avaliados, 6,6% apresentaram mastite subclínica, 1,3% mastite clínica e 92,1% foram negativos. As bactérias isoladas na mastite clínica foram Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo (25%, Staphylococcus aureus (16,7%, Streptococcus spp. (8,3% e Corynebacterium spp. (8,3%. Na mastite subclínica foram Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo (32,3%, Staphylococcus aureus (17,7%, Staphylococcus intermedius (1,6%, Streptococcus spp. (4,8%, Corynebacterium spp. (4,8% e Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo/S. aureus (1,6%. Não houve crescimento microbiano em 41,7% das amostras com mastite clínica e 37,1% com mastite subclínica. No antibiograma, 100% dos isolados de Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo, S. aureus, S. intermedius, e Streptococcus spp. foram sensíveis ao sulfazotrim. Por outro lado Corynebacterium spp. foi 100% resistente ao mesmo antimicrobiano. A cefalotina, cefoxitina e gentamicina, apresentaram eficácia frente às bactérias isoladas do gênero Staphylococcus spp., as quais neste trabalho representam a grande maioria dos agentes causadores de mastite. A mastite foi diagnosticada em todos os rebanhos pesquisados, contudo o número de animais acometidos foi considerado baixo; isso provavelmente deve-se à baixa produção de leite dos animais e a permanência do bezerro ao pé após a
Paulo César Moreira
Full Text Available
There is an estimate that the mastitis in dairy herds causes production losses between 5 and 35%, equivalent from 85 to 500 million dollars per year. 231 milk samples from 231 cows on different stages of lactation, with clinic mastitis, from 35 farms of Goiânia, were analyzed in order to map the pathogens implicated in these process and to discover the microorganisms with major prevalence. All the samples had positive growth. The principal agents were Staphylococcus coagulase positive (32.90%, Streptococcus sp. (22.07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12.12%, Enterobacter sp. (10.38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8.65%, Escherichia coli (8.22%, Bacillus sp. (8.22%, Proteus sp. (6.49%, Klebsiella sp. (4.32% and Staphylococcus coagulase negative (3.46%. The Nocardia genus was isolated in 0.86% of the cases.
KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; etiology; isolated microorganisms.
Estima-se que a presença de mastite bovina em rebanhos produtores provoque perdas de produção entre 5 e 35%, o que equivale de 85 a 500 milhões de dólares ao ano. Com o objetivo de mapear os patógenos envolvidos nesse processo e evidenciar os microrganismos com maior freqüência foram examinadas amostras de leite de 231 vacas, em diferentes estágios de lactação, que apresentaram sinais de mastite clínica e eram pertencentes a 35 propriedades rurais da bacia leiteira de Goiânia. Todas as amostras tiveram crescimento bacteriano positivo. Os principais agentes isolados foram o Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (32,90%, Streptococcus sp. (22,07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12,12%, Enterobacter sp. (10,38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8,65%, Escherichia coli (8,22%, Bacillus sp. (8,22%,
Valeska Paula Casanova
Full Text Available Brazil currently ranks as one of the world leaders in food production and exportation. This scenario encourages the development of animal and plant health programs to ensure the production of safe food, helping the country to become an international provider of food for excellence. However, some health problems in dairy production, such as mastitis, have garnered increasing concern. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of bovine mastitis in select properties located in the western Santa Catarina region, to assess the susceptibility profile to antimicrobial agents used for treatment and to check for the presence of genes (icaA and icaD associated with biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. In 148 milk samples collected, 72.97% had bacterial growth (n = 108. Among the isolated microorganisms, 21.62% (n = 32 were classified as Staphylococcus aureus, 18.91% (n = 28 as Staphylococcus sp. coagulase negative, 7.43% (n = 11 as Corynebacterium sp., 6.76% (n = 10 as Staphylococcus sp. coagulase positive, 5.41% (n = 8 as Nocardia sp. and 12.83% (n = 19 classified in different bacterial genera. Among the isolates submitted for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, it was observed that 8.95% (n = 6/67 had resistance to amoxicillin, 8.04% (n = 7/87 to ampicillin, 5.88% (n = 5/85 to cephalothin, 3.40% (n = 3/88 to ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, 20.45% (n = 18/88 to streptomycin, 17.04% (n = 15/88 to gentamicin and lincomycin, 31.81% (n = 28/88 to neomycin, 14.94% (n = 13/87 to penicillin and 25% (n = 22/88 to tetracycline. Staphylococcus sp. coagulase negative isolates showed higher multidrug resistance when compared to those of S. aureus and Staphylococcus sp. coagulase positive. Thirty-one strains of S. aureus isolates were genotypically tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, yielding a positive result for the icaA gene in 83.87% of the samples, 80.64% positive for icaD and 74.19% of these showed both genes. The results reinforce the importance
Abu Shara, K.A.; Ghareeb, M.A.; Zaher, S.; Mobacher, A.; Khalifa, M.Ch.; Saleh, S.Z.
The effect of radiotherapy on oropharyngeal bacterial flora was studied in the hope that this might help in controlling post-operative infections in previously irradiated patients. Eighty patients were included from whom swabs were taken before and at the end of irradiation. Swabs were also taken two weeks after treatment in the last 40 patients. Thirty healthy controls were included. It was found that coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, β-haemolytic streptococci, Candida albicans, B. proteus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were significantly increased at the end of irradiation, while Klebsiella was increased significantly in the period after irradiation. Culture and sensitivity was performed for the organisms isolated in the last 40 patients. (author)
Acute peritonitis remains the most common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) reported to account for more than 25% of peritonitis episodes (1). Staphylococcus capitis is a gram-positive, catalase-positive CoNS that was originally identified as a commensal on the skin of the human scalp (2). Advancement of microbiological technologies for bacterial identification enables diagnosis of previously unknown causes of acute peritonitis. This is the first reported case of acute peritonitis in a PD patient caused by S. capitis. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Avaliação da presença de microrganismos indicadores higiênico-sanitários em alimentos servidos em escolas públicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil Evaluation of the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in food served in public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil
Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema Cardoso
Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar a presença de microrganismos indicadores higiênico-sanitários em amostras de alimentos servidos em escolas públicas de Porto Alegre. Foram analisados todos os alimentos servidos na refeição do turno da visita, quanto à presença de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, Salmonella sp. e Shigella sp. No total de 196 alimentos analisados de 120 escolas, 4 apresentavam contagem de Escherichia coli acima do permitido e dois tinham a presença de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva. Os gêneros Shigella e Salmonella não foram encontrados. Foi observado que a maioria das escolas estudadas servia alimentos dentro de padrões higiênico-sanitários adequados. Foi evidenciado que somente escolas municipais contavam com a orientação de responsável técnico pela alimentação escolar. Das escolas estaduais 60% nunca haviam recebido visita de nutricionista nas quais foram encontrados procedimentos em desacordo com as exigências da legislação. Na maioria das escolas, os alimentos servidos estavam dentro de padrões adequados, porém os problemas detectados demonstram a necessidade da implantação das Boas Práticas no ambiente escolar.The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in samples of food served in public schools in Porto Alegre. All the food served in the meal of the session visited was analyzed for Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. Of the total of 196 food products analyzed in 120 schools, 4 contained and Escherichia coli score above the permitted level, and 2 contained coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Neither Shigella nor Salmonella genus were detected. In the majority of schools studied, it was found that food was of an adequate hygienic-sanitary standard. However, only municipal schools had the supervision of a technician responsible for school food. In the state
Gómez Rodríguez, N; Durán Muñoz, O
In absence of risk factors, osteoarticular infections by coagulase-negative staphylococci are very infrequent. We described the case of a immunocompetent 73-year-old-woman that suffered pyomyositis, left sacroiliitis and spondylodiscitis involving the first and second thoracic vertebrae by Staphylococcus hominis. This multifocal infection occurred five-weeks after intramuscular administration of NSAI for treatment of low back pain associated with a herniated disc L4-L5. This is the first know case of a multifocal muscle skeletal infection by Staphylococcus hominis in a patient immunocompetent.
Viraneide Marques de ALMEIDA
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as condições higiênico-sanitá- rias de amostras de leite humano de um Banco de Leite Humano (BLH na cidade de São Luís - MA, por meio da análise de 50 amostras de Leite Humano (LH in natura. Realizou-se contagem de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas viá- veis, Coliformes a 35ºC e a 45°C, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e Salmonella sp. Realizaram-se no BLH seis vistorias com preenchimento de ficha de avaliação, contendo nove atributos para obtenção de informações sobre as condições higiênicas do local e seus procedimentos. Em nenhuma das amostras de leite foi constatada a presença de Salmonella sp. e Coliformes a 45°C, entretanto foi observada a presença de micro-organismos do grupo Coliformes a 35ºC, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e bactérias aeró- bias mesófilas viáveis. Constatou-se por meio das vistorias que o referido BLH apresentou 92,60% de conformidade aos requisitos higiênico-sanitários analisados.
Isaac-Márquez Angélica Patricia
Full Text Available We investigated the bacterial flora present in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer from the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico using conventional culture methods (11 patients, and an immunocolorimetric detection of pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes (15 patients. Prevalence of bacteria isolated by culture methods was 90.9% (10/11. We cultured, from chiclero's ulcers (60%, pathogenic bacterial such as Staphylococcus aureus (20%, S. pyogenes (1.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.6%, Morganella morganii (1.6%, and opportunist pathogenic bacteria such as Klebsiella spp. (20.0%, Enterobacter spp. (20%, and Enterococcus spp. (20%. We also cultured coagulase-negative staphylococci in 40% (4/10 of the remaining patients. Micrococcus spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci constituted the bacterial genuses more frequently isolated in the normal skin of patients with chiclero's ulcer and healthy individuals used as controls. We also undertook another study to find out the presence of S. pyogenes by an immunocolorimetric assay. This study indicated that 60% (9/15 of the ulcerated lesions, but not normal controls, were contaminated with S. pyogenes. Importantly, individuals with purulent secretion and holding concomitant infections with S. pyogenes, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. morganii, and E. durans took longer to heal Leishmania (L. mexicana infections treated with antimonial drugs. Our results suggest the need to eliminate bacterial purulent infections, by antibiotic treatment, before starting antimonial administration to patients with chiclero's ulcer.
Full Text Available In order to observe the microbiological status of CMT positive samples, 734 apparently health mammary quarters from buffalo cows were submitted to physical evaluation, strip cup test and CMT. After milk samples inoculation in 10% ovine blood agar base media and in MacConkey agar and incubation under aerobic condition for 72 hours at 37oC, identification was proceeded. According to CMT, 227 quarters (30,93% were positive, among them 73 (32,16% presented 1+ reaction, 53 (23,35% were 2+ and 101 (44,49% were 3+. Microbiological exams of such samples were positive in 147 (64,76% out of 227 CMT positive samples and among the remaining 72 (31,72% were negative and 8 (3,52 were contaminated. In the 147 microbiological positive samples 204 bacteria were found in pure or associated growth and the most frequent agents were: Corynebacterium sp (59,25%; Staphylococcus sp (17,65% among which 86,11% were coagulase negative and 13,89% were coagulase positive; and Micrococcus sp (6,37%. The results revealed that, excluding the eight contaminated samples, 147 (67,12% quarters out of 219 CMT positive could be considered as bacteria-carrier and that even in a smaller percentage false-positive results can cause problems in a sanitary program for mastitis control in dairy buffalo cows.
Becker, Karsten; Bierbaum, Gabriele; von Eiff, Christof; Engelmann, Susanne; Götz, Friedrich; Hacker, Jörg; Hecker, Michael; Peters, Georg; Rosenstein, Ralf; Ziebuhr, Wilma
Staphylococcus aureus as well as coagulase-negative staphylococci are medically highly important pathogens characterized by an increasing resistance rate toward many antibiotics. Although normally being skin and mucosa commensals, some staphylococcal species and strains have the capacity to cause a wide range of infectious diseases. Many of these infections affect immunocompromised patients in hospitals. However, community-acquired staphylococcal infections due to resistant strains are also currently on the rise. In the light of this development, there is an urgent need for novel anti-staphylococcal therapeutic and prevention strategies for which a better understanding of the physiology of these bacteria is an essential prerequisite. Within the past years, staphylococci have been in the focus of genomic research, resulting in the determination and publication of a range of full-genome sequences of different staphylococcal species and strains which provided the basis for the design and application of DNA microarrays and other genomic tools. Here we summarize the results of the project group 'Staphylococci' within the research network 'Pathogenomics' giving new insights into the genome structure, molecular epidemiology, physiology, and genetic adaptation of both S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci.
Morgenstern, Christian; Cabric, Sabrina; Perka, Carsten; Trampuz, Andrej; Renz, Nora
Analysis of joint aspirate is the standard preoperative investigation for diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). We compared the diagnostic performance of culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of synovial fluid for diagnosis of PJI. Patients in whom aspiration of the prosthetic hip or knee joint was performed before revision arthroplasty were prospectively included. The performance of synovial fluid culture and multiplex PCR was compared by McNemar's chi-squared test. A total of 142 patients were included, 82 with knee and 60 with hip prosthesis. PJI was diagnosed in 77 patients (54%) and aseptic failure in 65 patients (46%). The sensitivity of synovial fluid culture and PCR was 52% and 60%, respectively, showing concordant results in 116 patients (82%). In patients with PJI, PCR missed 6 high-virulent pathogens (S. aureus, streptococci, E. faecalis, E. coli) which grew in synovial fluid culture, whereas synovial fluid culture missed 12 pathogens detected by multiplex PCR, predominantly low-virulent pathogens (Cutibacterium acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococci). In patients with aseptic failure, PCR detected 6 low-virulent organisms (predominantly C. acnes). While the overall performance of synovial fluid PCR was comparable to culture, PCR was superior for detection of low-virulent bacteria such as Cutibacterium spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci. In addition, synovial fluid culture required several days for growth, whereas multiplex PCR provided results within 5hours in an automated manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pedro Alves d'Azevedo
Full Text Available Staphylococcus coagulase negativos tem surgido como importantes agentes em infecções de pacientes hospitalizados. Neste estudo, relatamos o caso de bacteremia associada a cateter venoso central devido a Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus isolado em hemocultura de um paciente do sexo masculino, 53 anos, internado em hospital geral da cidade de São Paulo. Discutimos nesse relato a dificuldade em identificar rotineiramente esse microrganismo no Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica. Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus é um microrganismo encontrado na pele dos seres humanos como parte da microbiota normal, podendo em algumas situações causar sérias infecções em humanos.Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus has emerged as an important agent in nosocomial infections. In this study, we report a case of bacteremia associated with a central venous catheter, caused by Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus that was isolated in blood cultures from a 53-year-old male patient who was admitted to a general hospital in the city of São Paulo. We discuss in this report the difficulty in routinely identifying this microorganism in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus is a microorganism found in human skin as part of the normal microbiota, and it can cause serious infections in humans, in some situations.
