Sample records for co2-c ha-1 yr-1

  1. CO2 removals and CO2 and non-CO2 trace gas emissions affected by human activity in the forests in the Republic of macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupche, Ljupcho; Lozanovski, Risto; Markovska, Natasha


    During 2000 and 2001 inventories of CO 2 removals and emissions caused by changes in forest and other woody biomass stocks, as well as the inventories of CO 2 and non-CO 2 trace gas emissions caused by forest conversions (accidental burning) were carried out. According to the forest area in ha, and depending on the differences between the annual biomass increment and annual biomass consumption, about 30-50% of total annual carbon uptake increment is released through the biomass consumption from stocks. 50-70% of the net annual carbon uptake converted to CO 2 identify the annual removals of this gas, which is on average 1805 Gg/yr, ranging between 1485 and 2243 Gg/yr. From 1990 to 1998 on average 4700 ha forest area (min. 110 ha in 1991, max. 14420 ha in 1993) was burned. Proportionally to the burned area, there was a release on average of 18.62 kt C annually (min. 0.42 kt C, max. 57.11 kt), related to 136.07 kt CO 2 on average (min. 1.5 kt CO 2 , max. 209.22 kt CO 2 ). (Original)

  2. EMISI CO2 TANAH AKIBAT ALIH FUNGSI LAHAN HUTAN RAWA GAMBUT DI KALIMANTAN BARAT (Soil Emissions of CO2 Due to Land Use Change of Peat Swamp Forest at West Kalimantan

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    Rossie Wiedya Nusantara


    the rainy season. The research shows that the highest and lowest soil emissions of CO2 at the  two measurements are at KJ (6.512 ton ha-1 yr-1 and SB (1.698  ton ha-1 yr-1, and at KS (6.701 ton ha-1 yr-1 and SB (3.169 ton ha-1 yr-1, respectively. The highest and lowest temperature of peat soil the  two measurements are at SB (27.78 oC and HP (22.78 oC, and at KS (29.08 oC dan HP (26.56 oC. Also the highest and lowest water-table depth of peat soil are at KJ (56.2 cm and  SB (32.1 cm. The factors caused to differences of CO2 emissions are soil temperature, water-table depth and land cultivation which caused changing of peat-soil properties such as organic-C stock, soil pH and peat maturity.

  3. Protection of guinea pigs by vaccination with a recombinant swinepox virus co-expressing HA1 genes of swine H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses. (United States)

    Xu, Jiarong; Yang, Deji; Huang, Dongyan; Xu, Jiaping; Liu, Shichao; Lin, Huixing; Zhu, Haodan; Liu, Bao; Lu, Chengping


    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory infectious disease of swine caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). SIV is not only an important respiratory pathogen in pigs but also a potent threat to human health. Here, we report the construction of a recombinant swinepox virus (rSPV/H3-2A-H1) co-expressing hemagglutinin (HA1) of SIV subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. Immune responses and protection efficacy of the rSPV/H3-2A-H1 were evaluated in guinea pigs. Inoculation of rSPV/H3-2A-H1 yielded neutralizing antibodies against SIV H1N1 and H3N2. The IFN-γ and IL-4 concentrations in the supernatant of lymphocytes stimulated with purified SIV HA1 antigen were significantly higher (P guinea pigs against SIV H1N1 or H3N2 challenge was observed. No SIV shedding was detected from guinea pigs vaccinated with rSPV/H3-2A-H1 after challenge. Most importantly, the guinea pigs immunized with rSPV/H3-2A-H1 did not show gross and micrographic lung lesions. However, the control guinea pigs experienced distinct gross and micrographic lung lesions at 7 days post-challenge. Our data suggest that the recombinant swinepox virus encoding HA1 of SIV H1N1 and H3N2 might serve as a promising candidate vaccine for protection against SIV H1N1 and H3N2 infections.

  4. Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses to Influenza H7N9 Antigen HA1-2 Co-Delivered Intranasally with Flagellin or Polyethyleneimine in Mice and Chickens. (United States)

    Song, Li; Xiong, Dan; Song, Hongqin; Wu, Lili; Zhang, Meihua; Kang, Xilong; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan


    Consecutive cases of human infection with H7N9 influenza viruses since 2013 in China have prompted efforts to develop an effective treatment. Subunit vaccines introduced by intranasal administration can block an infection at its primary site; flagellin (fliC) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) have been shown to be potent adjuvants. We previously generated the hemagglutinin (HA)1-2-fliC fusion protein consisting of the globular head domain (HA1-2; amino acids 62-284) of HA fused with Salmonella typhimurium fliC. In the present study, we investigated its effectiveness of both flagellin and PEI as mucosal adjuvants for the H7N9 influenza subunit vaccine. Mice immunized intranasally with HA1-2-fliC and HA1-2-PEI showed higher HA1-2-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA titers in serum, nasal wash, and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, splenocyte activation and proliferation and the number of HA1-2-specific interferon (IFN)-γ- and interleukin (IL)-4-producing splenocytes were markedly increased in the fliC and PEI groups; in the latter, there were more cells secreting IL-4 than IFN-γ, suggesting that fliC induced T helper type (Th)1 and Th2 immune responses, and PEI induced Th2-biased responses, consistent with the serum antibody isotype pattern (IgG1/IgG2a ratio). Furthermore, virus challenge was performed in a chicken model. The results showed that chickens receiving fliC and PEI adjuvant vaccine exhibited robust immune responses leading to a significant reduction in viral loads of throat and cloaca compared to chickens receiving only HA1-2. These findings provide a basis for the development of H7N9 influenza HA1-2 mucosal subunit vaccines.

  5. CO2 and N2O emissions from an Andisol in Chile under a no-till system using non-fixed closed chambers Emisiones de CO2 y N2O desde un Andisol de Chile bajo sistema de cero labranza usando cámaras cerradas no-fijas

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    Cristina Muñoz


    Full Text Available Chile has different types of soil and climate conditions that favor a wide range of agricultural activities that can generate potential atmospheric contamination like greenhouse gases (GHG. Nevertheless, the contribution of agricultural soils to atmospheric emissions has yet to be measured in Chile. The aim of this study was to assess seasonal variability of CO2 and N2O effluxes in situ from a volcanic ash-derived soil under different agronomic management practices. Gas samples were obtained from headspaces of non-fixed closed chambers in an annual crop rotation under a no-till system in an Andisol in southern Chile (36° S. Two N-sources (NH4+ and NO3- and ammonium fertilization plus two lime doses (0.5 and 1 Mg ha-1 were considered for soil treatments Effluxes of CO2 and N2O were determined periodically for 1 yr, and soil variables, such as temperature, water, and mineral N content, were recorded. Results showed that CO2 effluxes respond to a seasonal pattern. No effect was evidenced when considering crop management practices with a maximum of 53.2 ± 8.5 kg CO2-C ha-1 d-1 in the wet fall period and a minimum of 9.7 ± 2.1 kg CO2-C ha-1 d-1 for summer, fall dry period, and winter. N2O efflux was highly variable throughout the year and showed no influence of treatments or season variability with a mean of 0.95 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1. Soil mineral N variations are not related to GHG effluxes as a single variable. Results indicate that an Andisol under a no-till system in southern Chile has a low N2O emission potential, and higher CO2 emissions are mainly produced in wet seasons (wet fall and/or spring.Chile tiene diferentes tipos de suelo y condiciones climáticas que favorecen un amplio rango de actividades agrícolas, las cuales pueden generar contaminación atmosférica potencial como los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG. Sin embargo, mediciones de la contribución de los suelos agrícolas en las emisiones atmosféricas de estos gases no ha sido

  6. Soil CO 2 fluxes from direct seeding rice fields under two tillage practices in central China (United States)

    Li, Cheng-fang; Kou, Zhi-kui; Yang, Jin-hua; Cai, Ming-li; Wang, Jin-ping; Cao, Cou-gui


    Agricultural practices affect the production and emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from paddy soils. It is crucial to understand the effects of tillage and N fertilization on soil CO 2 flux and its influencing factors for a better comprehension of carbon dynamics in subtropical paddy ecosystems. A 2-yr field study was conducted to assess the effects of tillage (conventional tillage [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) and N fertilization (0 and 210 kg N ha -1) on soil CO 2 fluxes during the 2008 and 2009 rice growing seasons in central China. Treatments were established following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices as the main plot and N fertilizer level as the split-plot treatment. The soil CO 2 fluxes were measured 24 times in 2008 and 17 times in 2009. N fertilization did not affect soil CO 2 emissions while tillage affected soil CO 2 emissions, where NT had similar soil CO 2 emissions to CT in 2008, but in 2009, NT significantly increased soil CO 2 emissions. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were 2079-2245 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 2084-2141 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2008, and were 1257-1401 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 1003-1034 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2009, respectively. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were significantly related to aboveground biomass and soil organic C. Before drainage of paddy fields, soil CO 2 fluxes were significantly related to soil temperature with correlation coefficients ( R) of 0.67-0.87 in 2008 and 0.69-0.85 in 2009; moreover, the Q 10 values ranged from 1.28 to 1.55 and from 2.10 to 5.21 in 2009, respectively. Our results suggested that NT rice production system appeared to be ineffective in decreasing carbon emission, which suggested that CO 2 emissions from integrated rice-based system should be taken into account to assess effects of tillage.


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    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Patel, N. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Otsuka, M.; Srinivasan, S. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Riebel, D., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We observe a sample of eight evolved stars in the Galactic bulge in the CO J = 2-1 line using the Submillimeter Array with angular resolution of 1''-4''. These stars have been detected previously at infrared wavelengths, and several of them have OH maser emission. We detect CO J = 2-1 emission from three of the sources in the sample: OH 359.943 +0.260, [SLO2003] A12, and [SLO2003] A51. We do not detect the remaining five stars in the sample because of heavy contamination from the galactic CO emission. Combining CO data with observations at infrared wavelengths constraining dust mass loss from these stars, we determine the gas-to-dust ratios of the Galactic bulge stars for which CO emission is detected. For OH 359.943 +0.260, we determine a gas mass-loss rate of 7.9 ({+-}2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a gas-to-dust ratio of 310 ({+-}89). For [SLO2003] A12, we find a gas mass-loss rate of 5.4 ({+-}2.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a gas-to-dust ratio of 220 ({+-}110). For [SLO2003] A51, we find a gas mass-loss rate of 3.4 ({+-}3.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a gas-to-dust ratio of 160 ({+-}140), reflecting the low quality of our tentative detection of the CO J = 2-1 emission from A51. We find that the CO J = 2-1 detections of OH/IR stars in the Galactic bulge require lower average CO J = 2-1 backgrounds.

  8. Quantifying and reducing the differences in forest CO2-fluxes estimated by eddy covariance, biometric and chamber methods: A global synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xingchang; Wang, Chuankuan; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere are primarily measured with eddy covariance (EC), biometric, and chamber methods. However, it is unclear why the estimates of CO2-fluxes, when measured using these different methods, converge at some sites but diverge at others. We synthesized a novel global dataset of forest CO2-fluxes to evaluate the consistency between EC and biometric or chamber methods for quantifying CO2 budget in forests. The EC approach, comparing with the other two methods, tended to produce 25% higher estimate of net ecosystem production (NEP, 0.52Mg C ha-1 yr-1), mainly resulting from lower EC-estimated Re; 10% lower ecosystem respiration (Re, 1.39Mg C ha-1 yr-1); and 3% lower gross primary production (0.48 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) The discrepancies between EC and the other methods were higher at sites with complex topography and dense canopies versus those with flat topography and open canopies. Forest age also influenced the discrepancy through the change of leaf area index. The open-path EC system induced >50% of the discrepancy in NEP, presumably due to its surface heating effect. These results provided strong evidence that EC produces biased estimates of NEP and Re in forest ecosystems. A global extrapolation suggested that the discrepancies in CO2 fluxes between methods were consistent with a global underestimation of Re, and overestimation of NEP, by the EC method. Accounting for these discrepancies would substantially improve the our estimates of the terrestrial carbon budget .

  9. Reconsideration of atmospheric CO2 lifetime: potential mechanism for explaining CO2 missing sink (United States)

    Kikuchi, R.; Gorbacheva, T.; Gerardo, R.


    Carbon cycle data (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1996) indicate that fossil fuel use accounts for emissions to the atmosphere of 5.5±0.5 GtC (Gigatons of carbon) annually. Other important processes in the global CO2 budget are tropical deforestation, estimated to generate about 1.6±1.0 GtC/yr; absorption by the oceans, removing about 2.0±0.8 GtC/yr; and regrowth of northern forests, taking up about 0.5±0.5 GtC/yr. However, accurate measurements of CO2 show that the atmosphere is accumulating only about 3.3±0.2 GtC/yr. The imbalance of about 1.3±1.5 GtC/yr, termed the "missing sink", represents the difference between the estimated sources and the estimated sinks of CO2; that is, we do not know where all of the anthropogenic CO2 is going. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain this missing carbon, such as CO2 fertilization, climate change, nitrogen deposition, land use change, forest regrowth et al. Considering the complexity of ecosystem, most of ecosystem model cannot handle all the potential mechanisms to reproduce the real world. It has been believed that the dominant sink mechanism is the fertilizing effects of increased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and the addition to soils of fixed nitrogen from fossil-fuel burning and agricultural fertilizers. However, a recent analysis of long-term observations of the change in biomass and growth rates suggests that such fertilization effects are much too small to explain more than a small fraction of the observed sink. In addition, long-term experiments in which small forest patches and other land ecosystems have been exposed to elevated CO2 levels for extended periods show a rapid decrease of the fertilization effect after an initial enhancement. We will explore this question of the missing sink in atmospheric CO2 residence time. Radioactive and stable carbon isotopes (13-C/12-C) show the real CO2 lifetime is about 5 years; i.e. CO2 is quickly taken out of the atmospheric

  10. A comparison of cellulosic fuel yields and separated soil-surface CO2 fluxes in maize and prairie biofuel cropping systems (United States)

    Nichols, Virginia A.

    It has been suggested that strategic incorporation of perennial vegetation into agricultural landscapes could provide ecosystem services while maintaining agricultural productivity. To evaluate potential use of prairie as a Midwestern cellulosic feedstock, we investigated theoretical cellulosic fuel yields, as well as soil-surface carbon dioxide emissions of prairie-based biofuel systems as compared to maize-based systems on fertile soils in Boone County, IA, USA. Investigated systems were: a maize-soybean rotation grown for grain only, continuous maize grown for grain and stover both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and a 31-species reconstructed prairie grown with and without spring nitrogen fertilization for fall-harvested biomass. From 2009-2013, the highest producing system was N-fertilized prairie, averaging 10.4 Mg ha -1 yr-1 above-ground biomass with average harvest removals of 7.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The unfertilized prairie produced 7.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1, averaging harvests of 5.3 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Lowest cellulosic biomass harvests were realized from continuous maize systems, averaging 3.5 Mg ha -1 yr-1 when grown with, and 3.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1 when grown without a winter rye cover crop, respectively. Un-fertilized prairie biomass and maize stover had equivalent dietary conversion ratios at 330 g ethanol kg-1 dry biomass, but N-fertilized prairie was lower at 315. Over four years prairie systems averaged 1287 L cellulosic ethanol ha-1 yr-1 more than maize systems, with fertilization increasing prairie ethanol production by 865 L ha-1 yr-1. Harvested biomass accounted for >90% of ethanol yield variation. A major hurdle in carbon cycling studies is the separation of the soil-surface CO2 flux into its respective components. From 2012-2013 we used a shading method to separate soil-surface CO2 resulting from oxidation of soil organic matter and CO2 derived from live-root activity in three systems: unfertilized prairie, N-fertilized prairie, and continuous maize

  11. Observations of CO2 in Comets C/2012 S1 ISON and C/2012 K1 PANSTARRS (United States)

    McKay, Adam; Kelley, Michael; DiSanti, Michael; Cochran, Anita; Dello Russo, Neil; Lisse, Carey; Chanover, Nancy


    Comets have undergone very little thermal evolution in their lifetimes, resulting in a primitive composition. This primitive composition makes observations of comets very important tools for understanding the origin of the Solar System. The ices H2O, CO2, and CO are the primary ices present in cometary nuclei, and constraining their abundances has tremendous implications for the formation and evolutionary history of comets. Of these ices, H2O and CO can be observed from the ground, while CO2 cannot. A potentially effective tracer for CO2 in comets that is accessible from the ground is atomic oxygen. However, the relationship between these ices and atomic oxygen is only understood at a qualitative level. We propose to use Spitzer observations in IRAC's 4.5 micron band pass to observe the CO2 v3 band at 4.26 microns in comets C/2012 S1 ISON and C/2012 K1 PANSTARRS. These observations will be coordinated with observations of atomic oxygen obtained at Apache Point Observatory and McDonald Observatory and observations of H2O and CO at Keck and IRTF. These observations of H2O, CO2, and atomic oxygen in a cometary coma will increase our understanding of the link between these primary ices and atomic oxygen. With a complete understanding of the relationship between atomic oxygen and the primary ices on the nucleus, observations of atomic oxygen can serve as a powerful proxy for the production of CO2. In addition, ISON is the target of an extensive observing campaign led by NASA, and the proposed Spitzer observations fill a vital niche as the only observatory that can observe CO2 during both the near-perihelion time frame and significantly (months) after perihelion. Understanding the evolution of the CO2 abundance over the apparition is a key piece to understanding how the volatile compostion of the comet changes over the apparition.

  12. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1 from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi.

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    Fen Qiao

    Full Text Available Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266, Ha-far-2 (KU877267, Hf-far-1 (KU877268. Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more

  13. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi. (United States)

    Qiao, Fen; Luo, Lilian; Peng, Huan; Luo, Shujie; Huang, Wenkun; Cui, Jiangkuan; Li, Xin; Kong, Lingan; Jiang, Daohong; Chitwood, David J; Peng, Deliang


    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266), Ha-far-2 (KU877267), Hf-far-1 (KU877268). Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more than Ha-far-2 in

  14. Synthesis of dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine-{sup 14}C-2,4 (dimethyl-1-1 biguanide) hydrochloride; Synthese du chlorhydrate de dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine {sup 14}C-2,4 (dimethyl-1-1 biguanide)

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    Herbert, M; Pichat, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A description of the synthesis of dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine-{sup 14}C-2,4 hydrochloride passing through the {sup 14}C{sub 2} dicyandiamide. The overall yield with respect to Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3} is 38 per cent. (author) [French] Description de la synthese du chlorhydrate de dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine {sup 14}C-2,4 par l'intermediaire de la dicyandiamide {sup 14}C{sub 2}. Le rendement global par rapport a {sup 14}CO{sub 3}Ba est de 38 pour cent. (auteur)

  15. Homoleptic diphosphacyclobutadiene complexes [M(η(4)-P2C2R2)2]x- (M = Fe, Co; x = 0, 1). (United States)

    Wolf, Robert; Ehlers, Andreas W; Khusniyarov, Marat M; Hartl, František; de Bruin, Bas; Long, Gary J; Grandjean, Fernande; Schappacher, Falko M; Pöttgen, Rainer; Slootweg, J Chris; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; Lammertsma, Koop


    The preparation and comprehensive characterization of a series of homoleptic sandwich complexes containing diphosphacyclobutadiene ligands are reported. Compounds [K([18]crown-6)(thf)(2)][Fe(η(4)-P(2)C(2)tBu(2))(2)] (K1), [K([18]crown-6)(thf)(2)][Co(η(4)-P(2)C(2)tBu(2))(2)] (K2), and [K([18]crown-6)(thf)(2)][Co(η(4)-P(2)C(2)Ad(2))(2)] (K3, Ad = adamantyl) were obtained from reactions of [K([18]crown-6)(thf)(2)][M(η(4)-C(14)H(10))(2)] (M = Fe, Co) with tBuC[triple bond]P (1, 2), or with AdC[triple bond]P (3). Neutral sandwiches [M(η(4)-P(2)C(2)tBu(2))(2)] (4: M = Fe 5: M = Co) were obtained by oxidizing 1 and 2 with [Cp(2)Fe]PF(6). Cyclic voltammetry and spectro-electrochemistry indicate that the two [M(η(4)-P(2)C(2)tBu(2))(2)](-)/[M(η(4)-P(2)C(2)tBu(2))(2)] moieties can be reversibly interconverted by one electron oxidation and reduction, respectively. Complexes 1-5 were characterized by multinuclear NMR, EPR (1 and 5), UV/Vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopies (1 and 4), mass spectrometry (4 and 5), and microanalysis (1-3). The molecular structures of 1-5 were determined by using X-ray crystallography. Essentially D(2d)-symmetric structures were found for all five complexes, which show the two 1,3-diphosphacyclobutadiene rings in a staggered orientation. Density functional theory calculations revealed the importance of covalent metal-ligand π bonding in 1-5. Possible oxidation state assignments for the metal ions are discussed.

