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Sample records for co2-injection enhanced oil

  1. An Experimental Study of Surfactant Alternating CO2 Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery of Carbonated Reservoir

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    Asghar Gandomkar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Core flooding experiments were conducted with the objective of evaluating near miscible surfactant alternating CO2 injection and the effect of surfactant concentrations on gas-oil and water displacements in porous media. The core samples were provided from a low permeability mixed wet oil reservoir at 156 °F and 1900 psia. In addition, very few studies of surfactant adsorption on carbonate minerals have been conducted. Hence, the surfactant adsorption on carbonate rock was determined by core flooding and crushed tests. It was found that for the crushed rock, the required equilibrium time is approximately five hours, while it is more than four days for the flow-through tests. Hysteresis effects demonstrated that the irreducible water saturations were 5 to 10% higher than the initial connate water saturation after drainage cycles during 5000 ppm surfactant solution. Furthermore, near-miscible surfactant alternating CO2 injection process led to a 4-17% increase in the recovery factor in comparison to water alternating gas process.

  2. Microseismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Penn West Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilot Project, Canada: Implications for Detection of Wellbore Leakage

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    Gonzalo Zambrano-Narváez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A passive seismic monitoring campaign was carried out in the frame of a CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR pilot project in Alberta, Canada. Our analysis focuses on a two-week period during which prominent downhole pressure fluctuations in the reservoir were accompanied by a leakage of CO2 and CH4 along the monitoring well equipped with an array of short-period borehole geophones. We applied state of the art seismological processing schemes to the continuous seismic waveform recordings. During the analyzed time period we did not find evidence of induced micro-seismicity associated with CO2 injection. Instead, we identified signals related to the leakage of CO2 and CH4, in that seven out of the eight geophones show a clearly elevated noise level framing the onset time of leakage along the monitoring well. Our results confirm that micro-seismic monitoring of reservoir treatment can contribute towards improved reservoir monitoring and leakage detection.

  3. Microseismic monitoring of CO2 injection at the Penn West Enhanced Oil Recovery pilot project, Canada: implications for detection of wellbore leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Bohnhoff, Marco; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Zambrano-Narváez, Gonzalo; Chalaturnyk, Rick

    2013-09-02

    A passive seismic monitoring campaign was carried out in the frame of a CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) pilot project in Alberta, Canada. Our analysis focuses on a two-week period during which prominent downhole pressure fluctuations in the reservoir were accompanied by a leakage of CO2 and CH4 along the monitoring well equipped with an array of short-period borehole geophones. We applied state of the art seismological processing schemes to the continuous seismic waveform recordings. During the analyzed time period we did not find evidence of induced micro-seismicity associated with CO2 injection. Instead, we identified signals related to the leakage of CO2 and CH4, in that seven out of the eight geophones show a clearly elevated noise level framing the onset time of leakage along the monitoring well. Our results confirm that micro-seismic monitoring of reservoir treatment can contribute towards improved reservoir monitoring and leakage detection.

  4. Co2 injection into oil reservoir associated with structural deformation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the problem of structural deformation with two-phase flow of carbon sequestration is presented. A model to simulate miscible CO2 injection with structural deformation in the aqueous phase is established. In the first part of this paper, we developed analytical solution for the problem under consideration with certain types of boundary conditions, namely, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The second part concerns to numerical simulation using IMPDES scheme. A simulator based on cell-centered finite difference method is used to solve this equations system. Distributions of CO2 saturation, and horizontal and vertical displacements have been introduced.

  5. Evaluation of miscible and immiscible CO2 injection in one of the Iranian oil fields

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    Aref Hashemi Fath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 flooding is one of the most important methods for enhanced oil recovery (EOR because it not only increases oil recovery efficiency but also causes a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It is a very complex system, involving phase behavior that could increase the recovery of oil by means of swelling, evaporation and decreasing viscosity of the oil. In this study, a reservoir modeling approach was used to evaluate immiscible and miscible CO2 flooding in a fractured oil field. To reduce simulation time, we grouped fluid components into 10 pseudo-components. The 3-parameter, Peng–Robinson Equation of State (EOS was used to match PVT experimental data by using the PVTi software. A one-dimensional slim-tube model was defined using ECLIPSE 300 software to determine the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP for injection of CO2. We used FloGrid software for making a reservoir static model and the reservoir model was calibrated using manual and assisted history matching methods. Then various scenarios of natural depletion, immiscible and miscible CO2 injection have been simulated by ECLIPSE 300 software and then the simulation results of scenarios have been compared. Investigation of simulation results shows that the oil recovery factor in miscible CO2 injection scenario is more than other methods.

  6. VSP Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Aneth Oil Field in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Rutledge, J.; Zhou, R.; Denli, H.; Cheng, A.; Zhao, M.; Peron, J.

    2008-12-01

    Remotely tracking the movement of injected CO2 within a geological formation is critically important for ensuring safe and long-term geologic carbon sequestration. To study the capability of vertical seismic profiling (VSP) for remote monitoring of CO2 injection, a geophone string with 60 levels and 96 channels was cemented into a monitoring well at the Aneth oil field in Utah operated by Resolute Natural Resources and Navajo National Oil and Gas Company. The oil field is located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, and was selected by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration. The geophones are placed at depths from 805 m to 1704 m, and the oil reservoir is located approximately from 1731 m to 1786 m in depth. A baseline VSP dataset with one zero-offset and seven offset source locations was acquired in October, 2007 before CO2 injection. The offsets/source locations are approximately 1 km away from the monitoring well with buried geophone string. A time-lapse VSP dataset with the same source locations was collected in July, 2008 after five months of CO2/water injection into a horizontal well adjacent to the monitoring well. The total amount of CO2 injected during the time interval between the two VSP surveys was 181,000 MCF (million cubic feet), or 10,500 tons. The time-lapse VSP data are pre-processed to balance the phase and amplitude of seismic events above the oil reservoir. We conduct wave-equation migration imaging and interferometry analysis using the pre-processed time-lapse VSP data. The results demonstrate that time-lapse VSP surveys with high-resolution migration imaging and scattering analysis can provide reliable information about CO2 migration. Both the repeatability of VSP surveys and sophisticated time-lapse data pre-processing are essential to make VSP as an effective tool for monitoring CO2 injection.

  7. Optimal scheduling for enhanced coal bed methane production through CO2 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuping; Zheng, Qipeng P.; Fan, Neng; Aminian, Kashy

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel deterministic optimization model for CO 2 -ECBM production scheduling. • Maximize the total profit from both sales of natural gas and CO 2 credits trading in the carbon market. • A stochastic model incorporating uncertainties and dynamics of NG price and CO 2 credit. - Abstract: Enhanced coal bed methane production with CO 2 injection (CO 2 -ECBM) is an effective technology for accessing the natural gas embedded in the traditionally unmineable coal seams. The revenue via this production process is generated not only by the sales of coal bed methane, but also by trading CO 2 credits in the carbon market. As the technology of CO 2 -ECBM becomes mature, its commercialization opportunities are also springing up. This paper proposes applicable mathematical models for CO 2 -ECBM production and compares the impacts of their production schedules on the total profit. A novel basic deterministic model for CO 2 -ECBM production including the technical and chemical details is proposed and then a multistage stochastic programming model is formulated in order to address uncertainties of natural gas price and CO 2 credit. Both models are nonlinear programming problems, which are solved by commercial nonlinear programming software BARON via GAMS. Numerical experiments show the benefits (e.g., expected profit gain) of using stochastic models versus deterministic models

  8. OIL RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CO2 INJECTION MONITORING IN THE PERMIAN BASIN WITH CROSSWELL ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Wilt

    2004-02-01

    Substantial petroleum reserves exist in US oil fields that cannot be produced economically, at current prices, unless improvements in technology are forthcoming. Recovery of these reserves is vital to US economic and security interests as it lessens our dependence on foreign sources and keeps our domestic petroleum industry vital. Several new technologies have emerged that may improve the situation. The first is a series of new flooding techniques to re-pressurize reservoirs and improve the recovery. Of these the most promising is miscible CO{sub 2} flooding, which has been used in several US petroleum basins. The second is the emergence of new monitoring technologies to track and help manage this injection. One of the major players in here is crosswell electromagnetics, which has a proven sensitivity to reservoir fluids. In this project, we are applying the crosswell EM technology to a CO{sub 2} flood in the Permian Basin oil fields of New Mexico. With our partner ChevronTexaco, we are testing the suitability of using EM for tracking the flow of injected CO{sub 2} through the San Andreas reservoir in the Vacuum field in New Mexico. The project consisted of three phases, the first of which was a preliminary field test at Vacuum, where a prototype system was tested in oil field conditions including widely spaced wells with steel casing. The results, although useful, demonstrated that the older technology was not suitable for practical deployment. In the second phase of the project, we developed a much more powerful and robust field system capable of collecting and interpreting field data through steel-cased wells. The final phase of the project involved applying this system in field tests in the US and overseas. Results for tests in steam and water floods showed remarkable capability to image between steel wells and provided images that helped understand the geology and ongoing flood and helped better manage the field. The future of this technology is indeed bright

  9. Measurement of electrical impedance of a Berea sandstone core during the displacement of saturated brine by oil and CO2 injections

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    Liu, Yu; Xue, Ziqiu; Park, Hyuck; Kiyama, Tamotsu; Zhang, Yi; Nishizawa, Osamu; Chae, Kwang-seok

    2015-12-01

    Complex electrical impedance measurements were performed on a brine-saturated Berea sandstone core while oil and CO2 were injected at different pressures and temperatures. The saturations of brine, oil, and CO2 in the core were simultaneously estimated using an X-ray computed tomography scanner. The formation factor of this Berea core and the resistivity indexes versus the brine saturations were calculated using Archie's law. The experimental results found different flow patterns of oil under different pressures and temperatures. Fingers were observed for the first experiment at 10 MPa and 40 °C. The fingers were restrained as the viscosity ratio of oil and water changed in the second (10 MPa and 25 °C) and third (5 MPa and 25 °C) experiments. The resistivity index showed an exponential increase with a decrease in brine saturation. The saturation exponent varied from 1.4 to 4.0 at different pressure and temperature conditions. During the oil injection procedure, the electrical impedance increased with oil saturation and was significantly affected by different oil distributions; therefore, the impedance varied whether the finger was remarkable or not, even if the oil saturation remained constant. During the CO2 injection steps, the impedance showed almost no change with CO2 saturation because the brine in the pores became immobile after the oil injection.

  10. Modeling of time-lapse multi-scale seismic monitoring of CO2 injected into a fault zone to enhance the characterization of permeability in enhanced geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Borgia, A.; Daley, T. M.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Jung, Y.; Lee, K. J.; Doughty, C.; Altundas, B.; Chugunov, N.; Ramakrishnan, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface permeable faults and fracture networks play a critical role for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) by providing conduits for fluid flow. Characterization of the permeable flow paths before and after stimulation is necessary to evaluate and optimize energy extraction. To provide insight into the feasibility of using CO2 as a contrast agent to enhance fault characterization by seismic methods, we model seismic monitoring of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) injected into a fault. During the CO2 injection, the original brine is replaced by scCO2, which leads to variations in geophysical properties of the formation. To explore the technical feasibility of the approach, we present modeling results for different time-lapse seismic methods including surface seismic, vertical seismic profiling (VSP), and a cross-well survey. We simulate the injection and production of CO2 into a normal fault in a system based on the Brady's geothermal field and model pressure and saturation variations in the fault zone using TOUGH2-ECO2N. The simulation results provide changing fluid properties during the injection, such as saturation and salinity changes, which allow us to estimate corresponding changes in seismic properties of the fault and the formation. We model the response of the system to active seismic monitoring in time-lapse mode using an anisotropic finite difference method with modifications for fracture compliance. Results to date show that even narrow fault and fracture zones filled with CO2 can be better detected using the VSP and cross-well survey geometry, while it would be difficult to image the CO2 plume by using surface seismic methods.

  11. Petrophysical and rock-mechanics effects of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, Morten Leth; Christensen, Helle Foged

    2014-01-01

    this issue we studied two types of chalk from South Arne field, North Sea: (1) Ekofisk Formation having >12% non-carbonate and (2) Tor Formation, which has less than 5% non-carbonate. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the changes in petrophysical and rock-mechanics properties due...... reservoirs. North Sea chalk is characterized by high porosity but also high specific surface causing low permeability. A high porosity provides room for CO2 storage, while a high specific surface causes a high risk for chemical reaction and consequently for mechanical weakening. In order to address...... to the injection of CO2 at supercritical state. We analyzed these changes with respect to the differences in porosity, specific surface, pore stiffness, wettability, mineralogy and mechanical strength. We observed a 2–3% increase in porosity, a minor decrease of specific surface and consequently a small increase...

  12. The U.S. Gas Flooding Experience: CO2 Injection Strategies and Impact on Ultimate Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Lopez, Vanessa [The University of Texas at Austin; Hosseini, Seyyed; Gil-Egui, Ramon

    2017-09-29

    The Permian Basin in West Texas and southwestern New Mexico has seen 45 years of oil reserve growth through CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR). More than 60 CO2 EOR projects are currently active in the region’s limestone, sandstone and dolomite reservoirs. Water alternating gas (WAG) has been the development strategy of choice in the Permian for several technical and economic reasons. More recently, the technology started to get implemented in the much more porous and permeable clastic depositional systems of the onshore U.S. Gulf Coast. Continued CO2 injection (CGI), as opposed to WAG, was selected as the injection strategy to develop Gulf Coast oil fields, where CO2 injection volumes are significantly larger (up to 6 times larger) than those of the Permian. We conducted a compositional simulation based study with the objective of comparing the CO2 utilization ratios (volume of CO2 injected to produce a barrel of oil) of 4 conventional and novel CO2 injection strategies: (1) continuous gas injection (CGI), (2) water alternating gas (WAG), (3) water curtain injection (WCI), and (4) WAG and WCI combination. These injection scenarios were simulated using the GEM module from the Computer Modeling Group (CMG). GEM is an advanced general equation-of-state compositional simulator, which includes equation of state, CO2 miscible flood, CO2/brine interactions, and complex phase behavior. The simulator is set up to model three fluid phases including water, oil, and gas. Our study demonstrates how the selected field development strategy has a significant impact on the ultimate recovery of CO2-EOR projects, with GCI injection providing maximum oil recovery in absolute volume terms, but with WAG offering a more balanced technical-economical approach.

  13. Comparison of geochemical data obtained using four brine sampling methods at the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test CO2 injection site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

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    Conaway, Christopher; Thordsen, James J.; Manning, Michael A.; Cook, Paul J.; Trautz, Robert C.; Thomas, Burt; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a characterization well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, as part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Anthropogenic Test, which is an integrated carbon capture and storage project. In this study, formation water and gas samples were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using gas lift, electric submersible pump, U-tube, and a downhole vacuum sampler (VS) and subjected to both field and laboratory analyses. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, dissolved sulfide concentration, alkalinity, and pH; laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements, dissolved carbon, volatile fatty acids, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na–Ca–Cl-type brine with a salinity of about 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids. Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity. There was little gas in samples, and gas composition results were strongly influenced by sampling methods. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the VS and U-tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  14. Simulation of CO2 Injection in Porous Media with Structural Deformation Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2011-06-18

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is one of the most attractive methods to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by injecting it into the geological formations. Furthermore, it is also an effective mechanism for enhanced oil recovery. Simulation of CO2 injection based on a suitable modeling is very important for explaining the fluid flow behavior of CO2 in a reservoir. Increasing of CO2 injection may cause a structural deformation of the medium. The structural deformation modeling in carbon sequestration is useful to evaluate the medium stability to avoid CO2 leakage to the atmosphere. Therefore, it is important to include such effect into the model. The purpose of this study is to simulate the CO2 injection in a reservoir. The numerical simulations of two-phase flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media are presented. Also, the effects of gravity and capillary pressure are considered. IMplicit Pressure Explicit Saturation (IMPES) and IMplicit Pressure-Displacements and an Explicit Saturation (IMPDES) schemes are used to solve the problems under consideration. Various numerical examples were simulated and divided into two parts of the study. The numerical results demonstrate the effects of buoyancy and capillary pressure as well as the permeability value and its distribution in the domain. Some conclusions that could be derived from the numerical results are the buoyancy of CO2 is driven by the density difference, the CO2 saturation profile (rate and distribution) are affected by the permeability distribution and its value, and the displacements of the porous medium go to constant values at least six to eight months (on average) after injection. Furthermore, the simulation of CO2 injection provides intuitive knowledge and a better understanding of the fluid flow behavior of CO2 in the subsurface with the deformation effect of the porous medium.

  15. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded...... simulations were made for seven oil samples within a wide range of temperature, pressure and salinity. The results were analyzed in terms of the change in oil recovery due to different phase equilibrium descriptions, the delay in breakthrough and the CO2 lost to the aqueous phase. The influence of different...

  16. A Review of CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery with a Simulated Sensitivity Analysis

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    Mandadige Samintha Anne Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a comprehensive study of the CO2-EOR (Enhanced oil recovery process, a detailed literature review and a numerical modelling study. According to past studies, CO2 injection can recover additional oil from reservoirs by reservoir pressure increment, oil swelling, the reduction of oil viscosity and density and the vaporization of oil hydrocarbons. Therefore, CO2-EOR can be used to enhance the two major oil recovery mechanisms in the field: miscible and immiscible oil recovery, which can be further increased by increasing the amount of CO2 injected, applying innovative flood design and well placement, improving the mobility ratio, extending miscibility, and controlling reservoir depth and temperature. A 3-D numerical model was developed using the CO2-Prophet simulator to examine the effective factors in the CO2-EOR process. According to that, in pure CO2 injection, oil production generally exhibits increasing trends with increasing CO2 injection rate and volume (in HCPV (Hydrocarbon pore volume and reservoir temperature. In the WAG (Water alternating gas process, oil production generally increases with increasing CO2 and water injection rates, the total amount of flood injected in HCPV and the distance between the injection wells, and reduces with WAG flood ratio and initial reservoir pressure. Compared to other factors, the water injection rate creates the minimum influence on oil production, and the CO2 injection rate, flood volume and distance between the flood wells have almost equally important influence on oil production.

  17. Predicting, monitoring and controlling geomechanical effects of CO2 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, J.E.; Siggins, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    A key objective of geological carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage in porous rock is long-term subsurface containment of CO 2 . Fault stability and maximum sustainable pore-fluid pressures should be estimated in geomechanical studies in order to avoid damage to reservoir seals and fault seals of storage sites during CO 2 injection. Such analyses rely on predicting the evolution of effective stresses in rocks and faults during CO 2 injection. However, geomechanical analyses frequently do not incorporate poroelastic behaviour of reservoir rock, as relevant poroelastic properties are rarely known. The knowledge of rock poroelastic properties would allow the use of seismic methods for the accurate measurement of the effective stress evolution during CO 2 injection. This paper discussed key geomechanical effects of CO 2 injection into porous rock, and in particular, focused on the effects that the poroelasticity of reservoir rocks and pore pressure/stress coupling have on effective stresses. Relevant geophysical monitoring techniques were also suggested. The paper also outlined how these techniques could be applied to measure stress changes related to poroelastic rock behaviour during CO 2 injection and to test the predictions of sustainable changes in effective stress in CO 2 storage sites. It was concluded that a combination of predictive geomechanical techniques and application of geophysical monitoring techniques is a valid new concept for controlling and monitoring the geomechanical effects of CO 2 storage. 36 refs., 5 figs

  18. Recovery enhancement at the later stage of supercritical condensate gas reservoir development via CO2 injection: A case study on Lian 4 fault block in the Fushan sag, Beibuwan Basin

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    Wenyan Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lian 4 fault block is located in the northwest of Fushan sag, Beibuwan Basin. It is a high-saturated condensate gas reservoir with rich condensate oil held by three faults. In order to seek an enhanced condensate oil recovery technology that is suitable for this condensate gas reservoir at its later development stage, it is necessary to analyze its reserve producing degree and remaining development potential after depletion production, depending on the supercritical fluid phase behavior and depletion production performance characteristics. The supercritical fluid theories and multiple reservoir engineering dynamic analysis methods were adopted comprehensively, such as dynamic reserves, production decline, liquid-carrying capacity of a production well, and remaining development potential analysis. It is shown that, at its early development stage, the condensate in Lian 4 fault block presented the features of supercritical fluid, and the reservoir pressure was lower than the dew point pressure, so retrograde condensate loss was significant. Owing to the retrograde condensate effect and the fast release of elastic energy, the reserve producing degree of depletion production is low in Lian 4 fault block, and 80% of condensate oil still remains in the reservoir. So, the remaining development potential is great. The supercritical condensate in Lian 4 fault block is of high density. Based on the optimization design by numerical simulation of compositional model, it is proposed to inject CO2 at the top and build up pressure by alternating production and injection, so that the secondary gas cap is formed while the gravity-stable miscible displacement is realized. In this way, the recovery factor of condensate reservoirs can be improved by means of the secondary development technology.

  19. Numerical Investigation into the Impact of CO2-Water-Rock Interactions on CO2 Injectivity at the Shenhua CCS Demonstration Project, China

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    Guodong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 100,000 t/year demonstration project for carbon dioxide (CO2 capture and storage in the deep saline formations of the Ordos Basin, China, has been successfully completed. Field observations suggested that the injectivity increased nearly tenfold after CO2 injection commenced without substantial pressure build-up. In order to evaluate whether this unique phenomenon could be attributed to geochemical changes, reactive transport modeling was conducted to investigate CO2-water-rock interactions and changes in porosity and permeability induced by CO2 injection. The results indicated that using porosity-permeability relationships that include tortuosity, grain size, and percolation porosity, other than typical Kozeny-Carman porosity-permeability relationship, it is possible to explain the considerable injectivity increase as a consequence of mineral dissolution. These models might be justified in terms of selective dissolution along flow paths and by dissolution or migration of plugging fines. In terms of geochemical changes, dolomite dissolution is the largest source of porosity increase. Formation physical properties such as temperature, pressure, and brine salinity were found to have modest effects on mineral dissolution and precipitation. Results from this study could have practical implications for a successful CO2 injection and enhanced oil/gas/geothermal production in low-permeability formations, potentially providing a new basis for screening of storage sites and reservoirs.

  20. Joint inversion of time-lapse VSP data for monitoring CO2 injection at the Farnsworth EOR field in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Gao, K.; Balch, R. S.; Huang, L.

    2016-12-01

    During the Development Phase (Phase III) of the U.S. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), time-lapse 3D vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data were acquired to monitor CO2 injection/migration at the Farnsworth Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) field, in partnership with the industrial partner Chaparral Energy. The project is to inject a million tons of carbon dioxide into the target formation, the deep oil-bearing Morrow Formation in the Farnsworth Unit EOR field. Quantitative time-lapse seismic monitoring has the potential to track CO2 movement in geologic carbon storage sites. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has recently developed new full-waveform inversion methods to jointly invert time-lapse seismic data for changes in elastic and anisotropic parameters in target monitoring regions such as a CO2 reservoir. We apply our new joint inversion methods to time-lapse VSP data acquired at the Farnsworth EOR filed, and present some preliminary results showing geophysical properties changes in the reservoir.

  1. Enhanced oil recovery: an update review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, V.; Manrique, E.

    2010-01-01

    With the decline in oil discoveries during the last decades it is believed that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies will play a key role to meet the energy demand in years to come. This paper presents a comprehensive review of EOR status and opportunities to increase final recovery factors in reservoirs ranging from extra heavy oil to gas condensate. Specifically, the paper discusses EOR status and opportunities organized by reservoir lithology (sandstone and carbonates formations and turbiditic reservoirs to a lesser extent) and offshore and onshore fields. Risk and rewards of EOR methods including growing trends in recent years such as CO 2 injection, high pressure air injection (HPAI) and chemical flooding are addressed including a brief overview of CO 2 -EOR project economics. (authors)

  2. Assessment of brine migration risks along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Alexander; Class, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change, shortage of resources and the growing usage of renewable energy sources has lead to a growing demand for the utilization of subsurface systems. Among these competing uses are Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), geothermal energy, nuclear waste disposal, 'renewable' methane or hydrogen storage as well as the ongoing production of fossil resources like oil, gas and coal. Additionally, these technologies may also create conflicts with essential public interests such as water supply. For example, the injection of CO2 into the subsurface causes an increase in pressure reaching far beyond the actual radius of influence of the CO2 plume, potentially leading to large amounts of displaced salt water. In this work we focus on the large scale impacts of CO2 storage on brine migration but the methodology and the obtained results may also apply to other fields like waste water disposal, where large amounts of fluid are injected into the subsurface. In contrast to modeling on the reservoir scale the spatial scale required for this work is much larger in both vertical and lateral direction, as the regional hydrogeology has to be considered. Structures such as fault zones, hydrogeological windows in the Rupelian clay or salt domes are considered as potential pathways for displaced fluids into shallow systems and their influence has to be taken into account. We put the focus of our investigations on the latter type of scenario, since there is still a poor understanding of the role that salt diapirs would play in CO2 storage projects. As there is hardly any field data available on this scale, we compare different levels of model complexity in order to identify the relevant processes for brine displacement and simplify the modeling process wherever possible, for example brine injection vs. CO2 injection, simplified geometries vs. the complex formation geometry and the role of salt induced density differences on flow. Further we investigate the impact of the

  3. Effects of CO2 injection and Kerogen Maturation on Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Response

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    Prasad, M.; Livo, K.

    2017-12-01

    Low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is commonly used in petrophysical analysis of petroleum reservoir rocks. NMR experiments record the relaxation and polarization of in-situ hydrogen protons present in gaseous phases such as free-gas intervals and solution gas fluids, bulk fluid phases such as oil and aquifer intervals, and immovable fractions of kerogen and bitumen. Analysis of NMR relaxation spectra is performed to record how fluid composition, maturity, and viscosity change NMR experimental results. We present T1-T2 maps as thermal maturity of a water-saturated, sub-mature Woodford shale is increased at temperatures from 125 to 400 degrees Celsius. Experiments with applied fluid pressure in paraffinic mineral oil and DI water with varying fluid pH have been performed to mimic reservoir conditions in analysis of the relaxation of bulk fluid phases. We have recorded NMR spectra, T1-T2 maps, and fluid diffusion coefficients using a low-field (2 MHz) MagritekTM NMR. CO2 was injected at a pressure of 900 psi in an in house developed NMR pressure vessel made of torlon plastic. Observable 2D NMR shifts in immature kerogen formations as thermal maturity is increased show generation of lighter oils with increased maturity. CO2 injection leads to a decrease in bulk fluid relaxation time that is attributed to viscosity modification with gas presence. pH variation with increased CO2 presence were shown to not effect NMR spectra. From this, fluid properties have been shown to greatly affect NMR readings and must be taken into account for more accurate NMR reservoir characterization.

  4. The Effect of CO2 Injection on Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium Biomass Growth Rate and Carbohydrate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujizat Kawaroe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many species of macroalga grow in marine ecosystem and potentially as raw material for bioethanol resource. Bioethanol is a conversion result of carbohydrate, one of macroalgae biomass content. The exploration of macroalgae require information about  growth rate ability to determine availability in the nature. This research analyze growth rate and carbohydrate content of marine macroalga Gelidium latifolium on cultivation using varied injection of carbon dioxide and aeration. The treatments were control (K, 2000 cc CO2 injection and aeration (P1, 3000 cc CO2 injection and aeration (P2, 2000 cc CO2 injection without aeration (P3, and 3000 cc CO2 injection without aeration (P4. Samples weight were 3 gram in early cultivation on laboratorium scale for 42 days observation. The results showed that the daily growth rate Gelidium latifolium during the study ranged from 0.02-1.06%. The highest daily growth rate was 1.06±0.14% (P2. Carbohydrate yield was 18.23% in early cultivation then 19.40% (K and P2, 20.40% (P1, 16.87% (K3, and 16.40% (P4 after cultivation. The high of carbohydrates value may not guarantee the sustainable Gelidium latifolium biomass utilization as raw material for bioethanol production because of the low growth rate, thus it is necessary to modified and encourage cultivation method effectively. Keywords: CO2 injection, growth rate, carbohydrate, macroalgae, Gelidium latifolium

  5. Effect of gas field production and CO2 injection on brine flow and salt precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, D.; Tambach, T.J.; Hofstee, C.; Plug, W.J.; Maas, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports modeling of gas field produc-tion and CO2 injection from a theoretical reser-voir based on characteristics of the P18 gas field in the Dutch offshore, which consists of four geological deposits with different petrophysical properties. We especially focus on the brine flow during

  6. Impact of thermal processes on CO2 injectivity into a coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H Y; Liu, J S; Pan, Z J; Connell, L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate how thermal gradients, caused by CO2 injection, expansion and adsorption, affect the permeability and adsorption capacity of coal during CO2 sequestration. A new permeability model is developed in which the concept of elastic modulus reduction ratio is introduced to partition the effective strain between coal matrix and fracture. This model is implemented into a fully coupled mechanical deformation, gas flow and heat transport finite element simulator. To predict the amount of CO2 sequested, the extended Langmuir sorption model is used, with parameters values taken from the literature. The coupled heat and gas flow equations, are solved in COMSOL using the finite element method. The simulation results for a constant volume reservoir demostrate that thermal strain acts to significantly reduce both CO2 injectivity and adsorption capacity. These impacts need to be considered in the calculation of the optimum injection rate and the total sequestration capacity.

  7. Case study on ground surface deformation induced by CO2 injection into coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Tang Chun'an

    2010-01-01

    To monitor a geomechanical response of injecting CO 2 into relatively shallow coal seams, tiltmeters were set as an array to cover the ground surface area surrounding the injection well, and to measure the ground deformation during a well fracturing stimulation and a short-term CO 2 injection test. In this paper, an attempt to establish a quantitative relationship between the in-situ coal swelling and the corresponding ground deformation was made by means of numerical simulation study. (authors)

  8. Pore network quantification of sandstones under experimental CO2 injection using image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrezueta, Edgar; González-Menéndez, Luís; Ordóñez-Casado, Berta; Olaya, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Automated-image identification and quantification of minerals, pores and textures together with petrographic analysis can be applied to improve pore system characterization in sedimentary rocks. Our case study is focused on the application of these techniques to study the evolution of rock pore network subjected to super critical CO2-injection. We have proposed a Digital Image Analysis (DIA) protocol that guarantees measurement reproducibility and reliability. This can be summarized in the following stages: (i) detailed description of mineralogy and texture (before and after CO2-injection) by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques using thin sections; (ii) adjustment and calibration of DIA tools; (iii) data acquisition protocol based on image capture with different polarization conditions (synchronized movement of polarizers); (iv) study and quantification by DIA that allow (a) identification and isolation of pixels that belong to the same category: minerals vs. pores in each sample and (b) measurement of changes in pore network, after the samples have been exposed to new conditions (in our case: SC-CO2-injection). Finally, interpretation of the petrography and the measured data by an automated approach were done. In our applied study, the DIA results highlight the changes observed by SEM and microscopic techniques, which consisted in a porosity increase when CO2 treatment occurs. Other additional changes were minor: variations in the roughness and roundness of pore edges, and pore aspect ratio, shown in the bigger pore population. Additionally, statistic tests of pore parameters measured were applied to verify that the differences observed between samples before and after CO2-injection were significant.

  9. Long-term CO2 injection and its impact on near-surface soil microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwosdz, Simone; West, Julia M; Jones, David; Rakoczy, Jana; Green, Kay; Barlow, Tom; Blöthe, Marco; Smith, Karon; Steven, Michael; Krüger, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Impacts of long-term CO 2 exposure on environmental processes and microbial populations of near-surface soils are poorly understood. This near-surface long-term CO 2 injection study demonstrated that soil microbiology and geochemistry is influenced more by seasonal parameters than elevated CO 2 Soil samples were taken during a 3-year field experiment including sampling campaigns before, during and after 24 months of continuous CO 2 injection. CO 2 concentrations within CO 2 -injected plots increased up to 23% during the injection period. No CO 2 impacts on geochemistry were detected over time. In addition, CO 2 -exposed samples did not show significant changes in microbial CO 2 and CH 4 turnover rates compared to reference samples. Likewise, no significant CO 2 -induced variations were detected for the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea (16S rDNA) and gene copy numbers of the mcrA gene, Crenarchaeota and amoA gene. The majority (75%-95%) of the bacterial sequences were assigned to five phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes The majority of the archaeal sequences (85%-100%) were assigned to the thaumarchaeotal cluster I.1b (soil group). Univariate and multivariate statistical as well as principal component analyses showed no significant CO 2 -induced variation. Instead, seasonal impacts especially temperature and precipitation were detected. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Simulation of CO2 Injection in Porous Media with Structural Deformation Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is one of the most attractive methods to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by injecting it into the geological formations. Furthermore, it is also an effective mechanism for enhanced oil recovery

  11. Caprock Integrity during Hydrocarbon Production and CO2 Injection in the Goldeneye Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Saeed; Paluszny, Adriana; Zimmerman, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a key technology for addressing climate change and maintaining security of energy supplies, while potentially offering important economic benefits. UK offshore, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs have the potential capacity to store significant quantities of carbon dioxide, produced during power generation from fossil fuels. The Goldeneye depleted gas condensate field, located offshore in the UK North Sea at a depth of ~ 2600 m, is a candidate for the storage of at least 10 million tons of CO2. In this research, a fully coupled, full-scale model (50×20×8 km), based on the Goldeneye reservoir, is built and used for hydro-carbon production and CO2 injection simulations. The model accounts for fluid flow, heat transfer, and deformation of the fractured reservoir. Flow through fractures is defined as two-dimensional laminar flow within the three-dimensional poroelastic medium. The local thermal non-equilibrium between injected CO2 and host reservoir has been considered with convective (conduction and advection) heat transfer. The numerical model has been developed using standard finite element method with Galerkin spatial discretisation, and finite difference temporal discretisation. The geomechanical model has been implemented into the object-oriented Imperial College Geomechanics Toolkit, in close interaction with the Complex Systems Modelling Platform (CSMP), and validated with several benchmark examples. Fifteen major faults are mapped from the Goldeneye field into the model. Modal stress intensity factors, for the three modes of fracture opening during hydrocarbon production and CO2 injection phases, are computed at the tips of the faults by computing the I-Integral over a virtual disk. Contact stresses -normal and shear- on the fault surfaces are iteratively computed using a gap-based augmented Lagrangian-Uzawa method. Results show fault activation during the production phase that may affect the fault's hydraulic conductivity

  12. Characterizing the potential for fault reactivation related to CO2 injection through subsurface structural mapping and stress field analysis, Wellington Field, Sumner County, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, D.; Bidgoli, T.; Taylor, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    South-central Kansas has experienced an unprecedented increase in seismic activity since 2013. The spatial and temporal relationship of the seismicity with brine disposal operations has renewed interest in the role of fluids in fault reactivation. This study focuses on determining the suitability of CO2 injection into a Cambro-Ordovician reservoir for long-term storage and a Mississippian reservoir for enhanced oil recovery in Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas. Our approach for determining the potential for induced seismicity has been to (1) map subsurface faults and estimate in-situ stresses, (2) perform slip and dilation tendency analysis to identify optimally-oriented faults relative to the estimated stress field, and (3) monitor surface deformation through cGPS data and InSAR imaging. Through the use of 3D seismic reflection data, 60 near vertical, NNE-striking faults have been identified. The faults range in length from 140-410 m and have vertical separations of 3-32m. A number of faults appear to be restricted to shallow intervals, while others clearly cut the top basement reflector. Drilling-induced tensile fractures (N=78) identified from image logs and inversion of earthquake focal mechanism solutions (N=54) are consistent with the maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) oriented ~E-W. Both strike-slip and normal-slip fault plane solutions for earthquakes near the study area suggest that SHmax and Sv may be similar in magnitude. Estimates of stress magnitudes using step rate tests (Shmin = 2666 psi), density logs (Sv = 5308 psi), and calculations from wells with drilling induced tensile fractures (SHmax = 4547-6655 psi) are determined at the gauge depth of 4869ft. Preliminary slip and dilation tendency analysis indicates that faults striking 0°-20° are stable, whereas faults striking 26°-44° may have a moderate risk for reactivation with increasing pore-fluid pressure.

  13. A fully coupled finite element framework for thermal fracturing simulation in subsurface cold CO2 injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunde Yin

    2018-03-01

    Simulation of thermal fracturing during cold CO2 injection involves the coupled processes of heat transfer, mass transport, rock deforming as well as fracture propagation. To model such a complex coupled system, a fully coupled finite element framework for thermal fracturing simulation is presented. This framework is based on the theory of non-isothermal multiphase flow in fracturing porous media. It takes advantage of recent advances in stabilized finite element and extended finite element methods. The stabilized finite element method overcomes the numerical instability encountered when the traditional finite element method is used to solve the convection dominated heat transfer equation, while the extended finite element method overcomes the limitation with traditional finite element method that a model has to be remeshed when a fracture is initiated or propagating and fracturing paths have to be aligned with element boundaries.

  14. Stable isotope reactive transport modeling in water-rock interactions during CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Lagneau, Vincent; Agrinier, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Stable isotopes can be of great usefulness in the characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites. Stable isotopes can be used to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources. Moreover, they provide unique information about the chemical reactions that take place on the CO2-water-rock system. However, there is a lack of appropriate tools that help modelers to incorporate stable isotope information into the flow and transport models used in CO2 sequestration problems. In this work, we present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable isotopes in groundwater reactive systems. The code is an extension of the groundwater single-phase flow and reactive transport code HYTEC [2]. HYTEC's transport module was modified to include element isotopes as separate species. This way, it is able to track isotope composition of the system by computing the mixing between the background water and the injected solution accounting for the dependency of diffusion on the isotope mass. The chemical module and database have been expanded to included isotopic exchange with minerals and the isotope fractionation associated with chemical reactions and mineral dissolution or precipitation. The performance of the code is illustrated through a series of column synthetic models. The code is also used to model the aqueous phase CO2 injection test carried out at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory site (Palisades, New York, USA) [1]. References [1] N. Assayag, J. Matter, M. Ader, D. Goldberg, and P. Agrinier. Water-rock interactions during a CO2 injection field-test: Implications on host rock dissolution and alteration effects. Chemical Geology, 265(1-2):227-235, July 2009. [2] Jan van der Lee, Laurent De Windt, Vincent Lagneau, and Patrick Goblet. Module-oriented modeling of reactive transport with HYTEC. Computers & Geosciences, 29(3):265-275, April 2003.

  15. Performance Analysis of Cold Energy Recovery from CO2 Injection in Ship-Based Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwalong You

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage (CCS technology is one of the practical solutions for mitigating the effects of global warming. When captured CO2 is injected into storage sites, the CO2 is subjected to a heating process. In a conventional CO2 injection system, CO2 cold energy is wasted during this heating process. This study proposes a new CO2 injection system that takes advantage of the cold energy using the Rankine cycle. The study compared the conventional system with the new CO2 injection system in terms of specific net power consumption, exergy efficiency, and life-cycle cost (LCC to estimate the economic effects. The results showed that the new system reduced specific net power consumption and yielded higher exergy efficiency. The LCC of the new system was more economical. Several cases were examined corresponding to different conditions, specifically, discharge pressure and seawater temperature. This information may affect decision-making when CCS projects are implemented.

  16. Vertically-Integrated Dual-Continuum Models for CO2 Injection in Fractured Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Guo, B.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Injection of CO2 into a saline aquifer leads to a two-phase flow system, with supercritical CO2 and brine being the two fluid phases. Various modeling approaches, including fully three-dimensional (3D) models and vertical-equilibrium (VE) models, have been used to study the system. Almost all of that work has focused on unfractured formations. 3D models solve the governing equations in three dimensions and are applicable to generic geological formations. VE models assume rapid and complete buoyant segregation of the two fluid phases, resulting in vertical pressure equilibrium and allowing integration of the governing equations in the vertical dimension. This reduction in dimensionality makes VE models computationally more efficient, but the associated assumptions restrict the applicability of VE model to formations with moderate to high permeability. In this presentation, we extend the VE and 3D models for CO2 injection in fractured aquifers. This is done in the context of dual-continuum modeling, where the fractured formation is modeled as an overlap of two continuous domains, one representing the fractures and the other representing the rock matrix. Both domains are treated as porous media continua and can be modeled by either a VE or a 3D formulation. The transfer of fluid mass between rock matrix and fractures is represented by a mass transfer function connecting the two domains. We have developed a computational model that combines the VE and 3D models, where we use the VE model in the fractures, which typically have high permeability, and the 3D model in the less permeable rock matrix. A new mass transfer function is derived, which couples the VE and 3D models. The coupled VE-3D model can simulate CO2 injection and migration in fractured aquifers. Results from this model compare well with a full-3D model in which both the fractures and rock matrix are modeled with 3D models, with the hybrid VE-3D model having significantly reduced computational cost. In

  17. Evasion of CO2 injected into the ocean in the context of CO2 stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheshgi, Haroon S.

    2004-01-01

    The eventual evasion of injected CO 2 to the atmosphere is one consideration when assessing deep-sea disposal of CO 2 as a potential response option to climate change concerns. Evasion estimated using an ocean carbon cycle model is compared to long-term trajectories for future CO 2 emissions, including illustrative cases leading to stabilization of CO 2 concentration at various levels. Modeled residence time for CO 2 injected into the deep ocean exceeds the 100-year time-scale usually considered in scenarios for future emissions, and the potential impacts of climate change. Illustrative cases leading monotonically to constant CO 2 concentration have been highlighted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to give guidance on possible timing of emission reductions that may be required to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at various levels. For stabilization cases considered, significant modeled evasion does not occur until long after CO 2 emissions have reached a maximum and begun to decline. Illustrative cases can also lead to a maximum in CO 2 concentration followed by a decline to slowly decreasing concentrations. In such cases, future injection of emissions into the deep ocean leads to lower maximum CO 2 concentration, with less effect on concentration later on in time

  18. Transient changes in shallow groundwater chemistry during the MSU ZERT CO2 injection experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, J.A.; Zheng, Lingyun; Spycher, N.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Kharaka, Y.; Thordsen, J.; Kakouros, E.; Trautz, R.

    2011-01-01

    Food-grade CO2 was injected into a shallow aquifer through a perforated pipe placed horizontally 1-2 m below the water table at the Montana State University Zero Emission Research and Technology (MSU-ZERT) field site at Bozeman, Montana. The possible impact of elevated CO2 levels on groundwater quality was investigated by analyzing 80 water samples taken before, during, and following CO2 injection. Field determinations and laboratory analyses showed rapid and systematic changes in pH, alkalinity, and conductance, as well as increases in the aqueous concentrations of trace element species. The geochemical data were first evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) in order to identify correlations between aqueous species. The PCA findings were then used in formulating a geochemical model to simulate the processes likely to be responsible for the observed increases in the concentrations of dissolved constituents. Modeling was conducted taking into account aqueous and surface complexation, cation exchange, and mineral precipitation and dissolution. Reasonable matches between measured data and model results suggest that: (1) CO2 dissolution in the groundwater causes calcite to dissolve. (2) Observed increases in the concentration of dissolved trace metals result likely from Ca+2-driven ion exchange with clays (smectites) and sorption/desorption reactions likely involving Fe (hydr)oxides. (3) Bicarbonate from CO2 dissolution appears to compete for sorption with anionic species such as HAsO4-2, potentially increasing dissolved As levels in groundwater. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A Multi-scale Approach for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Middleton, R. S.; Pan, F.; Ampomah, W.; Yang, C.; Jia, W.; Lee, S. Y.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.; Grigg, R.; White, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Using carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce carbon sequestration costs in the absence of greenhouse gas emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multi-scale approach to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis for understanding CO2 storage potential within an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil-water flow and transport in the Marrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2 injection rate, CO2 first breakthrough time, CO2 production rate, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil and CH4 production, and water injection and production rates. A global sensitivity analysis indicates that reservoir permeability, porosity, and thickness are the major intrinsic reservoir parameters that control net CO2 injection/storage and oil/CH4 recovery rates. The well spacing (the distance between the injection and production wells) and the sequence of alternating CO2 and water injection are the major operational parameters for designing an effective five-spot CO2-EOR pattern. The response surface analysis shows that net CO2 injection rate increases with the increasing reservoir thickness, permeability, and porosity. The oil/CH4 production rates are positively correlated to reservoir permeability, porosity and thickness, but negatively correlated to the initial water saturation. The mean and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying the uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. The results from this study provide useful insights for understanding the CO2 storage potential and the corresponding risks of commercial-scale CO2-EOR fields.

  20. Impact of CO2 injection protocol on fluid-solid reactivity: high-pressure and temperature microfluidic experiments in limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin; Porter, Mark; Carey, James; Guthrie, George; Viswanathan, Hari

    2017-04-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 has been proposed in the last decades as a technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere and mitigate the global climate change. However, some questions such as the impact of the protocol of CO2 injection on the fluid-solid reactivity remain open. In our experiments, two different protocols of injection are compared at the same conditions (8.4 MPa and 45 C, and constant flow rate 0.06 ml/min): i) single phase injection, i.e., CO2-saturated brine; and ii) simultaneous injection of CO2-saturated brine and scCO2. For that purpose, we combine a unique high-pressure/temperature microfluidics experimental system, which allows reproducing geological reservoir conditions in geo-material substrates (i.e., limestone, Cisco Formation, Texas, US) and high resolution optical profilometry. Single and multiphase flow through etched fracture networks were optically recorded with a microscope, while processes of dissolution-precipitation in the etched channels were quantified by comparison of the initial and final topology of the limestone micromodels. Changes in hydraulic conductivity were quantified from pressure difference along the micromodel. The simultaneous injection of CO2-saturated brine and scCO2, reduced the brine-limestone contact area and also created a highly heterogeneous velocity field (i.e., low velocities regions or stagnation zones, and high velocity regions or preferential paths), reducing rock dissolution and enhancing calcite precipitation. The results illustrate the contrasting effects of single and multiphase flow on chemical reactivity and suggest that multiphase flow by isolating parts of the flow system can enhance CO2 mineralization.

  1. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  2. Using Polymer Alternating Gas to Enhance Oil Recovery in Heavy Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongzhi; Li, Weirong; Zhou, Tiyao; Dong, Zhenzhen

    2018-02-01

    CO2 has been used to recover oil for more than 40 years. Currently, about 43% of EOR production in U.S. is from CO2 flooding. CO2 flooding is a well-established EOR technique, but its density and viscosity nature are challenges for CO2 projects. Low density (0.5 to 0.8 g/cm3) causes gas to rise upward in reservoirs and bypass many lower portions of the reservoir. Low viscosity (0.02 to 0.08 cp) leads to poor volumetric sweep efficiency. So water-alternating-gas (WAG) method was used to control the mobility of CO2 and improve sweep efficiency. However, WAG process has some other problems in heavy oil reservoir, such as poor mobility ratio and gravity overriding. To examine the applicability of carbon dioxide to recover viscous oil from highly heterogeneous reservoirs, this study suggests a new EOR method--polymer-alternating gas (PAG) process. The process involves a combination of polymer flooding and CO2 injection. To confirm the effectiveness of PAG process in heavy oils, a reservoir model from Liaohe Oilfield is used to compare the technical and economic performance among PAG, WAG and polymer flooding. Simulation results show that PAG method would increase oil recovery over 10% compared with other EOR methods and PAG would be economically success based on assumption in this study. This study is the first to apply PAG to enhance oil recovery in heavy oil reservoir with highly heterogeneous. Besides, this paper provides detailed discussions and comparison about PAG with other EOR methods in this heavy oil reservoir.

  3. Monitoring a pilot CO2 injection experiment in a shallow aquifer using 3D cross-well electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Lassen, R. N.; Looms, M. C.; Jensen, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Three dimensional electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to monitor a pilot CO2 injection experiment at Vrøgum, Denmark. The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ERT method for monitoring the two opposing effects from gas-phase and dissolved CO2 in a shallow unconfined siliciclastic aquifer. Dissolved CO2 increases water electrical conductivity (EC) while gas phase CO2 reduce EC. We injected 45kg of CO2 into a shallow aquifer for 48 hours. ERT data were collected for 50 hours following CO2 injection. Four ERT monitoring boreholes were installed on a 5m by 5m square grid and each borehole had 24 electrodes at 0.5 m electrode spacing at depths from 1.5 m to 13 m. ERT data were inverted using a difference inversion algorithm for bulk EC. 3D ERT successfully detected the CO2 plume distribution and growth in the shallow aquifer. We found that the changes of bulk EC were dominantly positive following CO2 injection, indicating that the effect of dissolved CO2 overwhelmed that of gas phase CO2. The pre-injection baseline resistivity model clearly showed a three-layer structure of the site. The electrically more conductive glacial sand layer in the northeast region are likely more permeable than the overburden and underburden and CO2 plumes were actually confined in this layer. Temporal bulk EC increase from ERT agreed well with water EC and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar data. ERT monitoring offers a competitive advantage over water sampling and GPR methods because it provides 3D high-resolution temporal tomographic images of CO2 distribution and it can also be automated for unattended operation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL IM release#: LLNL-PROC-657944.

  4. Enhanced oil recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  5. Present-day stress analysis in the St. Lawrence Lowlands from borehole breakouts and implications for Co2 injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinovskaya, E.; Malo, M. [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada)], email: Elena.Konstantinovskaya@ete.inrs.ca; Castillo, D.A.; Hughes, Baker [Reservoir Development Services, GeoMechanics, 5373 West Alabama Street, Suite 300, Houston, Texas, 77056 (United States)], email: David.Castillo@BakerHughes.com

    2011-07-01

    An essential part of reservoir-geomechanical study in the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, consists of evaluating the geomechanical response of the rock and caprock of the reservoir to different injection scenarios and the long-term storage of CO2. The first phase of this study consists of determining current stress direction. The next step consists of assessing the potential shear failure or reactivation of pre-existing faults and fracture sets caused by changes in the reservoir pressure because of CO2 injection. According to study results, the orientation of the average maximum horizontal stress direction SHmax obtained from stress-induced wellbore borehole breakouts in this area is N59 degree E plus or minus 20 degree. The wellbore breakouts in 17 wells go from 250 m to 4 km depth. A major purpose of this geomechanical study is to estimate to what extent sustainable fluid pressures for CO2 injection can be increased without causing fracturing, faulting, or reactivation of pre-existing faults. To this end, one must determine prevailing stresses (directions and magnitudes), fault geometries and rock strengths.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    2005-04-27

    This report describes the work performed during the fourth year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificially fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT scanner to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in hydraulically fractured reservoirs (HFR) and naturally fractured reservoirs (NFR) that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. In Chapter 1, we worked with DOE-RMOTC to investigate fracture properties in the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome Naval Reserve as part of their CO{sub 2} sequestration project. In Chapter 2, we continue our investigation to determine the primary oil recovery mechanism in a short vertically fractured core. Finally in Chapter 3, we report our numerical modeling efforts to develop compositional simulator with irregular grid blocks.

  7. Physical Property Changes During CO2 Injection into Sandstone from Pukpyeong Formation, South Korea: Pore-scale Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Keehm, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is believed to be responsible for global warming and climate change, and Korea government puts a great effort in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage). The geological sequestration is regarded as one viable option and we are looking for prospecting formations for carbon storage. In this paper, we present a new approach to determine physical property changes during CO2 injection and preliminary results from applying the method to one of prospective Tertiary formation in South Korea. The so-called computational rock physics method is composed of three steps: 1) acquisition of high-resolution pore microstructures by X-ray micro-tomography; 2) CO2 injection simulation using lattice-Boltzmann (LB) two-phase flow simulation; and 3) FEM property simulations (electrical and elastic) at different CO2 saturations during the injection. We have been shown the viability of the method last year. This year we applied this method to one of CS (carbon storage) target area, Pukpyeong formation located in north-eastern part of South Korea. From thin section analysis, we found that the formation is composed of mudstone, sandstone and conglomerate, and most of them are poorly consolidated. The mudstone and poorly-sorted conglomerate are believed to have very low permeability, and the effect of CO2 injection would be significant. Thus we focus on sandstone units and get pore microstructure of those units. We then performed the computational rock physics analysis, and present the relations of Vp - CO2 saturation, and electrical conductivity - CO2 saturation for a few sand units. We also present the preliminary upscaling results by putting combined sandstone and mudstone units into FEM modeling. The modeling results implies that the new computational approach can be very useful to characterizing the CS sites especially in early stage. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP

  8. Impact of hydrogeological and geomechanical properties on surface uplift at a CO2 injection site: Parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.; Bishop, J. E.; Arnold, B. W.; Bryant, S.