Olowe, S A; Ahmed, I; Lawal, S F; Ransome-Kuti, S
Eighty-seven breast milk samples were obtained from 63 mothers of infants on the neonatal intensive care unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. The samples were cultured for bacteria immediately after collection (0 h) and then stored in a domestic refrigerator from where cultures were repeated at 6-hourly intervals for 24 h. At 0 h, three (3.4%) of the samples were sterile; 56 (64%) grew coagulase negative staphylococci, and one (1.1%) Streptococcus viridans. Thus, 60 (69%) of the samples were either sterile or contained only skin commensals. Twenty-nine (31%) grew potential pathogens--coagulase positive staphylococci in two (2.3%) and mixed growth of staphylococci, coliforms and klebsiella in 25 (28.3%). During the 24 h storage in the refrigerator, bacteria multiplied in 50 and their growth was inhibited in 32 of the samples. But the mean bacterial count at any time during the 24 h was not significantly different from that at the beginning of the storage in the refrigerator. It is proposed that expressed breast milk stored in a domestic refrigerator can be given safely to infants within 24 h of collection if heavy contamination is prevented at the time of collection.
J. M. Mutua
Full Text Available This study was designed to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from the nasal cavity of healthy camels. A total of 255 nasal samples (swabs were collected in Isiolo, Samburu, and Nakuru counties, Kenya, from which 404 bacterial isolates belonging to various genera and species were recovered. The bacterial isolates included Bacillus (39.60%, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (29.95%, Streptococcus species other than Streptococcus agalactiae (25.74%, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (3.96%, and Streptococcus agalactiae (0.74%. Isolates were most susceptible to Gentamicin (95.8%, followed by Tetracycline (90.5%, Kanamycin and Chloramphenicol (each at 85.3%, Sulphamethoxazole (84.2%, Co-trimoxazole (82.1%, Ampicillin (78.9%, and finally Streptomycin (76.8%. This translated to low resistance levels. Multidrug resistance was also reported in 30.5% of the isolates tested. Even though the antibiotic resistance demonstrated in this study is low, the observation is significant, since the few resistant normal flora could be harboring resistance genes which can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria within the animal, to other animals’ bacteria and, most seriously, to human pathogens.
Gabriela Viana da Silva
Full Text Available A produção de leite ovino no Brasil é uma atividade relativamente nova, cuja produção está direcionada para a confecção de queijos, iogurtes e outros derivados. Com isso há uma defict de trabalhos científicos ligados a esta atividade. Considerado um excelente substrato, muitos micro-organismos patogênicos podem ser veiculados ao homem através do consumo de leite e seus derivados, entre eles Staphylococcus spp., um dos principais agentes envolvidos em surtos de intoxicações alimentares. Dentro desta problemática, o presente estudo objetivou identificar as espécies de Staphylococcus isoladas de leite de origem ovina provenientes de propriedades rurais no Agreste Meridional de Pernambuco. Foram identificadas 13 espécies diferentes, sendo três do grupo Staphylococcus coagulase-positivo e 10 de Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo e duas cepas identificadas apenas como SCN, destacando-se por sua frequência Staphylococcus aureus (29 seguida pelo S. chromogenes (15 e S. intermedius (9. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que esta espécie animal é mais uma fonte de infecção e veiculadora, através de seus produtos, de Staphylococcus potencialmente patogênicos para o homem.
Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Boscán-Ocando, Julio; Nava, Jexenia
In order to describe the normal bacterial flora in vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows, 51 healthy multiparous cows, at least 90-day postpartum, were selected. Duplicated swabs (N = 102) were taken from the vaginal fornix of cows to perform aerobic and anaerobic cultures as well as conventional biochemical tests. Out of 102 swabs, bacterial growth was obtained in 55 (53.9%) while the remaining 47 (46.1%) did not exhibited any bacterial growth. Of the 55 bacterial growths, 23 (41.8%) were aerobic whereas 32 (58.1%) were anaerobic. Likewise, 29 (52.72%) of bacterial growths were pure and 26 (47.27%) were mixed. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Gram positive bacteria were predominant (81.82% and 73.08%, respectively) over Gram negative bacteria (18.18% and 26.92%, respectively). Isolated bacteria were Arcanobacterium pyogenes (22.92%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.63%), Staphylococcus coagulase negative (17.71%), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (6.25%), Bacteroides spp. (13.54%), and Peptostreptococcus spp. (7.29%). In conclusion, normal vaginal bacterial flora of Criollo Limonero cows was predominantly Gram positive and included A. pyogenes, S. aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. rhusiopathiae, Bacteroides spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. In Criollo Limonero cattle, adaptive aspects such as development of humoral and physical mechanisms for defense, and bacterial adaptation to host deserve research attention.
Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva
Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.
Pecoraro, Rosaria; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Parrinello, Gaspare; Pinto, Antonio; Licata, Giuseppe
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS). It is a major cause of prosthetic valve endocarditis; mitral valve prolapse (MVP) has emerged as a prominent predisposing structural cardiac abnormality. We describe a case of Staphylococcus lugdunensis endocarditis in an 18-year-old woman with preexisting mitral valve prolapse complaining of fever, a one-month history of continuous-remittent fever (T max 38.6°C). The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed large vegetation on the anterior mitral valve leaflet flopping from the atrial side to the ventricular side. Five sets of blood cultures were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci. During hospitalization, after two weeks of antibiotic therapy, the patient complained of sudden pain in her right leg associated with numbness. Lower limb arterial Doppler ultrasound showed an arterial thrombosis of right common iliac artery. Transfemoral iliac embolectomy was promptly performed and on septic embolus S. lugdunensis with the same antibiotic sensitivity and the same MIC values was again isolated. Our patient underwent cardiac surgery: triangular resection of the A2 with removal of infected tissue including vegetation. Our case is an example of infective endocarditis by S. lugdunensis on native mitral valve in a young woman of 18 with anamnesis valve prolapse. PMID:23424690
Pereira Murilo Anderson
Full Text Available Oysters are filter feeders able to ingest particles in suspension that may carry pathogenic microorganisms. In this respect, the consumption of raw oysters can cause foodborne diseases in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of Crassostrea gigas oysters cultivated and commercialized in the coastal region of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. The study comprised counts of coliforms at 35ºC and at 45ºC, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci, and detection of Salmonella sp, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Ninety samples were analyzed, 45 of them collected at seafood commercial establishments and the other 45 were collected in the cultivation area. All analyses were performed according to methods of the American Public Health Association. Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella sp. were not detected in any of the samples. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were observed in only one sample (80 CFU/g. The counts of coliforms at 35 and 45ºC indicated that samples obtained from both the cultivation area and place of sale were contaminated. E. coli was detected in 4 (9% samples collected in the cultivation area and in 16 (35.5% samples obtained from commercial establishments. These results indicate the need for monitoring the quality of raw oysters, including the implantation of programs for good mollusk manipulation and management practices.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of mastitis-causing bacteria in the dry period and its antibiotic sensitivity. Methods: In this study, 852 dry cows were examined. A total of 30 cows with clinical mastitis symptoms were detected and their milk samples were collected. In order to purify the bacteria, brain heart infusion and blood agar media were applied and single colonies were used for Gram staining, oxidase and catalase testing, cultivating in O-F medium to determine the genus and species of bacteria. Then, antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of isolated bacteria was 2.46%, in which coagulase positive Staphylococcus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast were (9/99%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (3/33%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (9/99% and (6/66%, respectively. After tests of antibiotic susceptibility, the most and the least sensitivity were reported to enrofloxacin and ampicillin respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that Streptococcus dysgalactiae is the most commonly isolated bacteria with the greatest sensitivity to enrofloxacin and tetracycline which can be used to treat mastitis in the dry period in Tabriz.
E. A. GANDRA
Full Text Available
The aim of this work was to compare the use of two phenotypical tests (beta-galactosidase and acriflavine sensitivity and PCR for the coa and nuc gene sequences, for the identification of three species of coagulase positive staphylococcus (CPS: S. aureus, S. intermedius and S. hyicus. Sixty five staphylococcus isolates, previously characterized as CPS through the coagulase, thermonuclease and catalase production tests and Gram staining, were identified at species level using the beta-galactosidase production tests and sensitivity to acriflavine (7 g.mL-1. At the same time, the DNA of these isolates was extracted and amplified by PCR, using primers for the coa gene, specific for S. aureus, and for the nuc gene, specific for S. intermedius and for S. hyicus. It was possible to differentiate the three species of Staphylococcus through phenotypical tests as well as through the molecular technique. There was no difference in discriminatory power between the two techniques used, but the reproducibility and reliability of the technique based on PCR make this technique more precise.
Ely John Karimela
Full Text Available Pinekuhe is the local name for smoked scad fish (Decapterus sp., a traditionally processed fish product from Sangihe Islands whose taste, aroma and form are typical and unique. In this research aims of physiological and biochemical characteristics with pathogenicity isolated S. aureus which the isolated from the product smoked scad fish (Decapterus rusellii Pinekuhe it was produce and prepared by the local fisherman in Sangihe Island Regency. The isolated that have gathered from this researched was 111 product isolate from the smoke fish Pinekuhe which grown from media MSA. Its had isolated already through thetest of physiological comprise, Gram staining and from the test of biochemical e.g., from the test Catalase, Voges-Proskauer, and Fermentation carbohydrate tests (Glucose and Manitol. The characteristics of pathogenicity S. aureus had been done and used by making of Coagulase, Nuklease Thermostabil productionand deoksiribonuklease (DNase. The result of this research showing that had still 111 isolating strains that still ingroup which consists of 108 isolated Staphylococcus and from 108 strains to 68 strains that had been test in identifying, as of Staphylococcus aureus with characteristics of Gram positif coccus, catalase positif,Voges-Proskauer positif, and to Fermentation Glucose and Manitol. The 68 isolate S. aureus that characterize from Phatogen principles product Coagulase test, Nuklease Thermostabil and deoksiribonuklease (DNase. S. aureus is dominant (62% contaminate smoked fish Pinekuhe processed traditional of Sangihe island.
Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from both quarter teat-tip swabs and their quarter milk samples were evaluated in smallholder dairy farms in northern Thailand with excessive use of antibiotics (HIGH compared with normal use (NORM. Results from teat-tip swab samples showed that the percentage of Bacillus spp. resistance to overall antibiotics was significantly lower in the NORM group than that of the HIGH group, whereas, the resistance percentage of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the NORM group was higher than that of the HIGH one. The overall mastitis-causing bacteria isolated from milk samples were environmental streptococci (13.8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci (9.9%, Staphylococcus aureus (5.4%, and Corynebacterium bovis (4.5%. Both staphylococci and streptococci had significantly higher percentages of resistance to cloxacillin and oxacillin in the HIGH group when compared to the NORM one. An occurrence of vancomycin-resistant bacteria was also observed in the HIGH group. In conclusion, the smallholder dairy farms with excessive use of antibiotics had a higher probability of antibiotic-resistant pattern than the farms with normal use.
Full Text Available Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%.
Harjanti, D. W.; Ciptaningtyas, R.; Wahyono, F.; Setiatin, ET
Mastitis is a multi-etiologic disease of the mammary gland characterized mainly by reduction in milk production and milk quality due to intramammary infection by pathogenic bacteria. Nearly 83% of lactating dairy cows in Indonesia are infected with mastitis in various inflammation degrees. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the pathogen in milk collected from mastitis-infected dairy cows. The study was carried out in ten smallholder dairy farms in Central Java Indonesia based on animal examination, California mastitis test, isolation bacterial pathogens, Gram staining, Catalase and Coagulase test, and identification of bacteria species using Vitek. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed 15 isolates where Streptococcus was predominant species (73.3%) and the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species was identified at the least bacteria (26.7%). The Streptococcus bacteria found were Streptococcus uberis (2 isolates), Streptococcus sanguinis(6 isolates), Streptococcus dysgalactiaessp dysgalactiae(1 isolate) , Streptococcus mitis (1 isolate) and Streptococcus agalactiae (1 isolate). The Staphylococcus isolates comprising of Staphylococcus simulans (1 isolate) and Staphylococcus chromogens (3 isolates). Contamination of raw milkwith pathogenic bacteria can cause outbreaks of human disease (milk borne disease). Thus, proper milk processing method that couldinhibit the growth or kill these pathogenic bacteria is important to ensure the safety of milk and milk products.
Aliye Gulmez Saglam
Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the role of Staphylococcus in the formation of subclinical mastitis in cows and to isolate the phage against isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods: In this study, 400 milk cows were screened by California Mastitis Test (CMT for subclinical mastitis and 235 udders of 96 cows, which were determined to be positive, were evaluated for Staphylococcus. Milk samples were evaluated using conventional and molecular methods. In addition, phage isolation studies were performed against S. aureus strains causing mastitis. Results: At the result of cultural examination, of 235 milk samples that were found as positive for mastitis by CMT, a total of 117 (49.7% Staphylococcus spp. were isolated as a distribution of 74 (63.24% coagulase-positive staphylococci and 43 (36.75% coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of these isolates, 76 (64.95% were characterized as S. aureus both conventional and molecular techniques. Lytic bacteriophages against two S. aureus strains which were isolated from mastitic milk samples were obtained from wastewater samples. Conclusion: The results of this study show that a significant portion of subclinical mastitis was formed by staphylococci. In addition, phage isolation against S. aureus strains isolated can be considered as one of the steps to be applied in the prophylaxis and treatment of such infections.