  16. Sugar-binding sites of the HA1 subcomponent of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin. (United States)

    Nakamura, Toshio; Tonozuka, Takashi; Ide, Azusa; Yuzawa, Takayuki; Oguma, Keiji; Nishikawa, Atsushi


    Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin contains a hemagglutinin (HA) subcomponent, designated HA1, which appears to play an important role in the effective internalization of the toxin in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and in creating a broad specificity for the oligosaccharide structure that corresponds to various targets. In this study, using the recombinant protein fused to glutathione S-transferase, we investigated the binding specificity of the HA1 subcomponent to sugars and estimated the binding sites of HA1 based on X-ray crystallography and soaking experiments using various sugars. N-Acetylneuraminic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactose effectively inhibited the binding that occurs between glutathione S-transferase-HA1 and mucins, whereas N-acetylglucosamine and glucose did not inhibit it. The crystal structures of HA1 complex with N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactose were also determined. There are two sugar-binding sites, sites I and II. Site I corresponds to the electron densities noted for all sugars and is located at the C-terminal beta-trefoil domain, while site II corresponds to the electron densities noted only for galactose. An aromatic amino acid residue, Trp176, at site I has a stacking interaction with the hexose ring of the sugars. On the other hand, there is no aromatic residue at site II; thus, the interaction with galactose seems to be poor. The double mutant W176A at site I and D271F at site II has no avidity for N-acetylneuraminic acid but has avidity for galactose. In this report, the binding specificity of botulinum C16S toxin HA1 to various sugars is demonstrated based on its structural features.

  17. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and increased nitrogen deposition on growth and chemical composition of ombrotrophic Sphagnum balticum and oligo-mesotrophic Sphagnum papillosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heijden, E; Jauhiainen, J; Silvola, J; Vasander, H; Kuiper, PJC


    The ombrotrophic Sphagnum balticum (Russ.) C. Jens. and the oligo-mesotrophic Sphagnum papillosum Lindb. were grown at ambient (360 mu l l(-1)) and at elevated (720 mu l l(-1)) atmospheric CO2 concentrations and at different nitrogen deposition rates, varying between 0 and 30kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), The

  18. Production and turnover of ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelial biomass and necromass under elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. (United States)

    Ekblad, Alf; Mikusinska, Anna; Ågren, Göran I; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Wallander, Håkan; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bahr, Adam; Eriksson, Ulrika


    Extramatrical mycelia (EMM) of ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests, but poor knowledge about EMM biomass and necromass turnovers makes the quantification of their role problematic. We studied the impacts of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on EMM production and turnover in a Pinus taeda forest. EMM C was determined by the analysis of ergosterol (biomass), chitin (total bio- and necromass) and total organic C (TOC) of sand-filled mycelium in-growth bags. The production and turnover of EMM bio- and necromass and total C were estimated by modelling. N fertilization reduced the standing EMM biomass C to 57% and its production to 51% of the control (from 238 to 122 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), whereas elevated CO2 had no detectable effects. Biomass turnover was high (˜13 yr(-1) ) and unchanged by the treatments. Necromass turnover was slow and was reduced from 1.5 yr(-1) in the control to 0.65 yr(-1) in the N-fertilized treatment. However, TOC data did not support an N effect on necromass turnover. An estimated EMM production ranging from 2.5 to 6% of net primary production stresses the importance of its inclusion in C models. A slow EMM necromass turnover indicates an importance in building up forest humus. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of LiCo_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4/C composite using nano CoFe_2O_4 as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kaipeng; Hu, Guorong; Du, Ke; Peng, Zhongdong; Cao, Yanbing


    LiCo_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4/C composite was synthesized by a solid state method with CoFe_2O_4 as the precursor and glucose as the carbon source. The composite consists of homogeneous Co–Fe distributed LiCo_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4 with its particles covered by nano-carbon layers, which could prevent the growth of the particles as well as form a fast path for electronic transmission during charging and discharging process. It shows excellent electrochemical performance as the cathode for lithium-ion batteries, which delivers discharge capacities of 154.6, 152.9, 135.4, 122.3, 105.2 and 91.3 mAh g"−"1 at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 C, respectively, and retains 94.6% of its initial discharge capacity after 30 cycles at 5 C. - Highlights: • Nano CoFe_2O_4 was prepared by a co-precipitation method. • LiCo_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4/C composite was synthesized using nano CoFe_2O_4 as a precursor. • Homogeneous Co–Fe distributed LiCo_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4 is obtained. • LiCo_1_/_3Fe_2_/_3PO_4/C composite exhibits a quite good electrochemical performance.

  20. Three-Dimensional Hierarchical NixCo1-xO/NiyCo2-yP@C Hybrids on Nickel Foam for Excellent Supercapacitors. (United States)

    Shao, Yubo; Zhao, Yongqing; Li, Hua; Xu, Cailing


    Active materials and special structures of the electrode have decisive influence on the electrochemical properties of supercapacitors. Herein, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical Ni x Co 1-x O/Ni y Co 2-y P@C (denoted as NiCoOP@C) hybrids have been successfully prepared by a phosphorization treatment of hierarchical Ni x Co 1-x O@C grown on nickel foam. The resulting NiCoOP@C hybrids exhibit an outstanding specific capacitance and cycle performance because they couple the merits of the superior cycling stability of Ni x Co 1-x O, the high specific capacitance of Ni y Co 2-y P, the mechanical stability of carbon layer, and the 3D hierarchical structure. The specific capacitance of 2638 F g -1 can be obtained at the current density of 1 A g -1 , and even at the current density of 20 A g -1 , the NiCoOP@C electrode still possesses a specific capacitance of 1144 F g -1 . After 3000 cycles at 10 A g -1 , 84% of the initial specific capacitance is still remained. In addition, an asymmetric ultracapacitor (ASC) is assembled through using NiCoOP@C hybrids as anode and activated carbon as cathode. The as-prepared ASC obtains a maximum energy density of 39.4 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 394 W kg -1 and still holds 21 Wh kg -1 at 7500 W kg -1 .

  1. 1.5 °C carbon budget dependent on carbon cycle uncertainty and future non-CO2 forcing. (United States)

    Mengis, Nadine; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Jalbert, Jonathan; Matthews, H Damon


    Estimates of the 1.5 °C carbon budget vary widely among recent studies, emphasizing the need to better understand and quantify key sources of uncertainty. Here we quantify the impact of carbon cycle uncertainty and non-CO 2 forcing on the 1.5 °C carbon budget in the context of a prescribed 1.5 °C temperature stabilization scenario. We use Bayes theorem to weight members of a perturbed parameter ensemble with varying land and ocean carbon uptake, to derive an estimate for the fossil fuel (FF) carbon budget of 469 PgC since 1850, with a 95% likelihood range of (411,528) PgC. CO 2 emissions from land-use change (LUC) add about 230 PgC. Our best estimate of the total (FF + LUC) carbon budget for 1.5 °C is therefore 699 PgC, which corresponds to about 11 years of current emissions. Non-CO 2 greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions represent equivalent cumulative CO 2 emissions of about 510 PgC and -180 PgC for 1.5 °C, respectively. The increased LUC, high non-CO 2 emissions and decreased aerosols in our scenario, cause the long-term FF carbon budget to decrease following temperature stabilization. In this scenario, negative emissions would be required to compensate not only for the increasing non-CO 2 climate forcing, but also for the declining natural carbon sinks.

  2. Changes in vegetation phenology are not reflected in atmospheric CO2 and 13 C/12 C seasonality. (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; D'Odorico, Petra; Chen, Jing M; Wu, Chaoyang; Buchmann, Nina


    Northern terrestrial ecosystems have shown global warming-induced advances in start, delays in end, and thus increased lengths of growing season and gross photosynthesis in recent decades. The tradeoffs between seasonal dynamics of two opposing fluxes, CO 2 uptake through photosynthesis and release through respiration, determine the influence of the terrestrial ecosystem on the atmospheric CO 2 and 13 C/ 12 C seasonality. Here, we use four CO 2 observation stations in the Northern Hemisphere, namely Alert, La Jolla, Point Barrow, and Mauna Loa Observatory, to determine how changes in vegetation productivity and phenology, respiration, and air temperature affect both the atmospheric CO 2 and 13 C/ 12 C seasonality. Since the 1960s, the only significant long-term trend of CO 2 and 13 C/ 12 C seasonality was observed at the northern most station, Alert, where the spring CO 2 drawdown dates advanced by 0.65 ± 0.55 days yr -1 , contributing to a nonsignificant increase in length of the CO 2 uptake period (0.74 ± 0.67 days yr -1 ). For Point Barrow station, vegetation phenology changes in well-watered ecosystems such as the Canadian and western Siberian wetlands contributed the most to 13 C/ 12 C seasonality while the CO 2 seasonality was primarily linked to nontree vegetation. Our results indicate significant increase in the Northern Hemisphere soil respiration. This means, increased respiration of 13 C depleted plant materials cancels out the 12 C gain from enhanced vegetation activities during the start and end of growing season. These findings suggest therefore that parallel warming-induced increases both in photosynthesis and respiration contribute to the long-term stability of CO 2 and 13 C/ 12 C seasonality under changing climate and vegetation activity. The summer photosynthesis and the soil respiration in the dormant seasons have become more vigorous which lead to increased peak-to-through CO 2 amplitude. As the relative magnitude of the increased

  3. Synthesis of [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]olivetolic acid, methyl [1'-13C]olivetolate and [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]cannabigerolic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porwoll, J.P.; Leete, E.


    Potential advanced intermediates in the biosynthesis of delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive principle of marijuana, have been synthesized labeled with two contiguous 13 C atoms and 14 C. Methyl [5,6- 13 C 2 , 1- 14 C]olivetolate was prepared from lithium [ 13 C 2 ]acetylide and dimethyl [2- 14 C]malonate. Reaction with geranyl bromide afforded methyl [5,6- 13 C 2 , 1- 14 C]cannabigerolate, and hydrolysis of these methyl esters with lithium propyl mercaptide yielded the corresponding labeled acids. The 13 C- 13 C couplings observable in the 13 C NMR spectra of these 13 C-enriched compounds and their synthetic precursors are recorded. Methyl [1'- 14 C]olivetolate was prepared from 13 CO 2 to confirm assignments of the 13 C chemical shifts in the pentyl side chain of these compounds. (author)

  4. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 (United States)


    ... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-1 Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Suggested Format for Reporting Test... Difference Table C-1 spec. Pass or fail Low 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm 3 4 5 6 Medium 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm...

  5. "1"3CO/C"1"8O Gradients across the Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Donaire, María J.; Cormier, Diane; Bigiel, Frank; Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly; Krumholz, Mark R.; Usero, Antonio; Hughes, Annie; Kramer, Carsten; Meier, David; Murphy, Eric; Pety, Jérôme; Schuster, Karl; Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Tomicic, Neven; Schruba, Andreas


    We use the IRAM Large Program EMPIRE and new high-resolution ALMA data to measure "1"3CO(1-0)/C"1"8O(1-0) intensity ratios across nine nearby spiral galaxies. These isotopologues of "1"2CO are typically optically thin across most of the area in galaxy disks, and this ratio allows us to gauge their relative abundance due to chemistry or stellar nucleosynthesis effects. Resolved "1"3CO/C"1"8O gradients across normal galaxies have been rare due to the faintness of these lines. We find a mean "1"3CO/C"1"8O ratio of 6.0 ± 0.9 for the central regions of our galaxies. This agrees well with results in the Milky Way, but differs from results for starburst galaxies (3.4 ± 0.9) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (1.1 ± 0.4). In our sample, the "1"3CO/C"1"8O ratio consistently increases with increasing galactocentric radius and decreases with increasing star formation rate surface density. These trends could be explained if the isotopic abundances are altered by fractionation; the sense of the trends also agrees with those expected for carbon and oxygen isotopic abundance variations due to selective enrichment by massive stars.

  6. Quantifying rate of deforestation and CO2 emission in Peninsular Malaysia using Palsar imageries (United States)

    Hamdan, O.; Abd Rahman, K.; Samsudin, M.


    Increasing human population and the rapid growth of Malaysia's economy are often associated with various environmental disturbances which have been contributing to depletion of natural resources and climate change. The need for more spaces for numerous land development activities has made the existing forests suffer deforestation. The study was carried out in Peninsular Malaysia, which currently has about 5.9 million ha of forests. Phased array type L-band SAR (Palsar) and Palsar-2 images over the years 2010 and 2015, respectively were used to identify forest cover and deforestation occurrences resulted from various conversion of forests to other land uses. Forests have been identified from horizontal-vertical (HV) polarization and then classified into three major categories, which are inland, peat swamp and mangrove. Pixel subtraction technique was used to determine areas that have been changing from forests to other land uses. Forest areas have been found declined from about 6.1 million ha in year 2010 to some 5.9 million ha in 2015 due to conversion of forests to other land uses. Causes of deforestation have been identified and the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that has been emitted due to the deforestation activity has been determined in this study. Oil palm and rubber plantations expansion has been found the most prominent factor that caused deforestation in Peninsular Malaysia, especially in the states of Pahang, Terengganu, Johor and Kelantan. The rate of deforestation in the period was at 0.66% yr-1, which amounted a total of about 200,225 ha over the five years. Carbon loss was estimated at about 30.2 million Mg C, which has resulted in CO2 emission accounted at about 110.6 million Mg CO2. The rate of CO2 emission that has been resulted from deforestation was estimated at 22.1 million Mg CO2 yr-1. The study found that the use of a series of Palsar and Palsar-2 images, with a consistent, cloud-free images, are the most appropriate sensors to be used for

  7. Promoter trans-activation of protooncogenes c-fos and c-myc, but not c-Ha-ras, by products of adenovirus early region 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassone-Corsi, P.; Borrelli, E.


    The E1A (early region 1A) oncogene products of adenovirus type 2 trans-activate the other early viral transcription units, as well as some cellular promoters. Using a short-term cotransfection assay in murine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, we show that c-fos and c-myc promoter activities are stimulated by the E1A proteins, whereas c-Ha-ras transcription is not affected. The product of E1A 13S mRNA is responsible for the trans-activation, whereas the 12S mRNA product has no effect. Analysis of the c-fos promoter sequences required for the E1A stimulation shows that responsive sequences are located between positions -402 and -240 upstream of the transcription initiation site. This same region also contains the c-fos serum-responsive element. Furthermore, transcription of the endogenous c-fos gene in HeLa cells is increased after E1A transfection

  8. Atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux with 13CO2 constraint (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.


    Observations of 13CO2 at 73 sites compiled in the GLOBALVIEW database are used for an additional constraint in a global atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux using CO2 observations at 210 sites for the 2002-2004 period for 39 land regions and 11 ocean regions. This constraint is implemented using the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio modeled with a terrestrial ecosystem model and an ocean model. These models simulate 13CO2 discrimination rates of terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration and ocean-atmosphere diffusion processes. In both models, the 13CO2 disequilibrium between fluxes to and from the atmosphere is considered due to the historical change in atmospheric 13CO2 concentration. For the 2002-2004 period, the 13CO2 constraint on the inversion increases the total land carbon sink from 3.40 to 3.70 Pg C yr-1 and decreases the total oceanic carbon sink from 1.48 to 1.12 Pg C yr-1. The largest changes occur in tropical areas: a considerable decrease in the carbon source in the Amazon forest, and this decrease is mostly compensated by increases in the ocean region immediately west of the Amazon and the southeast Asian land region. Our further investigation through different treatments of the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio used in the inversion suggests that variable spatial distributions of the 13CO2 isotopic discrimination rate simulated by the models over land and ocean have considerable impacts on the spatial distribution of the inverted CO2 flux over land and the inversion results are not sensitive to errors in the estimated disequilibria over land and ocean.

  9. Two decades of ocean CO2 sink and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, C. Le; Bopp, L.; Heimann, M.; Prentice, I.C.; Aumont, O.; Bousquet, P.; Ciais, P.; Francey, R.; Rayner, P.J.; Keeling, C.D.; Keeling, R.F.; Piper, S.C.; Kheshgi, H.; Peyliln, P.


    Atmospheric CO 2 has increased at a nearly identical average rate of 3.3 and 3.2 Pg C/yr for the decades of the 1980s and the 1990s, in spite of a large increase in fossil fuel emissions from 5.4 to 6.3 Pg C/yr. Thus, the sum of the ocean and land CO 2 sinks was 1 Pg C/yr larger in the 1990s than in to the 1980s. Here we quantify the ocean and land sinks for these two decades using recent atmospheric inversions and ocean models. The ocean and land sinks are estimated to be, respectively, 0.3 (0.1 to 0.6) and 0.7 (0.4 to 0.9) Pg C/yr larger in the 1990s than in the 1980s. When variability less than 5 yr is removed, all estimates show a global oceanic sink more or less steadily increasing with time, and a large anomaly in the land sink during 1990-1994. For year-to-year variability, all estimates show 1/3 to 1/2 less variability in the ocean than on land, but the amplitude and phase of the oceanic variability remain poorly determined. A mean oceanic sink of 1.9 Pg C/yr for the 1990s based on O 2 observations corrected for ocean outgassing is supported by these estimates, but an uncertainty on the mean value of the order of ±0.7 Pg C/yr remains. The difference between the two decades appears to be more robust than the absolute value of either of the two decades

  10. Synthesis of [2-13C, 2-14C] 2-aminoethanol, [1-13C, 1-14C] 2-chloroethylamine, N,N'-bis([1-13C, 1-14C] 2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea(BCNU) and N-([1-13C, 1-14C] 2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea(CNU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, R.; Chang, C-j.


    [2- 13 C, 2- 14 C]2-Aminoethanol hydrochloride was prepared in good yield from Na*CN in a two step sequence by first converting the Na*CN to OHCH 2 *CN and then reducing the nitrile directly with a solution of borane-tetrahydrofuran complex. The reaction procedure was simple and the pure product could be obtained readily. Using this specifically labelled precursor, the synthesis of [1- 13 C, 1- 14 C]2-chloroethylamine hydrochloride, N-([1- 13 C, 1- 14 C]2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea(CNU) and N,N'-bis([1- 13 C, 1- 14 C]2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea(BCNU) in good yield without isotope scrambling was also reported. (author)

  11. Homoleptic Diphosphacyclobutadiene Complexes [M(η4-P2C2R2)2]x- (M=Fe, Co; x=0, 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Robert; Ehlers, A.W.; Khusniyarov, M.M.; Hartl, F.; de Bruin, B.; Long, G.J.; Grandjean, F.; Schappacher, F.M.; Pöttgen, R.; Slootweg, J.C.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Lammertsma, K.


    The preparation and comprehensive characterization of a series of homoleptic sandwich complexes containing diphosphacyclobutadiene ligands are reported. Compounds [K([18]crown-6)ACHTUNGTRENUNG(thf)2][Fe(η4- P2C2tBu2)2] (K1), [K([18]crown-6)- ACHTUNGTRENUNG(thf)2][Co(h4-P2C2tBu2)2] (K2), and

  12. Homoleptic Diphosphacyclobutadiene Complexes [M(η(4)-P2C2R2)(2]x- (M = Fe, Co; x=0, 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, R.; Ehlers, A.W.; Khusniyarov, M.M.; Hartl, F.; de Bruin, B.; Long, G.J.; Grandjean, F.; Schappacher, F.M.; Pöttgen, R.; Slootweg, J.C.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Lammertsma, K.