    2013-12-01

    It is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict a consequence of geological storage of CO2. In this study, we estimate key hydrogeologic features to govern the geomechanical response (i.e., surface uplift) at a large-scale CO2 injection project at In Salah, Algeria using the Sierra Toolkit - a multi-physics simulation code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Importantly, a jointed rock model is used to study the effect of postulated fractures in the injection zone on the surface uplift. The In Salah Gas Project includes an industrial-scale demonstration of CO2 storage in an active gas field where CO2 from natural gas production is being re-injected into a brine-filled portion of the structure downdip of the gas accumulation. The observed data include millimeter scale surface deformations (e.g., uplift) reported in the literature and injection well locations and rate histories provided by the operators. Our preliminary results show that the intrinsic permeability and Biot coefficient of the injection zone are important. Moreover pre-existing fractures within the injection zone affect the uplift significantly. Estimation of additional (i.e., anisotropy ratio) and coupled parameters will help us to develop models, which account for the complex relationship between mechanical integrity and CO2 injection-induced pressure changes. Uncertainty quantification of model predictions will be also performed using various algorithms including null-space Monte Carlo and polynomial-chaos expansion methods. This work will highlight that our coupled reservoir and geomechanical simulations associated with parameter estimation can provide a practical solution for designing operating conditions and understanding subsurface processes associated with the CO2 injection. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office

  9. DEPLETED HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS AND CO2 INJECTION WELLS –CO2 LEAKAGE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Migration risk assessment of the injected CO2 is one of the fi rst and indispensable steps in determining locations for the implementation of projects for carbon dioxide permanent disposal in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs. Within the phase of potential storage characterization and assessment, it is necessary to conduct a quantitative risk assessment, based on dynamic reservoir models that predict the behaviour of the injected CO2, which requires good knowledge of the reservoir conditions. A preliminary risk assessment proposed in this paper can be used to identify risks of CO2 leakage from the injection zone and through wells by quantifying hazard probability (likelihood and severity, in order to establish a risk-mitigation plan and to engage prevention programs. Here, the proposed risk assessment for the injection well is based on a quantitative risk matrix. The proposed assessment for the injection zone is based on methodology used to determine a reservoir probability in exploration and development of oil and gas (Probability of Success, abbr. POS, and modifi ed by taking into account hazards that may lead to CO2 leakage through the cap rock in the atmosphere or groundwater. Such an assessment can eliminate locations that do not meet the basic criteria in regard to short-term and long-term safety and the integrity of the site

  10. CO2 Injectivity in Geological Storages: an Overview of Program and Results of the GeoCarbone-Injectivity Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.M.; Egermann, P.; Azaroual, M.; Pironon, J.; Broseta, D.; Egermann, P.; Munier, G.; Mouronval, G.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the GeoCarbone-Injectivity project was to develop a methodology to study the complex phenomena involved in the near well bore region during CO 2 injection. This paper presents an overview of the program and results of the project, and some further necessary developments. The proposed methodology is based on experiments and simulations at the core scale, in order to understand (physical modelling and definition of constitutive laws) and quantify (calibration of simulation tools) the mechanisms involved in injectivity variations: fluid/rock interactions, transport mechanisms, geomechanical effects. These mechanisms and the associated parameters have then to be integrated in the models at the well bore scale. The methodology has been applied for the study of a potential injection of CO 2 in the Dogger geological formation of the Paris Basin, in collaboration with the other ANR GeoCarbone projects. (authors)

  11. CO2 injection into submarine, CH4-hydrate bearing sediments: Parameter studies towards the development of a hydrate conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusner, Christian; Bigalke, Nikolaus; Kossel, Elke; Haeckel, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    In the recent past, international research efforts towards exploitation of submarine and permafrost hydrate reservoirs have increased substantially. Until now, findings indicate that a combination of different technical means such as depressurization, thermal stimulation and chemical activation is the most promising approach for producing gas from natural hydrates. Moreover, emission neutral exploitation of CH4-hydrates could potentially be achieved in a combined process with CO2 injection and storage as CO2-hydrate. In the German gas hydrate initiative SUGAR, a combination of experimental and numerical studies is used to elucidate the process mechanisms and technical parameters on different scales. Experiments were carried out in the novel high-pressure flow-through system NESSI (Natural Environment Simulator for sub-Seafloor Interactions). Recent findings suggest that the injection of heated, supercritical CO2 is beneficial for both CH4 production and CO2 retention. Among the parameters tested so far are the CO2 injection regime (alternating vs. continuous injection) and the reservoir pressure / temperature conditions. Currently, the influence of CO2 injection temperature is investigated. It was shown that CH4 production is optimal at intermediate reservoir temperatures (8 ° C) compared to lower (2 ° C) and higher temperatures (10 ° C). The reservoir pressure, however, was of minor importance for the production efficiency. At 8 ° C, where CH4- and CO2-hydrates are thermodynamically stable, CO2-hydrate formation appears to be slow. Eventual clogging of fluid conduits due to CO2-rich hydrate formation force open new conduits, thereby tapping different regions inside the CH4-hydrate sample volume for CH4gas. In contrast, at 2 ° C immediate formation of CO2-hydrate results in rapid and irreversible obstruction of the entire pore space. At 10 ° C pure CO2-hydrates can no longer be formed. Consequently the injected CO2 flows through quickly and interaction with

  12. Assessment of CO2 Mineralization and Dynamic Rock Properties at the Kemper Pilot CO2 Injection Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, F.; Kirkland, B. L.; Beckingham, L. E.

    2017-12-01

    CO2-brine-mineral reactions following CO2 injection may impact rock properties including porosity, permeability, and pore connectivity. The rate and extent of alteration largely depends on the nature and evolution of reactive mineral interfaces. In this work, the potential for geochemical reactions and the nature of the reactive mineral interface and corresponding hydrologic properties are evaluated for samples from the Lower Tuscaloosa, Washita-Fredericksburg, and Paluxy formations. These formations have been identified as future regionally extensive and attractive CO2 storage reservoirs at the CO2 Storage Complex in Kemper County, Mississippi, USA (Project ECO2S). Samples from these formations were obtained from the Geological Survey of Alabama and evaluated using a suite of complementary analyses. The mineral composition of these samples will be determined using petrography and powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Using these compositions, continuum-scale reactive transport simulations will be developed and the potential CO2-brine-mineral interactions will be examined. Simulations will focus on identifying potential reactive minerals as well as the corresponding rate and extent of reactions. The spatial distribution and accessibility of minerals to reactive fluids is critical to understanding mineral reaction rates and corresponding changes in the pore structure, including pore connectivity, porosity and permeability. The nature of the pore-mineral interface, and distribution of reactive minerals, will be determined through imaging analysis. Multiple 2D scanning electron microscopy (SEM) backscattered electron (BSE) images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) images will be used to create spatial maps of mineral distributions. These maps will be processed to evaluate the accessibility of reactive minerals and the potential for flow-path modifications following CO2 injection. The "Establishing an Early CO2 Storage Complex in Kemper, MS" project is funded by

  13. Deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir: baseline characterization prior CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Shaheed, Mina; Vieth, Andrea; Krüger, Martin; Kock, Dagmar; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of about 3500m, is characterised by high salinity fluid and temperatures up to 127° C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery) the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other saline, hot, anoxic, deep environments. However, due to the hypersaline and hyperthermophilic reservoir conditions, cell numbers are low, so that

  14. Enhanced Oil Recovery with CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Maria; De Simoni, Michela; Delbianco, Alberto; Cazzani, Piero; Zanibelli, Laura

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents the results of a feasibility study aimed at extending the production life of a small oilfield in Italy through EOR, employing the CO2 captured from the flue gas streams of the refinery nearby. The EOR operation allows the recovery of additional reserves while a consistent amount of the CO2 injected remains permanently stored into the reservoir. The screening process selection for EOR-CO2 and the main elements of the pilot project for the proper upstream-downstream integration will be described. Evaluation of EOR-CO2 extension to other oilfields and its effect on oil production and project's economics will be reported.

  15. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  16. Multiple isotopes (O, C, Li, Sr) as tracers of CO2 and brine leakage from CO2-enhanced oil recovery activities in Permian Basin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T. T.; Sharma, S.; Gardiner, J. B.; Thomas, R. B.; Stuckman, M.; Spaulding, R.; Lopano, C. L.; Hakala, A.

    2017-12-01

    Potential CO2 and brine migration or leakage into shallow groundwater is a critical issue associated with CO2 injection at both enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon sequestration sites. The effectiveness of multiple isotope systems (δ18OH2O, δ13C, δ7Li, 87Sr/86Sr) in monitoring CO2 and brine leakage at a CO2-EOR site located within the Permian basin (Seminole, Texas, USA) was studied. Water samples collected from an oil producing formation (San Andres), a deep groundwater formation (Santa Rosa), and a shallow groundwater aquifer (Ogallala) over a four-year period were analyzed for elemental and isotopic compositions. The absence of any change in δ18OH2O or δ13CDIC values of water in the overlying Ogallala aquifer after CO2 injection indicates that injected CO2 did not leak into this aquifer. The range of Ogallala water δ7Li (13-17‰) overlaps the San Andres water δ7Li (13-15‰) whereas 87Sr/86Sr of Ogallala (0.70792±0.00005) significantly differs from San Andres water (0.70865±0.00003). This observation demonstrates that Sr isotopes are much more sensitive than Li isotopes in tracking brine leakage into shallow groundwater at the studied site. In contrast, deep groundwater δ7Li (21-25‰) is isotopically distinct from San Andres produced water; thus, monitoring this intermitted formation water can provide an early indication of CO2 injection-induced brine migration from the underlying oil producing formation. During water alternating with gas (WAG) operations, a significant shift towards more positive δ13CDIC values was observed in the produced water from several of the San Andres formation wells. The carbon isotope trend suggests that the 13C enriched injected CO2 and formation carbonates became the primary sources of dissolved inorganic carbon in the area surrounding the injection wells. Moreover, one-way ANOVA statistical analysis shows that the differences in δ7Li (F(1,16) = 2.09, p = 0.17) and 87Sr/86Sr (F(1,18) = 4.47, p = 0.05) values of

  17. Regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection - Part 1: The participatory modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Dirk; Konrad, Wilfried; Class, Holger; Kissinger, Alexander; Knopf, Stefan; Noack, Vera

    2017-06-01

    Saltwater intrusion into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the potential hazards associated with the geological storage of CO2. Thus, in a site selection process, models for predicting the fate of the displaced brine are required, for example, for a risk assessment or the optimization of pressure management concepts. From the very beginning, this research on brine migration aimed at involving expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessment in simulating the impacts of injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers by means of a participatory modeling process. The involvement exercise made use of two approaches. First, guideline-based interviews were carried out, aiming at eliciting expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessments of geological structures and mechanisms affecting CO2-induced brine migration. Second, a stakeholder workshop including the World Café format yielded evaluations and judgments of the numerical modeling approach, scenario selection, and preliminary simulation results. The participatory modeling approach gained several results covering brine migration in general, the geological model sketch, scenario development, and the review of the preliminary simulation results. These results were included in revised versions of both the geological model and the numerical model, helping to improve the analysis of regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection.

  18. Biosurfactant and enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Michael J.; Jenneman, Gary E.; Knapp, Roy M.; Menzie, Donald E.

    1985-06-11

    A pure culture of Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 (ATCC No. 39307) and a process for using said culture and the surfactant lichenysin produced thereby for the enhancement of oil recovery from subterranean formations. Lichenysin is an effective surfactant over a wide range of temperatures, pH's, salt and calcium concentrations.

  19. Enhanced oil recovery program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Canada accounts for 40% of the global resources in heavy oils and oil sands bitumen, however, more than 90% of these resources need new and innovative technologies if they are to be made available at a competitive price. CANMET's Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) program was created in the late 1970s in response to the drive for energy self-sufficiency. Funding of the project is highly leveraged; industry funding towards projects supported under the CANMET Energy Conversion Program averaged over 300% annually since the previous review in 1990. Multi-client EOR technology projects include horizontal well technology, development of the vapour extraction process, and field testing of oil sands extraction technology. Direction and priorities of the program are established in consultation with the Minister's Advisory Council to CANMET (MNACC), industry and other performers and sponsors of enhanced oil recovery R and D. This review, including client feedback from interviews with several industry spokespersons, concluded that the program was well managed, and of high priority. Various options capable of meeting future needs were examined. Continuation of the current program, incorporating a number of significant changes, was recommended

  20. Quantitative monitoring of CO2 injection at Sleipner using seismic full waveform inversion in the time lapse mode and rock physics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queisser, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a technology to achieve a considerable deceleration of CO 2 emission promptly. Since 1996 one of the largest CO 2 storage projects is taking place at Sleipner in the Norwegian North Sea. In order to monitor injected CO 2 , time lapse seismic monitoring surveys have been carried out. Estimating subsurface parameters from the Sleipner seismic data is a challenging problem due to the specific geology of the storage reservoir, which is further complicated by injected CO 2 . Most seismic imaging methods enable only qualitative insights into the subsurface. Motivated by the need for a quantitative seismic monitoring of the injected CO 2 , I have applied 2D seismic full waveform inversion to seismic data sets from Sleipner from 1994 (baseline), 1999 and 2006 along three seismic lines to infer subsurface parameters and parameter changes in the storage reservoir. The P-wave velocity is the major parameter, as it is the most sensitive to CO 2 injection. An energy preconditioning of the gradient has been implemented. The usual source wavelet calibration did not prove to be reliable. An alternative source calibration has been successfully applied. By comparing seismic images with inversion results, I found that using seismic images to locate CO 2 accumulations in the subsurface may be misleading. The quantitative imaging approach using full waveform inversion resulted in a consistent evolution of the model parameter with time. Major reductions in P-wave velocity and hence the CO 2 accumulations could be quantitatively imaged down to a resolution of 10 m. Observed travel time shifts due to CO 2 injection are comparable to those derived from the inversion result. In order to estimate CO 2 saturations, rock physical concepts have been combined and extended to arrive at a rock physical formulation of the subsurface at Sleipner. I used pseudo Monte Carlo rock physics modeling to assess the influence of lithologic heterogeneity on the CO 2

  1. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  2. 4-D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Monitoring of Miscible CO2 Injected into a Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Miller; Abdelmoneam E. Raef; Alan P. Byrnes; William E. Harrison

    2007-06-30

    The objective of this research project was to acquire, process, and interpret multiple high-resolution 3-D compressional wave and 2-D, 2-C shear wave seismic data in the hopes of observing changes in fluid characteristics in an oil field before, during, and after the miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood that began around December 1, 2003, as part of the DOE-sponsored Class Revisit Project (DOE No.DE-AC26-00BC15124). Unique and key to this imaging activity is the high-resolution nature of the seismic data, minimal deployment design, and the temporal sampling throughout the flood. The 900-m-deep test reservoir is located in central Kansas oomoldic limestones of the Lansing-Kansas City Group, deposited on a shallow marine shelf in Pennsylvanian time. After 30 months of seismic monitoring, one baseline and eight monitor surveys clearly detected changes that appear consistent with movement of CO{sub 2} as modeled with fluid simulators and observed in production data. Attribute analysis was a very useful tool in enhancing changes in seismic character present, but difficult to interpret on time amplitude slices. Lessons learned from and tools/techniques developed during this project will allow high-resolution seismic imaging to be routinely applied to many CO{sub 2} injection programs in a large percentage of shallow carbonate oil fields in the midcontinent.

  3. Comparison of the Wymark CO2 Reservoir with the Midale Beds at the Weyburn CO2 Injection Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.; Johnson, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Devonian carbonates of the Duperow Formation on the western flank of the Williston Basin in southwest Saskatchewan contain natural accumulations of CO 2 , and may have done so for as long as 50 m.y. in the views of some investigations. These carbonate sediments are characterized by a succession of carbonate cycles capped by anhydrite-rich evaporites that are thought to act as seals to fluid migration. The Weyburn CO 2 injection site lies 400 km to the east in a series of Mississippian carbonates that were deposited in a similar depositional environment. That natural CO 2 can be stored long-term within carbonate strata has motivated the investigation of the Duperow rocks as a potential natural analogue to storage of anthropogenic CO 2 that may ultimately provide additional confidence for CO 2 sequestration in carbonate lithologies. For the Duperow strata to represent a legitimate analog for Midale injection and storage, the similarity in lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineral compositions and porosity with the Midale Beds must be established. Previous workers have demonstrated the similarity of the lithofacies at both sites. Here we compare the whole rock compositions, mineralogy and mineral compositions. The major mineral phases at both locales are calcite, dolomite and anhydrite. In addition, accessory pyrite, fluorite and celestine are also observed. The distribution of porosity in the Midale Vuggy units is virtually identical to that of the Duperow Formation, but the Marly units of the Midale have significantly higher porosity. The Duperow Formation is topped by the Dinesmore evaporite that is particularly rich in anhydrite, and often contains authigenic K-feldspar. The chemistry of dolomite and calcite from the two localities also overlaps. Silicate minerals are in low abundance within the analyzed Duperow samples, < 3 wt% on a normative basis, with quartz the only phase identifiable in x-ray diffraction patterns. The Midale Beds contain

  4. CO2 enhanced oil recovery and storage in the North Sea - a UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckly, Andy; Hughes, David S.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable technical and economic challenges must be overcome if the potential for CO 2 injection and sequestration is to be fully realised. However, there is an opportunity to exploit the synergy between the need to reduce CO 2 emissions and the potential to use CO 2 to increase North Sea oil reserves and extend the life of the basin. This opportunity is available now, while the infrastructure remains in place

  5. Geomechanical Modeling of Fault Responses and the Potential for Notable Seismic Events during Underground CO2 Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutqvist, J.; Cappa, F.; Mazzoldi, A.; Rinaldi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The importance of geomechanics associated with large-scale geologic carbon storage (GCS) operations is now widely recognized. There are concerns related to the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events and how such events could impact the long-term integrity of a CO2 repository (as well as how it could impact the public perception of GCS). In this context, we review a number of modeling studies and field observations related to the potential for injection-induced fault reactivations and seismic events. We present recent model simulations of CO2 injection and fault reactivation, including both aseismic and seismic fault responses. The model simulations were conducted using a slip weakening fault model enabling sudden (seismic) fault rupture, and some of the numerical analyses were extended to fully dynamic modeling of seismic source, wave propagation, and ground motion. The model simulations illustrated what it will take to create a magnitude 3 or 4 earthquake that would not result in any significant damage at the groundsurface, but could raise concerns in the local community and could also affect the deep containment of the stored CO2. The analyses show that the local in situ stress field, fault orientation, fault strength, and injection induced overpressure are critical factors in determining the likelihood and magnitude of such an event. We like to clarify though that in our modeling we had to apply very high injection pressure to be able to intentionally induce any fault reactivation. Consequently, our model simulations represent extreme cases, which in a real GCS operation could be avoided by estimating maximum sustainable injection pressure and carefully controlling the injection pressure. In fact, no notable seismic event has been reported from any of the current CO2 storage projects, although some unfelt microseismic activities have been detected by geophones. On the other hand, potential future commercial GCS operations from large power plants

  6. Geochemical and hydrological characterization of shallow aquifer water following a nearby deep CO2 injection in Wellington, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S.; Andree, I.; Johannesson, K. H.; Kempton, P. D.; Barker, R.; Birdie, T. R.; Watney, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    Salinization or CO2 leakage from local Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects has become a possible source for contamination and water quality degradation for local irrigation or potable well users in Wellington, Kansas. Shallow domestic and monitoring wells, as well as surface water samples collected from the site, were analyzed for a wide array of geochemical proxies including major and trace ions, rare earth elements (REE), stable isotopes, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved hydrocarbons; these analytes were employed as geotracers to understand the extent of hydrologic continuity throughout the Paleozoic stratigraphic section. Previous research by Barker et al. (2012) laid the foundation through a mineralogical and geochemical investigation of the Arbuckle injection zone and assessment of overlying caprock integrity, which led to the conclusion that the 4,910-5,050' interval will safely sequester CO2 with high confidence of a low leakage potential. EOR operations using CO2 as the injectant into the Mississippian 3,677-3,706' interval was initiated in Jan 2016. Two groundwater sampling events were conducted to investigate any temporal changes in the surface and subsurface waters. Dissolved (Ca+Mg)/Na and Na/Cl mass ratio values of two domestic wells and one monitoring well ranged from 0.67 to 2.01 and 0.19 to 0.39, respectively, whereas a nearby Mississippian oil well had values of 0.20 and 0.62, respectively . δ18O and δ2H ranged from -4.74 to -5.41 ‰VSMOW and -31.4 to -34.3 ‰VSMOW, respectively, among the domestic wells and shallowest monitoring well. Conservative ion relationships in drill-stem-test waters from Arbuckle and Mississippian injection zones displayed significant variability, indicating limited vertical hydrologic communication. Total aquifer connectivity is inconclusive based on the provided data; however, a paleoterrace and incised valley within the study site are thought to be connected through a Mississippian salt plume migration

  7. Enhanced oil recovery by nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection followed by low salinity water flooding for tight carbonate reservoir: experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges Lwisa, Essa; Abdulkhalek, Ashrakat R.

    2018-03-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques are one of the top priorities of technology development in petroleum industries nowadays due to the increase in demand for oil and gas which cannot be equalized by the primary production or secondary production methods. The main function of EOR process is to displace oil to the production wells by the injection of different fluids to supplement the natural energy present in the reservoir. Moreover, these injecting fluids can also help in the alterations of the properties of the reservoir like lowering the IFTs, wettability alteration, a change in pH value, emulsion formation, clay migration and oil viscosity reduction. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the residual oil recovery by combining the effects of gas injection followed by low salinity water injection for low permeability reservoirs. This is done by a series of flooding tests on selected tight carbonate core samples taken from Zakuum oil field in Abu Dhabi by using firstly low salinity water as the base case and nitrogen & CO2injection followed by low salinity water flooding at reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature. The experimental results revealed that a significant improvement of the oil recovery is achieved by the nitrogen injection followed by the low salinity water flooding with a recovery factor of approximately 24% of the residual oil.

  8. Using CO2 Prophet to estimate recovery factors for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, Emil D.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe Oil and Gas Journal’s enhanced oil recovery (EOR) survey for 2014 (Koottungal, 2014) showed that gas injection is the most frequently applied method of EOR in the United States and that carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is the most commonly used injection fluid for miscible operations. The CO2-EOR process typically follows primary and secondary (waterflood) phases of oil reservoir development. The common objective of implementing a CO2-EOR program is to produce oil that remains after the economic limit of waterflood recovery is reached. Under conditions of miscibility or multicontact miscibility, the injected CO2 partitions between the gas and liquid CO2 phases, swells the oil, and reduces the viscosity of the residual oil so that the lighter fractions of the oil vaporize and mix with the CO2 gas phase (Teletzke and others, 2005). Miscibility occurs when the reservoir pressure is at least at the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP). The MMP depends, in turn, on oil composition, impurities of the CO2 injection stream, and reservoir temperature. At pressures below the MMP, component partitioning, oil swelling, and viscosity reduction occur, but the efficiency is increasingly reduced as the pressure falls farther below the MMP. CO2-EOR processes are applied at the reservoir level, where a reservoir is defined as an underground formation containing an individual and separate pool of producible hydrocarbons that is confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is characterized by a single natural pressure system. A field may consist of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs that are not in communication but which may be associated with or related to a single structural or stratigraphic feature (U.S. Energy Information Administration [EIA], 2000). The purpose of modeling the CO2-EOR process is discussed along with the potential CO2-EOR predictive models. The data demands of models and the scope of the assessments require tradeoffs between reservoir

  9. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Application of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu

    Enzymes have recently been reported as effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Both laboratory and field tests demonstrated significant increase in the ultimate oil production. Up to16% of additional oil was produced in the laboratory conditions and up to 269 barrels of additional oil per day...... were recovered in the field applications. The following mechanisms were claimed to be responsible for the enhancement of the oil production due to enzymes: wettability improvement of the rock surface; formation of the emulsions; reduction of oil viscosity; and removal of high molecular weight paraffins....... However, the positive effect of enzymes on oil recovery is not that obvious. In most of the studies commercial enzyme products composed of enzymes, surfactants and stabilisers were used. Application of such samples makes it difficult to assign a positive EOR effect to a certain compound, as several...

  10. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rebecca S.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  11. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  12. Monitoring a large volume CO2 injection: Year two results from SECARB project at Denbury’s Cranfield, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Meckel, Timothy A.; Trevino, Ramon H.; Lu, Jiemin; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Choi, Jong-Won; Freeman, David; Cook, Paul; Daley, Thomas M.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Freifeild, Barry M.; Doughty, Christine; Carrigan, Charles R.; La Brecque, Doug; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Yang, Changbing; Romanak, Katherine D.; Zhang, Tongwei; Holt, Robert M.; Lindler, Jeffery S.; Butsch, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) early project in western Mississippi has been testing monitoring tools and approaches to document storage efficiency and storage permanence under conditions of CO2 EOR as well as downdip injection into brine. Denbury Onshore LLC is host for the study and has brought a depleted oil and gas reservoir, Cranfield Field, under CO2 flood. Injection was started in July 2008 and has now achieved injection rates greater than 1.2 million tons/year though 23 wells, with cumulative mass injected as of August, 2010 of 2.2 million metric tons. Injection is into coarse grained fluvial deposits of the Cretaceous lower Tuscaloosa Formation in a gentle anticline at depths of 3300 m. A team of researchers from 10 institutions has collected data from five study areas, each with a different goal and different spatial and temporal scale.

  13. Simulation of a Potential CO2 Storage in the West Paris Basin: Site Characterization and Assessment of the Long-Term Hydrodynamical and Geochemical Impacts Induced by the CO2 Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estublier Audrey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the preliminary results of a study carried out as part of a demonstration project of CO2 storage in the Paris Basin. This project funded by ADEME (French Environment and Energy Management Agency and several industrial partners (TOTAL, ENGIE, EDF, Lafarge, Air Liquide, Vallourec aimed to study the possibility to set up an experimental infrastructure of CO2 transport and storage. Regarding the storage, the objectives were: (1 to characterize the selected site by optimizing the number of wells in a CO2 injection case of 200 Mt over 50 years in the Trias, (2 to simulate over time the CO2 migration and the induced pressure field, and (3 to analyze the geochemical behavior of the rock over the long term (1,000 years. The preliminary site characterization study revealed that only the southern area of Keuper succeeds to satisfy this injection criterion using only four injectors. However, a complementary study based on a refined fluid flow model with additional secondary faults concluded that this zone presents the highest potential of CO2 injection but without reaching the objective of 200 Mt with a reasonable number of wells. The simulation of the base scenario, carried out before the model refinement, showed that the overpressure above 0.1 MPa covers an area of 51,869 km2 in the Chaunoy formation, 1,000 years after the end of the injection, which corresponds to the whole West Paris Basin, whereas the CO2 plume extension remains small (524 km2. This overpressure causes brine flows at the domain boundaries and a local overpressure in the studied oil fields. Regarding the preliminary risk analysis of this project, the geochemical effects induced by the CO2 injection were studied by simulating the fluid-rock interactions with a coupled geochemical and fluid flow model in a domain limited to the storage complex. A one-way coupling of two models based on two domains fitting into each other was developed using dynamic boundary

  14. Applying monitoring, verification, and accounting techniques to a real-world, enhanced oil recovery operational CO2 leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, B.T.; Krapac, I.G.; Locke, R.; Iranmanesh, A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being tested for oil fields in the Illinois Basin, USA. While this technology has shown promise for improving oil production, it has raised some issues about the safety of CO2 injection and storage. The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) organized a Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) team to develop and deploy monitoring programs at three EOR sites in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, USA. MVA goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. This paper focuses on the use of MVA techniques in monitoring a small CO2 leak from a supply line at an EOR facility under real-world conditions. The ability of shallow monitoring techniques to detect and quantify a CO2 leak under real-world conditions has been largely unproven. In July of 2009, a leak in the pipe supplying pressurized CO2 to an injection well was observed at an MGSC EOR site located in west-central Kentucky. Carbon dioxide was escaping from the supply pipe located approximately 1 m underground. The leak was discovered visually by site personnel and injection was halted immediately. At its largest extent, the hole created by the leak was approximately 1.9 m long by 1.7 m wide and 0.7 m deep in the land surface. This circumstance provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate the performance of several monitoring techniques including soil CO2 flux measurements, portable infrared gas analysis, thermal infrared imagery, and aerial hyperspectral imagery. Valuable experience was gained during this effort. Lessons learned included determining 1) hyperspectral imagery was not effective in detecting this relatively small, short-term CO2 leak, 2) even though injection was halted, the leak remained dynamic and presented a safety risk concern

  15. Viability of Biopolymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveistrup, Marte; van Mastrigt, Frank; Norrman, Jens; Picchioni, Francesco; Paso, Kristofer

    2016-01-01

    Xanthan gum and scleroglucan are assessed as environmentally friendly enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Viscometric and interfacial tension measurements show that the polysaccharides exhibit favorable viscosifying performance, robust shear tolerance, electrolyte tolerance, and moderate

  16. Large-scale CO2 injection demos for the development of monitoring and verification technology and guidelines (CO2ReMoVe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildenborg, T.; David, P. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Princetonlaan 6, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands); Bentham, M.; Chadwick, A.; Kirk, K. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Dillen, M. [SINTEF Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway); Groenenberg, H. [Unit Policy Studies, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deflandre, J.P.; Le Gallo, J. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2009-04-15

    The objectives of the EU project CO2ReMoVe are to undertake the research and development necessary to establish scientifically based standards for monitoring future CCS operations and to develop the performance assessment methodologies necessary to demonstrate the long-term reliability of geological storage of CO2. This could in turn lead to guidelines for the certification of sites suitable for CCS on a wide scale. Crucial to the project portfolio are the continuing large-scale CO2 injection operation at Sleipner, the injection operation at In Salah (Algeria) and the recently started injection project at Snoehvit (Norway). Two pilot sites are also currently in the project portfolio, Ketzin in Germany and K12-B in the offshore continental shelf of the Netherlands.

  17. Elastic and transport properties of steam-cured pozzolanic-lime rock composites upon CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Dan; Vanorio, Tiziana

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the relationship between pozzolanic ash-lime reactions and the rock physics properties of the resulting rock microstructure is important for monitoring unrest conditions in volcanic-hydrothermal systems as well as devising concrete with enhanced performance. By mixing pozzolanic ash with lime, the ancient Romans incorporated these reactions in the production of concrete. Recently, it has been discovered that a fiber-reinforced, concrete-like rock is forming naturally in the depths of the Campi Flegrei volcanic-hydrothermal systems (Vanorio and Kanitpanyacharoen, 2015). We investigate the physico-chemical conditions contributing to undermine or enhance the laboratory measured properties of the subsurface rocks of volcanic-hydrothermal systems and, in turn, build upon those processes that the ancient Romans unwittingly exploited to create their famous concrete. We prepared samples by mixing the pozzolana volcanic ash, slaked lime, aggregates of Neapolitan Yellow tuff, and seawater from Campi Flegrei in the same ratios as the ancient Romans. To mimic the conditions of the caldera, we used mineral seawater from a well in the Campi Flegrei region rich in sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium, potassium, and magnesium ions. The samples were cured by steam. We measured baseline properties of porosity, permeability, P-wave velocity, and S-wave velocity of the samples. P and S-wave velocities were used to derive bulk, shear, and Young's moduli. Subsequently, half of the samples were injected with CO2-rich aqueous solution and the changes in their microstructure and physical properties measured. One sample was subjected to rapid temperature changes to determine how porosity and permeability changed as a function of the number of thermal shocks. Exposure of CO2 to the concrete-like rock samples destabilized fibrous mineral forming and decreased the samples' ability to deform without breaking. We show that steam- and sulfur-alkaline- rich environments affect both

  18. Geomechanical Modeling of CO2 Injection Site to Predict Wellbore Stresses and Strains for the Design of Wellbore Seal Repair Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolik, S. R.; Gomez, S. P.; Matteo, E. N.; Stormont, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper will present the results of large-scale three-dimensional calculations simulating the hydrological-mechanical behavior of a CO2injection reservoir and the resulting effects on wellbore casings and sealant repair materials. A critical aspect of designing effective wellbore seal repair materials is predicting thermo-mechanical perturbations in local stress that can compromise seal integrity. The DOE-NETL project "Wellbore Seal Repair Using Nanocomposite Materials," is interested in the stress-strain history of abandoned wells, as well as changes in local pressure, stress, and temperature conditions that accompany carbon dioxide injection or brine extraction. Two distinct computational models comprise the current modeling effort. The first is a field scale model that uses the stratigraphy, material properties, and injection history from a pilot CO2injection operation in Cranfield, MS to develop a stress-strain history for wellbore locations from 100 to 400 meters from an injection well. The results from the field scale model are used as input to a more detailed model of a wellbore casing. The 3D wellbore model examines the impacts of various loading scenarios on a casing structure. This model has been developed in conjunction with bench-top experiments of an integrated seal system in an idealized scaled wellbore mock-up being used to test candidate seal repair materials. The results from these models will be used to estimate the necessary mechanical properties needed for a successful repair material. This material is based upon work supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Grant Number DE-FE0009562. This project is managed and administered by the Storage Division of the NETL and funded by DOE/NETL and cost-sharing partners. This work was funded in part by the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science

  19. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Hamidreza

    2011-04-15

    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR methods depends on their influence on fluid/rock interactions related to wettability and fluid/fluid interactions reflected in IFT. If the method has the potential to change the interactions favorably, it may be considered for further investigation, i.e. core flooding experiment, pilot and reservoir implementation. Enzyme-proteins can be introduced as an enhanced oil recovery method to improve waterflood performance by affecting interactions at the oil-water-rock interfaces. An important part of this thesis was to investigate how selected enzymes may influence wettability and capillary forces in a crude oil-brine-rock system, and thus possibly contribute to enhanced oil recovery. To investigate further by which mechanisms selected enzyme-proteins may contribute to enhance oil recovery, groups of enzymes with different properties and catalytic functions, known to be interfacially active, were chosen to cover a wide range of possible effects. These groups include (1) Greenzyme (GZ) which is a commercial EOR enzyme and consists of enzymes and stabilizers (surfactants), (2) The Zonase group consists of two types of pure enzyme, Zonase1 and Zonase2 which are protease enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze (breakdown) peptide bonds, (3) The Novozyme (NZ) group consists of three types of pure enzyme, NZ2, NZ3 and NZ6 which are esterase enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze ester bonds, and (4) Alpha-Lactalbumin ( -La) which is an important whey protein. The effect of

  20. Combustion for Enhanced Recovery of Light Oil at Medium Pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshnevis Gargar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Using conventional production methods, recovery percentages from oil reservoirs range from 5% for difficult oil to 50% for light oil in highly permeable homogeneous reservoirs. To increase the oil recovery factor, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are used. We distinguish EOR that uses chemical

  1. Starting up microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Sitte, Jana; Galushko, Alexander; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of these technologies are provided with the required scientific background as well as with practical advice for upgrading an existing laboratory in order to conduct microbiological experiments. We believe that the conversion of residual oil into natural gas (methane) and the in situ production of biosurfactants are the most promising approaches for MEOR and therefore focus on these topics. Moreover, we give an introduction to the microbiology of oilfields and demonstrate that in situ microorganisms as well as injected cultures can help displace unrecoverable oil in place (OIP). After an initial research phase, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) manager must decide whether MEOR would be economical. MEOR generally improves oil production but the increment may not justify the investment. Therefore, we provide a brief economical assessment at the end of this chapter. We describe the necessary state-of-the-art scientific equipment to guide EOR managers towards an appropriate MEOR strategy. Because it is inevitable to characterize the microbial community of an oilfield that should be treated using MEOR techniques, we describe three complementary start-up approaches. These are: (i) culturing methods, (ii) the characterization of microbial communities and possible bio-geochemical pathways by using molecular biology methods, and (iii) interfacial tension measurements. In conclusion, we hope that this chapter will facilitate a decision on whether to launch MEOR activities. We also provide an update on relevant literature for experienced MEOR researchers and oilfield operators. Microbiologists will learn about basic principles of interface physics needed to study the impact of microorganisms living on oil droplets. Last but not least, students and technicians trying to understand

  2. Tax incentives and enhanced oil recovery techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathis, J.S.

    1991-05-01

    Tax expenditures-reductions in income tax liability resulting from a special tax provision-are often used to achieve economic and social objectives. The arguments for petroleum production tax incentives usually encompass some combination of enhancing energy security, rewarding risk, or generating additional investment in new technologies. Generally, however, some portion of any tax expenditure is spend on activities that would have occurred anyway. This paper is a review of tax incentives for petroleum production found two to be of questionable merit. Others, including tax preferences for enhanced oil recovery methods, which offered the potential for better returns on the tax dollar. Increased use of enhanced oil recovery techniques could lead to additional environmental costs, however, and these need to be factored into any cost-benefit calculation

  3. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

    1992-04-01

    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

  4. Inverse modeling of ground surface uplift and pressure with iTOUGH-PEST and TOUGH-FLAC: The case of CO2 injection at In Salah, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Rutqvist, Jonny; Finsterle, Stefan; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2017-11-01

    Ground deformation, commonly observed in storage projects, carries useful information about processes occurring in the injection formation. The Krechba gas field at In Salah (Algeria) is one of the best-known sites for studying ground surface deformation during geological carbon storage. At this first industrial-scale on-shore CO2 demonstration project, satellite-based ground-deformation monitoring data of high quality are available and used to study the large-scale hydrological and geomechanical response of the system to injection. In this work, we carry out coupled fluid flow and geomechanical simulations to understand the uplift at three different CO2 injection wells (KB-501, KB-502, KB-503). Previous numerical studies focused on the KB-502 injection well, where a double-lobe uplift pattern has been observed in the ground-deformation data. The observed uplift patterns at KB-501 and KB-503 have single-lobe patterns, but they can also indicate a deep fracture zone mechanical response to the injection. The current study improves the previous modeling approach by introducing an injection reservoir and a fracture zone, both responding to a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. In addition, we model a stress-dependent permeability and bulk modulus, according to a dual continuum model. Mechanical and hydraulic properties are determined through inverse modeling by matching the simulated spatial and temporal evolution of uplift to InSAR observations as well as by matching simulated and measured pressures. The numerical simulations are in agreement with both spatial and temporal observations. The estimated values for the parameterized mechanical and hydraulic properties are in good agreement with previous numerical results. In addition, the formal joint inversion of hydrogeological and geomechanical data provides measures of the estimation uncertainty.

  5. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  6. Laboratory Mid-frequency (Kilohertz) Range Seismic Property Measurements and X-ray CT Imaging of Fractured Sandstone Cores During Supercritical CO2 Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Chang, C.; Harper, E.

    2014-12-01

    During geological sequestration of CO2, fractures are expected to play a critical role in controlling the migration of the injected fluid in reservoir rock. To detect the invasion of supercritical (sc-) CO2 and to determine its saturation, velocity and attenuation of seismic waves can be monitored. When both fractures and matrix porosity connected to the fractures are present, wave-induced dynamic poroelastic interactions between these two different types of rock porosity—high-permeability, high-compliance fractures and low-permeability, low-compliance matrix porosity—result in complex velocity and attenuation changes of compressional waves as scCO2 invades the rock. We conducted core-scale laboratory scCO2 injection experiments on small (diameter 1.5 inches, length 3.5-4 inches), medium-porosity/permeability (porosity 15%, matrix permeability 35 md) sandstone cores. During the injection, the compressional and shear (torsion) wave velocities and attenuations of the entire core were determined using our Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (short-core resonant bar) technique in the frequency range of 1-2 kHz, and the distribution and saturation of the scCO2 determined via X-ray CT imaging using a medical CT scanner. A series of tests were conducted on (1) intact rock cores, (2) a core containing a mated, core-parallel fracture, (3) a core containing a sheared core-parallel fracture, and (4) a core containing a sheared, core-normal fracture. For intact cores and a core containing a mated sheared fracture, injections of scCO2 into an initially water-saturated sample resulted in large and continuous decreases in the compressional velocity as well as temporary increases in the attenuation. For a sheared core-parallel fracture, large attenuation was also observed, but almost no changes in the velocity occurred. In contrast, a sample containing a core-normal fracture exhibited complex behavior of compressional wave attenuation: the attenuation peaked as the leading edge of

  7. Corexit 9500 Enhances Oil Biodegradation and Changes ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    While COREXIT 9500 is widely applied after oil spills for its reported dispersing activity, there is still a debate on the effectiveness on enhancing oil biodegradation and its potential toxic effect on microbial communities. To better understand the impact of COREXIT 9500 on the structure and activity levels of hydrocarbon degrading microbial communities, we analyzed next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing libraries of hydrocarbon enrichments grown at cryophilic and mesophilic conditions and using both DNA and RNA extracts as sequencing templates. Oil biodegradation patterns in both cryophilic and mesophilic enrichments were consistent with those reported in the literature (i.e., aliphatics were degraded faster than aromatics). A slight increase in biodegradation was observed in the presence of COREXIT at both 25°C and 5°C experiments. Differences in community structure were observed between treatment conditions in the DNA-based libraries. The 25°C consortia was dominated by unclassified members of the Vibrio, Pseudoidiomarina, Marinobacter, Alcanivorax, and Thallassospira species, while the 5°C consortia were dominated by several genera of Flavobacteria, Alcanivorax and Oleispira. With the exception of Vibrio-like species, members of these genera have been linked to hydrocarbon degradation and have been observed after oil spills. Colwellia and Cycloclasticus, known aromatic degraders, was also found in these enrichments. RNA-based sequencing of 25°C

  8. Tracer monitoring of enhanced oil recovery projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleven R.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In enhanced oil recovery (EOR, chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir, either to increase macroscopic sweep efficiency, or to reduce remaining oil saturation in swept zones. Tracers can be used to identify reservoirs that are specifically suited for EOR operations. Injection of a selection of partitioning tracers, combined with frequent sample analysis of produced fluids, provides information suited for estimation of residual oil saturation. Tracers can also be used to evaluate and optimize the application of EOR chemicals in the reservoir. Suitable tracers will follow the EOR chemicals and assist in evaluation of retention, degradation or trapping. In addition to field applications, tracers also have a large potential as a tool to perform mechanistic studies of EOR chemicals in laboratory experiments. By labelling EOR chemicals with radioactive isotopes of elements such as H, C and S, detailed studies of transport mechanisms can be carried out. Co-injection of labelled compounds in dynamic flooding experiments in porous media will give information about retention or separation of the unique compounds constituting the chemical formulation. Separation of such compounds may be detrimental to obtaining the EOR effect expected. The paper gives new information of specific methods, and discusses current status for use of tracers in EOR operations.

  9. A Semi-Analytical Method for Rapid Estimation of Near-Well Saturation, Temperature, Pressure and Stress in Non-Isothermal CO2 Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir cooling near the wellbore is expected when fluids are injected into a reservoir or aquifer in CO2 storage, enhanced oil or gas recovery, enhanced geothermal systems, and water injection for disposal. Ignoring thermal effects near the well can lead to under-prediction of changes in reservoir pressure and stress due to competition between increased pressure and contraction of the rock in the cooled near-well region. In this work a previously developed semi-analytical model for immiscible, nonisothermal fluid injection is generalised to include partitioning of components between two phases. Advection-dominated radial flow is assumed so that the coupled two-phase flow and thermal conservation laws can be solved analytically. The temperature and saturation profiles are used to find the increase in reservoir pressure, tangential, and radial stress near the wellbore in a semi-analytical, forward-coupled model. Saturation, temperature, pressure, and stress profiles are found for parameters representative of several CO2 storage demonstration projects around the world. General results on maximum injection rates vs depth for common reservoir parameters are also presented. Prior to drilling an injection well there is often little information about the properties that will determine the injection rate that can be achieved without exceeding fracture pressure, yet injection rate and pressure are key parameters in well design and placement decisions. Analytical solutions to simplified models such as these can quickly provide order of magnitude estimates for flow and stress near the well based on a range of likely parameters.

  10. Sonochemical approaches to enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Vladimir O; Abramova, Anna V; Bayazitov, Vadim M; Altunina, Lyubov K; Gerasin, Artyom S; Pashin, Dmitriy M; Mason, Timothy J

    2015-07-01

    Oil production from wells reduces with time and the well becomes uneconomic unless enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are applied. There are a number of methods currently available and each has specific advantages and disadvantages depending on conditions. Currently there is a big demand for new or improved technologies in this field, the hope is that these might also be applicable to wells which have already been the subject of EOR. The sonochemical method of EOR is one of the most promising methods and is important in that it can also be applied for the treatment of horizontal wells. The present article reports the theoretical background of the developed sonochemical technology for EOR in horizontal wells; describes the requirements to the equipment needed to embody the technology. The results of the first field tests of the technology are reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, M.P.; Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B.

    1991-12-01

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them

  12. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.P. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B. [Spears and Associates, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them.

  13. Novel approaches to microbial enhancement of oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryachko, Yuriy

    2018-01-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) was shown to be feasible in a number of laboratory experiments and field trials. However, it has not been widely used in the oil industry because necessary conditions cannot always be easily established in an oil reservoir. Novel approaches to MEOR, which are based on newly discovered biosurfactant-mediated MEOR-mechanisms, are discussed in this review. Particularly, the possibility of combining MEOR with chemical enhancement of oil recovery in heterogeneous oil reservoirs, which involves rock surface wettability shifts and emulsion inversions, is discussed. In wider (centimeter/millimeter-scale) rock pores, the activity of (bio)surfactants and microbial cells attached to oil may allow releasing trapped oil blobs through oil-in-water emulsification. After no more oil can be emulsified, the addition of alkali or surfactants, which turn rock surface oil-wet, may help release oil droplets trapped in narrow (micrometer-scale) pores through coalescence of the droplets and water-in-oil emulsification. Experiments demonstrating the possibility of (bio)surfactant-mediated enhancement of immiscible gas-driven oil recovery are also reviewed. Interestingly, very low (bio)surfactant concentrations were shown to be needed for enhancement of immiscible gas-driven oil recovery. Some possible side effects of MEOR, such as unintended bioplugging and microbially influenced corrosion (MIC), are discussed as well. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation of Anhydrite due to Interaction Between Water Soluble CO2 (aq) and Calcite Mineral During Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    In the Low Salinity based EOR method, formation and migration of fines have proved to have profound effect on the displacement efficiency of residual oil. Salinity variations of injected brines have also been shown to affect oil recovery for WAG-CO2 processes. But the effect of fines in EOR during...... simulations were conducted over a temperature range of 50°C to 250°C and a pressure range of 5 bars to 500 bars. The amounts of fines formation taking place for different LSWAG-CO2 processes were correlated to the described oil recovery. It is observed that significant amounts of fines formation can take...... with the available SO42- ions. The salinity and composition of brines present in pore space shows direct correlation with the amount of fines produced during CO2 injection. With increase in temperature and pressure, the amount fines formation increased significantly. The described oil recovery for different LSWAG...

  15. Noble Gas signatures of Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P. H.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Tyne, R. L.; Hillegonds, D.; Byrne, D. J.; Landon, M. K.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Noble gases are powerful tracers of fluids from various oil and gas production activities in hydrocarbon reservoirs and nearby groundwater. Non-radiogenic noble gases are introduced into undisturbed oil and natural gas reservoirs through exchange with formation waters [1-3]. Reservoirs with extensive hydraulic fracturing, injection for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and/or waste disposal also show evidence for a component of noble gases introduced from air [4]. Isotopic and elemental ratios of noble gases can be used to 1) assess the migration history of the injected and formation fluids, and 2) determine the extent of exchange between multiphase fluids in different reservoirs. We present noble gas isotope and abundance data from casing, separator and injectate gases of the Lost Hills and Fruitvale oil fields in the San Joaquin basin, California. Samples were collected as part of the California State Water Resource Control Board's Oil and Gas Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program. Lost Hills (n=7) and Fruitvale (n=2) gases are geochemically distinct and duplicate samples are highly reproducible. Lost Hills casing gas samples were collected from areas where EOR and hydraulic fracturing has occurred in the past several years, and from areas where EOR is absent. The Fruitvale samples were collected from a re-injection port. All samples are radiogenic in their He isotopes, typical of a crustal environment, and show enrichments in heavy noble gases, resulting from preferential adsorption on sediments. Fruitvale samples reflect air-like surface conditions, with higher air-derived noble gas concentrations. Lost Hills gases show a gradation from pristine crustal signatures - indicative of closed-system exchange with formation fluids - to strongly air-contaminated signatures in the EOR region. Pristine samples can be used to determine the extent of hydrocarbon exchange with fluids, whereas samples with excess air can be used to quantify the extent of EOR. Determining noble

  16. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  17. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery: Recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Woodhead, A.D.; Vivirito, K.J. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    During recent years, systematic, scientific, and engineering effort by researchers in the United States and abroad, has established the scientific basis for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology. The successful application of MEOR technology as an oil recovery process is a goal of the Department of Energy (DOE). Research efforts involving aspects of MEOR in the microbiological, biochemical, and engineering fields led DOE to sponsor an International Conference at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1992, to facilitate the exchange of information and a discussion of ideas for the future research emphasis. At this, the Fourth International MEOR Conference, where international attendees from 12 countries presented a total of 35 papers, participants saw an equal distribution between research'' and field applications.'' In addition, several modeling and state-of-the-art'' presentations summed up the present status of MEOR science and engineering. Individual papers in this proceedings have been process separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Subsurface impact of CO2: Response of carbonate rocks and wellbore cement to supercritical CO2 injection and long-term storage. Geologica Ultraiectina (310)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liteanu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Capture of CO2 at fossil fuel power station coupled with geological storage in empty oil and gas reservoirs is widely viewed as the most promising option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, i.e. for climate change mitigation. Injection of CO2 into such reservoirs will change their chemical

  19. Foam-oil interaction in porous media: implications for foam assisted enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Andrianov, A; Krastev, R; Hirasaki, G J; Rossen, W R

    2012-11-15

    The efficiency of a foam displacement process in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends largely on the stability of foam films in the presence of oil. Experimental studies have demonstrated the detrimental impact of oil on foam stability. This paper reviews the mechanisms and theories (disjoining pressure, coalescence and drainage, entering and spreading of oil, oil emulsification, pinch-off, etc.) suggested in the literature to explain the impact of oil on foam stability in the bulk and porous media. Moreover, we describe the existing approaches to foam modeling in porous media and the ways these models describe the oil effect on foam propagation in porous media. Further, we present various ideas on an improvement of foam stability and longevity in the presence of oil. The outstanding questions regarding foam-oil interactions and modeling of these interactions are pointed out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin Penetration Enhancement by Natural Oils for Dihydroquercetin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čižinauskas, Vytis; Elie, Nicolas; Brunelle, Alain; Briedis, Vitalis

    2017-09-12

    Natural oils are commonly used in topical pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, stabilizers or solubility enhancers. They are presented as safe and inert components, mainly used for formulation purposes. It is confirmed that natural oils can affect the skin penetration of various substances. Fatty acids are mainly responsible for this effect. Current understanding lacks reliable scientific data on penetration of natural oils into the skin and their skin penetration enhancement potential. In the current study, fatty acid content analysis was used to determine the principal fatty acids in soybean, olive, avocado, sea-buckthorn pulp, raspberry seed and coconut oils. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry bioimaging was used to determine the distribution of these fatty acids in human skin ex vivo after application of the oils. Skin penetration enhancement ratios were determined for a perspective antioxidant compound dihydroquercetin. The results demonstrated skin penetration of fatty acids from all oils tested. Only soybean and olive oils significantly increased the skin distribution of dihydroquercetin and can be used as skin penetration enhancers. However, no correlation can be determined between the fatty acids' composition and skin penetration enhancement using currently available methodological approaches. This indicates that potential chemical penetration enhancement should be evaluated during formulation of topically applied products containing natural oils.

  1. The PTRC : a world leader in enhanced heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoff, B.; Knudsen, R.; Asghari, K. [Petroleum Technology Research Centre, Regina, SK (Canada); Pappas, E.S. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC) fosters knowledge and progressive technologies to enhance the recovery of petroleum. This paper discussed the PTRC's leadership in enhanced heavy oil recovery, with particular reference to core research program such as heavy oil (post) cold flow; enhanced waterflooding; miscible/immiscible solvent injection; and near-wellbore conformance control. Other projects that were presented included a joint implementation of vapour extraction project (JIVE); and the IEA greenhouse gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale carbon dioxide monitoring and storage project. The JIVE project will develop, demonstrate and evaluate solvent vapour extraction processes for enhanced oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs. The GHG Weyburn-Midale project, launched in 2000, studies carbon dioxide injection and storage in partially depleted oil reservoirs. It was concluded that the PTRC continues to develop technologies to meet the world's energy requirements while mitigating both immediate and long-term environmental impacts. 4 figs.