Full Text Available The California mastitis test (CMT was used to examine the milk of 6609 sheep, actually, from 13218 mammary complexes. A total of 986 milk samples were found to contain an increased number of somatic cells, and causes of mastitis were isolated from 910 (92.3% of these samples. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were: E. coli isolated from 189 (20.76% samples, Micrococcus sp from 186 (20.43% samples, Bacillus sp. from 177 (19.45%, Staphylococcus aureus from 172 (18.9% samples, and Proteus sp. from 121 (13.29% samples of sheep milk. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were isolated in a much smaller number, from 25 (2.74% samples, Streptococcus sp. was isolated from 19 (2.08% samples, Pseudomonas sp. from 14 (1.53% samples, haemolytic E. coli was isolated from only 6 (0.65% samples, and Streptococcus agalactiae from only one sample. Among the 25 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 16 (64% isolates were identified as Staphylococcus chromogenes, and 9 (36% isolates as Staphylococcus simulans. The sensitivity of the isolated causes of mastitis to antibiotics was examined using the disc diffusion method. .
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the affinity of 10 Staphylococcus strains isolated from table chicken eggs to specific species. Preliminary analysis performed by API ID32 Staph test identified these strains as S. aureus, but they exhibited a negative reaction in the tube coagulase test. Thus, the analysed strains were initially characterised as Staphylococcus aureus-like (SAL. Further characterisation was performed by genotypic methods, using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the coagulase gene (coa and sequencing of the gene rpoB. An attempt was also made to identify the isolated Staphylococcus strains by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The results indicated that none of the strains tested belonged to the species S. aureus. The rpoB sequences of five isolates showed the highest sequence similarity to S. haemolyticus, three isolates to S. chromogenes, and one isolate to S. epidermidis. One strain (SAL4 remained unidentified in this analysis. The results obtained using mass spectrometry were comparable to those based on gene sequence analysis. Strain SAL4, which could not be identified by sequencing, was identified by MALDI-TOF as Staphylococcus chromogenes.
Fleming, W H; Knezek, K L; Dorn, G L
SOC, a fungal growth medium composed of Solryth, oxgall, and caffeic acid, was evaluated as a medium to provide rapid, differential identification of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Using a variety of common isolation media to produce the yeast inocula, the germ tube methods tested ranked in the following order of decreasing sensitivity: SOC (97% +/- 1), serum (92% +/- 5), rabbit coagulase plasma with EDTA in combination with tryptic soy broth (89% +/- 5), TOC (89% +/- 6), and rabbit coagulase plasma with EDTA (83% +/- 4). In chlamydospore production, SOC also proved to be the most sensitive after 24 h incubation: SOC (96% +/- 2), TOC (80% +/- 2), and cornmeal-Tween 80 agar (14% +/- 3). Other medically important yeasts showed normal patterns of growth within 24 h on SOC, thus assisting in their identification. Eighty strains of Cryptococcus neoformans showed characteristic brown pigmentation on SOC and TOC within 18 h, while all other species of the genus Cryptococcus and 229 Candida isolates did not show a change in pigmentation.
Full Text Available Milk samples were investigated for counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria, which were TPC, coliforms, coagulase positive Staphylococci (CPS, and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Ten potential risk factors were also evaluated in relation to the prevalence of indicator bacteria. The results showed that the median values of indicator bacterial counts from overall udder-half milk samples were 3.74, 0.70, 1.70, and 2.52 log cfu/ml and from bulk milk samples were 5.69, 2.98, 3.66 and 3.32 log cfu/ml for TPC, coliforms, CPS, and CNS, respectively. None of the median values of overall udder-half milk samples exceeded the maximum limit of the standards for all indicator bacteria. However, in the bulk milk samples only the median value of TPC below the maximum limit of the standards. Overall prevalence of coliforms, CPS and CNS from udder-half milk samples were 46.3%, 37.7%, and 66.0%, respectively, and from bulk milk samples were 86.7%, 76.7%, and 86.7%, respectively. Saanen crossbreed, fifth parity and udders with inflammation were found to be risk factors. This study results indicated that the hygienic practices in the dairy goat farms are still need to be increased. To increase the hygienic level of the milk, the identified significant risk factors must be controlled.
Full Text Available Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS. It is a major cause of prosthetic valve endocarditis; mitral valve prolapse (MVP has emerged as a prominent predisposing structural cardiac abnormality. We describe a case of Staphylococcus lugdunensis endocarditis in an 18-year-old woman with preexisting mitral valve prolapse complaining of fever, a one-month history of continuous-remittent fever ( 38.6°C. The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed large vegetation on the anterior mitral valve leaflet flopping from the atrial side to the ventricular side. Five sets of blood cultures were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci. During hospitalization, after two weeks of antibiotic therapy, the patient complained of sudden pain in her right leg associated with numbness. Lower limb arterial Doppler ultrasound showed an arterial thrombosis of right common iliac artery. Transfemoral iliac embolectomy was promptly performed and on septic embolus S. lugdunensis with the same antibiotic sensitivity and the same MIC values was again isolated. Our patient underwent cardiac surgery: triangular resection of the A2 with removal of infected tissue including vegetation. Our case is an example of infective endocarditis by S. lugdunensis on native mitral valve in a young woman of 18 with anamnesis valve prolapse.
Mohammad Reza Pourmand
Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major cause of Nosocomial and community infections that are becoming increasingly difficult to combat, because of emerging resistance to all classes of antibiotics. Moreover Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL is an important virulence factor in S. aureus and causes white blood cell destruction, necrosis and accelerated apoptosis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of PVL-positive MRSA in cutaneous infections, for epidemiological purposes and also to determine antibiotic resistance of the isolates.Methods: Collectively, 56 isolates of S. aureus were obtained from Isfahan University of Medical sciences affiliated hospitals and confirmed with biochemical tests (coagulase, mannitol fermentation, and DNase. Then polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect pvl gene. Coagulase gene was used as internal control. The antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates to methicillin was determined using disk diffusion method.Results: Out of 56 isolates 14.3% were PVL positive that 37.5% were from abscess and 62.5% were from wound. Among all of these isolates 67.8% were MRSA and also 75% of PVL-positive isolates were MRSA.Conclusion: The prevalence of PVL positive MRSA in cutaneous isolates is high. Future works are necessary for a more complete understanding of distribution of these virulent isolates in nasal carriers to decrease the risk of infections.
Li, Guanghui; Qiao, Mingyu; Guo, Yan; Wang, Xin; Xu, Yunfeng; Xia, Xiaodong
Chlorogenic acid (CA) has been reported to inhibit several pathogens, but the influence of subinhibitory concentrations of CA on virulence expression of pathogens has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of CA on the virulence factor production of Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CA against S. aureus was determined using a broth microdilution method. Hemolysin assays, coagulase titer assays, adherence to solid-phase fibrinogen assays, Western blot, and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of CA on the virulence factors of S. aureus. MIC of CA against S. aureus ATCC29213 was found to be 2.56 mg/mL. At subinhibitory concentrations, CA significantly inhibited the hemolysis and dose-dependently decreased coagulase titer. Reduced binding to fibrinogen and decreased production of SEA were observed with treatment of CA at concentrations ranging from 1/16MIC to 1/2MIC. CA markedly inhibited the expression of hla, sea, and agr genes in S. aureus. These data demonstrate that the virulence expression of S. aureus could be reduced by CA and suggest that CA could be potentially developed as a supplemental strategy to control S. aureus infection and to prevent staphylococcal food poisoning.
Park, Young Min; Kwon, Han Jo; Lee, Jong Soo
To determine the bacteriological spectrum of the removed therapeutic soft contact lenses (TSCLs) and to establish efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics on TSCLs used for 2 weeks for treatment of patients with recurrent corneal erosion syndrome (RCES). This study included idiopathic RCES treated using highly oxygen-permeable silicone hydrogel contact lenses (CLs), and treated 4 times per day with topical tobramycin 3% for 2 weeks. After TSCLs were applied for 2 weeks, the lenses were removed with sterile forceps under which a speculum was inserted, and placed on blood agar with the inner face down. The TSCLs were analyzed for bacterial colonization, and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed for the isolates, using disk diffusion. Of the 40 lenses analyzed, 9 (22.5%) yielded positive cultures. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most commonly isolated microorganism; there were five methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci and two methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci. Furthermore, we found two lenses that were colonized by Enterobacter gergoviae and Citrobacter freundii. All cultured bacteria showed intermediate or complete sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, tigecycline, and tobramycin. Despite bacterial colonization in 9 CLs, no clinical signs of infectious keratitis were found in any of the patients with prophylactic topical tobramycin 3%. In case of using TSCLs for 2 weeks, tobramycin or ciprofloxacin may be useful as prophylactic topical antibiotics for preventing secondary corneal infections. Considering currently growing incidence of ciprofloxacin-resistant ocular isolates, tobramycin seems to be a reasonable prophylactic topical antibiotic susceptible broad spectrum of bacteria in clinics.
Skerk, V; Schönwald, S; Bobinac, E; Bejuk, D; Zrinsćak, J
A total number of 836 episodes of bacteremia and fungemia were examined in 823 hospitalized patients in the University Hospital of Infectious Diseases "Dr Fran Mihaljević" Zagreb from the beginning of 1987 to the end of 1991. Twenty-five percent of them were nosocomial bacteremias and 5% were polymicrobial bacteremias. The most frequently isolated causative agents were Salmonella spp. (26%), Escherichia coli (17%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (11%) and Staphylococcus aureus (8%). There were 34% of gram-positive bacteremias. The increased frequency of nosocomial bacteremias caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci was recorded. The frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci strains resistant to gentamicin and Klebsiella spp. strains resistant to cefotaxime was increased. Shock was present in 19% of episodes. Relation between septic shock occurrence and causative agent of bacteremia was not proved. Mortality in patients with bacteremia was 13%, and total mortality was 20%. The outcome of the disease was in direct relation with causative agent of bacteremia. The initial empiric antimicrobial therapy was prolonged in 91% of episodes of bacteremia after blood culture results were known.
E. E. V. Resplandes
Full Text Available The goals of the study were to verify the presence of coliforms in frozen Basa fish fillets market in different cities in Mato Grosso State, Brazil and identify if they complied with the standards established by the Brazilian Food Legislation. Twenty-five samples were collected at supermarkets in eight cities in Mato Grosso State. The microbiological analyses were performed using the coagulase-positive Staphylococci count; screening for Salmonella sp., enumeration of total coliforms, thermotolerant and Escherichia coli. In addition, it proceeded to parasitological analysis by parasitic morphological structures identification. Coagulase-positive Staphylococci strains were isolated in two samples (8% with 3,8 x 10 4 and 1,4 x 10 5 CFU/g. In one sample (4%, the values obtained were 23 MPN/ g for total coliforms count, 4 MPN/ g for thermotolerant coliforms and 4 MPN/ g for E. coli. Salmonella spp. strains were not isolated. Parasitic structures were not observed. Frozen Panga fish fillets demonstrated low levels of coliform contamination; indicating that it is safe for human consumption considering that 23 (92% of the analyzed samples were within the standards established by the current Brazilian Food Legislation.
Eficácia in vitro de desinfetantes comerciais utilizados no pré e pós-dipping frente a Staphylococcus spp. isolados em rebanhos leiteiros In vitro efficacy of commercial disinfectants used in pre-and post-dipping against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from dairy cattle
Ayodhya C. Ramalho
Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse estudo avaliar a eficácia in vitro de desinfetantes comerciais utilizados no pré e pós- -dipping, frente a Staphylococcus spp. isolados do leite de vacas procedentes de propriedades leiteiras do Agreste e Zona da Mata do Estado de Alagoas. Foram utilizados iodo (0,57%, clorexidine (2,0%, cloro (2,5% e composto de amônio quaternário (4,0%, nas concentrações indicadas, como desinfetantes comerciais usados convencionalmente no pré e pós-dipping. Analisou-se um total de 97 isolados de Staphylococcus spp. identificados como S. aureus (16, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (7 e Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (74. Os desinfetantes foram avaliados em três tempos distintos (15", 30" e 60". Observou-se que 56,3% de Staphylococcus aureus foram sensíveis ao iodo, 68,8% sensíveis ao cloro, 87,5% à clorexidine e 37,5% ao composto de amônia no tempo de 60". Quanto aos Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP, 100% dos isolados foram resistentes ao clorexidine, 85,7% ao composto de amônio, 57,1% ao cloro, e 42,9 resistentes ao iodo no tempo de 60". Em relação aos Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN foi observado 91,9% de sensibilidade ao clorexidine, 70,3% sensíveis ao cloro, 66,2% ao iodo e 24,3% sensíveis ao composto de amônio no tempo de 60". Conclui-se com esse estudo que a maior atividade desinfetante in vitro foi verificada para clorexidine e cloro frente aos S. aureus, iodo e cloro para os SCP e clorexidine e cloro para os SCN. Devido às variações no perfil de sensibilidade e resistência encontradas, é necessária a avaliação regular da eficiência dos desinfetantes usados nas propriedades, com o intuito de observar a eficácia do produto e assim garantir o controle da mastite no rebanho.The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of commercial disinfectants used in pre- and post-dipping, against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from milk originating from dairy cattle farms in the
Viora, L; Graham, E M; Mellor, D J; Reynolds, K; Simoes, P B A; Geraghty, T E
Accurate identification of mastitis-causing bacteria supports effective management and can be used to implement selective use of antimicrobials for treatment. The objectives of this study were to compare the results from a culture-based mastitis pathogen detection test kit ('VetoRapid', Vétoquinol) with standard laboratory culture and to evaluate the potential suitability of the test kit to inform a selective treatment programme. Overall 231 quarter milk samples from five UK dairy farms were collected. The sensitivity and specificity of the test kit for the identification of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis and Enterococcus spp. ranged from 17 per cent to 84 per cent and 92 per cent to 98 per cent, respectively. In total, 23 of 68 clinical samples were assigned as meeting the requirement for antimicrobial treatment (Gram-positive organism cultured) according to standard culture results, with the test kit results having sensitivity and specificity of 91 per cent and 78 per cent, respectively. Several occurrences of misidentification are reported, including S. aureus being misidentified as coagulase-negative staphylococci and vice versa. The test kit provides rapid preliminary identification of five common causes of bovine mastitis under UK field conditions and is likely to be suitable for informing selective treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Gram-positive organisms. British Veterinary Association.