    The preparation and comprehensive characterization of a series of homoleptic sandwich complexes containing diphosphacyclobutadiene ligands are reported. Compounds [K([18]crown-6)(thf)(2)[Fe(η(4)-P(2)C(2)tBu(2))(2)] (K1), [K([18]crown-6)(thf)(2)][Co(η(4)-P(2)C(2)tBu(2))(2)] (K2), and

  13. Alkali/TX sub 2 catalysts for CO/H sub 2 conversion to C sub 1 -C sub 4 alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R. G.; Bastian, R.


    The objective of this research is to investigate and develop novel catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alcohols by a highly selective process. Therefore, the variations of catalyst activity and selectivity for the synthesis of alcohols from H{sub 2}/CO {le}1 synthesis gas for a series of A/TX{sub 2} compounds, where A is a surface alkali dopant, T is a transition metal, and X ia a S, Se, or Te, will be determined. This quarter, a fresh batch of MoS{sub 2} was synthesized, and new Cs/MoS{sub 2} catalysts were prepared by alkali doping and were tested to demonstrate that the preparation and testing procedures were reproducible by different personnel. Preparations of RuS{sub 2} and Cs/RuS{sub 2} catalysts were initiated, and the preparations and testing of these catalysts will be described in the next quarterly report. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Identification of human hnRNP C1/C2 as a dengue virus NS1-interacting protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noisakran, Sansanee; Sengsai, Suchada; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Sinchaikul, Supachok; Chen, Shui-Tein; Puttikhunt, Chunya


    Dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a key glycoprotein involved in the production of infectious virus and the pathogenesis of dengue diseases. Very little is known how NS1 interacts with host cellular proteins and functions in dengue virus-infected cells. This study aimed at identifying NS1-interacting host cellular proteins in dengue virus-infected cells by employing co-immunoprecipitation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Using lysates of dengue virus-infected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T), immunoprecipitation with an anti-NS1 monoclonal antibody revealed eight isoforms of dengue virus NS1 and a 40-kDa protein, which was subsequently identified by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) as human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C1/C2. Further investigation by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization confirmed the association of hnRNP C1/C2 and dengue virus NS1 proteins in dengue virus-infected cells. Their interaction may have implications in virus replication and/or cellular responses favorable to survival of the virus in host cells

  15. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia (United States)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.


    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  16. Future emissions pathways consistent with limiting warming to 1.5°C (United States)

    Millar, R.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Grubb, M.; Rogelj, J.; Skeie, R. B.; Friedlingstein, P.; Forster, P.; Frame, D. J.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Allen, M. R.


    The stated aim of the 2015 UNFCCC Paris Agreement is `holding the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit temperature increases to 1.5°C'. We show that emissions reductions proportional to those achieved in an ambitious mitigation scenario, RCP2.6, but beginning in 2017, give a median estimated peak warming of 1.5°C, with a likely (66% probability) range of uncertainty of 1.2-2.0°C. Such a scenario would be approximately consistent with the most ambitious interpretation of the 2030 emissions pledges, but requires reduction rates exceeding 0.3GtC/yr/yr after 2030. A steady reduction at less than half this rate would achieve the same temperature outcome if initiated in 2020. Limiting total CO2 emissions after 2015 to 200GtC would limit future warming to likely less than 0.6°C above present, consistent with 1.5°C above pre-industrial, based on the distribution of responses of the CMIP5 Earth System, but the CMIP5 simulations do not correspond to scenarios that aim to limit warming to such low levels. If future CO2 emissions are successfully adapted to the emerging climate response so as to limit warming in 2100 to 0.6°C above present, and non-CO2 emissions follow the ambitious RCP2.6 scenario, then we estimate that resulting CO2 emissions will unlikely be restricted to less than 250GtC given current uncertainties in climate system response, although still-poorly-modelled carbon cycle feedbacks, such as release from permafrost, may encroach on this budget. Even under a perfectly successful adaptive mitigation regime, emissions consistent with limiting warming to 0.6°C above present are unlikely to be greater than 500GtC.These estimates suggest the 1.5°C goal may not yet be geophysically insurmountable but will nevertheless require, at minimum, the full implementation of the most ambitious interpretation of the Paris pledges followed by accelerated and more fundamental changes in our

  17. Changes in plant functional groups, litter quality, and soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization with sheep grazing in an Inner Mongolian Grassland (United States)

    Barger, N.N.; Ojima, D.S.; Belnap, J.; Shiping, W.; Yanfen, W.; Chen, Z.


    This study reports on changes in plant functional group composition, litter quality, and soil C and N mineralization dynamics from a 9-year sheep grazing study in Inner Mongolia. Addressed are these questions: 1) How does increasing grazing intensity affect plant community composition? 2) How does increasing grazing intensity alter soil C and N mineralization dynamics? 3) Do changes in soil C and N mineralization dynamics relate to changes in plant community composition via inputs of the quality or quantity of litter? Grazing plots were set up near the Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station (IMGERS) with 5 grazing intensities: 1.3, 2.7, 4.0, 5.3, and 6.7 sheep ha -1??yr-1. Plant cover was lower with increasing grazing intensity, which was primarily due to a dramatic decline in grasses, Carex duriuscula, and Artemisia frigida. Changes in litter mass and percentage organic C resulted in lower total C in the litter layer at 4.0 and 5.3 sheep ha-1??yr-1 compared with 2.7 sheep ha -1??yr-1. Total litter N was lower at 5.3 sheep ha-1??yr-1 compared with 2.7 sheep ha -1??yr-1. Litter C:N ratios, an index of litter quality, were significantly lower at 4.0 sheep ha-1??yr -1 relative to 1.3 and 5.3 sheep ha-1??yr -1. Cumulative C mineralized after 16 days decreased with increasing grazing intensity. In contrast, net N mineralization (NH4+ + NO3-) after a 12-day incubation increased with increasing grazing intensity. Changes in C and N mineralization resulted in a narrowing of CO2-C:net Nminratios with increasing grazing intensity. Grazing explained 31% of the variability in the ratio of CO 2-C:net Nmin. The ratio of CO2-C:net N min was positively correlated with litter mass. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between litter mass and A. frigida cover. Results suggest that as grazing intensity increases, microbes become more C limited resulting in decreased microbial growth and demand for N.

  18. Soil CO2 flux from three ecosystems in tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melling, Lulie; Hatano, Ryusuke


    Soil CO 2 flux was measured monthly over a year from tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia using a closed-chamber technique. The soil CO 2 flux ranged from 100 to 533 mg C/m 2 /h for the forest ecosystem, 63 to 245 mg C/m 2 /h for the sago and 46 to 335 mg C/m 2 /h for the oil palm. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the environmental variables over all sites could be classified into three components, namely, climate, soil moisture and soil bulk density, which accounted for 86% of the seasonal variability. A regression tree approach showed that CO 2 flux in each ecosystem was related to different underlying environmental factors. They were relative humidity for forest, soil temperature at 5 cm for sago and water-filled pore space for oil palm. On an annual basis, the soil CO 2 flux was highest in the forest ecosystem with an estimated production of 2.1 kg C/m 2 /yr followed by oil palm at 1.5 kg C/m 2 /yr and sago at 1.1 kg C/m 2 /yr. The different dominant controlling factors in CO 2 flux among the studied ecosystems suggested that land use affected the exchange of CO 2 between tropical peatland and the atmosphere

  19. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990-2009 (United States)

    King, A. W.; Andres, R. J.; Davis, K. J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, D. J.; Huntzinger, D. N.; de Jong, B.; Kurz, W. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Vargas, R.; Wei, Y.; West, T. O.; Woodall, C. W.


    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990-2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North American land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, "best" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 1990-2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr-1 and assuming the estimate of -472 Tg C yr-1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was 1720:472, or nearly 4:1.

  20. Experimental infection of clade 1.1.2 (H5N1), clade (H5N1) and clade (H5N6) highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in dogs. (United States)

    Lyoo, K S; Na, W; Phan, L V; Yoon, S W; Yeom, M; Song, D; Jeong, D G


    Since the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Asia, the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of this virus lineage has continued to evolve in avian populations, and H5N1 lineage viruses now circulate concurrently worldwide. Dogs may act as an intermediate host, increasing the potential for zoonotic transmission of influenza viruses. Virus transmission and pathologic changes in HPAI clade 1.1.2 (H5N1)-, (H5N1)- and (H5N6)-infected dogs were investigated. Mild respiratory signs and antibody response were shown in dogs intranasally infected with the viruses. Lung histopathology showed lesions that were associated with moderate interstitial pneumonia in the infected dogs. In this study, HPAI H5N6 virus replication in dogs was demonstrated for the first time. Dogs have been suspected as a "mixing vessel" for reassortments between avian and human influenza viruses to occur. The replication of these three subtypes of the H5 lineage of HPAI viruses in dogs suggests that dogs could serve as intermediate hosts for avian-human influenza virus reassortment if they are also co-infected with human influenza viruses. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, J. I. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Madhusudhan, N. [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Visscher, C. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Freedman, R. S., E-mail: [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)


    Motivated by recent spectroscopic evidence for carbon-rich atmospheres on some transiting exoplanets, we investigate the influence of the C/O ratio on the chemistry, composition, and spectra of extrasolar giant planets both from a thermochemical equilibrium perspective and from consideration of disequilibrium processes like photochemistry and transport-induced quenching. We find that although CO is predicted to be a major atmospheric constituent on hot Jupiters for all C/O ratios, other oxygen-bearing molecules like H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} are much more abundant when C/O < 1, whereas CH{sub 4}, HCN, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gain significantly in abundance when C/O > 1. Other notable species like N{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} that do not contain carbon or oxygen are relatively unaffected by the C/O ratio. Disequilibrium processes tend to enhance the abundance of CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} over a wide range of C/O ratios. We compare the results of our models with secondary-eclipse photometric data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and conclude that (1) disequilibrium models with C/O {approx} 1 are consistent with spectra of WASP-12b, XO-1b, and CoRoT-2b, confirming the possible carbon-rich nature of these planets; (2) spectra from HD 189733b are consistent with C/O {approx}< 1, but as the assumed metallicity is increased above solar, the required C/O ratio must increase toward 1 to prevent too much H{sub 2}O absorption; (3) species like HCN can have a significant influence on spectral behavior in the 3.6 and 8.0 {mu}m Spitzer channels, potentially providing even more opacity than CH{sub 4} when C/O > 1; and (4) the very high CO{sub 2} abundance inferred for HD 189733b from near-infrared observations cannot be explained through equilibrium or disequilibrium chemistry in a hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. We discuss possible formation mechanisms for carbon-rich hot Jupiters, including scenarios in which the accretion of CO-rich, H{sub 2}O-poor gas dominates the

  2. Interannual variability in CO2 and CH4 exchange in a brackish tidal marsh in Northern California (United States)

    Knox, S. H.; Windham-Myers, L.; Anderson, F. E.; Bergamaschi, B. A.


    Carbon (C) cycling in coastal wetlands is difficult to measure and model due to extremely dynamic atmospheric and hydrologic fluxes, as well as sensitivities to dynamic land- and ocean-based drivers. To date, few studies have begun continuous measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in these systems, and as such our understanding of the key drivers of NEE in coastal wetlands remain poorly understood. Recent eddy covariance measurements of NEE in these environments show considerable variability both within and across sites, with daily CO2 uptake and annual net CO2 budgets varying by nearly an order of magnitude between years and across locations. Furthermore, measurements of CH4 fluxes in these systems are even more limited, despite the potential for CH4 emissions from brackish and freshwater coastal wetlands. Here we present 3 years of near-continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes from a brackish tidal marsh in Northern California and explore the drivers of interannual variability in CO2 and CH4 exchange. CO2 fluxes showed significant interannual variability; net CO2 uptake was near-zero in 2014 (6 ± 26 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1), while much greater uptake was observed in 2015 and 2016 (209 ± 27 g C- CO2 m-2 yr-1 and 243 ± 26 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1, respectively). Conversely, annual CH4 emissions were small and consistent across years, with the wetland emitting on average 1 ± 0.1 g C-CH4 m-2 yr-1. With respect to the net atmospheric GHG budget (assuming a sustained global warming potential (SGWP) of 45, expressed in units of CO2 equivalents), the wetland was near neutral in 2014, but a net GHG sink of 706 ± 105 g CO2 eq m-2 yr-1 and 836 ± 83 g CO2 eq m-2 yr-1 in 2015 and 2016, respectively. The large interannual variability in CO2 exchange was driven by notable year-to-year differences in temperature and precipitation as California experienced a severe drought and record high temperatures from 2012 to 2015. The large interannual variability in

  3. Improved high-voltage performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode with Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite as electrolyte additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Ma, Yulin; Li, Qin; Cui, Yingzhi; Wang, Panpan; Cheng, Xinqun; Zuo, Pengjian; Du, Chunyu; Gao, Yunzhi


    Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFEP) is investigated as an electrolyte additive to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode at high operating voltage (4.6 V). Charge/discharge measurements demonstrate that TTFEP is effective to improve the cycling stability and rate capability of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode. The capacity retention of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 /Li cell with 1% TTFEP-containing electrolyte reaches up to 85.4% after 100 cycles at 0.5C (1C = 160 mA g −1 ), while that of the cell with the baseline electrolyte (1 M LiPF 6 in EC/DMC electrolyte) only remains 74.2%. Moreover, the discharge capacity of the cathode with 1% TTFEP-containing electrolyte could maintain around 112.0 mAh g −1 at 4C. Based on the characterization of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a protective interphase film formed on the cathode surface can be found due to the preferential oxidation of TTFEP, which inhibits the electrolyte decomposition and mitigates the cathode structural destruction, leading to the improved electrochemical performance of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode at high voltage.

  4. How a hurricane disturbance influences extreme CO2 fluxes and variance in a tropical forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Rodrigo


    A current challenge is to understand what are the legacies left by disturbances on ecosystems for predicting response patterns and trajectories. This work focuses on the ecological implications of a major hurricane and analyzes its influence on forest gross primary productivity (GPP; derived from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer, MODIS) and soil CO 2 efflux. Following the hurricane, there was a reduction of nearly 0.5 kgC m −2 yr1 , equivalent to ∼15% of the long-term mean GPP (∼3.0 ± 0.2 kgC m −2 yr1 ; years 2003–8). Annual soil CO 2 emissions for the year following the hurricane were > 3.9 ± 0.5 kgC m −2 yr1 , whereas for the second year emissions were 1.7 ± 0.4 kgC m −2 yr1 . Higher annual emissions were associated with higher probabilities of days with extreme soil CO 2 efflux rates ( > 9.7 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 ). The variance of GPP was highly variable across years and was substantially increased following the hurricane. Extreme soil CO 2 efflux after the hurricane was associated with deposition of nitrogen-rich fresh organic matter, higher basal soil CO 2 efflux rates and changes in variance of the soil temperature. These results show that CO 2 dynamics are highly variable following hurricanes, but also demonstrate the strong resilience of tropical forests following these events. (letter)

  5. Reactions of a 16-electron Cp*Co half-sandwich complex containing a chelating 1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane-1,2-dithiolate ligand with alkynones HC≡C-C(O)R (R=OMe,Me,Ph)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOYIQIBAYI; Gulnisa


    The reaction of the 16e half-sandwich complex Cp*Co(S2C2B10H10) (1) (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) with excess methyl acetylene monocarboxylate, HC≡C-CO2Me, affords the 18e complexes 2-6. Compound 2 bears a B-CH2 unit in which B-substitution occurs in the B(3)/B(6) position of the ortho-carborane cage. Complexes 3-6 are geometrical isomers, in which the alkyne is twofold inserted into one of the Co-S bonds in all the four possible ways. Treatment of 1 with excess 3-butyn-2-one or phenyl ethynyl ketone, HC≡C-C(O)R (R = Me, Ph), at ambient temperature leads to the 18e complexes 7-10, respectively, with two alkynes inserted into one of the Co-S bonds. All the new complexes were fully characterized by spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. The solid-state structures of 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 10 were further characterized by X-ray structural analysis.

  6. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) changes over time among adolescent and young adult participants in the T1D exchange clinic registry. (United States)

    Clements, Mark A; Foster, Nicole C; Maahs, David M; Schatz, Desmond A; Olson, Beth A; Tsalikian, Eva; Lee, Joyce M; Burt-Solorzano, Christine M; Tamborlane, William V; Chen, Vincent; Miller, Kellee M; Beck, Roy W


    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) influence the longitudinal risk for diabetes-related complications. Few studies have examined HbA1c trends across time in children, adolescents, and young adults with T1D. This study examines changes in glycemic control across the specific transition periods of pre-adolescence-to-adolescence and adolescence-to-young adulthood, and the demographic and clinical factors associated with these changes. Available HbA1c lab results for up to 10 yr were collected from medical records at 67 T1D Exchange clinics. Two retrospective cohorts were evaluated: the pre-adolescent-to-adolescent cohort consisting of 85 016 HbA1c measurements from 6574 participants collected when the participants were 8-18 yr old and the adolescent-to-young adult cohort, 2200 participants who were 16-26 yr old at the time of 17 279 HbA1c measurements. HbA1c in the 8-18 cohort increased over time after age 10 yr until ages 16-17; followed by a plateau. HbA1c levels in the 16-26 cohort remained steady from 16-18, and then gradually declined. For both cohorts, race/ethnicity, income, health insurance, and pump use were all significant in explaining individual variations in age-centered HbA1c (p HbA1c trajectory. Glycemic control among patients 8-18 yr old worsens over time, through age 16. Elevated HbA1c levels observed in 18 yr-olds begin a steady improvement into early adulthood. Focused interventions to prevent deterioration in glucose control in pre-adolescence, adolescence, and early adulthood are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of Bio-Rad D-100 HbA1c analyzer against Tosoh G8 and Menarini HA-8180V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Maesa


    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the Bio-Rad D-100®, an HPLC analyzer for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c determination, and to compare its performance with the Menarini HA-8180V® and Sysmex G8®. Methods: Method comparison was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI EP9-A2 guidelines. We selected 100 samples from the routine laboratory workload and analyzed them in duplicate with the three analyzers. The imprecision study was performed according to CLSI EP5-A2 guidelines for both inter-assay and intra-assay variability. Bias was assessed with external quality control material. To establish linearity, CLSI EP6-A protocol was followed. Results: Method comparison (95% confidence intervals in parentheses: D-100 vs G8: Passing-Bablok regression; y=0.973(0.963–0.983×−0.07(−0.07−0.069; r=0.9989. Bland-Altman mean difference: −0.229%HbA1c (−0.256: −0.202; Relative bias plot: D-100/G8 vs D100-G8 mean ratio=0.971(0.967−0.975. D-100 vs HA-8180V: Passing-Bablok regression; y=0.944(0.932–0.958×−0.078(0.024−0.173; r=0.9989. Bland-Altman mean difference: −0.363%HbA1c (−0.401: −0.325; Relative bias plot D-100/HA-8180V vs D100-HA-8180V mean ratio=0.955(0.952−0.958. Inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV: 0.81%. Intra-assay CV: 1.04% (low level, and 0.78% (high level. Bias against target value=2.332%. Linearity: r2=0.998 in the concentration range 4.4−13.9%HbA1c. Carry-over: 0.0024%. Conclusions: The Bio-Rad D-100 shows good correlation with G8 and HA-8180V. There is a small proportional systematic difference (2.7% and 5.6%, respectively in both comparisons. Inter and intra-assay CVs are both lower than the lowest CV obtained in studies performed with D-100 and other instruments. Keywords: Glycated hemoglobin, High performance liquid chromatography, Analyzer, Intra-assay variability, Inter-assay variability

  8. The 1:1 co-crystal of triphenyl(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzylphosphonium bromide and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodoethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Cavallo


    Full Text Available The title compound, C25H18F4P+·Br−·C2F4I2, is a 1:1 co-crystal of triphenyl(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzylphosphonium (TTPB bromide and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodoethane (TFDIE. The crystal structure consists of a framework of TTPB cations held together by C—H...Br interactions. In this framework, infinite channels along [100] are filled by TFDIE molecules held together in infinite ribbons by short F...F [2.863 (22.901 (2Å] interactions. The structure contains halogen bonds (XB and hydrogen bonds (HB in the bromide coordination sphere. TFDIE functions as a monodentate XB donor as only one I atom is linked to the Br− anion and forms a short and directional interaction [I...Br− 3.1798 (7 Å and C—I...Br− 177.76 (5°]. The coordination sphere of the bromide anion is completed by two short HBs of about 2.8 Å (for H...Br with the acidic methylene H atoms and two longer HBs of about 3.0 Å with H atoms of the phenyl rings. Surprisingly neither the second iodine atom of TFDIE nor the H atom on the tetrafluorophenyl group make any short contacts.