  2. Functional Enhancements in Used Oil Analysis Spectrometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lukas, Malte

    1998-01-01

    Spark emission spectrometers using the rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique have become the workhorses and primary analytical tool of most machine condition monitoring programs based on oil analysis...

  3. Enhanced oil recovery by CO{sub 2} injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moctezuma Berthier, Andres E. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    Firstly are presented some basic concepts on the enhanced oil recovery; then a description is made of where the oil deposits in Mexico are located; comments are made over what has been done in Mexico in terms of enhanced oil recovery, the projects of the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo that have dealt with the subject of enhanced oil recovery, and finally an approach is presented towards the problem of oil recovery using CO{sub 2}. [Spanish] Primeramente se presentan unos conceptos basicos sobre la recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; luego se hace una descripcion de donde se encuentran los yacimientos de petroleo en Mexico; se comenta sobre que se ha hecho en Mexico en terminos de recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; se mencionan los proyectos del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo que han abordado el tema de la recuperacion mejorada del petroleo y por ultimo se presenta un enfoque hacia el problema de la recuperacion del petroleo usando CO{sub 2}.

  4. Microbial enhanced oil recovery: Entering the log phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology has advanced internationally since 1980 from a laboratory-based evaluation of microbial processes to field applications. In order to adequately support the decline in oil production in certain areas, research on cost-effective technologies such as microbial enhanced oil recovery processes must focus on both near-term and long-term applications. Many marginal wells are desperately in need of an inexpensive improved oil recovery technology today that can assist producers in order to prevent their abandonment. Microbial enhanced waterflooding technology has also been shown to be an economically feasible technology in the United States. Complementary environmental research and development will also be required to address any potential environmental impacts of microbial processes. In 1995 at this conference, the goal is to further document and promote microbial processes for improved oil recovery and related technology for solving environmental problems.

  5. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    , thus reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) to ultra low (0.001 mN/m), which consequently will mobilize the residual oil and result in improved oil recovery. This EOR technology is, however, made challenging by a number of factors, such as the adsorption of surfactant and co-surfactant to the rock...... be resistant to and remain active at reservoir conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and salinities. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of systems that exhibit liquid-liquid equilibrium (e.g. oil-brine systems) at reservoir conditions is an area of increasing interest within EOR. This is true...... studied. The effect of increased pressure became more significant when combined with increasing temperature. The experiments performed on the oil/ seawater systems were similar to the high pressure experiments for the surfactant system discussed above. Oil was contacted with different brine solutions...

  6. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery - Advanced Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    the water phase. The biofilm formation implies that the concentration of bacteria near the inlet increases. In combination with surfactant production, the biofilm results in a higher surfactant concentration in the initial part of the reservoir. The oil that is initially bypassed in connection...... simulator. In the streamline simulator, the effect of gravity is introduced using an operator splitting technique. The gravity effect stabilizes oil displacement causing markedly improvement of the oil recovery, when the oil density becomes relatively low. The general characteristics found for MEOR in one......-dimensional simulations are also demonstrated both in two and three dimensions. Overall, this MEOR process conducted in a heterogeneous reservoir also produces more oil compared to waterflooding, when the simulations are run in multiple dimensions. The work presented in this thesis has resulted in two publications so far....

  7. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we (HM found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO., or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1. Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of health oriented diet. Oxidized oils may eventually cause DNA cleavages, modification of proteins, RNA, and lipids, as well as cellular damage, or promote inflammation and carcinogenesis at later time [5-9]. These commercial oils of low antioxidant activity may be improved by adding functionally effective antioxidative components, by using dried vegetable-waste such as tomato-juice-waste-residues and wine-ferment-waste-residues. Their antioxiative components will be transferred into the functionally poor grade edible oils, and consequently, one can improve the quality of such functionally poor oils and thereby contributing human health [2,8,9]. The purpose of this paper is to report a practical procedure to fortify functionally low grade conventional edible oils to functionally enriched edible oils using dried vegetable-waste residues such as tomato juice waste, and wine-ferment-residues, or other vegetable-waste residues. Methods: (1 Preparation and measurements of lycopene and carotenoid enriched oils. To 5.0g or 1.0g of the dried residue of tomato juice waste, 100ml of commercial rape seed (canola oil was added respectively. Each mixture was incubated at room temperature in dark for several weeks. Amount of lycopene and carotenoids extracted into the oil was monitored by increase of absorption (400-550nm and fluorescence at 470nm of carotenoid. Grape-juice ferment (wine waste was similarly prepared after hot air drying, and immersed in canola oil. (2

  8. Foam rheology in porous media and enhanced oil recovery potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies using foam as a mobility control agent in partially depleted oil wells have shown that foam has a potential for enhancing oil recovery after primary water flooding. The characteristics of foam as indicated by the results of several studies point to three potential applications of foam in oil recovery processes. These are: Improving the displacement efficiency of gas-drive processes (mobility control). Improving the sweep efficiency of other fluid injection processes (mobility control and flow impediment). Restricting the flow of undesired fluids and plugging of high permeable oil 'thief' zones (partial or total pore blockage). (author)

  9. Enhanced oil recovery with surfactant flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow Sandersen, S.

    2012-05-15

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms of systems that exhibit liquid-liquid equilibrium (e.g. oil-brine systems) at reservoir conditions is an area of increasing interest within EOR. This is true both for complex surfactant systems as well as for oil and brine systems. It is widely accepted that an increase in oil recovery can be obtained through flooding, whether it is simple waterflooding, waterflooding where the salinity has been modified by the addition or removal of specific ions (socalled ''smart'' waterflooding) or surfactant flooding. High pressure experiments have been carried out in this work on a surfactant system (surfactant/ oil/ brine) and on oil/ seawater systems (oil/ brine). The high pressure experiments were carried out on a DBR JEFRI PVT cell, where a glass window allows observation of the phase behavior of the different systems at various temperatures and pressures inside the high pressure cell. Phase volumes can also be measured visually through the glass window using precision equipment. The surfactant system for which an experimental study was carried out consisted of the mixture heptane, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/ 1-butanol/ NaCl/ water. This system has previously been examined at ambient pressures and temperatures but this has been extended here to pressures up to 400 bar and to slightly higher temperatures (40 deg. C, 45 deg. C and 50 deg. C). Experiments were performed at constant salinity (6.56 %), constant surfactant-alcohol ratio (SAR) but with varying water-oil ratios (WOR). At all temperatures it was very clear that the effect of pressure was significant. The system changed from the two phase region, Winsor II, to the three phase region, Winsor III, as pressure increased. Increasing pressures also caused a shift from the three phase region (Winsor III), to a different two phase region, (Winsor I). These changes in equilibrium phase behavior were also dependent on the composition of the system. A number of

  10. New technologies of enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wojnarowski

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known from the literature that up to 27 % of oil in oilfields can be produced using primary and hydration methods. The efficiency of production can be increased by employing more advanced methods, i.e. EOR. The Polish Oil and Gas Company iwork with Polish oilfields, where currently primary methods are applied, but the Polish experiences with EOR date back to the years 1932-1987. In view of high oil prices, reconsidering EOR as a production method is economically justifiable. Therefore, it is purposeful to implement new pilot technologies, aimed at implementing new technologies, understanding accompanying phenomena, and calibrating of simulation models, including economical models for an optimal control of the oilfield exploitation. World’s new exploitation methods worked out in the last few years and suggestions for their implementation in Polish conditions are presented in the paper

  11. Chemically evolving systems for oil recovery enhancement in heavy oil deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, I. V.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Stasyeva, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the results of laboratory studies and field tests of new physicochemical technologies for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil fields under natural development conditions and with thermal-steam stimulation using oil-displacing "smart" systems. The systems are based on surfactants and buffer systems. Their rheological and acid-base properties can be regulated by their chemical evolution directly in the formation. Field tests of the technologies carried out on high-viscosity oil deposit in the Usinskoye oilfield have shown that the EOR technologies are environmentally friendly and technologically effective.

  12. Damage Effects and Fractal Characteristics of Coal Pore Structure during Liquid CO2 Injection into a Coal Bed for E-CBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pore structure has a significant influence on coal-bed methane (CBM enhancement. Injecting liquid CO2 into coal seams is an effective way to increase CBM recovery. However, there has been insufficient research regarding the damage effects and fractal characteristics of pore structure at low temperature induced by injecting liquid CO2 into coal samples. Therefore, the methods of low-pressure nitrogen adsorption-desorption (LP-N2-Ad and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP were used to investigate the damage effects and fractal characteristics of pore structure with full aperture as the specimens were frozen by liquid CO2. The adsorption isotherms revealed that the tested coal samples belonged to type B, indicating that they contained many bottle and narrow-slit shaped pores. The average pore diameter (APD; average growth rate of 18.20%, specific surface area (SSA; average growth rate of 7.38%, and total pore volume (TPV; average growth rate of 18.26% increased after the specimens were infiltrated by liquid CO2, which indicated the generation of new pores and the transformation of original pores. Fractal dimensions D1 (average of 2.58 and D2 (average of 2.90 of treated coal samples were both larger the raw coal (D1, average of 2.55 and D2, average of 2.87, which indicated that the treated specimens had more rough pore surfaces and complex internal pore structures than the raw coal samples. The seepage capacity was increased because D4 (average of 2.91 of the treated specimens was also higher than the raw specimens (D4, average of 2.86. The grey relational coefficient between the fractal dimension and pore structure parameters demonstrated that the SSA, APD, and porosity positively influenced the fractal features of the coal samples, whereas the TPV and permeability exerted negative influences.

  13. Water control for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.C.; Mody, B.; Pace, J.

    1981-11-01

    Gains in recovery efficiency in W. Texas oil and gas fields have been realized as a result of applying 4 different chemical processes, either singly or in combination. Each of the 4 chemical processes has been tailored to meet specific reservoir requirements. Complete plugging of high flow capacity channels can be accomplished, and the high water production portion of a producing zone can be sealed by injection of gel-forming chemicals into the matrix. Both floodwater diversion and water-oil mobility ratio improvement can be attained by in situ polymerization of a one-stage polymer bank in the reservoir. In producing wells, the water-oil production ratio can be favorably changed by treating certain formulations with a nonplugging polymer which tends to restrict water flow but not oil. One feature which each of the 4 processes has in common is the ability to invade deeply into matrix which may produce long lasting results. A description of each process is presented with various placement techniques used to obtain optimum results. Data from fields which have benefited from these treatments are presented. The work describes what may be expected with each of these proven processes based on field results.

  14. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY USING LOCAL ALKALINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the discovery of new oil producing fields and the ever increasing ... followed by water flooding is between 35 to 50% of the ... involved and lack of scale up and is considered among ... carbonate alkaline chemical reacts with certain types of ... reservoirs because of the profusion of calcium and the ... damage the formation.

  15. Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery, (STEOR) Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, E.; Arnold, C.; Allen, D.; Garman, R.; Joy, P.; Mitchell, P.; Shaw, H.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal enhanced oil recovery is widely used in California to aid in the production of heavy oils. Steam injection either to stimulate individual wells or to drive oil to the producing wells, is by far the major thermal process today and has been in use for over 20 years. Since steam generation at the necessary pressures (generally below 4000 kPa (580 psia)) is within the capabilities of present day solar technology, it is logical to consider the possibilities of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (STEOR). The present project consisted of an evaluation of STEOR. Program objectives, system selection, trade-off studies, preliminary design, cost estimate, development plan, and market and economic analysis are summarized.

  16. Enhancing blood donor skin disinfection using natural oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdullatif, Meshari; Boujezza, Imen; Mekni, Mohamed; Taha, Mariam; Kumaran, Dilini; Yi, Qi-Long; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    Effective donor skin disinfection is essential in preventing bacterial contamination of blood components with skin flora bacteria like Staphylococcus epidermidis. Cell aggregates of S. epidermidis (biofilms) are found on the skin and are resistant to the commonly used donor skin disinfectants chlorhexidine-gluconate and isopropyl alcohol. It has been demonstrated that essential oils synergistically enhance the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate. The objective of this study was to test plant-extracted essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine-gluconate or chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol for their ability to eliminate S. epidermidis biofilms. The composition of oils extracted from Artemisia herba-alba, Lavandula multifida, Origanum marjoram, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus capitatus was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A rabbit model was used to assess skin irritation caused by the oils. In addition, the anti-biofilm activity of the oils used alone or in combination with chlorhexidine-gluconate or chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol was tested against S. epidermidis biofilms. Essential oil concentrations 10%, 20%, and 30% were chosen for anti-biofilm assays, because skin irritation was observed at concentrations greater than 30%. All oils except for O. marjoram had anti-biofilm activity at these three concentrations. L. multifida synergistically enhanced the anti-biofilm activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate and resulted in the highest anti-biofilm activity observed when combined with chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main component contributing to the activity of L. multifida oil was a natural terpene alcohol called linalool. The anti-biofilm activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol can be greatly enhanced by L. multifida oil or linalool. Therefore, these components could potentially be used to improve blood

  17. Chemometric assessment of enhanced bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, Mohsen; Farhoudi, Majid; Christensen, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting...... relative removal of isoprenoids (e.g. norpristane, pristane and phytane). It is concluded that the CHEMSIC method is a valuable tool for assessing bioremediation efficiency....

  18. Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Shi, Fang; Qin, Wuying; Yan, Jing

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, the demand for oil is increasing day by day. MEOR has the advantages of low cost and no pollution to the environment, attracted widespread attention. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of microbial enhanced oil recovery were studied by laboratory experiments. The result showed that all the microbial flooding recovery rate could reach more than 5%, and the total recovery could reach more than 35% and if the injection period of microbial composite system was advanced, the whole oil displacement process could be shortened and the workload would be reduced.

  19. Enhanced crude oil biodegradation in soil via biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-02

    Research on feasible methods for the enhancement of bioremediation in soil contaminated by crude oil is vital in oil-exporting countries such as Kuwait, where crude oil is a major pollutant and the environment is hostile to biodegradation. This study investigated the possibility of enhancing crude oil bioremediation by supplementing soil with cost-effective organic materials derived from two widespread locally grown trees, Conocarpus and Tamarix. Amendments in soils increased the counts of soil microbiota by up to 98% and enhanced their activity by up to 95.5%. The increase in the biodegradation of crude oil (75%) and high levels of alkB expression substantiated the efficiency of the proposed amendment technology for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. The identification of crude-oil-degrading bacteria revealed the dominance of the genus Microbacterium (39.6%), Sphingopyxis soli (19.3%), and Bordetella petrii (19.6%) in unamended, Conocarpus-amended, and Tamarix-amended contaminated soils, respectively. Although soil amendments favored the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and reduced bacterial diversity, the structures of bacterial communities were not significantly altered.

  20. Steam injection and enhanced bioremediation of heavy fuel oil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dablow, J.; Hicks, R.; Cacciatore, D.

    1995-01-01

    Steam injection has been shown to be successful in remediating sites impacted by heavy fuel oils. Field demonstrations at both pilot and full scale have removed No. 2 diesel fuel and Navy Special Fuel Oil (No. 5 fuel oil) from impacted soils. Removal mechanisms include enhanced volatilization of vapor- and adsorbed-phase contaminants and enhanced mobility due to decreased viscosity and associated residual saturation of separate- and adsorbed-phase contaminants. Laboratory studies have shown that indigenous biologic populations are significantly reduced, but are not eliminated by steam injection operations. Populations were readily reestablished by augmentation with nutrients. This suggests that biodegradation enhanced by warm, moist, oxygenated environments can be expected to further reduce concentrations of contaminants following cessation of steam injection operations

  1. Numerical approach for enhanced oil recovery with surfactant flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Keshtkar

    2016-03-01

    concentration and performance variable (cumulative oil recovery are studied. Finally, the comparison of oil recovery between water-flooding and surfactant-flooding was done. The results showed higher oil recovery with changes in capillary number when the partition coefficient is greater than unity. Increasing oil viscosity resulted in decreasing the oil recovery by changing in fractional flow. Moreover, it was concluded that the oil recovery was enhanced by increasing surfactant injection concentration. The oil recovery was increased when surfactant was injected to the system and this result was obtained by comparing water-flooding and surfactant-flooding.

  2. From Site Characterization through Safe and Successful CO2 Injection Operation to Post-injection Monitoring and Site Closure - Closing the Full Life Cycle Research at the Ketzin Pilot Site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebscher, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Initiated in 2004, the Ketzin pilot site near Berlin, Germany, was the first European onshore storage project for research and development on geological CO2 storage. After comprehensive site characterization the site infrastructure was build comprising three deep wells and the injection facility including pumps and storage tanks. The operational CO2 injection period started in June 2008 and ended in August 2013 when the site entered the post-injection closure period. During these five years, a total amount of 67 kt of CO2 was safely injected into an Upper Triassic saline sandstone aquifer at a depth of 630 m - 650 m. In fall 2013, the first observation well was partially plugged in the reservoir section with CO2 resistant cement; full abandonment of this well finished in 2015 after roughly 2 years of cement plug monitoring. Abandonment of the remaining wells will be finished by summer 2017 and hand-over of liability to the competent authority is scheduled for end of 2017. The CO2 injected was mainly of food grade quality (purity > 99.9%). In addition, 1.5 kt of CO2 from the oxyfuel pilot capture facility "Schwarze Pumpe" (purity > 99.7%) was injected in 2011. The injection period terminated with a CO2-N2 co-injection experiment of 650 t of a 95% CO2/5% N2 mixture in summer 2013 to study the effects of impurities in the CO2 stream on the injection operation. During regular operation, the CO2 was pre-heated on-site to 40°C prior to injection to ensure a single-phase injection process and avoid any phase transition or transient states within the injection facility or the reservoir. Between March and July 2013, just prior to the CO2-N2 co-injection experiment, the injection temperature was stepwise decreased down to 10°C within a "cold-injection" experiment to study the effects of two-phase injection conditions. During injection operation, the combination of different geochemical and geophysical monitoring methods enabled detection and mapping of the spatial and

  3. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR.

  4. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  5. Thermal enhanced oil recovery in Indonesia. Prospect of HTGR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Sumardiono; Lasman, A.N.; Sudarto; Prihardany, D.

    1997-01-01

    In the next future, Indonesia will face oil scarcity. The present reserves are estimated to be depleted in 20 years. However, after primary and secondary recovery processes, there are still more than 50% of original oil in place remaining in the reservoir, and this could be recovered by using tertiary recovery method or which is known as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Among the three major methods of EOR, steam flooding is a thermal recovery method into which High Temperature Reactor (HTR) module can be integrated for producing steam. However, the feasibility of application of HTR as an alternative to conventional oil-fired steam generator will depend strongly on the price of oil. This paper discusses EOR screening for Indonesian oil fields to identify the appropriate oil reservoirs for steam flooding application as well as the possibility of steam supply by HTR module. Also reviewed is the previous study on HTR application for Duri Steam Flood Project. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  6. Enhanced Oil Recovery from Oil-wet Carbonate Rock by Spontaneous Imbibition of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standnes, Dag Chun

    2001-09-01

    The main theme of this thesis is an experimental investigation of spontaneous imbibition (SI) of aqueous cationic surfactant solution into oil-wet carbonate (chalk- and dolomite cores). The static imbibition process is believed to represent the matrix flow of oil and water in a fractured reservoir. It was known that aqueous solution of C{sub 12}-N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Br (C12TAB) was able to imbibe spontaneously into nearly oil-wet chalk material, but the underlying mechanism was not understood. The present work was therefore initiated, with the following objectives: (1) Put forward a hypothesis for the chemical mechanism underlying the SI of C12TAB solutions into oil-wet chalk material based on experimental data and (2) Perform screening tests of low-cost commercially available surfactants for their ability to displace oil by SI of water into oil-wet carbonate rock material. It is essential for optimal use of the surfactant in field application to have detailed knowledge about the mechanism underlying the SI process. The thesis also discusses some preliminary experimental results and suggests mechanisms for enhanced oil recovery from oil-wet carbonate rock induced by supply of thermal energy.

  7. Air injection low temperature oxidation process for enhanced oil recovery from light oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunio, A.H.; Harijan, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) methods to recover unswept oil from depleted light oil reservoirs. The essential theme here is the removal of oxygen at LTO (Low Temperature Oxidation) from the injected air for a light oil reservoir by means of some chemical reactions occurring between oil and oxygen. In-situ combustion process, HTO (High Temperature Oxidation) is not suitable for deep light oil reservoirs. In case of light oil reservoirs LTO is more suitable to prevail as comparative to HTO. Few laboratory experimental results were obtained from air injection process, to study the LTO reactions. LTO process is suitable for air injection rate in which reservoir has sufficiently high temperature and spontaneous reaction takes place. Out comes of this study are the effect of LTO reactions in oxygen consumption and the recovery of oil. This air injection method is economic compared to other EOR methods i.e. miscible hydrocarbon gas, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide flooding etc. This LTO air injection process is suitable for secondary recovery methods where water flooding is not feasible due to technical problems. (author)

  8. Microbial processes in the Athabasca Oil Sands and their potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, N K; Richardson, T L; Thompson, K A; Best, R J; Best, A S; Trevors, J T

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands are located within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which covers over 140,200 km(2) of land in Alberta, Canada. The oil sands provide a unique environment for bacteria as a result of the stressors of low water availability and high hydrocarbon concentrations. Understanding the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate these stresses may aid in our understanding of how hydrocarbon degradation has occurred over geological time, and how these processes and related tolerance mechanisms may be used in biotechnology applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The majority of research has focused on microbiology processes in oil reservoirs and oilfields; as such there is a paucity of information specific to oil sands. By studying microbial processes in oil sands there is the potential to use microbes in MEOR applications. This article reviews the microbiology of the Athabasca Oil Sands and the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate low water and high hydrocarbon availability in oil reservoirs and oilfields, and potential applications in MEOR.

  9. Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery : Modeling and Analytical Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashoori, E.

    2012-01-01

    Foam increases sweep in miscible- and immiscible-gas enhanced oil recovery by decreasing the mobility of gas enormously. This thesis is concerned with the simulations and analytical solutions for foam flow for the purpose of modeling foam EOR in a reservoir. For the ultimate goal of upscaling our

  10. High-order simulation of foam enhanced oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, J.M.; Van Odyck, D.E.A.; Wirnsberger, P.; Jansen, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    If secondary hydrocarbon recovery methods fail because of the occurrence of gravity override or viscous fingering one can turn to an enhanced oil recovery method like the injection of foam. The generation of foam can be described by a set of partial differential equations with strongly nonlinear

  11. Lithium niobate ultrasonic transducer design for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Gu, Yuting

    2015-11-01

    Due to the strong piezoelectric effect possessed by lithium niobate, a new idea that uses lithium niobate to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for Enhanced Oil Recovery technology is proposed. The purpose of this paper is to lay the foundation for the further research and development of high-power ultrasonic oil production technique. The main contents of this paper are as follows: firstly, structure design technique and application of a new high-power ultrasonic transducer are introduced; secondly, the experiment for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil by this transducer is done, the optimum ultrasonic parameters for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil are given. Experimental results show that heavy large molecules in super heavy oil can be cracked into light hydrocarbon substances under strong cavitation effect caused by high-intensity ultrasonic wave. Experiment proves that it is indeed feasible to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for ultrasonic oil production technology using lithium niobate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  13. Screening Criteria and Considerations of Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Sang Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore oil fields, owing to the unique parameters present offshore. Therefore, successful EOR applications in offshore oil fields require different screening criteria than those for conventional onshore applications. A comprehensive database for onshore applications of EOR processes together with a limited offshore EOR application database are analyzed in this paper, and the important parameters for successful offshore application are incorporated into the new EOR screening criteria. In this paper, screening criteria to determine acceptable EOR processes for offshore fields, including hydrocarbon gas miscible, CO2 miscible, and polymer processes, are presented. Suggested screening criteria for these EOR processes comprise quantitative boundaries and qualitative considerations. Quantitative screening criteria are predominantly based on quantifiable data, such as oil and reservoir properties. Qualitative screening considerations mainly focus on the operational issues present offshore, including platform space constraints, limited disposal options, injectant availability, and flow assurance matters (including hydrate formation and difficulties in emulsion separation.

  14. Biosurfactants production and possible uses in microbial enhanced oil recovery and oil pollution remediation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banat, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    Surfactants are widely used for various purposes in industry, but for many years were mainly chemically synthesized. It has only been in the past few decades that biological surface-active compounds (biosurfactants) have been described. Biosurfactants are gaining prominence and have already taken over for a number of important industrial uses, due to their advantages of biodegradability, production on renewable resources and functionality under extreme conditions; particularly those pertaining during tertiary crude-oil recovery. Conflicting reports exist concerning their efficacy and the economics of both their production and application. The limited successes and applications for biosurfactants production, recovery, use in oil pollution control, oil storage tank clean-up and enhanced oil-recovery are reviewed from the technical point of view. (author)

  15. Enhanced oil recovery by nanoparticles injection: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu; Salama, Amgad

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a mathematical model and numerical simulation to describe the nanoparticles-water suspension imbibes into a water-oil two-phase flow in a porous medium is introduced. We extend the model to include the negative capillary pressure and mixed relative permeabilities correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system. Also, buoyancy and capillary forces as well as Brownian diffusion are considered. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids and solid properties due to addition of the nanoparticles and check for possible enhancement of the oil recovery process using numerical experiments.

  16. Essays on carbon policy and enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin R.

    The growing concerns about climate change have led policy makers to consider various regulatory schemes designed to reduce the stock and growth of atmospheric CO2 concentrations while at the same time improving energy security. The most prominent proposals are the so called "cap-and-trade" frameworks which set aggregate emission levels for a jurisdiction and then issue or sell a corresponding number of allowances to emitters. Typically, these policy measures will also encourage the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in geological formations and mature oil fields through subsidies or other incentives. The ability to store CO 2 in mature oil fields through the deployment of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2--EOR) is particularly attractive as it can simultaneously improve oil recovery at those fields, and serve as a possible financial bridge to the development of CO2 transportation infrastructure. The purpose of this research is to explore the impact that a tandem subsidy-tax policy regime may have on bargaining between emitters and sequestration providers, and also to identify oil units in Wyoming that can profitably undertake CO 2--EOR as a starting point for the build-out of CO2 pipelines. In the first essay an economics lab experiment is designed to simulate private bargaining between carbon emitters (such as power plants) and carbon sequestration sites when the emitter faces carbon taxes, sequestration subsidies or both. In a tax-subsidy policy regime the carbon tax (or purchased allowances) can be avoided by sequestering the carbon, and in some cases the emitter can also earn a subsidy to help pay for the sequestration. The main policy implications of the experiment results are that the sequestration market might be inefficient, and sequestration providers seem to have bargaining power sufficient to command high prices. This may lead to the integration of CO2 sources and sequestration sites, and reduced prices for the injectable CO2 purchased by oil

  17. Carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.; Manbybura, F.; Sparks, N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for carbon dioxide as a major miscible solvent in Canada and describes Shell Canada's carbon dioxide exploration efforts over the last few years. Enhanced oil recovery, specifically miscible flooding, has been recognized as a technically and economically feasible method for adding reserves and productive capacity to Canada's light and medium oil. The fiscal regime has been altered by both the federal and provincial governments to encourage miscible flooding development. As a result many projects have been initiated with others being evaluated and designed. This paper analyzes the history and the direction of miscible flooding in the United States, where carbon dioxide is becoming the predominant miscible solvent. The potential for future use of carbon dioxide in Canada is specifically addressed: potential oil recovery solvent supply, and economics. Shell's carbon dioxide exploration play currently underway is also discussed.

  18. On the use of sodium lignosulphonate for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, M. M.; Rachmadi, H.; Wintoko, J.; Yuliansyah, A. T.; Hasokowati, W.; Purwono, S.; Rochmadi, W.; Murachman, B.

    2017-05-01

    There has been large interest to utilize oil reservoirs in Indonesia by using Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Injection of surfactant as a part of chemical injection technique in EOR is known to aid the mobility and reduction in surface tension. One potential surfactant for EOR application is Sodium Lignosulphonate (SLS) which can be made from various sources particularly empty fruit bunch of oil palm and black liquor from kraft pulp production. Here, we will discuss a number of methods for SLS production which includes lignin isolation techniques and sulphonation reaction. The use of SLS alone as EOR surfactant, however, is often not feasible as the Interfacial Tension (IFT) value of SLS is typically above the order of 10-3 dyne/cm which is mandated for EOR application. Hence, brief discussion on SLS formulation screening is provided which illustrates an extensive labwork experience during the SLS development in our lab.

  19. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. 1.43-4... TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-4 Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. (a) Qualifying costs—(1) In... “qualified enhanced oil recovery costs” if the amounts are paid or incurred with respect to an asset which is...

  20. 26 CFR 1.43-1 - The enhanced oil recovery credit-general rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true The enhanced oil recovery credit-general rules. 1... INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-1 The enhanced oil recovery credit—general rules. (a) Claiming the credit—(1) In general. The enhanced oil recovery credit (the “credit”) is a component of the...

  1. Research Progress in Carbon Dioxide Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Wang, Gang; Lu, Chunjing

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of global economy, human beings have become highly dependent upon fossil fuel such as coal and petroleum. Much fossil fuel is consumed in industrial production and human life. As a result, carbon dioxide emissions have been increasing, and the greenhouse effects thereby generated are posing serious threats to environment of the earth. These years, increasing average global temperature, frequent extreme weather events and climatic changes cause material disasters to the world. After scientists’ long-term research, ample evidences have proven that emissions of greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide have brought about tremendous changes to global climate. To really reduce carbon dioxide emissions, governments of different countries and international organizations have invested much money and human resources in performing research related to carbon dioxide emissions. Manual underground carbon dioxide storage and carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery are schemes with great potential and prospect for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Compared with other schemes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions, aforementioned two schemes exhibit high storage capacity and yield considerable economic benefits, so they have become research focuses for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. This paper introduces the research progress in underground carbon dioxide storage and enhanced oil recovery, pointing out the significance and necessity of carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery.

  2. Application of nanotechnology for enhancing oil recovery – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chegenizadeh Negin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has attracted a great attention in enhancing oil recovery (EOR due to the cost-effective and environmental friendly manner. The size of nanoparticles for EOR usually is in a range of 1–100 nm, which may slightly differ from various international organisations. Nanoparticles exhibit significantly different properties compared to the same fine or bulk molecules because of much higher concentration of atoms at their surface as a result of ultra-small size. In particular, one of the most useful and fascinating properties of these particles is to creating a massive diffusion driving force due to the large surface area, especially at high temperatures. Previous studies have shown that nanoparticles can enhance oil recovery by shifting reservoir wettability towards more water-wet and reducing interfacial tension, yet this area is still open for discussion. It is worth noting that the potential of nanoparticles to reduce the oil viscosity, increase the mobility ratio, and to alter the reservoir permeability has not been investigated to date. Depending on the operational conditions of the EOR process, some nanoparticles perform more effectively than others, thus leading to different levels of enhanced recovery. In this study, we aim to provide a summary on each of the popular and available nanoparticles in the market and list their optimum operational conditions. We classified nanoparticles into the three categories of metal oxide, organic and inorganic particles in this article.

  3. Muscle enhancement using intramuscular injections of oil in bodybuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Ch. N.; Hvolris, Jørgen Jesper; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-administered intramuscular injection of site enhancement oil (SEO) is a cosmetic and performance-enhancing procedure used to reshape muscles in the bodybuilder subculture, but its consequences and complications are only sporadically described. Methods: A systematic search...... in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases during the spring of 2009 and 2010. Internet searches were performed, and bodybuilder pharmacopoeias were consulted to describe SEO use and the clinical complications known. Results: One review and seven case reports were identified. Eight case reports describe oleomas caused...

  4. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery: 3D Simulation with Gravity Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Jessen, K.; Shapiro, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) utilizes the activity of microorganisms, where microorganisms simultaneously grow in a reservoir and convert substrate into recovery enhancing products (usually, surfactants). In order to predict the performance of a MEOR process, a simulation tool is required...... using an operator splitting technique. To the best of our knowledge, this has resulted in the first full 3D MEOR streamline simulator. For verification purposes, we compare results from our streamline MEOR simulator to those of a conventional finite difference approach for 1D and 2D displacement...

  5. Hydrophobically associated polymers for wettability alteration and enhanced oil recovery – Article review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. El-hoshoudy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil and other petroleum products are crucial to the global economy today due to increasing energy demand approximately (∼1.5% per year and significant oil remaining after primary and secondary oil recovery (∼45–55% of original oil in place, OOIP, which accelerates the development of enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies to maximize the recovered oil amount by non-conventional methods as polymer flooding. This review discusses enhanced oil recovery methods specially polymer flooding techniques and their effects on rock wettability alteration.

  6. A Network Model for the Kinetics of Bioclogged Flow Diversion for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Pena, L.A.; Meulenbroek, B.J.; Vermolen, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    After the primary extraction in oil reservoirs up to 60 % of the oil remains trapped in the reservoir (Sen, 2008). Therefore, different mechanisms have been developed to get the oil out to the reservoir. One of these techniques is Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) which is a technique used

  7. Can Producing Oil Store Carbon? Greenhouse Gas Footprint of CO2EOR, Offshore North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R Jamie; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2015-05-05

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields while permanently storing large tonnages of injected CO2. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, there are currently no CO2EOR projects in the United Kingdom. Here, we examine whether offshore CO2EOR can store more CO2 than onshore projects traditionally have and whether CO2 storage can offset additional emissions produced through offshore operations and incremental oil production. Using a high-level Life Cycle system approach, we find that the largest contribution to offshore emissions is from flaring or venting of reproduced CH4 and CO2. These can already be greatly reduced by regulation. If CO2 injection is continued after oil production has been optimized, then offshore CO2EOR has the potential to be carbon negative--even when emissions from refining, transport, and combustion of produced crude oil are included. The carbon intensity of oil produced can be just 0.056-0.062 tCO2e/bbl if flaring/venting is reduced by regulation. This compares against conventional Saudi oil 0.040 tCO2e/bbl or mined shale oil >0.300 tCO2e/bbl.

  8. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery: Recent advances. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Woodhead, A.D.; Vivirito, K.J. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    During recent years, systematic, scientific, and engineering effort by researchers in the United States and abroad, has established the scientific basis for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology. The successful application of MEOR technology as an oil recovery process is a goal of the Department of Energy (DOE). Research efforts involving aspects of MEOR in the microbiological, biochemical, and engineering fields led DOE to sponsor an International Conference at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1992, to facilitate the exchange of information and a discussion of ideas for the future research emphasis. At this, the Fourth International MEOR Conference, where international attendees from 12 countries presented a total of 35 papers, participants saw an equal distribution between ``research`` and ``field applications.`` In addition, several modeling and ``state-of-the-art`` presentations summed up the present status of MEOR science and engineering. Individual papers in this proceedings have been process separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T.D.

    1980-08-01

    A guide to environmental laws and regulations which have special significance for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is presented. The Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, federal regulations, and state regulations are discussed. This handbook has been designed as a planning tool and a convenient reference source. The 16 states included comprise the major oil-producing states in various regions of the state. The major topics covered are: general guidelines for complying with environmental laws and regulations; air pollution control; water pollution control; protecting drinking water: underground injection control; hazardous waste management; and federal laws affecting siting or operation of EOR facilities. (DMC)

  10. Simulations of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery: Adsorption and Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the context of microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) with injection of surfactant-producing bacteria into the reservoir, different types of bacteria attachment and growth scenarios are studied using a 1D simulator. The irreversible bacteria attachment due to filtration similar to the deep bed...... applied to filtration model provides formation of two oil banks during recovery. This feature is not reproduced by application of REA model or DBF with growth in attached phase. This makes it possible to select a right model based on the qualitative analysis of the experimental data. A criterion...... is introduced to study the process efficiency: the dimensionless time at which average recovery between pure water injection and maximum surfactant effect is reached. This characteristic recovery period (CRP) was studied as a function of the different MEOR parameters such as bacterial activity, filtration...

  11. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide and enhanced oil recovery. I. Uncertainty quantification employing a streamline based proxy for reservoir flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Wang, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is already injected into a limited class of reservoirs for oil recovery purposes; however, the engineering design question for simultaneous oil recovery and storage of anthropogenic CO 2 is significantly different from that of oil recovery alone. Currently, the volumes of CO 2 injected solely for oil recovery are minimized due to the purchase cost of CO 2 . If and when CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere are managed, it will be necessary to maximize simultaneously both economic oil recovery and the volumes of CO 2 emplaced in oil reservoirs. This process is coined 'cooptimization'. This paper proposes a work flow for cooptimization of oil recovery and geologic CO 2 storage. An important component of the work flow is the assessment of uncertainty in predictions of performance. Typical methods for quantifying uncertainty employ exhaustive flow simulation of multiple stochastic realizations of the geologic architecture of a reservoir. Such approaches are computationally intensive and thereby time consuming. An analytic streamline based proxy for full reservoir simulation is proposed and tested. Streamline trajectories represent the three-dimensional velocity field during multiphase flow in porous media and so are useful for quantifying the similarity and differences among various reservoir models. The proxy allows rational selection of a representative subset of equi-probable reservoir models that encompass uncertainty with respect to true reservoir geology. The streamline approach is demonstrated to be thorough and rapid

  12. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. Final report, Annex 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, M.M.; Gerogiou, G.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. An order of magnitude analysis indicated that selective plugging and the production of biosurfactants are the two most likely mechanisms for the mobilization of oil in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The latter, biosurfactant production, is easier to control within a reservoir environment and was investigated in some detail. An extensive literature survey indicated that the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 produces a very effective surface active agent capable of increasing the capillary number to values sufficiently low for oil mobilization. In addition, earlier studies had shown that growth of this bacterium and biosurfactant production occur under conditions that are typically encountered in MEOR, namely temperatures up to 55{degrees}C, lack of oxygen and salinities of up to 10% w/v. The chemical structure of the surfactant, its interfacial properties and its production by fermentation were characterized in some detail. In parallel, a set of experiments as conducted to measure the transport of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 in sandpacks. It was shown that the determining parameters for cell transport in porous media are: cell size and degree of coagulation, presence of dispersants, injection velocity and cell concentration. The mechanisms of bacteria retention within the pores of the reservoir were analyzed based on heuristic arguments. A mathematical simulator of MEOR was developed using conservation equations in which the mechanisms of bacteria retention and the growth kinetics of the cells were incorporated. The predictions of the model agreed reasonably well with experimental results.

  13. Injeção de CO2 e lâminas de irrigação em tomateiro sob estufa CO2 injection and irrigation levels in greenhouse tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cesar Cararo

    2002-09-01

    -se os dados a funções quadráticas, foram de 78,82 t.ha-1 e 86,36 t.ha-1, correspondentes à aplicação de 335,2 mm e 333,6 mm de água para as estufas sem e com aplicação de CO2, respectivamente. Para uma faixa de variação do produto físico marginal de 0 a 1, as lâminas economicamente ótimas variaram de 335,2 mm a 322,4 mm em ausência de CO2 e de 333,6 mm a 323,8 mm com utilização do gás.The application of appropriate amounts of water and the usage of associated techniques improve the yield and quality of tomato fruits, assuring better profits to the farmer. We studied the effect of different water depth applications and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection in the irrigation system of a tomato crop, cv. Débora-Plus. An experiment was conducted in Piracicaba, São Paulo State (Brazil, under two greenhouses, using 40; 60; 80; 100; 120 and 140% of the water depth needed by the crop and C0 = 0 g of CO2.L-1 of water and C1 = 7.73 g.L-1 of CO2 concentrations were applied through irrigation water during 1999. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized blocks, with four replications. The CO2 treatments were applied in separate greenhouses. The irrigation was accomplished by using a drip irrigation system, based on reduced evaporimeters and tensiometers. The gas application was accomplished using a commercial cylinder and a Venturi type injector during the period necessary to reach the minimum water level. The application of CO2 through irrigation water increased the yield by 8.2%, raised the weight of small size fruits by 13% and the dry matter content of fruits by 8.5%. However, CO2 injection was ineffective in increasing the number and weight of medium sized fruits. The soil solution analysis indicated that CO2 possibly contributes to the improvement of the nutritional conditions of the tomato crop. The gas injection was economically feasible. The water depth did not have any significant effect on the yield, on total number of fruits, medium fruit weight

  14. Enhancement of oleic acid in butter oil by high oleic fraction of moringa oleifera oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ullah, R.

    2016-01-01

    Oleic acid in butter oil (BO) was enhanced by a high oleic acid fraction (HOF) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO). HOF was blended with BO at four different concentrations i.e. 5%, 10 percent, 15% and 20% (HOF-5, HOF-10, HOF-15 and HOF-20, respectively), compared with a control (BO). The oleic acid in HOF increased from 71.55 percent to 80.25%. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content of HOF was 76.88% and 34.52 mg/100 g. Supplementation of butter oil with 20% HOF, decreased the cholesterol from 224 to 177 mg/100 g. Peroxide value of three months stored HOF-20 was 1.18 (meqO/sub 2/ kg) as compared to control, 3.15 (meqO/sub 2/kg). Induction period of HOF-20 was 4.07 h greater than control. These results evidenced that oleic acid in butter oil can be substantially increased by HOF of MOO. (author)

  15. Relevance of Linear Stability Results to Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueru; Daripa, Prabir

    2012-11-01

    How relevant can the results based on linear stability theory for any problem for that matter be to full scale simulation results? Put it differently, is the optimal design of a system based on linear stability results is optimal or even near optimal for the complex nonlinear system with certain objectives of interest in mind? We will address these issues in the context of enhanced oil recovery by chemical flooding. This will be based on an ongoing work. Supported by Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).

  16. Viscous fingering and channeling in chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir; Dutta, Sourav

    2017-11-01

    We have developed a hybrid numerical method based on discontinuous finite element method and modified method of characteristics to compute the multiphase multicomponent fluid flow in porous media in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery. We use this method to study the effect of various chemical components on the viscous fingering and channeling in rectilinear and radial flow configurations. We will also discuss about the efficiency of various flooding schemes based on these understandings. Time permitting, we will discuss about the effect of variable injection rates in these practical setting. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1522782.

  17. 4-D tomographic monitoring of enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzostowski, M.A.; McMechan, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    One application of tomography that has recently received considerable attention is reservoir monitoring for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Tomographic monitoring of a moving steam front uses the significant decrease in compressional wave velocity that occurs as hydrocarbon temperature increases. The purposes of this paper are to present a working algorithm for 3-D tomography, to demonstrate the feasibility of 3-D imaging of a simulated reservoir in which the position of a steam front changes with time, and to illustrate the relations between survey geometry and the resolution of the target

  18. Modeling of CO2 migration injected in Weyburn oil reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Stenhouse, M.J.; Arthur, R.

    2008-01-01

    Injecting CO 2 into oil and gas field is a way to enhance oil recovery (EOR) as well as mitigate global warming effect by permanently storing the greenhouse gas into underground. This paper details the models and results of simulating the long-term migration of CO 2 injected into the Weyburn field for both Enhanced Oil Recovery operations and CO 2 sequestration. A System Model was established to define the spatial and temporal extents of the analysis. The Base Scenario was developed to identify key processes, features, and events (FEPs) for the expected evolution of the storage system. A compositional reservoir simulator with equations-of-states (EOS) was used as the modeling tool in order to simulate multiphase, multi-component flow and transport coupled with CO 2 mass partitioning into oil, gas, and water phases. We apply a deterministic treatment to CO 2 migration in the geosphere (natural pathways), whereas the variability of abandoned wells (man-made pathways) necessitates a stochastic treatment. The simulation result was then used to carry out consequence analysis to the local environment. (authors)

  19. Screening of microorganisms for microbial enhanced oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Japan Food Research Laboratiories, Tokyo (Japan). Div. of Microbiology; Ono, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to screen effective microorganisms for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process (or simply as MEOR). Samples of drilling cuttings, formation water, and soil were collected from domestic drilling sites and oil fields. Moreover, samples of activated-sludge and compost were collected from domestic sewage treatment facility and food treatment facility. At first, microorganisms in samples were investigated by incubation with different media; then they were isolated. By two stage-screening based on metabolizing ability, 4 strains (Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322, Bacillus subtilis TRC-4118, and Bacillus subtilis TRC-4126) were isolated as effective microorganisms for oil recovery. B. licheniformis TRC-18-2-a is a multifunctional microorganism possessing excellent surfactant productivity, and in addition it has gas, acid and polymer productivities. E. cloacae TRC-332 has gas and acid producing abilities. B. subtilis TRC-4118 and TRC-4126 are effective biosurfactant producers, and they reduce the interfacial tension to 0.04 and 0.12 dyne/cm, respectively. (author)

  20. In situ microbial systems for the enhancement of oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, V.

    1991-01-01

    Microbial Enhancement of Oil Recovery (MEOR) offers important new opportunities in the quest for increased oil production. It refers not to a single technique but rather to a collection of methodologies, analogous to parallel non-microbiological methods. MEOR has relevance for many type of production and reservoir problems detailed protocols: may be tailored specifically to a range of individual reservoir conditions. Microorganisms downhole can generate a wide variety of chemical products from inexpensive feed stocks: where these are more cost-effective than oil field chemicals injected from the surface, microbial methods may win widespread acceptance. MEOR methods must be defined precisely; in any particular reservoir procedure their proposed mechanism of action must be clearly understood and criteria established for evaluating their success. The most important applications for MEOR are 1) the production f insoluble or highly viscous polymer to control coning or to plug selectively high permeability thief zones and fractures, 2) the continuous generation of the active agents for polymer-and/or surfactant floods, 3) matrix acidisation and acid fracturing in carbonate rocks stimulate flows into production wells. All these approaches are currently actively been explored; several programmes for field-testing microbial EOR methods already exist, or are being readied, and rapid progress is likely within the next few years. (author)

  1. Chemometric assessment of enhanced bioremediation of oil contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Mohsen; Farhoudi, Majid; Christensen, Jan H

    2013-06-15

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting, and addition of nitrogen and phosphorous, molasses, hydrogen peroxide, and a surfactant (Tween 80). Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations and CHEMometric analysis of Selected Ion Chromatograms (SIC) termed CHEMSIC method of petroleum biomarkers including terpanes, regular, diaromatic and triaromatic steranes were used for determining the level and type of hydrocarbon contamination. The same methods were used to study oil weathering of 2 to 6 ring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Results demonstrated that bacterial enrichment and addition of nutrients were most efficient with 50% to 62% removal of TPH. Furthermore, the CHEMSIC results demonstrated that the bacterial enrichment was more efficient in degradation of n-alkanes and low molecular weight PACs as well as alkylated PACs (e.g. C₃-C₄ naphthalenes, C₂ phenanthrenes and C₂-C₃ dibenzothiophenes), while nutrient addition led to a larger relative removal of isoprenoids (e.g. norpristane, pristane and phytane). It is concluded that the CHEMSIC method is a valuable tool for assessing bioremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1987-01-01

    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  3. Enhanced antibacterial effects of clove essential oil by nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Md Khalid; Jamil, Shahid; Ibnouf, Elmutasim Osman; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to develop and evaluate nanoemulsion formulations of clove essential oil (CEO) for its antibacterial effects in comparison with pure CEO and standard amikacin antibiotic (positive control). Different nanoemulsions of CEO were developed by aqueous phase titration method via construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and investigated for thermodynamic stability and self-nanoemulsification tests. Selected formulations (F1-F5) were characterized for droplet size distribution, viscosity, zeta potential, transmittance and surface morphology. Based on lowest droplet size (29.1 nm), lowest PI (0.026), lowest viscosity (34.6 cp), optimal zeta potential (-31.4 mV), highest transmittance (99.4 %) and lowest concentration of Triacetin (8 % w/w), CEO nanoemulsion F1 (containing 1 % w/w of CEO, 8 % w/w of Triacetin, 15 % w/w of Tween-80, 15 % w/w of Labrasol and 61 % w/w of water) was subjected to antibacterial studies in comparison with pure oil and standard amikacin. The antibacterial effects of F1 were found to be superior over pure oil against all bacterial strains investigated. However, the antibacterial effects of F1 were highly comparable with standard amikacin against all bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of F1 were observed in the range of 0.075-0.300 % w/w as compared to pure oil (MICs 0.130-0.500 % w/w) and standard amikacin (MICs 2-16 μg/ml). These results indicated the potential of nanoemulsions for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of natural bioactive ingredients such as CEO.

  4. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery performance according to the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe need to increase the efficiency of oil recovery and environmental concerns are bringing to prominence the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a tertiary recovery agent. Assessment of the impact of flooding with CO2 all eligible reservoirs in the United States not yet undergoing enhanced oil recovery (EOR) requires making the best possible use of the experience gained in 40 years of applications. Review of the publicly available literature has located relevant CO2-EOR information for 53 units (fields, reservoirs, pilot areas) in the United States and 17 abroad.As the world simultaneously faces an increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and a higher demand for fossil fuels, the CO2-EOR process continues to gain popularity for its efficiency as a tertiary recovery agent and for the potential for having some CO2 trapped in the subsurface as an unintended consequence of the enhanced production (Advanced Resources International and Melzer Consulting, 2009). More extensive application of CO2-EOR worldwide, however, is not making it significantly easier to predict the exact outcome of the CO2 flooding in new reservoirs. The standard approach to examine and manage risks is to analyze the intended target by conducting laboratory work, running simulation models, and, finally, gaining field experience with a pilot test. This approach, though, is not always possible. For example, assessment of the potential of CO2-EOR at the national level in a vast country such as the United States requires making forecasts based on information already available.Although many studies are proprietary, the published literature has provided reviews of CO2-EOR projects. Yet, there is always interest in updating reports and analyzing the information under new perspectives. Brock and Bryan (1989) described results obtained during the earlier days of CO2-EOR from 1972 to 1987. Most of the recovery predictions, however, were based on intended injections of 30 percent the size of

  5. Coconut oil enhances tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation compared to safflower oil in the Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Lauren E; King, Ryan D; Moran, Nancy E; Erdman, John W

    2012-08-29

    Evidence suggests that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats facilitate greater absorption of carotenoids than saturated fats. However, the comparison of consuming a polyunsaturated fat source versus a saturated fat source on tomato carotenoid bioaccumulation has not been examined. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of coconut oil and safflower oil on tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus ) fed a 20% fat diet. Coconut oil feeding increased carotenoid concentrations among many compartments including total carotenoids in the serum (p = 0.0003), adrenal glandular phytoene (p = 0.04), hepatic phytofluene (p = 0.0001), testicular all-trans-lycopene (p = 0.01), and cis-lycopene (p = 0.006) in the prostate-seminal vesicle complex compared to safflower oil. Safflower oil-fed gerbils had greater splenic lycopene concentrations (p = 0.006) compared to coconut oil-fed gerbils. Coconut oil feeding increased serum cholesterol (p = 0.0001) and decreased hepatic cholesterol (p = 0.0003) compared to safflower oil. In summary, coconut oil enhanced tissue uptake of tomato carotenoids to a greater degree than safflower oil. These results may have been due to the large proportion of medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil, which might have caused a shift in cholesterol flux to favor extrahepatic carotenoid tissue deposition.