Full Text Available The objective of this report is to describe an outbreak of pustular dermatitis in a flock of about 200 sheep, its clinical evolution and food safety implications. The onset of the symptoms was sudden and the lesions spread very quickly from ewe to ewe, so that in about 3 days almost all of the lactating sheep were stricken. Pustules from 5 different animals, six milk samples, two cheese samples, teat cup samples from the milking machine and farmer’s hands were analysed. A pure culture of Staphylococcus aureus, producing staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE C, was isolated from pustules. Milk and cheese showed a contamination by coagulase positive staphylococci <15 and 30 colony forming units respectively and the absence of SE. Farmer’s hands and teat cups samples resulted negative for coagulase positive staphylococci. Therapy with daily topical medicaments was prescribed and a prophylactic intervention was suggested by the administration of an autovaccine. The low level of milk and cheese contamination and the absence of SE in cheese supported the decision to not advise the farmer to recall cheese produced with milk from affected animals.
Paula Cristina Galati
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze and compare the microbiological profile and vitamin C content of raw and cooked foods destined for neutropenic inpatients. METHODS: Three vegetables and nine fruits, raw and boiled, washed and sanitized were examined. Heat-tolerant coliforms and coagulase-positive staphylococci were counted and the presence of Salmonella spp was investigated. The vitamin C content was analyzed by a colorimetric reaction. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software was used for statistical analysis and the nonparametric Wilcoxon test was used to compare the mean vitamin C values of the cooked and raw foods. The Spearman correlation test was applied to determine the associations between the parameters evaluated RESULTS: Salmonella spp was absent in all samples and the populations of coagulase-positive staphylococci and heat-tolerant coliforms were below the minimum detectable limits of the methods employed (< 100 colony forming units (CFU/g and < 3 most probable number (MPN/g, respectively. There was a significant loss of vitamin C in the cooked foods, 38.9% on average, compared to the raw foods, a loss that was positively correlated with cooking time. CONCLUSION: The fresh fruits and vegetables properly sanitized in this study had a microbiological profile consistent with that required by Brazilian law. Furthermore, the nutritional value of the neutropenic diet is diminished, at least in terms of the vitamin C content.
Afridi, F. I.; Zeb, M.; Farooqi, B. J.; Murtaza, G.; Hussain, A.
Objective: To determine the frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species by phenotypic D-test. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2011. Methodology: Consecutive clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were collected and identified by conventional microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and inducible clindamycin resistance was carried out by performing D-test using CLSI criteria. Methicillin resistance was detected by using Cefoxitin disk as a surrogate marker. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version-17. Results: A total of 667 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were obtained during the study period. In these isolates, 177 (26.5%) were Staphylococcus aureus, and 490 (73.5%) were coagulase negative Staphylococci. The total frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among isolates of Staphylococcus species was 120/667 (18%). Frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among coagulase negative Staphylococci group and Staphylococcus aureus group were 18.57% and 16.38% respectively. Median age of patients in D-test positive group was 19.5 (1 - 54) years. Conclusion: The frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus species may differ in different hospital setup. Clinical microbiology laboratories should implement testing simple and effective D-test on all Staphylococcus species. D-test positive isolates should be reported clindamycin resistant to decrease treatment failure. (author)
Maria Izabel Merino de Medeiros
Full Text Available We studied the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus strains potentially toxigenic, isolated from the production process of Minas frescal cheese in a small dairy plant in the state of São Paulo. For this, samples were taken during the period from June 2008 to July 2009. Samples were collected from the surface of the receiving and storage tanks of raw milk, the surface of the balance tank of pasteurized milk, the water supply system, the pipes and equipments, the hands of the handler and from the packaged cheese, totaling 140 samples. The colonies isolated on Baird-Parker Agar confirmed as Gram positive and positive for catalase, coagulase and acetoin production, were submitted to extraction of bacterial DNA using the Invitek - Uniscience® kit. Confirmation of the isolated species and enterotoxins SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and TSST-1 toxin was carried out through the amplification of specific fragments of chromosomal DNA. Among the 74 strains of isolated coagulase-positive staphylococci, only 41 (55.4% strains were confirmed as Staphylococcus aureus, of which 25 (61.0% were positive to the presence of staphylococcal toxins. The most frequently identified enterotoxin was SEA. The toxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus were more frequently isolated from hands of the handler (16.0%, raw milk receiving tank (12.0%, pasteurized milk for cheese making (12.0% and fresh white cheese ready for consumption (12.0%.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (CAR and thymol (THY on some physiological characteristics and on the modulation of the secretion of some staphylococcal virulence factors, that is, coagulase and enterotoxin. This study also investigated possible mechanisms for the establishment of the anti-staphylococcal activity of these compounds. Sublethal concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 µL/mL of CAR and THY inhibited the activity of the enzymes coagulase and lipase and led to a decrease in salt tolerance. At the tested sublethal concentrations, both CAR and THY led to a total suppression of enterotoxin production. The loss of a 260-nm-absorbing material and an efflux of potassium ions occurred immediately after the addition of CAR and THY at 0.6 and 1.2 µL/mL and increased up to 120 min of exposure. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to CAR and THY (0.6 µL/mL revealed that individual cells appeared to be deformed, with projections of cellular material. The observations of leakage of cellular material and an altered cell surface suggest that gross damage to a cell's cytoplasmic membrane, which results in a disruption in protein secretion, could be responsible for the anti-staphylococcal properties of CAR and THY.
Hening Tjaturina Pramesti
Full Text Available Honey may be contaminated by microorganisms during its harvesting, processing, and packaging. Honey selected for clinical purposes must safe, sterile, and contain antimicrobial activity, so it must be evaluated using laboratory testing. The aim of this descriptive laboratory study was to isolate and identify the bacterial contaminant in the traditional-packed honey dealing with the use of honey for medical purposes. the colony forming units of honey sample cultured on blood agar were counted using Stuart bacterial colony counter. The suspected bacterial colonies were isolated and identified based on cultural morphology characteristics. The isolates of suspected bacterial colonies were stained according to Gram and Klein method and then were examined by the biochemical reaction. The results showed that there were two contaminant bacteria. Gram-positive cocci which were presumptively identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci and gram-positive rods which were presumptively identified as Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the contaminant bacteria were regarded as low pathogen bacteria. The subtilin enzyme of B subtilis may cause an allergic reaction and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis is also an opportunist pathogen. Inevitably, for medical purposes, traditional-packed honey must be well filtered, water content above 18%, and standardized sterilization without loss of an antibacterial activity or change in properties.
Basso, Ana P; Martins, Paula D; Nachtigall, Gisele; Van Der Sand, Sueli; De Moura, Tiane M; Frazzon, Ana Paula G
The aim of this study was to evaluate the species distribution, antibiotic-resistance profile and presence of enterotoxin (SE) genes in staphylococci isolated from the Dilúvio stream in South Brazil. Eighty-eight staphylococci were identified, 93.18% were identified as coagulase-negative (CNS) and 6.82% coagulase-positive (CPS). Fourteen Staphylococcus species were detected and the most frequently were Staphylococcus cohnii (30.48%) and S. haemolyticus (21.95%). Resistance to erythromycin was verified in 37.50% of the strains, followed by 27.27% to penicillin, 12.50% to clindamycin, 6.81% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 5.68% to chloramphenicol and 2.27% to norfloxacin. None of the investigated strains showed gentamicin and ciprofloxacin resistance. The strains were tested for the presence of sea, seb, sec, sed and see genes by PCR and only CNS strains (43.18%) showed positive results to one or more SE genes. The scientific importance of our results is due to the lack of data about these topics in polluted waters in Brazil. In conclusion, polluted waters from the Dilúvio stream may constitute a reservoir for disseminating antibiotic-resistance and enterotoxin into the community. In addition, the detection of staphylococci in the polluted waters of the Dilúvio stream indicated a situation of environmental contamination and poor sanitation conditions.
ANA P. BASSO
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the species distribution, antibiotic-resistance profile and presence of enterotoxin (SE genes in staphylococci isolated from the Dilúvio stream in South Brazil. Eighty-eight staphylococci were identified, 93.18% were identified as coagulase-negative (CNS and 6.82% coagulase-positive (CPS. Fourteen Staphylococcus species were detected and the most frequently were Staphylococcus cohnii (30.48% and S. haemolyticus (21.95%. Resistance to erythromycin was verified in 37.50% of the strains, followed by 27.27% to penicillin, 12.50% to clindamycin, 6.81% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 5.68% to chloramphenicol and 2.27% to norfloxacin. None of the investigated strains showed gentamicin and ciprofloxacin resistance. The strains were tested for the presence of sea, seb, sec, sed and see genes by PCR and only CNS strains (43.18% showed positive results to one or more SE genes. The scientific importance of our results is due to the lack of data about these topics in polluted waters in Brazil. In conclusion, polluted waters from the Dilúvio stream may constitute a reservoir for disseminating antibiotic-resistance and enterotoxin into the community. In addition, the detection of staphylococci in the polluted waters of the Dilúvio stream indicated a situation of environmental contamination and poor sanitation conditions.
Garza-González, Elvira; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Martínez-Vázquez, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Diaz, Esteban; González-Santiago, Omar; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo
The incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococci reported as causative agents of nosocomial infections has risen in the last decade. The aim of this study was to characterize biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, SCCmec type, and genetic relatedness in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus sciuri recovered from humans. Clinically relevant isolates of S. cohnii (n = 15), S. hominis (n = 9), and S. sciuri (n = 6), were collected from patients. Biofilm formation was evaluated using crystal violet staining, drug susceptibility was assessed using the broth microdilution method, and methicillin resistance was measured using the cefoxitin disk test. SCCmec was typed using 2 different methodologies, and genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sixty percent (9/15) of S. cohnii, 33% (3/9) of S. hominis, and 50% (3/6) of S. sciuri isolates were categorized as weak producers of biofilm. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. All 3 species showed a high resistance (> 66%) to ampicillin, levofloxacin, erythromycin, and ceftriaxone, and the majority of the isolates were methicillin-resistant. PFGE revealed that the S. cohnii isolates comprised 1 dominant clone. The S. cohnii, S. hominis, and S. sciuri isolates analyzed in this study showed a high methicillin resistance and resistance to other antimicrobials. The results of this study strongly suggest that coagulase-negative staphylococci harbour new SCCmec elements. We report the first case of a clone of S. cohnii associated with human disease.
Marek, Agnieszka; Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Pyzik, Ewelina; Adaszek, Łukasz; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Winiarczyk, Stanisław
In the pathology of poultry, infections caused by Staphylococcus spp. are taking on increasing significance. Although the Staphylococcus species most frequently isolated from these animals is Staphylococcus aureus, the literature data indicate that other species, both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative, can also cause infections in birds. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of occurrence of Staphylococcus infections in various poultry species in Western Poland and to test the susceptibility of isolated strains to selected antibiotics. The results obtained showed a relatively high rate of Staphylococcus infection in the poultry. From 2805 samples tested 302 strains (10.8%) of Staphylococcus were isolated. As many as 25 Staphylococcus species were distinguished among the strains isolated. S. cohnii (23.50%), S. aureus (15.89%) and S. lentus (13.90%) accounted for the highest percentages. Over half of the isolated staphylococci exhibited resistance to five of the antibiotics applied, with the highest percentage of resistant strains, 65%, noted for enrofloxacin.
Full Text Available The ability to rapidly differentiate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS from Staphylococcus aureus and to determine methicillin resistance is important as it affects the decision to treat empiric antibiotic selection. The objective of this study was to evaluate CHROMagar S. aureus and CHROMagar MRSA (Becton Dickinson for rapid identification of Staphylococcus spp. directly from blood cultures. Consecutive blood culture bottles (BacT Alert 3D SA and SN, bioMérieux growing gram-positive cocci in clusters were evaluated. An aliquot was plated onto CHROMagar MRSA (C-MRSA and CHROMagar S. aureus (C-SA plates, which were read at 12 to 16 hours. C-SA correctly identified 147/147 S. aureus (100% sensitivity; 2 CoNS were misidentified as S. aureus (98% specificity. C-MRSA correctly identified 74/77 MRSA (96% sensitivity. None of the MSSA isolates grew on C-MRSA (100% specificity. In conclusion, CHROMagar is a rapid and sensitive method to distinguish MRSA, MSSA, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and may decrease time of reporting positive results.
Full Text Available Vijaya L Soma1, Xuan Qin2, Chuan Zhou1, Amanda Adler1, Jessica E Berry2, Danielle M Zerr11Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG is a topical antiseptic used in a myriad of clinical settings. Recently, CHG baths have been shown to decrease multidrug-resistant organism acquisition and infections and catheter-associated bloodstream infections. The present study examined the effects of daily bathing with CHG on the recovery and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultivable cutaneous bacteria. The objectives of this study were to (1 explore the effects of clinical CHG bathing on cultivable cutaneous bacteria, (2 study the relationship between CHG minimum inhibitory concentration and antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci, and (3 demonstrate the feasibility of the approach so a more definitive study may be performed. Significant decreases in bacterial colony counts and phenotypic diversity occurred with greater CHG exposure. The findings also suggest an inverse relationship between CHG minimum inhibitory concentration and antimicrobial susceptibility. Larger prospective studies are necessary to fully investigate the clinical impact of CHG usage.Keywords: antiseptic, resistance, Staphylococcus, coagulase-negative
Heilbronner, Simon; Monk, Ian R; Brozyna, Jeremy R; Heinrichs, David E; Skaar, Eric P; Peschel, Andreas; Foster, Timothy J
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative bacterial pathogen that is particularly associated with severe cases of infectious endocarditis. Unique amongst the coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. lugdunensis harbors an iron regulated surface determinant locus (isd). This locus facilitates the acquisition of heme as a source of nutrient iron during infection and allows iron limitation caused by "nutritional immunity" to be overcome. The isd locus is duplicated in S. lugdunensis HKU09-01 and we show here that the duplication is intrinsically unstable and undergoes accordion-like amplification and segregation leading to extensive isd copy number variation. Amplification of the locus increased the level of expression of Isd proteins and improved binding of hemoglobin to the cell surface of S. lugdunensis. Furthermore, Isd overexpression provided an advantage when strains were competing for a limited amount of hemoglobin as the sole source of iron. Gene duplications and amplifications (GDA) are events of fundamental importance for bacterial evolution and are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance in many species. As such, GDAs are regarded as evolutionary adaptions to novel selective pressures in hostile environments pointing towards a special importance of isd for S. lugdunensis. For the first time we show an example of a GDA that involves a virulence factor of a Gram-positive pathogen and link the GDA directly to a competitive advantage when the bacteria were struggling with selective pressures mimicking "nutritional immunity".