  9. Magnetic and structural properties of L1{sub 1} type CoPt-C ordered alloy perpendicular films as a function of C content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimatsu, T; Kataoka, H; Aoi, H [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Sato, H; Okamoto, S; Kitakami, O, E-mail: [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)


    Magnetic and structural properties of L1{sub 1} type (Co{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5}){sub 100-X}-C{sub X} ordered alloy perpendicular films, fabricated on 2.5 inch size glass disks by sputter deposition, were examined as a function of C content, X. L1{sub 1} type Co{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5}-C polycrystalline films (10 nm thickness), with <111> axis (the easy axis) perpendicular to the film plane, were successfully fabricated even for a 30 vol% C content. Structural analysis indicated the segregation of C to the grain boundaries. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, K{sub u}, of Co{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5} films without C addition was relatively low, about 1.5x10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} under the present deposition conditions. However, the addition of 5 vol.% C to Co-Pt films enhanced the ordering, resulting in an increase in K{sub u} to around 2.5 x10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3}. A further increase in C content reduced K{sub u}; however, K{sub u} maintained a relatively large value of about 1.8x10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} even for a 20vol% C content, without degrading the easy axis orientation perpendicular to the film plane. Experimental results demonstrated the potential of the L1{sub 1} type Co{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5}-C films for use in granular media applications, due to their very high K{sub u}, the relatively low fabrication temperature, and good controllability of the grain orientation.

  10. CO2 and Carbon Balance of an Intensively Grazed Temperate Pasture: Response to Cultivation (United States)

    Rutledge, S.; Mudge, P. L.; Wallace, D.; Campbell, D.; Wall, A.; Hosking, C. L.; Schipper, L. A.


    Recent soil resampling studies have shown that soils on flat land used for intensive dairy farming in New Zealand have lost large amounts of carbon (~1 t C ha-1y-1) over the past few decades, and the causes of these losses are poorly understood. One of the management practices potentially contributing to the C losses from these dairy soils is the periodic cultivation commonly associated with pasture renewal or the rotation through summer or winter crops. Here we report the results of three experiments aimed at quantifying the effect of cultivation as part of pasture renewal on the CO2 and C balances of permanent pastures. In the first experiment, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of an intensively grazed dairy pasture was measured before, during and after cultivation using eddy covariance (EC) from 2008 to 2011 at a dairy farm in the Waikato region on the North Island of New Zealand. The net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) was determined by combining NEE data with measurements and estimates of other C imports (feed) and C exports (milk, methane, silage and leaching). The other two experiments took place on the same farm and monitored two different cultivation events in 2008. We made chamber measurements of soil CO2 losses between spraying and seedling emergence. One of the cultivations took place in summer 2008 during a drought, whereas the other took place in spring 2008 when soil water was not limiting. For the first two years of experiment 1 the site was under permanent pasture and it was a sink for both CO2 (1.6 and 2.3 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively) and C (0.59 and 0.90 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively), despite a severe drought in summer 2008 which had led to a loss of approximately 1.1 t C ha-1 as CO2 over the three summer months. Pasture renewal took place in March 2010 and CO2 losses during this event were approximately 1.7 t C ha-1. However, the site seemed to recover quickly and was a sink of CO2 at an annual time scale of

  11. Simultaneous measurement of neuronal and glial metabolism in rat brain in vivo using co-infusion of [1,6- 13C 2]glucose and [1,2- 13C 2]acetate (United States)

    Deelchand, Dinesh K.; Nelson, Christopher; Shestov, Alexander A.; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Henry, Pierre-Gilles


    In this work the feasibility of measuring neuronal-glial metabolism in rat brain in vivo using co-infusion of [1,6- 13C 2]glucose and [1,2- 13C 2]acetate was investigated. Time courses of 13C spectra were measured in vivo while infusing both 13C-labeled substrates simultaneously. Individual 13C isotopomers (singlets and multiplets observed in 13C spectra) were quantified automatically using LCModel. The distinct 13C spectral pattern observed in glutamate and glutamine directly reflected the fact that glucose was metabolized primarily in the neuronal compartment and acetate in the glial compartment. Time courses of concentration of singly and multiply-labeled isotopomers of glutamate and glutamine were obtained with a temporal resolution of 11 min. Although dynamic metabolic modeling of these 13C isotopomer data will require further work and is not reported here, we expect that these new data will allow more precise determination of metabolic rates as is currently possible when using either glucose or acetate as the sole 13C-labeled substrate.

  12. Oral vaccine of Lactococcus lactis harbouring pandemic H1N1 2009 haemagglutinin1 and nisP anchor fusion protein elevates anti-HA1 sIgA levels in mice. (United States)

    Joan, Stella Siaw Xiu; Pui-Fong, Jee; Song, Adelene Ai-Lian; Chang, Li-Yen; Yusoff, Khatijah; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Rahim, Raha Abdul


    An oral lactococcal-based vaccine which haboured the haemagglutinin1 (HA1) antigen fused to nisP anchor protein for the purpose of surface displaying the HA1 antigen was developed against H1N1 virus. Recombinant L. lactis strains expressed HA1-nisP fusion proteins when induced with nisin, as confirmed through western blotting. However, immunofluorescense did not detect any surface-displayed proteins, suggesting that the protein was either unsuccessfully translocated or improperly displayed. Despite this, oral administration of recombinant L. lactis strains to BALB/c mice revealed that significant levels of anti-HA1 sIgA antibodies were detected in mice fecal suspension samples of mice group NZ9000 (pNZ:HN) when compared to the negative control NZ9000 (pNZ8048) group. Specific anti-HA1 sIgA antibodies were locally produced and live recombinant lactococcal vaccine was able to elicit humoral response of BALB/c mice despite unsuccessful surface display of the HA1 epitope.

  13. Synthesis of 1-13C-1-indanone and 2-13C-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, R.E.; Wysocki, M.A.; Eisenbraun, E.J.


    The synthesis of 2- 13 C-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (5) via 1- 13 C-3-phenylpropanoic acid (1), 1- 13 C-1-indanone (2), 1- 13 C-1-indanone hydrazone (3) and 2- 13 C-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone (4) proceeded in 78, 96, 95, 79, and 85% individual yields respectively for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 61% overall yield of the latter from 1. (author)

  14. Ha-DEF1, a sunflower defensin, induces cell death in Orobanche parasitic plants. (United States)

    de Zélicourt, Axel; Letousey, Patricia; Thoiron, Séverine; Campion, Claire; Simoneau, Philippe; Elmorjani, Khalil; Marion, Didier; Simier, Philippe; Delavault, Philippe


    Plant defensins are small basic peptides of 5-10 kDa and most of them exhibit antifungal activity. In a sunflower resistant to broomrape, among the three defensin encoding cDNA identified, SF18, SD2 and HaDef1, only HaDef1 presented a preferential root expression pattern and was induced upon infection by the root parasitic plant Orobanche cumana. The amino acid sequence deduced from HaDef1 coding sequence was composed of an endoplasmic reticulum signal sequence of 28 amino acids, a standard defensin domain of 50 amino-acid residues and an unusual C-terminal domain of 30 amino acids with a net positive charge. A 5.8 kDa recombinant mature Ha-DEF1 corresponding to the defensin domain was produced in Escherichia coli and was purified by means of a two-step chromatography procedure, Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) and Ion Exchange Chromatography. Investigation of in vitro antifungal activity of Ha-DEF1 showed a strong inhibition on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth linked to a membrane permeabilization, and a morphogenetic activity on Alternaria brassicicola germ tube development, as already reported for some other plant defensins. Bioassays also revealed that Ha-DEF1 rapidly induced browning symptoms at the radicle apex of Orobanche seedlings but not of another parasitic plant, Striga hermonthica, nor of Arabidopsis thaliana. FDA vital staining showed that these browning areas corresponded to dead cells. These results demonstrate for the first time a lethal effect of defensins on plant cells. The potent mode of action of defensin in Orobanche cell death and the possible involvement in sunflower resistance are discussed.

  15. Continuous multi-plot measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O in a managed boreal forest - The importance of accounting for all greenhouse gases (United States)

    Vestin, P.; Mölder, M.; Sundqvist, E.; Båth, A.; Lehner, I.; Weslien, P.; Klemedtsson, L.; Lindroth, A.


    In order to assess the effects of different management practices on the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG), it is desirable to perform repeated and parallel measurements on both experimental and control plots. Here we demonstrate how a system system combining eddy covariance and gradient techniques can be used to perform this assessment in a managed forest ecosystem.The net effects of clear-cutting and stump harvesting on GHG fluxes were studied at the ICOS site Norunda, Sweden. Micrometeorological measurements (i.e., flux-gradient measurements in 3 m tall towers) allowed for quantification of CO2, CH4 and H2O fluxes (from May 2010) as well as N2O and H2O fluxes (from June 2011) at two stump harvested plots and two control plots. There was one wetter and one drier plot of each treatment. Air was continuously sampled at two heights in the towers and gas concentrations were analyzed for CH4, CO2, H2O (LGR DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) and N2O, H2O (QCL Mini Monitor, Aerodyne Research). Friction velocities and sensible heat fluxes were measured by sonic anemometers (Gill Windmaster, Gill Instruments Ltd). Automatic chamber measurements (CO2, CH4, H2O) were carried out in the adjacent forest stand and at the clear-cut during 2010.Average CO2 emissions for the first year ranged between 14.4-20.2 ton CO2 ha-1 yr-1. The clear-cut became waterlogged after harvest and a comparison of flux-gradient data and chamber data (from the adjacent forest stand) indicated a switch from a weak CH4 sink to a significant source at all plots. The CH4 emissions ranged between 0.8-4.5 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. N2O emissions ranged between 0.4-2.6 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. Enhanced N2O emission on the drier stump harvested plot was the only clear treatment effect on GHG fluxes that was observed. Mean CH4 and N2O emissions for the first year of measurements amounted up to 29% and 20% of the mean annual CO2 emissions, respectively. This highlights the importance of including all GHGs when assessing

  16. Effects of climate, CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, and stand age changes on the carbon budget of China's forests (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Ju, W.; Zhang, F.; Mao, D.; Wang, X.


    Forests play an irreplaceable role in the Earth's terrestrial carbon budget which retard the atmospheric CO2 buildup. Understanding the factors controlling forest carbon budget is critical for reducing uncertainties in projections of future climate. The relative importance of climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, and stand age changes on carbon budget, however, remains unclear for China's forests. In this study, we quantify individual contribution of these drivers to the trends of forest carbon budget in China from 1901 to 2012 by integrating national datasets, the updated Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Cycle (InTEC) model and factorial simulations. Results showed that the average carbon sink in China's forests from 1982 to 2012 was 186.9 Tg C yr-1 with 68% (127.6 Tg C yr-1) of the sink in living biomass because of the integrated effects of climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, and stand age factors. Compared with the simulation of all factors combined, the estimated carbon sink during 1901-2012 would be reduced by 41.8 Tg C yr-1 if climate change, atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition factors were omitted, and reduced by 25.0 Tg C yr-1 if stand age factor was omitted. In most decades, these factors increased forest carbon sinks with the largest of 101.3, 62.9, and 44.0 Tg C yr-1 from 2000 to 2012 contributed by stand age, CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition, respectively. During 1901-2012, climate change, CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition and stand age contributed -13.3, 21.4, 15.4 and 25.0 Tg C yr-1 to the averaged carbon sink of China's forests, respectively. Our study also showed diverse regional patterns of forest carbon budget related to the importance of driving factors. Stand age effect was the largest in most regions, but the effects of CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition were dominant in southern China.

  17. Volatility study of [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C2C3im][NTf2] ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Marisa A.A.; Ribeiro, Filipe M.S.; Schröder, Bernd; Coutinho, João A.P.; Santos, Luís M.N.B.F.


    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of [C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] and [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] ionic liquids are reported. • [C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] presents higher enthalpy and entropy of vaporization than expected. • The high volatility of [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] is a result from its asymmetric character. -- Abstract: Vapor pressures of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ]) and 1-ethyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ]) ionic liquids were measured as a function of temperature using a Knudsen effusion apparatus combined with a quartz crystal microbalance. Enthalpies and entropies of vaporization were derived from the fitting of vapor pressure and temperature results to the Clarke and Glew equation. [C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] presents a higher enthalpy and entropy of vaporization than the neighboring members of the series. The enthalpy of vaporization of [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] lies in between the asymmetric and symmetric ionic liquid series, reflecting a decrease in the electrostatic interactions due to a decrease of the charge accessibility between the ionic pairs when the methyl group is replaced by an ethyl group. The obtained higher volatility of [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] arises from its asymmetric character, leading to an higher entropic contribution that compensates the enthalpic penalty. The border conditions ([C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ], [C 2 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] and [C 2 C 2 im][NTf 2 ]), topology ([C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ]) and symmetry/asymmetry of the ILs effect were evaluated and rationalized based on a comparative analysis of the thermodynamic properties, enthalpies and entropies of vaporization

  18. Synthesis of (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)olivetolic acid, methyl (1'-/sup 13/C)olivetolate and (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)cannabigerolic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porwoll, J P; Leete, E [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis (USA). Dept. of Chemistry


    Potential advanced intermediates in the biosynthesis of delta/sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive principle of marijuana, have been synthesized labeled with two contiguous /sup 13/C atoms and /sup 14/C. Methyl (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)olivetolate was prepared from lithium (/sup 13/C/sub 2/)acetylide and dimethyl (2-/sup 14/C)malonate. Reaction with geranyl bromide afforded methyl (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)cannabigerolate, and hydrolysis of these methyl esters with lithium propyl mercaptide yielded the corresponding labeled acids. The /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C couplings observable in the /sup 13/C NMR spectra of these /sup 13/C-enriched compounds and their synthetic precursors are recorded. Methyl (1'-/sup 14/C)olivetolate was prepared from /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ to confirm assignments of the /sup 13/C chemical shifts in the pentyl side chain of these compounds.

  19. Annual CO2 budget and seasonal CO2 exchange signals at a high Arctic permafrost site on Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luërs, J.; Westermann, Signe; Piel, K.


    -lasting snow cover, and several months of darkness. This study presents a complete annual cycle of the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics for a high Arctic tundra area at the west coast of Svalbard based on eddy covariance flux measurements. The annual cumulative CO2 budget is close to 0 g C m-2 yr-1...

  20. Caveolin-1 down-regulation is required for Wnt5a-Frizzled 2 signalling in Ha-RasV12 -induced cell transformation. (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Kuan; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Chiou, Yu-Wei; Wu, Ching-Lung; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Tang, Ming-Jer


    Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is down-regulated during MK4 (MDCK cells harbouring inducible Ha-Ras V12 gene) transformation by Ha-Ras V12 . Cav1 overexpression abrogates the Ha-Ras V12 -driven transformation of MK4 cells; however, the targeted down-regulation of Cav1 is not sufficient to mimic this transformation. Cav1-silenced cells, including MK4/shCav1 cells and MDCK/shCav1 cells, showed an increased cell area and discontinuous junction-related proteins staining. Cellular and mechanical transformations were completed when MDCK/shCav1 cells were treated with medium conditioned by MK4 cells treated with IPTG (MK4+I-CM) but not with medium conditioned by MK4 cells. Nanoparticle tracking analysis showed that Ha-Ras V12 -inducing MK4 cells increased exosome-like microvesicles release compared with their normal counterparts. The cellular and mechanical transformation activities of MK4+I-CM were abolished after heat treatment and exosome depletion and were copied by exosomes derived from MK4+I-CM (MK4+I-EXs). Wnt5a, a downstream product of Ha-Ras V12 , was markedly secreted by MK4+I-CM and MK4+I-EXs. Suppression of Wnt5a expression and secretion using the porcupine inhibitor C59 or Wnt5a siRNA inhibited the Ha-Ras V12 - and MK4+I-CM-induced transformation of MK4 cells and MDCK/shCav1 cells, respectively. Cav1 down-regulation, either by Ha-Ras V12 or targeted shRNA, increased frizzled-2 (Fzd2) protein levels without affecting its mRNA levels, suggesting a novel role of Cav1 in negatively regulating Fzd2 expression. Additionally, silencing Cav1 facilitated the internalization of MK4+I-EXs in MDCK cells. These data suggest that Cav1-dependent repression of Fzd2 and exosome uptake is potentially relevant to its antitransformation activity, which hinders the activation of Ha-Ras V12 -Wnt5a-Stat3 pathway. Altogether, these results suggest that both decreasing Cav1 and increasing exosomal Wnt5a must be implemented during Ha-Ras V12 -driven cell transformation. © 2018 The Authors

  1. The photosynthetic and stomatal response of Medicago sativa cv. saranac to free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (F.A.C.E.) and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridson, N.P.


    Plots of Medicago sativa cv. saranac were grown in the field at ambient (355 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1} air) or elevated (600{mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1} air) CO{sub 2} concentrations. High (200kg yr{sup -1}) or low (20kg yr{sup -1}) nitrogen levels were applied to two isogeneic lines, one able and one unable to use nitrogen fixing bacteria. Plants were in the second year of field growth. Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} was via a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment System (FACE). Elevated CO{sub 2} increased diurnal assimilation by between 12% and 92%. Analysis of A/C{sub i} responses showed that effective nitrogen fertilisation was more important to rubisCO and RuBP activity than elevated CO{sub 2}. No acclimation was consistently observed. Leaves lower down the canopy were found to have lower Vc{sub max} and J{sub max} values, though age may be the cause of the latter effect. FACE conditions have only a small effect on these responses. There was some evidence found for the down-regulation of photosynthesis in the late afternoon. The FACE conditions had no affect on stomatal density but did increase epidermal cell density.

  2. High rate performance of novel cathode material Li1.33Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haowen; Tan Long


    Highlights: → A novel cathode material with highly ordered structure has been prepared for the first time. → The charge and discharge current is 1000 mA g -1 and 2000 mA g -1 , respectively. → The results indicate better discharge capacity and cyclability. - Abstract: Li 1.33 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 with highly ordered structure has been successfully synthesized via a simple co-precipitation process. Charge-discharge tests showed that the initial discharge capacities are 153.0 mAh g -1 and 128.9 mAh g -1 at 5 C (1000 mA g -1 ) and 10 C (2000 mA g -1 ) between 2.5 and 4.5 V, respectively. The average full-charge time of this material is less than 12 min at 5 C and 6 min at 10 C. The electrode material composed of the prepared showed a better cyclability. The excellent high rate performance is attributed to the improved ordered layered structure and the electrical conductivity. The excess Li shorten Li + diffusion distance between these submicron and nano-scaled particles. The results show that Li 1.33 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode material has potential application in lithium ion batteries.