  6. Corexit 9500 Enhances Oil Biodegradation and Changes Active Bacterial Community Structure of Oil-Enriched Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techtmann, Stephen M; Zhuang, Mobing; Campo, Pablo; Holder, Edith; Elk, Michael; Hazen, Terry C; Conmy, Robyn; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2017-05-15

    To better understand the impacts of Corexit 9500 on the structure and activity levels of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities, we analyzed next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing libraries of hydrocarbon enrichments grown at 5 and 25°C using both DNA and RNA extracts as the sequencing templates. Oil biodegradation patterns in both 5 and 25°C enrichments were consistent with those reported in the literature (i.e., aliphatics were degraded faster than aromatics). Slight increases in biodegradation were observed in the presence of Corexit at both temperatures. Differences in community structure were observed between treatment conditions in the DNA-based libraries. The 25°C consortia were dominated by Vibrio , Idiomarina , Marinobacter , Alcanivorax , and Thalassospira species, while the 5°C consortia were dominated by several species of the genera Flavobacterium , Alcanivorax , and Oleispira Most of these genera have been linked to hydrocarbon degradation and have been observed after oil spills. Colwellia and Cycloclasticus , known aromatic degraders, were also found in these enrichments. The addition of Corexit did not have an effect on the active bacterial community structure of the 5°C consortia, while at 25°C, a decrease in the relative abundance of Marinobacter was observed. At 25°C, Thalassospira , Marinobacter , and Idiomarina were present at higher relative abundances in the RNA than DNA libraries, suggesting that they were active in degradation. Similarly, Oleispira was greatly stimulated by the addition of oil at 5°C. IMPORTANCE While dispersants such as Corexit 9500 can be used to treat oil spills, there is still debate on the effectiveness on enhancing oil biodegradation and its potential toxic effect on oil-degrading microbial communities. The results of this study provide some insights on the microbial dynamics of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial populations in the presence of Corexit 9500. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) analyses

  7. Microbial mineral illization of montmorillonite in low-permeability oil reservoirs for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Sun, Shanshan; Xiao, Meng; Liu, Tongjing; Xu, Quanshu; Dong, Honghong; Wang, Di; Gong, Yejing; Sha, Te; Hou, Jirui; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Fu, Pengcheng

    2018-05-11

    Microbial mineral illization has been investigated for its role in the extraction and recovery of metals from ores. Here we report our application of mineral bioillization for the microbial enhanced oil recovery in low-permeability oil reservoirs. It aimed to reveal the etching mechanism of the four Fe (III)-reducing microbial strains under anaerobic growth conditions on the Ca-montmorillonite. The mineralogical characterization of the Ca-montmorillonite was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. Results showed that the microbial strains could efficiently reduce Fe (III) at an optimal rate of 71 %, and alter the crystal lattice structure of the lamella to promote the interlayer cation exchange, and to efficiently inhibit the Ca-montmorillonite swelling at an inhibitory rate of 48.9 %. Importance Microbial mineral illization is ubiquitous in the natural environment. Microbes in low-permeability reservoirs are able to enable the alteration of the structure and phase of the Fe-poor minerals by reducing Fe (III) and inhibiting clay swelling which is still poorly studied. This study aimed to reveal the interaction mechanism between Fe (III)-reducing bacterial strains and Ca-montmorillonite under anaerobic atmosphere, and to investigate the extent and rates of Fe (III) reduction and phase changes with their activities. Application of Fe (III)-reducing bacteria will provide a new way to inhibit clay swelling, to elevate reservoir permeability, and to reduce pore throat resistance after water flooding for enhanced oil recovery in low-permeability reservoirs. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Enhanced oil recovery using flash-driven steamflooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel steamflooding process which utilizes three specific stages of steam injection for enhanced oil recovery. The three stages are as follows: As steam is being injected into an oil-bearing reservoir through an injection well, the production rate of a production well located at a distance from the injection well is gradually restricted to a point that the pressure in the reservoir increases at a predetermined rate to a predetermined maximum value. After the maximum pressure has been reached, the production rate is increased to a value such that the predetermined maximum pressure value is maintained. Production at maximum pressure is continued for a length of time that will be unique for each individual reservoir. In some cases, this step of the steamflooding process of the invention may be omitted entirely. In the third stage of the steamflooding process of the invention, production rates at the producing well are increased gradually to allow the pressure to decrease down from the maximum pressure value to the original pressure value at the producing well. The rate of pressure reduction will be unique for each reservoir. After completing stage three, the three stages can be repeated or the steamflood may be terminated as considered desirable.

  9. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1984-03-30

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  10. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  11. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 2. Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: residual oil determination; thermal methods; heavy oil-tar sands; technology transfer; and carbon dioxide flooding. Individual papers were processed.

  12. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. Chukwudeme

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO2 flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane, model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO2 flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO2, after which (> 3 years oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO2 flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 °C/90 bar and 70 °C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1% compared to 80 °C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO2 flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure.

  13. Potential evaluation of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery of tight oil reservoir in the Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Linsong; Cao, Renyi; Zhang, Miaoyi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Carbon -di-oxide (CO2) is regarded as the most important greenhouse gas to accelerate climate change and ocean acidification. The Chinese government is seeking methods to reduce anthropogenic CO2 gas emission. CO2 capture and geological storage is one of the main methods. In addition, injecting CO2 is also an effective method to replenish formation energy in developing tight oil reservoirs. However, exiting methods to estimate CO2 storage capacity are all based on the material balance theory. This was absolutely correct for normal reservoirs. However, as natural fractures widely exist in tight oil reservoirs and majority of them are vertical ones, tight oil reservoirs are not close. Therefore, material balance theory is not adaptive. In the present study, a new method to calculate CO2 storage capacity is presented. The CO2 effective storage capacity, in this new method, consisted of free CO2, CO2 dissolved in oil and CO2 dissolved in water. Case studies of tight oil reservoir from Ordos Basin was conducted and it was found that due to far lower viscosity of CO2 and larger solubility in oil, CO2 could flow in tight oil reservoirs more easily. As a result, injecting CO2 in tight oil reservoirs could obviously enhance sweep efficiency by 24.5% and oil recovery efficiency by 7.5%. CO2 effective storage capacity of Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Longdong area was 1.88 x 10(7) t. The Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Ordos Basin was estimated to be 6.38 x 10(11) t. As tight oil reservoirs were widely distributed in Songliao Basin, Sichuan Basin and so on, geological storage capacity of CO2 in China is potential.

  14. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by miscible CO{sub 2} and water flooding of asphaltenic and non-asphaltenic oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukwudeme, E. A.; Hamouda, A. A. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO{sub 2} flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane), model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene) and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene) obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA) is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO{sub 2} flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years) it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO{sub 2}, after which (> 3 years) oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO{sub 2} flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 {sup o}C/90 bar and 70 {sup o}C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1%) compared to 80 {sup o}C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO{sub 2} flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure. (author)

  15. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs as penetration enhancers (PEs to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil >> Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05. The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05. In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea.

  16. Experimental Study of Enhancing Oil Recovery with Weak Base Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Na2CO3 was used together with surfactant and polymer to form the Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer (ASP flooding system. Interfacial tension (IFT and emulsification of Dagang oil and chemical solutions were studied in the paper. The experiment results show that the ASP system can form super-low interfacial tension with crude oil and emulsified phase. The stability of the emulsion is enhanced by the Na2CO3, surfactant, and the soap generated at oil/water contact. Six core flooding experiments are conducted in order to investigate the influence of Na2CO3 concentration on oil recovery. The results show the maximum oil recovery can be obtained with 0.3 wt% surfactant, 0.6 wt% Na2CO3, and 2000 mg/L polymer. In a heterogeneous reservoir, the ASP flooding could not enhance the oil recovery by reducing IFT until it reaches the critical viscosity, which indicates expanding the sweep volume is the premise for reducing IFT to enhance oil recovery. Reducing or removing the alkali from ASP system to achieve high viscosity will reduce oil recovery because of the declination of oil displacement efficiency. Weak base ASP alkali can ensure that the whole system with sufficient viscosity can start the medium and low permeability layers and enhance oil recovery even if the IFT only reaches 10−2 mN/m.

  17. Characterization of indigenous oil field microorganisms for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitte, J.; Krueger, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Biegel, E.; Herold, A. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Alkan, H. [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Kassel (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Microbial activities and their resulting metabolites became a focus of attention for enhanced oil recovery (MEOR, microbial enhanced oil recovery) in the recent years. In order to develop a strategy for a MEOR application in a German oil field operated by Wintershall experiments were performed to investigate different sampling strategies and the microbial communities found in these samples. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the indigenous microbial communities, (2) to investigate the dependency of microbial activity/diversity on the different sampling strategies, and (3) to study the influence of the in situ pressure on bacterial growth and metabolite production. Fluids were sampled at the well head (surface) and in situ in approx. 785 m depth to collect uncontaminated production water directly from the reservoir horizon and under the in situ pressure of 31 bar (subsurface). In the lab the pressure was either released quickly or slowly to assess the sensitivity of microorganisms to rapid pressure changes. Quantitative PCR resulted in higher microbial cell numbers in the subsurface than in the surface sample. Biogenic CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} formation rates were determined under atmospheric and high pressure conditions in the original fluids, with highest rates found in the surface fluid. Interestingly, no methane was formed in the native fluid samples. While nitrate reduction was exclusively detected in the surface samples, sulfide formation also occurred in the subsurface fluids. Increased CO{sub 2} formation was measured after addition of a variety of substrates in the surface fluids, while only fructose and glucose showed a stimulating effect on CO{sub 2} production for the subsurface sample. Stable enrichment cultures were obtained in complex medium inoculated with the subsurface fluid, both under atmospheric and in situ pressure. Growth experiments with constant or changing pressure, and subsequent DGGE analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes

  18. A simulation method for the rapid screening of potential depleted oil reservoirs for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Le Gallo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases emission is a growing concern of many industries. The oil and gas industry has a long commercial practice of gas injection, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and gas storage. Using a depleted oil or gas reservoir for CO 2 storage has several interesting advantages. The long-term risk analysis of the CO 2 behavior and its impact on the environment is a major concern. That is why the selection of an appropriate reservoir is crucial to the success of a sequestration operation. Our modeling study, based on a synthetic reservoir, quantifies uncertainties due to reservoir parameters in order to establish a set of guidelines to select the most appropriate depleted reservoirs. Several production and sequestration scenarios are investigated in order to quantify key parameter for CO 2 storage. The influence of parameters such as API gravity, heterogeneity (Dykstra-Parson coefficient), pressure support (water injection) and cap rock integrity are analyzed. Estimation of sequestration capacity is proposed through a sequestration factor (SF) estimated for different reservoir production drives. Multiple regression relationships were developed, allowing SF estimation. CO 2 sequestration optimization highlights the best clean oil recovery strategy (CO 2 injection and/or oil production)

  19. Anomalous dispersion of magnetic spiky particles for enhanced oil emulsions/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Hang, Tian; Yang, Chengduan; Liu, Guishi; Lin, Di-An; Wu, Jiangming; Pan, Shuolin; Yang, Bo-Ru; Tao, Jun; Xie, Xi

    2018-01-25

    In situ effective separation of oil pollutants including oil spills and oil emulsions from water is an emerging technology yet remains challenging. Hydrophobic micro- or nano-materials with ferromagnetism have been explored for oil removal, yet the separation efficiency of an oil emulsion was compromised due to the limited dispersion of hydrophobic materials in water. A surfactant coating on microparticles prevented particle aggregation, but reduced oil absorption and emulsion cleaning ability. Recently, polystyrene microbeads covered with nanospikes have been reported to display anomalous dispersion in phobic media without surfactants. Inspired by this phenomenon, here magnetic microparticles attached with nanospikes were fabricated for enhanced separation of oil emulsions from water. In this design, the particle surfaces were functionalized to be superhydrophobic/superoleophilic for oil absorption, while the surface of the nanospikes prevented particle aggregation in water without compromising surface hydrophobicity. The magnetic spiky particles effectively absorbed oil spills on the water surface, and readily dispersed in water and offered facile cleaning of the oil emulsion. In contrast, hydrophobic microparticles without nanospikes aggregated in water limiting the particle-oil contact, while surfactant coating severely reduced particle hydrophobicity and oil absorption ability. Our work provides a unique application scope for the anomalous dispersity of microparticles and their potential opportunities in effective oil-water separation.

  20. Investigation of biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms that enhance residue oil recovery in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Yue-Hui; Zhang, Fan; Xia, Jing-Jing; Kong, Shu-Qiong; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Shu, Fu-Chang; Hu, Ji-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms (XDS1, XDS2, XDS3) were isolated from a petroleum reservoir in the Daqing Oilfield (China) after polymer flooding. Their metabolic, biochemical, and oil-degradation characteristics, as well as their oil displacement in the core were studied. These indigenous microorganisms were identified as short rod bacillus bacteria with white color, round shape, a protruding structure, and a rough surface. Strains have peritrichous flagella, are able to produce endospores, are sporangia, and are clearly swollen and terminal. Bacterial cultures show that the oil-spreading values of the fermentation fluid containing all three strains are more than 4.5 cm (diameter) with an approximate 25 mN/m surface tension. The hydrocarbon degradation rates of each of the three strains exceeded 50%, with the highest achieving 84%. Several oil recovery agents were produced following degradation. At the same time, the heavy components of crude oil were degraded into light components, and their flow characteristics were also improved. The surface tension and viscosity of the crude oil decreased after being treated by the three strains of microorganisms. The core-flooding tests showed that the incremental oil recoveries were 4.89-6.96%. Thus, XDS123 treatment may represent a viable method for microbial-enhanced oil recovery.

  1. Enhanced oil recovery & carbon sequestration building on successful experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Fred [BEPC (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper it is spoken of the experiences in the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the companies Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC) and Dakota Gasification Company (DGC); their by-products are mentioned and what these companies are making to control the CO{sub 2} emissions. Their challenges to compress CO{sub 2} are presented and how they have reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions in the DGC of the 2000 to the 2008; how they use CO{sub 2} to enhance the oil recovery and which are their challenges in the CO{sub 2} transport. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla de las experiencias en la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} en las empresas Basin Electic Power Cooperative (BEPC) y Dakota Gasification Campany (DGC); se mencionan sus subproductos y que estan haciendo estas empresas para controlar las emisiones de CO{sub 2}. Se presentan sus retos para comprimir CO{sub 2} y como han reducido las emisiones de CO{sub 2} en la DGC del 2000 al 2008; como utilizan el CO{sub 2} para mejorar la recuperacion de petroleo y sus cuales son retos en el transporte de CO{sub 2}.

  2. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  3. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for oil-water interfacial tension reduction in enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hassan; Baig, Mirza Khurram; Yahya, Noorhana; Khodapanah, Leila; Sabet, Maziyar; Demiral, Birol M. R.; Burda, Marek

    2018-02-01

    Nanoparticles show potential use in applications associated with upstream oil and gas engineering to increase the performance of numerous methods such as wettability alteration, interfacial tension reduction, thermal conductivity and enhanced oil recovery operations. Surface tension optimization is an important parameter in enhanced oil recovery. Current work focuses on the new economical method of surface tension optimization of ZnO nanofluids for oil-water interfacial tension reduction in enhanced oil recovery. In this paper, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystallites were prepared using the chemical route and explored for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Adsorption of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) on calcite (111) surface was investigated using the adsorption locator module of Materials Studio software. It was found that ZnO nanoparticles show maximum adsorption energy of - 253 kcal/mol. The adsorption of ZnO on the rock surface changes the wettability which results in capillary force reduction and consequently increasing EOR. The nanofluids have been prepared by varying the concentration of ZnO nanoparticles to find the optimum value for surface tension. The surface tension (ST) was calculated with different concentration of ZnO nanoparticles using the pendant drop method. The results show a maximum value of ST 35.57 mN/m at 0.3 wt% of ZnO NPs. It was found that the nanofluid with highest surface tension (0.3 wt%) resulted in higher recovery efficiency. The highest recovery factor of 11.82% at 0.3 wt% is due to the oil/water interfacial tension reduction and wettability alteration.

  4. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.

    2003-01-16

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  5. Bacterial community diversity in a low-permeability oil reservoir and its potential for enhancing oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Guang-Qing; Luo, Yi-Jing; Song, Zhao-Zheng; Zhang, Ji-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of indigenous bacterial community and the functional species in the water samples from three production wells of a low permeability oil reservoir was investigated by high-throughput sequencing technology. The potential of application of indigenous bacteria for enhancing oil recovery was evaluated by examination of the effect of bacterial stimulation on the formation water-oil-rock surface interactions and micromodel test. The results showed that production well 88-122 had the most diverse bacterial community and functional species. The broth of indigenous bacteria stimulated by an organic nutrient activator at aerobic condition changed the wettability of the rock surface from oil-wet to water-wet. Micromodel test results showed that flooding using stimulated indigenous bacteria following water flooding improved oil recovery by 6.9% and 7.7% in fractured and unfractured micromodels, respectively. Therefore, the zone of low permeability reservoir has a great potential for indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Flow behavior of N2 huff and puff process for enhanced oil recovery in tight oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Teng; Li, Zhaomin; Li, Jian; Hou, Dawei; Zhang, Dingyong

    2017-11-16

    In the present work, the potential of N 2 huff and puff process to enhance the recovery of tight oil reservoir was evaluated. N 2 huff and puff experiments were performed in micromodels and cores to investigate the flow behaviors of different cycles. The results showed that, in the first cycle, N 2 was dispersed in the oil, forming the foamy oil flow. In the second cycle, the dispersed gas bubbles gradually coalesced into the continuous gas phase. In the third cycle, N 2 was produced in the form of continuous gas phase. The results from the coreflood tests showed that, the primary recovery was only 5.32%, while the recoveries for the three N 2 huff and puff cycles were 15.1%, 8.53% and 3.22%, respectively.The recovery and the pressure gradient in the first cycle were high. With the increase of huff and puff cycles, and the oil recovery and the pressure gradient rapidly decreased. The oil recovery of N 2 huff and puff has been found to increase as the N 2 injection pressure and the soaking time increased. These results showed that, the properly designed and controlled N 2 huff and puff process can lead to enhanced recovery of tight oil reservoirs.

  7. Influence of Oil Viscosity on Alkaline Flooding for Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil viscosity was studied as an important factor for alkaline flooding based on the mechanism of “water drops” flow. Alkaline flooding for two oil samples with different viscosities but similar acid numbers was compared. Besides, series flooding tests for the same oil sample were conducted at different temperatures and permeabilities. The results of flooding tests indicated that a high tertiary oil recovery could be achieved only in the low-permeability (approximately 500 mD sandpacks for the low-viscosity heavy oil (Zhuangxi, 390 mPa·s; however, the high-viscosity heavy oil (Chenzhuang, 3450 mPa·s performed well in both the low- and medium-permeability (approximately 1000 mD sandpacks. In addition, the results of flooding tests for the same oil at different temperatures also indicated that the oil viscosity put a similar effect on alkaline flooding. Therefore, oil with a high-viscosity is favorable for alkaline flooding. The microscopic flooding test indicated that the water drops produced during alkaline flooding for oils with different viscosities differed significantly in their sizes, which might influence the flow behaviors and therefore the sweep efficiencies of alkaline fluids. This study provides an evidence for the feasibility of the development of high-viscosity heavy oil using alkaline flooding.

  8. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  9. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the

  10. Enhancement of recovery of residual oil using a biosurfactant slug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of the biosurfactant extract revealed a mixture of glycolipid and phospholipid in a ratio of 3.35:1. The irreducible water saturation (Swi) and initial residual oil saturation (Sor) of the sand-pack were 0.280 ± 0.003 and 0.373 ± 0.006, respectively. Core flooding experiment showed that an optimum oil recovery ...

  11. Enhanced oil recovery using local alkaline | Akpoturi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement in productivity is one of the Oil and Gas industry's biggest challenges. About 60% of crude Oil still lay trapped in the reservoir even after primary and secondary recovery process have been completed, hence the need for a method that further improves recovery. In this study, flooding experiment was conducted ...

  12. Prospects of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery  in Danish chalk rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Jørgensen, Leif Wagner; Bah Awasi, Ismail

      Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) uses bacteria, producing gas (CO2), polymers or surfactants to help recover residual oil after the water injection depletes its possibilities. Two strains of Clostridia tyrobutiricum were investigated as possible candidates for MEOR  implementation in Danish...

  13. Exploring opportunities for enhancing innovation in agriculture: The case of oil palm production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a study using key informant interviews, focus group discussions and individual interviews to explore opportunities to enhance innovation in the oil palm sector in Ghana. Current technical innovations at the farm level are insufficient to promote sustainable oil palm production and to

  14. Studies on interfacial tension and contact angle of synthesized surfactant and polymeric from castor oil for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Keshak; Pal, Nilanjan; Bera, Achinta; Saxena, V. K.; Mandal, Ajay

    2015-10-01

    New synthesized polymeric surfactants have immensely attracted the researchers for further development of chemical enhanced oil recovery method particularly in surfactant flooding. Contact angle and interfacial tension measurement tests are the effective ways to identify proper chemicals/surfactants for enhanced oil recovery by chemical/surfactant flooding. In the present study a new polymeric surfactant was synthesized from pre-synthesized sodium methyl ester sulfonate (surfactant) and acrylamide for application in chemical enhanced oil recovery. The synthesized surfactant and polymeric surfactant were used to measure interfacial tension between their aqueous phase and crude oil phase to investigate the efficiency of the surfactants in reduction of interfacial tension. The synthesized polymeric surfactant has also ability to control the mobility because of its viscous nature in aqueous solution. Contact angles of solid-crude oil-surfactant interface were also measured to study the effect of the synthesized surfactant and polymeric surfactant on wettability alteration mechanism. Synergistic effect was studied by using NaCl and synthesized surfactants on interfacial tension. Dynamic interfacial tensions of the surfactant and polymeric surfactant solutions with crude oil were measured at different NaCl concentrations. Interfacial tension was found to be lowered up to 10-2 to 10-3 mN/m which is effective for oil recovery. Measurement of contact angle indicates the wettability change of the quartz surface. Comparative studies on efficiencies of synthesized sodium methyl ester sulfonate surfactant and polymeric surfactant were also carried out with respect to interfacial tension reduction and contact angle change.

  15. Discussion of the feasibility of air injection for enhanced oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Air injection in light oil reservoirs has received considerable attention as an effective, improved oil recovery process, based primarily on the success of several projects within the Williston Basin in the United States. The main mechanism of air injection is the oxidation behavior between oxygen and crude oil in the reservoir. Air injection is a good option because of its wide availability and low cost. Whether air injection can be applied to shale is an interesting topic from both economic and technical perspectives. This paper initiates a comprehensive discussion on the feasibility and potential of air injection in shale oil reservoirs based on state-of-the-art literature review. Favorable and unfavorable effects of using air injection are discussed in an analogy analysis on geology, reservoir features, temperature, pressure, and petrophysical, mineral and crude oil properties of shale oil reservoirs. The available data comparison of the historically successful air injection projects with typical shale oil reservoirs in the U.S. is summarized in this paper. Some operation methods to improve air injection performance are recommended. This paper provides an avenue for us to make use of many of the favorable conditions of shale oil reservoirs for implementing air injection, or air huff ‘n’ puff injection, and the low cost of air has the potential to improve oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs. This analysis may stimulate further investigation.

  16. Conference on microbiological processes useful in enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Six formal presentations were made at the meeting, followed by four workshops dealing with specific topics: bioengineering, reservoir ecology and environment, transformations, and bioproducts. All were related to microbial enhancement of oil recovery. (DLC)

  17. Microfluidics: an enabling screening technology for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Victor A

    2016-05-21

    Oil production is a critical industrial process that affects the entire world population and any improvements in its efficiency while reducing its environmental impact are of utmost societal importance. The paper reviews recent applications of microfluidics and microtechnology to study processes of oil extraction and recovery. It shows that microfluidic devices can be useful tools in investigation and visualization of such processes used in the oil & gas industry as fluid propagation, flooding, fracturing, emulsification and many others. Critical macro-scale processes that define oil extraction and recovery are controlled by the micro-scale processes based on wetting, adhesion, surface tension, colloids and other concepts of microfluidics. A growing number of research efforts demonstrates that microfluidics is becoming, albeit slowly, an accepted methodology in this area. We propose several areas of development where implementation of microfluidics may bring about deeper understanding and hence better control over the processes of oil recovery based on fluid propagation, droplet generation, wettability control. Studies of processes such as hydraulic fracturing, sand particle propagation in porous networks, high throughput screening of chemicals (for example, emulsifiers and surfactants) in microfluidic devices that simulate oil reservoirs are proposed to improve our understanding of these complicated physico-chemical systems. We also discuss why methods of additive manufacturing (3D printing) should be evaluated for quick prototyping and modification of the three-dimensional structures replicating natural oil-bearing rock formations for studies accessible to a wider audience of researchers.

  18. Oil-in-oil-emulsions with enhanced substantivity for the treatment of chronic skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunter, Dominique Jasmin; Rottke, Michael; Daniels, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    The therapy of chronic skin diseases often requires several applications of creams or ointments per day. This is inconvenient to the patients and frequently leads to poor acceptance and compliance. We therefore developed oil-in-oil-emulsions that deliver the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to the skin over a prolonged period of time. In this study, we compare the permeation of the API from a conventional formulation to its permeation from an oil-in-oil-emulsion under infinite and finite dosing. Furthermore, we evaluate the substantivity of the formulations. Our results show that the permeation from oil-in-oil-emulsions is constant over a prolonged time and that the emulsions show significantly higher substantivity than conventional formulations. Because of that, the treatment intervals can be extended substantially and compliance can be increased. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Technical and economic framework for market enhancement of shale oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunger, J.W.; Devineni, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    By now it is apparent that production of syncrude from shale oil will not be economically viable as long as there is a stable and reasonably-priced supply of petroleum. The costs and financial risks of producing syncrude from oil shale, in the face of price constraints imposed by petroleum markets, are too high to warrant private investment. A possible solution is to develop commodity and specialty products from shale oil which command a high market value. In this fashion, the economics are partially uncoupled from petroleum and an opportunity for a greater price/cost differential is provided

  20. Microbial enhanced separation of oil from a petroleum refinery sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, P J; Joseph, Ammini

    2009-01-15

    Petroleum refineries around the world have adopted different technological options to manage the solid wastes generated during the refining process and stocking of crude oil. These include physical, chemical and biological treatment methods. In this investigation bacterial mediated oil separation is effected. Two strains of Bacillus were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils, and inoculated into slurry of sludge, and sludge-sand combinations. The bacteria could effect the separation of oil so as to form a floating scum within 48h with an efficiency of 97% at < or =5% level of sludge in the sludge-sand mixture. The activity was traced to the production of biosurfactants by bacteria.

  1. Enhancement of Crude Oil Polluted Soil by Applying Single and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    bioline.org.br/ja ... 5 kg of soil each was polluted with 200 ml of crude oil ... organic matter, phosphate, nitrate, total hydrocarbon content, potassium and microbial population were analyzed before ... arise mainly from the processing and distribution of.

  2. Application of Sodium Ligno Sulphonate as Surfactant in Enhanced Oil Recovery and Its Feasibility Test for TPN 008 Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, N. I.; Rochmadi; Purwono, S.

    2018-04-01

    One of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods is using surfactants to reduce the interfacial tension between the injected fluid and the oil in old reservoir. The most important principle in enhanced oil recovery process is the dynamic interaction of surfactants with crude oil. Sodium ligno sulphonate (SLS) is a commercial surfactant and already synthesized from palm solid waste by another researcher. This work aimed to apply SLS as a surfactant for EOR especially in TPN 008 oil from Pertamina Indonesia. In its application as an EOR’s surfactant, SLS shall be passed feasibility test like IFT, thermal stability, compatibility, filtration, molecular weight, density, viscosity and pH tests. The feasibility test is very important for a preliminary test prior to another advanced test. The results demonstrated that 1% SLS solution in formation water (TPN 008) had 0.254 mN/M IFT value and was also great in thermal stability, compatibility, filtration, molecular weight, viscosity and pH test.

  3. Protocol for Enhanced in situ Bioremediation Using Emulsified Edible Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    through a two-step process where the ester linkages between the glycerol and the fatty acids are hydrolyzed releasing free fatty acids and glycerol to...interfacial tension of edible oils can be lowered by the addition of different surfactants including lecithin , mono and diglycerides, free fatty acids...in Table 3.2. The cumulative oil volume vs. droplet diameter for the different mixers is presented in Figure 3.4. The modified lecithin

  4. Enhanced inhibition of Aspergillus niger on sedge (Lepironia articulata) treated with heat-cured lime oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matan, N; Matan, N; Ketsa, S

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to examine heat curing effect (30-100°C) on antifungal activities of lime oil and its components (limonene, p-cymene, β-pinene and α-pinene) at concentrations ranging from 100 to 300 μl ml(-1) against Aspergillus niger in microbiological medium and to optimize heat curing of lime oil for efficient mould control on sedge (Lepironia articulata). Broth dilution method was employed to determine lime oil minimum inhibitory concentration, which was at 90 μl ml(-1) with heat curing at 70°C. Limonene, a main component of lime oil, was an agent responsible for temperature dependencies of lime oil activities observed. Response surface methodology was used to construct the mathematical model describing a time period of zero mould growth on sedge as functions of heat curing temperature and lime oil concentration. Heat curing of 90 μl ml(-1) lime oil at 70°C extended a period of zero mould growth on sedge to 18 weeks under moist conditions. Heat curing at 70°C best enhanced antifungal activity of lime oil against A. niger both in medium and on sedge. Heat curing of lime oil has potential to be used to enhance the antifungal safety of sedge products. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. A business process for enhanced heavy oil recovery research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, P.; Campbell, M.; Kantzas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Husky Oil's enhanced oil recovery (EOR) research management processes for reducing process development time and increasing investment efficiency were described. The considerations that went into the development of the plan a decade ago were reviewed and new ideas incorporated into the revised plan were presented. Four case studies were presented to illustrate the need for process to reservoir matching. A need for strategic research planning was emphasized. Proposed technologies for enhancement of heavy oil reservoir productivity were presented in tabular form. 1 tab., 7 figs

  6. Investigation on Mechanisms of Polymer Enhanced Oil Recovery by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Microscopic Theoretical Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji-Cheng, Zhang; Kao-Ping, Song; Er-Long, Yang; Li, Liu

    2008-01-01

    Polymer flooding is an efficient technique to enhance oil recovery over water flooding. There are lots of discussions regarding the mechanisms for polymer flooding enhancing oil recovery. The main focus is whether polymer flooding can increase sweep efficiency alone, or can increase both of sweep efficiency and displacement efficiency. We present a study on this problem. Oil displacement experiments on 4 natural cores show that polymer flooding can increase oil recovery efficiency by more than 12% over water. Moreover, photos are taken by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method both after water flooding and after polymer flooding, which show remaining oil saturation distribution at the middle cross section and the central longitudinal section. Analyses of these photos demonstrate that polymer flooding can increase both sweep efficiency and displacement efficiency. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  7. Tracing enhanced oil recovery signatures in casing gases from the Lost Hills oil field using noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Peter H.; Kulongoski, Justin; Landon, Matthew K.; Tyne, R.L.; Gillespie, Janice; Stephens, Michael; Hillegonds, D.J.; Byrne, D.J.; Ballentine, C.J.

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and hydraulic fracturing practices are commonly used methods to improve hydrocarbon extraction efficiency; however the environmental impacts of such practices remain poorly understood. EOR is particularly prevalent in oil fields throughout California where water resources are in high demand and disposal of high volumes of produced water may affect groundwater quality. Consequently, it is essential to better understand the fate of injected (EOR) fluids in California and other subsurface petroleum systems, as well as any potential effect on nearby aquifer systems. Noble gases can be used as tracers to understand hydrocarbon generation, migration, and storage conditions, as well as the relative proportions of oil and water present in the subsurface. In addition, a noble gas signature diagnostic of injected (EOR) fluids can be readily identified. We report noble gas isotope and concentration data in casing gases from oil production wells in the Lost Hills oil field, northwest of Bakersfield, California, and injectate gas data from the Fruitvale oil field, located within the city of Bakersfield. Casing and injectate gas data are used to: 1) establish pristine hydrocarbon noble-gas signatures and the processes controlling noble gas distributions, 2) characterize the noble gas signature of injectate fluids, 3) trace injectate fluids in the subsurface, and 4) construct a model to estimate EOR efficiency. Noble gas results range from pristine to significantly modified by EOR, and can be best explained using a solubility exchange model between oil and connate/formation fluids, followed by gas exsolution upon production. This model is sensitive to oil-water interaction during hydrocarbon expulsion, migration, and storage at reservoir conditions, as well as any subsequent modification by EOR.

  8. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  9. Bio-Oil Hydrotreatment for Enhancing Solubility in Biodiesel and the Oxydation Stability of Resulting Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Lucía; Stankovikj, Filip; Sánchez, José L; Gonzalo, Alberto; Arauzo, Jesús; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge for the pyrolytic conversion of lignocellulosic materials into crude bio-oil is the poor quality of the final product. Several strategies (addition of solvents, production of emulsions, and extraction with biodiesel) have been studied to improve its fuel properties. The extraction with biodiesel is an interesting solution because it allows direct utilization of some bio-oil fractions as fuels. However, fraction extracted with biodiesel is typically between 10 and 18 wt. %. In this paper we studied mild hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil to enhance its solubility in biodiesel. The study was conducted with BTG and Amaron oils hydrotreated at temperatures between 200 and 325°C in the presence of Ru/C catalyst. Hydrotreated oils generated three phases: top oil (light hydrocarbons), middle aqueous phase and bottom heavy oil phase. Each of the phases was characterized and the content of acetic acid, phenols, aromatic compounds, and linear alkane hydrocarbons quantified. The upgraded bio-oils were more soluble in biodiesel than the crude bio-oils, obtaining blends with up to 48 and 38 wt. % for the BTG and Amaron bio-oil, respectively. Some of the fuel properties of the resulting blends are also reported here.

  10. The potential of Bacillus licheniformis strains for in situ enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakimov, Michail M.; Timmis, Kenneth N. [Microbial Ecology Group, Division of Microbiology, GBF-National Research Centre for Biotechnology, Braunschweig (Germany); Amro, Mohammed M.; Kessel, Dagobert G. [German Petroleum Institute, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Bock, Michael; Boseker, Klaus [BGR, Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Fredrickson, Herbert L. [Environmental Laboratory, Waterways Experimental Station, USAGE, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1997-07-15

    The ability of microorganisms isolated from oil reservoirs to increase oil recovery by in situ growth and metabolism following the injection of laboratory grown microbial cells and nutrients were studied. Four strains isolated from Northern German oil reservoirs at depths of 866 to 1520 m, and identified as Bacillus licheniformis, were characterized taxonomically and physiologically. All strains grew on a variety of substrates at temperatures of up to 55C and at salinities of up to 12% NaCl. Extracellular polymer production occurred both aerobically and anaerobically over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and salinities, though it was optimal at temperatures around 50C and at salinities between 5 and 10% NaCl. Strain BNP29 was able to produce significant amounts of biomass, polymer, fermentation alcohols and acids in batch culture experiments under simulated reservoir conditions. Oil recovery (core flooding) experiments with strain BNP29 and a sucrose-based nutrient were performed with lime-free and lime-containing, oil-bearing sandstone cores. Oil recovery efficiencies varied from 9.3 to 22.1% of the water flood residual oil saturation. Biogenic acid production that accompanied oil production, along with selective plugging, are important mechanisms leading to increased oil recovery, presumably through resulting changes in rock porosity and alteration of wettability. These data show that strain BNP29 exhibits potential for the development of enhanced oil recovery processes

  11. Bio-Oil Hydrotreatment for Enhancing Solubility in Biodiesel and the Oxydation Stability of Resulting Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Botella

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge for the pyrolytic conversion of lignocellulosic materials into crude bio-oil is the poor quality of the final product. Several strategies (addition of solvents, production of emulsions, and extraction with biodiesel have been studied to improve its fuel properties. The extraction with biodiesel is an interesting solution because it allows direct utilization of some bio-oil fractions as fuels. However, fraction extracted with biodiesel is typically between 10 and 18 wt. %. In this paper we studied mild hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil to enhance its solubility in biodiesel. The study was conducted with BTG and Amaron oils hydrotreated at temperatures between 200 and 325°C in the presence of Ru/C catalyst. Hydrotreated oils generated three phases: top oil (light hydrocarbons, middle aqueous phase and bottom heavy oil phase. Each of the phases was characterized and the content of acetic acid, phenols, aromatic compounds, and linear alkane hydrocarbons quantified. The upgraded bio-oils were more soluble in biodiesel than the crude bio-oils, obtaining blends with up to 48 and 38 wt. % for the BTG and Amaron bio-oil, respectively. Some of the fuel properties of the resulting blends are also reported here.

  12. Bio-oil Hydrotreatment for Enhancing Solubility in Biodiesel and the Oxydation Stability of Resulting Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Lucía; Stankovikj, Filip; Sánchez, José L.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Arauzo, Jesús; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The major challenge for the pyrolytic conversion of lignocellulosic materials into crude bio-oil is the poor quality of the final product. Several strategies (addition of solvents, production of emulsions, and extraction with biodiesel) have been studied to improve its fuel properties. The extraction with biodiesel is an interesting solution because it allows direct utilization of some bio-oil fractions as fuels. However, fraction extracted with biodiesel is typically between 10 and 18 wt. %. In this paper we studied mild hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil to enhance its solubility in biodiesel. The study was conducted with BTG and Amaron oils hydrotreated at temperatures between 200 and 325 °C in the presence of Ru/C catalyst. Hydrotreated oils generated three phases: top oil (light hydrocarbons), middle aqueous phase and bottom heavy oil phase. Each of the phases was characterized and the content of acetic acid, phenols, aromatic compounds and linear alkane hydrocarbons quantified. The upgraded bio-oils were more soluble in biodiesel than the crude bio-oils, obtaining blends with up to 48 and 38 wt. % for the BTG and Amaron bio-oil, respectively. Some of the fuel properties of the resulting blends are also reported here.

  13. Bio-Oil Hydrotreatment for Enhancing Solubility in Biodiesel and the Oxydation Stability of Resulting Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Lucía; Stankovikj, Filip; Sánchez, José L.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Arauzo, Jesús; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge for the pyrolytic conversion of lignocellulosic materials into crude bio-oil is the poor quality of the final product. Several strategies (addition of solvents, production of emulsions, and extraction with biodiesel) have been studied to improve its fuel properties. The extraction with biodiesel is an interesting solution because it allows direct utilization of some bio-oil fractions as fuels. However, fraction extracted with biodiesel is typically between 10 and 18 wt. %. In this paper we studied mild hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil to enhance its solubility in biodiesel. The study was conducted with BTG and Amaron oils hydrotreated at temperatures between 200 and 325°C in the presence of Ru/C catalyst. Hydrotreated oils generated three phases: top oil (light hydrocarbons), middle aqueous phase and bottom heavy oil phase. Each of the phases was characterized and the content of acetic acid, phenols, aromatic compounds, and linear alkane hydrocarbons quantified. The upgraded bio-oils were more soluble in biodiesel than the crude bio-oils, obtaining blends with up to 48 and 38 wt. % for the BTG and Amaron bio-oil, respectively. Some of the fuel properties of the resulting blends are also reported here. PMID:29675406

  14. Nutrient-enhanced bioremediation of oil-contaminated shoreline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the collision of the supertanker Exxon Valdez with a submerged reef in Prince William Sound AK, released 41.6 million L (11 million gal) of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. The oil spread with time to contaminate an estimated 565 km (350 miles) of shoreline. The degradation of oil components by biological mechanisms has been intensively studied during the last 20 years. The general outline of biodegradation pathways for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons has been formulated and continues to be developed in greater detail. Consequently, the microbial decomposition of oil in aquatic environments is well understood to include descriptions of biodegradation kinetics; temperature effects for biodegradation can be described by an Arrhenius relationship. Even cold-water environments have been shown to support the biodegradation of oil components. This paper reports that a panel of experts was assembled to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in determining the best treatment strategy to accelerate the natural biodegradation process in Prince William Sound

  15. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. Annual report 1990--1991, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-12-31

    Joint funding by the Department of Energy and the State of Texas has Permitted a three year, multi-disciplinary investigation to enhance oil recovery from a dual porosity, fractured, low matrix permeability oil reservoir to be initiated. The Austin Chalk producing horizon trending thru the median of Texas has been identified as the candidate for analysis. Ultimate primary recovery of oil from the Austin Chalk is very low because of two major technological problems. The commercial oil producing rate is based on the wellbore encountering a significant number of natural fractures. The prediction of the location and frequency of natural fractures at any particular region in the subsurface is problematical at this time, unless extensive and expensive seismic work is conducted. A major portion of the oil remains in the low permeability matrix blocks after depletion because there are no methods currently available to the industry to mobilize this bypassed oil. The following multi-faceted study is aimed to develop new methods to increase oil and gas recovery from the Austin Chalk producing trend. These methods may involve new geological and geophysical interpretation methods, improved ways to study production decline curves or the application of a new enhanced oil recovery technique. The efforts for the second year may be summarized as one of coalescing the initial concepts developed during the initial phase to more in depth analyses. Accomplishments are predicting natural fractures; relating recovery to well-log signatures; development of the EOR imbibition process; mathematical modeling; and field test.

  16. An Exogenous Surfactant-Producing Bacillus subtilis Facilitates Indigenous Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peike; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study used an exogenous lipopeptide-producing Bacillus subtilis to strengthen the indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (IMEOR) process in a water-flooded reservoir in the laboratory. The microbial processes and driving mechanisms were investigated in terms of the changes in oil properties and the interplay between the exogenous B. subtilis and indigenous microbial populations. The exogenous B. subtilis is a lipopeptide producer, with a short growth cycle and no oil-degrading ability. The B. subtilis facilitates the IMEOR process through improving oil emulsification and accelerating microbial growth with oil as the carbon source. Microbial community studies using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing revealed that the exogenous B. subtilis could live together with reservoir microbial populations, and did not exert an observable inhibitory effect on the indigenous microbial populations during nutrient stimulation. Core-flooding tests showed that the combined exogenous and indigenous microbial flooding increased oil displacement efficiency by 16.71%, compared with 7.59% in the control where only nutrients were added, demonstrating the application potential in enhanced oil recovery in water-flooded reservoirs, in particular, for reservoirs where IMEOR treatment cannot effectively improve oil recovery.

  17. Effectiveness of commercial microbial products in enhancing oil degradation in Prince William Sound field plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venosa, A.D.; Haines, J.R.; Allen, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the spring of 1990, previously reported laboratory experiments were conducted on 10 commercial microbial products to test for enhanced biodegradation of weathered crude oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The laboratory tests measured the rate and extent of oil degradation in closed flasks. Weathered oil from the beaches in Alaska and seawater from Prince William Sound were used in the tests. Two of the 10 products were found to provide significantly greater alkane degradation than flasks supplemented with mineral nutrients alone. These two products were selected for further testing on a beach in Prince William Sound. A randomized complete block experiment was designed to compare the effectiveness of these two products in enhancing oil degradation compared to simple fertilizer alone. Four small plots consisting of a no nutrient control, a mineral nutrient plot, and two plots receiving mineral nutrients plus the two products, were laid out on a contaminated beach. These four plots comprised a 'block' of treatments, and this block was replicated four times on the same beach. Triplicate samples of beach sediment were collected at four equally spaced time intervals and analyzed for oil residue weight and alkane hydrocarbon profile changes with time. The objective was to determine if either of the two commercial microbiological products was able to enhance bioremediation of an oil-contaminated beach in Prince William Sound to an extent greater than that achievable by simple fertilizer application. Results indicated no significant differences among the four treatments in the 27-day period of the experiment

  18. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Maqbali, Dua'a; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  19. Nitrate-Mediated Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery (N-MEOR) from model upflow bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-02-15

    Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) can enhance oil production with less energy input and less costs than other technologies. The present study used different aqueous electron donors (acetate, glucose, molasses) and an aqueous electron acceptor (nitrate) to stimulate growth of heterotrophic nitrate reducing bacteria (hNRB) to improve production of oil. Initial flooding of columns containing heavy oil (viscosity of 3400cP at 20°C) with CSBK (Coleville synthetic brine medium) produced 0.5 pore volume (PV) of oil. Bioreactors were then inoculated with hNRB with 5.8g/L of molasses and 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 or 80mM nitrate, as well as with 17mM glucose or 57mM acetate and 80mM nitrate. During incubations no oil was produced in the bioreactors that received 5.8g/L of molasses and 0, 10, 20, 40 or 60mM nitrate. However, the bioreactors injected with 5.8g/L of molasses, 17mM glucose or 57mM acetate and 80mM nitrate produced 13.9, 11.3±3.1 and 17.8±6.6% of residual oil, respectively. The significant production of oil from these bioreactors may be caused by N 2 -CO 2 gas production. Following continued injection with CSBK without nitrate, subsequent elution of significant residual oil (5-30%) was observed. These results also indicate possible involvement of fermentation products (organic acids, alcohols) to enhance heavy oil recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Market potential of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery-a techno-economic model for Issaran oil field in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunay; Guédez, Rafael; Laumert, Björn

    2017-06-01

    Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (S-EOR) is an advanced technique of using concentrated solar power (CSP) technology to generate steam and recover oil from maturing oil reservoirs. The generated steam is injected at high pressure and temperature into the reservoir wells to facilitate oil production. There are three common methods of steam injection in enhanced oil recovery - continuous steam injection, cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). Conventionally, this steam is generated through natural gas (NG) fired boilers with associated greenhouse gas emissions. However, pilot projects in the USA (Coalinga, California) and Oman (Miraah, Amal) demonstrated the use of S-EOR to meet their steam requirements despite the intermittent nature of solar irradiation. Hence, conventional steam based EOR projects under the Sunbelt region can benefit from S-EOR with reduced operational expenditure (OPEX) and increased profitability in the long term, even with the initial investment required for solar equipment. S-EOR can be realized as an opportunity for countries not owning any natural gas resources to make them less energy dependent and less sensible to gas price fluctuations, and for countries owning natural gas resources to reduce their gas consumption and export it for a higher margin. In this study, firstly, the market potential of S-EOR was investigated worldwide by covering some of the major ongoing steam based EOR projects as well as future projects in pipeline. A multi-criteria analysis was performed to compare local conditions and requirements of all the oil fields based on a defined set of parameters. Secondly, a modelling approach for S-EOR was designed to identify cost reduction opportunities and optimum solar integration techniques, and the Issaran oil field in Egypt was selected for a case study to substantiate the approach. This modelling approach can be consulted to develop S-EOR projects for any steam flooding based oil

  1. Polymers for enhanced oil recovery : A paradigm for structure-property relationship in aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, D. A. Z.; Picchioni, F.; Broekhuis, A. A.

    Recent developments in the field of water-soluble polymers aimed at enhancing the aqueous solution viscosity are reviewed. Classic and novel associating water-soluble polymers for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications are discussed along with their limitations. Particular emphasis is placed on

  2. Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Nugroho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in MicrobialEnhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR. The objective of this study is to observe the capacity of gas production generatedfrom crude oil degradation by the isolated bacteria. The gas in the MEOR could increase pressure in the reservoir,decrease oil viscosity, increase oil permeability-due to the increase of the porosity and viscosity, and also increase oilvolume due to the amount of dissolved gas. A research on gas analysis of oil degradation by 6 isolated bacteria has beenconducted. The bacteria isolates including Bacillus badius (A, Bacillus circulans (B, Bacillus coagulans (C, Bacillusfirmus (D, Pasteurella avium (E and Streptobacillus moniliformis (F. The trial on gas production, gas analysis and oildegradation analysis, was carried out by using SMSS medium. The test of gas production was done by usingmicrorespirometer at 40°C. The result shows that B, C, D, E produce more gas than A and F. Gas of CO2, O2, CO, N2,CH4, and H2 were analyzed by using GC. The results show that only three gases were detected by GC i.e. CO2, N2, andO2. The concentration of CO2 and N2 gas increased while the concentration of O2 decreased over an 8th day ofobservation. CO2 gas producted by mix culture was higher than by the pure culture. On the 8th day of incubation, theproduction of CO2 gas by mix culture was 4,0452% while pure culture C and D only produced 2,4543% and 2,8729%.The mix culture increase simple hydrocarbon by 12.03% and the formation of a complex hydrocarbon by 3.07%. Themix culture (C-D generated the highest concentration of CO2 gas as well as a synergistic concortium that has ability todegrade crude oil.

  3. Stability Proxies for Water-in-Oil Emulsions and Implications in Aqueous-based Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Moradi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have proposed that mobility control mechanisms can positively contribute to oil recovery in the case of emulsions generated in Enhanced-Oil Recovery (EOR operations. Chemical EOR techniques that use alkaline components or/and surfactants are known to produce undesirable emulsions that create operational problems and are difficult to break. Other water-based methods have been less studied in this sense. EOR processes such as polymer flooding and LoSalTM injection require adjustments of water chemistry, mainly by lowering the ionic strength of the solution or by decreasing hardness. The decreased ionic strength of EOR solutions can give rise to more stable water-in-oil emulsions, which are speculated to improve mobility ratio between the injectant and the displaced oil. The first step toward understanding the connection between the emulsions and EOR mechanisms is to show that EOR conditions, such as salinity and hardness requirements, among others, are conducive to stabilizing emulsions. In order to do this, adequate stability proxies are required. This paper reviews commonly used emulsion stability proxies and explains the advantages and disadvantage of methods reviewed. This paper also reviews aqueous-based EOR processes with focus on heavy oil to contextualize in-situ emulsion stabilization conditions. This context sets the basis for comparison of emulsion stability proxies.

  4. Bioaugmentation of oil reservoir indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa to enhance oil recovery through in-situ biosurfactant production without air injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Li, Ping; Guo, Chao; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Zhang, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Considering the anoxic conditions within oil reservoirs, a new microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology through in-situ biosurfactant production without air injection was proposed. High-throughput sequencing data revealed that Pseudomonas was one of dominant genera in Daqing oil reservoirs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa DQ3 which can anaerobically produce biosurfactant at 42 °C was isolated. Strain DQ3 was bioaugmented in an anaerobic bioreactor to approximately simulate MEOR process. During bioaugmentation process, although a new bacterial community was gradually formed, Pseudomonas was still one of dominant genera. Culture-based data showed that hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and biosurfactant-producing bacteria were activated, while sulfate reducing bacteria were controlled. Biosurfactant was produced at simulated reservoir conditions, decreasing surface tension to 33.8 mN/m and emulsifying crude oil with EI 24  = 58%. Core flooding tests revealed that extra 5.22% of oil was displaced by in-situ biosurfactant production. Bioaugmenting indigenous biosurfactant producer P. aeruginosa without air injection is promising for in-situ MEOR applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced Biodegradability, Lubricity and Corrosiveness of Lubricating Oil by Oleic Acid Diethanolamide Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Jianhua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of oleic acid diethanolamide phosphate (abbreviated as ODAP as an additive on biodegradability, anti-wear capacity, friction-reducing ability and corrosiveness of an unreadily biodegradable HVI 350 mineral lubricating oil was studied. The biodegradabilities of neat lubricating oil and its formulations with ODAP were evaluated on a biodegradation tester. Furthermore, the anti-wear and friction-reducing abilities and the corrosiveness of neat oil and the formulated oils were determined on a four-ball tribotester and a copper strip corrosion tester, respectively. The results indicated that ODAP markedly enhanced biodegradability as well as anti-wear and friction-reducing abilities of the lubricating oil. On the other hand, excellent color ratings of copper strips for both neat oil and the ODAP-doped oil were obtained in the corrosion tests, demonstrating that the corrosiveness of neat oil and the doped oil was negligible, although the latter seemed to provide slightly better anti-corrosion ability.

  6. Comblike Polyacrylamides as Flooding Agent in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Diego A. Z.; Picchioni, Francesco; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2013-01-01

    The oil recovery from core material and a specifically designed flow cell using novel branched (comblike) polyacrylamides (PAM) has been investigated. The injectivity characteristics of the different branched PAMs were evaluated by filtration tests and core-flow experiments. The number of arms of

  7. Model study of enhanced oil recovery by flooding with aqueous surfactant solution and comparison with theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul D I; Savory, Luke D; Woods, Freya; Clarke, Andrew; Howe, Andrew M

    2015-03-17

    With the aim of elucidating the details of enhanced oil recovery by surfactant solution flooding, we have determined the detailed behavior of model systems consisting of a packed column of calcium carbonate particles as the porous rock, n-decane as the trapped oil, and aqueous solutions of the anionic surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT). The AOT concentration was varied from zero to above the critical aggregation concentration (cac). The salt content of the aqueous solutions was varied to give systems of widely different, post-cac oil-water interfacial tensions. The systems were characterized in detail by measuring the permeability behavior of the packed columns, the adsorption isotherms of AOT from the water to the oil-water interface and to the water-calcium carbonate interface, and oil-water-calcium carbonate contact angles. Measurements of the percent oil recovery by pumping surfactant solutions into calcium carbonate-packed columns initially filled with oil were analyzed in terms of the characterization results. We show that the measured contact angles as a function of AOT concentration are in reasonable agreement with those calculated from values of the surface energy of the calcium carbonate-air surface plus the measured adsorption isotherms. Surfactant adsorption onto the calcium carbonate-water interface causes depletion of its aqueous-phase concentration, and we derive equations which enable the concentration of nonadsorbed surfactant within the packed column to be estimated from measured parameters. The percent oil recovery as a function of the surfactant concentration is determined solely by the oil-water-calcium carbonate contact angle for nonadsorbed surfactant concentrations less than the cac. For surfactant concentrations greater than the cac, additional oil removal occurs by a combination of solubilization and emulsification plus oil mobilization due to the low oil-water interfacial tension and a pumping pressure increase.