Vervoort, A; Delsat, L; Pieltain, C; De Halleux, V; Carpentier, M; Rigo, J
Many studies demonstrated that human milk is the recommended source of enteral nutrition in preterm infants providing several benefits with regards to feeding tolerance, immunity and cognitive development However, neurological immaturity and associated clinical conditions prevent them from suckling effectively. Therefore, mother's milk must be expressed, stored and transported to the neonatal unit and could be contaminated. The microbiological quality of human milk was evaluated on each donation to the neonatal intensive care unit of the University of Liege, Belgium from November 1, 2003 to January 31, 2005. In all, 5842 samples from 176 mothers were included in the study. Samples were classified according to the exclusive presence of coagulase negative Staphylococcus and their number (less or more than 104 germs per ml) or to contamination with pathogens. More than 50% of analyzed milks had to be pasteurized (46%; >104 coagulase negative Staphylococcus per ml) or to be discarded (7% pathogen contamination). The incidence of pasteurisation tends to increase during the summer, suggesting a seasonal influence. Maternal profiles were established longitudinally. Among the 60 mothers whose at least one sample had pathogen contamination, 27% had a contamination occurring only during a few days, but 73% had more than 50% of their samples discarded. This study suggest the need to promote the use and the financial support of intrahospital human milk bank units to support the safe use of raw and pasteurised human milk in preterm infants.
Tahmasbi, Leila; Sedaghat, Tahereh; Motamedi, Hossein; Kooti, Mohammad
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were prepared by sol-gel method and functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Schiff base grafted mesoporous silica nanoparticle was synthesized by the condensation of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde and amine-functionalized MSNs. The latter material was then treated with Cu(II) and Ni(II) salts separately to obtain copper and nickel complexes anchored mesoporous composites. The newly prepared hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites have been characterized by several techniques such as FT-IR, LA-XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, EDS, BET and TGA. The results showed all samples have MCM-41 type ordered mesoporous structure and functionalization occurs mainly inside the mesopore channel. The presence of all elements in synthesized nanocomposites and the coordination of Schiff base via imine nitrogen and phenolate oxygen were confirmed. MSNs and all functionalized MSNs have uniform spherical nanoparticles with a mean diameter less than 100 nm. The as-synthesized mesoporous nanocomposites were investigated for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) bacteria, as carrier for gentamicin and also for immobilization of DNase, coagulase and amylase enzymes. MSN-SB-Ni indicated bacteriocidal effect against S.aureus and all compounds were found to be good carrier for gentamicin. Results of enzyme immobilization for DNase and coagulase and α-amylase revealed that supported metal complexes efficiently immobilized enzymes.
Andreia Bittar Saab
Full Text Available Mastitis is an infection which often commits animals assigned for milk production. It has been the major price raise factor for dairy cattle breeding. Economical losses impact on professional fees, drugs, death and early discard of the animal as well as dairy companies as a result of the downturn in product end-quality, decrease of industrial procedure regarding dairy product manufacturing and changes in mastitic milk composition. Considering the relevance of such disease, this study verifies mastitis prevalence and etiology in the region of Nova Tebas, PR by analyzing 336 lactating dairy cows from 17 farms, totalizing 1324 mammary quarters through CMT, SCS and bacterial isolation. Negative (1120 mammary quarters – 84.6% and positive (204 mammary quarters – 15.4% results for CMT were verified. Among the positive quarters, 155 (75.9% presented bacterial growth – higher prevalence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus – SCN 51 (32.9%, Streptococcus sp. 49 (31.6%; Corynebacterium bovis 19 (12.3%, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus – SCP 19 (12.3%, Gram-negative bacilli (BGN 12 (7.7%, Corynebacterium sp. 3 (1.9%, and Candida sp. 2 (1.2%. Results show that mastitis in the region of Nova Tebas is compatible to those found all over Brazil together with the highest prevalent etiological agents. Such profile of animals with mastitis can be noticed from screening tests used for mastitis such as CMT and SCS.
Mehmeti, Ibrahim; Behluli, Behlul; Mestani, Mergim; Ademi, Arsim; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B
Mastitis is one of the most frequent and costly disease in cattle. We studied milk samples from cattle with mastitis from farms in Kosovo to identify mastitis-causing pathogens and possible effective antibiotics. Our ultimate goal is to help implement adequate antibiotic management and treatment practices in Kosovo METHODOLOGY: A total of 152 milk samples were collected from cows with clinical mastitis from different farms in Kosovo. After identification of microorganisms, antibiotic susceptibility and the occurrence of enterotoxins was investigated. Staphylococci were found in 89 samples, of which 58 were coagulase negative and 31 coagulase positive. S. aureus was isolated from 27 samples, S. epidermidis from 25, and S. chromogenes from 15, while other species of staphylococci were isolated from the remaining 22 isolates. Interestingly, the bacterial diversity was different between cows in different periods of lactation and among different breeds. Most of the isolates (76/89) were resistant to two or more antibiotics. The highest resistance was to penicillin and ampicillin (> 65%), followed by tetracycline, oxacillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol (> 23%), and less than 3% to erythromycin. Of the 89 isolates, 40 produced enterotoxins that were most frequently typed as A and C. We detected human bacterial pathogens in the cultures of milk samples from cows with mastitis. The isolates demonstrated resistance to two or more antibiotics, some of which are frequently used to treat animal and human infections. We recommend increased control and more stringent use of antibiotics in veterinary as well as human medicine.
Arantes Tiago Eugênio Faria e
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the conjunctival bacterial flora and its antibiotic resistance pattern in eyes of patients undergoing cataract surgery. METHODS: From August to October 2004, 50 patients undergoing cataract surgery in the "Fundação Altino Ventura", Recife, Brazil, were prospectively evaluated. Conjunctival material was obtained on the day of surgery, before the application of topical anesthetic, antibiotic or povidone-iodine. The collected material was inoculated and bacterioscopic analysis was carried out. In the cases where there was bacterial growth, antibiotic susceptibility tests and cultures, for isolation and identification of the bacteria, were performed. RESULTS: Of the 50 eyes, 43 (86.0% had positive cultures. The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS, found in 27 (54.0% eyes, was the most frequent organism. More than 90% of the isolates of this bacterium were susceptible to cephalotin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin and gatifloxacin; 70 to 90% were susceptible to gentamicin, cefotaxime, oxacillin and ciprofloxacin; and less than 70% were sensible to neomycin. Four (10.5% of the bacterial isolates were resistant to four or more antibiotics, two of them were CNS. CONCLUSION: The most frequent bacterium in the conjunctival flora is the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. The isolates of this organism showed low susceptibility rate to neomycin, and high susceptibility rates to cephalotin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin and gatifloxacin.
de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Almeida; Capalonga, Roberta; Silveira, Joice Trindade; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar; Cardoso, Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema
The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in samples of food served in public schools in Porto Alegre. All the food served in the meal of the session visited was analyzed for Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. Of the total of 196 food products analyzed in 120 schools, 4 contained and Escherichia coli score above the permitted level, and 2 contained coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Neither Shigella nor Salmonella genus were detected. In the majority of schools studied, it was found that food was of an adequate hygienic-sanitary standard. However, only municipal schools had the supervision of a technician responsible for school food. In the state schools, 60% had never been visited by a nutritionist and in these schools several procedures failed to comply with legal requirements. In most of the schools studied, the food served to students was within adequate standards, though the problems detected revealed the need for the implementation of Best Practices in the school environment.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The deadly threat of systemic infections with coagulase negative Staphylococcus lugdunensis despite an appropriate antibiotic therapy has only recently been recognized. The predominant infectious focus observed so far is left-sided native heart valve endocarditis, but bone and soft tissue infections, septicaemia and vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections have also been reported. We present a patient with a fatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis septicaemia following zoster bacterial superinfection of the pelvic region. Case presentation A 71-year old male diagnosed with IgG kappa plasmocytoma presented with a conspicuous weight loss, a hypercalcaemic crisis and acute renal failure. After initiation of haemodialysis treatment his condition improved rapidly. However, he developed a varicella-zoster virus infection of the twelfth thoracic dermatome requiring intravenous acyclovir treatment. Four days later the patient presented with a fulminant septicaemia. Despite an early intravenous antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/combactam and vancomycin the patient died within 48 hours, shortly before the infective isolate was identified as Staphylococcus lugdunensis by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Despite S. lugdunensis belonging to the family of coagulase-negative staphylococci with an usually low virulence, infections with S. lugdunensis may be associated with an aggressive course and high mortality. This is the first report on a Staphylococcus lugdunensis septicaemia following a zoster bacterial superinfection of the pelvic region.
Full Text Available O sorvete é um alimento consumido em todas as faixas etárias, devido suas características sensoriais e alto valor nutricional. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade dos sorvetes industriais e artesanais comercializados na região de Arapongas-PR. Três marcas de sorvetes artesanais e quatro de sorvetes industriais foram avaliadas, sendo 3 lotes diferentes de cada marca, quanto as suas características microbiológicas (pesquisa de Salmonella e contagens de estafilococos coagulase-positivo, coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes , e fí sico-químicas (pH, acidez titulável e composição centesimal. As amostras atenderam os padrões físico-químicos exigidos pela legislação brasileira. Não foi observada a presença de Salmonella e estafilococos coagulase-positivo. Porém, as contagens de coliformes totais e de termotolerantes estavam acima do limite estabelecido em todas as amostras, apresentando-se, portanto, impróprias para o consumo.
Heilbronner, Simon; Brozyna, Jeremy R.; Heinrichs, David E.; Skaar, Eric P.; Peschel, Andreas; Foster, Timothy J.
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative bacterial pathogen that is particularly associated with severe cases of infectious endocarditis. Unique amongst the coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. lugdunensis harbors an iron regulated surface determinant locus (isd). This locus facilitates the acquisition of heme as a source of nutrient iron during infection and allows iron limitation caused by “nutritional immunity” to be overcome. The isd locus is duplicated in S. lugdunensis HKU09-01 and we show here that the duplication is intrinsically unstable and undergoes accordion-like amplification and segregation leading to extensive isd copy number variation. Amplification of the locus increased the level of expression of Isd proteins and improved binding of hemoglobin to the cell surface of S. lugdunensis. Furthermore, Isd overexpression provided an advantage when strains were competing for a limited amount of hemoglobin as the sole source of iron. Gene duplications and amplifications (GDA) are events of fundamental importance for bacterial evolution and are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance in many species. As such, GDAs are regarded as evolutionary adaptions to novel selective pressures in hostile environments pointing towards a special importance of isd for S. lugdunensis. For the first time we show an example of a GDA that involves a virulence factor of a Gram-positive pathogen and link the GDA directly to a competitive advantage when the bacteria were struggling with selective pressures mimicking “nutritional immunity”. PMID:27575058
Full Text Available A total of 187 isolates from several clinical specimens were identified to species level as 129 Staphylococcus aureus strains and 58 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS strains by the API Staph System (Biomerieux. Slime production was detected both by the conventional Christensen's method as well as by the Congo red agar method. Seventy-two strains of staphylococci isolates (38.5% were found to be slime producers by Christensen's test tube method whereas 58 strains (31% were slime positive with Congo red agar method. There was no statistically significant difference between the two methods for the detection of slime production (P > 0.05. Susceptibility of isolates against antimicrobial agents was tested by the disk diffusion method. Staphylococcal species had resistance to one or more antibiotics. Among the various antimicrobial agents, oxacillin (71.1% and erythromycin (47.1% showed higher resistance than most of the agents used against all isolates. Oxacillin resistant S. aureus (ORSA and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (ORCNS, 97 (75.2% and 36 (62.1% respectively were frequently observed in strains isolated from clinical materials. Among the ORSA strains, two strains were resistant to vancomycin. Moreover, 96 (74.4% of 129 S. aureus strains were positive for blactamase enzyme. However, 78 (81.25% of 96 b-lactamase positive S. aureus strains were b-lactamase positive ORSA isolates, but none of them had vancomycin resistance.