  3. Synthesis of (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)olivetolic acid, methyl (1'-/sup 13/C)olivetolate and (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)cannabigerolic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porwoll, J.P.; Leete, E. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)


    Potential advanced intermediates in the biosynthesis of delta/sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive principle of marijuana, have been synthesized labeled with two contiguous /sup 13/C atoms and /sup 14/C. Methyl (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)olivetolate was prepared from lithium (/sup 13/C/sub 2/)acetylide and dimethyl (2-/sup 14/C)malonate. Reaction with geranyl bromide afforded methyl (5,6-/sup 13/C/sub 2/, 1-/sup 14/C)cannabigerolate, and hydrolysis of these methyl esters with lithium propyl mercaptide yielded the corresponding labeled acids. The /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C couplings observable in the /sup 13/C NMR spectra of these /sup 13/C-enriched compounds and their synthetic precursors are recorded. Methyl (1'-/sup 14/C)olivetolate was prepared from /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ to confirm assignments of the /sup 13/C chemical shifts in the pentyl side chain of these compounds.

  4. Greenhouse gas exchange in West African savanna ecosystems - how important are emissions from termite mounds? (United States)

    Brümmer, C.; Brüggemann, N.


    Savannas cover large areas of the Earth's surface and play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycling. In this study, we present the soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4, and CO2 during two field campaigns throughout the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at a natural savanna site that was not subject to human disturbances except for annual burning, and four agricultural sites planted with sorghum (n=2), cotton and peanut in Burkina Faso. The annual N2O emission of the nature reserve site amounted to 0.52 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in 2005 and to 0.67 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in 2006, whereas the calculated average annual N2O release of the crop sites was only 0.19 and 0.20 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. As a result of a temporal up-scaling approach, a lower bound of annual N2O release could be given for two fertilized sorghum plots, that is, 0.83 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 for a highly fertilized plot and 0.44 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 for a moderately fertilized plot. During the rainy season both CH4 uptake in the range of up to 20 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1 as well as CH4 emission up to 300 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1 were observed at the nature reserve site, which was on average a CH4 source of 87.4 and 30.8 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. All crop sites were on average weak CH4 sinks without significant seasonal variation. Uptake rates ranged between 2.5 and 8.7 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1. Occasionally very low net CH4 emission was observed after heavy rainfall events. Mean annual CH4 rates could be estimated to 2.48 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 and -0.68 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 for the nature reserve site and the crop sites, respectively. Trace gas emissions from termite (Cubitermes fungifaber) mounds that were almost exclusively found at the nature reserve were one order of magnitude higher for N2O and CO2, and two orders of magnitude higher for CH4 than soil emissions of the respective trace gas. Termite N2O, CH4 and CO2 release at the nature reserve contributed only 3.2%, 8.1% and

  5. Structural and thermal stabilities of layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials in 18650 high power batteries (United States)

    He, Yan-Bing; Ning, Feng; Yang, Quan-Hong; Song, Quan-Sheng; Li, Baohua; Su, Fangyuan; Du, Hongda; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Kang, Feiyu

    The structural and thermal stabilities of the layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode materials under high rate cycling and abusive conditions are investigated using the commercial 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries. The Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials maintain their layered structure even when the power batteries are subjected to 200 cycles with 10 C discharge rate at temperatures of 25 and 50 °C, whereas their microstructure undergoes obvious distortion, which leads to the relatively poor cycling performance of power batteries at high charge/discharge rates and working temperature. Under abusive conditions, the increase in the battery temperature during overcharge is attributed to both the reactions of electrolyte solvents with overcharged graphite anode and Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode and the Joule heat that results from the great increase in the total resistance (R cell) of batteries. The reactions of fully charged Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathodes and graphite anodes with electrolyte cannot be activated during short current test in the fully charged batteries. However, these reactions occur at around 140 °C in the fully charged batteries during oven test, which is much lower than the temperature of about 240 °C required for the reactions outside batteries.

  6. Synthesis of LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 cathode material by chloride co-precipitation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灵均; 李新海; 王志兴; 伍凌; 郑俊超; 李金辉


    LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 was prepared by a chloride co-precipitation method and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry with Rietveld refinement,electron scanning microscopy and electrochemical measurements.Effects of lithium ion content and sintering temperature on physical and electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 were also investigated. The results show that the sample synthesized at 750℃with 105%lithium content has fine particle sizes around 200 nm and homogenous sizes distribution.The initial discharge capacity for the powder is 184 mA·h/g between 2.7 and 4.3 V at 0.1C and room temperature.

  7. The Co-III-C bond in (1-thia-4,7-diazacyclodecyl-kappa N-3(4),N-7,C-10)(1,4,7-triazacyclononane-kappa N-3(1),N-4,N-7)-cobalt(III) dithionate hydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Pernille; Kofod, P.; Song, Y.S.


    In the title compound, [Co(C6H15N3)(C7H15N2S)]S2O6.H2O, the Co-C bond distance is 1.9930 (13) Angstrom, which is shorter than for related compounds with the linear 1,6-diamino-3-thiahexan-4-ide anion in place of the macrocyclic 1-thia-4,7-diazacyclodecan-8-ide anion. The coordinated carbanion pro...... produces an elongation of 0.102 (7) Angstrom of the Co-N bond to the 1,4,7-triazacyclononane N atom in the trans position. This relatively small trans influence is presumably a result of the triamine ligand forming strong bonds to the Co-III atom....

  8. Mathematical Modelling of Arctic Polygonal Tundra with Ecosys: 2. Microtopography Determines How CO2 and CH4 Exchange Responds to Changes in Temperature and Precipitation (United States)

    Grant, R. F.; Mekonnen, Z. A.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, B.; Torn, M. S.


    Differences of surface elevation in arctic polygonal landforms cause spatial variation in soil water contents (θ), active layer depths (ALD), and thereby in CO2 and CH4 exchange. Here we test hypotheses in ecosys for topographic controls on CO2 and CH4 exchange in trough, rim, and center features of low- and flat-centered polygons (LCP and FCP) against chamber and eddy covariance (EC) measurements during 2013 at Barrow, Alaska. Larger CO2 influxes and CH4 effluxes were measured with chambers and modeled with ecosys in LCPs than in FCPs and in lower features (troughs) than in higher (rims) within LCPs and FCPs. Spatially aggregated CO2 and CH4 fluxes from ecosys were significantly correlated with EC flux measurements. Lower features were modeled as C sinks (52-56 g C m-2 yr-1) and CH4 sources (4-6 g C m-2 yr-1), and higher features as near C neutral (-2-15 g C m-2 yr-1) and CH4 neutral (0.0-0.1 g C m-2 yr-1). Much of the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 and CH4 fluxes were modeled from topographic effects on water and snow movement and thereby on θ, ALD, and soil O2 concentrations. Model results forced with meteorological data from 1981 to 2015 indicated increasing net primary productivity in higher features and CH4 emissions in some lower and higher features since 2008, attributed mostly to recent rises in precipitation. Small-scale variation in surface elevation causes large spatial variation of greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges and therefore should be considered in estimates of GHG exchange in polygonal landscapes.

  9. Formation and early hydration characteristics of C2.75B1.25A3$ in binary system of C2.75B1.25A3$-C2S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, Shoude


    Full Text Available C2.75B1.25A3$ (2.75CaO•1.25BaO• 3Al2O3• SO3 is one of the important minerals and it govern-directly the early-strength of belite-barium calcium sulphoaluminate cement. In this paper a binary system C2.75B1.25A3$-C2S is selected to investigate the formation of C2.75B1.25A3$. In the range of 1100 °C–1200 °C, the earlier formed C2S hinders the formation of C2.75B1.25A3$. On the contrary, when the temperature is in the range of 1200 °C–1350 °C, the initially formed C2S could provide a surface for the nucleation of C2.75B1.25A3$ and cut down the potential barrier (?Gk* for the heterogeneous nucleation of C2.75B1.25A3$, which contributes to its formation. Moreover, at 1350 °C, the large amount of previously formed C2S benefits the extent of formation of C2.75B1.25A3$. The possible reason was that it could prevent sulfur evaporation. In early hydration age, AFm and AFt originating from C2.75B1.25A3$ hydration are found within 2 h and 12 h under 95% RH at 1 °C, respectively, whereas C2S is unhydrated at this moment.En el cemento de sulfoaluminato de calcio y bario, el C2.75B1.25A3$ (2.75CaO•1.25BaO• 3Al2 O3• SO3 es una de las principales fases, y regula directamente la resistencia inicial del cemento. En este trabajo, se ha seleccionado el sistema binario C2.75B1.25A3$-C2S para investigar la formación de C2.75B1.25A3$. En el rango de 1100 °C-1200 °C, el C2S formado anteriormente impide la formación de C2.75B1.25A3$, mientras que cuando la temperatura está entre 1200 °C-1350 °C, el C2S proporcionaría una superficie de nucleación de C2.75B1.25A3$ reduciendo la barrera de potencial (?Gk* para la nucleación heterogénea de C2.75B1.25A3$, lo que contribuye a su formación. Además, a 1350 °C, la gran cantidad de C2S formado beneficia la formación de C2.75B1.25A3$, ya que podía prevenir la evaporación del azufre. En las primeras etapas de la hidratación (entre 2 y 12h y 95% HR a 1 ºC se pueden encontrar AFM y AFt

  10. Temporal and spatial variations of oceanic pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux in th Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, Shin-Ichiro; Aoki, Shuji; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki


    In order to elucidate the seasonal and inter annual variations of oceanic CO 2 uptake in the Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea, the partial pressure of CO 2 in the surface ocean (pCO 2 sea ) was measured in all seasons between 1992 and 2001. We derived monthly varying relationships between pCO 2 sea and sea surface temperature (SST) and combined them with the SST data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to determine pCO 2 sea and air-sea CO 2 flux in these seas. The pCO 2 sea values were normalized to the year 1995 by assuming that pCO 2 sea increased at the same growth rate (1.5 μatm/yr) of the pCO 2 in the air (pCO 2 air ) between 1992 and 2001. In 1995, the annual net air-sea CO 2 fluxes were evaluated to be 52 ± 20 gC/m 2 /yr in the Greenland Sea and 46 ± 18 gC/m 2 /yr in the Barents Sea. The CO 2 flux into the ocean reached its maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The wind speed and (delta)pCO 2 (=pCO 2 air -pCO 2 sea ) exerted a greater influence on the seasonal variation than the sea ice coverage. The annual CO 2 uptake examined in this study (70-80 deg N, 20 deg W-40 deg E) was estimated to be 0.050 ± 0.020 GtC/yr in 1995. The inter annual variation in the annual CO 2 uptake was found to be positively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) via wind strength but negatively correlated with (delta)pCO 2 and the sea ice coverage. The present results indicate that the variability in wind speed and sea ice coverage play a major role, while that in (delta)pCO 2 plays a minor role, in determining the interannual variation of CO 2 uptake in this area

  11. "1"4CO_2 processing using an improved and robust molecular sieve cartridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotte, Anja; Wordell-Dietrich, Patrick; Wacker, Lukas; Don, Axel; Rethemeyer, Janet


    Radiocarbon ("1"4C) analysis on CO_2 can provide valuable information on the carbon cycle as different carbon pools differ in their "1"4C signature. While fresh, biogenic carbon shows atmospheric "1"4C concentrations, fossil carbon is "1"4C free. As shown in previous studies, CO_2 can be collected for "1"4C analysis using molecular sieve cartridges (MSC). These devices have previously been made of plastic and glass, which can easily be damaged during transport. We thus constructed a robust MSC suitable for field application under tough conditions or in remote areas, which is entirely made of stainless steel. The new MSC should also be tight over several months to allow long sampling campaigns and transport times, which was proven by a one year storage test. The reliability of the "1"4CO_2 results obtained with the MSC was evaluated by detailed tests of different procedures to clean the molecular sieve (zeolite type 13X) and for the adsorption and desorption of CO_2 from the zeolite using a vacuum rig. We show that the "1"4CO_2 results are not affected by any contamination of modern or fossil origin, cross contamination from previous samples, and by carbon isotopic fractionation. In addition, we evaluated the direct CO_2 transfer from the MSC into the automatic graphitization equipment AGE with the subsequent "1"4C AMS analysis as graphite. This semi-automatic approach can be fully automated in the future, which would allow a high sample throughput. We obtained very promising, low blank values between 0.0018 and 0.0028 F"1"4C (equivalent to 50,800 and 47,200 yrs BP), which are within the analytical background and lower than results obtained in previous studies.

  12. Permafrost thaw strongly reduces allowable CO2 emissions for 1.5°C and 2°C (United States)

    Kechiar, M.; Gasser, T.; Kleinen, T.; Ciais, P.; Huang, Y.; Burke, E.; Obersteiner, M.


    We quantify how the inclusion of carbon emission from permafrost thaw impacts the budgets of allowable anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We use the compact Earth system model OSCAR v2.2 which we expand with a permafrost module calibrated to emulate the behavior of the complex models JSBACH, ORCHIDEE and JULES. When using the "exceedance" method and with permafrost thaw turned off, we find budgets very close to the CMIP5 models' estimates reported by IPCC. With permafrost thaw turned on, the total budgets are reduced by 3-4%. This corresponds to a 33-45% reduction of the remaining budget for 1.5°C, and a 9-13% reduction for 2°C. When using the "avoidance" method, however, permafrost thaw reduces the total budget by 3-7%, which corresponds to reductions by 33-56% and 56-79% of the remaining budget for 1.5°C and 2°C, respectively. The avoidance method relies on many scenarios that actually peak below the target whereas the exceedance method overlooks the carbon emitted by thawed permafrost after the temperature target is reached, which explains the difference. If we use only the subset of scenarios in which there is no net negative emissions, the permafrost-induced reduction in total budgets rises to 6-15%. Permafrost thaw therefore makes the emission budgets strongly path-dependent. We also estimate budgets of needed carbon capture in scenarios overshooting the temperature targets. Permafrost thaw strongly increases these capture budgets: in the case of a 1.5°C target overshot by 0.5°C, which is in line with the Paris agreement, about 30% more carbon must be captured. Our conclusions are threefold. First, inclusion of permafrost thaw systematically reduces the emission budgets, and very strongly so if the temperature target is overshot. Second, the exceedance method, that is the only one that complex models can follow, only partially accounts for the effect of slow non-linear processes such as permafrost thaw, leading to overestimated budgets. Third, the newfound

  13. Deep Sea Memory of High Atmospheric CO2 Concentration (United States)

    Mathesius, Sabine; Hofmann, Matthias; Caldeira, Ken; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim


    Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere has been proposed as a powerful measure to mitigate global warming and ocean acidification. Planetary-scale interventions of that kind are often portrayed as "last-resort strategies", which need to weigh in if humankind keeps on enhancing the climate-system stock of CO2. Yet even if CDR could restore atmospheric CO2 to substantially lower concentrations, would it really qualify to undo the critical impacts of past emissions? In the study presented here, we employed an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC) to investigate how CDR might erase the emissions legacy in the marine environment, focusing on pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen. Against a background of a world following the RCP8.5 emissions path ("business-as-usual") for centuries, we simulated the effects of two massive CDR interventions with CO2 extraction rates of 5 GtC yr-1 and 25 GtC yr-1, respectively, starting in 2250. We found that the 5 GtC yr-1 scheme would have only minor ameliorative influence on the oceans, even after several centuries of application. By way of contrast, the extreme 25 GtC yr-1 scheme eventually leads to tangible improvements. However, even with such an aggressive measure, past CO2 emissions leave a substantial legacy in the marine environment within the simulated period (i.e., until 2700). In summary, our study demonstrates that anthropogenic alterations of the oceans, caused by continued business-as-usual emissions, may not be reversed on a multi-centennial time scale by the most aspirational geoengineering measures. We also found that a transition from the RCP8.5 state to the state of a strong mitigation scenario (RCP2.6) is not possible, even under the assumption of extreme extraction rates (25 GtC yr-1). This is explicitly demonstrated by simulating additional scenarios, starting CDR already in 2150 and operating until the atmospheric CO2 concentration reaches 280 ppm and 180 ppm, respectively. The simulated

  14. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA. (United States)

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W


    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents.

  15. Pure- and mixed-gas CO2/CH4 separation properties of PIM-1 and an amidoxime-functionalized PIM-1

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja


    The prototypical solution-processable polymer of intrinsic microporosity, PIM-1, and derivatives thereof offer combinations of permeability and selectivity that make them potential candidate materials for membrane-based gas separations. Paramount to the design and evaluation of PIMs for economical natural gas sweetening is a high and stable CO2/CH4 selectivity under realistic, mixed-gas conditions. Here, amidoxime-functionalized PIM-1 (AO-PIM-1) was prepared and examined for fundamental structure/property relationships. Qualitative NLDFT pore-size distribution analyses of physisorption isotherms (N2 at -196 oC; CO2 at 0 oC) reveal a tightened microstructure indicating size-sieving ultra-microporosity (<7Å). AO-PIM-1 demonstrated a three-fold increase in αD(CO2/CH4) over PIM-1, surpassing the 2008 upper bound with P(CO2)=1153Barrer and ideal α(CO2/CH4)=34. Under a 50:50 CO2:CH4 mixed-gas feed, AO-PIM-1 showed less selectivity loss than PIM-1, maintaining a mixed-gas α(CO2/CH4) ~21 across a 20bar pressure range. Conversely, PIM-1 endured up to 60% increases in mixed-gas CH4 permeability over pure-gas values concurrent with a selectivity of only ~8 at 20bar. A pervasive intermolecular hydrogen bonding network in AO-PIM-1 predominantly yields a rigidified microstructure that mitigates CO2-induced matrix dilations, reducing detrimental mixed-gas CH4 copermeation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Emission of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O from soil cultivated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) fertilized with different N sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Luqueno, F.; Reyes-Varela, V.; Martinez-Suarez, C.; Reynoso-Keller, R.E.; Mendez-Bautista, J.; Ruiz-Romero, E. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, F. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala C.P. 90700 (Mexico); Luna-Guido, M.L. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico)


    Addition of different forms of nitrogen fertilizer to cultivated soil is known to affect carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions. In this study, the effect of urea, wastewater sludge and vermicompost on emissions of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O in soil cultivated with bean was investigated. Beans were cultivated in the greenhouse in three consecutive experiments, fertilized with or without wastewater sludge at two application rates (33 and 55 Mg fresh wastewater sludge ha{sup -1}, i.e. 48 and 80 kg N ha{sup -1} considering a N mineralization rate of 40%), vermicompost derived from the wastewater sludge (212 Mg ha{sup -1}, i.e. 80 kg N ha{sup -1}) or urea (170 kg ha{sup -1}, i.e. 80 kg N ha{sup -1}), while pH, electrolytic conductivity (EC), inorganic nitrogen and CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions were monitored. Vermicompost added to soil increased EC at onset of the experiment, but thereafter values were similar to the other treatments. Most of the NO{sub 3}{sup -} was taken up by the plants, although some was leached from the upper to the lower soil layer. CO{sub 2} emission was 375 C kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the unamended soil, 340 kg C ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the urea-amended soil and 839 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the vermicompost-amended soil. N{sub 2}O emission was 2.92 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in soil amended with 55 Mg wastewater sludge ha{sup -1}, but only 0.03 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the unamended soil. The emission of CO{sub 2} was affected by the phenological stage of the plant while organic fertilizer increased the CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emission, and the yield per plant. Environmental and economic implications must to be considered to decide how many, how often and what kind of organic fertilizer could be used to increase yields, while limiting soil deterioration and greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Emission pathways to achieve 2.0°C and 1.5°C climate targets (United States)

    Su, Xuanming; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Kato, Etsushi; Shiogama, Hideo; Masui, Toshihiko; Emori, Seita


    We investigated the feasibilities of 2.0°C and 1.5°C climate targets by considering the abatement potentials of a full suite of greenhouse gases, pollutants, and aerosols. We revised the inter-temporal dynamic optimization model DICE-2013R by introducing three features as follows. First, we applied a new marginal abatement cost curve derived under moderate assumptions regarding future socioeconomic development—the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways 2 (SSP2) scenario. Second, we addressed emission abatement for not only industrial CO2 but also land-use CO2, CH4, N2O, halogenated gases, CO, volatile organic compounds, SOx, NOx, black carbon and organic carbon. Third, we improved the treatment of the non-CO2 components in the climate module based on MAGICC 6.0. We obtained the following findings: (1) It is important to address the individual emissions in an analysis of low stabilization scenarios because abating land-use CO2, non-CO2 and aerosol emissions also contributes to maintaining a low level of radiative forcing and substantially affects the climate costs. (2) The 2.0°C target can be efficiently reached under the assumptions of the SSP2 scenario. (3) The 1.5°C target can be met with early deep cuts under the assumption of a temperature overshoot, and it will triple the carbon price and double the mitigation cost compared with the 2.0°C case.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of layered Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 as positive electrode material for lithium secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Lee, Myung-Hun; Komaba, Shinichi; Kumagai, Naoaki; Sun, Yang-Kook


    In attempts to prepare layered Li[Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 ]O 2 , hydrothermal method was employed. The hydrothermal precursor, [Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 ](OH) 2 , was synthesized via a coprecipitation route. The sphere-shaped powder precursor was hydrothermally reacted with LiOH aqueous solution at 170 deg. C for 4 days in autoclave. From X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies, it was found that the as-hydrothermally prepared powders were crystallized to layered α-NaFeO 2 structure and the particles had spherical shape. The as-prepared Li[Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 ]O 2 delivered an initial discharge of about 110 mA h g -1 due to lower crystallinity. Heat treatment of the hydrothermal product at 800 deg. C was significantly effective to improve the structural integrity, which consequently affected the increase in the discharge capacity to 157 (4.3 V cut-off) and 182 mA h g -1 (4.6 V cut-off) at 25 deg. C with good reversibility

  19. Evolution of H2O, CO, and CO2 production in Comet C/2009 P1 Garradd during the 2011-2012 apparition (United States)

    McKay, Adam J.; Cochran, Anita L.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Villanueva, Geronimo; Russo, Neil Dello; Vervack, Ronald J.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Harris, Walter M.; Chanover, Nancy J.