  8. Microbial enhanced heavy crude oil recovery through biodegradation using bacterial isolates from an Omani oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayegh, Abdullah; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Joshi, Sanket

    2015-09-16

    Biodegradation is a cheap and environmentally friendly process that could breakdown and utilizes heavy crude oil (HCO) resources. Numerous bacteria are able to grow using hydrocarbons as a carbon source; however, bacteria that are able to grow using HCO hydrocarbons are limited. In this study, HCO degrading bacteria were isolated from an Omani heavy crude oil field. They were then identified and assessed for their biodegradation and biotransformation abilities under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were grown in five different minimum salts media. The isolates were identified by MALDI biotyper and 16S rRNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank (NCBI) database. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis. To assess microbial growth and biodegradation of HCO by well-assay on agar plates, samples were collected at different intervals. The HCO biodegradation and biotransformation were determined using GC-FID, which showed direct correlation of microbial growth with an increased biotransformation of light hydrocarbons (C12 and C14). Among the isolates, B. licheniformis AS5 was the most efficient isolate in biodegradation and biotransformation of the HCO. Therefore, isolate AS5 was used for heavy crude oil recovery experiments, in core flooding experiments using Berea core plugs, where an additional 16 % of oil initially in place was recovered. This is the first report from Oman for bacteria isolated from an oil field that were able to degrade and transform HCO to lighter components, illustrating the potential use in HCO recovery. The data suggested that biodegradation and biotransformation processes may lead to additional oil recovery from heavy oil fields, if bacteria are grown in suitable medium under optimum growth conditions.

  9. Investigation of spore forming bacterial flooding for enhanced oil recovery in a North Sea chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focuses on core flooding experiments designed to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacteria...... Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in a previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the chalk rock, squeezing through the pore throats. Our results showed that injection of B. licheniformis 421 as a tertiary oil recovery method, in the residual oil...... saturation state, was able to produce additionally 1.0-2.3% original oil in place (OOIP) in homogeneous cores and 6.9-8.8% OOIP in heterogeneous cores. In addition, the pressure gradient was much higher in the heterogeneous cores, which confirms that bacterial selective plugging plays an important role...

  10. Microwave thermal remediation of crude oil contaminated soil enhanced by carbon fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Yazhi

    2009-01-01

    Thermal remediation of the soil contaminated with crude oil using microwave heating enhanced by carbon fiber (CF) was explored. The contaminated soil was treated with 2.45 GHz microwave, and CF was added to improve the conversion of microwave energy into thermal energy to heat the soil. During microwave heating, the oil contaminant was removed from the soil matrix and recovered by a condensation system of ice-salt bath. The experimental results indicated that CF could efficiently enhance the microwave heating of soil even with relatively low-dose. With 0.1 wt.% CF, the soil could be heated to approximately 700 degrees C within 4 min using 800 W of microwave irradiation. Correspondingly, the contaminated soil could be highly cleaned up in a short time. Investigation of oil recovery showed that, during the remediation process, oil contaminant in the soil could be efficiently recovered without causing significant secondary pollution.

  11. Polymer as permeability modifier in porous media for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Shima; Weitz, David

    2017-11-01

    We use confocal microscopy to directly visualize the changes in morphology and mobilization of trapped oil ganglia within a 3D micromodel of porous media upon polymer flooding. Enhanced oil recovery is achieved in polymer flooding with large molecular weight at concentrations close or higher than a critical concentration of polymer. We also measure the fluctuations of the velocity of the displacing fluid and show that the velocities change upon polymer flooding in the whole medium. The changes in the fluid velocities are heterogeneous and vary in different pores, hence only providing enough pressure gradient across a few of the trapped oil ganglia and mobilize them. Our measurements show that polymer flooding is an effective method for enhancing oil recovery due to retention of polymer on the solid surfaces and changing the resistances of the available paths to water.

  12. Utilizing natural gas huff and puff to enhance production in heavy oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenlong, G.; Shuhong, W.; Jian, Z.; Xialin, Z. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[PetroChina Co. Ltd., Beijing (China); Jinzhong, L.; Xiao, M. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2008-10-15

    The L Block in the north structural belt of China's Tuha Basin is a super deep heavy oil reservoir. The gas to oil ratio (GOR) is 12 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3} and the initial bubble point pressure is only 4 MPa. The low production can be attributed to high oil viscosity and low flowability. Although steam injection is the most widely method for heavy oil production in China, it is not suitable for the L Block because of its depth. This paper reviewed pilot tests in which the natural gas huff and puff process was used to enhance production in the L Block. Laboratory experiments that included both conventional and unconventional PVT were conducted to determine the physical property of heavy oil saturated by natural gas. The experiments revealed that the heavy oil can entrap the gas for more than several hours because of its high viscosity. A pseudo bubble point pressure exists much lower than the bubble point pressure in manmade foamy oils, which is relative to the depressurization rate. Elastic energy could be maintained in a wider pressure scope than natural depletion without gas injection. A special experimental apparatus that can stimulate the process of gas huff and puff in the reservoir was also introduced. The foamy oil could be seen during the huff and puff experiment. Most of the oil flowed to the producer in a pseudo single phase, which is among the most important mechanisms for enhancing production. A pilot test of a single well demonstrated that the oil production increased from 1 to 2 cubic metres per day to 5 to 6 cubic metres per day via the natural gas huff and puff process. The stable production period which was 5 to 10 days prior to huff and puff, was prolonged to 91 days in the first cycle and 245 days in the second cycle. 10 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  13. Application of polymer flooding technology for enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkyt Kudaivergenov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of brine-initiated gelation of gellan for conformance control and water shutoff operations in field conditions was demonstrated. The developed technology was tested in Kumkol oilfield (Kyzylorda region, Kazakhstan on five injection wells. According to the results of the first oilfield test, the amount of additionally recovered oil during 11 months (from October 1, 2013 till September 1, 2014 was equal to 5890 tons. In 2014, the JSC “NIPIneftegas” (Aktau city, Kazakhstan carried out the second pilot test of polymer flooding technology on the same oilfield. The amount of additionally recovered oil during eight months (from October 2014 till May 2015 was equal to 8695 tons. The technology was tested for water shut-off purposes in producing well of Karabulak oilfield. After one-month treatment of production well the amount of water decreased 16 times in comparison with previous results.

  14. A study of energy consumption in turning process using lubrication of nanoparticles enhanced coconut oil (NECO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, A. F.; Zakaria, M. S.; Azmi, A. I.; Khalil, A. N. M.; Musa, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    Cutting fluids play very important role in machining application in order to increase tool life, surface finish and reduce energy consumption. Instead of using petrochemical and synthetic based cutting fluids, vegetable oil based lubricants is safety for operators, environmental friendly and become more popular in the industrial applications. This research paper aims to find the advantage of using vegetable oils (coconut oil) with additional of nano particles (CuO) as lubricant to the energy consumption during machining process. The energy was measured for each run from 2 level factorial experimental layout. Obtained results illustrate that lubricant with enhancement of nanoparticles has capability to improve the energy consumption during the machining process.

  15. Microbial Activation of Bacillus subtilis-Immobilized Microgel Particles for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Han Am; Choi, Sang Koo; Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Bohyun; Kim, Hyun Tae; Sung, Won Mo; Kim, Jin Woong

    2016-09-06

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery involves the use of microorganisms to extract oil remaining in reservoirs. Here, we report fabrication of microgel particles with immobilized Bacillus subtilis for application to microbially enhanced oil recovery. Using B. subtilis isolated from oil-contaminated soils in Myanmar, we evaluated the ability of this microbe to reduce the interfacial tension at the oil-water interface via production of biosurfactant molecules, eventually yielding excellent emulsification across a broad range of the medium pH and ionic strength. To safely deliver B. subtilis into a permeable porous medium, in this study, these bacteria were physically immobilized in a hydrogel mesh of microgel particles. In a core flooding experiment, in which the microgel particles were injected into a column packed with silica beads, we found that these particles significantly increased oil recovery in a concentration-dependent manner. This result shows that a mesh of microgel particles encapsulating biosurfactant-producing microorganisms holds promise for recovery of oil from porous media.

  16. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  17. Chemical and Microbial Characterization of North Slope Viscous Oils to Assess Viscosity Reduction and Enhanced Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Mary Beth Leigh

    2008-12-31

    A large proportion of Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil exists in the form of viscous deposits, which cannot be produced entirely using conventional methods. Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a promising approach for improving oil recovery for viscous deposits. MEOR can be achieved using either ex situ approaches such as flooding with microbial biosurfactants or injection of exogenous surfactant-producing microbes into the reservoir, or by in situ approaches such as biostimulation of indigenous surfactant-producing microbes in the oil. Experimental work was performed to analyze the potential application of MEOR to the ANS oil fields through both ex situ and in situ approaches. A microbial formulation containing a known biosurfactant-producing strain of Bacillus licheniformis was developed in order to simulate MEOR. Coreflooding experiments were performed to simulate MEOR and quantify the incremental oil recovery. Properties like viscosity, density, and chemical composition of oil were monitored to propose a mechanism for oil recovery. The microbial formulation significantly increased incremental oil recovery, and molecular biological analyses indicated that the strain survived during the shut-in period. The indigenous microflora of ANS heavy oils was investigated to characterize the microbial communities and test for surfactant producers that are potentially useful for biostimulation. Bacteria that reduce the surface tension of aqueous media were isolated from one of the five ANS oils (Milne Point) and from rock oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), and may prove valuable for ex situ MEOR strategies. The total bacterial community composition of the six different oils was evaluated using molecular genetic tools, which revealed that each oil tested possessed a unique fingerprint indicating a diverse bacterial community and varied assemblages. Collectively we have demonstrated that there is potential for in situ and ex situ MEOR of ANS oils. Future work

  18. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific

  19. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, December 1990--February 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The Oil Implementation Task Force was appointed to implement the US DOE's new oil research program directed toward increasing domestic oil production by expanded research on near- or mid-term enhanced oil recovery methods. An added priority is to preserve access to reservoirs that have the largest potential for oil recovery, but that are threatened by the large number of wells abandoned each year. This report describes the progress of research activities in the following areas: chemical flooding; gas displacement; thermal recovery; resource assessment; microbial technology; geoscience technology; and environmental technology. (CK)

  20. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin; Lei, Guanglun; Hou, Jian; Xu, Xiaohong; Wang, Dan; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-01-01

    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  1. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin

    2015-10-12

    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  2. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  3. Mechanism governing nanoparticle flow behaviour in porous media: insight for enhanced oil recovery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agi, Augustine; Junin, Radzuan; Gbadamosi, Afeez

    2018-06-01

    Nanotechnology has found its way to petroleum engineering, it is well-accepted path in the oil and gas industry to recover more oil trapped in the reservoir. But the addition of nanoparticles to a liquid can result in the simplest flow becoming complex. To understand the working mechanism, there is a need to study the flow behaviour of these particles. This review highlights the mechanism affecting the flow of nanoparticles in porous media as it relates to enhanced oil recovery. The discussion focuses on chemical-enhanced oil recovery, a review on laboratory experiment on wettability alteration, effect of interfacial tension and the stability of emulsion and foam is discussed. The flow behaviour of nanoparticles in porous media was discussed laying emphasis on the physical aspect of the flow, the microscopic rheological behaviour and the adsorption of the nanoparticles. It was observed that nanofluids exhibit Newtonian behaviour at low shear rate and non-Newtonian behaviour at high shear rate. Gravitational and capillary forces are responsible for the shift in wettability from oil-wet to water-wet. The dominant mechanisms of foam flow process were lamellae division and bubble to multiple bubble lamellae division. In a water-wet system, the dominant mechanism of flow process and residual oil mobilization are lamellae division and emulsification, respectively. Whereas in an oil-wet system, the generation of pre-spinning continuous gas foam was the dominant mechanism. The literature review on oil displacement test and field trials indicates that nanoparticles can recover additional oil. The challenges encountered have opened new frontier for research and are highlighted herein.

  4. Nanoparticle enhanced evaporation of liquids: A case study of silicone oil and water

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenbin; Shen, Rong; Lu, Kunquan; Ji, Ailing; Cao, Zexian

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation is a fundamental physical phenomenon, of which many challenging questions remain unanswered. Enhanced evaporation of liquids in some occasions is of enormous practical significance. Here we report the enhanced evaporation of the nearly permanently stable silicone oil by dispersing with nanopariticles including CaTiO3, anatase and rutile TiO2. An evaporation rate as high as 1.33 mg/h·cm2 was measured in silicone oil when dispersed with 100 nm-sized CaTiO3 particles. Dependence of e...

  5. Microbial enhanced oil recovery—a modeling study of the potential of spore-forming bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    resulted in the following conclusions. In order to obtain sufficient local concentrations of surfactant, substantial amounts of substrate should be supplied; however, massive growth of bacteria increases the risk for clogging at the well inlet areas, causing injectivity loss. In such areas, starvation may......Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) utilizes microbes for enhancing the recovery by several mechanisms, among which the most studied are the following: (1) reduction of oil-water interfacial tension (IFT) by the produced biosurfactant and (2) selective plugging by microbes and metabolic products...

  6. Enhancing Biodiesel from Kemiri Sunan Oil Manufacturing using Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi, Slamet; Purwanto; Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Hermawan

    2018-02-01

    Kemiri Sunan (Reutalis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) is a potential plant to be developed as biodiesel feedstock. The advantage of Kemiri Sunan seeds when compared to other biodiesel raw materials is their high oil content. This plant is also very good for land conservation. Due the increasingly demand for biodiesel, research and new methods to increase its biodiesel production continue to be undertaken. The weakness of conventional biodiesel manufacturing process is in the mixing process in which mechanical stirring and heating in the trans-esterification process require more energy and a longer time. A higher and stronger mixing process is required to increase the contact area between the two phases of the mixed substance to produce the emulsion. Ultrasonic is a tool that can be useful for a liquid mixing process that tends to be separated. Ultrasonic waves can cause mixing intensity at the micro level and increase mass transfer, so the reaction can be performed at a much faster rate. This study is to figure out the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the transesterification process of biodiesel from Kemiri Sunan Oil.

  7. The combined effects of phytoremediation and biostimulation in enhancing habitat restoration and oil degradation of petroleum contaminated wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A [Wetland Biogeochemistry Institute, Center for Coastal, Energy, and Environmental Resources, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    1998-06-30

    The combined effects of biostimulation and phytoremediation as a means of post-oil spill habitat restoration and enhancement of oil degradation in the soil were evaluated. Marsh sods of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens were dosed with 0, 4, 8, 16 and 24 l m{sup -2} of south Louisiana crude oil in the greenhouse. Plants were killed at oil dosages of 8 l m{sup -2} in the growing season following oil application. Two years after application of the oil, S. alterniflora and S. patens individuals were transplanted into the oiled and unoiled sods. Fertilizer was applied 1 and 7 months after transplantation. Application of the fertilizer significantly increased biomass of the transplants within 6 months and regrowth biomass of the transplants 1 year after transplantation for both plant species. The residual oil in the soil did not significantly affect the biomass of the S. patens transplants compared with that in the no oil treatment, except at the highest oil level. However, regrowth biomass of the S. alterniflora transplants treated with fertilizer was significantly higher at all oil levels up to 250 mg g{sup -1} than in the unoiled treatment, with or without fertilizer. The oil degradation rate in the soil was significantly enhanced by the application of fertilizer in conjunction with the presence of transplants. These results suggest that vegetative transplantation, when implemented with fertilization, can simultaneously restore oil contaminated wetlands and accelerate oil degradation in the soil

  8. Reactive Transport Modeling of Microbe-mediated Fe (II) Oxidation for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surasani, V.; Li, L.

    2011-12-01

    Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) aims to improve the recovery of entrapped heavy oil in depleted reservoirs using microbe-based technology. Reservoir ecosystems often contain diverse microbial communities those can interact with subsurface fluids and minerals through a network of nutrients and energy fluxes. Microbe-mediated reactions products include gases, biosurfactants, biopolymers those can alter the properties of oil and interfacial interactions between oil, brine, and rocks. In addition, the produced biomass and mineral precipitates can change the reservoir permeability profile and increase sweeping efficiency. Under subsurface conditions, the injection of nitrate and Fe (II) as the electron acceptor and donor allows bacteria to grow. The reaction products include minerals such as Fe(OH)3 and nitrogen containing gases. These reaction products can have large impact on oil and reservoir properties and can enhance the recovery of trapped oil. This work aims to understand the Fe(II) oxidation by nitrate under conditions relevant to MEOR. Reactive transport modeling is used to simulate the fluid flow, transport, and reactions involved in this process. Here we developed a complex reactive network for microbial mediated nitrate-dependent Fe (II) oxidation that involves both thermodynamic controlled aqueous reactions and kinetic controlled Fe (II) mineral reaction. Reactive transport modeling is used to understand and quantify the coupling between flow, transport, and reaction processes. Our results identify key parameter controls those are important for the alteration of permeability profile under field conditions.

  9. Practical Considerations and Challenges Involved in Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation of Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagarika Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant enhanced bioremediation (SEB of oil is an approach adopted to overcome the bioavailability constraints encountered in biotransformation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL pollutants. Fuel oils contain n-alkanes and other aliphatic hydrocarbons, monoaromatics, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Although hydrocarbon degrading cultures are abundant in nature, complete biodegradation of oil is rarely achieved even under favorable environmental conditions due to the structural complexity of oil and culture specificities. Moreover, the interaction among cultures in a consortium, substrate interaction effects during the degradation and ability of specific cultures to alter the bioavailability of oil invariably affect the process. Although SEB has the potential to increase the degradation rate of oil and its constituents, there are numerous challenges in the successful application of this technology. Success is dependent on the choice of appropriate surfactant type and dose since the surfactant-hydrocarbon-microorganism interaction may be unique to each scenario. Surfactants not only enhance the uptake of constituents through micellar solubilization and emulsification but can also alter microbial cell surface characteristics. Moreover, hydrocarbons partitioned in micelles may not be readily bioavailable depending on the microorganism-surfactant interactions. Surfactant toxicity and inherent biodegradability of surfactants may pose additional challenges as discussed in this review.

  10. BioTiger{sup TM} : a natural microbial product for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Berry, C.J.; Milliken, C.E.; Jones, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed the feasibility of using BioTiger{sup TM} technology to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery processes was initially developed and used by the United States Department of Energy for bioremediation of soils contaminated with oil, but it may also be used to optimize bitumen separation. BioTiger was described as being a unique microbial consortia that has resulted from nearly a decade of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from an old waste lagoon. The technology offers rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and produces new surfactants. It is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and has good activity at high temperatures at extreme pH levels. A flotation test protocol with oil sands from Fort McMurray, Alberta was used for the BioTiger evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/flotation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger showed a 50 per cent improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis. BioTiger is well suited for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands because it performs well at high temperatures. 8 figs.

  11. Practical Considerations and Challenges Involved in Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation of Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Jasmine, Jublee

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced bioremediation (SEB) of oil is an approach adopted to overcome the bioavailability constraints encountered in biotransformation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) pollutants. Fuel oils contain n-alkanes and other aliphatic hydrocarbons, monoaromatics, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although hydrocarbon degrading cultures are abundant in nature, complete biodegradation of oil is rarely achieved even under favorable environmental conditions due to the structural complexity of oil and culture specificities. Moreover, the interaction among cultures in a consortium, substrate interaction effects during the degradation and ability of specific cultures to alter the bioavailability of oil invariably affect the process. Although SEB has the potential to increase the degradation rate of oil and its constituents, there are numerous challenges in the successful application of this technology. Success is dependent on the choice of appropriate surfactant type and dose since the surfactant-hydrocarbon-microorganism interaction may be unique to each scenario. Surfactants not only enhance the uptake of constituents through micellar solubilization and emulsification but can also alter microbial cell surface characteristics. Moreover, hydrocarbons partitioned in micelles may not be readily bioavailable depending on the microorganism-surfactant interactions. Surfactant toxicity and inherent biodegradability of surfactants may pose additional challenges as discussed in this review. PMID:24350261

  12. Enhancing the biodegradation of oil in sandy sediments with choline: A naturally methylated nitrogen compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Horel, Agota; Anders, Jennifer S.; Mirjafari, Arsalan; Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how additions of choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments contaminated with moderately weathered crude oil (4000 mg kg −1 sediment). Addition of lauroylcholine chloride (LCC) and tricholine citrate (TCC) to oil contaminated sediments resulted in 1.6 times higher hydrocarbon degradation rates compared to treatments without added choline derivatives. However, the degradation rate constant for the oil contaminated sediments amended with LCC was similar to that in contaminated sediments amended with inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and glucose. Additions of LLC and TCC to sediments containing extensively weathered oil also resulted in enhanced mineralization rates. Cultivation-free 16S rRNA analysis revealed the presence of an extant microbial community with clones closely related to known hydrocarbon degraders from the Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The results demonstrate that the addition of minimal amounts of organic compounds to oil contaminated sediments enhances the degradation of hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: •Aerobic degradation of weathered crude oil in sandy sediments was determined. •The effect of input of choline on degradation rates was determined. •16S rRNA clone library analyses were used to examine the microbial phylogeny. •The bacterial community was consisted of clones related to hydrocarbon degraders. •Hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments was accelerated by addition of choline. -- Choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments by an extant microbial community

  13. Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis B30 and its application in enhancing oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Joshi, Sanket; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Shibulal, Biji

    2014-02-01

    The fermentative production of biosurfactants by Bacillus subtilis strain B30 and the evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood were investigated. Different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, date molasses, cane molasses) were tested to determine the optimal biosurfactant production. The isolate B30 produced a biosurfactant that could reduce the surface tension and interfacial tension to 26.63±0.45 mN/m and 3.79±0.27 mN/m, respectively in less than 12h in both glucose or date molasses based media. A crude biosurfactant concentration of 0.3-0.5 g/l and critical micelle dilution (CMD) values of 1:8 were observed. The biosurfactants gave stable emulsions with wide range of hydrocarbons including light and heavy crude oil. The biosurfactants were partially purified and identified as a mixture of lipopeptides similar to surfactin, using high performance thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The biosurfactants were stable over wide range of pH, salinity and temperatures. The crude biosurfactant preparation enhanced light oil recovery by 17-26% and heavy oil recovery by 31% in core-flood studies. The results are indicative of the potential of the strain for the development of ex situ microbial enhanced oil recovery processes using glucose or date molasses based minimal media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs.

  15. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9, and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR. PMID:27872613

  16. Enhancement of Palm Oil Extraction Using Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvamany, H.; Jamaliah Md Jahim

    2015-01-01

    In this recent work, application of aqueous enzymatic process to enhance recovery of palm oil was studied. Experiments were carried out to investigate the structural carbohydrate composition of oil palm mesocarp (Elaeis guineensis) and to analyze the effect of different combination of enzymes on the palm oil recovery and degree of digestibility and the respective correlation. The optimum combination of enzymes comprising of Cellic CTec2 (X 1 ), Cellic HTec2 (X 2 ) and Pectinex Ultra SP-L (X 3 ) for Aqueous Enzymatic Oil Extraction Process (AEOEP), were determined using Simplex Lattice mixture design under fixed parameters. Maximum oil recovery of 88 % was achieved with ratio of enzymes at 0.46: 0.34: 0.2 (X 1 :X 2 :X 3 ), at enzyme loading of 30 mg protein/ 10 g substrate, substrate loading of 50 % w/v, pH 4.8, and 2 hours of incubation at 50 degree Celsius. The conversion of reducing sugar at corresponding condition was measured to evaluate the effectiveness of enzymes in degrading fruit cell wall releasing trapped oil. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to indicate the increase in cell wall disintegration leading to higher release of oil with enzymatic treatment. (author)

  17. Enhancement of anti-cholinesterase activity of Zingiber cassumunar essential oil using a microemulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonogi, S; Chaiyana, W

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Zingiber cassumunar (ZC) oil using a microemulsion (ME) technique. Pseudoternary phase diagrams of the oil, water, and surfactant/co-surfactant mixture were constructed using a water titration method. Effects of co-surfactant, surfactant/co-surfactant ratio, ionic strength, and pH were examined by means of the microemulsion region which existed in the phase diagrams. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were tested by Ellman's colorimetric assay. It was found that ZC oil possesses inhibitory activity against not only AChE but also BChE. Formulation of ZC oil as ME revealed that alkyl chain length and number of hydroxyl groups of co-surfactant exhibited a remarkable effect on the pseudoternary phase diagram. Longer alkyl chains and more hydroxyl groups gave smaller regions of MEs. Ionic strength also affected the ME region. However, the phase behavior was hardly influenced by pH. The suitable ZC oil ME was composed of Triton X-114 in combination with propylene glycol. The anti-cholinesterase activity of this ME was much higher than that of native ZC oil. It exhibited twenty times and twenty five times higher inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE, respectively. ZC oil loaded ME is an attractive formulation for further characterization and an in vivo study in an animal model with Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Rhamnolipids produced by indigenous Acinetobacter junii from petroleum reservoir and its potential in enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS. The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9 and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  19. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil–water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil–water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  20. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C 26 H 48 O 9 , C 28 H 52 O 9 , and C 32 H 58 O 13 . The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO 3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  1. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar, E-mail: amohammadi@sharif.edu [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil–water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil–water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  2. Biodegradation of Alaska North Slope crude oil enhanced by commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrett, S.; Bonner, J.S.; Mills, M.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Autenrieth, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The biodegradation of crude oil was studied. Tests were conducted in which natural unpolluted seawater was collected and then contaminated with Alaska North Slope crude oil. The oil was weathered by heating it to 521 degrees F to remove the light-end hydrocarbons. A total of 13 different bioremediation agents were tested, each one separately. Three samples per treatment were destructively analysed for petroleum chemistry. The thirteen treatments were analyzed for oil and grease. It was found that microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was enhanced by the addition of bioremediation agents, but it was not possible to identify the intermediate products responsible for the increase of resolved petroleum hydrocarbons through time. It was suggested that caution be used when interpreting results since the protocols used to test the products were prone to uncontrollable variations. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Wettability Improvement with Enzymes: Application to Enhanced Oil Recovery under Conditions of the North Sea Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    (Nasiri et al., 2009), working mechanisms are poorly known and understood. The main goal of the present work is to establish possible mechanisms in which enzymes may enhance oil recovery. Improvement of the brine wettability of the rock and decrease of oil adhesion to it by addition of an enzyme is one...... of the possible mechanisms of enzymatic action. This mechanism has been investigated experimentally, by measurements of the contact angles between oil drops and enzyme solutions in brine on the mineral surfaces. Fifteen enzyme samples belonging to different enzyme classes, such as esterases/lipases, carbohydrases......, proteases and oxidoreductases, provided by Novozymes, have been investigated. Two commercial mixtures containing enzymes: Apollo-GreenZyme™ and EOR-ZYMAX™ have also been applied. The North Sea dead oil and the synthetic sea water were used as test fluids. Internal surface of a carbonate rock has been...

  4. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on Mentha spicata essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karousou, R.; Grammatikopoulos, G.; Lanaras, T.; Manetas, Y.; Kokkini, S.

    1998-01-01

    In vitro propagated plantlets representing two distinct chemotypes of Mentha spicata, viz. plants producing essential oils rich in piperitone oxide and piperitenone oxide (chemotype I) and rich in carvone and dihydrocarvone (chemotype II), were grown in the field under ambient or ambient plus supplemental UV-B radiation, biologically equivalent to a 15% ozone depletion over Patras (38.3°N, 29.1°E), Greece. Enhanced UV-B radiation stimulated essential oil production in chemotype II substantially, while a similar, non-significant trend was observed in chemotype I. No effect was found on the qualitative composition of the essential oils, whereas the quantitative composition was slightly modified in chemotype I. This is the first investigation reporting an improved essential oil content under UV-B supplementation in aromatic plants under field conditions

  5. 1D Simulations for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery with Metabolite Partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Shapiro, Alexander; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a mathematical model describing the process of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The one-dimensional isothermal model comprises displacement of oil bywater containing bacteria and substrate for their feeding. The bacterial products are both bacteria andmetabolites....... The characteristics for the water phase saturation profiles and the oil recovery curves are elucidated. However, the effect from the surfactant is not necessarily restricted to influence only interfacial tension, but it can also be an approach for changing, e.g., wettability. The distribution coefficient determines...... the time lag, until residual oil mobilization is initialized. It has also been found that the final recovery depends on the distance from the inlet before the surfactant effect takes place. The surfactant effect position is sensitive to changes in maximum growth rate, and injection concentrations...

  6. Impact of recent Federal tax and R and D initiatives on enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brashear, J.P.; Biglarbigi, K.; Ray, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Strategy contains two major elements designed to increase oil production from known reservoirs in the contiguous United States: (1) a tax credit for specific investment and injectant costs for qualified enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects; and (2) a highly focused, public-private cooperative R ampersand D program. Both are currently being implemented by the Department of the Treasury and the Department of Energy, respectively. The present paper estimates the potential reserve additions and impacts on public treasuries at oil prices between $22 and $34/Bbl. The new Federal tax credit, alone, could doubler current proved EOR reserves at oil prices in the $22/Bbl range and increase them by about one-third at prices in the $30/Bbl range. The effect of technology advances alone could also about double EOR reserves at these prices. The combination of technology advances and the tax incentive synergistically amplifies the effects on potential EOR reserves

  7. CO2 injection into fractured peridotites: a reactive percolation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escario, S.; Godard, M.; Gouze, P.; Leprovost, R.; Luquot, L.; Garcia-Rios, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mantle peridotites have the potential to trap CO2 as carbonates. This process observed in ophiolites and in oceanic environments provides a long term and safe storage for CO2. It occurs as a part of a complex suite of fluid-rock reactions involving silicate dissolution and precipitation of hydrous phases, carbonates and minor phases that may in turn modify the hydrodynamic properties and the reactivity of the reacted rocks. The efficiency and lastingness of the process require the renewal of fluids at the mineral-fluid interface. Fractures are dominant flow paths in exhumed mantle sections. This study aims at better understanding the effect of CO2-enriched saline fluids on hydrodynamic and chemical processes through fractured peridotites. Experiments were performed using the reactive percolation bench ICARE Lab 3 - Géosciences Montpellier. It allows monitoring the permeability changes during experiments. Effluents are recurrently sampled for analysing cation concentration, pH and alkalinity. Reacted rock samples were characterized by high resolution X-ray microtomography (ESRF ID19, Grenoble, France) and SEM. Experiments consisted in injecting CO2-enriched brines (NaCl 0.5 M) at a rate of 6 mL.h-1 into artificially fractured cores (9 mm diameter × 20 mm length) of Oman harzburgites at T=170°C and Ptotal = 25 MPa for up to 2 weeks. Fractures are of few µm apertures with rough walls. Three sets of experiments were performed at increasing value of [CO2] (0, 0.1 and 1 mol/kg). All experiments showed a decrease in permeability followed by steady state regime that can be caused by a decrease in the roughness of fracture walls (dissolution dominated process), thus favouring fracture closing, or by the precipitation of secondary phases. Maximum enrichments in Mg, Fe and Ca of the effluent fluids occur during the first 2 hours of the experiments whereas Si displays a maximum enrichment at t = 20 h, suggesting extensive dissolution. Maximum enrichments are observed with the highest values of the [CO2]. After one day, effluent fluid concentrations decrease and become constant. By analysing both the permeability and the outlet fluid concentration one can investigate the coupling processes controlling the transport and the reaction mechanisms that in turn act at maintaining the circulation in the fractures.

  8. Rock physical aspects of CO2 injection in chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    Ved at injicere superkritisk CO2 ned i Nordsøens kalkreservoirer kan man formentlig øge olieindvindingen med 15%. Metoden giver dog anledning til overvejelser om, hvorvidt processen kan føre til kollaps og/eller sprækkedannelse i reservoiret, og dermed om der er mulighed for lækage. Via laborator...

  9. Polymers for enhanced oil recovery: fundamentals and selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellegadla, Sandeep; Prajapat, Ganshyam; Agrawal, Akhil

    2017-06-01

    With a rising population, the demand for energy has increased over the years. As per the projections, both fossil fuel and renewables will remain as major energy source (678 quadrillion BTU) till 2030 with fossil fuel contributing 78% of total energy consumption. Hence, attempts are continuously made to make fossil fuel production more sustainable and cheaper. From the past 40 years, polymer flooding has been carried out in marginal oil fields and have proved to be successful in many cases. The common expectation from polymer flooding is to obtain 50% ultimate recovery with 15 to 20% incremental recovery over secondary water flooding. Both naturally derived polymers like xanthan gum and synthetic polymers like partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) have been used for this purpose. Earlier laboratory and field trials revealed that salinity and temperature are the major issues with the synthetic polymers that lead to polymer degradation and adsorption on the rock surface. Microbial degradation and concentration are major issues with naturally derived polymers leading to loss of viscosity and pore throat plugging. Earlier studies also revealed that polymer flooding is successful in the fields where oil viscosity is quite higher (up to 126 cp) than injection water due to improvement in mobility ratio during polymer flooding. The largest successful polymer flood was reported in China in 1990 where both synthetic and naturally derived polymers were used in nearly 20 projects. The implementation of these projects provides valuable suggestions for further improving the available processes in future. This paper examines the selection criteria of polymer, field characteristics that support polymer floods and recommendation to design a large producing polymer flooding.

  10. Performance experimental investigation of novel multifunctional nanohybrids on enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibshahi, Reza; Jafari, Arezou; Omidkhah, Mohammadreza; Nezhad, Javad Razavi

    2018-01-01

    The unique characteristics of materials at the nanoscale make them a good candidate to use in the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube/silica nanohybrids on the oil recovery factor is investigated experimentally and nanofluids were injected into a glass micromodel for the first time. The nanohybrids synthesized by using sol-gel method. Micromodels as microscale apparatuses considered as 2D porous medium. Because they enable visual observation of phase displacement behavior at the pore scale. Distillated water used as the dispersion medium of nanoparticles for nanofluids preparation. A series of runs designed for flooding operations included water injection, carbon nanotube/water injection and two nanohybrids with different weight of MWCNT to the overall weight of the nanohybrid structure (10% and 70%) into the distilled water. Also, the oil recovery factor was considered as the goal parameter to compare the results. It has been found that functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube/silica nanohybrids have a great potential in enhanced oil recovery processes. Results showed that addition of nanohybrids into distillate water causes enhancement of sweep efficiency. In other words, the fingering effect decreases and higher surface of porous medium is in contact with the injected fluid. So the higher amount of oil can produce from the porous medium consequently. By injecting nanofluid with 0.1 wt. % of carbon nanotube, the oil recovery factor increases about 11 % in comparison with water injection alone. Also by increasing the weight of MWCNT to the overall weight of the nanohybrid structure from 10% to 70%, the oil recovery factor increases from 35% to 39%.

  11. Heterologous production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhamnolipid under anaerobic conditions for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F; Shi, R; Zhao, J; Li, G; Bai, X; Han, S; Zhang, Y

    2015-02-01

    The ex situ application of rhamnolipid to enhance oil recovery is costly and complex in terms of rhamnolipid production and transportation, while in situ production of rhamnolipid is restricted by the oxygen-deficient environments of oil reservoirs. To overcome the oxygen-limiting conditions and to circumvent the complex regulation of rhamnolipid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an engineered strain Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl was constructed for heterologous production of rhamnolipid under anaerobic conditions. The rhlABRI genes for rhamnolipid biosynthesis were cloned into a facultative anaerobic strain Ps. stutzeri DQ1 to construct the engineered strain Rhl. Anaerobic production of rhamnolipid was confirmed by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared analysis. Rhamnolipid product reduced the air-water surface tension to 30.3 mN m(-1) and the oil-water interfacial tension to 0.169 mN m(-1). Rhl produced rhamnolipid of 1.61 g l(-1) using glycerol as the carbon source. Rhl anaerobic culture emulsified crude oil up to EI24 ≈ 74. An extra 9.8% of original crude oil was displaced by Rhl in the core flooding test. Strain Rhl achieved anaerobic production of rhamnolipid and worked well for enhanced oil recovery in the core flooding model. The rhamnolipid produced by Rhl was similar to that of the donor strain SQ6. This is the first study to achieve anaerobic and heterologous production of rhamnolipid. Results demonstrated the potential feasibility of Rhl as a promising strain to enhance oil recovery through anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Annual report, 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    In this report, the authors present the results of experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties.

  13. Towards the understanding of microbial metabolism in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as a model organism to understand the effects of microbial cell growth and metabolite production under anaerobic conditions in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery. The bacterium was able to grow anaerobically on different carbon compounds...

  14. Engineering the biosynthesis of novel rhamnolipids in Escherichia coli for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L; Liu, P; Peng, Y; Lin, J; Wang, Q; Ma, Y

    2014-07-01

    The interfacial tension of rhamnolipids and their applications in enhanced oil recovery are dependent on their chemical structures and compositions. To improve their performances of interfacial tension and enhanced oil recovery, the engineered strategies were applied to produce novel rhamnolipids with different chemical structures and compositions. By introducing different key genes for rhamnolipid biosynthesis, Escherichia coli was firstly constructed to produce rhamnolipids that showed different performances in interfacial tension from those from Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to the different fatty acyl compositions. Then, the mutant RhlBs were created by directed evolution and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis and resulted in the production of the novel rhamnolipids with the different performances in interfacial tension as well as enhanced oil recovery. Lastly, computational modelling elucidates that the single amino acid mutation at the position 168 in RhlB would change the volume of binding pocket for substrate and thus affect the selectivity of rhamnolipid formation in E. coli. The novel rhamnolipids that showed the improved performances of interfacial tension and the potential different applications in enhanced oil recovery were successfully produced by engineered E. coli. This study proved that the combination of metabolic engineering and protein engineering is an important engineered strategy to produce many novel metabolites in micro-organisms. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system and nanoemulsion for enhancing aqueous miscibility of Alpinia galanga oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khumpirapang, Nattakanwadee; Pikulkaew, Surachai; Müllertz, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Alpinia galanga oil (AGO) possesses various activities but low aqueous solubility limits its application particularly in aquatic animals. AGO has powerful activity on fish anesthesia. Ethanol used for enhancing water miscible of AGO always shows severe side effects on fish. The present study expl...

  16. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  17. Corexit 9500 Enhances Oil Biodegradation and Changes Active Bacterial Community Structure of Oil-Enriched Microcosms

    OpenAIRE

    Techtmann, Stephen M.; Zhuang, Mobing; Campo, Pablo; Holder, Edith; Elk, Michael; Hazen, Terry C.; Conmy, Robyn; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the impacts of Corexit 9500 on the structure and activity levels of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities, we analyzed next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing libraries of hydrocarbon enrichments grown at 5 and 25°C using both DNA and RNA extracts as the sequencing templates. Oil biodegradation patterns in both 5 and 25°C enrichments were consistent with those reported in the literature (i.e., aliphatics were degraded faster than aromatics). Slight increases in bio...

  18. Enhanced oil recovery chemicals from renewable wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grune, W.N.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.

    1979-04-01

    Most of the wood pulp in the U.S. is produced by cooking, or digesting, wood chips in a chemical solution. These pulping processes have effluent streams which contain dissolved lignins, lignin breakdown products, and carbohydrates. There is a substantial economic incentive to use these materials as feedstocks for the production of high-valued micellar flood chemicals. The pulp and paper industries have practiced chemical recovery for almost a century. The largest chemical recycle processes are the internal recycle of inorganic salts for reuse in pulping. This is coupled with the use of waste organic compounds in the liquor as a fuel for directly-fired evaporation processes. Diversion of effluent and low valued streams for chemical recovery using fermentation, purification, or synthesis methods appears technically feasible in several cases. The use of new recovery processes could yield a variety of different wood-effluent based products. Some of the sugar acids in pulping liquors might be used as sequestering agents in reservoirs where there are large amounts of multivalent cations in flood brines. Fermentation production of high viscosity polymers, sequestering agents, and coagent alcohols appears worth further investigation. Tall oil acids and their derivatives can be used as surfactants in some reservoirs. Some waste constituents may adsorb preferentially on formations and thereby reduce loss of surfactants and other higher-valued chemicals.

  19. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods.Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks.Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  20. Oil Recovery Enhancement from Fractured, Low Permeability Reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods. Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks. Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  1. Enhancement of spilled oil biodegradation by nutrients of natural origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basseres, A.; Eyraud, P.; Ladousse, A.; Tramier, B.

    1993-01-01

    Ten years ago, Elf Aquitaine began developing the technologies for the acceleration of hydrocarbon biodegradation. The continuation of this work has involved the study of new additives to complement the oleophilic nutrient, INIPOL EAP 22. In particular, it has been shown in both laboratory and in situ tests that hydrocarbon degradation can be accelerated by animal meals, which are natural products. Preliminary laboratory studies carried out under batch conditions have shown that the use of these products has resulted in considerable growth of the bacteria, coupled with a notable increase in the biological degradation kinetics of the hydrocarbons. These results are comparable with the performance of the nutrient INIPOL EAP 22. In situ experiments undertaken on soils polluted by hydrocarbons have shown that by using animal meals, 50 percent biodegradation was obtained after six weeks and this increased to 80 percent when mechanical aeration was also employed. Under nutrient-free control conditions, 25 percent biodegradation was obtained with no aeration and 35 percent with mechanical aeration. In trials using coastal sandy sediments, the use of these nutrients has resulted in an increase of both the number of hydrocarbon specific bacteria and the hydrocarbon degradation. It can be concluded from these pilot experiments that in the development of bioremediation as an operational tool in the response to accidental oil spills, these nutrients of natural origin represent an interesting advance

  2. Microflow Mechanism of Oil Displacement by Viscoelastic Hydrophobically Associating Water-Soluble Polymers in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Zhong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymer flooding plays an important role in enhanced oil recovery (EOR, particularly in China, where partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM and hydrophobically associating water-soluble polymers (HAWP are used in onshore and offshore reservoirs, respectively. Many researchers have highlighted the elasticity of HPAM, which can be used to improve the sweep efficiency, i.e., the ratio of the area swept by an injected fluid to the oil area. On the other hand, fewer studies exist on the elasticity of HAWP. In this study, we investigate the flow of HAWP and Xanthan solutions with identical viscosities in core experiments in terms of elasticity; results reveal that the HAWP can produce shear thickening in the core. The constitutive equation for the HAWP can be obtained using the simulation results matched with the experimental data. On the basis of these experiments, we established a two-phase flow model of a polymer and oil, including the continuity, momentum, constitutive, and phase equations. The volume-of-fluid (VOF method was used to track the interface between the two phases. A complex pore model was established based on the glass-etched model used in the experiment. We used the OpenFOAM platform to solve the mathematical model. The saturation, pressure, and stress tensor distributions were obtained. The results show that the displacement efficiency increased as the elasticity of the polymer increased; accordingly, the elasticity can enlarge the sweep area and decrease the residual oil saturation. As the elasticity increases, the stresses (the first normal stress, second normal stress, and shear stress increase. Finally, the results obtained in this study can be used as a guideline in polymer design, screening, and optimization in the polymer flooding oilfields.

  3. An extended model for ultrasonic-based enhanced oil recovery with experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Mohammed; Meribout, Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    This paper suggests a new ultrasonic-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) model for application in oil field reservoirs. The model is modular and consists of an acoustic module and a heat transfer module, where the heat distribution is updated when the temperature rise exceeds 1 °C. The model also considers the main EOR parameters which includes both the geophysical (i.e., porosity, permeability, temperature rise, and fluid viscosity) and acoustical (e.g., acoustic penetration and pressure distribution in various fluids and mediums) properties of the wells. Extended experiments were performed using powerful ultrasonic waves which were applied for different kind of oils & oil saturated core samples. The corresponding results showed a good matching with those obtained from simulations, validating the suggested model to some extent. Hence, a good recovery rate of around 88.2% of original oil in place (OOIP) was obtained after 30 min of continuous generation of ultrasonic waves. This leads to consider the ultrasonic-based EOR as another tangible solution for EOR. This claim is supported further by considering several injection wells where the simulation results indicate that with four (4) injection wells; the recovery rate may increase up-to 96.7% of OOIP. This leads to claim the high potential of ultrasonic-based EOR as compared to the conventional methods. Following this study, the paper also proposes a large scale ultrasonic-based EOR hardware system for installation in oil fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  5. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir, Class I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05

    This report demonstrates the effectiveness of the CO2 miscible process in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic reservoirs. It also evaluated the use of horizontal CO2 injection wells to improve the overall sweep efficiency. A database of FDD reservoirs for the gulf coast region was developed by LSU, using a screening model developed by Texaco Research Center in Houston. The results of the information gained in this project is disseminated throughout the oil industry via a series of SPE papers and industry open forums.

  6. How to increase and renew the oil and gas reserves? Technology advances and research strategy of IFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Technology progresses made to reach new oil and gas resources (heavy crudes, buried deposits, ultra-deep offshore), to better exploit the available reserves (increase of the recovery ratio) and to reduce the costs will allow to enhance the hydrocarbon reserves and to durably extend the limits of the world energy supply. In a context where geopolitical uncertainties, high price rates and pessimistic declarations increase once again the public fear about petroleum reserves, the French institute of petroleum (IFP) wanted to make a status about the essential role that technology can play in this challenge. This document gathers the transparencies and articles presented at this press conference: how to increase and renew oil and gas reserves, technology advances and research strategy of IFP (O. Appert, J. Lecourtier, G. Fries); how to enhance oil recovery from deposits (primary, secondary and tertiary recovery: polymers injection, CO 2 injection, steam injection, in-situ oxidation and combustion, reservoir modeling, monitoring of uncertainties); the heavy crudes (the Orenoque extra-heavy oil, the tar sands of Alberta, the heavy and extra-heavy crudes of Canada, IFP's research); ultra-deep offshore (the weight challenge: mooring lines and risers, the temperature challenge: paraffins and hydrates deposition, immersion of the treatment unit: economical profitability of satellite fields); fields buried beyond 5000 m (technological challenges: seismic surveys, drilling equipment, well logging, drilling mud; prospects of these fields); oil reserves: data that change with technique and economy (proven, probable and possible reserves, proven and declared reserves, three converging evaluations about the world proven reserves, reserves to be discovered, non-conventional petroleum resources, technical progress and oil prices, production depletion at the end of the century). (J.S.)

  7. Production, Characterization and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket J. Joshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses or date molasses, as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33+0.57mN m-1 and 2.47+0.32mN m-1 respectively within 72h, at 40 C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67°+1.6° to 19.54°+0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (Sor. The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial enhanced oil recovery processes.

  8. Microfluidic diffusivity meter: a tool to optimize CO2 driven enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puneeth, S. B.; Kim, Young Ho; Goel, Sanket

    2017-02-01

    As the energy demands continue to swell with growing population and there persists a lack of unexploited oilfields, the prime focus of any nation would be to maximize the oil recovery factor from existing oil fields. CO2-Enhanced oil recovery is a process to improve the recovery of crude oil from an oil field and works at high pressure and in very deep conditions. CO2 and oil are miscible at high pressure, resulting in low viscosity and oil swells. This swelling can be measured based on mathematical calculations in real time and correlated with the CO2 concentration. This process has myriad advantages over its counterparts which include being able to harness oil trapped in reservoirs besides being cheaper and more efficient. A Diffusivity meter is inevitable in the measurement of the diffusion co-efficient of two samples. Diffusivity meters currently available in the market are weighed down by disadvantages like the requirement of large samples for testing, high cost and complexity. This elicits the need for a Microfluidic based diffusivity meter capable of analyzing Nano-liter sample volumes besides being more precise and affordable. The scope of this work involves the design and development of a Microfluidic robust and inexpensive prototype diffusivity meter using a capillary tube and endorsing its performance by comparison of results with known diffusivity range and supervision of the results with an electronic microscope coupled to PC and Data Acquisition System. The prototype produced at the end of the work is expected to outweigh disadvantages in existing products in terms of sample size, efficiency and time saving.

  9. Optimization of Spore Forming Bacteria Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery in North Sea Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    .2-3.8 cm) during bacteria injection. Further seawater flooding after three days shut in period showed that permeability gradually increased in the first two sections of the core and started to decrease in the third section of the core (3.8-6.3 cm). Complete plugging was never observed in our experiments.......Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focused on core flooding experiments to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder with pressure ports at 1.2 cm, 3.8 cm, and 6.3 cm from the inlet...

  10. The experimental research of a field-enhanced multichannel oil switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, R.; Zeng, N.; Yang, D.; Jiang, X.; Wang, X.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of a field enhanced multichannel oil switch which is used as the main switch of HEAVEN-LIGHT II intense pulsed electron beam accelerator at CIAE. The switch experiments have been carried out with different inductance of the solenoid inductor in series with a self-closing axial gap and position and diameter of the trigger disc. The experiments using water as a breakdown medium of the switch have been done to compare with oil switch. These experimental results and conclusions are presented in the paper

  11. Play-level distributions of estimates of recovery factors for a miscible carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery method used in oil reservoirs in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2016-03-02

    In a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, recovery-factor estimates were calculated by using a publicly available reservoir simulator (CO2 Prophet) to estimate how much oil might be recovered with the application of a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to technically screened oil reservoirs located in onshore and State offshore areas in the conterminous United States. A recovery factor represents the percentage of an oil reservoir’s original oil in place estimated to be recoverable by the application of a miscible CO2-EOR method. The USGS estimates were calculated for 2,018 clastic and 1,681 carbonate candidate reservoirs in the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012).

  12. Pore-scale simulation of wettability and interfacial tension effects on flooding process for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-08-27

    For enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications, the oil/water flow characteristics during the flooding process was numerically investigated with the volume-of-fluid method at the pore scale. A two-dimensional pore throat-body connecting structure was established, and four scenarios were simulated in this paper. For oil-saturated pores, the wettability effect on the flooding process was studied; for oil-unsaturated pores, three effects were modelled to investigate the oil/water phase flow behaviors, namely the wettability effect, the interfacial tension (IFT) effect, and the combined wettability/IFT effect. The results show that oil saturated pores with the water-wet state can lead to 25-40% more oil recovery than with the oil-wet state, and the remaining oil mainly stays in the near wall region of the pore bodies for oil-wet saturated pores. For oil-unsaturated pores, the wettability effects on the flooding process can help oil to detach from the pore walls. By decreasing the oil/water interfacial tension and altering the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet state, the remaining oil recovery rate can be enhanced successfully. The wettability-IFT combined effect shows better EOR potential compared with decreasing the interfacial tension alone under the oil-wet condition. The simulation results in this work are consistent with previous experimental and molecular dynamics simulation conclusions. The combination effect of the IFT reducation and wettability alteration can become an important recovery mechanism in future studies for nanoparticles, surfactant, and nanoparticle-surfactant hybrid flooding process.

  13. Enhanced bioremediation of soil contaminated with viscous oil through microbial consortium construction and ultraviolet mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Yang, Qiuyan; Huang, Taipeng; Zhang, Yongkui; Ding, Ranfeng

    2011-06-01

    This study focused on enhancing the bioremediation of soil contaminated with viscous oil by microorganisms and evaluating two strategies. Construction of microbial consortium and ultraviolet mutation were both effective applications in the remediation of soil contaminated with viscous oil. Results demonstrated that an interaction among the microorganisms existed and affected the biodegradation rate. Strains inoculated equally into the test showed the best remediation, and an optimal microbial consortium was achieved with a 7 days' degradation rate of 49.22%. On the other hand, the use of ultraviolet mutation increased one strain's degrading ability from 41.83 to 52.42% in 7 days. Gas chromatography and mass spectrum analysis showed that microbial consortium could treat more organic fractions of viscous oil, while ultraviolet mutation could be more effect on increasing one strain's degrading ability.