Contagem de Staphylococcus sp. e detecção de enterotoxinas estafilocócicas e toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico em amostras de leite cru refrigerado Staphylococcus sp. counting and detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxic shock toxin syndrome from cooled raw milk
Full Text Available Analisaram-se 80 amostras de leite cru refrigerado a 4°C e estocado por 48 horas em tanques refrigeradores de propriedades rurais do estado de Minas Gerais quanto à contagem e identificação de Staphylococcus sp. e detecção de enterotoxinas estafilocócicas (SE e da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico (TSST-1. Staphylococcus sp. foi detectado em 100% das amostras de leite de tanque refrigerador em contagens que variaram de 1,0 × 10(5 a 2,5 × 10(7 UFC/ml (média = 5,60 log UFC/ml; s = 0,53 e CV = 9,5%. Isolaram-se e identificaram-se 436 estirpes como: S. aureus, S hyicus, S. epidermidis, S. intermedius, S. cohnii, S. sciuri, S. schleirferi e S. delphini. As estirpes de mesmo perfil bioquímico, oriundas da mesma amostra, foram agrupadas (pools e induzidas a produzir SE e TSST-1. A detecção dessas enterotoxinas foi feita pelo método optimum sensitivity plate, usando-se técnica de celofane sobre ágar. Identificou-se a produção de SEA, SEB, SEC, SED e de TSST-1 em percentuais variados. Dos 138 pools preparados, 91 produziram, pelo menos, uma toxina isoladamente ou em associação a outras toxinas. Dos pools enterotoxigênicos, 24,6% eram coagulase positiva e 41,3%, coagulase negativa. A confirmação de estirpes enterotoxigênicas de Staphylococcus coagulase negativa isoladas de amostras de leite é importante em relação à saúde pública.In order to count and identify Staphylococcus sp., the detection of the Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE and toxic shock toxin syndrome (TSST-1, 80 raw milk samples cooled at 4°C and stored in bulk tanks for 48 hours in different farms from Minas Gerais State were analyzed. Staphylococcus sp. was observed in all samples and the counts varied from 1.0 × 10(5 to 2.5 × 10(7 CFU/ml (mean = 5.60 log CFU/ml; sd = 0.53 and CV = 9.46 %. A total of 436 strains of Staphylococcus were isolated and identified as S. aureus, S hyicus, S. epidermidis, S. intermedius, S. cohnii, S. sciuri, S. schleirferi and S
Enterotoxigenic gene profiles of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium isolates recovered from honey Búsqueda de factores de virulencia en cepas de Bacillus cereus y de Bacillus megaterium aisladas de miel
A. C. López
Full Text Available One hundred and thirty two Bacillus cereus and 52 Bacillus megaterium isolates from honeys were evaluated for the presence of genes encoding enterotoxin HBL, enterotoxin-T, cytotoxin K and the NHE complex, respectively. The relationship between hemolytic and coagulase activity and its correlation with the presence of the four mentioned enterotoxins was determined by principal component analysis (PCA. PCA in B. cereus revealed a positive correlation among free coagulase, hemolysis and the presence of genes hblA, hblB, hblC, hblD (HBL complex and bceT (enterotoxin-T, but no correlation with the clumping factor (bound coagulase and the presence of sequences of the NHE complex. On the other hand, PCA in B. megaterium showed a high positive correlation between coagulase (bound and free and the haemolytic activity but no correlation in relation to the presence of genes of the HBL complex, cytotoxin K, enterotoxin T and the NHE complex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of cytotoxin K and of the NHE complex genes in B. megaterium. The relationship between the coagulase activity and the presence of virulence factors has not been described before in the genus Bacillus, being this work the first report of this correlation. Interestingly, the presence of the cytK gene was almost independent of the presence of the rest of virulence factors herein analyzed both in B. cereus and B. megaterium populations. Our results suggest that honey could be a possible vehicle for foodborne illness due to the presence of toxigenic B. cereus and B. megaterium strains containing different virulence factors.Se evaluaron 132 aislamientos de Bacillus cereus y 52 de Bacillus megaterium provenientes de mieles de distintos orígenes geográficos para investigar la presencia de secuencias de ADN relacionadas con genes de virulencia y su posible correlación con la actividad hemolítica y coagulasa. Con respecto a los genes de virulencia, se analizaron por
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to detect the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in raw milk, to assess the hygiene parameters during the milk processing and to evaluate the safety of the fi nal dairy products using standard ISO methods. Staphylococcus aureus showed highest prevalence of the pathogen microorganisms (85%, followed by Escherichia coli (46% and Listeria monocytogenes (9.8 in bulk tank milk samples. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the tested samples.The swab samples taken from employees and working surfaces, water samples and pasteurized milk samples detected inadequate sanitary procedures during the phase of milk processing. Analysis of the swabs from employees hands revealed 1 positive sample for enumeration for Enterobacteriaceae and 7 samples with higher total viable count that did not comply withthe legislative, while the analysis of the swabs from working surfaces detected 5 samples positive for Enterobacteriaceae and 4 samples with higher total viable count that did not comply with the same legislative. The analysis of the water samples detected 2 samples with higher total viable count on 22°C, 2 samples for total viable count on 37°C and 1 sample for coliform bacteria that did not comply with the national legislative. None of the samples showed presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, sulphite reducing clostridia and intestinal enterococci. The analysis ofthe pasteurized milk confi rmed 3 samples with presence of Enterobacteriacae, 1 sample for coagulase-positive staphylococci and 2 samples with high total viable count at 30°C that did not comply with the national legislative. The analysis of fermented milk products and cheese samples confirmed the need for immediate corective measures and subsequently, improved sanitation procedures. The testing detected 9 samples of
Avaliação do diagnóstico da sepse neonatal: uso de parâmetros laboratoriais e clínicos como fatores diagnósticos Evaluación del diagnóstico de sepsis neonatal: uso de parámetros laboratoriales y clínicos como factores diagnósticos Evaluation of the neonatal sepsis diagnosis: use of clinical and laboratory parameters as diagnosis factors
Luciano de Assis Meireles
Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever e comparar as características clínicas, laboratoriais e assistenciais de RN que apresentaram sepse comprovada tardia e de RN que apresentaram sepse não comprovada tardia. Em seguida, avaliar se houve diferença entre os grupos, além de descrever os germes prevalentes na unidade neonatal estudada. Estudo descritivo, envolvendo 168 casos. Observou-se que 33,3% tiveram sepse tardia provada. A idade no momento da sepse, o tempo total de internação, a quantidade total de neutrófilos, a quantidade de neutrófilos imaturos e o valor da PC-r mostraram bons parâmetros na diferenciação entre os dois grupos quando analisados de forma isolada. A Klebisiella pneumoniae, o Staphylococcus coagulase negativo e o S. aureus foram as bactérias mais comumente isoladas.Se objetivó describir y comparar las características clínicas, laboratoriales y asistenciales de RN que presentaron sepsis comprobada tardía y de RN que presentaron sepsis no comprobada tardía para, entonces, evaluar si hubo diferencia entre los grupos, además de describir los gérmenes prevalentes en la unidad neonatal estudiada. Estudio descriptivo, involucrando 168 casos, 33,3% tuvieron sepsis tardía probada. La edad al momento de la sepsis, el tiempo total de internación, la cantidad total de neutrófilos, la cantidad de neutrófilos inmaduros y el valor de la PC-r mostraron buenos parámetros en la diferenciación entre los dos grupos cuando fueron analizados en forma aislada. La Klebsiella pneumoniae, el Staphylococcus coagulase negativo y el S. aureus fueron las bacterias aisladas con mayor prevalencia.The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the clinical, laboratory and health care characteristics of newborns (NBs with confirmed late onset sepsis and NBs with unconfirmed late sepsis, verify if there were any differences between the groups, and describe the germs prevalent in the studied neonatal unit. This is a descriptive study, involving
Campos, Joana; Gil, Joana; Mourão, Joana; Peixe, Luísa; Antunes, Patrícia
The ready-to-eat street vending commerce, as street mobile food vendors, has grown exponentially worldwide, representing in some countries a significant proportion of food consumed by the urban population. However, the microbiological food safety hazards of mobile vending units in industrialized countries are scarcely evaluated. To assess the microbiological quality and safety of this type of food and try to achieve the connection of its contamination with hygienic conditions of food-handlers, we analyzed hotdogs (n = 10), hamburgers (n = 10) and hands (n = 9) from ten street-vending trailers in the Porto region. Food and food-handler samples were tested for Enterobacteriaceae and coliform counts, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci counts/detection and presence of Salmonella. Aerobic mesophilic counts and detection of Listeria monocytogenes (Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis-PFGE and serotyping) were also tested in food samples. E. coli isolates were confirmed by MALDI-TOF and characterized for clonality (phylogenetic groups-PhG, PFGE and Multilocus Sequence Typing), antibiotic resistance (disk diffusion, PCR/sequencing) and intestinal pathogenic virulence factors (PCR/sequencing). All food samples presented poor microbiological quality (100% Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms; 20% E. coli (4 hamburgers, 4 trailers) and 20% (2 hamburgers/2 hotdogs, 3 trailers) were positive for L. monocytogenes (2 PFGE-types belonging to serotype 1/2a and 4b). Salmonella and coagulase-positive staphylococci were not detected. Food-handlers carried Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms (100%), E. coli (11%) and/or coagulase-positive staphylococci (44%). E. coli was detected in 12 samples (n = 30-food/food-handlers; phylogenetic groups A0/A1/B1) with 33% resistant to one or more antibiotics. Two multidrug resistant atypical E. coli pathotype strains (astA-ST165(CC165)/food-handler, eaeA-ST327/food) were detected. Three out of eight E. coli clonal lineages [ST409/ST976(CC10
Edmar Soares Nicolau
Full Text Available The sweet pies are widely consumed in special fairs in Goiânia-GO city. In general they are marketed in inadequate way, without refrigeration and most of times without any protection against various types of contaminants, including microbial contamination that can cause food toxi-infections to consumers. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of pies sold in 105 stalls in 23 special fair city of Goiânia, and also the impact of training on the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP in the quality of these products. The micro-organisms investigated were those required the by standard microbiological: Salmonella, fecal coliforms, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus coagulase positive. We also observed the temperature exposure of these foods on newsstands. We analyzed 259 samples in total, with 209 in the first stage, before the training of the fairground, and 50 in the second, after qualifying for the fair dealers in GMP. Pies sweets collected before training of fair dealers were considered unfit for consumption because it contains health indicators above the recommended limit (65.6% with fecal coliforms, 20.6% Staphylococcus coagulase positive and 16.8% with Bacillus cereus. In samples collected after training there was an improvement in the indices (28,0% contained coliforms, 14,0% Staphylococcus coagulase positive and 28,0% of Bacillus cereus, all above the limit set. None samples had Salmonella in both steps. It can be concluded that with the training of fair dealers there was an improvement in the microbiological quality of these products. These results reinforce the need for training of the fairground and the impact it can have on the quality of the products. The storage temperatures pies ranged from –5.3ºC to 28.7ºC in first step and –3.6ºC to 24.0ºC in the second. The presence of the refrigerated was not sufficient to maintain the optimal temperature (to 10 ° C for storage of pies.
van den Borne, B H P; van Schaik, G; Lam, T J G M; Nielen, M
Two linked randomized field trials were performed on 39 herds in the Netherlands to 1) determine therapeutic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis (RASCM) during lactation, 2) evaluate the effect of duration of subclinical mastitis on therapeutic outcome, and 3) identify factors related to the therapeutic success of RASCM. Cows with a first elevated composite somatic cell count (CSCC) after 2 consecutive low CSCC measurements were eligible for enrollment in trial 1 (treatment at the first elevated CSCC). Quarter milk samples were collected to determine bacteriological status for major pathogens and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Cows with one or more culture-positive quarters with a quarter somatic cell count (QSCC) >or=100,000 cells/mL were defined to have RASCM and were randomly assigned treatment or control (no treatment). Untreated cows from trial 1 that had a second elevated CSCC at the next milk recording were eligible for enrollment in trial 2 (treatment at the second elevated CSCC). In trial 2, staphylococci-positive cows (Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci) were randomly assigned to treatment or control. Farmers used their own treatment protocols to treat quarters in both trials. Bacteriological cure was defined as absence of the pathogen identified pre-intervention in 2 samples post-intervention; QSCC, CSCC, and milk yield were also analyzed. Hierarchical logistic and linear models were used to determine therapeutic effects and to identify factors related to therapy outcome. Treated quarters had a higher bacteriological cure rate than control quarters for all pathogens in both trials. Treatment resulted in lower QSCC and CSCC, whereas milk yield was not affected by treatment. Bacteriological cure of RASCM was better in quarters with a low QSCC pre-intervention and in coagulase-negative staphylococci-positive quarters. Control quarters with a single culture-positive sample pre
Arsenault, Julie; Dubreuil, Pascal; Higgins, Robert; Bélanger, Denise
We conducted a prospective observational study on clinical and subclinical mastitis in 30 commercial meat-producing sheep flocks from 2 regions of the province of Quebec, Canada. A total of 2,792 ewes selected in late gestation were followed from lambing to weaning of lambs. The incidence of clinical mastitis for the total lactation period (average of 58 days) ranged among flocks from 0 to 6.6%, with a median of 1.2%. The most frequently isolated bacteria from the cases of clinical mastitis, in pure or mixed culture, were Mannheimia haemolytica (26%), Staphylococcus aureus (23%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (17%). Incidence of clinical mastitis was higher in ewes that gave birth to 3 or more lambs and from the Estrie region, and was associated with an increase in ewe mortality, an increase in lamb mortality at the litter level, and a decrease in lamb's weaning weight for lambs born in multiple litter size or from ewes >or=4 years old. Among 354 selected ewes with clinically normal udder at the end of lactation, 28.8% had potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from milk. The most prevalent bacteria were S. aureus (9.3%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (9.3%). The risk of having a positive culture in at least one half was different between the two regions. Prevalence of ewes (n=261) with California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive result in at least one half was 24.1 and 14.9% using a cut-off of >or=1+ and >or=2+, respectively. Prevalence of culture-positive udder halves was 11.7% for CMT-negative compared with 53.6% for CMT 3+ halves. CMT status was positively associated with the isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci, M. haemolytica, S. aureus, and various Streptococcus species, but not with other isolated bacteria. Additionally, prevalence of CMT-positive halves was higher in ewes from the Estrie region, aged of >or=4 years versus 1 year, having clinical mastitis previously detected in the lactation and/or with low body condition score. Lamb
Mullié, C; Obin, O; Outurquin, G; Grognet, S; Léké, A; Adjidé, C
A total of 1099 breastmilk donations received by the milk bank at the Amiens University Hospital from January to June 2016 were assessed for bacteriological contamination according to French regulations. This consisted in enumerating the total aerobic flora before and after heat treatment as well as the specific enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci. Results above the mandatory limits for at least one of these parameters were found in 25.9% of the donations, resulting in the destruction of approximately one-quarter of the volume of the donations (∼195L). This is a huge loss in both economic and health-related terms for neonates, especially for pre-terms. To identify ways to improve the bacteriological assessment results and reduce the percentage of discarded milk, an analysis of the causes was conducted. The two main causes of non-compliance were the detection of a cultivable aerobic flora after heat treatment and the presence of coagulase-positive staphylococci above the mandatory limit (11.7% and 11.2% of the tested donations, respectively). Bacillus spp. were the leading cause of post-heat-treatment non-compliance. Therefore, the implementation of better environmental control could help reduce this kind of contamination. As for samples harboring coagulase-positive staphylococci, a further detection of toxins using molecular biology techniques could help discriminate actual health-hazardous donations that have to be destroyed while enabling the use of toxin-negative donations. Nevertheless, the economic viability of this proposal needs to be further assessed because these techniques are costly. Finally, a change in breastmilk dilutions used to enumerate the total aerobic flora to better reflect the actual level of these bacteria in the milk was proposed. Indeed, the comparison of various combinations of milk dilutions led to the conclusion that the association of the 1/10 and 1/100 dilutions was the best compromise between technical ease of
Marinésia A. Prado
Full Text Available Objetivo. Isolar e identificar microrganismos em baratas capturadas em um hospital público e determinar o seu perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana. Métodos. As baratas foram capturadas nos períodos matutino e noturno, colocadas em frascos desinfetados com álcool a 70%, transferidas para um frasco estéril e levadas ao laboratório. Consideraram-se as baratas íntegras e vivas, as quais foram colocadas em solução salina estéril (0,8% e homogeneizadas. Essa solução foi semeada nos meios de cultura ágar MacConkey, caldo nutriente, infusão de cérebro e coração (ágar BHI, ágar Sabouraud e ágar manitol. As culturas foram examinadas em um estereomicroscópio para a contagem das unidades formadoras de colônias. Para a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana utilizou-se o teste de difusão de disco. Resultados. Detectou-se prevalência de 56% de enterobactérias e de 18% de estafilococos coagulase negativos. Identificaram-se 15 espécies de enterobactérias. As mais freqüentes foram Klebsiella pneumoniae (17%; Enterobacter aerogenes (14%; Serratia marcescens (13%; Hafnia alvei (12%; Enterobacter gergoviae e Enterobacter cloacae (9%; e Serratia spp. (6%. Tanto as enterobactérias quanto os estafilococos coagulase negativos apresentaram uma resistência significativa aos antimicrobianos, inclusive à oxacilina. Conclusões. A prevalência de bactérias enteropatogênicas e de estafilococos coagulase negativos isolados de baratas Periplaneta americana no hospital estudado demonstra a fragilidade das condutas adotadas tanto para o controle de vetores quanto para o uso dos antimicrobianos. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade da implementação de um programa efetivo de saneamento ambiental e do uso racional dos antimicrobianos dentro das instituições de saúde.