    We present analysis of high spectral resolution NIR spectra of CO and H2O in Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) taken during its 2011-2012 apparition with the CSHELL instrument on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also present analysis of observations of atomic oxygen in Comet Garradd obtained with the ARCES echelle spectrometer mounted on the ARC 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory and the Tull Coude spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith 2.7-m telescope at McDonald Observatory. The observations of atomic oxygen serve as a proxy for H2O and CO2. We confirm the high CO abundance in Comet Garradd and the asymmetry in the CO/H2O ratio with respect to perihelion reported by previous studies. From the oxygen observations, we infer that the CO2/H2O ratio decreased as the comet moved towards the Sun, which is expected based on current sublimation models. We also infer that the CO2/H2O ratio was higher pre-perihelion than post-perihelion. We observe evidence for the icy grain source of H2O reported by several studies pre-perihelion, and argue that this source is significantly less abundant post-perihelion. Since H2O, CO2, and CO are the primary ices in comets, they drive the activity. We use our measurements of these important volatiles in an attempt to explain the evolution of Garradd's activity over the apparition.

  20. Variability of N{sub 2}O emissions during the production of poplar and rye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Juergen; Hellebrand, Hans Juergen; Scholz, Volkhard [ATB Potsdam (Germany)], E-mail:


    The emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil has a significant impact on the greenhouse gas balance of energy crops. Soil type, temperature, precipitation, tillage practice and level of fertilization may affect the source strength of N{sub 2}O emissions and fertilizer-induced N{sub 2}O emissions. The N{sub 2}O-fluxes from different sites of an experimental field were measured by the flux chamber method over a period of four years (2003-2006). Poplar and rye as one perennial and one annual crop were fertilized at levels of 0 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, 75 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and 150 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. Enhanced N{sub 2}O emission spots with maxima of up to 1653 {mu}g N{sub 2}O m{sup -2} h{sup -1} were observed at fertilized sites for several weeks. The emissions ranged between 0.4 kg N{sub 2}O-N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and 2.7 kg N{sub 2}O-N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} depending on fertilization level, crop variety and year. The mean conversion factor was 2.1% for poplar and 0.9% for rye. The CO{sub 2}-advantage of energy crops is reduced by N{sub 2}O emissions by up to 10%. (author)

  1. Changes in terrestrial CO2 budget in Siberia in the past three decades (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ueyama, M.; Ito, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Maki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Niwa, Y.; Patra, P. K.; Saeki, T.; Sato, H.; Sasai, T.; Saigusa, N.; Tian, H.; Yanagi, Y.; Zhang, B.


    Siberia is one of the regions where significant warming is proceeding, and the warming might cause changes in terrestrial carbon cycle. We analyzed interannual and decadal changes in terrestrial CO2 fluxes in the regions using multiple data sets, such as empirically estimated carbon fluxes based on multiple eddy-covariance sites (empirical upscaling; Support Vector Regression with AsiaFlux data), satellite-based vegetation index data, multiple terrestrial carbon cycle models from Asia-MIP (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, SEIB-DGVM, and VISIT), and atmospheric inverse models (e.g. ACTM, JMA, NICAM-TM) for the past 3 decades (1980s, 1990s, and 2000s). First, we checked the consistency in interannual variation of net carbon exchange between empirical upscaling and Asia-MIP model for 2001-2011 period, and found these two estimations show overall consistent interannual variation. Second, we analyzed net carbon exchange form Asia-MIP models and atmospheric inversions for the past three decades, and found persistent increases in terrestrial CO2 sink from two estimates. Magnitudes of estimated terrestrial CO2 sinks are also consistent (e.g. Asia-MIP: 0.2 PgC yr-1 in 1980s and 0.3 PgC yr-1 in 2000s and Inversions: 0.2 PgC yr-1 in 1980s and 0.5 PgC/yr in 2000s). We further analyzed the cause of persistent increases in CO2 uptake in the region using Asia-MIP model outputs, and climate changes (both warming and increases in water availability) and CO2 fertilization plays almost equivalent roles in sink increases. In addition, both gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were increased, but increase in GPP was larger than that in RE.

  2. Reconstitution of CO2 Regulation of SLAC1 Anion Channel and Function of CO2-Permeable PIP2;1 Aquaporin as CARBONIC ANHYDRASE4 Interactor (United States)

    Zeise, Brian; Xu, Danyun; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Boron, Walter F.; Schroeder, Julian I.


    Dark respiration causes an increase in leaf CO2 concentration (Ci), and the continuing increases in atmospheric [CO2] further increases Ci. Elevated leaf CO2 concentration causes stomatal pores to close. Here, we demonstrate that high intracellular CO2/HCO3− enhances currents mediated by the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell S-type anion channel SLAC1 upon coexpression of any one of the Arabidopsis protein kinases OST1, CPK6, or CPK23 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Split-ubiquitin screening identified the PIP2;1 aquaporin as an interactor of the βCA4 carbonic anhydrase, which was confirmed in split luciferase, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. PIP2;1 exhibited CO2 permeability. Mutation of PIP2;1 in planta alone was insufficient to impair CO2- and abscisic acid-induced stomatal closing, likely due to redundancy. Interestingly, coexpression of βCA4 and PIP2;1 with OST1-SLAC1 or CPK6/23-SLAC1 in oocytes enabled extracellular CO2 enhancement of SLAC1 anion channel activity. An inactive PIP2;1 point mutation was identified that abrogated water and CO2 permeability and extracellular CO2 regulation of SLAC1 activity. These findings identify the CO2-permeable PIP2;1 as key interactor of βCA4 and demonstrate functional reconstitution of extracellular CO2 signaling to ion channel regulation upon coexpression of PIP2;1, βCA4, SLAC1, and protein kinases. These data further implicate SLAC1 as a bicarbonate-responsive protein contributing to CO2 regulation of S-type anion channels. PMID:26764375

  3. Co-hydrothermal synthesis of LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4·LiAlO_2/C nano-hybrid cathode material with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jun; Luo, Shaohua; Chang, Longjiao; Hao, Aimin; Wang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yanguo; Xu, Qian; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yahui


    Highlights: • A co-hydrothermal approach to synthesize LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4·LiAlO_2/C composite material in water/PEG system is present. • The Mn_1_-_xMg_xPO_4 precursor is prepared by precipitation reaction. • Co-modified with Mg"2"+ doping and LiAlO_2 compositing strategies play an important role in improving the electronic conductivity and facilitating the diffusion of lithium ion. • LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4·LiAlO_2/C composite material exhibits a high specific discharge capacity of 151.8 mAh/g at 0.05C. - Abstract: LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4·LiAlO_2/C is synthesized by a co-hydrothermal method in water/PEG system using Li_2CO_3, AAO and Mn_1_-_xMg_xPO_4 as raw material. The electronic structure and micromorphology of multi-component compound LiMn_1_-_xMg_xPO_4/C (x = 0, 1/24, 1/12, 1/6) and nano-hybrid LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4·LiAlO_2/C cathode materials are studied by first-principles calculation and experimental research including XRD, SEM, TEM. The calculated band gap of LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4/C is 2.296 eV, which is lower than other percentages Mg"2"+ doping samples. Electrochemical tests exhibit LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4/C has better cycling performance and rate capability than other contents Mg"2"+ doping samples with the discharge capacity of 143.5 mAh/g, 141.5 mAh/g, 139.2 mAh/g and 136.3 mAh/g at 0.05C, 0.1C, 0.5C and 1C in order. After compositing and preparation of LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4·LiAlO_2/C composite material by co-hydrothermal route, the initial discharge capacity reaches up to 151.8 mAh/g, which suggests that co-modified with Mg"2"+ doping and LiAlO_2 compositing material can improve the electronic conductivity of LiMnPO_4/C by facilitating the lithium ion diffusion rate in the interior of the materials.

  4. The reliability of DIVA test based on M2e peptide exceed those based on HA2 or NS1 peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan


    Full Text Available One of the most important disadvantage of vaccination against avian influenza is that it cannot protect vaccinated birds against infection. When vaccinated poultry are heavily exposed to the virus, prolonged, unrecognised, subclinical infection may persist on the farm. The condition can only be serologically monitored by a DIVA (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals test, whereas conventional diagnostic tests cannot be used. The DIVA tests based on an antibody response following virus replication is the most appropriate approach. For H5N1 influenza such antibodies includes those to the M2e and NS1 proteins and an epitope on the HA2 subunit (HA_488-516. The purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude of the antibody response in chickens vaccinated and infected with an H5N1 virus strain. For that purpose, sera collected from naïve, vaccinated and infected birds, at 1, 2-3, ≥4 weeks post challenge were used. Antibodies were measured by ELISA using biotinylated synthetic peptides as coating antigens. The peptides used include four NS1 peptides corresponding to different regions of the NS1 protein and HA_488-516and M2e peptides. Peptides were coated onto microtitre plates either directly or via a streptavidin bridge. The results showed that vaccination did not cause antibody conversion to any of the peptides, where as challenged birds developed a high antibody response to M2e but, low response to the NS1 and HA2 peptides. Antibodies to the later peptides were detected only by the streptavidin-peptide ELISA. The ELISA based on NS1 or HA_488-516 peptides, therefore, are not reliable for use as DIVA test in H5N1 avian influenza virus infection

  5. Exotic Spartina alterniflora invasion alters ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CH4 and N2O and carbon sequestration in a coastal salt marsh in China. (United States)

    Yuan, Junji; Ding, Weixin; Liu, Deyan; Kang, Hojeong; Freeman, Chris; Xiang, Jian; Lin, Yongxin


    Coastal salt marshes are sensitive to global climate change and may play an important role in mitigating global warming. To evaluate the impacts of Spartina alterniflora invasion on global warming potential (GWP) in Chinese coastal areas, we measured CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil organic carbon sequestration rates along a transect of coastal wetlands in Jiangsu province, China, including open water; bare tidal flat; and invasive S. alterniflora, native Suaeda salsa, and Phragmites australis marshes. Annual CH4 emissions were estimated as 2.81, 4.16, 4.88, 10.79, and 16.98 kg CH4 ha(-1) for open water, bare tidal flat, and P. australis, S. salsa, and S. alterniflora marshes, respectively, indicating that S. alterniflora invasion increased CH4 emissions by 57-505%. In contrast, negative N2O fluxes were found to be significantly and negatively correlated (P carbon sequestration rate of S. alterniflora marsh amounted to 3.16 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) in the top 100 cm soil profile, a value that was 2.63- to 8.78-fold higher than in native plant marshes. The estimated GWP was 1.78, -0.60, -4.09, and -1.14 Mg CO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) in open water, bare tidal flat, P. australis marsh and S. salsa marsh, respectively, but dropped to -11.30 Mg CO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) in S. alterniflora marsh. Our results indicate that although S. alterniflora invasion stimulates CH4 emissions, it can efficiently mitigate increases in atmospheric CO2 and N2O along the coast of China. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 51C. Skill Levels 1 & 2. (United States)


    FF-TCR1NG I RESTS 2 RESULT I RESJLTS I VETA I NS 3 it 0Up N I R~vERS-1L. I F E VtS ZNG I PEVELVIKG MOS WORDo LISTINGASCENDIIG SECUEME C.ATE 93259 t39...1 0 J CACCUPULATEG 1 J fiCID I * ?L4CoS 1 j & T.CrC$S 2 0 J tAnJUSTASLE I J rC.Ff ER 8 J E .11:-COflOITIOING 5 *J CALL 1 0 J LALLOM I J (A~LLOW~S 4 *J...ALCMj 3 *J &:.L" VS 1 0 3 12 0 j ...’Jo I *J W Git Z I ., 1 4 J fNVIL I ’ . lUV I J E C.PPEAJRS I I J E .*,PL! CATION 2 2 C. PPLY I 3 C.;PPPtovEo a 3

  7. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-(2-cyanoethyl-3-(3-methoxypropaneimidazolium bromide for CO2 capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandar Shantini


    Full Text Available Amine scrubbing is dominating in carbon dioxide (CO2 capturing technology because of its high affinity towards CO2. However, the drawbacks of amine solvents are its high corrosivity and volatility. Ionic liquids (ILs have gained a lot of attention in recent years for CO2 capturing and have been proposed to be one of the promising alternative to the conventional solvents. The objective of this research is to design a new imidazolium based ether-nitrile functionalized ionic liquid of low viscosity to improve CO2 capturing. The molecular structure of the ionic liquid were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FTIR. The thermal properties; glass transition temperature, thermal decomposition temperature, and their physical properties; water content and density were determined. The solubility of CO2 in the synthesized ionic liquid was measured using pressure drop method. They showed high thermal stability above 200°C and the glass transition temperature was -49.80°C. The CO2 sorption in the newly synthesized IL was 0.08, 0.12, 0.29, 1.01, 2.30 mol of CO2/mol of IL at pressures 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 bar respectively.

  8. Atmospheric CO2 inversions on the mesoscale using data-driven prior uncertainties: quantification of the European terrestrial CO2 fluxes (United States)

    Kountouris, Panagiotis; Gerbig, Christoph; Rödenbeck, Christian; Karstens, Ute; Koch, Thomas F.; Heimann, Martin


    Optimized biogenic carbon fluxes for Europe were estimated from high-resolution regional-scale inversions, utilizing atmospheric CO2 measurements at 16 stations for the year 2007. Additional sensitivity tests with different data-driven error structures were performed. As the atmospheric network is rather sparse and consequently contains large spatial gaps, we use a priori biospheric fluxes to further constrain the inversions. The biospheric fluxes were simulated by the Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM) at a resolution of 0.1° and optimized against eddy covariance data. Overall we estimate an a priori uncertainty of 0.54 GtC yr-1 related to the poor spatial representation between the biospheric model and the ecosystem sites. The sink estimated from the atmospheric inversions for the area of Europe (as represented in the model domain) ranges between 0.23 and 0.38 GtC yr-1 (0.39 and 0.71 GtC yr-1 up-scaled to geographical Europe). This is within the range of posterior flux uncertainty estimates of previous studies using ground-based observations.

  9. Earth 2075 (CO2) - can Ocean-Amplified Carbon Capture (oacc) Impart Atmospheric CO2-SINKING Ability to CCS Fossil Energy? (United States)

    Fry, R.; Routh, M.; Chaudhuri, S.; Fry, S.; Ison, M.; Hughes, S.; Komor, C.; Klabunde, K.; Sethi, V.; Collins, D.; Polkinghorn, W.; Wroobel, B.; Hughes, J.; Gower, G.; Shkolnik, J.


    Previous attempts to capture atmospheric CO2 by algal blooming were stalled by ocean viruses, zooplankton feeding, and/or bacterial decomposition of surface blooms, re-releasing captured CO2 instead of exporting it to seafloor. CCS fossil energy coupling could bypass algal bloom limits—enabling capture of 10 GtC/yr atmospheric CO2 by selective emiliania huxleyi (EHUX) blooming in mid-latitude open oceans, far from coastal waters and polar seas. This could enable a 500 GtC drawdown, 350 ppm restoration by 2050, 280 ppm CO2 by 2075, and ocean pH 8.2. White EHUX blooms could also reflect sunlight back into outer space and seed extra ocean cloud cover, via DMS release, to raise albedo 1.8%—restoring preindustrial temperature (ΔT = 0°C) by 2030. Open oceans would avoid post-bloom anoxia, exclusively a coastal water phenomenon. The EHUX calcification reaction initially sources CO2, but net sinking prevails in follow-up equilibration reactions. Heavier-than-water EHUX sink captured CO2 to the sea floor before surface decomposition occurs. Seeding EHUX high on their nonlinear growth curve could accelerate short-cycle secondary open-ocean blooming—overwhelming mid-latitude viruses, zooplankton, and competition from other algae. Mid-latitude "ocean deserts" exhibit low viral, zooplankton, and bacterial counts. Thermocline prevents nutrient upwelling that would otherwise promote competing algae. Adding nitrogen nutrient would foster exclusive EHUX blooming. Elevated EHUX seed levels could arise from sealed, pH-buffered, floating, seed-production bioreactors infused with 10% CO2 from carbon feedstock supplied by inland CCS fossil power plants capturing 90% of emissions as liquid CO2. Deep-water SPAR platforms extract natural gas from beneath the sea floor. On-platform Haber and pH processing could convert extracted CH4 to buffered NH4+ nutrient, enabling ≥0.7 GtC/yr of bioreactor seed production and 10 GtC/yr of amplified secondary open-ocean CO2 capture—making CCS

  10. Intensive ground vegetation growth mitigates the carbon loss after forest disturbance. (United States)

    Zehetgruber, Bernhard; Kobler, Johannes; Dirnböck, Thomas; Jandl, Robert; Seidl, Rupert; Schindlbacher, Andreas


    Slow or failed tree regeneration after forest disturbance is increasingly observed in the central European Alps, potentially amplifying the carbon (C) loss from disturbance. We aimed at quantifying C dynamics of a poorly regenerating disturbance site with a special focus on the role of non-woody ground vegetation. Soil CO 2 efflux, fine root biomass, ground vegetation biomass, tree increment and litter input were assessed in (i) an undisturbed section of a ~ 110 years old Norway spruce stand, (ii) in a disturbed section which was clear-cut six years ago (no tree regeneration), and (iii) in a disturbed section which was clear-cut three years ago (no tree regeneration). Total soil CO 2 efflux was similar across all stand sections (8.5 ± 0.2 to 8.9 ± 0.3 t C ha -1  yr. -1 ). The undisturbed forest served as atmospheric C sink (2.1 t C ha -1  yr. -1 ), whereas both clearings were C sources to the atmosphere. The source strength three years after disturbance (-5.5 t C ha -1  yr. -1 ) was almost twice as high as six years after disturbance (-2.9 t C ha -1  yr. -1 ), with declining heterotrophic soil respiration and the high productivity of dense graminoid ground vegetation mitigating C loss. C loss after disturbance decreases with time and ground vegetation growth. Dense non-woody ground vegetation cover can hamper tree regeneration but simultaneously decrease the ecosystem C loss. The role of ground vegetation should be more explicitly taken into account in forest C budgets assessing disturbance effects.