  14. Molecular design of high performance zwitterionic liquids for enhanced heavy-oil recovery processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Magadán, J M; Cartas-Rosado, A R; Oviedo-Roa, R; Cisneros-Dévora, R; Pons-Jiménez, M; Hernández-Altamirano, R; Zamudio-Rivera, L S

    2018-03-01

    Branched gemini zwitterionic liquids, which contain two zwitterionic moieties of linked quaternary-ammonium and carboxylate groups, are proposed as chemicals to be applied in the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The zwitterionic moieties are bridged between them through an alkyl chain containing 12 ether groups, and each zwitterionic moiety has attached a long alkyl tail including a CC double bond. A theoretical molecular mechanism over which EOR could rest, consisting on both the disaggregation of heavy oil and the reservoir-rock wettability alteration, was suggested. Results show that chemicals can both reduce the viscosity and remove heavy-oil molecules from the rock surface. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Experimental study on electromagnetic-assisted ZnO nanofluid flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Latiff, Noor Rasyada; Alnarabiji, Mohamad Sahban

    2018-01-01

    Recently, nano-EOR has emerged as a new frontier for improved and enhanced oil recovery (IOR & EOR). Despite their benefits, the nanoparticles tend to agglomerate at reservoir conditions which cause their detachment from the oil/water interface, and are consequently retained rather than transported through a porous medium. Dielectric nanoparticles including ZnO have been proposed to be a good replacement for EOR due to their high melting point and thermal properties. But more importantly, these particles can be polarized under electromagnetic (EM) irradiation, which provides an innovative smart Nano-EOR process denoted as EM-Assisted Nano-EOR. In this study, parameters involved in the oil recovery mechanism under EM waves, such as reducing mobility ratio, lowering interfacial tensions (IFT) and altering wettability were investigated. Two-phase displacement experiments were performed in sandpacks under the water-wet condition at 95°C, with permeability in the range of 265–300 mD. A crude oil from Tapis oil field was employed; while ZnO nanofluids of two different particle sizes (55.7 and 117.1 nm) were prepared using 0.1 wt. % nanoparticles that dispersed into brine (3 wt. % NaCl) along with SDBS as a dispersant. In each flooding scheme, three injection sequential scenarios have been conducted: (i) brine flooding as a secondary process, (ii) surfactant/nano/EM-assisted nano flooding, and (iii) second brine flooding to flush nanoparticles. Compare with surfactant flooding (2% original oil in place/OOIP) as tertiary recovery, nano flooding almost reaches 8.5–10.2% of OOIP. On the other hand, EM-assisted nano flooding provides an incremental oil recovery of approximately 9–10.4% of OOIP. By evaluating the contact angle and interfacial tension, it was established that the degree of IFT reduction plays a governing role in the oil displacement mechanism via nano-EOR, compare to mobility ratio. These results reveal a promising way to employ water-based ZnO nanofluid

  16. Experimental study on electromagnetic-assisted ZnO nanofluid flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Muhammad; Lee, Keanchuan; Mohd Zaid, Hasnah; Ahmad Latiff, Noor Rasyada; Alnarabiji, Mohamad Sahban

    2018-01-01

    Recently, nano-EOR has emerged as a new frontier for improved and enhanced oil recovery (IOR & EOR). Despite their benefits, the nanoparticles tend to agglomerate at reservoir conditions which cause their detachment from the oil/water interface, and are consequently retained rather than transported through a porous medium. Dielectric nanoparticles including ZnO have been proposed to be a good replacement for EOR due to their high melting point and thermal properties. But more importantly, these particles can be polarized under electromagnetic (EM) irradiation, which provides an innovative smart Nano-EOR process denoted as EM-Assisted Nano-EOR. In this study, parameters involved in the oil recovery mechanism under EM waves, such as reducing mobility ratio, lowering interfacial tensions (IFT) and altering wettability were investigated. Two-phase displacement experiments were performed in sandpacks under the water-wet condition at 95°C, with permeability in the range of 265-300 mD. A crude oil from Tapis oil field was employed; while ZnO nanofluids of two different particle sizes (55.7 and 117.1 nm) were prepared using 0.1 wt. % nanoparticles that dispersed into brine (3 wt. % NaCl) along with SDBS as a dispersant. In each flooding scheme, three injection sequential scenarios have been conducted: (i) brine flooding as a secondary process, (ii) surfactant/nano/EM-assisted nano flooding, and (iii) second brine flooding to flush nanoparticles. Compare with surfactant flooding (2% original oil in place/OOIP) as tertiary recovery, nano flooding almost reaches 8.5-10.2% of OOIP. On the other hand, EM-assisted nano flooding provides an incremental oil recovery of approximately 9-10.4% of OOIP. By evaluating the contact angle and interfacial tension, it was established that the degree of IFT reduction plays a governing role in the oil displacement mechanism via nano-EOR, compare to mobility ratio. These results reveal a promising way to employ water-based ZnO nanofluid for

  17. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part B: effects of nanoparticles on flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-11-01

    Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly, and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. The nanotechnology has been widely used in several other industries, and the interest in the oil industry is increasing. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery, and it is chosen as an alternative method to unlock the remaining oil resources and applied as a new enhanced oil recovery method in last decade. This paper therefore focuses on the reviews of the application of nanotechnology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the applications of nanomaterials for improving oil recovery that have been proposed to explain oil displacement by polymer flooding within oil reservoirs, and also this paper highlights the research advances of polymer in oil recovery. Nanochemical flooding is an immature method from an application point of view.

  18. Potential of Russian Regions to Implement CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Cherepovitsyn

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the techno-economic potential of Russia to implement carbon capture and storage technologies that imply the capture of anthropogenic CO2 and its injection into geologic reservoirs for long-term storage. The focus is on CO2 enhanced oil recovery projects that seem to be the most economically promising option of carbon capture and storage. The novelty of the work lies in the formulation of a potential assessment method of CO2 enhanced oil recovery, which allows for establishing a connection between energy production and oil extraction from the viewpoint of CO2 supply and demand. Using linear optimization, the most promising combinations of CO2 sources and sinks are identified and an economic evaluation of these projects is carried out. Based on this information, regions of Russia are ranked according to their prospects in regards to CO2 capture and enhanced oil recovery storage. The results indicate that Russia has a significant potential to utilize its power plants as CO2 sources for enhanced oil recovery projects. It has been estimated that 71 coal-fired power plants, and 185 of the gas-fired power plants of Russia annually produce 297.1 and 309.6 Mt of CO2 that can cover 553.4 Mt of the demand of 322 Russian oil fields. At the same time, the total CO2 storage capacity of the Russian fields is estimated at 7382.6 Mt, however, due to geological and technical factors, only 22.6% can be used for CO2-EOR projects. Of the 183 potential projects identified in the regional analysis phase, 99 were found to be cost-effective, with an average unit cost of € 19.07 per ton of CO2 and a payback period of 8.71 years. The most promising of the estimated regions is characterized by a well-developed energy industry, relatively low transportation costs, numerous large and medium-sized oil fields at the final stages of development, and favorable geological conditions that minimize the cost of injection. Geographically, they are located in the

  19. Neuro-Simulation Tool for Enhanced Oil Recovery Screening and Reservoir Performance Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Bahrekazemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the suitable enhanced oil recovery method in an oilfield is one of the decisions which are made prior to the natural drive production mechanism. In some cases, having in-depth knowledge about reservoir’s rock, fluid properties, and equipment is needed as well as economic evaluation. Both putting such data into simulation and its related consequent processes are generally very time consuming and costly.  In order to reduce study cases, an appropriate tool is required for primary screening prior to any operations being performed, to which leads reduction of time in design of ether pilot section or production under field condition. In this research, two different and useful screening tools are presented through a graphical user interface. The output of just over 900 simulations and verified screening criteria tables were employed to design the mentioned tools. Moreover, by means of gathered data and development of artificial neural networks, two dissimilar screening tools for proper assessment of suitable enhanced oil recovery method were finally introduced. The first tool is about the screening of enhanced oil recovery process based on published tables/charts and the second one which is Neuro-Simulation tool, concerns economical evaluation of miscible and immiscible injection of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and natural gas into the reservoir. Both of designed tools are provided in the form of a graphical user interface by which the user, can perceive suitable method through plot of oil recovery graph during 20 years of production, costs of gas injection per produced barrel, cumulative oil production, and finally, design the most efficient scenario.

  20. Magnetic enhancement caused by hydrocarbon migration in the Mawangmiao Oil Field, Jianghan Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingsheng; Yang, Tao [Department of Geophysics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Qingsong [National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Chan, Lungsang [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Xia, Xianghua; Cheng, Tongjin [Wuxi Institute of Petroleum Geology, SNOPEC, Jiangsu Wuxi 214151 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Magnetic parameters (volume-specific susceptibility k, and hysteresis parameters and ratios) of 47 samples, collected from an oil-producing well (M{sub 36}) and a dry well (M{sub 46}) from the oil-bearing II-You Formation of Paleogene Xingouzui Group in the Mawangmiao Oil Field in China, were measured to address the secondary alteration of iron-bearing minerals associated with hydrocarbon migration. Our results indicated that both k and magnetization (saturation magnetization J{sub s} and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization J{sub rs}) of oil-bearing formation have been dramatically enhanced. Further grain size estimation reveals that the background samples (samples both in M{sub 46} and outside the oil-bearing formation in M{sub 36}) contain coarser-grained magnetic particles (circa 30{mu}m) of detrital origin. In contrast, the alteration of hydrocarbon produces finer-grained (circa 25nm) magnetic particles. The new constraints on grain sizes and its origin of the hydrocarbon-related magnetic particles improve our understanding of the mechanism of formation of these secondary finer-grained particles, even though the precise nature of this process is still unknown. (author)

  1. Enhancement of Thiamine Biosynthesis in Oil Palm Seedlings by Colonization of Endophytic Fungus Hendersonia toruloidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Amirah N.; Lai, Kok S.; Lamasudin, Dhilia U.; Idris, Abu S.; Balia Yusof, Zetty N.

    2017-01-01

    Thiamine, or vitamin B1 plays an indispensable role as a cofactor in crucial metabolic reactions including glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in all living organisms. Thiamine has been shown to play a role in plant adaptation toward biotic and abiotic stresses. The modulation of thiamine biosynthetic genes in oil palm seedlings was evaluated in response to root colonization by endophytic Hendersonia toruloidea. Seven-month-old oil palm seedlings were inoculated with H. toruloidea and microscopic analyses were performed to visualize the localization of endophytic H. toruloidea in oil palm roots. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that H. toruloidea colonized cortical cells. The expression of thiamine biosynthetic genes and accumulation of total thiamine in oil palm seedlings were also evaluated. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to measure transcript abundances of four key thiamine biosynthesis genes (THI4, THIC, TH1, and TPK) on days 1, 7, 15, and 30 in response to H. toruloidea colonization. The results showed an increase of up to 12-fold in the expression of all gene transcripts on day 1 post-inoculation. On days 7, 15, and 30 post-inoculation, the relative expression levels of these genes were shown to be downregulated. Thiamine accumulation was observed on day 7 post-colonization and subsequently decreased until day 30. This work provides the first evidence for the enhancement of thiamine biosynthesis by endophytic colonization in oil palm seedlings. PMID:29089959

  2. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark

    2016-07-19

    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs.

  3. Impact of innovations on future energy supply - chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects an increase of global energy demand by one-third during next 20 years together with a change in the global energy mix. A key-influencing factor is a strong expected increase in oil and gas production in the United States driven by 'new' technologies such as hydraulic fracturing. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. In the case of polymer flooding with poly acrylamide, the number of full field implementations has increased in recent years. In the meantime new polymers have been developed to cover previously unmet needs - such polymers can be applied in fields of high salinity and high temperature. Use of surfactants is in an earlier stage, but pilot tests show promising results.

  4. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report 1994--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-12-01

    In this report, the authors present the results of their experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are summarized.

  5. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1996-05-01

    In this report, we present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12. 0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, we have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are discussed.

  6. Designer-Wet Micromodels for Studying Potential Changes in Wettability during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. T.; Wildenschild, D.

    2010-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a process where microorganisms are used for tertiary recovery of oil. Some bacteria can facilitate the mobilization of oil through the production of amphiphilic compounds called biosurfactants that reduce the interfacial tension (IFT) between immiscible phases. Additionally, most bacteria have an inclination to colonize surfaces and form biofilm, which can change a reservoir's wetting properties or clog preferential flow paths. Herein, we aim to understand changes in wettability during MEOR under mixed wettability conditions within silicon etched micromodels and to identify the type of oil field (i.e. based on wettability) in which MEOR is likely to be most profitable. To quantify porous media wettability, macro-scale indexes (obtained with techniques such as the Carter or Amott methods) are used regularly. However, these measurements lack the capability for characterization of changes in wettability during MEOR treatment, and only provide macro-scale information. In an effort to understand micro-scale temporal and spatial changes in wettability we measure interfacial curvature from stereo microscope images using level set methods. Curvature, from the perspective of the oil phase, is positive for a concave interface (i.e. water-wet surface) and negative for a convex interface (i.e. oil-wet surface). Thus, shifts in the radius of curvature distribution (i.e. from positive to negative or conversely) are indicative of wettability changes. Both curvature distributions using level-set methods and the Carter method are used to characterize wettability before and after microbial treatment. In preliminary studies aimed at understanding wettability changes due to microbial surface interactions by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, oil droplets were placed on glass slides suspended in growth media and the resulting contact angle was measured over time. Results showed that a water-wet surface will become more water wet as JF-2 accumulated in

  7. Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) monitoring during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Jeffrey Heenan, Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis, Lee Slater Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark NJ Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is an established, cost effective, method for enhancing tertiary oil recovery. Although not commonly used for shallow heavy oils, it could be a viable alternative since it can offer sustainable economic recovery and minimal environmental impact. A critical component of successful MEOR treatments is accurate, real time monitoring of the biodegradation processes resulting from the injection of microbial communities into the formation; results of recent biogeophysical research suggest that minimally-invasive geophysical methods could significantly contribute to such monitoring efforts. Here we present results of laboratory experiments, to assess the sensitivity of the spectral induced polarization method (SIP) to MEOR treatments. We used heavy oil, obtained from a shallow oilfield in SW Missouri, to saturate three sand columns. We then followed common industry procedures,and used a commercially available microbial consortia, to treat the oil columns. The active MEOR experiments were performed in duplicate while a control column maintained similar conditions, without promoting microbial activity and oil degradation. We monitored the SIP signatures, between 0.001 Hz and 1000 Hz, for a period of six months. To support the geophysical measurements we also monitored common geochemical parameters, including pH, Eh and fluid conductivity, and collected weekly fluid samples from the outflow and inflow for further analysis; fluid samples were analyzed to confirm that microbes actively degraded the heavy oils in the column while destructive analysis of the solid materials was performed upon termination of the experiment. Preliminary analysis of the results suggests that SIP is sensitive to MEOR processes. In both inoculated columns we recorded an increase in the low frequency polarization with time; measureable

  8. Production of microbial rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 for ex situ enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Hossein; Müller, Markus Michael; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Recently, several investigations have been carried out on the in situ bacteria flooding, but the ex situ biosurfactant production and addition to the sand pack as agents for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has little been studied. In order to develop suitable technology for ex situ MEOR processes, it is essential to carry out tests about it. Therefore, this work tries to fill the gap. The intention of this study was to investigate whether the rhamnolipid mix could be produced in high enough quantities for enhanced oil recovery in the laboratory scale and prove its potential use as an effective material for field application. In this work, the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 to grow and produce rhamnolipid on sunflower as sole carbon source under nitrogen limitation was shown. The production of Rha-C10-C10 and Rha2-C10-C10 was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The rhamnolipid mixture obtained was able to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water to 26 and 2 mN/m, respectively. The critical micelle concentration was 120 mg/L. Maximum rhamnolipid production reached to about 0.7 g/L in a shake flask. The yield of rhamnolipid per biomass (Y RL/x ), rhamnolipid per sunflower oil (Y RL/s ), and the biomass per sunflower oil (Y x/s ) for shake flask were obtained about 0.01, 0.0035, and 0.035 g g(-1), respectively. The stability of the rhamnolipid at different salinities, pH and temperature, and also, its emulsifying activity has been investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pHs, and salt concentrations, and it also has the ability to emulsify oil, which is essential for enhanced oil recovery. With 120 mg/L rhamnolipid, 27 % of original oil in place was recovered after water flooding from a sand pack. This result not only suggests rhamnolipids as appropriate model biosurfactants for MEOR, but it even shows the potential as a

  9. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or with...... of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs.......Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses....... The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil–brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil–brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition...

  10. Percutaneous penetration enhancement effect of essential oil of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq. on Chinese herbal components with different lipophilicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Wang

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: Mint oil at proper concentration could effectively facilitate percutaneous penetration of both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and exhibit higher efficiency for moderate hydrophilic drugs. Mechanisms of penetration enhancement by mint oil could be explained with saturation solubility, SC/vehicle partition coefficient and the secondary structure change of SC.

  11. Support of enhanced oil recovery to independent producers in Texas. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotouh, K.H.

    1995-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to support independent oil producers in Texas and to improve the productivity of marginal wells utilizing enhanced oil recovery techniques. The main task carried out this quarter was the generation of an electronic data base.

  12. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the North Sea : The impact of price uncertainty on the investment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compernolle, T.; K, Welkenhuysen,; Huisman, Kuno; K, Piessens,; Kort, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Although CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered a key solution for CO2 emission mitigation, it is currently not economically feasible. CO2 enhanced oil recovery can play a significant role in stimulating CCS deployment because CO2 is used to extract additional quantities of oil. This study

  13. Systematic Phase Behaviour Study and Foam Stability Analysis for Optimal Alkaline/Surfactant/Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini Nasab, S.M.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline-Surfactant-Foam (ASF) flooding is a recently introduced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. This paper presents laboratory study of this ASF to better understand its mechanisms. The focus is on the interaction of ASF chemical agents with oil and in the presence and absence of naphthenic

  14. Modeling of Pressure Dependence of Interfacial Tension Behaviors of Supercritical CO2 + Crude Oil Systems Using a Basic Parachor Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayanand, S.

    2017-01-01

    Parachor based expressions (basic and mechanistic) are often used to model the experimentally observed pressure dependence of interfacial tension behaviors of complex supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO 2 ) and crude oil mixtures at elevated temperatures. However, such modeling requires various input data (e.g. compositions and densities of the equilibrium liquid and vapor phases, and molecular weights and diffusion coefficients for various components present in the system). In the absence of measured data, often phase behavior packages are used for obtaining these input data for performing calculations. Very few researchers have used experimentally measured input data for performing parachor based modeling of the experimental interfacial tension behaviors of sc-CO 2 and crude oil systems that are of particular interest to CO 2 injection in porous media based enhanced oil recovery operations. This study presents the results of parachor based modeling performed to predict pressure dependence of interfacial tension behaviors of a complex sc-CO 2 and crude oil system for which experimentally measured data is available in public domain. Though parachor model based on calculated interfacial tension behaviors shows significant deviation from the measured behaviors in high interfacial tension region, difference between the calculated and the experimental behaviors appears to vanish in low interfacial tension region. These observations suggest that basic parachor expression based calculated interfacial tension behaviors in low interfacial tension region follow the experimental interfacial tension behaviors more closely. An analysis of published studies (basic and mechanistic parachor expressions based on modeling of pressure dependence of interfacial tension behaviors of both standard and complex sc-CO 2 and crude oil systems) and the results of this study reinforce the need of better description of gas-oil interactions for robust modeling of pressure dependence of

  15. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Krapac, Ivan G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Damico, James R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Okwen, Roland T. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); McKaskle, Ray W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  16. Investigated Miscible CO2 Flooding for Enhancing Oil Recovery in Wettability Altered Chalk and Sandstone Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabrizy, Vahid Alipour

    2012-07-01

    The thesis addresses oil recovery by miscible CO2 flooding from modified sandstone and chalk rocks. Calcite mineral surface is modified with stearic acid (SA) and asphaltene, and the silicate mineral surfaces are modified with N,N-dimethyldodecylamine (NN-DMDA) and asphaltene. The stability of adsorbed polar components in presence of SO4 2- and Mg2 + ions is also investigated. Recovery from sandstone cores is consistently lower than that from chalk cores saturated with the same oil and flooded with CO2 at all miscible flooding conditions. This may be due to the larger permeability contrasts in sandstone cores, which promote the fingering phenomenon. Miscible CO2 flooding for chalk and sandstone cores with distilled water, as initial water saturation, shows also lower oil recovery than cores saturated with different ions. At higher miscible flooding conditions, higher oil recovery is obtained. However, presence of light components (such as C1 or C3) in oil reduced the recovery. Oil recovery in presence of methane (C1) is lower than that in presence of methane and propane (C1/C3). A ternary diagram was constructed in order to understand the CO2 flooding mechanism(s) at the different flooding conditions and in presence of light components. The side effect of the flooding with CO2 is the probability for asphaltene deposition. An approach based on solubility parameter in the liquid, is used to assess the risk for asphaltene deposition during CO2 miscible flooding. The light components (C1/C3) and higher flooding conditions enhanced the risk for asphaltene instability. It is also shown higher amount of asphaltene deposition in chalk cores than that in sandstone cores at similar miscibility conditions.(au)

  17. Effects of particle shape and size on nanofluid properties for potential Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Mohd Tengku Amran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR in oil and gas industry is very important to increase oil recovery and prolong the lifetime of a reservoir but it has been very costly and losing properties of EOR agent due to harsh condition. Nanoparticles have been used in EOR application since they are not degradable in reservoir condition and used in smaller amount compared to polymer usage. Commonly, EOR techniques are focusing on increasing the sweep efficiency by controlling the mobility ratio between reservoir fluid and injected fluid. Thus, this research aimed to analyze the nanofluid viscosity at different particle size and shape, volumetric concentration and types of dispersing fluid, as well as to determine the oil recovery performance at different nanofluid concentration. The nanofluid viscosity was investigated at nanoparticle sizes of 15nm and 60nm and shapes of 15nm spherical-solid and porous. Five nanofluid samples with concentration ranging from 0.1wt.% to 7wt.% were used to investigate the effect of volumetric concentration. Distilled water, ethanol, ethylene glycol (EG and brine were used for the effect of dispersing fluids. Oil recovery was investigated at five different concentrations of nanofluid samples through flooding test. It was found that viscosity of nanofluid increased with decreasing particle size and increasing volumetric concentration. Solid shape particle and increasing dispersing fluid viscosity resulted in higher nanofluid viscosity. The higher the nanofluid concentration, the higher the oil recovery obtained. It can be concluded that nanofluid properties have been significantly affected by the environment and the particle used for potential EOR application.

  18. Constructive Activation of Reservoir-Resident Microbes for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruyn, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial communities living in subsurface oil reservoirs biodegrade oil, producing methane. If this process could create methane within the waterflooded pore spaces of an oilfield, the methane would be expected to remain and occupy pore space, decreasing water relative permeability, diverting water flow, and increasing oil recovery by expanding the swept zone of the waterflood. This approach was tested in an oilfield in northern Montana. Preliminary assessments were made of geochemical conditions and microbiological habitations. Then, a formulation of microbial activators, with composition tailored for the reservoir's conditions, was metered at low rates into the existing injection water system for one year. In the field, the responses observed included improved oil production performance; a slight increase in injection pressure; and increased time needed for tracers to move between injection and producing wells. We interpret these results to confirm that successful stimulation of the microbial community caused more methane to be created within the swept zone of the waterflooded reservoir. When the methane exsolved as water flowed between high-pressure injection and low-pressure production wells, the bubbles occupied pore space, reducing water saturation and relative permeability, and re-directing some water flow to "slower" unswept rock with lower permeability and higher oil saturation. In total, the waterflood's swept zone had been expanded to include previously-unflooded rock. This technology was applied in this field after screening based on careful anaerobic sampling, advanced microbiological analysis, and the ongoing success of its waterflood. No reservoir or geological or geophysical simulation models were employed, and physical modifications to field facilities were minor. This technology of utilizing existing microbial populations for enhanced oil recovery can therefore be considered for deployment into waterfloods where small scale, advanced maturity, or

  19. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of

  20. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery and Wettability Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, G.A.; Barrett, K.B.; Eastman, S.L.; Herd, M.D.; Jackson, J.D.; Robertson, E.P.; Thomas, C.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report covers research results for fiscal year 1991 for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and Wettability Research Program conducted by EG&G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory ONEL) for the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID). The program is funded by the Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, and managed by DOE-ID and the Bartlesville Project Office (BPO). The objectives of this multi-year program are to develop MEOR systems for application to reservoirs containing medium to heavy crude oils and to design and implement an industry cost-shared field demonstration project of the developed technology. An understanding of the controlling mechanisms will first be developed through the use of laboratory scale testing to determine the ability of microbially mediated processes to recover oil under reservoir conditions and to develop the design criteria for scale-up to the field. Concurrently with this work, the isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. Research focus includes the study of biogenic product and formation souring processes including mitigation and prevention. Souring research performed in FY 1991 also included the development of microsensor probe technology for the detection of total sulfide in collaboration with the Montana State University Center for Interfacial Microbial Process Engineering (CIMPE). Wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC) at the New Mexico institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems.

  1. EFFICACY OF COMMERCIAL INOCULA IN ENHANCING BIODEGRADATION OF WEATHERED CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATING A PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND BEACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a laboratory study evaluating the effectiveness of 10 commercial products in stimulating enhanced biodegradation of Alaska North Slope crude oil, two of the products provided significantly greater alkane degradation in closed flasks than indigenous Alaskan bacterial population...

  2. Microbial enhanced heavy oil recovery by the aid of inhabitant spore-forming bacteria: an insight review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil is the major source of energy worldwide being exploited as a source of economy, including Oman. As the price of crude oil increases and crude oil reserves collapse, exploitation of oil resources in mature reservoirs is essential for meeting future energy demands. As conventional recovery methods currently used have become less efficient for the needs, there is a continuous demand of developing a new technology which helps in the upgradation of heavy crude oil. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is an important tertiary oil recovery method which is cost-effective and eco-friendly technology to drive the residual oil trapped in the reservoirs. The potential of microorganisms to degrade heavy crude oil to reduce viscosity is considered to be very effective in MEOR. Earlier studies of MEOR (1950s) were based on three broad areas: injection, dispersion, and propagation of microorganisms in petroleum reservoirs; selective degradation of oil components to improve flow characteristics; and production of metabolites by microorganisms and their effects. Since thermophilic spore-forming bacteria can thrive in very extreme conditions in oil reservoirs, they are the most suitable organisms for the purpose. This paper contains the review of work done with thermophilic spore-forming bacteria by different researchers.

  3. Microbial Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery by the Aid of Inhabitant Spore-Forming Bacteria: An Insight Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biji Shibulal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is the major source of energy worldwide being exploited as a source of economy, including Oman. As the price of crude oil increases and crude oil reserves collapse, exploitation of oil resources in mature reservoirs is essential for meeting future energy demands. As conventional recovery methods currently used have become less efficient for the needs, there is a continuous demand of developing a new technology which helps in the upgradation of heavy crude oil. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR is an important tertiary oil recovery method which is cost-effective and eco-friendly technology to drive the residual oil trapped in the reservoirs. The potential of microorganisms to degrade heavy crude oil to reduce viscosity is considered to be very effective in MEOR. Earlier studies of MEOR (1950s were based on three broad areas: injection, dispersion, and propagation of microorganisms in petroleum reservoirs; selective degradation of oil components to improve flow characteristics; and production of metabolites by microorganisms and their effects. Since thermophilic spore-forming bacteria can thrive in very extreme conditions in oil reservoirs, they are the most suitable organisms for the purpose. This paper contains the review of work done with thermophilic spore-forming bacteria by different researchers.

  4. Dataset on experimental investigation of gum arabic coated alumina nanoparticles for enhanced recovery of nigerian medium crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orodu, Oyinkepreye D; Orodu, Kale B; Afolabi, Richard O; Dafe, Eboh A

    2018-08-01

    The dataset in this article are related to an experimental Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) scheme involving the use of dispersions containing Gum Arabic coated Alumina Nanoparticles (GCNPs) for Nigerian medium crude oil. The result contained in the dataset showed a 7.18% (5 wt% GCNPs), 7.81% (5 wt% GCNPs), and 5.61% (3 wt% GCNPs) improvement in the recovery oil beyond the water flooding stage for core samples A, B, and C respectively. Also, the improvement in recovery of the medium crude oil by the GCNPs dispersions when compared to Gum Arabic polymer flooding was evident in the dataset.

  5. Preparation of organogel with tea polyphenols complex for enhancing the antioxidation properties of edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong; Zhang, Qiuyue; Vriesekoop, Frank; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao

    2014-08-20

    Food-grade organogels are semisolid systems with immobilized liquid edible oil in a three-dimensional network of self-assembled gelators, and they are supposed to have a broad range of potential applications in food industries. In this work, an edible organogel with tea polyphenols was developed, which possesses a highly effective antioxidative function. To enhance the dispersibility of the tea polyphenols in the oil phase, a solid lipid-surfactant-tea polyphenols complex (organogel complex) was first prepared according to a novel method. Then, a food-grade organogel was prepared by mixing this organogel complex with fresh peanut oil. Compared with adding free tea polyphenols, the organogel complex could be more homogeneously distributed in the prepared organogel system, especially under heating condition. Furthermore, the organogel loading of tea polyphenols performed a 2.5-fold higher antioxidation compared with other chemically synthesized antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate) by evaluating the peroxide value of the fresh peanut oil based organogel in accelerated oxidation conditions.

  6. Potential of wheat bran to promote indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yali; Wang, Qinghong; Chen, Chunmao; Kim, Jung Bong; Zhang, Hongdan; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X

    2017-06-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is an emerging oil extraction technology that utilizes microorganisms to facilitate recovery of crude oil in depleted petroleum reservoirs. In the present study, effects of wheat bran utilization were investigated on stimulation of indigenous MEOR. Biostimulation conditions were optimized with the response surface methodology. The co-application of wheat bran with KNO 3 and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 significantly promoted indigenous MEOR (IMEOR) and exhibited sequential aerobic (O-), facultative (A n -) and anaerobic (A 0 -) metabolic stages. The surface tension of fermented broth decreased by approximately 35%, and the crude oil was highly emulsified. Microbial community structure varied largely among and in different IMEOR metabolic stages. Pseudomonas sp., Citrobacter sp., and uncultured Burkholderia sp. dominated the O-, A n - and early A 0 -stages. Bacillus sp., Achromobacter sp., Rhizobiales sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Clostridium sp. dominated the later A 0 -stage. This study illustrated occurrences of microbial community succession driven by wheat bran stimulation and its industrial potential.

  7. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  8. Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahri, Asma; Al-Mandhari, Musallam S

    2016-01-01

    The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m -1 and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m -1 respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (S or ). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes.

  9. Acoustic wave emission for enhanced oil recovery (WAVE.O.R.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmann, S.; Amro, M. [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Krauss, F.; Krueger, K.; Jurczyk, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    In the project WAVE.O.R the potential of acoustic waves to enhance oil recovery was reviewed. The project focused on laboratory experiments of the oil displacement in sandstone cores under acoustic stimulation. Additionally, the Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD) borehole device prototype was set up for a feasibility field test. The laboratory experiments showed that, depending on the stimulation frequency, acoustic stimulation allows for an enhanced oil recovery. For single frequency stimulation a mean increase of 3 % pore volumes was observed at distinguished frequencies. A cyclic stimulation, where two of these frequencies were combined, an increase of 5% pore volume was observed. The SPWD borehole device was tested and adjusted during feasibility tests in the GFZ underground laboratory in the research and education mine ''Reiche Zeche'' of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg and in the GFZ KTB-Deep Laboratory in Windischeschenbach. The first successful test of the device under realistic conditions was performed at the test site ''Piana di Toppo'' of the OGS Trieste, Italy.

  10. Applicability of anaerobic nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation to microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbo; Carlson, Han K; Coates, John D

    2013-08-06

    Microbial processes that produce solid-phase minerals could be judiciously applied to modify rock porosity with subsequent alteration and improvement of floodwater sweep in petroleum reservoirs. However, there has been little investigation of the application of this to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Here, we investigate a unique approach of altering reservoir petrology through the biogenesis of authigenic rock minerals. This process is mediated by anaerobic chemolithotrophic nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms that precipitate iron minerals from the metabolism of soluble ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) coupled to the reduction of nitrate. This mineral biogenesis can result in pore restriction and reduced pore throat diameter. Advantageously and unlike biomass plugs, these biominerals are not susceptible to pressure or thermal degradation. Furthermore, they do not require continual substrate addition for maintenance. Our studies demonstrate that the biogenesis of insoluble iron minerals in packed-bed columns results in effective hydrology alteration and homogenization of heterogeneous flowpaths upon stimulated microbial Fe(2+) biooxidation. We also demonstrate almost 100% improvement in oil recovery from hydrocarbon-saturated packed-bed columns as a result of this metabolism. These studies represent a novel departure from traditional microbial EOR approaches and indicate the potential for nitrate-dependent Fe(2+) biooxidation to improve volumetric sweep efficiency and enhance both the quality and quantity of oil recovered.

  11. Acoustic wave emission for enhanced oil recovery (WAVE.O.R.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichmann, S.; Amro, M.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Krauss, F.; Krueger, K.; Jurczyk, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the project WAVE.O.R the potential of acoustic waves to enhance oil recovery was reviewed. The project focused on laboratory experiments of the oil displacement in sandstone cores under acoustic stimulation. Additionally, the Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD) borehole device prototype was set up for a feasibility field test. The laboratory experiments showed that, depending on the stimulation frequency, acoustic stimulation allows for an enhanced oil recovery. For single frequency stimulation a mean increase of 3 % pore volumes was observed at distinguished frequencies. A cyclic stimulation, where two of these frequencies were combined, an increase of 5% pore volume was observed. The SPWD borehole device was tested and adjusted during feasibility tests in the GFZ underground laboratory in the research and education mine ''Reiche Zeche'' of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg and in the GFZ KTB-Deep Laboratory in Windischeschenbach. The first successful test of the device under realistic conditions was performed at the test site ''Piana di Toppo'' of the OGS Trieste, Italy.

  12. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  13. Enhanced biodegradation of diesel oil by a newly identified Rhodococcus baikonurensis EN3 in the presence of mycolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Kim, M K; Singleton, I; Goodfellow, M; Lee, S-T

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize a bacterium, strain EN3, capable of using diesel oil as a major carbon and energy source, and to analyse the enhancement of diesel oil degradation by this organism using synthetic mycolic acid (2-hexyl-3-hydroxyldecanoic acid). An actinomycete with the ability to degrade diesel oil was isolated from oil contaminated soil and characterized. The strain had phenotypic properties consistent with its classification in the genus Rhodococcus showing a 16S rRNA gene similarity of 99.7% with Rhodococcus baikonurensis DSM 44587(T). The ability of the characterized strain to degrade diesel oil at various concentrations (1000, 5000, 10 000 and 20 000 mg l(-1)) was determined. The effect of synthetic mycolic acid on the biodegradation of diesel oil was investigated at the 20 000 mg l(-1) concentration; the surfactant was added to the flask cultures at three different concentrations (10, 50 and 100 mg l(-1)) and degradation followed over 7 days. Enhanced degradation was found at all three concentrations of the surfactant. In addition, the enhancement of diesel oil degradation by other surfactants was observed. The synthetic mycolic acid has potential for the remediation of petroleum-contaminated sites from both an economic and applied perspective as it can stimulate biodegradation at low concentrations. This study showed that the synthesized mycolic acid can be used for potential applications in the bioremediation industries, for example, in oil spill clean-up, diesel fuel remediation and biostimulation.

  14. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part A: effects of nanoparticles on interfacial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-01-01

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While Substantial amount of crude oil remains in the reservoir after primary and secondary production, conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery. This paper, therefore, focuses on the reviews of the application of nano technology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the application nano in the polymer and surfactant flooding on the interfacial tension process.

  15. Investigation of Chemical-Foam Design as a Novel Approach toward Immiscible Foam Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Nasab, S M; Zitha, P L J

    2017-10-19

    Strong foam can be generated in porous media containing oil, resulting in incremental oil recovery; however, oil recovery factor is restricted. A large fraction of oil recovered by foam flooding forms an oil-in-water emulsion, so that costly methods may need to be used to separate the oil. Moreover, strong foam could create a large pressure gradient, which may cause fractures in the reservoir. This study presents a novel chemical-foam flooding process for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from water-flooded reservoirs. The presented method involved the use of chemically designed foam to mobilize the remaining oil after water flooding and then to displace the mobilized oil to the production well. A blend of two anionic surfactant formulations was formulated for this method: (a) IOS, for achieving ultralow interfacial tension (IFT), and (b) AOS, for generating a strong foam. Experiments were performed using Bentheimer sandstone cores, where X-ray CT images were taken during foam generation to find the stability of the advancing front of foam propagation and to map the gas saturation for both the transient and the steady-state flow regimes. Then the proposed chemical-foam strategy for incremental oil recovery was tested through the coinjection of immiscible nitrogen gas and surfactant solutions with three different formulation properties in terms of IFT reduction and foaming strength capability. The discovered optimal formulation contains a foaming agent surfactant, a low IFT surfactant, and a cosolvent, which has a high foam stability and a considerably low IFT (1.6 × 10 -2 mN/m). Coinjection resulted in higher oil recovery and much less MRF than the same process with only using a foaming agent. The oil displacement experiment revealed that coinjection of gas with a blend of surfactants, containing a cosolvent, can recover a significant amount of oil (33% OIIP) over water flooding with a larger amount of clean oil and less emulsion.

  16. Production acceleration and injectivity enhancement using steam-propane injection for Hamaca extra-heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, J. A.; Mamora, D. D. [Texas A and M University, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The possibility of enhanced recovery in the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela, the world's largest known hydrocarbon deposit, by using propane as a steam additive, is discussed. In a laboratory study the steam-propane injection accelerated the start of oil production by 21 per cent, compared to production with steam alone. The experiments illustrated that the inclusion of even small amounts of propane has considerable beneficial effect on the rate of bitumen production. Even though total bitumen recovery and ultimate residual oil saturation did not change, the acceleration of bitumen recovery is considered to have a significant impact on the net present value of the recovery process. 17 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  17. On the stabilizing role of species diffusion in chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir; Gin, Craig

    2015-11-01

    In this talk, the speaker will discuss a problem on the stability analysis related to the effect of species diffusion on stabilization of fingering in a Hele-Shaw model of chemical enhanced oil recovery. The formulation of the problem is motivated by a specific design principle of the immiscible interfaces in the hope that this will lead to significant stabilization of interfacial instabilities, there by improving oil recovery in the context of porous media flow. Testing the merits of this hypothesis poses some challenges which will be discussed along with some numerical results based on current formulation of this problem. Several open problems in this context will be discussed. This work is currently under progress. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  18. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jr., James S.; Westmoreland, Clyde G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  19. Various oils and detergents enhance the microbial production of farnesol and related prenyl alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Ohto, Chikara; Obata, Shusei; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2008-09-01

    The object of this research was improvement of prenyl alcohol production with squalene synthase-deficient mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 64031. On screening of many kinds of additives, we found that oils and detergents significantly enhanced the extracellular production of prenyl alcohols. Soybean oil showed the most prominent effect among the additives tested. Its effect was accelerated by a high concentration of glucose in the medium. The combination of these cultivation conditions led to the production of more than 28 mg/l of farnesol in the soluble fraction of the broth. The addition of these compounds to the medium was an effective method for large-scale production of prenyl alcohols with microorganisms.

  20. Enhancement of antioxidative activity and cardiovascular protection in hamsters by camellia oil and soybean-camellia blended oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Yi; Lu, Yi-Fa; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of several vegetable oils and blended oil composed of soybean and camellia oils on blood lipid reduction and antioxidative activity. Forty male hamsters were fed an AIN-93 G diet for 1 wk, followed by dividing into five groups: control group-1 was fed a low-fat diet containing 5% oil for 6 wk, and the other four groups were fed high-fat diets with group-2 containing 14% palm oil, group-3 containing 14% camellia oil, group-4 containing 14% soybean oil, and group-5 containing 14% blended oil (8.4% soybean oil and 5.6% camellia oil) along with 0.2% cholesterol and 0.1% bile acid. High-fat diets raised serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase in hamsters without affecting alanine aminotransferase. Compared with palm oil-containing diet, the other three high-fat diets reduced serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with an opposite trend for liver total cholesterol. However, compared with the control group, the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was raised for all four high-fat diets. The higher the degree of oil unsaturation, the higher the serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the lower the liver triacylglycerol level and activities of fatty acid synthase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzymes. Both soybean and blended oils lowered the antioxidative activity of liver. Camellia and blended oils were more efficient than soybean oil in elevating serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreasing the ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hamsters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced biodegradation of alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil by mixed strains and bacterial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Li, Chen; Zhou, Zhengxi; Wen, Jianping; You, Xueyi; Mao, Youzhi; Lu, Chunzhe; Huo, Guangxin; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, two strains, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 and Pseudomonas sp. XM-01, were isolated from soil samples polluted by crude oil at Bohai offshore. The former one could degrade alkane hydrocarbons (crude oil and diesel, 1:4 (v/v)) and crude oil efficiently; the latter one failed to grow on alkane hydrocarbons but could produce rhamnolipid (a biosurfactant) with glycerol as sole carbon source. Compared with pure culture, mixed culture of the two strains showed higher capability in degrading alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil of which degradation rate were increased from 89.35 and 74.32 ± 4.09 to 97.41 and 87.29 ± 2.41 %, respectively. In the mixed culture, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 grew fast with sufficient carbon source and produced intermediates which were subsequently utilized for the growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01 and then, rhamnolipid was produced by Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. Till the end of the process, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 was inhibited by the rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. In addition, alkane hydrocarbon degradation rate of the mixed culture increased by 8.06 to 97.41 % compared with 87.29 % of the pure culture. The surface tension of medium dropping from 73.2 × 10(-3) to 28.6 × 10(-3) N/m. Based on newly found cooperation between the degrader and the coworking strain, rational investigations and optimal strategies to alkane hydrocarbons biodegradation were utilized for enhancing crude oil biodegradation.

  2. Mixing in three-phase systems: Implications for enhanced oil recovery and unconventional gas extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Porter, M. L.; Hyman, J.; Carey, J. W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although the mixing of fluids within a porous media is a common process in natural and industrial systems, how the degree of mixing depends on the miscibility of multiple phases is poorly characterized. Often, the direct consequence of miscible mixing is the modification of the resident fluid (brine and hydrocarbons) rheological properties. We investigate supercritical (sc)CO2 displacement and mixing processes in a three-phase system (scCO2, oil, and H2O) using a microfluidics experimental system that accommodates the high pressures and temperatures encountered in fossil fuel extraction operations. The miscibility of scCO2 with the resident fluids, low with aqueous solutions and high with hydrocarbons, impacts the mixing processes that control sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the unlocking of the system in unconventional oil and gas extraction. Using standard volume-averaging techniques we upscale the aqueous phase saturation to the field-scale (i.e., Darcy scale) and interpret the results as a simpler two-phase system. This process allows us to perform a statistical analysis to quantify i) the degree of heterogeneity in the system resulting from the immiscible H2O and ii) how that heterogeneity impacts mixing between scCO2 and oil and their displacement. Our results show that when scCO2 is used for miscible displacement, the presence of an aqueous solution, which is common in secondary and tertiary EOR and unconventional oil and gas extraction, strongly impacts the mixing of scCO2 with the hydrocarbons due to low scCO2-H2O miscibility. H2O, which must be displaced advectively by the injected scCO2, introduces spatio-temporal variability into the system that acts as a barrier between the two miscibile fluids. This coupled with the effect of viscosity contrast, i.e., viscous fingering, has an impact on the mixing of the more miscible pair.

  3. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  4. Measurement of Streaming Potential in Downhole Application: An Insight for Enhanced Oil Recovery Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Mohd Tengku Amran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Downhole monitoring using streaming potential measurement has been developing in order to respond to actual reservoir condition. Most studies have emphasized on monitoring water flooding at various reservoir condition and improving the approaches of measurement. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR could significantly improve oil recovery and the efficiency of the process should be well-monitored. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP flooding is the most promising chemical EOR method due to its synergy of alkaline, surfactant and polymer, which could enhance the extraction of residual oil. However, limited studies have been focused on the application of streaming potential in EOR processes, particularly ASP. Thus, this paper aims to review the streaming potential measurement in downhole monitoring with an insight for EOR application and propose the potential measurement in monitoring ASP flooding. It is important for a preliminary study to investigate the synergy in ASP and the effects on oil recovery. The behaviour of streaming potential should be investigated when the environment of porous media changes with respect to ASP flooding. Numerical model can be generated from the experimental data to forecast the measured streaming potential signal during production associated with ASP flooding. Based on the streaming potential behaviour on foam assisted water alternate gas (FAWAG and water alternate gas (WAG processes, it is expected that the streaming potential could change significantly when ASP flooding alters the environment and surface properties of porous media. The findings could provide new prospect and knowledge in the relationship between streaming potential and ASP mechanisms, which could be a potential approach in monitoring the efficiency of the process.

  5. Natural oils as skin permeation enhancers for transdermal delivery of olanzapine: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Geeta; Dhawan, Sanju; HariKumar, S L

    2012-03-01

    The feasibility of development of transdermal delivery system of olanzapine utilizing natural oils as permeation enhancers was investigated. Penetration enhancing potential of corn (maize) oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil on in vitro permeation of olanzapine across rat skin was studied. The magnitude of flux enhancement factor with corn oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil was 7.06, 5.31 and 1.9 respectively at 5mg/ml concentration in solvent system. On the basis of in vitro permeation studies, eudragit based matrix type transdermal patches of olanzapine were fabricated using optimized concentrations of natural oils as permeation enhancers. All transdermal patches were found to be uniform with respect to physical characteristics. The interaction studies carried out by comparing the results of ultraviolet, HPLC and FTIR analyses for the pure drug, polymers and mixture of drug and polymers indicated no chemical interaction between the drug and excipients. Corn oil containing unsaturated fatty acids was found to be promising natural permeation enhancer for transdermal delivery of olanzapine with greatest cumulative amount of drug permeated (1010.68 μg/cm²/h) up to 24 h and caused no skin irritation. The fabricated transdermal patches were found to be stable. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the final optimized matrix patch (T2) were determined after transdermal application to rabbits. The calculated relative bioavailability of TDDS was 113.6 % as compared to oral administration of olanzapine. The therapeutic effectiveness of optimized transdermal system was confirmed by tranquillizing activity in rotarod and grip mice model.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were re-grown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0

  7. Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Hydromechanical Processes Induced by CO2 Injection into Deep Saline Aquifers Simulation numérique des processus hydromécaniques polyphasiques provoqués par l’injection de CO2 dans des aquifères salins profonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goerke U.-J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the conceptual modeling and the numerical simulation of two-phase flow during CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers is presented. The work focuses on isothermal short-term processes in the vicinity of the injection well. Governing differential equations are based on balance laws for mass and momentum, and completed by constitutive relations for the fluid and solid phases as well as their mutual interactions. Constraint conditions for the partial saturations and the pressure fractions of CO2 and brine are defined. To characterize the stress state in the solid matrix, the effective stress principle is applied. The coupled problem is solved using the inhouse scientific code OpenGeoSys (an open source finite element code and verified with benchmarks. Cet article présente le concept de la modélisation ainsi que la simulation numérique d’écoulement biphasé lors de l’injection de CO2 dans des aquifères salins profonds. L’étude se concentre sur des processus à court terme dans la proximité de puits d’injection dans les conditions isothermes. Les équations différentielles principales sont dérivées des équations de bilan de masse et de la quantité de mouvement, et elles sont complétées par des relations constitutives pour des phases solides et fluides ainsi que leur interaction. Les conditions de contrainte sont définies pour la saturation partielle, les fractions de pression de CO2 et l’eau salée. Pour caractériser l’état de contrainte dans la matrice solide, le principe de contrainte effective est appliqué. Le problème couplé considéré est résolu en utilisant le logiciel scientifique interne OpenGeoSys (un logiciel d’éléments finis libre d’accès et vérifié avec des exemples pour les processus concernés.

  8. Research and Application of Radiation Processed Polymers to Enhance Oil Recovery in Petroleum Industry - Current Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hai; Nguyen Trong Hoanh Phong; Le Van Toan; Nguyen Ly Lan; Nguyen Tan Man; Le Dinh Lang; Nguyen Van Toan; Pham Anh Tuan

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of polymers for enhanced oil recovery has been carried out by radiation copolymerization method involving two monomers of acrylamide and N-vinyl-2- pyrrolidone, and N-methylpyrrolidone used as an anti-gel agent. The properties and oil recovery efficiency of polymer solution was discussed. The studied polymer dissolved in water and in saline water. They have non-precipitating behavior in hard brines at high temperature (>120 o C) and their viscosity decreased 20% after heating 30 days at 120 o C. Evaluation of oil recovery efficiency has been carried out at Laboratory model of reservoir of oil wells were submerged, the obtained results shown that the recovery yield of oil enhanced higher than 10% in the reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. The experimental results also shown that studied polymer products are applying in effect for submerged oil wells. These studied polymers have been being planned for application in pilot scale on the White Tiger oil field one of the big oil fields in this country. (author)

  9. Optimal contant time injection policy for enhanced oil recovery and characterization of optimal viscous profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2011-11-01

    We numerically investigate the optimal viscous profile in constant time injection policy of enhanced oil recovery. In particular, we investigate the effect of a combination of interfacial and layer instabilities in three-layer porous media flow on the overall growth of instabilities and thereby characterize the optimal viscous profile. Results based on monotonic and non-monotonic viscous profiles will be presented. Time permitting. we will also present results on multi-layer porous media flows for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids and compare the results. The support of Qatar National Fund under a QNRF Grant is acknowledged.

  10. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery-Laboratory Experiments with a Strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimoh, Ismaila Adetunji

    the desired metabolic products needed for enhanced oil recovery. In this study, experiments have been performed with a strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. The experiments focused on salinity adaptation, gas production and the ability of microbes to modify rock properties. The result of the experiments showed...... that the strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum adapted to 10, 30, 50, and 90 g/l before the start of the experiments produce more gas with an increase factor of between 0.39-6.9 for the same salinity condition than the pure culture. The adaptation process also led to the production of a strain 90F which can grow...

  11. Essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. and its main components used as transdermal penetration enhancers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yi; Li, Hui; Chen, Yan-yan; Zhang, Ye-wen; Liu, Na; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Our previous studies had confirmed that the essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Z. bungeanum oil) could effectively enhance the percutaneous permeation of drug molecules as a natural transdermal penetration enhancer. The aim of the present study is to investigate and compare the skin penetration enhancement effect of Z. bungeanum oil and its main components on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) active components. Toxicities of Z. bungeanum oil and three selected terpene compounds (terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) in epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) and dermal fibroblast (CCC-ESF-1) cell lines were measured using an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Five model drugs in TCM external preparations, namely osthole (OT), tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), ferulic acid (FA), puerarin (PR), and geniposide (GP), which were selected based on their lipophilicity denoted by logKo/w, were tested using in vitro permeation studies in which vertical Franz diffusion cells and rat abdominal skin were employed. The secondary structure changes of skin stratum corneum (SC) and drug thermodynamic activities were investigated to understand their mechanisms of action using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and saturation solubility studies, respectively. It was found that Z. bungeanum oil showed lower toxicities in both HaCaT cells and CCC-ESF-1 cells compared with three terpene compounds used alone. The enhancement permeation capacities by all tested agents were in the following increasing order: terpinen-4-ol≈1,8-cineoleoil. The mechanisms of permeation enhancement suggested that these enhancers promoted the skin permeation of drugs mainly by affecting SC lipids. These results indicated that Z. bungeanum oil exhibited better performance in enhancing the skin permeation of active components in TCM preparations.

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of yellow organic dyestuffs and lake pigments in oil paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E; Fabian, David M; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2013-08-21

    Identifying natural, organic dyes and pigments is important for the conservation, preservation, and historical interpretation of works of art. Although previous SERS studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity for red lake pigments using various pretreatment conditions, corresponding investigations of yellow lake pigments and paints are relatively sparse. Here, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is used to identify a variety of yellow organic dyestuffs and lake pigments in oil paint. High-quality SERS spectra of yellow dyestuffs (i.e., turmeric, old fustic, Buckthorn berries) and corresponding paints could be obtained with or without sample pretreatment using microliter quantities of HCl and methanol at room temperature. However, the SERS spectra of yellow lake pigments (i.e., Stil de Grain, Reseda lake) and their corresponding oil paints were only observed upon sample pretreatment. Ultimately, we demonstrate a reliable sample treatment protocol for SERS-based identification of turmeric, old fustic, Buckthorn berries, Stil de Grain, and Reseda lake as well as for microscopic samples of the corresponding oil paints.