Prado Marinésia A.
Full Text Available Objetivo. Isolar e identificar microrganismos em baratas capturadas em um hospital público e determinar o seu perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana. Métodos. As baratas foram capturadas nos períodos matutino e noturno, colocadas em frascos desinfetados com álcool a 70%, transferidas para um frasco estéril e levadas ao laboratório. Consideraram-se as baratas íntegras e vivas, as quais foram colocadas em solução salina estéril (0,8% e homogeneizadas. Essa solução foi semeada nos meios de cultura ágar MacConkey, caldo nutriente, infusão de cérebro e coração (ágar BHI, ágar Sabouraud e ágar manitol. As culturas foram examinadas em um estereomicroscópio para a contagem das unidades formadoras de colônias. Para a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana utilizou-se o teste de difusão de disco. Resultados. Detectou-se prevalência de 56% de enterobactérias e de 18% de estafilococos coagulase negativos. Identificaram-se 15 espécies de enterobactérias. As mais freqüentes foram Klebsiella pneumoniae (17%; Enterobacter aerogenes (14%; Serratia marcescens (13%; Hafnia alvei (12%; Enterobacter gergoviae e Enterobacter cloacae (9%; e Serratia spp. (6%. Tanto as enterobactérias quanto os estafilococos coagulase negativos apresentaram uma resistência significativa aos antimicrobianos, inclusive à oxacilina. Conclusões. A prevalência de bactérias enteropatogênicas e de estafilococos coagulase negativos isolados de baratas Periplaneta americana no hospital estudado demonstra a fragilidade das condutas adotadas tanto para o controle de vetores quanto para o uso dos antimicrobianos. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade da implementação de um programa efetivo de saneamento ambiental e do uso racional dos antimicrobianos dentro das instituições de saúde.
Full Text Available J Mebis1,2, H Jansens3, G Minalu4, G Molenberghs4, WA Schroyens1, AP Gadisseur1, A van de Velde1, I Vrelust1, H Goossens3, ZN Berneman11Division of Hematology, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, 2Division of Medical Oncology, Jessa Hospital, Hasselt, 3Division of Microbiology, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, 4Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics, Hasselt University, Hasselt, BelgiumObjective: The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolated bacterial organisms in relation to empiric treatment of neutropenic fever over a 15-year period.Methods: All patients with or at risk febrile neutropenia and treated in the hematology ward of the Antwerp University Hospital during 1994–2008 were prospectively included. Skin, blood, and urine cultures were taken. Oral quinolone prophylaxis was started in patients with neutropenia without fever. Empiric starting therapy consisted of amikacin in combination with cefepime.Results: A total of 3624 bacteria were isolated. The most common pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphylococci (46%, followed by Escherichia coli (25%, Enterobacteriaceae (15.6%, Staphylococcus aureus (7.2%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.8%. The balance between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria remained stable, with a majority of Gram-positive bacteria. A shift from oxacillin-sensitive to oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci was observed. Regarding susceptibility patterns, no vancomycin resistance was detected in coagulase-negative Staphylococci or in S. aureus. The E. coli susceptibility rates remained stable. However, 66% of bloodstream infections were ciprofloxacin-resistant. A reduced susceptibility of P. aeruginosa strains to meropenem was noticed.Conclusions: Improvement in antibiotic susceptibility of inducible Enterobacteriaceae following a switch of empiric antibiotic therapy was maintained 15 years
Daniela Aguiar Penha Brito
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Brito D.A.P., Oliveira I.S.S., Brito D.R.B. & Costa F.N. [Prevalency and etiology of dairy cattle mastitis in the Island of São Luís in the State of Maranhão, Brazil.] Prevalência e etiologia da mastite em bovinos leiteiros da Ilha de São Luís, estado do Maranhão, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(4:389-395, 2014. Departamento de Desenvolvimento Educacional, Instituto Federal do Maranhão, Avenida dos Curiós, s/n, Vila Esperança, São Luís, MA 65095-460, Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and etiology of bovine mastitis in the dairy region of the island of São Luís, Maranhão State. We examined 217 cows from 14 farms located in São Luís, Paço do Lumiar, São José de Ribamar and Raposa, using a strip cup and California Mastitis Test (CMT. Milk samples were collected from positive mammary quarters and subjected to microbiological analysis. Of 857 rooms mammary evaluated, 27 (3.12% had clinical mastitis and 215 (25.08% subclinical mastitis. In samples of reagents to CMT, 69 showed score 1+, 103 scores 2 + and 43 score 3 +. The milk positive samples for the tests were subjected to microbiological tests for the isolation and identification of infectious agents. Of the 242 samples of milk examined, 204 (84.29% had growth of microorganisms and 38 (15.70% had not growth. The microorganisms isolated were coagulase negative Staphylococcus (26.42%, Staphylococcus coagulase positive (14.23%, S. aureus (14.23%, Streptococcus spp. (20.33%, Corynebacterium spp. (3.25%, yeast (2.44% and Gram negative bacilli (1.22%. The results show a high frequency of breast quarters with clinical and subclinical mastitis and Staphylococcus coagulase negative was the etiologic agent most frequently isolated was, indicating the need for adoption of control measures aimed at improving hygiene conditions during milking.
Bruno Ricardo de Castro Leite Júnior
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of pasteurized milk, Minas Frescal cheese (MFC, and bovine ground beef (BGB. A total of 74 samples were subjected to analyses of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. Moreover, the MFC samples were subjected to analysis of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS and Listeria monocytogenes. All samples presented total coliforms, 81.6 % of the samples had values above the recommended for fecal coliform, and high incidence of E. coli. 75.0 % of the MFC samples were not in accordance with the legislation for CPS. All samples showed absence of Salmonella sp. and L. monocytogenes. These results showed that food of animal origin commercialized in the region of Minas Gerais is unfit for human consumption due to low microbiological quality. Therefore, there is need for adoption of good manufacturing practices and efficient sanitation to minimize the risk of transmission of foodborne pathogens by these foods.
Vinod Kumar, B; Hobani, Yahya Hasan; Abdulhaq, Ahmed; Jerah, Ahmed Ali; Hakami, Othman M; Eltigani, Magdeldin; Bidwai, Anil K
Mobile phones contaminated with bacteria may act as fomites. Antibiotic resistant bacterial contamination of mobile phones of inpatients was studied. One hundred and six samples were collected from mobile phones of patients admitted in various hospitals in Jazan province of Saudi Arabia. Eighty-nine (83.9%) out of 106 mobile phones were found to be contaminated with bacteria. Fifty-two (49.0%) coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 12 (11.3%) Staphylococcus aureus, 7 (6.6%) Enterobacter cloacae, 3 (2.83%) Pseudomonas stutzeri, 3 (2.83%) Sphingomonas paucimobilis, 2 (1.8%) Enterococcus faecalis and 10 (9.4%) aerobic spore bearers were isolated. All the isolated bacteria were found to be resistant to various antibiotics. Hence, regular disinfection of mobile phones of hospital inpatients is advised.
Viraneide Marques de ALMEIDA; Adenilde Ribeiro NASCIMENTO; Nancyleni Pinto CHAVES; Viramy Marques de ALMEIDA; Danilo Cutrim Bezerra; Lúcia Maria Coêlho ALVES
Avaliaram-se as condições higiênico-sanitá- rias de amostras de leite humano de um Banco de Leite Humano (BLH) na cidade de São Luís - MA, por meio da análise de 50 amostras de Leite Humano (LH) in natura. Realizou-se contagem de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas viá- veis, Coliformes a 35ºC e a 45°C, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e Salmonella sp. Realizaram-se no BLH seis vistorias com preenchimento de ficha de avaliação, contendo nove atributos para obtenção de inform...
Jean Phellipe Marques do Nascimento
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus sp. in lab coats nursing students, in addition to determining the antimicrobial sensitivity profile of the isolated bacteria. The bacterial samples were collected, identified and characterized phenotypically, with subsequent determination of antimicrobial sensitivity profile by disk diffusion technique, according to recommendation of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 57 colonies were isolated, where 51% were identified as Staphylococcus coagulase negative, 47% as Staphylococcus aureus and 2% belonging to a genus not identified. Among the samples identified as S. aureus, 15% were resistant to Oxacillin and 55% showed resistance to more than one antimicrobial.The results obtained in this work strengthen the role of the lab coat as a source of contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, as well as its possible role in the spread of these pathogens within and outside the hospital environment
Kao, Chih-Chin; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen
Peritonitis is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and remains the most common cause of PD failure. Micrococci are catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, and gram-positive cocci that are spherical, often found in tetrad, and belong to the family Micrococcaceae. Micrococcus species are commonly found in the environment, and it is now recognized that Micrococcus species can be opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. The only consistent predisposing factor for Micrococcus infection is an immunocompromised state. We report three cases of Micrococcus PD peritonitis. Improper practice of PD may have been the causative factor. Although Micrococcus species are low-virulence pathogens, infection could result in refractory peritonitis and subsequent PD failure. Intraperitoneal administration of vancomycin for at least 2 weeks is recommended for Micrococcus peritonitis.
Soldera, Jonathan; Nedel, Wagner Luis; Cardoso, Paulo Ricardo Cerveira; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves
CONTEXT Coagulase-negative staphylococci are common colonizers of the human skin and have become increasingly recognized as agents of clinically significant nosocomial infections. CASE REPORT The case of a 79-year-old male patient with multi-infarct dementia who presented systemic inflammatory response syndrome is reported. This was attributed to bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus, which was grown on blood cultures originating from an infected pressure ulcer. The few cases of Staphylococcus cohnii infection reported in the literature consist of bacteremia relating to catheters, surgical prostheses, acute cholecystitis, brain abscess, endocarditis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection and septic arthritis, generally presenting a multiresistant profile, with nearly 90% resistance to methicillin. CONCLUSIONS The reported case is, to our knowledge, the first case of true bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus caused by an infected pressure ulcer. It shows that this species may be underdiagnosed and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for community-acquired skin infections.
Shahandeh, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid; Sadighian, Farahnaz
Stphylococcus cohnii is an organism of coagulase negative species which is considered as normal flora. However, it has been isolated from urinary tract infections and surgical prostheses but its relation with staghorn stones has not been reported, yet. A 50-years-old woman presented with left renal staghorn stone in June 2014. She had bilateral staghorn stones 7 years ago. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum were detected from a removed stone. After 7 years, recurrence staghorn stone in her left kidney was diagnosed and patient underwent another surgery. The patient had several attacks of cystitis during these 7 years. The results of stone and urine cultures revealed staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum. This case report emphasizes a possible association between staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection and recurrence renal staghhorn stone.
Tariq A. Khemees
Full Text Available A 55-year-old heterosexual male presented to the emergency department with a symptomatology consistent with urethritis and Fournier’s gangrene. Urethral swab and operative tissue cultures were positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and an intracellular Gram-negative diplococcus. The latter was initially thought to be Neisseria gonorrhea; however, DNA sequencing technique confirmed it to be Neisseria meningitidis. The patient required three separate surgical debridements to control widespread necrotizing infection. Following documentation of sterile wound healing with appropriate antibiotics, four reconstructive surgeries were necessary to manage the resultant wound defects. To our knowledge, Neisseria meningitidis as a causative organism in Fournier’s gangrene has not been reported in the literature.