  11. C1-2 arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrot, A [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Cermakova, E [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Vallee, C [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Chancelier, M D [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Chemla, N [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Rousselin, B [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Langer-Cherbit, A [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France)


    One hundred patients with the following conditions were studied: cervical pain or neuralgia without radiographic changes, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylarthritis and diverse conditions. The technique consists of lateral puncture of the posterior aspect of the C1-2 joint with a 20-gauge needle under fluoroscopic control, arthrography using 1 ml contrast medium, and a 1-ml long-acting steroid injection subsequently. The articular cavity has an anterior and a posterior recess. Sometimes the posterior recess is large. In 18% of cases the contralateral joint also opacifies. C1-2 arthrography appears to be an efficient and safe technique for the treatment of upper cervical pain due to C1-2 articular disorders. (orig.)

  12. C1-2 arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevrot, A.; Cermakova, E.; Vallee, C.; Chancelier, M.D.; Chemla, N.; Rousselin, B.; Langer-Cherbit, A.


    One hundred patients with the following conditions were studied: cervical pain or neuralgia without radiographic changes, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylarthritis and diverse conditions. The technique consists of lateral puncture of the posterior aspect of the C1-2 joint with a 20-gauge needle under fluoroscopic control, arthrography using 1 ml contrast medium, and a 1-ml long-acting steroid injection subsequently. The articular cavity has an anterior and a posterior recess. Sometimes the posterior recess is large. In 18% of cases the contralateral joint also opacifies. C1-2 arthrography appears to be an efficient and safe technique for the treatment of upper cervical pain due to C1-2 articular disorders. (orig.)

  13. The HaDREB2 transcription factor enhances basal thermotolerance and longevity of seeds through functional interaction with HaHSFA9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranco Raúl


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factor HaDREB2 was identified in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. as a drought-responsive element-binding factor 2 (DREB2 with unique properties. HaDREB2 and the sunflower Heat Shock Factor A9 (HaHSFA9 co-activated the Hahsp17.6G1 promoter in sunflower embryos. Both factors could be involved in transcriptional co-activation of additional small heat stress protein (sHSP promoters, and thus contribute to the HaHSFA9-mediated enhancement of longevity and basal thermotolerance of seeds. Results We found that overexpression of HaDREB2 in seeds did not enhance longevity. This was deduced from assays of basal thermotolerance and controlled seed-deterioration, which were performed with transgenic tobacco. Furthermore, the constitutive overexpression of HaDREB2 did not increase thermotolerance in seedlings or result in the accumulation of HSPs at normal growth temperatures. In contrast, when HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 were conjointly overexpressed in seeds, we observed positive effects on seed longevity, beyond those observed with overexpression of HaHSFA9 alone. Such additional effects are accompanied by a subtle enhancement of the accumulation of subsets of sHSPs belonging to the CI and CII cytosolic classes. Conclusion Our results reveal the functional interdependency of HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 in seeds. HaDREB2 differs from other previously characterized DREB2 factors in plants in terms of its unique functional interaction with the seed-specific HaHSFA9 factor. No functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 was observed when both factors were conjointly overexpressed in vegetative tissues. We therefore suggest that additional, seed-specific factors, or protein modifications, could be required for the functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9.

  14. CO2 capture. Two new structures in the 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) – water – CO2 system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhl, Kenny; Neerup, Randi; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup


    Energy production and transportation is responsible for more than 60 % of our CO2 emission. In particular coal-fired power plants are big contributors. However, these large scale facilities offer the possibility to effective CO2 capture through post-combustion processes. There are several options...... studied the 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) and the AMP-water phase diagramand its ability for CO2 capture. The first crystal structure in the AMP – water system has been solved from powder diffraction data: AMP trihydrate (triclinic, P-1, a = 6.5897(3), b = 6.399 (2), c = 6.3399(2) Å and α = 92.40 (3...... for such CO2 capture. The problem is to make the absorption/desorption processes energetically and thereby economically viable. One process under investigation involves alkanoamines as absorbents in aqueous solutions. In these systems CO2 is captured either by carbonate and/orcarbamate formation. We have...

  15. Accelerating carbon uptake in the Northern Hemisphere - Evidence from the interhemispheric difference of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxuan [Ministry of Education Key Lab. for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Dept. of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M Univ. at Galveston, Galveston (United States)], e-mail:; Li, Mingwei; Shen, Lulu [Ministry of Education Key Lab. for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)


    Previous studies have indicated that the regression slope between the interhemispheric difference (IHD) of CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and fossil fuel (FF) CO{sub 2} emissions was rather constant at about 0.5 ppm/Pg C yr{sup -1} during 1957 - 2003. In this study, we found that the average regression slopes between the IHD of CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and IHD of FF emissions for 16 sites in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) decreased from 0.69{+-}0.12 ppm/Pg C yr{sup -1} during 1982 - 1991 to 0.37{+-}0.06 ppm/Pg C yr{sup -1} during 1996 - 2008 (IHD of CO{sub 2} defined as the differences between each site and the South Pole, SPO). The largest difference was found in summer and autumn. The change in the spatial distribution of FF emissions driven by fast increasing Asian emissions may explain the slope change at three sites located north of 60 deg N but not at the other sites. A 30-yr SF{sub 6} simulation with time-varying meteorology and constant emissions suggests no significant difference in the decadal average and seasonal variation of interhemispheric exchange time{sub (}t{sub ex)} between the two periods. Based on the hemispheric net carbon fluxes derived from a two-box model, we attributed 75 % of the regression slope decrease at NH sites south of 60 deg N to the acceleration of net carbon sink increase in the NH and 25 % to the weakening of net carbon sink increase in the SH during 1996 - 2008. The growth rate of net carbon sink in the NH has increased by a factor of about three from 0.028{+-}0.023 [mean{+-}2{sigma}] Pg C yr{sup -2} during 1982 - 1991 to 0.093{+-}0.033 Pg C yr{sup -2} during 1996 - 2008, exceeding the percentage increase in the growth rate of IHD of FF emissions between the two periods (45%). The growth rate of net carbon sink in the SH has reduced 62 % from 0.058{+-}0.018 Pg C yr{sup -2} during 1982 - 1991 to 0.022{+-}0.012 Pg C yr{sup -2} during 1996 - 2008.

  16. Zn-Doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Composite as Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Battery: Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Du


    Full Text Available Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 composite, Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/31–xZnxO2 (x = 0.02; 0.05; 0.08, is synthesized by the sol-gel method. The crystal structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance are investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and constant current charge/discharge experiment. The result reveals that Zn-doping cathode material can reach the initial charge/discharge capacity of 188.8/162.9 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 and 179.0/154.1 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.95Zn0.05O2 with the high voltage of 4.4 V at 0.1C. Furthermore, the capacity retention of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 is 95.1% at 0.5 C after 50 cycles at room temperature. The improved electrochemical properties of Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are attributed to reduced electrode polarization, enhanced capacity reversibility, and excellent cyclic performance.

  17. Response of high elevation rocky mountain (Wyoming, USA) forest carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes to a bark beetle epidemic (United States)

    Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.


    The GLEES-AmeriFlux site is located in the Snowy Range Mountains, Medicine Bow National Forest, southeastern Wyoming [41o21’52” N, 106o14’22” W; 3190 m MSL]. Since November 1999, measurements of surface energy balance, momentum, CO2, and water vapor eddy-covariance fluxes have been made at the subalpine site which is dominated by an Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forest. An ongoing spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak has caused significant tree mortality in the forest over the past few years. In this study we investigate the impact of this bark beetle epidemic on the net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET); to achieve this goal we quantify the impact of significant eddy-covariance measurement issues. From 2006 to 2009 the magnitude of NEE decreased steadily by an average of 0.8 MgC ha-1 yr-1, which resulted in the reduction of the annual C sink from 2.9 to 0.6 MgC ha-1 yr-1. Over this time ET decreased steadily from 72.2 to 58.3 cm yr-1. The importance of the Webb-Pearman-Leuning (WPL) correction due to self-heating associated with open-path CO2/H2O analyzers was quantified by applying a thermodynamic model based on (1) a generalized model for instrument surface temperatures and (2) measured and site-specific modeled surface temperatures. The increase in measured NEE (towards being a net C source) due to the generalized model (1) was 2.2 MgC ha-1 yr-1, while the site specific corrections (2) accounted for an increase of 2.8 MgC ha-1 yr-1. The self-heating correction was much less important with ET measurements, increasing the measured flux by 0.5 cm yr-1, regardless of which method of determining surface temperature was used.

  18. Stable Sheave Moduli of Rank 2 with Chern Classes c 1 = -1; c2 = 2; c3 = 0 on Q3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Uvarov


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the scheme MQ( 21; 2; 0 of stable torsion free sheaves of rank 2 with Chern classes c1 = -1, c2 = 2, c3 = 0 on a smooth 3-dimensional projective quadric Q. The manifold MQ(-1; 2 of moduli bundles of rank 2 with Chern classes c1 = -1, c2 = 2 on Q was studied by Ottaviani and Szurek in 1994. In 2007 the author described the closure MQ (-1; 2 in the scheme MQ(21; 2; 0. In this paper we prove that in MQ(21; 2; 0 there exists a unique irreducible component diferent from MQ (¡1; 2 which is a rational variety of dimension 10.

  19. Magnetism and local environment model in (Ni/sub 1-c/Co/sub c/)078P014B008 amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amamou, A.


    The magnetic properties of amorphous alloys (Ni/sub 1-c/Co/sub c/) 0 . 78 P 0 . 14 B 0 . 08 were investigated. The samples were prepared by the splat-cooling method. The Curie temperatures were determined and the magnetization measurements, performed for 1.7 0 K less than or equal to T less than or equal to 270 0 K and fields up to kOe. Ni 0 . 78 P 0 . 14 B 0 . 08 is paramagnetic, whereas Co 0 . 78 P 0 . 14 B 0 . 08 is ferromagnetic until the crystallization temperature (678 0 K). The average moment per cobalt atom is 1.15 μ/sub B/. In (Ni/sub 1-c/Co/sub c/) 0 . 78 P 0 . 14 B 0 . 08 the critical concentration for the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition is c approximately equal to 0.15; this transition occurs in an inhomogeneous way. The saturation magnetization in the whole concentration range can be interpreted (as for some crystallized alloys and compounds) by a local environment model, when a reasonable short-range order is assumed. In such a model the magnetic moment per cobalt atom is related merely to the number of its Co first neighbors n/sub Co/. For n/sub Co/ = 0 and 1 the cobalt atom is not magnetic, for n/sub Co/ = 2 and 3 it carries a small moment μ 1 = 0.50μ/sub B/ and for n/sub Co/ greater than 3 it is magnetic with μ 2 = 1.15μ/sub B/ as in Co 0 . 78 P 0 . 14 B 0 . 08 ; the nickel atoms do not carry a substantial moment in the entire concentration range. These features are comparable to those obtained in some crystalline alloys. 3 figures

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02685-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cDNA, clone SSM636. 44 2e-08 3 ( FK735507 ) av02073b04r1.1 Symbiotic sea anemone (Anemonia vi... 60 2e-08 3...yte cDNA Library Porphyra ha... 50 2e-08 3 ( FK721873 ) av02130a08r1.1 Symbiotic sea anemone (Anemonia vi...... 60 2e-08 3 ( FK754800 ) av02104k17r1.1 Symbiotic sea anemone (Anemonia vi... 60 ...3e-08 3 ( BG227669 ) kq13h06.y1 TBN95TM-SSR Strongyloides stercoralis ... 38 3e-08 4 ( FK730953 ) av01010m13r1.1 Symbiotic

  1. Carbonate hydrates of the heavy alkali metals: preparation and structure of Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 1.5 H{sub 2}O und Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 3 H{sub 2}O; Carbonat-Hydrate der schweren Alkalimetalle: Darstellung und Struktur von Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 1,5 H{sub 2}O und Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 3 H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirpus, V.; Wittrock, J.; Adam, A. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie


    Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 1.5 H{sub 2}O and Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 3 H{sub 2}O were prepared from aqueous solution and by means of the reaction of dialkylcarbonates with RbOH and CsOH resp. in hydrous alcoholes. Based on four-circle diffractometer data, the crystal structures were determined (Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 1.5 H{sub 2}O: C2/c (no. 15), Z = 8, a = 1237.7(2) pm, b = 1385.94(7) pm, c = 747.7(4) pm, {beta} = 120.133(8) , V{sub EZ} = 1109.3(6) . 10{sup 6} pm{sup 3}; Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 3 H{sub 2}O: P2/c (no. 13), Z = 2, a = 654.5(2) pm, b = 679.06(6) pm, c = 886.4(2) pm, {beta} = 90.708(14) , V{sub EZ} = 393.9(2) . 10{sup 6} pm{sup 3}). Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 1.5 H{sub 2}O is isostructural with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 1.5 H{sub 2}O. In case of Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 3 H{sub 2}O no comparable structure is known. Both structures show {sub {infinity}}{sup 1}[(CO{sub 3}{sup 2-})(H{sub 2}O)]-chains, being connected via additional H{sub 2}O forming columns (Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 1.5 H{sub 2}O) and layers (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} . 3 H{sub 2}O), respectively. (orig.)

  2. Synthesis of 1-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-2-nitro-1H-imidazole-2-14C and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-YL-2-14C)acetamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, M.T.; Leaffer, M.A.


    We have prepared the 14 C-labeled analogs of NSC 261036, 1-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-2-nitro-1H-imidazole-2- 14 C, and NSC 301467, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl-2- 14 C) acetamide, for pharmacological, drug distribution, and mechanisms of action studies. The latter is an analog designed for lower toxicity and improved properties. The former is a metabolite of, and appears to be less toxic than, misonidazole. (author)

  3. Hydrogen peroxide assisted synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Lin, Chaohong; Zhang, Yongzhi; Chen, Li; Lei, Ying; Ou, Junke; Guo, Yong; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan


    LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion battery. In this research, a facile co-precipitation process is employed, during which the mixed solution of NH3·H2O, H2O2 (30% aqueous solution) and LiOH·H2O is added into the nitrate solution. Notably, H2O2 is introduced as the oxidant and dispersant during the co-precipitation process to oxidize the metal ions and decrease the agglomeration of the precursor by giving out O2, and then improves the specific capacity, stability and energy density of NCM. Additionally, O3 is employed to further oxidize NCM to enhance the stability during the calcination process. The obtained NCM material with single crystal structure exhibits a high initial discharge specific capacity of 208.9 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C (1 C = 280 mA g-1), an excellent cycle stability with high retained capacity of 176.3 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, and a high initial discharge specific capacities of 150.6 mAh g-1 at 5 C even at a high cutoff potential (4.6 V).

  4. Layered oxides-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as anode electrode for symmetric rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Feng, Zimin; Yang, Shi-Ze; Gagnon, Catherine; Gariépy, Vincent; Laul, Dharminder; Zhu, Wen; Veillette, René; Trudeau, Michel L.; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Zaghib, Karim


    High-performance and long-cycling rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been in steadily increasing demand for the past decades. Nevertheless, the two dominant anodes at the moment, graphite and L4T5O12, suffer from a safety issue of lithium plating (operating voltage at ∼ 0.1 V vs. Li+/Li) and low capacity (175 mAh/g), respectively. Here, we report LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as an alternative anode material which has a working voltage of ∼1.1 V and a capacity as high as 330 mAh/g at the current rate of C/15. Symmetric cells with both electrodes containing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can deliver average discharge voltage of 2.2 V. In-situ XRD, HRTEM and first principles calculations indicate that the reaction mechanism of a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 anode is comprised mainly of conversion. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is a promising negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Study of the structural and thermal stability of Li0.3Co2/3Ni1/6Mn1/6O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Saadoune, Ismael; Difi, Siham; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Lippens, Pierre-Emmanuel; Amarilla, José Manuel


    Thermal and structural stabilities of the delithiated positive electrode material Li x Co 2/3 Ni 1/6 Mn 1/6 O 2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, magnetic and thermogravimetric analysis. In the opposite to the classical electrode materials LiNiO 2 and LiCoO 2 , the structural symmetry (S.G. R-3 m) of the starting material LiCo 2/3 Ni 1/6 Mn 1/6 O 2 is preserved during the electrochemical cycling with a small variation of the unit cell parameters. Squid measurements evidenced that practically no Ni 2+ ions were present in the lithium slab even after the lithium extraction process. For the thermal stability, the highly oxidized phase Li 0.3 Co 2/3 Ni 1/6 Mn 1/6 O 2 was tested. This delithiated phase undergoes only 5.16% weight loss after heating up to 600 °C. This weight loss has no effect on the structure symmetry as the starting α-NaFeO 2 type structure was preserved during the thermal treatment. The obtained results coupled to the excellent electrochemical features of LiCo 2/3 Ni 1/6 Mn 1/6 O 2 clearly showits ability to compete with the commercialized cathode materials

  6. ARKRAY ADAMS A1c HA-8180T Analyzer for Diagnosis of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathies Common in Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Kunwandee, Jatuphol; Srivorakun, Hataichanok; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Fucharoen, Supan


    To evaluate the ARKRAY ADAMS A1c HA-8180T analyzer for diagnosis of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies commonly found in the Southeast Asian population. Our cohort consisted of 557 specimens from adults referred for thalassemia diagnosis. From these, we selected 457 specimens and subjected them to DNA analysis to determine various thalassemia genotypes. Also, to confirm the reference range for HbA2, we obtained an additional 48 specimens from healthy individuals. We estimated the diagnostic range for Hb E from specimens from another 52 subject individuals previously diagnosed with heterozygous HbE. All of these individuals had negative results in DNA testing for all common α-thalassemia alleles found in Thailand. We performed hemoglobin (Hb) analysis and compared the results with those we derived from testing the CAPILLARYS 2 Flex Piercing device. We defined genotypes via by DNA analysis. Performance evaluation revealed the within- and between-run precision for analysis of HbA2 and HbE, with coefficients of variation (CVs) ranging from 0.6% to 2.5%. We determined the reference ranges of HbA2 and HbE in the HbE heterozygote to be 2.2% to 3.4 % and 25.7% to 31.0%, respectively. We were able to identify all cases of β-thalassemia and HbE disorders. We coeluted HbH and Hb Bart and interfered with acetylated HbF. The ARKRAY ADAMS A1c HA-8180T analyzer could accurately identify which individuals had β-thalassemia and HbE disorders. However, compared with other high-performance liquid chromatography instruments in diagnosing α-thalassemia disease with HbH and Hb Bart, this analyzer is relatively difficult to use. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  7. Long-term nutrient fertilization and the carbon balance of permanent grassland: any evidence for sustainable intensification? (United States)

    Fornara, Dario A.; Wasson, Elizabeth-Anne; Christie, Peter; Watson, Catherine J.


    Sustainable grassland intensification aims to increase plant yields while maintaining the ability of soil to act as a sink rather than sources of atmospheric CO2. High biomass yields from managed grasslands, however, can be only maintained through long-term nutrient fertilization, which can significantly affect soil carbon (C) storage and cycling. Key questions remain about (1) how long-term inorganic vs. organic fertilization influences soil C stocks, and (2) how soil C gains (or losses) contribute to the long-term C balance of managed grasslands. Using 43 years of data from a permanent grassland experiment, we show that soils not only act as significant C sinks but have not yet reached C saturation. Even unfertilized control soils showed C sequestration rates of 0.35 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (i.e. 35 g C m-2 yr-1; 0-15 cm depth) between 1970 and 2013. High application rates of liquid manure (i.e. cattle slurry) further increased soil C sequestration to 0.86 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (i.e. 86 g C m-2 yr-1) and a key cause of this C accrual was greater C inputs from cattle slurry. However, average coefficients of slurry-C retention in soils suggest that 85 % of C added yearly through liquid manure is lost possibly via CO2 fluxes and organic C leaching. Inorganically fertilized soils (i.e. NPK) had the lowest C-gain efficiency (i.e. unit of C gained per unit of N added) and lowest C sequestration (similar to control soils). Soils receiving cattle slurry showed higher C-gain and N-retention efficiencies compared to soils receiving NPK or pig slurry. We estimate that net rates of CO2-sequestration in the top 15 cm of the soil can offset 9-25 % of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions from intensive management. However, because of multiple GHG sources associated with livestock farming, the net C balance of these grasslands remains positive (9-12 Mg CO2-equivalent ha-1 yr-1), thus contributing to climate change. Further C-gain efficiencies (e.g. reduced enteric fermentation and use of feed

  8. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics at 0.25° horizontal resolution for forest bioenergy (United States)

    Cherubini, F.