  13. Numerical investigation of complex flooding schemes for surfactant polymer based enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Daripa, Prabir

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant-polymer flooding is a widely used method of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in which an array of complex fluids containing suitable and varying amounts of surfactant or polymer or both mixed with water is injected into the reservoir. This is an example of multiphase, multicomponent and multiphysics porous media flow which is characterized by the spontaneous formation of complex viscous fingering patterns and is modeled by a system of strongly coupled nonlinear partial differential equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Here we propose and discuss a modern, hybrid method based on a combination of a discontinuous, multiscale finite element formulation and the method of characteristics to accurately solve the system. Several types of flooding schemes and rheological properties of the injected fluids are used to numerically study the effectiveness of various injection policies in minimizing the viscous fingering and maximizing oil recovery. Numerical simulations are also performed to investigate the effect of various other physical and model parameters such as heterogeneity, relative permeability and residual saturation on the quantities of interest like cumulative oil recovery, sweep efficiency, fingering intensity to name a few. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  14. Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (Ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, A; Sudharto, P S; Purba, R Y

    2005-01-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents.

  15. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM. Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7–9 weeks old were force-fed daily with 6.0 μL/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n=6 or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control (CO group; n=6 for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME in the NSO-treated group.

  16. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahak, Mohamad Khairul Azali; Mohamed, Abdul Majid; Hashim, Noor Hashida; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP) of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM). Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks old) were force-fed daily with 6.0  μ L/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n = 6) or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control) (CO group; n = 6) for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME) in the NSO-treated group.

  17. Three approaches for estimating recovery factors in carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    PrefaceThe Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested the USGS to estimate the “potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations” (42 U.S.C. 17271(b)(4)). Geologic CO2 sequestration associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2 in existing hydrocarbon reservoirs has the potential to increase the U.S. hydrocarbon recoverable resource. The objective of this report is to provide detailed information on three approaches that can be used to calculate the incremental recovery factors for CO2-EOR. Therefore, the contents of this report could form an integral part of an assessment methodology that can be used to assess the sedimentary basins of the United States for the hydrocarbon recovery potential using CO2-EOR methods in conventional oil reservoirs.

  18. Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of δ-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells.

  19. Study of Synthesis Polyethylene glycol oleate Sulfonated as an Anionic Surfactant for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampora, Yulianti; Juwono, Ariadne L.; Haryono, Agus; Irawan, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) through chemical injection is using an anionic surfactant to improve the recovery of oil residues, particularly in a reservoir area that has certain characteristics. This case led the authors to conduct research on the synthesis of an anionic surfactant based on oleic acid and polyethylene glycol 400 that could be applied as a chemical injection. In this work, we investigate the sulfonation of Polyethylene glycol oleate (PDO) in a sulfuric acid agent. PDO in this experiment was derived from Indonesian palm oil. Variation of mole reactant and reaction time have been studied. The surfactant has been characterized by measuring the interfacial tension, acid value, ester value, saponification value, iodine value, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and particle size analyzer. There is a new peak at 1170-1178 cm-1 indicating that S=O bond has formed. PDO sulfonate exhibits good surface activity due to interfacial tension of 0,003 mN/m. Thus, polyethylene glycol oleate sulfonate was successfully synthesized and it could be useful as a novel an anionic surfactant.

  20. Fine Formation During Brine-Crude Oil-Calcite Interaction in Smart Water Enhanced Oil Recovery for Caspian Carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Modified sea water has been shown to affect the oil recovery fraction considerably during secondary and tertiary waterfloods. Available soluble potential ions (i.e. Ca2+, Mg2+ & SO42-) in the interacting waterflood (ITW) are suggested to play a key role in increasing the displacement efficiency...... of oil. In previous studies, compositions of injected waterfloods (IJW) have been correlated to the observed oil recovery. This study highlights differences between IJW and ITW for different studies reported in literature....

  1. Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery by Sequential Injection of Light Hydrocarbon and Nitrate in Low- And High-Pressure Bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Stanislav, Paul; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) often involves injection of aqueous molasses and nitrate to stimulate resident or introduced bacteria. Use of light oil components like toluene, as electron donor for nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), offers advantages but at 1-2 mM toluene is limiting in many heavy oils. Because addition of toluene to the oil increased reduction of nitrate by NRB, we propose an MEOR technology, in which water amended with light hydrocarbon below the solubility limit (5.6 mM for toluene) is injected to improve the nitrate reduction capacity of the oil along the water flow path, followed by injection of nitrate, other nutrients (e.g., phosphate) and a consortium of NRB, if necessary. Hydrocarbon- and nitrate-mediated MEOR was tested in low- and high-pressure, water-wet sandpack bioreactors with 0.5 pore volumes of residual oil in place (ROIP). Compared to control bioreactors, those with 11-12 mM of toluene in the oil (gained by direct addition or by aqueous injection) and 80 mM of nitrate in the aqueous phase produced 16.5 ± 4.4% of additional ROIP (N = 10). Because toluene is a cheap commodity chemical, HN-MEOR has the potential to be a cost-effective method for additional oil production even in the current low oil price environment.

  2. Enhancement of absorption and bioavailability of echinacoside by verapamil or clove oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen JY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Yang Shen,1,* Xiao-Lin Yang,2,* Zhong-Lin Yang,1 Jun-Ping Kou,1 Fei Li11State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Biological Marine Resources Research and Development of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This present study investigated the absorption kinetics of echinacoside (ECH in situ and in vitro and its oral bioavailability in rats. Additional aim was to find an agent(s to promote ECH absorption and oral bioavailability among two efflux proteins and three absorption promoters.Methods: ECH absorption behaviors were investigated by everted gut sac model in vitro and single-pass intestinal perfusion model in situ. Pharmacokinetics study was performed to investigate the influences of verapamil and clove oil on ECH bioavailability in vivo. All samples were measured at different time intervals by high performance liquid chromatography.Results: The results showed that the effective permeability coefficient (Peff and apparent permeability coefficient of ECH were 0.83×10-6–3.23×10-6 cm/s and 2.99×10-6–9.86×10-6 cm/s, respectively. The Peff among duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were not statistically different, but they were higher than colon (P<0.01, which demonstrated that intestinal ECH absorption was poor and site dependent. Additionally, verapamil and clove oil significantly increased the jejunal Peff of ECH both in situ and in vitro. Moreover, the bioavailability of ECH in combination with verapamil and clove oil were increased by 1.37-fold (P<0.05 and 2.36-fold (P<0.001, respectively, when compared to ECH group. Overall, verapamil and clove oil facilitated ECH absorption and oral bioavailability.Conclusion: The absorption and bioavailability of ECH were enhanced by verapamil and clove oil, respectively, both in vitro and in vivo. Consequently

  3. Importance of fines in smart water enhanced oil recovery (SmW-EOR) for chalk outcrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    In SmW-EOR it is generally believed that precipitation of brines must be avoided since it can have a negative impact on the SmW sweep efficiency. But substitution of Mg2+ by Ca2+ on calcite surfaces (a well-accepted phenomenon) can change the brine combination and enhance the possibility of fine ......W-EOR experiments reported in literature. Both the amount of available soluble SO4 2- (aq) in the solution and the amount of CaSO4 precipitation has been calculated and correlated to the corresponding oil recovery.......In SmW-EOR it is generally believed that precipitation of brines must be avoided since it can have a negative impact on the SmW sweep efficiency. But substitution of Mg2+ by Ca2+ on calcite surfaces (a well-accepted phenomenon) can change the brine combination and enhance the possibility of fine...

  4. Maximization of wave motion within a hydrocarbon reservoir for wave-based enhanced oil recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C.

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We discuss a systematic methodology for investigating the feasibility of mobilizing oil droplets trapped within the pore space of a target reservoir region by optimally directing wave energy to the region of interest. The motivation stems from field and laboratory observations, which have provided sufficient evidence suggesting that wave-based reservoir stimulation could lead to economically viable oil recovery.Using controlled active surface wave sources, we first describe the mathematical framework necessary for identifying optimal wave source signals that can maximize a desired motion metric (kinetic energy, particle acceleration, etc.) at the target region of interest. We use the apparatus of partial-differential-equation (PDE)-constrained optimization to formulate the associated inverse-source problem, and deploy state-of-the-art numerical wave simulation tools to resolve numerically the associated discrete inverse problem.Numerical experiments with a synthetic subsurface model featuring a shallow reservoir show that the optimizer converges to wave source signals capable of maximizing the motion within the reservoir. The spectra of the wave sources are dominated by the amplification frequencies of the formation. We also show that wave energy could be focused within the target reservoir area, while simultaneously minimizing the disturbance to neighboring formations - a concept that can also be exploited in fracking operations.Lastly, we compare the results of our numerical experiments conducted at the reservoir scale, with results obtained from semi-analytical studies at the granular level, to conclude that, in the case of shallow targets, the optimized wave sources are likely to mobilize trapped oil droplets, and thus enhance oil recovery.

  5. Separation kinetics of an oil-in-water emulsion under enhanced gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The breakup of crude oil emulsions to produce clean oil and water phases is an important task in crude oil processing. We have investigated the demulsification kinetics of a model oil-in-water emulsion in a centrifugal field to mimic the forces acting on emulsion droplets in oil/water separators

  6. Nanofluid of graphene-based amphiphilic Janus nanosheets for tertiary or enhanced oil recovery: High performance at low concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Jingyi; Cao, Feng; Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiaogang; Willson, Richard C; Yang, Zhaozhong; Chu, Ching-Wu; Ren, Zhifeng

    2016-07-12

    The current simple nanofluid flooding method for tertiary or enhanced oil recovery is inefficient, especially when used with low nanoparticle concentration. We have designed and produced a nanofluid of graphene-based amphiphilic nanosheets that is very effective at low concentration. Our nanosheets spontaneously approached the oil-water interface and reduced the interfacial tension in a saline environment (4 wt % NaCl and 1 wt % CaCl2), regardless of the solid surface wettability. A climbing film appeared and grew at moderate hydrodynamic condition to encapsulate the oil phase. With strong hydrodynamic power input, a solid-like interfacial film formed and was able to return to its original form even after being seriously disturbed. The film rapidly separated oil and water phases for slug-like oil displacement. The unique behavior of our nanosheet nanofluid tripled the best performance of conventional nanofluid flooding methods under similar conditions.

  7. Potentials of enhancing the physicochemical and functional characteristics of Nigella sativa oil by using the screw pressing technique for extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, S.F.; Shaaban, H.A.; Ramadan, A.A.; Edris, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    In the current investigation the crude oil of Nigella sativa was extracted from seeds using hydraulic and screw pressing techniques. Different parameters were evaluated in order to find out the appropriate technique to enhance the physicochemical and functional-related characteristics of the extracted crude oil. Results showed that the acid and peroxide values were significantly lower in the screw pressed oil (SPO) than in the hydraulic pressed oil (HPO). The total phenolic content of the SPO was significantly higher than that of HPO. Evaluation of the oxidative stability using the Rancimat test showed that SPO recorded a much higher oxidative stability index (40.07 h) than HPO (0.51 h). The yield of the volatile oil fraction and its contents of thymoquinone isolated from the SPO were higher than that from the HPO. Biological evaluation revealed that the SPO had significantly higher antimicrobial activity than HPO against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus at 40 μL/well. [es

  8. Optimizing geologic CO2 sequestration by injection in deep saline formations below oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Weon Shik; McPherson, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present a best-case paradigm for geologic CO 2 storage: CO 2 injection and sequestration in saline formations below oil reservoirs. This includes the saline-only section below the oil-water contact (OWC) in oil reservoirs, a storage target neglected in many current storage capacity assessments. This also includes saline aquifers (high porosity and permeability formations) immediately below oil-bearing formations. While this is a very specific injection target, we contend that most, if not all, oil-bearing basins in the US contain a great volume of such strata, and represent a rather large CO 2 storage capacity option. We hypothesize that these are the best storage targets in those basins. The purpose of this research is to evaluate this hypothesis. We quantitatively compared CO 2 behavior in oil reservoirs and brine formations by examining the thermophysical properties of CO 2 , CO 2 -brine, and CO 2 -oil in various pressure, temperature, and salinity conditions. In addition, we compared the distribution of gravity number (N), which characterizes a tendency towards buoyancy-driven CO 2 migration, and mobility ratio (M), which characterizes the impeded CO 2 migration, in oil reservoirs and brine formations. Our research suggests competing advantages and disadvantages of CO 2 injection in oil reservoirs vs. brine formations: (1) CO 2 solubility in oil is significantly greater than in brine (over 30 times); (2) the tendency of buoyancy-driven CO 2 migration is smaller in oil reservoirs because density contrast between oil and CO 2 is smaller than it between brine and oil (the approximate density contrast between CO 2 and crude oil is ∼100 kg/m 3 and between CO 2 and brine is ∼350 kg/m 3 ); (3) the increased density of oil and brine due to the CO 2 dissolution is not significant (about 7-15 kg/m 3 ); (4) the viscosity reduction of oil due to CO 2 dissolution is significant (from 5790 to 98 mPa s). We compared these competing

  9. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar

    2010-01-01

    Research and development in the field of biodiesel showed that fatty acid methyl esters synthesized from agriculture or animal oils and fats, which exhibit qualifying properties, can replace diesel fuel used in internal combustion engine. However, the industry had some downfall recently with the fluctuating prices of edible oils and increasing demand for nutritional needs. Crude rubber seed oil (CRSO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used in this study since both can be extracted and produced locally in Malaysia from their abundant plantations. The benefits of introducing such blend are that CRSO is considered a non-edible feedstock with no major industrial utilizations that has the potential to reduce the usage of CPO in biodiesel industry and was found to enhance the cold flow characteristics when blended with CPO by reducing the saturated fatty acids in the feedstock. The oils and blends were characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, acid value, free fatty acid content, refractive index, mono-, di- and triglycerides and sulphur content. Fatty acids composition and iodine value were established for an equivolume blend of the oils.

  10. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Research and development in the field of biodiesel showed that fatty acid methyl esters synthesized from agriculture or animal oils and fats, which exhibit qualifying properties, can replace diesel fuel used in internal combustion engine. However, the industry had some downfall recently with the fluctuating prices of edible oils and increasing demand for nutritional needs. Crude rubber seed oil (CRSO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used in this study since both can be extracted and produced locally in Malaysia from their abundant plantations. The benefits of introducing such blend are that CRSO is considered a non-edible feedstock with no major industrial utilizations that has the potential to reduce the usage of CPO in biodiesel industry and was found to enhance the cold flow characteristics when blended with CPO by reducing the saturated fatty acids in the feedstock. The oils and blends were characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, acid value, free fatty acid content, refractive index, mono-, di- and triglycerides and sulphur content. Fatty acids composition and iodine value were established for an equivolume blend of the oils. (author)

  11. MEOR (microbial enhanced oil recovery) data base and evaluation of reservoir characteristics for MEOR projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.S.

    1989-09-01

    One aspect of NIPER's microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) research program has been focused on obtaining all available information regarding the use of microorganisms in enhanced oil recovery field projects. The data have been evaluated in order to construct a data base of MEOR field projects. The data base has been used in this report to present a list of revised reservoir screening criteria for MEOR field processes. This list is by no means complete; however, until more information is available from ongoing field tests, it represents the best available data to date. The data base has been studied in this report in order to determine any significant reports from MEOR field projects where the microbial treatment was unsuccessful. Such information could indicate limitations of MEOR processes. The types of reservoir information sought from these projects that could be limitations of microorganisms include reservoir permeability, salinity, temperature, and high concentrations of minerals in the rock such as selenium, arsenic, or mercury. Unfortunately, most of the MEOR field projects to date have not reported this type of information; thus we still cannot assess field limitations until more projects report these data. 7 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  12. Impact of CO_2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO_2 Leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliver, Djuna M.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2016-01-01

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO_2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO_2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO_2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO_2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO_2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO_2 concentration and will create CO_2 concentration gradients that drive changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO_2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO_2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO_2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO_2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO_2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO_2 injection/leakage plume where CO_2 concentrations are highest. At CO_2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO_2 plume, selected microorganisms emerged as dominant in the CO_2 exposed conditions. Results suggest that the altered microbial community was site specific and highly dependent on pH. The site

  13. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T B [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States); Colonomos, P [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-02-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. The fifth international conference on microbial enhanced oil recovery and related biotechnology for solving environmental problems: 1995 Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This volume contains 41 papers covering the following topics: field trials of microbial enhanced recovery of oil; control and treatment of sour crudes and natural gas with microorganisms; bioremediation of hydrocarbon contamination in soils; microbial plugging processes; microbial waste water treatment; the use of microorganisms as biological indicators of oils; and characterization and behavior of microbial systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. A coconut oil-rich meal does not enhance thermogenesis compared to corn oil in a randomized trial in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarrie, Janna; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in overweight adults increases thermogenesis and improves weight management. Coconut oil is a rich natural source of MCT, but its thermogenic effect is unknown. Our study evaluated the effects of a test oil enriched in coconut oil, on energy expenditure, satiety, and metabolic markers in a randomized, double blind, cross-over study. Fifteen children, age 13-18 years, body mass index >85th percentile for age and sex, were enrolled. Two test meals, containing 20 g of fat from either corn oil or a coconut oil-enriched baking fat (1.1 g of fatty acids with chain lengths ≤ 10C), were administered. A fasting blood sample was taken before breakfast and at 30, 45, 60, 120, and 180 min post-meal for measurement of metabolites. Thermic effect of food (TEF) was assessed over 6 h using indirect calorimetry. Satiety was measured using visual analog scales (VAS). There was no significant effect of fat type, time, or fat type × time interaction on TEF, appetite/satiety, glucose, and insulin area under the curve. There was a significant effect of fat type on leptin (P=0.027), triglycerides (P=0.020) and peptide YY (P=0.0085); leptin and triglyceride concentrations were lower and peptide YY concentrations were higher with corn oil consumption. A coconut oil-enriched baking fat does not enhance thermogenesis and satiety in children. Given that this is the only current study of its kind, more research is needed into the use of coconut oil as a tool in weight management in overweight and obese children.

  16. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, July--September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The report contains a general introduction and background to DOE's revised National Energy Strategy Advanced Oil Recovery Program and activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; a detailed synopsis of the symposium, including technical presentations, comments and suggestions; a section of technical information on deltaic reservoirs; and appendices containing a comprehensive listing of references keyed to general deltaic and geological aspects of reservoirs and those relevant to six selected deltaic plays. Enhanced recovery processes include chemical floodings, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, and microbial recovery.

  17. Elucidation of penetration enhancement mechanism of Emu oil using FTIR microspectroscopy at EMIRA laboratory of SESAME synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Randa S. H.; Sallam, Alsayed A.; Hamdan, Imad I.; Khalil, Enam A.; Yousef, Ibraheem

    2017-10-01

    It has been proposed that Emu oil possesses skin permeation-enhancing effect. This study aimed to address its possible penetration enhancement mechanism(s) using IR microscopy, in accordance with LPP theory. The penetration of Emu oil through the layers of human skin was accomplished by monitoring oil-IR characteristic feature at 3006 cm- 1. The unsaturated components of Emu oil accumulated at about 270 μm depth of skin surface. The interaction of Emu oil with lipid and protein constituents of SC was investigated in comparison with a commonly used enhancer, IPM. Inter-sample spectral differences were identified using PCA and linked with possible enhancement mechanisms. Emu oil treatment caused a change in the slope of the right contour of amide I band of the protein spectral range. This was also clear in the second derivative spectra where the emergence of a new shoulder at higher frequency was evident, suggesting disorganization of keratin α-helix structure. This effect could be a result of disruption of some hydrogen bonds in which amide Cdbnd O and Nsbnd H groups of keratin are involved. The low intensity of the emerged shoulder is also in agreement with formation of weaker hydrogen bonds. IPM did not affect the protein component. No conclusions regarding the effect of penetration enhancers on the SC lipids were obtained. This was due to the overlap of the endogenous (skin) and exogenous (oil) CH stretching and scissoring frequencies. The SC carbonyl stretching peak disappeared as a result of IPM treatment which may reflect some degree of lipid extraction.

  18. EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA News Release: EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources

  19. Simulation study of huff-n-puff air injection for enhanced oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first attempt to evaluate huff-n-puff air injection in a shale oil reservoir using a simulation approach. Recovery mechanisms and physical processes of huff-n-puff air injection in a shale oil reservoir are investigated through investigating production performance, thermal behavior, reservoir pressure and fluid saturation features. Air flooding is used as the basic case for a comparative study. The simulation study suggests that thermal drive is the main recovery mechanism for huff-n-puff air injection in the shale oil reservoir, but not for simple air flooding. The synergic recovery mechanism of air flooding in conventional light oil reservoirs can be replicated in shale oil reservoirs by using air huff-n-puff injection strategy. Reducing huff-n-puff time is better for performing the synergic recovery mechanism of air injection. O2 diffusion plays an important role in huff-n-puff air injection in shale oil reservoirs. Pressure transmissibility as well as reservoir pressure maintenance ability in huff-n-puff air injection is more pronounced than the simple air flooding after primary depletion stage. No obvious gas override is exhibited in both air flooding and air huff-n-puff injection scenarios in shale reservoirs. Huff-n-puff air injection has great potential to develop shale oil reservoirs. The results from this work may stimulate further investigations.

  20. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  1. Study of wettability of calcite surfaces using oil-brine-enzyme systems for enhanced oil recovery applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Pedersen, Hanne Høst

    2015-01-01

    and adhesion behaviour tests. Comparative studies with a surfactant, protein, purified enzyme, enzyme stabiliser using n-decane (as a model for the oil) have also been carried out in order to verify experimental results. The enzymes that have the highest effect on the wettability have been identified. Those...... action has been found to be replacement of oil at the solid surface by the enzyme. Other mechanisms (modification of the surface tension or catalytic modification of hydrocarbons resulting in reducing the oil viscosity) have shown to be much less pronounced from the measurements reported here....

  2. Production of lipopeptide biosurfactants by Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a and their potential use in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhui; Xue, Quanhong; Gao, Hui; Lai, Hangxian; Wang, Ping

    2016-10-03

    Lipopeptides are known as promising microbial surfactants and have been successfully used in enhancing oil recovery in extreme environmental conditions. A biosurfactant-producing strain, Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a, was recently isolated from an oil-contaminated soil in the Ansai oilfield, Northwest China. In this study, we evaluated the crude oil removal efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by B. atrophaeus 5-2a and their feasibility for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The production of biosurfactants by B. atrophaeus 5-2a was tested in culture media containing eight carbon sources and nitrogen sources. The production of a crude biosurfactant was 0.77 g L -1 and its surface tension was 26.52 ± 0.057 mN m -1 in a basal medium containing brown sugar (carbon source) and urea (nitrogen source). The biosurfactants produced by the strain 5-2a demonstrated excellent oil spreading activity and created a stable emulsion with paraffin oil. The stability of the biosurfactants was assessed under a wide range of environmental conditions, including temperature (up to 120 °C), pH (2-13), and salinity (0-50 %, w/v). The biosurfactants were found to retain surface-active properties under the extreme conditions. Additionally, the biosurfactants were successful in a test to simulate microbial enhanced oil recovery, removing 90.0 and 93.9 % of crude oil adsorbed on sand and filter paper, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the biosurfactants were a mixture of lipopeptides, which are powerful biosurfactants commonly produced by Bacillus species. The study highlights the usefulness of optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and their effects on the biosurfactants production and further emphasizes on the potential of lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by B. atrophaeus 5-2a for crude oil removal. The favorable properties of the lipopeptide biosurfactants make them good candidates for application in the bioremediation of oil

  3. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  4. Improved Characterization and Modeling of Tight Oil Formations for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Potential and Storage Capacity Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, James [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Smith, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Kurz, Bethany [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Hawthorne, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Jin, Lu [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Bosshart, Nicholas [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Torres, Jose [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Nyberg, Carolyn [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Heebink, Loreal [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Hurley, John [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)

    2018-03-09

    Tight oil formations such as those in the Bakken petroleum system are known to hold hundreds of billions of barrels of oil in place; however, the primary recovery factor for these plays is typically less than 10%. Tight oil formations, including the Bakken Formation, therefore, may be attractive candidates for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2. Multiphase fluid behavior and flow in fluid-rich shales can vary substantially depending on the size of pore throats, and properties such as fluid viscosity and density are much different in nanoscale pores than in macroscale pores. Thus it is critical to understand the nature and distribution of nano-, micro-, and macroscale pores and fracture networks. To address these issues, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been conducting a research program entitled “Improved Characterization and Modeling of Tight Oil Formations for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Potential and Storage Capacity Estimation.” The objectives of the project are 1) the use of advanced characterization methods to better understand and quantify the petrophysical and geomechanical factors that control CO2 and oil mobility within tight oil formation samples, 2) the determination of CO2 permeation and oil extraction rates in tight reservoir rocks and organic-rich shales of the Bakken, and 3) the integration of the laboratory-based CO2 permeation and oil extraction data and the characterization data into geologic models and dynamic simulations to develop predictions of CO2 storage resource and EOR in the Bakken tight oil formation. A combination of standard and advanced petrophysical characterization techniques were applied to characterize samples of Bakken Formation tight reservoir rock and shales from multiple wells. Techniques included advanced computer tomography (CT) imaging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, whole-core and micro x-ray CT imaging, field

  5. Synthesis of dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate and its application in enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhenggang; Wu, Le; Sun, Mingming; Jiang, Jian-zhong; Wang, Feng [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Chemical and Material Engineering

    2011-09-15

    A new hydrophobic surfactant, dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate (DLBS), was synthesized and its application in enhanced oil recovery by alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding was studied. The results show that DLBS can be synthesized by reaction of industrial dodecyl benzene with lauroyl chloride in the presence of AlCl{sub 3}, followed by sulfonation with ClSO{sub 3}H and neutralization with NaOH. The lauroyl-group is confirmed to be connected to the para-position of the alkylbenzene by1HNMR spectrum. The synthesized DLBS is well soluble in pure water and reservoir (connate) water at 45 C. It is highly surface active which is indicated by its low CMC of 1.1 . 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its low surface tension, {gamma}{sub cmc} of 28.6 mN m{sup -1}. By mixing with heavy alkylbenzene sulfonates of relatively low average molar mass (387g mol{sup -1}) at a total surfactant concentration of 5 mM, DLBS can reduce the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water to an order of 10{sup -3} mN/m at 45 C in the presence of 0.5-1.0 wt.% NaOH and 1000 mg L{sup -1} of polymer. If the NaOH was replaced by a gentle alkaline salt, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, certain amounts of dodecyl dimethyl carboxy betaine were added and the concentration of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was increased to 1.2-2.0 wt.%, the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water can also be reduced to an ultralow value. Therefore DLBS is a good hydrophobic surfactant applicable in ASP flooding with either NaOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as alkaline agents. (orig.)

  6. Optimization of rhamnolipid production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBS towards application for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajni; Singh, Jagdish; Verma, Neelam

    2018-01-01

    The present work reveals the potential of biosurfactant producing P. aeruginosa PBS for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The biosurfactant production medium and culture conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimization of media components and process parameters was consecutively executed in two sets of experimental runs designed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The maximum biosurfactant yield was attained with 2% fresh inoculum of P. aeruginosa PBS in minimal salt medium (pH 7), possessing 2.17% sodium citrate as C-source and 0.5% yeast extract as N-source, after 48 h upon incubation at 30 °C/150 rpm. Under optimum conditions, biosurfactant yield was increased more than threefold and turned out to be 2.65 g/L as compared to 0.82 g/L under previous conditions. The biosurfactant was characterized as a glycolipid comprising of four rhamnolipid homologs (RhaRhaC 10 C 10 , RhaRhaC 8 C 10 , RhaRhaC 12 C 10 /RhaRhaC 10 C 12 , RhaC 10 C 10 ) by thin layer chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The produced biosurfactant was highly efficient for oil recovery application showing extreme reduction in surface tension of medium (71.80 to 23.76 mN/m), immense hydrocarbons emulsification capacity (50-60%) and greater stability at wide range of temperature (4-100 °C) and pH (4-10) along with an excellent (56.18 ± 1.59%) additional oil recovery in sand-pack column lab test.

  7. Adsorption of surfactants on sand surface in enhanced oil recovery: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Achinta; Kumar, T.; Ojha, Keka; Mandal, Ajay, E-mail: mandal_ajay@hotmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Adsorption of surfactants onto reservoir rock surface may result in the loss and reduction of their concentrations in surfactant flooding, which may render them less efficient or ineffective in practical applications of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Surfactant flooding for EOR received attraction due to its ability to increase the displacement efficiency by lowering the interfacial tension between oil and water and mobilizing the residual oil. This article highlights the adsorption of surfactants onto sand surface with variation of different influencing factors. It has been experimentally found that adsorption of cationic surfactant on sand surface is more and less for anionic surfactant, while non-ionic surfactant shows intermediate behaviour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of clean sand particles has been made to determine the main component present in the sand particles. The interaction between sand particles and surfactant has been studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the sand particles before and after aging with surfactant. Salinity plays an important role in adsorption of anionic surfactant. Batch experiments were also performed to understand the effects of pH and adsorbent dose on the sorption efficiency. The sand particles exhibited high adsorption efficiency at low pH for anionic and nonionic surfactants. But opposite trend was found for cationic surfactant. Adsorption data were analyzed by fitting with Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Sips isotherm models. Results show that the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics models suit the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption on sand surface. Thermodynamics feasibility of the adsorption process was also studied to verify the spontaneity of the process.

  8. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis TT42 Having Potential for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Harish; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus licheniformis TT42 produced a low-molecular weight anionic biosurfactant that reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m and the interfacial tension from 12 to 0.05 mN/m against crude oil. We have earlier reported significant enhancement in oil recovery in laboratory sand pack columns and core flood studies, by biosurfactant-TT42 compared to standard strain, Bacillus mojavensis JF2. In the context of this application of the biosurfactant-TT42, its characterization was deemed important. In the preliminary studies, the biosurfactant-TT42 was found to be functionally stable at under conditions of temperature, pH, and salinity generally prevalent in oil reservoirs. Furthermore, the purified biosurfactant-TT42 was found to have a CMC of 22 mg/l. A newly developed activity staining TLC method was used for the purification of biosurfactant-TT42. Structural characterization of biosurfactant-TT42 using TLC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), GC-MS, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF suggested that it was a mixture of lipopeptide species, all having a common hydrophilic cyclic heptapeptide head with the sequence, Gln-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu-Val-Asp-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu linked to hydrophobic tails of different lengths of 3β-OH-fatty acids bearing 1043, 1057 and 1071 Da molecular weight, where 3β-OH-C19 fatty acid was predominant. This is the longest chain length of fatty acids reported in a lipopeptide.

  9. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities

  10. Enhancement of Engine Oil Wear and Friction Control Performance Through Titanium Additive Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevremont, J.; Guinther, G.; Szemenyei, D.; Devlin, M.; Jao, T.; Jaye, C.; Woicik, J.; Fischer, D.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, wear protection and friction modification by engine oil is provided by zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) or other phosphorus compounds. These additives provide effective wear protection and friction control on engine parts through formation of a glassy polyphosphate antiwear film. However, the deposition of phosphorus species on automotive catalytic converters from lubricants has been known for some time to have a detrimental effect of poisoning the catalysts. To mitigate the situation, the industry has been making every effort to find ZDDP-replacement additives that are friendly to catalysts. Toward this goal we have investigated a titanium additive chemistry as a ZDDP replacement. Fully formulated engine oils incorporating this additive component have been found to be effective in reducing wear and controlling friction in a high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR), 4-ball bench wear, Sequence IIIG, and Sequence IVA engine tests. Surface analysis of the tested parts by Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have shown that Ti species have been incorporated into the wear tracks and can only be found on the wear tracks. We used synchrotron based near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) to investigate the chemical bonding mechanism of the Ti additive with the metal surface that affects the wear improvement mechanism. We postulate that Ti provides antiwear enhancement through inclusion in the metal/metal oxide structure of the ferrous surface by forming FeTiO3.

  11. Identification of bacteria used for microbial enhanced oil recovery process by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, K.; Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, M. [Kansai Research Institute, Kyoto (Japan). Lifescience Lab.; Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed for rapid detection of microorganisms for use in the microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR) process. Two microorganisms, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322 and Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, were selected from a collection of Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. which were screened in previous studies as candidate microorganisms for injection, and were used for this experiment. Oligonucleotide probes, design based on specific sequences in the 16S rRNA gene were labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), or 6-car-boxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), and were allowed to hybridize with fixed cells of the two microorganisms noted above. The fluorescence signal emitted from each microorganism cells could clearly be detected by an epifluorescence microscope. Moreover, E. cloacae TRC-322 and B, licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, suspended in actual reservoir brine, including inorganic salts, oil and aboriginal cells of the reservoir brine, could be detected directly by this hybridization method, without the need for cultivation and isolation. (author)

  12. Application of decline curve analysis to estimate recovery factors for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahediesfanjani, Hossein

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionIn the decline curve analysis (DCA) method of estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes, the analyst uses historical production data from a well, lease, group of wells (or pattern), or reservoir and plots production rates against time or cumu­lative production for the analysis. The DCA of an individual well is founded on the same basis as the fluid-flow principles that are used for pressure-transient analysis of a single well in a reservoir domain and therefore can provide scientifically reasonable and accurate results. However, when used for a group of wells, a lease, or a reservoir, the DCA becomes more of an empirical method. Plots from the DCA reflect the reservoir response to the oil withdrawal (or production) under the prevailing operating and reservoir conditions, and they continue to be good tools for estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes and future production rates. For predicting the total recov­erable hydrocarbon volume, the DCA results can help the analyst to evaluate the reservoir performance under any of the three phases of reservoir productive life—primary, secondary (waterflood), or tertiary (enhanced oil recovery) phases—so long as the historical production data are sufficient to establish decline trends at the end of the three phases.

  13. Control of waste well casing vent gas from a thermal enhanced oil recovery operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peavy, M.A.; Braun, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a waste gas treatment system designed to control emissions from thermally enhanced oil recovery wells. This case study discusses the need, design, installation and operations of the system. Oryx Energy Company (Oryx) operates approximately 940 wells in the Midway-Sunset (MWSS) field under casing vapor recovery systems. The emissions collected from well casing vent gas cotaining hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide that are collected and processed through casing vapor recovery skids. These skids are composed of condensers, compressors, and pumps that separate fluids from the waste gas stream. The non-condensible gas is then disposed of in incinerators that reduce the hydrocarbon and sulfur emissions into the atmosphere. Approximately 91,000 lbs/day of hydrocarbon and 10,116 lbs/day of sulfur dioxide are removed from the atmosphere from wells contained within these systems operated by Oryx. These hydrocarbons yield approximately 550 barrels of oil per day (BOPD). The system helps manage the pressure differential from the reservoir into each wellbore and contributes to improved ambient air quality in Kern County, California

  14. Production and characterisation of glycolipid biosurfactant by Halomonas sp. MB-30 for potential application in enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasayan, Asha; Kiran, G Seghal; Selvin, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Biosurfactant-producing Halomonas sp. MB-30 was isolated from a marine sponge Callyspongia diffusa, and its potency in crude oil recovery from sand pack column was investigated. The biosurfactant produced by the strain MB-30 reduced the surface tension to 30 mN m(-1) in both glucose and hydrocarbon-supplemented minimal media. The critical micelle concentration of biosurfactant obtained from glucose-based medium was at 0.25 mg ml(-1) at critical micelle dilution 1:10. The chemical structure of glycolipid biosurfactant was characterised by infrared spectroscopy and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The emulsification activity of MB-30 biosurfactant was tested with different hydrocarbons, and 93.1 % emulsification activity was exhibited with crude oil followed by kerosene (86.6 %). The formed emulsion was stable for up to 1 month. To identify the effectiveness of biosurfactant for enhanced oil recovery in extreme environments, the interactive effect of pH, temperature and salinity on emulsion stability with crude oil and kerosene was evaluated. The stable emulsion was formed at and above pH 7, temperature >80 °C and NaCl concentration up to 10 % in response surface central composite orthogonal design model. The partially purified biosurfactant recovered 62 % of residual crude oil from sand pack column. Thus, the stable emulsifying biosurfactant produced by Halomonas sp. MB-30 could be used for in situ biosurfactant-mediated enhanced oil recovery process and hydrocarbon bioremediation in extreme environments.

  15. Experimental studies on the enhanced performance of lightweight oil recovery using a combined electrocoagulation and magnetic field processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Jie; Jiang, Wenming; Chen, Yimei; Yang, Chaojiang; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yuxing

    2018-08-01

    On marine oil spill, inflammable lightweight oil has characteristics of explosion risk and contamination of marine enviroment, therefore treatment of stable emulsion with micron oil droplets is urgent. This study aimed to propose a combined electrocoagulation and magnetic field processes to enhance performance of lightweight oil recovery with lower energy consumption. The effects of current density, electrolysis time, strength and direction of magnetic field on the overall treatment efficiency of the reactor were explored. Furthermore, the comparison between coupling device and only electrocoagulation through tracking oil removal in nine regions between the electrodes. The results were shown that the permanent magnets applied was found to enhance demulsification process within electrocoagulation reactor. For a given current density of 60 A m -2 at 16 min, Lorentz force downward was proved to promote the sedimentation of coagulants. As the magnetic field strength increases from 20 to 60 mT, oil removal efficiency was observed to increase and then decrease, and simultaneously energy consumption reduced and then present constantly. The results were found that the magnetic field strength of 40 mT was optimal within electrocoagulation reactor, which can not only diminishe difference of mass transfer rate along the height of vertical plate but also consume lowest energy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sources and delivery of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery. Final report, October 1977--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, M.; Perlich, H.; Robinson, R.; Shah, M.; Zimmerman, F.

    1978-12-01

    Results are presented from a comprehensive study by Pullman Kellogg, with assistance from Gulf Universities Research Consortium (GURC) and National Cryo-Chemics Incorporated (NCI), of the carbon dioxide supply situation for miscible flooding operations to enhance oil recovery. A survey of carbon dioxide sources within the geographic areas of potential EOR are shown on four regional maps with the tabular data for each region to describe the sources in terms of quantity and quality. Evaluation of all the costs, such as purchase, production, processing, and transportation, associated with delivering the carbon dioxide from its source to its destination are presented. Specific cases to illustrate the use of the maps and cost charts generated in this study have been examined.

  17. An innovative treatment method for an aqueous waste from the enhanced oil recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimahmoodi, M.; Mulligan, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment was evaluated to determine its effectiveness in treating a waste stream from the process of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) to remove solubilized CO 2 (98%) and petroleum hydrocarbons (83%) using formate (2 g/L) and sucrose (2.5 g/L) as electron donors in two consecutive reactors. The method of evolutionary operation (EVOP) factorial design was applied to optimize the system and the net energy ratio (NER) of 3.7 was calculated for the system which showed a sustainable biogas production. This method is less complex than other competitive methods, and in addition to its low energy requirements, it can produce CH 4 from CO 2 as a clean source of energy. (author)

  18. Application of surface enhanced Raman scattering and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling on detecting furfural dissolved in transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Detecting the dissolving furfural in mineral oil is an essential technical method to evaluate the ageing condition of oil-paper insulation and the degradation of mechanical properties. Compared with the traditional detection method, Raman spectroscopy is obviously convenient and timesaving in operation. This study explored the method of applying surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS on quantitative analysis of the furfural dissolved in oil. Oil solution with different concentration of furfural were prepared and calibrated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Confocal laser Raman spectroscopy (CLRS and SERS technology were employed to acquire Raman spectral data. Monte Carlo cross validation (MCCV was used to eliminate the outliers in sample set, then competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS was developed to select an optimal combination of informative variables that most reflect the chemical properties of concern. Based on selected Raman spectral features, support vector machine (SVM combined with particle swarm algorithm (PSO was used to set up a furfural quantitative analysis model. Finally, the generalization ability and prediction precision of the established method were verified by the samples made in lab. In summary, a new spectral method is proposed to quickly detect furfural in oil, which lays a foundation for evaluating the ageing of oil-paper insulation in oil immersed electrical equipment.

  19. Application of surface enhanced Raman scattering and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling on detecting furfural dissolved in transformer oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weigen; Zou, Jingxin; Wan, Fu; Fan, Zhou; Yang, Dingkun

    2018-03-01

    Detecting the dissolving furfural in mineral oil is an essential technical method to evaluate the ageing condition of oil-paper insulation and the degradation of mechanical properties. Compared with the traditional detection method, Raman spectroscopy is obviously convenient and timesaving in operation. This study explored the method of applying surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on quantitative analysis of the furfural dissolved in oil. Oil solution with different concentration of furfural were prepared and calibrated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Confocal laser Raman spectroscopy (CLRS) and SERS technology were employed to acquire Raman spectral data. Monte Carlo cross validation (MCCV) was used to eliminate the outliers in sample set, then competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was developed to select an optimal combination of informative variables that most reflect the chemical properties of concern. Based on selected Raman spectral features, support vector machine (SVM) combined with particle swarm algorithm (PSO) was used to set up a furfural quantitative analysis model. Finally, the generalization ability and prediction precision of the established method were verified by the samples made in lab. In summary, a new spectral method is proposed to quickly detect furfural in oil, which lays a foundation for evaluating the ageing of oil-paper insulation in oil immersed electrical equipment.

  20. Desorption of hydrocarbon chains by association with ionic and nonionic surfactants under flow as a mechanism for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrón-Mejía, Ketzasmin A; López-Rendón, Roberto; Goicochea, Armando Gama

    2017-08-29

    The need to extract oil from wells where it is embedded on the surfaces of rocks has led to the development of new and improved enhanced oil recovery techniques. One of those is the injection of surfactants with water vapor, which promotes desorption of oil that can then be extracted using pumps, as the surfactants encapsulate the oil in foams. However, the mechanisms that lead to the optimal desorption of oil and the best type of surfactants to carry out desorption are not well known yet, which warrants the need to carry out basic research on this topic. In this work, we report non equilibrium dissipative particle dynamics simulations of model surfactants and oil molecules adsorbed on surfaces, with the purpose of studying the efficiency of the surfactants to desorb hydrocarbon chains, that are found adsorbed over flat surfaces. The model surfactants studied correspond to nonionic and cationic surfactants, and the hydrocarbon desorption is studied as a function of surfactant concentration under increasing Poiseuille flow. We obtain various hydrocarbon desorption isotherms for every model of surfactant proposed, under flow. Nonionic surfactants are found to be the most effective to desorb oil and the mechanisms that lead to this phenomenon are presented and discussed.

  1. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the North Sea: The impact of price uncertainty on the investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compernolle, T.; Welkenhuysen, K.; Huisman, K.; Piessens, K.; Kort, P.

    2017-01-01

    Although CO_2 Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered a key solution for CO_2 emission mitigation, it is currently not economically feasible. CO_2 enhanced oil recovery can play a significant role in stimulating CCS deployment because CO_2 is used to extract additional quantities of oil. This study analyzes the investment decision of both a carbon emitting source and an oil company separately by adopting a real options approach. It is shown that when uncertainty is integrated in the economic analysis, CO_2 and oil price threshold levels at which investments in CO_2 capture and enhanced oil recovery will take place, are higher than when a net present value approach is adopted. We also demonstrate that a tax on CO_2 instead of an emission trading system results in a lower investment threshold level for the investment in the CO_2 capture unit. Furthermore, we determine a minimum CO_2 selling price between the two firms and show that CO_2-EOR has the potential to pull CCS into the market by providing an additional revenue on the capture plant. However, when CO_2 permit prices are above an identifiable level, the EU ETS does not necessarily result in the adoption of CCS and stimulates oil production. - Highlights: • Real options theory is applied to study how uncertainty affects CO2EOR investments. • Compared to an NPV approach, investment threshold levels are higher. • A tax on CO2 would result in lower investment threshold levels compared to EUETS. • A minimum CO2 selling price is determined • The CO2 needed for enhanced oil recovery is not necessarily a cost.

  2. Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.; Rulkens, W.H.; Mol, A.P.J.; Khaodhair, S.

    2006-01-01

    The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the

  3. 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings Following Repeated Intramuscular Injections of "Site Enhancement Oil" in the Upper Extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejanović, Danijela; Loft, Annika

    2017-01-01

    We present the findings on F-FDG PET/CT in a 50-year-old man known to self-administer intramuscular injections with site enhancement oil in the upper extremities. PET images show diffuse pathological high FDG uptake in soft tissue of the upper arms and in scanned portions of the forearms. On the CT...

  4. Amphiphilic copolymers based on PEG-acrylate as surface active water viscosifiers : Towards new potential systems for enhanced oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    With the purpose of investigating new potential candidates for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), amphiphilic copolymers based on Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA) have been prepared by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). A P(PEGA) homopolymer, a block copolymer with styrene

  5. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  6. Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

    2005-08-15

    growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were regrown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. We conducted a push-pull test to study in-situ biosurfactant production by exogenous biosurfactant producers to aid in oil recovery from depleted reservoirs. Five wells from the same

  7. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Hou, Du-Jie [China Univ. of Geosciences, Beijing (China). The Key Lab. of Marine Reservoir Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism; She, Yue-Hui [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology; Li, Hua-Min [Beijing Bioscience Research Center (China); Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Yu, Long-Jiang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology

    2012-08-15

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes. (orig.)

  8. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes.

  9. Evaluation of solution and rheological properties for hydrophobically associated polyacrylamide copolymer as a promised enhanced oil recovery candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. El-hoshoudy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is the most critical energy source in the world, especially for transportation, provision of heat and light as there has not been a sufficient energy source to replace crude oil has broadly integrated, so there is an urgent need to maximize the extraction of the original oil in-place for every reservoir, and accelerating the development of enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies. Polymer flooding by hydrophobically associated polyacrylamides (HAPAM is a widely used technique through EOR technology. For successful application of these polymers, one should evaluate rheological and solution properties at simulated reservoir conditions as a function of polymer concentration, salinity, temperature and shear rate. The results showed that these copolymers exhibit favorable salt tolerance, temperature resistance, and recoverable viscosity after shearing, reasonable thickening behavior and improved viscosity enhancement properties due to presence of hydrophobic association in the copolymer main chains. Moreover, its capacity for oil production improvement was evaluated during flooding experiments through one dimensional sandstone model at simulated reservoir conditions.

  10. Proficiency feasibility of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the presence of polymeric surfactant on enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhad, Javad Razavi; Jafari, Arezou; Abdollahi, Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced heavy oil recovery methods are widely utilized to increase oil recovery. For this purpose, polymer and surfactant flooding have been used extensively. Recently, polymeric surfactant flooding has become an attractive alternative to sole polymer flooding due to their capability of providing an increase in solution viscosity and a decrease in interfacial tension, which are both beneficial for efficiency of the process. Applying nanoparticles as an additive to polymer solutions is a method to improve viscosity and alter rock wettability. Therefore, in this research, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was mixed with a polymeric surfactant of polyacrylamide-graft-lignin copolymer (PAM-g-L) synthesized via radical grafting reaction. Moreover, several solutions with different concentrations of nanoparticles with PAM-g-L were prepared. The solutions were injected into a micromodel to evaluate the PAM-g-L flooding efficiency in presence of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The results of micromodel flooding showed that increasing MWCNT concentration results in lower sweep efficiencies; and consequently, oil production will decrease. Therefore, MWCNT along with PAM-g-L has an unacceptable performance in enhanced heavy oil recovery. But data of wettability tests revealed that MWCNT can change the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet. In addition, the combination of the PAM-g-L and MWCNT in a solution will cause more water-wet condition.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; D.P. Nagle, Jr.; Kathleen Duncan; N. Youssef; M.J. Folmsbee; S. Maudgakya

    2003-06-26

    Biosurfactants enhance hydrocarbon biodegradation by increasing apparent aqueous solubility or affecting the association of the cell with poorly soluble hydrocarbon. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. One pore volume of cell-free culture fluid with 900 mg/l of the biosurfactant, 10 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1000 mg/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer mobilized 82% of the residual hydrocarbon. Consistent with the high residual oil recoveries, we found that the bio-surfactant lowered the interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. The lipopeptide biosurfactant system may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Previously, we reported that Proteose peptone was necessary for anaerobic growth and biosurfactant production by B. mojavensis JF-2. The data gathered from crude purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose peptone suggested that it consisted of nucleic acids; however, nucleic acid bases, nucleotides or nucleosides did not replace the requirement for Proteose Peptone. Further studies revealed that salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, Echerichia coli DNA and synthetic DNA replaced the requirement for Proteose peptone. In addition to DNA, amino acids and nitrate were required for anaerobic growth and vitamins further improved growth. We now have a defined medium that can be used to manipulate growth and biosurfactant

  12. Study on the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids in surfactant flooding with additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caili Dai

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10(-3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.

  13. Study on the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids in surfactant flooding with additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10(-3) mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.

  14. CO2-driven Enhanced Oil Recovery as a Stepping Stone to What?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2010-07-14

    This paper draws heavily on the authors’ previously published research to explore the extent to which near term carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) can be “a stepping stone to a long term sequestration program of a scale to be material in climate change risk mitigation.” The paper examines the historical evolution of CO2-EOR in the United States and concludes that estimates of the cost of CO2-EOR production or the extent of CO2 pipeline networks based upon this energy security-driven promotion of CO2-EOR do not provide a robust platform for spurring the commercial deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (CCS) as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The paper notes that the evolving regulatory framework for CCS makes a clear distinction between CO2-EOR and CCS and the authors examine arguments in the technical literature about the ability for CO2-EOR to generate offsetting revenue to accelerate the commercial deployment of CCS systems in the electric power and industrial sectors of the economy. The authors conclude that the past 35 years of CO2-EOR in the U.S. have been important for boosting domestic oil production and delivering proven system components for future CCS systems. However, though there is no reason to suggest that CO2-EOR will cease to deliver these benefits, there is also little to suggest that CO2-EOR is a necessary or significantly beneficial step towards the commercial deployment of CCS as a means of addressing climate change.

  15. Enhancing oil rate in solvent vapour extraction processes through tee-well pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, F.; Knorr, K.D.; Wilton, R.R. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In order for the vapour extraction (VAPEX) process to be considered commercially viable, the production flow rate in classical VAPEX must be increased. The low flow rate can be attributed to the fact that the classical VAPEX process uses forces of buoyancy to distribute the solvent and gravity to drain the diluted oil to the producer. This paper presented a new well pattern, referred to as the tee-SVX process, that may enhance the oil flow rate two to ten times over the classical approach. Additional horizontal injectors, perpendicular to the injector and the producer in classical VAPEX were placed in the top-most region of the reservoir in the new well pattern. The paper described the model development which involved conducting a series of simulation runs in order to evaluate the performance of the new well pattern. The paper also presented a comparison of the performance of the tee-SVX and the classical VAPEX and lateral-SVX. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to further evaluate the performance of tee-SVX and provide the boundaries of the application of the process. Two types of factors affecting the performance of tee-SVX were outlined, notably design factors; and formation and fluid uncertainties. The performance of tee-SVX in thinner reservoirs and in reservoirs with a gas cap were also examined. It was concluded that compared with the lateral-SVX process, the tee-SVX process could significantly reduce the time to solvent breakthrough. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 30 figs.

  16. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-07-14

    Heavy oil recovery has been a major focus in the oil and gas industry to counter the rapid depletion of conventional reservoirs. Various techniques for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil were developed and pilot-tested, with steam drive techniques proven in most circumstances to be successful and economically viable. The Wafra field in Saudi Arabia is at the forefront of utilizing steam recovery for carbonate heavy oil reservoirs in the Middle East. With growing injection volumes, tracking the steam evolution within the reservoir and characterizing the formation, especially in terms of its porosity and permeability heterogeneity, are key objectives for sound economic decisions and enhanced production forecasts. We have developed an integrated reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could demonstrate the improved characterization of the reservoir formation, determining more accurately the position of the steam chambers and obtaining more reliable forecasts of the reservoir’s recovery potential. History matching results are fairly robust even for noise levels up to 30%. The results demonstrate the potential of the integration of full-waveform seismic data for steam drive reservoir characterization and increased recovery efficiency.