Recai OÐUR; Omer Faruk TEKBAS; Osman HANCI; Umut OZCAN
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of air blown from warm air hand dryers, and to compare findings with the microbiological characteristics of indoor air in which the dryer settled. Air samples was taken from different public places (shopping centers, restaurants and hospitals and investigated for total viable counts, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. Coli, Staphylococcus aureus and enteric pathogens. There were differences between sampling indoor places for some of the microorganisms, but all of the air samples taken from dryers contained more microorganisms than indoor air, and the differences between hand dryers and indoor air were statistically significant (p<0.05 except for enteric pathogens. As a result it could be said that warm air hand dryers could be microbiological contamination sources in restrooms or the other places that they are used. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 1-7
Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Pitter, Frederik Taylor; Voldstedlund, Marianne
. METHODS: One hundred and two partial revisions (open debridement and exchange of tibial insert) and 213 two-stage procedures performed due to infection in 275 patients from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2013 were included and analysed by linkage to data from a nationwide registry on microbiological test results....... RESULTS: 78 (24.8%) revisions were culture negative, 192 (60.9%) showed monomicrobial growth and 43 (14.3%) polymicrobial growth. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent isolate in mono-culture in 70 (22.2%) revisions and in polymicrobial culture in 15 revisions with a total frequency of 27.0%. Only...... one case (1.4%) of methicillin-resistance was registered. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were frequent, sole pathogen in 65 revisions and in polymicrobial cultures in 28 revisions with a total frequency of 29.5%. A pre-operative knee aspiration was performed in 50% and preoperative blood...
Decicco, B. T.
Studies with mutants of Staphylococcus aureus lacking some virulence factors suggest that the presence of deoxyribonuclease correlates with mouse pathogenicity of S. aureus, while the ability to ferment mannitol or the possession of coagulases are not required for virulence. Autotrophy investigations on mycobacteria demonstrate a complete correlation between the ability to grow with hydrogen and the species of scotochromogenic mycobacterium tested. All tested strains of M. gordonae, a saprophyte, could grow autotrophically while none of the tested strains of M. scrofulaceum, a clinically important species, possessed this ability. A series of heat tolerant mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescences were obtained which can grow at temperatures up to 54 C, in contrast to a maximum growth temperature of 37 C for the wild type.
Lee, Ju Yeon; Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jin Gyu; Cho, Won Jun; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon Yo Han; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon
This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial (Total aerobic count, Coliform, Coagulase positive Staphylococci, Salmonella, Yeast/Mold, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus), Hunter' color values (L*, a*, b*) and organoleptic quality of freeze-dried Miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup in space food, Bacillus cereus was 1 log level while not detected in the sample irradiated at 10 kGy. Hunter's color values of the samples irradiated less than 10 kGy was not significantly different (p>0.05). The sensory evaluation result showed that the preference scores in all the sensory properties decreased when it was irradiated over 10 kGy, but sensory score of less than 10 kGy samples was similar in all terms. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy was enough to sterilize the freeze-dried Miyeokguk without deterioration of sensory quality
Dau, A A; Tloba, S; Daw, M A
Few studies have analysed the bacterial pathogenesis of infections associated with war-wound in the Eastern Mediterranean region. We analysed surgical wound infections of 1200 patients injured during the Libyan conflict in 2011 and admitted to the emergency services at Tripoli medical centre. Culture swabs or surgical wound debridement samples were collected and cultures were identified and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Of the 1200 patients studied, 498 (42%) were infected with at least 1 pathogen and 57 with >2 pathogens. The most common species were Acinetobacter spp. (isolated from 144 patients), coagulase-negative staphylococci (122), Escherichia coli (107), Pseudomnonas aeruginosa (92) and Klebsiella spp. (86). A high level of resistance to the antibiotics tested was found, especially among Acinetobacter spp. Multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli were an important complicating factor in wound infections associated with war injuries among injured patients in Libya. Effective policies are needed to control and treat such infections particularly in trauma and emergency services.
Bagcigil, Funda A.; Moodley, Arshnee; Baptiste, Keith E.
beta-Lactams and macrolides are important antibiotics for treatment of staphylococcal infections in both humans and animals. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, species distribution and clonality of methicillin and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci in the nasal cavity of dogs......, horses, pigs, and cattle in Denmark. Nasal swabs were collected from a total of 400 animals, including 100 individuals of each species. Methicillin and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci were isolated on selective media, identified by 16S rDNA sequencing, and typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis...... (PFGE). Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) harbouring mecA were isolated from horses (50%) and dogs (13%), but not from food animals. The species identified were S. haemolyticus (n = 21), S. vitulinus (n = 19), S. sciuri (n = 13), S. epidermidis (n = 8), and S. warneri (n...
Full Text Available According to the recent “Hygiene Package” it is the responsibility of Food Business Operator to validate foods’ shelf-life, also considering normal storage and use conditions. The aim of this research was to define the shelf-life of a refrigerated ready-to-eat meat product: the vitel tonnè. 175 samples taken from a producer were stored at 2 different temperatures: +3°C (as declared in label and +8±1°C (in order to simulate the thermal abuses during transport and domestic storage and analyzed at different intervals for microbiological parameters as TVC at 30°C, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Sulphate-Reducing Clostridia, B. cereus, Coagulase-positive Staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp Preliminary results show that temperature abuse shorten shelf-life significantly, mainly for the parameters TVC and LAB.
Lucio Honorio de Carvalho Junior
Full Text Available Infection after total knee replacement (IATJ is a rare complication. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality increasing the final costs. Gram positive coccus and Staphylococcus coagulase-negative and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common isolated germs (>50% of the cases. Conditions related to the patient, to the surgical procedure and even to the post op have been identified as risk factors to IATJ. Many complementary methods together with clinical symptoms are useful to a proper diagnosis. Treatment for IATJ must be individualized but generally is a combination of systemic antibiotic therapy and surgical treatment. Prosthesis exchange in one or two stages is the first choice procedure. Debridement with prosthesis retention is an option in acute cases with stable implants and antibiotic sensible germs.
Full Text Available Mastitis means inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland. Many infective agents have been implicated as causes of mastitis. Worldwide, farmers have achieved tremendous success in reducing the incidence of contagious mastitis by adopting the traditional methods of mastitis control. The greatest impact of these control measures has been on infections caused by the contagious bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactia. But this success has not been demonstrated for clinical mastitis caused by other agents. Organisms such as coagulase negative Staphylococci, environmental Streptococci, Mycoplasma spp and Serratia spp have increasingly been isolated from dairy herds that had low somatic cell counts. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 38-39
Lee, Ju Yeon [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jin Gyu; Cho, Won Jun; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon Yo Han; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)
This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial (Total aerobic count, Coliform, Coagulase positive Staphylococci, Salmonella, Yeast/Mold, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus), Hunter' color values (L*, a*, b*) and organoleptic quality of freeze-dried Miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup in space food, Bacillus cereus was 1 log level while not detected in the sample irradiated at 10 kGy. Hunter's color values of the samples irradiated less than 10 kGy was not significantly different (p>0.05). The sensory evaluation result showed that the preference scores in all the sensory properties decreased when it was irradiated over 10 kGy, but sensory score of less than 10 kGy samples was similar in all terms. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy was enough to sterilize the freeze-dried Miyeokguk without deterioration of sensory quality.
Full Text Available Six types of unripened raw milk fresh (Robiola, Crescenza, Primo sale and Formaggella and “pasta filata” cheeses (Mozzarella and Burrata were evaluated for microbiological parameters. No Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. were detected, but high microbial counts were revealed. Significantly higher Total Viable Counts (TVC and Enterobacteriaceae counts were observed in “fresh cheese” than in “pasta filata” samples. Values > 6 Log CFU/g were found in 81.3% of fresh vs 50% in pasta filata for TVC and 65.6% vs 12.5% for Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. An evident contamination by Escherichia coli, Coagulase-positive Staphylococci and Pseudomonas spp. was detected in all the cheeses: the causes could be the improper hygiene of the artisanal production practices and the permanence of the cheeses on the refrigerated shelves. A careful attention to the respect of the good manufacturing practices is suggested to avoid the presence of initial high bacterial loads.
Lomholt, Jeanet Andersen; Kilian, Mogens
PURPOSE. To investigate the integrity of secretory IgA (S-IgA) in tear fluid during bacterial keratitis and to evaluate the significance of specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular proteases in the observed degradation of S-IgA. METHODS. The integrity of component chains of S-IgA in tear fluid...... from patients with keratitis caused by P. aeruginosa, Streptococcus group G, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and the IgA1 protease-producing Streptococcus pneumoniae were compared with S-IgA in tear fluid, colostrum, and saliva from healthy individuals......, and with tear S-IgA incubated with clinical isolates and genetically engineered P. aeruginosa strains with different protease profiles. Degradation of S-IgA and the significance of its glycosylation were analyzed in Western blots developed with antibodies against individual chains of S-IgA. RESULTS. Secretory...
Maria Teresa Mascellino
Full Text Available The methicillin-resistance is increasing all over the world in the last decade. It is more frequent among coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS; infact the 52% of S. epidermidis strains results to be resistant to methicillin.The methicillin-resistant strains also show a reduced sensitivity towards the first-line agents such as glycopeptides and other antibiotics commonly used in therapy such as trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, imipenem, gentamycin, fosfomycin and chlarytromicin. Unlike MRSA (Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, MRCoNS resistance to glycopeptides generally concerns teicoplanin. Although vancomycin resistance is rare in Staphylococcus isolates, the detected shift towards higher values of MICs might affect patient’s clinical outcome.
Kimura, Masato; Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo
Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens.
Full Text Available Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens.
Cattell, M B; Dinsmore, R P; Belschner, A P; Carmen, J; Goodell, G
A clinical trial was conducted in a large dairy herd to determine the efficacy of intramammary pirlimycin hydrochloride administration during lactation for bacteriologic clearance of gram-positive environmental clinical and subclinical mastitis infections. Quarters infected with environmental streptococci that received pirlimycin therapy (13/28) were 1.8 times more likely to resolve infection than untreated quarters (5/14). The small numbers of quarters infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci resulted in inadequate power to assess treatment differences in cure rate. Although the association was not statistically significant, quarters from cows with sensitive environmental streptococci isolates from composite samples (8/13) resolved infection with treatment at approximately twice the rate of treated quarters with resistant isolates (3/10).
In-vitro coagulation studies comprising overall and individual factor determinations were carried out with the aim of clarifying the nature of unforeseen incidents arising from the use of contrast media in X-ray diagnosis. In all tests a reproducible, dose-dependent, exponential coagulation inhibition was obtained, and resulted in complete inhibition at higher dose levels. This effect occurred by a factor of ten earlier, on average, with iodine ipamide, representative of liver passage bile CM, compared to uro, and angiographic CM diatrozoate and iodine thalamate used for kidney passage. Hepatotrophic CM act initially hypercoagulative at low dises through activation of the thrombin coagulase complex; later inhibition of coagulation sets in through direct fixation on functional proteins and their subsequent denaturation. A discussion is given of the importance of direct physico-chemical toxicity, histamine liberation reactions and cellular reactions, and the controversial role of the complement system is presented. (orig./MG) [de
Nazir A. Brohi
Full Text Available A general survey for six months was undertaken for the prevalence of environmental bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae among the different age groups (3-65 years including both sexes from various hospitals of Hyderabad city. Laboratory examinations revealed S. pneumoniae as most potent environmental pathogen from the sputum and throat swabs of old aged patients and children respectively. During observations, 39 specimens were growth positive; the biochemistry of isolates revealed that they were coagulase, catalase and oxidase negative, TSI, gel hydrolysis positive and were able to ferment glucose, lactose, maltose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, starch and raffinose. The results of antimicrobial activity showed that pneumococci were resistant to the cefspan, septran, cravit, pipemetic acid, azomax, bacitracin, and penicillin and a clear zone of inhibition was observed on clithromycin, optochin, cefizox, genatamycin, minocyclin, levoflaxacin, and vancomycin. There were intermediate zone of inhibition found on claforan, nalidixic acid, amoxycillin, fosfomycin, fortum, and erythromycin on Mueller Hinton’s agar after 24 hours incubation
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli in the raw cow milk. In this study 133 milk-tank samples from several milk collecting points were analysed. After the tests the following prevalence was detected: for Listeria spp. 13 positive samples (9.77%, with 9 Listeria monocytogenes samples confirmed (6.76%. Salmonella spp. was not detected in any of the the samples. The biggest presence was detected for Staphylococcus spp. with 113 positive samples (85.0%. Further testes has shown prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci of 73% (97 positive samples. Escherichia coli was confirmed in 57 samples (46.0%. The results from this study clearly indicate that pathogen microorganisms which are important for the human health can be found in the raw cow milk and their presence can be potential hazard for contamination of the milk-processing establishments.
Egun, A; Slade, D; McCollum, C N
To review gradual snare occlusion for the management of complex or recurrent graft infection. Medical records of patients treated with gradual snare occlusion following graft infection were reviewed for indication for operation, type of bypass and graft material used. In addition, infecting organism, grade of infection (Szilágyi) and outcome were recorded. Four femoropopliteal, two extra-anatomic (axillofemoral) and aortobifemoral bypasses were included in this study. All had chronic infection (Szilágyi grade III) with onset of 4 to 24 months and two of which were recurrent. The causative organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in three patients, with no organism isolated in the remaining cases. There was no loss of limb following gradual snare occlusion but there was only one death due to aortic stump rupture 2 weeks later. Gradual snare occlusion is an alternative for the management of chronic or recurrent graft infection. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Samantha Serra Costa
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the bi-functional efficacy of active packaging films produced with starch (4% and glycerol (1.0%, reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (0-1% and activated with alcoholic extracts of red propolis (0.4 to 1.0%. The cellulose nanocrystals used in this study were extracted from licuri leaves. The films were characterized using moisture, water-activity analyses and water vapor-permeability tests and were tested regarding their total phenolic compounds and mechanical properties. The antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of the films were evaluated by monitoring the use of the active films for packaging cheese curds and butter, respectively. The cellulose nanocrystals increased the mechanical strength of the films and reduced the water permeability and water activity. The active film had an antimicrobial effect on coagulase-positive staphylococci in cheese curds and reduced the oxidation of butter during storage.
Núñez, S.; Moreno, A.; Green, K.; Villar, J.
The purposes of this study were to determine whether microorganisms can be isolated from the membranes of stethoscopes used by clinicians and nurses, and to analyse whether or not the degree of bacterial colonization could be reduced with different cleaning methods. We designed a transversal before-after study in which 122 stethoscopes were examined. Coagulase negative staphylococci (which are also potentially pathogenic microorganisms)