  17. Biosurfactant-biopolymer driven microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and its optimization by an ANN-GA hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Rangarajan, Vivek; Bandi, Chandrakanth; Dixit, Abhivyakti; Das, Susmita; Ale, Kranthikiran; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2017-08-20

    A lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by marine Bacillus megaterium and a biopolymer produced by thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis were tested for their application potential in the enhanced oil recovery. The crude biosurfactant obtained after acid precipitation effectively reduced the surface tension of deionized water from 70.5 to 28.25mN/m and the interfacial tension between lube oil and water from 18.6 to 1.5mN/m at a concentration of 250mgL -1 . The biosurfactant exhibited a maximum emulsification activity (E 24 ) of 81.66% against lube oil. The lipopeptide micelles were stabilized by addition of Ca 2+ ions to the biosurfactant solution. The oil recovery efficiency of Ca 2+ conditioned lipopeptide solution from a sand-packed column was optimized by using artificial neural network (ANN) modelling coupled with genetic algorithm (GA) optimization. Three important parameters namely lipopeptide concentration, Ca 2+ concentration and solution pH were considered for optimization studies. In order to further improve the recovery efficiency, a water soluble biopolymer produced by Bacillus licheniformis was used as a flooding agent after biosurfactant incubation. Upon ANN-GA optimization, 45% tertiary oil recovery was achieved, when biopolymer at a concentration of 3gL -1 was used as a flooding agent. Oil recovery was only 29% at optimal conditions predicted by ANN-GA, when only water was used as flooding solution. The important characteristics of biopolymers such as its viscosity, pore plugging capabilities and bio-cementing ability have also been tested. Thus, as a result of biosurfactant incubation and biopolymer flooding under the optimal process conditions, a maximum oil recovery of 45% was achieved. Therefore, this study is novel, timely and interesting for it showed the combined influence of biosurfactant and biopolymer on solubilisation and mobilization of oil from the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Distance determination of NPP and oil reservoir on enhanced oil recovery based on heat loss and safety in view point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlan Dewita; Dedy Priambodo; Sudi Ariyanto

    2013-01-01

    EOR is a method used to increasing oil recovery by injecting material or other to the reservoir. There are 3 EOR technique have been used in the world, namely thermal injection, chemical injection dan Miscible. Thermal injection method is the method most widely used in the world, however, one drawback is the loss of heat during steam distribution to the injection wells. In Indonesia, EOR application has been successfully done in the field of Duri, Chevron uses steam injection method, but still use petroleum as a fuel for steam production. In order to save oil reserves, it was done the introduction of co-generation nuclear power plants to supply some of the heat of nuclear power plants for EOR processes. In cogeneration nuclear power plant, the safety aspect is main priority. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the distance NPP with oil wells by considering heat loss and safety aspects. The method of study and calculations done using Tempo Cycle program. The study results showed that in the distance of 400 meter as exclusion zone of PBMR reactor, with pipe insulation thickness 1 in, the amount of heat loss of 277, 883 kw, while in pipe isolation thickness 2 in, amount of heat loss became 162,634 kw and with isolation thickness 3 in, amount of heat loss 120,767 kw., heat loss can be overcome and provide insulation pipes and improve the quality of saturated steam into superheated. (author)

  19. A facile way to prepare CuS-oil nanofluids with enhanced thermal conductivity and appropriate viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ji-Hua; Liu, Zhao-Qing; Li, Nan, E-mail: nanli@gzhu.edu.cn; Chen, Yi-Bo; Wang, Dong-Yao [Guangzhou University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering/Guangzhou Key Laboratory for Environmentally Functional Materials and Technology (China)

    2017-02-15

    The nanofluid as a pivotal role in heat transfer system has attracted more and more attention. Herein, the stearic acid-modified CuS (SA-CuS) nanoparticles with a uniform diameter of 60 nm were synthesized successfully by a facile two-phase approach. Accordingly, the CuS-oil nanofluids, with SA-CuS concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 vol%, were prepared by a one-step method in the heat transfer oil. These CuS-oil nanofluids exhibit good stability and considerable enhanced thermal conductivity. The improvement is even up to 20.5% with a volume fraction of 0.04 vol% at 30 °C. Furthermore, the effect of volume fraction and temperature on the viscosity of the nanofluids was also systematically investigated.

  20. Modeling and simulation of multiphase multicomponent multiphysics porous media flows in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Daripa, Prabir; Fluids Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important methods of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) involves the use of complex flooding schemes comprising of various layers of fluids mixed with suitable amounts of polymer or surfactant or both. The fluid flow is characterized by the spontaneous formation of complex viscous fingering patterns which is considered detrimental to oil recovery. Here we numerically study the physics of such EOR processes using a modern, hybrid method based on a combination of a discontinuous, multiscale finite element formulation and the method of characteristics. We investigate the effect of different types of heterogeneity on the fingering mechanism of these complex multiphase flows and determine the impact on oil recovery. We also study the effect of surfactants on the dynamics of the flow via reduction of capillary forces and increase in relative permeabilities. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  1. Large scale carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power stations for enhanced oil recovery: a new economic feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chan, C. W.; Kritpiphat, W.; Demontigny, D.; Skoropad, D.; Gelowitz, D.; Aroonwilas, A.; Mourits, F.; Wilson, M.; Ward, L.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of capturing carbon dioxide from fossil-fuelled electric power generating plants and utilizing it as a flooding agent in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, was explored. In this context, this paper describes how cogeneration concepts, together with process optimization strategies, help to reduce the carbon dioxide production cost by utilizing low-pressure steam and waste heat from various sections of the power generation process. Based on these optimization strategies, the recovery cost of carbon dioxide from coal-fired power stations is estimated to be in the range of $ 0.50 to $ 2.00/mscf. Assuming an average cost of $ 1.25/mscf, the production cost of incremental oil would be about $ 18.00. This means that even with today's modest oil prices, there is room for profit to be made operating a carbon dioxide flood with flue gas extracted carbon dioxide

  2. Large scale carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power stations for enhanced oil recovery : a new economic feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chan, C.W.; Kritpiphat, W.; DeMontigny, D.; Skoropad, D.; Gelowitz, D.; Aroonwilas, A.; Mourits, F.; Wilson, M.; Ward, L.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the economics of capturing carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants to be subsequently used as a flooding agent for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies. It was shown that the production of CO 2 for EOR projects can be technically and economically feasible, particularly when the concepts of cogeneration and optimization are used to reduce steam and electricity expenditures. This is done by using low-pressure steam and waste heat from various sections of the power generation process. It was shown that recovery costs could range between $0.50 to $2.00 per mscf. This translates to a recovered oil price of in the range of $17.39 to $19.95 per bbl., suggesting that even at today's low oil prices there is room for CO 2 flooding with flue gas extracted CO 2 . Practical implications for Saskatchewan were examined. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  3. INEEL Biotechnology for Oilfield Application--Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery FY-03 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. A. Bala; D. F. Bruhn; S. L. Fox; K. S. Noah; K. D. Schaller; E. P. Robertson; X. Xie

    2003-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Biotechnology for Oilfield Operations program supports development, engineering, and application of biotechnology for exploration and production. This continuing INEEL program also supports mitigation of detrimental field conditions. The program is consistent with the United States Department of Energy mission to ¡§promote activities and policies through its oil technology and natural gas supply programs to enhance the efficiency and environmental quality of domestic oil and natural gas exploration, recovery, processing, transport, and storage.¡¨ In addition, the program directly supports the focus areas of Reservoir Life Extension; Advanced Drilling, Completion and Stimulation Systems; Effective Environmental Protection; and Cross Cutting Areas. The program is enhanced by collaborative relationships with industry and academia. For fiscal year 2003, the program focused on production and characterization of biological surfactants from agricultural residuals and the production and application of reactive microbial polymers. This report specifically details: 1. Use of a chemostat reactor operated in batch mode for producing surfactin, with concomitant use of an antifoam to prevent surfactant loss. The program achieved production and recovery of 0.6 g/L of surfactin per 12 hr. 2. Characterization of surfactin produced from agricultural residuals with respect to its ability to mediate changes in surface tension. Conditions evaluated were salt (as NaCl) from 0 to 10% (w/v), pH from 3 to 10, temperature from 21 to 70¢XC, and combinations of these conditions. When evaluated singularly, pH below 6 and salt concentrations above 30 g/L were found to have an adverse impact on surfactin. Temperatures of 70¢XC for 95 days had no effect. When the effect of temperature was added to the pH experiment, there were no significant changes, and, again, surface tension, at any temperature, increased at pH below 6

  4. Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery-EOR Thermal Processes Report IV-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izequeido, Alexandor

    2001-04-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1! 987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  5. Enhancement of durability properties of heat-treated oil palm shell species lightweight concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Ming Kun; Yew, Ming Chian; Saw, Lip Huat; Ang, Bee Chin; Lee, Min Lee; Lim, Siong Kang; Lim, Jee Hock

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm shell (OPS) are non-hazardous waste materials and can be used as alternative coarse aggregates to substitute depleting conventional raw materials. A study on preparing the OPS species (dura and tenera) lightweight concrete (LWC) using with and without heat-treated OPS aggregate has been investigated. Two different species of OPS coarse aggregate are subjected to heat treatment at 65 and 130 °C with duration of 1 hour. The results reveal that the slump value of the OPSC increases significantly with an increase in temperature of heat treatment of the tenera OPS aggregates. It is found that the maximum achievable 28-days and 180-days compressive strength is 45.6 and 47.5 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT) and water absorption tests were performance to signify the effects of heat-treated on OPS species LWC. The use of heat-treated OPS LWC induced the advantageous of reducing the permeability and capillary porosity as well as water absorption. Hence, the findings of this study are of primary importance as they revealed the heat treatment on OPS species LWC can be used as a new environmentally friendly method to enhance the durability of OPSLWC.

  6. THE TRADE-ENHANCING EFFECT OF NON-TARIFF MEASURES ON VIRGIN OLIVE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Ronen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 15 years, the global trade of virgin olive oil (VOO seems to face a stringent regulatory regime, mainly through the imposition of TBT and SPS measures. Such a development should have adversely impacted global levels of VOO trade. However, evidence shows that the world's imports of VOO have more than quadrupled in value since 2000. Alongside this trend, the share of VOO imports gradually shifts from traditional sources (mainly EU to New World producing countries, such as Argentina, Australia, the USA, and Chile. By extracting data from hundreds of NTM regulations, as well as all possible registered bilateral trade flows between 2002 to 2014, this paper aims to empirically explore to what extent particular NTMs impact imports of VOO. The results indicate that while tariffs remain a stringent barrier, most NTMs have a positive impact on imports, rather than enhancing restrictiveness. The paper asserts that the majority of NTMs respond to consumers' demand for higher food safety standards and protection of human health, while increasing available information and transparency. That, in turn, leads to an expansion in the magnitude of imports of VOO products

  7. Enhancing National Participation in the Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heum, Per; Mwakali, Jackson A.; Ekern, Ole Fredrik; Byaruhanga, Jackson N.M.; Koojo, Charles A.; Bigirwenkya, Naptali K.

    2011-07-01

    In realization of the petroleum industry potential, Uganda's Oil and Gas policy seeks to optimize wealth creation from the industry to enhance the welfare of the citizens. This study has examined how Uganda may benefit from the participation of Ugandans and Ugandan firms in the petroleum activities. In the literature this is frequently referred to by applying the term local content. Local in this sense, however, refers to national as opposed to international or foreign contributions. Thus, we apply the concept national content to avoid any misunderstanding. Focus of our study has been on identifying the opportunities, gaps and challenges posed by the petroleum industry to recommend necessary measures to maximize the benefits of national content otherwise defined as national participation.The study has examined lessons Uganda may draw on from other countries and from the economic literature on industrial growth and national wealth. Furthermore, the specific point of departure for Uganda with regard to expected petroleum activities, Uganda's industrial base and its human resource base, has been investigated. On this basis, the study has made its recommendations.(eb)

  8. Evaluating the climate benefits of CO2-enhanced oil recovery using life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Gregory; Littlefield, James; Marriott, Joe; Skone, Timothy J

    2015-06-16

    This study uses life cycle analysis (LCA) to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) performance of carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) systems. A detailed gate-to-gate LCA model of EOR was developed and incorporated into a cradle-to-grave boundary with a functional unit of 1 MJ of combusted gasoline. The cradle-to-grave model includes two sources of CO2: natural domes and anthropogenic (fossil power equipped with carbon capture). A critical parameter is the crude recovery ratio, which describes how much crude is recovered for a fixed amount of purchased CO2. When CO2 is sourced from a natural dome, increasing the crude recovery ratio decreases emissions, the opposite is true for anthropogenic CO2. When the CO2 is sourced from a power plant, the electricity coproduct is assumed to displace existing power. With anthropogenic CO2, increasing the crude recovery ratio reduces the amount of CO2 required, thereby reducing the amount of power displaced and the corresponding credit. Only the anthropogenic EOR cases result in emissions lower than conventionally produced crude. This is not specific to EOR, rather the fact that carbon-intensive electricity is being displaced with captured electricity, and the fuel produced from that system receives a credit for this displacement.

  9. Artificial Neural Network Model to Estimate the Viscosity of Polymer Solutions for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Sang Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymer flooding is now considered a technically- and commercially-proven method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The viscosity of the injected polymer solution is the key property for successful polymer flooding. Given that the viscosity of a polymer solution has a non-linear relationship with various influential parameters (molecular weight, degree of hydrolysis, polymer concentration, cation concentration of polymer solution, shear rate, temperature and that measurement of viscosity based on these parameters is a time-consuming process, the range of solution samples and the measurement conditions need to be limited and precise. Viscosity estimation of the polymer solution is effective for these purposes. An artificial neural network (ANN was applied to the viscosity estimation of FlopaamTM 3330S, FlopaamTM 3630S and AN-125 solutions, three commonly-used EOR polymers. The viscosities measured and estimated by ANN and the Carreau model using Lee’s correlation, the only method for estimating the viscosity of an EOR polymer solution in unmeasured conditions, were compared. Estimation accuracy was evaluated by the average absolute relative deviation, which has been widely used for accuracy evaluation of the results of ANN models. In all conditions, the accuracy of the ANN model is higher than that of the Carreau model using Lee’s correlation.

  10. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Water-Soluble Hyperbranched Polymer as Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanjun Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hyperbranched polymer was synthesized using acrylamide (AM, acrylic acid (AA, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP, and dendrite functional monomer as raw materials by redox initiation system in an aqueous medium. The hyperbranched polymer was characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The viscosity retention rate of the hyperbranched polymer was 22.89% higher than that of the AM/AA copolymer (HPAM at 95°C, and the viscosity retention rate was 8.17%, 12.49%, and 13.68% higher than that of HPAM in 18000 mg/L NaCl, 1800 mg/L CaCl2, and 1800 mg/L MgCl2·6H2O brine, respectively. The hyperbranched polymer exhibited higher apparent viscosity (25.2 mPa·s versus 8.1 mPa·s under 500 s−1 shear rate at 80°C. Furthermore, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR of 1500 mg/L hyperbranched polymer solutions was up to 23.51% by the core flooding test at 80°C.

  11. Incubation of Aquilaria subintegra with Microbial Culture Supernatants Enhances Production of Volatile Compounds and Improves Quality of Agarwood Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monggoot, Sakon; Kulsing, Chadin; Wong, Yong Foo; Pripdeevech, Patcharee

    2018-06-01

    Incubation with microbial culture supernatants improved essential oil yield from Aquilaria subintegra woodchips. The harvested woodchips were incubated with de man, rogosa and sharpe (MRS) agar, yeast mold (YM) agar medium and six different microbial culture supernatants obtained from Lactobacillus bulgaricus , L. acidophilus , Streptococcus thermophilus , Lactococcus lactis , Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and S. cerevisiae prior to hydrodistillation. Incubation with lactic acid bacteria supernatants provided higher yield of agarwood oil (0.45% w/w) than that obtained from yeast (0.25% w/w), agar media (0.23% w/w) and water (0.22% w/w). The composition of agarwood oil from all media and microbial supernatant incubations was investigated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Overall, three major volatile profiles were obtained, which corresponded to water soaking (control), as well as, both YM and MRS media, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast supernatant incubations. Sesquiterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives were key components of agarwood oil. Fifty-two volatile components were tentatively identified in all samples. Beta-agarofuran, α-eudesmol, karanone, α-agarofuran and agarospirol were major components present in most of the incubated samples, while S. cerevisiae -incubated A. subintegra provided higher amount of phenyl acetaldehyde. Microbial culture supernatant incubation numerically provided the highest yield of agarwood oil compared to water soaking traditional method, possibly resulting from activity of extracellular enzymes produced by the microbes. Incubation of agarwood with lactic acid bacteria supernatant significantly enhanced oil yields without changing volatile profile/composition of agarwood essential oil, thus this is a promising method for future use.

  12. 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate vehicle, castor oil, enhances the contractile effect of oxytocin in human myometrium in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Michael D; Hehir, Mark P; O'Brien, Yvonne M; Morrison, John J

    2010-05-01

    The possibility exists that the vehicle for 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, castor oil, exerts an effect on human uterine contractility. The aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on contractility of myometrial preparations that were obtained during pregnancy. Myometrial strips were suspended under isometric conditions. Contractility was induced with oxytocin. Strips were incubated in castor oil or physiologic salt solution and suspended for a further oxytocin challenge. Contractile integrals were compared between both groups. Strips that were exposed to castor oil demonstrated increased contractile activity that was elicited by oxytocin (mean contractility value, 165.53%+/-17.03%; n=8; P=.004), compared with control strips (mean contractility value, 72.57%+/-7.48%; n=8; P=.003). There was a significant increase in contractile activity of the castor oil-exposed strips, compared with those that were exposed to physiologic salt solution (n=8; Pcastor oil results in enhanced oxytocin-induced contractility. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  14. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  15. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Water-Soluble Polymers: Implication on Soil Remediation and Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Cindy Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have shown a great effect in enhanced oil recovery because of the improvement of water-flood performance by mobility control, as well as having been considered for oil contaminated-soil remediation thanks to their mobility control and water-flood performance. This study focused on the wettability analysis of biopolymers such as chitosan (85% deacetylated power, PEO (polyethylene oxide, Xanthan (xanthan gum, SA (Alginic Acid Sodium Salt, and PAA (polyacrylic acid, including the measurements of contact angles, interfacial tension, and viscosity. Furthermore, a micromodel study was conducted to explore pore-scale displacement phenomena during biopolymer injection into the pores. The contact angles of biopolymer solutions are higher on silica surfaces submerged in decane than at atmospheric conditions. While interfacial tensions of the biopolymer solutions have a relatively small range of 25 to 39 mN/m, the viscosities of biopolymer solutions have a wide range, 0.002 to 0.4 Pa·s, that dramatically affect both the capillary number and viscosity number. Both contact angles and interfacial tension have effects on the capillary entry pressure that increases along with an applied effective stress by overburden pressure in sediments. Additionally, a high injection rate of biopolymer solutions into the pores illustrates a high level of displacement ratio. Thus, oil-contaminated soil remediation and enhanced oil recovery should be operated in cost-efficient ways considering the injection rates and capillary entry pressure.

  16. A Novel CO2-Responsive Viscoelastic Amphiphilic Surfactant Fluid for Fracking in Enhanced Oil/Gas Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Wu, X.; Dai, C.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, the rapid rise of unconventional shale gas and tight sandstone oil development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded the extraction of hydrocarbon resources. Hydraulic fracturing fluids play very important roles in enhanced oil/gas recovery. However, damage to the reservoir rock and environmental contamination caused by hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids has raised serious concerns. The development of reservoir rock friendly and environmental benign fracturing fluids is in immediate demand. Studies to improve properties of hydraulic fracturing fluids have found that viscoelastic surfactant (VES) fracturing fluid can increase the productivity of gas/oil and be efficiently extracted after fracturing. Compared to conventional polymer fracturing fluid, VES fracturing fluid has many advantages, such as few components, easy preparation, good proppant transport capacity, low damage to cracks and formations, and environment friendly. In this work, we are developing a novel CO2-responsive VES fracking fluid that can readily be reused. This fluid has a gelling-breaking process that can be easily controlled by the presence of CO2 and its pressure. We synthesized erucamidopropyl dimethylamine (EA) as a thickening agent for hydraulic fracturing fluid. The influence of temperature, presence of CO2 and pressure on the viscoelastic behavior of this fluid was then investigated through rheological measurements. The fracturing fluid performance and recycle property were lastly studied using core flooding tests. We expect this fluid finds applications not only in enhanced oil/gas recovery, but also in areas such as controlling groundwater pollution and microfluidics.

  17. Enhanced oil recovery from Sandstones and Carbonates with “Smart Water”

    OpenAIRE

    Torrijos, Ivan Dario Pinerez

    2017-01-01

    PhD thesis in Petroleum engineering According to the International Energy Agency crude oil is expected to contribute approximately with 26% of the world’s energy supply by 2040. In a per year basis, new oil discoveries have dropped to a 60-year low in 2015, and capital expenditure is in the longest period of retrenchment in 40 years. Therefore, oil in place from already discovered reservoirs has become an important target for oil companies. “Smart Water” injection is a relatively new E...

  18. Enhanced biological degradation of crude oil in a Spitsbergen tundra site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveum, P.; Faksness, L.-G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of oil-contaminated tundra plots on Spitsbergen was treated with combinations of five different fertilizer additives. Both organic and mineral nutrient sources were used, alone or in combination. Biological degradation of oil was recorded in all of the plots. The extent of degradation depended on the type of fertilizer added. The local conditions influence oil degradation significantly, as well as the effect of the fertilizer. Urea, SkogAN (a slow releasing fertilizer), and a blend of fish meals all give high degrees of oil degradation. Both the microbial parameters and the total heterotrophic respiration are influenced by the addition of fertilizers. 6 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr. D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains

  20. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr., D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    2002-05-28

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  1. Enhancement of biodegradation of crude petroleum-oil in contaminated water by the addition of nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukred, A M; Hamid, A A; Hamzah, A; Yusoff, W M Wan

    2008-09-01

    Addition of nitrogen sources as supplementary nutrient into MSM medium to enhance biodegradation by stimulating the growth four isolates, Acinetobacter faecalis, Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas putida and Neisseria elongata isolated from petroleum contaminated groundwater, wastewater aeration pond and biopond at the oil refinery Terengganu Malaysia was investigated. The organic nitrogen sources tested not only supported growth but also enhances biodegradation of 1% Tapis crude oil. All four isolates showed good growth especially when peptone was employed as the organic nitrogen compared to growth in the basal medium. Gas chromatography showed that more then 91, 93, 94 and 95% degradation of total hydrocarbon was observed after 5 days of incubation by isolates Pseudomonas putida, Neisseria elongate, Acinetobacter faecalis and Staphylococcus sp., respectively.

  2. Coated carbide drill performance under soluble coconut oil lubricant and nanoparticle enhanced MQL in drilling AISI P20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, N. A. M.; Azmi, A. I.; Fairuz, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    This research experimentally investigates the performance of a TiAlN coated carbide drill bit in drilling AISI P20 through two different kinds of lubricants, namely; soluble coconut oil (SCO) and nanoparticle-enhanced coconut oil (NECO) under minimum quantity lubrication system. The tool life and tool wear mechanism were studied using various cutting speeds of 50, 100 and 150 m/min with a constant feed of 0.01 mm/rev. Since the flank wear land was not regular along the cutting edge, the average flank wear (VB) was measured at several points using image analysis software. The drills were inspected using a scanning electron microscope to further elucidate the wear mechanism. The result indicates that drilling with the nanoparticle- enhanced lubricant was better in resisting the wear and improving the drill life to some extent

  3. Technical and economic feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery in six Colombian fields. Appendix C. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to determine which of the reservoirs in the principal fields were amenable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, to evaluate which process was the most effective from both a technical and economic point of view, and to propose the steps required to further investigate the recommended EOR methods at the laboratory and field (pilot) level. Appendix C is divided into three sections: (A) Casabe Field; (B) La Cira Field; and (C) Tibu-Barco.

  4. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 86, quarter ending March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Summaries are presented for 37 enhanced oil recovery contracts being supported by the Department of Energy. The projects are grouped into gas displacement methods, thermal recovery methods, geoscience technology, reservoir characterization, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Each summary includes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress, as well as information on contract dates, size of award, principal investigator, and company or facility doing the research.

  5. Sequential enrichment of microbial population exhibiting enhanced biodegradation of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Harayama, Shigeaki.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of oil-degrading bacteria in the coastal waters and sediments of Hokkaido, Japan, was surveyed. It was found that the potential of mixed microbial populations to degrade weathered crude oil was not confined to any ecological components (water or sediment) nor to the sampling stations. One microbial culture that was stable during repeated subculturing degraded 45% of the saturates and 20% of the aromatics present in crude oil in 10 days during the initial screening. The residual hydrocarbons in this culture were extracted by chloroform and dispersed in a fresh seawater-based medium and subsequently inoculated with microorganisms from the first culture. After full growth of the second culture, the residual hydrocarbons were extracted and dispersed in a fresh medium in which microorganisms from the second culture had been inoculated. This sequential process was carried out six times to enrich those microorganisms that grew on the recalcitrant components of crude oil. After repeated exposure of the residual crude oil to the enriched microorganisms, about 80% of the initially added crude oil was degraded. The cultures obtained after each enrichment cycle were kept, and the degradation of fresh crude oil by the enriched microorganisms was monitored. The degrading activity of the enriched cultures increased as the number of enrichment cycles increased. A microbial population that had been selected six times on the residual crude oil could degrade 70% of the saturates and 30% of the aromatics of crude oil, indicating that growth of a microbial population on residual crude oil improved its ability to biodegrade crude oil. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  6. CNTs reinforced super-hydrophobic-oleophilic electrospun polystyrene oil sorbent for enhanced sorption capacity and reusability

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jingya; Kyoungjin An, Alicia; Guo, Jiaxin; Lee, Eui-Jong; Usman Farid, Muhammad; Jeong, Sanghyun

    2016-01-01

    To meet the challenges of global oil spills and oil-water contamination, the development of a low-cost and reusable sorbents with good hydrophobicity and oleophilic nature is crucial. In this study, functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were wrapped in polystyrene (PS) polymer (PS-CNTs) and electrospun to create an effective and rigid sorbent for oil. Covalent modification and fluorination of CNTs improved their dispersibility and interfacial interaction with the polymer, resulting in a well-aligned CNTs configuration inside the porous fiber structure. Interestingly, the oil sorption process using PS-CNTs was observed to have two phases. First, the oil swiftly entered the membrane pores formed by interconnected nanofibers due to oleophilic properties of the micro-sized void. In the second phase, the oil not only moved to nano interior spaces of the fibers by capillary forces but also adsorbed on the surface of fibers where the latter was retained due to Van der Waals force. The sorption process fits well with the intra particle diffusion model. Maximum oil sorption capacity of the PS-CNTs sorbent for sunflower oil, peanut oil, and motor oils were 116, 123, and 112 g/g, respectively, which was 65% higher than that of the PS sorbent without CNTs. Overall, a significant increase in the porosity, surface area, water contact angle, and oleophilic nature was observed for the PS-CNTs composite sorbents. Not only did the PS-CNTs sorbents exhibited a promising oil sorption capacity but also showed potential for reusability, which is an important factor to be considered in determining the overall performance of the sorbent and its environmental impacts.

  7. CNTs reinforced super-hydrophobic-oleophilic electrospun polystyrene oil sorbent for enhanced sorption capacity and reusability

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jingya

    2016-12-05

    To meet the challenges of global oil spills and oil-water contamination, the development of a low-cost and reusable sorbents with good hydrophobicity and oleophilic nature is crucial. In this study, functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were wrapped in polystyrene (PS) polymer (PS-CNTs) and electrospun to create an effective and rigid sorbent for oil. Covalent modification and fluorination of CNTs improved their dispersibility and interfacial interaction with the polymer, resulting in a well-aligned CNTs configuration inside the porous fiber structure. Interestingly, the oil sorption process using PS-CNTs was observed to have two phases. First, the oil swiftly entered the membrane pores formed by interconnected nanofibers due to oleophilic properties of the micro-sized void. In the second phase, the oil not only moved to nano interior spaces of the fibers by capillary forces but also adsorbed on the surface of fibers where the latter was retained due to Van der Waals force. The sorption process fits well with the intra particle diffusion model. Maximum oil sorption capacity of the PS-CNTs sorbent for sunflower oil, peanut oil, and motor oils were 116, 123, and 112 g/g, respectively, which was 65% higher than that of the PS sorbent without CNTs. Overall, a significant increase in the porosity, surface area, water contact angle, and oleophilic nature was observed for the PS-CNTs composite sorbents. Not only did the PS-CNTs sorbents exhibited a promising oil sorption capacity but also showed potential for reusability, which is an important factor to be considered in determining the overall performance of the sorbent and its environmental impacts.

  8. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY WITH DOWNHOLE VIBRATION STIMULATION IN OSAGE COUNTY OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Westermark; J. Ford Brett

    2003-11-01

    This Final Report covers the entire project from July 13, 2000 to June 30, 2003. The report summarizes the details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma'' under DOE Contract Number DE-FG26-00BC15191. The project was divided into nine separate tasks. This report is written in an effort to document the lessons learned during the completion of each task. Therefore each task will be discussed as the work evolved for that task throughout the duration of the project. Most of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, but certain tasks were dependent on earlier tasks being completed. During the three years of project activities, twelve quarterly technical reports were submitted for the project. Many individual topic and task specific reports were included as appendices in the quarterly reports. Ten of these reports have been included as appendices to this final report. Two technical papers, which were written and accepted by the Society of Petroleum Engineers, have also been included as appendices. The three primary goals of the project were to build a downhole vibration tool (DHVT) to be installed in seven inch casing, conduct a field test of vibration stimulation in a mature waterflooded field and evaluate the effects of the vibration on both the produced fluid characteristics and injection well performance. The field test results are as follows: In Phase I of the field test the DHVT performed exceeding well, generating strong clean signals on command and as designed. During this phase Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory had installed downhole geophones and hydrophones to monitor the signal generated by the downhole vibrator. The signals recorded were strong and clear. Phase II was planned to be ninety-day reservoir stimulation field test. This portion of the field tests was abruptly ended after one week of operations, when the DHVT became stuck in the well

  9. Enhancing crude oil degradation in a sandy soil: Effects of addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of the addition of poultry manure alone and in combination with surfactant (Goldcrew or Corexit) and/or alternate carbon substrate (glucose or starch) on crude oil degradation in a sandy soil. With poultry manure alone, optimal crude oil degradation was obtained at a concentration of 4.0% ...

  10. Enhanced crude oil biodegradative potential of natural phytoplankton-associated hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Haydn; Angelova, Angelina; Bowler, Bernard; Jones, Martin; Gutierrez, Tony

    2017-07-01

    Phytoplankton have been shown to harbour a diversity of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB), yet it is not understood how these phytoplankton-associated HCB would respond in the event of an oil spill at sea. Here, we assess the diversity and dynamics of the bacterial community associated with a natural population of marine phytoplankton under oil spill-simulated conditions, and compare it to that of the free-living (non phytoplankton-associated) bacterial community. While the crude oil severely impacted the phytoplankton population and was likely conducive to marine oil snow formation, analysis of the MiSeq-derived 16S rRNA data revealed dramatic and differential shifts in the oil-amended communities that included blooms of recognized HCB (e.g., Thalassospira, Cycloclasticus), including putative novel phyla, as well as other groups with previously unqualified oil-degrading potential (Olleya, Winogradskyella, and members of the inconspicuous BD7-3 phylum). Notably, the oil biodegradation potential of the phytoplankton-associated community exceeded that of the free-living community, and it showed a preference to degrade substituted and non-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our study provides evidence of compartmentalization of hydrocarbon-degrading capacity in the marine water column, wherein HCB associated with phytoplankton are better tuned to degrading crude oil hydrocarbons than that by the community of planktonic free-living bacteria. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Enhanced bioavailability and cysticidal effect of three mebendazole-oil preparations in mice infected with secondary cysts of Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong-shan; Zhang, Hao-bing; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Jun-min; Tao, Yi; Xue, Jian; Wen, Ai-dan

    2012-09-01

    MBZ-oil preparations at the same oral dose schedule as aforementioned, the mean cyst weights were significantly lower than those in MBZ-1 % tragacanth group or control group with cyst weight reductions of 71.2-84.7 %. The results indicate that the solubility of MBZ in oils may increase to various degrees according to the kinds of oil used. Meanwhile, three MBZ-oil (OA, GT, and SB) preparations administered orally to mice not only improve the bioavailability of MBZ relative to that of MBZ suspended in 1 % tragacanth, but their effects against hydatid cysts also significantly enhance.

  12. Optimization of parameters for enhanced oil recovery from enzyme treated wild apricot kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Mahatre R; Kumbhar, Baburao K; Singh, Anupama; Lohani, Umesh Chandra; Shahi, Navin C

    2012-08-01

    Present investigation was undertaken with the overall objective of optimizing the enzymatic parameters i.e. moisture content during hydrolysis, enzyme concentration, enzyme ratio and incubation period on wild apricot kernel processing for better oil extractability and increased oil recovery. Response surface methodology was adopted in the experimental design. A central composite rotatable design of four variables at five levels was chosen. The parameters and their range for the experiments were moisture content during hydrolysis (20-32%, w.b.), enzyme concentration (12-16% v/w of sample), combination of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme i.e. enzyme ratio (30:70-70:30) and incubation period (12-16 h). Aspergillus foetidus and Trichoderma viride was used for production of crude enzyme i.e. pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme respectively. A complete second order model for increased oil recovery as the function of enzymatic parameters fitted the data well. The best fit model for oil recovery was also developed. The effect of various parameters on increased oil recovery was determined at linear, quadric and interaction level. The increased oil recovery ranged from 0.14 to 2.53%. The corresponding conditions for maximum oil recovery were 23% (w.b.), 15 v/w of the sample, 60:40 (pectolytic:cellulolytic), 13 h. Results of the study indicated that incubation period during enzymatic hydrolysis is the most important factor affecting oil yield followed by enzyme ratio, moisture content and enzyme concentration in the decreasing order. Enzyme ratio, incubation period and moisture content had insignificant effect on oil recovery. Second order model for increased oil recovery as a function of enzymatic hydrolysis parameters predicted the data adequately.

  13. Fish-oil supplementation enhances the effects of strength training in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, Cintia L N; Rodacki, André L F; Pereira, Gleber; Naliwaiko, Katya; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Fernandes, Luiz Cléudio

    2012-02-01

    Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated. The objective was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women. Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 d, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 d (ST90 group) or for 150 d (ST150 group; supplemented 60 d before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period. No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group. Strength training increased muscle strength in elderly women. The inclusion of FO supplementation caused greater improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity.

  14. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the north sea: matching CO_2 demand and supply given uncertain market conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Tine; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Huisman, Kuno; Piessens, Kris; Kort, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Introduction CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) entails the injection of CO2 in mature oil fields in order to mobilize the oil. In particular, the injected CO2 reduces the oil's viscosity and acts as a propellant, resulting in an increased oil extraction rate (Leach et al., 2011). Given uncertainty in both oil price and CO2 price under the EU ETS system, aim of this study is to analyze under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange can be established between a CO2 supplier (an electricity producer for whom CO2 is a by-product) and a CO2 user (an offshore oil company that exploits oil fields in the North Sea and needs CO2 for enhanced oil recovery). Methodology A techno-economic simulation tool, PSS IV, was developed to provide investment decision support on integrated CO2-EOR projects (Welkenhuysen et al., 2014). Until now, a fixed onshore supply of CO2 was presumed. An economic optimization model is now developed for both the CO2 producer and the CO2 user. Because net present value and discounted cash flow methods are inadequate to deal with issues like uncertainty and the irreversibility of an investment decision, the real options theory is applied (Dixit and Pindyck, 1994). The way in which cooperation between the companies can take place, will be studied using game theoretical concepts (Lukas and Welling, 2014). Economic and technical data on CO2 capture are available from the PSS database (Piessens et al., 2012). Data on EOR performance, CO2 requirements and various costs are taken from literature (BERR, 2007; Klokk et al., 2010; Pershad et al., 2012). Results/Findings It will be shown what the impact of price uncertainty is on the investment decision of the electricity producer to capture and sell CO2, and on the decision of the oil producer to make the necessary investments to inject CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. Based on these results, it will be determined under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange and transport can take place. Furthermore, also the

  15. Optimized mixed oils remarkably reduce the amount of surfactants in microemulsions without affecting oral bioavailability of ibuprofen by simultaneously enlarging microemulsion areas and enhancing drug solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhen; Tuo, Jue; Huang, Huizhi; Liu, Dan; You, Xiuhua; Mai, Jialuo; Song, Jiaqi; Xie, Yanqi; Wu, Chuanbin; Hu, Haiyan

    2015-06-20

    The toxicity and irritation associated with high amounts of surfactants restrict the extensive utilization of microemulsions. To address these shortcomings, employing mixed oils to enlarge microemulsion areas therefore reducing surfactant contents is a promising strategy. However, what kinds of mixed oils are more efficient in enlarging microemulsion areas still remains unclear. In this research, we found that the chain length and degree of unsaturation of oils play a key role in enlarging microemulsion areas. The combination of moderate chain saturated oil caprylic/capric triglyceride (GTCC) with long chain unsaturated oil glycerol trioleate significantly increased the microemulsion areas. Solubility of ibuprofen in the mixed oils was unexpectedly and remarkably increased (almost 300mg/mL) compared with that (around 100mg/mL) of the single oil (GTCC), which also resulted in greatly increased solubility of ibuprofen in mixed oils-containing microemulsions. By optimizing the mixed oil formulation, the absolute amount of surfactant in drug-loaded microemulsions was reduced but increased drug oral bioavailability in rats was maintained. It could be concluded that the combined use of moderate chain oils and long chain unsaturated oils could not only acquire enlarged microemulsion areas but also enhanced drug solubility, therefore doubly reducing surfactant amount, which is extremely beneficial for developing safe microemulsions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria for the Application in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Niraj; Dasgupta, Sumita; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Gupta, Smita

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, a biosurfactant producing bacterial strain was isolated, screened and identified. Further, various fermentation conditions (such as pH (5-10), incubation period (24-96h) and incubation temperature (20-60 °C) were optimized for maximum production of biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant was characterized by measuring emulsification index, foaming characteristics, rhamnolipid detection, interfacial tension between water and oil and stability against pH and temperature for its potential application in oil recovery process. The additional oil recovery for two different sand, sand1 and sand2, was found to be 49% and 38%, respectively.

  17. Improvements in the malaxation process to enhance the aroma quality of extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-09-01

    The influence of olive paste preparation conditions on the standard quality parameters, as well as volatile profiles of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla cultivars produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain and processed in an oil mill plant were investigated. For this purpose, two malaxation temperatures (20/30 °C), and two malaxation times (30/90 min) selected in accordance with the customs of the area producers were tested. The volatile profile of the oils underwent a substantial change in terms of odorant series when different malaxation parameters were applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coconut oil protects cortical neurons from amyloid beta toxicity by enhancing signaling of cell survival pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafar, F; Clarke, J P; Mearow, K M

    2017-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods. Neuronal survival and several cellular parameters (cleaved caspase 3, synaptophysin labeling and ROS) were assessed. In addition, the influence of these treatments on relevant signaling pathways was investigated with Western blotting. In terms of the treatment timing, our data indicated that coconut oil rescues cells pre-exposed to Aβ for 1 or 6 h, but is less effective when the pre-exposure has been 24 h. However, pretreatment with coconut oil prior to Aβ exposure showed the best outcomes. Treatment with octanoic or lauric acid also provided protection against Aβ, but was not as effective as the complete oil. The coconut oil treatment reduced the number of cells with cleaved caspase and ROS labeling, as well as rescuing the loss of synaptophysin labeling observed with Aβ treatment. Treatment with coconut oil, as well as octanoic, decanoic and lauric acids, resulted in a modest increase in ketone bodies compared to controls. The biochemical data suggest that Akt and ERK activation may contribute to the survival promoting influence of coconut oil. This was supported by observations that a PI3-Kinase inhibitor blocked the rescue effect of CoOil on Aβ amyloid toxicity. Further studies into the mechanisms of action of coconut oil and its constituent medium chain fatty acids are warranted

  19. Water deficit during pit hardening enhances phytoprostanes content, a plant biomarker of oxidative stress, in extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-González, Jacinta; Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón, M Carmen; Medina, Sonia; Durand, Thierry; Guy, Alexandre; Galano, Jean-Marie; Ferreres, Federico; Torrecillas, Arturo; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-04-15

    No previous information exists on the effects of water deficit on the phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) content in extra virgin olive oil from fruits of mature olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Cornicabra) trees during pit hardening. PhytoPs profile in extra virgin olive oil was characterized by the presence of 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-D1t-PhytoP, 9-D1t-PhytoP, 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP, and 9-L1-PhytoP + ent-9-L1-PhytoP. The qualitative and quantitative differences in PhytoPs content with respect to those reported by other authors indicate a decisive effect of cultivar, oil extraction technology, and/or storage conditions prone to autoxidation. The pit hardening period was critical for extra virgin olive oil composition because water deficit enhanced the PhytoPs content, with the concomitant potential beneficial aspects on human health. From a physiological and agronomical point of view, 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, and 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP could be considered as early candidate biomarkers of water stress in olive tree.

  20. Production of a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant by a Novel Bacillus sp. and Its Applicability to Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadavenkatesan, Thivaharan; Murty, Vytla Ramachandra

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds derived from varied microbial sources including bacteria and fungi. They are secreted extracellularly and have a wide range of exciting properties for bioremediation purposes. They also have vast applications in the food and medicine industry. With an objective of isolating microorganisms for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations, the study involved screening of organisms from an oil-contaminated site. Morphological, biochemical, and 16S rRNA analysis of the most promising candidate revealed it to be Bacillus siamensis, which has been associated with biosurfactant production, for the first time. Initial fermentation studies using mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil resulted in a maximum biosurfactant yield of 0.64 g/L and reduction of surface tension to 36.1 mN/m at 96 h. Characterization studies were done using thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. FTIR spectra indicated the presence of carbonyl groups, alkyl bonds, and C-H and N-H stretching vibrations, typical of peptides. The extracted biosurfactant was stable at extreme temperatures, pH, and salinity. Its applicability to EOR was further verified by conducting sand pack column studies that yielded up to 60% oil recovery.

  1. Production of biosurfactant from Bacillus licheniformis for microbial enhanced oil recovery and inhibition the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. El-Sheshtawy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis has been isolated from oil reservoir; the ability of this bacterium to produce a biosurfactant was detected. Surface properties of the produced biosurfactant were confirmed by determining the emulsification power as well as surface and interfacial tension. The crude biosurfactant has been extracted from supernatant culture growth, and the yield of crude biosurfactant was about 1 g/l. Also, chemical structure of the produced biosurfactant was confirmed using FTIR analysis. Results revealed that, the emulsification power has been increased up to 96% and the surface tension decreased from 72 of distilled water to 36 mN/m after 72 h of incubation. The potential application of this bacterial species in microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR was investigated. The percent of oil recovery was 16.6% upon application in a sand pack column designed to stimulate an oil recovery. It also showed antimicrobial activity against the growth of different strains of SRB (sulfate reducing bacteria. Results revealed that a complete inhibition of SRB growth using 1.0% crude biosurfactant is achieved after 3 h.

  2. Laboratory investigation of the factors impact on bubble size, pore blocking and enhanced oil recovery with aqueous Colloidal Gas Aphron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shenglong; Wang, Yefei; Li, Zhongpeng; Chen, Qingguo; Zhao, Zenghao

    Colloidal Gas Aphron as a mobility control in enhanced oil recovery is becoming attractive; it is also designed to block porous media with micro-bubbles. In this paper, the effects of surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, temperature and salinity on the bubble size of the Colloidal Gas Aphron were studied. Effects of injection rates, Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition, heterogeneity of reservoir on the resistance to the flow of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid through porous media were investigated. Effects of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition and temperature on residual oil recovery were also studied. The results showed that bubble growth rate decreased with increasing surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, and decreasing temperature, while it decreased and then increased slightly with increasing salinity. The obvious increase of injection pressure was observed as more Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was injected, indicating that Colloidal Gas Aphron could block the pore media effectively. The effectiveness of the best blend obtained through homogeneous sandpack flood tests was modestly improved in the heterogeneous sandpack. The tertiary oil recovery increased 26.8 % by Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid as compared to 20.3 % by XG solution when chemical solution of 1 PV was injected into the sandpack. The maximum injected pressure of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was about three times that of the XG solution. As the temperature increased, the Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid became less stable; the maximum injection pressure and tertiary oil recovery of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid decreased.

  3. Injection of multi-azimuth permeable planes in weakly cemented formations for enhanced heavy-oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocking, G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[GeoSierra LLC, Norcross, GA (United States); Cavender, T.; Schultz, R.L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Weakly cemented formations have minimal strength without fracture toughness. As such, the well stimulation process must be different from the fracturing process that occurs in hard rocks. This paper presented field injection experiments of multi-azimuth, injected, vertical planar geometries in several weakly cemented formations. The application of the method to shallow petroleum soft rock reservoirs was described, with particular reference to the thermal and solvent recovery of heavy oil. This study showed that in weakly cemented formations, a well-initiation device can control the azimuth of injected vertical planes, thereby controlling the rate of injection and the viscosity of the injected fluid. The concept of using the multi-azimuth, vertical permeable planes has strong potential in soft-rock formations for enhanced production in both shallow gas and shallow heavy-oil reservoirs. The method can be applied in a single well injector-producer for the continuous injection of steam and the continuous extraction of oil, similar to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and may be more efficient than a confined horizontal well pair typically used in SAGD. However, the authors noted that the effectiveness of the multi-azimuth process has yet to be proven for oil sand formations. 13 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  4. Feasibility of Seismic Monitoring at a Potential CO2 Injection Test Site in the Paris Basin Évaluation des apports de la sismique à la surveillance d’un test d’injection de CO2 sur un site pilote potentiel du Bassin de Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Becquey M.; Lucet N.; Huguet F.

    2009-01-01

    Seismic effects of the injection of CO2 into a partially depleted oil field have been evaluated. Seismic modelling yields small time-lapse effects, including 0.4 ms time-shifts and 4 to 6% amplitude variations at the top and bottom of the reservoir. Amplitude variations at the reservoir level should be slightly larger at large incidence angles, but wave equation modelling shows that picking these reflections will not be easy, because of the presence of shear waves generated at upper inte...

  5. Tribological characteristic enhancement effects by polymer thickened oil in lubricated sliding contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratomo, Ariawan Wahyu; Muchammad, Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Jamari, Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    Polymer thickened oils are the most preferred materials for modern lubrication applications due to their high shear. The present paper explores a lubrication mechanism in sliding contact lubricated with polymer thickened oil considering cavitation. Investigations are carried out by using a numerical method based on commercial CFD (computational fluid dynamic) software ANSYS for fluid flow phenomenon (Fluent) to assess the tribological characteristic (i.e. hydrodynamic pressure distribution) of lubricated sliding contact. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri model for cavitation is adopted in this simulation to predict the extent of the full film region. The polymer thickened oil is characterized as non-Newtonian power-law fluid. The simulation results show that the cavitation lead lower pressure profile compared to that without cavitation. In addition, it is concluded that the characteristic of the lubrication performance with polymer thickened oil is strongly dependent on the Power-law index of lubricant.

  6. Growth enhancement of effective microorganisms for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukred, Abdualdaim Mohammed; Abd-Hamid, Aidil; Hamzah, Ainon; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2008-07-01

    The bioremediation of polluted groundwater, wastewater aeration pond and biopond sites was investigated using bacteria isolated from these sites located at the oil refinery Terengganu Malaysia. Out of 62 isolates, only 16 isolates from groundwater (8) and wastewater aeration pond (3) and biopond (5) were chosen based on growth medium containing 1% (v/v) Tapis crude oil. Only four isolates; Acinetobacter faecalis, Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas putida and Neisseria elongata showed percentage biodegradation of crude oil more than 50% after 5 days using Mineral Salts Medium (MSM). The effect of physical parameters (temperature, pH and agitation) on growth by all four strains showed a maximum growth in MSM medium with 1% Tapis crude oil at 37 degrees C with pH 7 and agitation of 130 rpm.

  7. Combination of Superheated Steam with Laccase Pretreatment Together with Size Reduction to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Fatin Athirah Ahmad Rizal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The combination of superheated steam (SHS with ligninolytic enzyme laccase pretreatment together with size reduction was conducted in order to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm biomass into glucose. The oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB and oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF were pretreated with SHS and ground using a hammer mill to sizes of 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mm before pretreatment using laccase to remove lignin. This study showed that reduction of size from raw to 0.25 mm plays important role in lignin degradation by laccase that removed 38.7% and 39.6% of the lignin from OPEFB and OPMF, respectively. The subsequent saccharification process of these pretreated OPEFB and OPMF generates glucose yields of 71.5% and 63.0%, which represent a 4.6 and 4.8-fold increase, respectively, as compared to untreated samples. This study showed that the combination of SHS with laccase pretreatment together with size reduction could enhance the glucose yield.

  8. RNA interference of GhPEPC2 enhanced seed oil accumulation and salt tolerance in Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Yi; Wang, Yumei; Cui, Yupeng; Liu, Zhengjie; Hua, Jinping

    2018-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) mainly produces oxaloacetic acid for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we reported that GhPEPC2 silencing with PEPC2-RNAi vector could regulate oil and protein accumulation in cottonseeds. In GhPEPC2 transgenic plants, PEPCase activities in immature embryos were significantly reduced, and the oil content in seed kernel was increased 7.3 percentages, whereas total proteins decreased 5.65 percentages. Compared to wild type, agronomical traits of transgenic plant were obviously unaffected. Furthermore, gene expression profile of GhPEPC2 transgenic seeds were investigated using RNA-seq, most lipid synthesis related genes were up-regulated, but amino acid metabolic related genes were down-regulated. In addition, the GhPEPC2 transgenic cotton seedlings were stressed using sodium salts at seedling stage, and the salt tolerance was significantly enhanced. Our observations of GhPEPC2 in cotton would shade light on understanding the regulation of oil content, protein accumulation and salt tolerance enhancement in other plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. UC Cooperative Extension sensory analysis panel enhances the quality of California olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vossen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available California's olive oil industry has evolved from primarily a salvage operation of the table olive industry to a producer of world-class, premium, extra-virgin olive oil. In 1997, UC Cooperative Extension started the first California olive oil taste panel, which was officially recognized by the International Olive Council in 2001. Specific protocols were used to screen potential panelists and train them to identify defects and positive characteristics, identical to 43 other world taste panels. The UCCE panel helped the California Olive Oil Council develop a seal certification program using sensory analysis. Certification provides consumers with assurance that labeled oils are free of defects and warrant the "extra virgin" grade. Sensory evaluation using a unique UCCE profile sheet provides complete and detailed information about specific positive flavor characteristics of olive cultivars grown in California. The UCCE sensory panel has also contributed to a better understanding of the qualities of California olive oil and advancement of the industry by participating in research on pest management, cultural practices and processing.

  10. Eos modeling and reservoir simulation study of bakken gas injection improved oil recovery in the elm coulee field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Wanli

    The Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the most productive liquid-rich unconventional plays. The Bakken Formation is divided into three members, and the Middle Bakken Member is the primary target for horizontal wellbore landing and hydraulic fracturing because of its better rock properties. Even with this new technology, the primary recovery factor is believed to be only around 10%. This study is to evaluate various gas injection EOR methods to try to improve on that low recovery factor of 10%. In this study, the Elm Coulee Oil Field in the Williston Basin was selected as the area of interest. Static reservoir models featuring the rock property heterogeneity of the Middle Bakken Member were built, and fluid property models were built based on Bakken reservoir fluid sample PVT data. By employing both compositional model simulation and Todd-Longstaff solvent model simulation methods, miscible gas injections were simulated and the simulations speculated that oil recovery increased by 10% to 20% of OOIP in 30 years. The compositional simulations yielded lower oil recovery compared to the solvent model simulations. Compared to the homogeneous model, the reservoir model featuring rock property heterogeneity in the vertical direction resulted in slightly better oil recovery, but with earlier CO2 break-through and larger CO2 production, suggesting that rock property heterogeneity is an important property for modeling because it has a big effect on the simulation results. Long hydraulic fractures shortened CO2 break-through time greatly and increased CO 2 production. Water-alternating-gas injection schemes and injection-alternating-shut-in schemes can provide more options for gas injection EOR projects, especially for gas production management. Compared to CO2 injection