    Bioenergy is the most important renewable energy option in studies designed to align with future RCP projections, reaching approximately 250 EJ/yr in RCP2.6, 145 EJ/yr in RCP4.5 and 180 EJ/yr in RCP8.5 by the end of the 21st century. However, many questions enveloping the direct carbon cycle and climate response to bioenergy remain partially unexplored. Bioenergy systems are largely assessed under the default climate neutrality assumption and the time lag between CO2 emissions from biomass combustion and CO2 uptake by vegetation is usually ignored. Emission metrics of CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis and their quantification requires processing of a wide spectrum of modelled or observed local climate and forest conditions. On the other hand, emission metrics are widely used to aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.), but a spatially explicit analysis of emission metrics with global forest coverage is today lacking. Examples of emission metrics include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Here, we couple a global forest model, a heterotrophic respiration model, and a global climate model to produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy. We show their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the different RCP scenarios. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 (mean ± standard deviation), 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1, and 2.14·10-14 ± 0.11·10-14 °C (kg yr-1)-1, and 2.14·10-14 ± 0.11·10-14 °C (kg yr-1)-1 for GWP, GTP and aSET, respectively. We also present results aggregated at a grid, national and continental level. The metrics are found to correlate with the site-specific turnover times and local climate variables like annual mean temperature and precipitation. Simplified

  9. Alkali/TX[sub 2] catalysts for CO/H[sub 2] conversion to C[sub 1]-C[sub 4] alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Bastian, R.D.; Flanagan, K.L.


    Ruthenium disulfide catalysts have been synthesized, tested, and characterized during this period of research. It was observed that both the undoped and Cs-doped RuS[sub 2] catalysts produced alcohols and lower amounts of hydrocarbons from H[sub 2]/CO = 1.0 synthesis gas at temperatures above 300[degree]C. Calcination and catalytic testing resulted in partial reduction of the RuS[sub 2] to Ru[sup o]. Calcination under H[sub 2]S prevented the partial reduction of the RuS[sub 2] catalyst, but subsequent catalytic testing again resulted in the formation of a quantity of Ru[sup o]. A Cs-doped RuS[sub 2] catalyst was prepared, but it might have had too high of a loading of Cs. Upon testing, a lower activity was observed for the doped catalyst compared with the undoped catalyst, but the alcohol selectivity was the same for the two catalysts.

  10. Lipid Signaling via Pkh1/2 Regulates Fungal CO2 Sensing through the Kinase Sch9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Pohlers


    Full Text Available Adaptation to alternating CO2 concentrations is crucial for all organisms. Carbonic anhydrases—metalloenzymes that have been found in all domains of life—enable fixation of scarce CO2 by accelerating its conversion to bicarbonate and ensure maintenance of cellular metabolism. In fungi and other eukaryotes, the carbonic anhydrase Nce103 has been shown to be essential for growth in air (~0.04% CO2. Expression of NCE103 is regulated in response to CO2 availability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NCE103 is activated by the transcription factor ScCst6, and in Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, it is activated by its homologues CaRca1 and CgRca1, respectively. To identify the kinase controlling Cst6/Rca1, we screened an S. cerevisiae kinase/phosphatase mutant library for the ability to regulate NCE103 in a CO2-dependent manner. We identified ScSch9 as a potential ScCst6-specific kinase, as the sch9Δ mutant strain showed deregulated NCE103 expression on the RNA and protein levels. Immunoprecipitation revealed the binding capabilities of both proteins, and detection of ScCst6 phosphorylation by ScSch9 in vitro confirmed Sch9 as the Cst6 kinase. We could show that CO2-dependent activation of Sch9, which is part of a kinase cascade, is mediated by lipid/Pkh1/2 signaling but not TORC1. Finally, we tested conservation of the identified regulatory cascade in the pathogenic yeast species C. albicans and C. glabrata. Deletion of SCH9 homologues of both species impaired CO2-dependent regulation of NCE103 expression, which indicates a conservation of the CO2 adaptation mechanism among yeasts. Thus, Sch9 is a Cst6/Rca1 kinase that links CO2 adaptation to lipid signaling via Pkh1/2 in fungi.

  11. Quaternary Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}M{sub 1}/C (M=Ni, Mo, or W) catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Ki Rak; Kang, Kweon Ho; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyung Joon [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); McGinn, Paul J. [University of Notre Dame, Indiana (United States)


    Quaternary Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}M{sub 1}/C (M=Ni, Mo, or W) catalysts were investigated for the methanol electro-oxidation reaction (MOR). Electrocatalytic activities of the quaternary catalysts for CO electro-oxidation were studied via CO stripping experiments, and the Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}Ni{sub 1}/C and Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}W{sub 1}/C catalysts exhibited lowered on-set potential compared to that of a commercial PtRu/C catalyst. MOR activities of the quaternary catalysts were determined by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) experiments, and the Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}W{sub 1}/C catalyst outperformed the commercial PtRu/C catalyst by 170 and 150% for the mass and specific activities, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to analyze surface oxidation states of constituent atoms, and it was identified that the structure of the synthesized catalysts are close to a nano-composite of Pt and constituent metal hydroxides and oxides. In addition, the XPS results suggested that the bi-functional mechanism accounts for the improved performance of the Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}Ni{sub 1}/C and Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1} Fe{sub 1}W{sub 1}/C catalysts.

  12. Influence of Temperature on the Performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Prepared by High-Temperature Ball-Milling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tian


    Full Text Available Aiming at the preparation of high electrochemical performance LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material for lithium-ion battery, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was prepared with lithium carbonate, nickel (II oxide, cobalt (II, III oxide, and manganese dioxide as raw materials by high-temperature ball-milling method. Influence of ball-milling temperature was investigated in this work. It was shown that the fine LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powder with high electrochemical performance can be produced by the high-temperature ball-milling process, and the optimal ball-milling temperature obtained in the current study was 750°C. Its initial discharge capacity was 146.0 mAhg−1 at the rate of 0.1C, and over 50 cycles its capacity retention rate was 90.2%.

  13. Hydroxylamine enhances glucose uptake in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells through the activation of insulin receptor substrate 1. (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Kato, Eisuke; Machikawa, Tsukasa; Kimura, Shunsuke; Katayama, Shinji; Kawabata, Jun


    Diabetes mellitus is a global disease, and the number of patients with it is increasing. Of various agents for treatment, those that directly act on muscle are currently attracting attention because muscle is one of the main tissues in the human body, and its metabolism is decreased in type II diabetes. In this study, we found that hydroxylamine (HA) enhances glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. Analysis of HA's mechanism revealed the involvement of IRS1, PI3K and Akt that is related to the insulin signaling pathway. Further investigation about the activation mechanism of insulin receptor or IRS1 by HA may provide a way to develop a novel anti-diabetic agent alternating to insulin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) at IR wavelengths and the variability of CO abundances among Oort Cloud comets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganini, L.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G. L.; Bonev, B. P.; DiSanti, M. A. [Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA GSFC, MS 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Keane, J. V.; Meech, K. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Blake, G. A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gibb, E. L., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States)


    We report production rates, rotational temperatures, and related parameters for gases in C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) using the Near InfraRed SPECtrometer at the Keck Observatory, on six UT dates spanning heliocentric distances (R{sub h} ) that decreased from 1.35 AU to 1.16 AU (pre-perihelion). We quantified nine gaseous species (H{sub 2}O, OH*, CO, CH{sub 4}, HCN, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, NH{sub 3}, and NH{sub 2}) and obtained upper limits for two others (C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO). Compared with organics-normal comets, our results reveal highly enriched CO, (at most) slightly enriched CH{sub 3}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, and HCN, and CH{sub 4} consistent with {sup n}ormal{sup ,} yet depleted, NH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}CO. Rotational temperatures increased from ∼50 K to ∼70 K with decreasing R{sub h} , following a power law in R{sub h} of –2.0 ± 0.2, while the water production rate increased from 1.0 to 3.9 × 10{sup 28} molecules s{sup –1}, following a power law in R{sub h} of –4.7 ± 0.9. The ortho-para ratio for H{sub 2}O was 3.01 ± 0.49, corresponding to spin temperatures (T {sub spin}) ≥ 29 K (at the 1σ level). The observed spatial profiles for these emissions showed complex structures, possibly tied to nucleus rotation, although the cadence of our observations limits any definitive conclusions. The retrieved CO abundance in Lovejoy is more than twice the median value for comets in our IR survey, suggesting this comet is enriched in CO. We discuss the enriched value for CO in comet C/2013 R1 in terms of the variability of CO among Oort Cloud comets.

  15. N2O and CH4-emissions from energy crops - Can the use of organic fertilizers in form of biogas digestate be considered as a real alternative? Results from a three and a half year multi-site field study of energy crops fertilized with biogas digestate in so (United States)

    Heintze, Gawan


    N amounts and in a crop rotation system called FFA and FFB with same amounts of applied N but three different forms of N application (mineral N, mineral+organic N, organic N). The annual cumulative N2O exchange rates in maize monoculture showed a clear dependence on the amount of applied organic fertilizer. Average annual cumulative exchange rates ranged from 1.65 ± 0.74 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 11.03 ± 1.63 kg N ha-1 y-1explainable by a twice as high amount of N compared to the conventional fertilized site. The average annual cumulative CH4 exchange rates in maize monoculture varied between -1.2 ± 0.46 kg C ha-1 yr-1 and 3.75 ± 0.48 kg C ha-1 y-1with measured CH4 fluxes around zero between the fertilizing events, indicating a minor role. For FFA and FFB the average annual cumulative N2O exchange rates ranged from 1.45 ± 0.18 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 3.5 ± 1.1 kg N ha-1 y-1and 1.37 ± 0.57 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 1.71 ± 0.29 kg N ha-1 y-1 andshowed lower values to comparable treatments in the maize monoculture especially indicating the different management effects. Determined average annual cumulative CH4 exchange rates ranged from 0.19 ± 0.6 kg C ha-1 yr-1 to 0.21 ± 0.45 kg C ha-1 yr-1and -0.8 ± 0.7 kg C ha-1 y-1 to 1 ± 0.6 kg C ha-1 y-1 and played as well a minor role. Altogether, biogas digestate can be seen as a suitable alternative if the amounts of applied N selected appropriately in combination with a customized management.

  16. Change of mitotic cycle and DNA repair in embryonic cells of rat, immortalized by E1 A oncogene and transformated by E1 A and c-Ha-Ras oncogenes under ionizing radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillova, T.V.


    Comparison investigation into the repair of mitotic cycle and the reunion of DN single- and double-strand breaks in gamma-ray irradiated initial E1 A oncogene immortalized and E1 A and c-Ha-Ras oncogene transformed (mutant form) lines of rat embryonic fibroblasts was carried out. Possible involvement of Ras gene product in DNA repair speed governing and absence of tumor suppression function of p 53 protein in the embryonic and E1 A oncogene immortalized cells of rat fibroblast, as well as, presence of the mentioned function of p 53 protein in E1 A and c-Ha-Ras oncogene transformed cells were studied [ru

  17. Solubility of NaNd(CO3)2.6H2O(c) in concentrated Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, L.; Rai, D.; Felmy, A.R.; Fulton, R.W.; Novak, C.F.


    NaNd(CO 3 ) 2 x 6 H 2 O(c) was identified to be the final equilibrium solid phase in suspensions containing concentrated sodium carbonate (0.1 to 2.0 M) and sodium bicarbonate (0.1 to 1.0 M), with either NaNd(CO 3 ) 2 x 6 H 2 O(c) or Nd 2 (CO 3 ) 3 x xH 2 O(s) as initial solids. A thermodynamic model, based on Pitzer's specific into-interaction approach, was developed to interpret the solubility of NaNd(CO 3 ) 2 x 6 H 2 O(c) as functions of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate concentrations. In this model, the solubility data of NaNd(CO 3 ) 2 x 6 H 2 O(c) were explained by assuming the formation of NdCO 3 + , Nd(CO 3 ) 2 - and Nd(CO 3 ) 3 3- species and invoking the specific ion interactions between Na + and Nd(CO 3 ) 3 3- . Ion interaction parameters for Na + -Nd(CO 3 ) 3 3- were developed to fit the solubility data. Based on the model calculations, Nd(CO 3 ) 3 3- was the predominant aqueous neodymium species in 0.1 to 2 M sodium carbonate and 0.1 to 1 M sodium bicarbonate solutions. The logarithm of the NaNd(CO 3 ) 2 x 6 H 2 O solubility product (NaNd(CO 3 ) 2 x 6 H 2 O(c)=Na + +Nd 3+ +2 CO 3 2- +6 H 2 O) was calculated to be -21.39. This model also provided satisfactory interpretation of the solubility data of the analogous Am(III) system in less concentrated carbonate and bicarbonate solutions. (orig.)

  18. Enhanced CO2 capture in binary mixtures of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ionic liquids with water. (United States)

    Romanos, George E; Zubeir, Lawien F; Likodimos, Vlassis; Falaras, Polycarpos; Kroon, Maaike C; Iliev, Boyan; Adamova, Gabriela; Schubert, Thomas J S


    Absorption of carbon dioxide and water in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliun tricyanomethanide ([C4C1im][TCM]) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ([C8C1im][TCM]) ionic liquids (ILs) was systematically investigated for the first time as a function of the H2O content by means of a gravimetric system together with in-situ Raman spectroscopy, excess molar volume (V(E)), and viscosity deviation measurements. Although CO2 absorption was marginally affected by water at low H2O molar fractions for both ILs, an increase of the H2O content resulted in a marked enhancement of both the CO2 solubility (ca. 4-fold) and diffusivity (ca. 10-fold) in the binary [C(n)C1im][TCM]/H2O systems, in contrast to the weak and/or detrimental influence of water in most physically and chemically CO2-absorbing ILs. In-situ Raman spectroscopy on the IL/CO2 systems verified that CO2 is physically absorbed in the dry ILs with no significant effect on their structural organization. A pronounced variation of distinct tricyanomethanide Raman modes was disclosed in the [C(n)C1im][TCM]/H2O mixtures, attesting to the gradual disruption of the anion-cation coupling by the hydrogen-bonded water molecules to the [TCM](-) anions, in accordance with the positive excess molar volumes and negative viscosity deviations for the binary systems. Most importantly, CO2 absorption in the ILs/H2O mixtures at high water concentrations revealed that the [TCM](-) Raman modes tend to restore their original state for the heavily hydrated ILs, in qualitative agreement with the intriguing nonmonotonous transients of CO2 absorption kinetics unveiled by the gravimetric measurements for the hybrid solvents. A molecular exchange mechanism between CO2 in the gas phase and H2O in the liquid phase was thereby proposed to explain the enhanced CO2 absorption in the hybrid [C(n)C1im][TCM]//H2O solvents based on the subtle competition between the TCM-H2O and TCM-CO2 interactions, which renders these ILs very promising for CO2

  19. Effectiveness of Co intercalation between Graphene and Ir(1 1 1) (United States)

    Carlomagno, I.; Drnec, J.; Scaparro, A. M.; Cicia, S.; Mobilio, S.; Felici, R.; Meneghini, C.


    Graphene can be used to avoid the oxidation of metallic films. This work explores the effectiveness of such stabilizing effect on Cobalt (Co) films intercalated between Graphene and Ir(1 1 1). After intercalation at 300 °C, two Co films are exposed to ambient pressure and investigated using Co-K edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. The formation of a disordered oxide phase is observed, and associated to the presence of some non-intercalated Co. Further annealing at 500 °C causes the oxide reduction to metallic Co which further intercalates below the Graphene. Once the intercalation is completed, Graphene prevents the Co from oxidation under ambient pressure conditions.

  20. Coloring problem and magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub 3}Co{sub 2.2}Si{sub 1.8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jinlei, E-mail: [Research Center for Solid State Physics and Materials, School of Mathematics and Physics, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Morozkin, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Mozharivskyj, Yurij [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gd{sub 3}Co{sub 2.2}Si{sub 1.8} adopts the Er{sub 3}Ge{sub 4} structure (space group Cmcm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si and Co show site preference. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic factors determine the site occupation of Si and Co. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gd{sub 3}Co{sub 2.2}Si{sub 1.8} order ferromagnetically below 172 K. - Abstract: The Gd{sub 3}Co{sub 2.2}Si{sub 1.8} compound was synthesized by arc melting the constituent elements and subsequent annealing at 1070 K for 120 h. It adopts the Dy{sub 3}Co{sub 2.2}Si{sub 1.8}-type structure with the space group Cmcm and the unit cell parameters of a = 4.1176(7) A, b = 10.305(2) A, c = 12.778(2) A and V = 542.2(2) A{sup 3}. The Co and Si atoms preferentially occupy the 8f and 4a/4c sites, respectively. The atomic electronegativity and electron density at a given site determine its site occupation, according to the analysis of the electronic structure. Gd{sub 3}Co{sub 2.2}Si{sub 1.8} orders ferromagnetically with the Curie temperature of 172 K. The isothermal magnetic entropy change, -{Delta}S{sub m}, reaches the maximum value of 7.09 J/kg K at 170 K for a field change of 0-50 kOe.

  1. Rapid establishment of the CO2 sink associated with Kerguelen's bloom observed during the KEOPS2/OISO20 cruise (United States)

    Lo Monaco, C.; Metzl, N.; D'Ovidio, F.; Llort, J.; Ridame, C.


    , between 1 and 1.5 mol C m-2 yr-1, and in the iron-poor HNLC waters, where we found a typical value of 0.4 mol C m-2 yr-1. Extrapolating our results to the ice-free Southern Ocean (~50-60° S) suggests that iron fertilization of the whole area would increase the contemporay oceanic uptake of CO2 by less than 0.1 Pg C yr-1, i.e., less than 1% of the current anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  2. Layered P2-Na 2/3 Co 1/2 Ti 1/2 O 2 as a high-performance cathode material for sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabi, Noha; Doubaji, Siham; Hashimoto, Kazuki; Komaba, Shinichi; Amine, Khalil; Solhy, Abderrahim; Manoun, Bouchaib; Bilal, Essaid; Saadoune, Ismael


    Layered oxides are regarded as promising cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. We present Na2/3Co1/2Ti1/2O2 as a potential new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. The crystal features and morphology of the pristine powder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cathode material is evaluated in galvanostatic charge-discharge and galvanostatic intermittent titration tests, as well as ex-situ X-ray diffraction analysis. Synthesized by a high-temperature solid state reaction, Na2/3Co1/2Ti1/2O2 crystallizes in P2-type structure with P6(3)/mmc space group. The material presents reversible electrochemical behavior and delivers a specific discharge capacity of 100 mAh g(-1) when tested in Na half cells between 2.0 and 4.2 V (vs. Na+/Na), with capacity retention of 98% after 50 cycles. Furthermore, the electrochemical cycling of this titanium-containing material evidenced a reduction of the potential jumps recorded in the NaxCoO2 parent phase, revealing a positive impact of Ti substitution for Co. The ex-situ XRD measurements confirmed the reversibility and stability of the material. No structural changes were observed in the XRD patterns, and the P2-type structure was stable during the charge/discharge process between 2.0 and 4.2 V vs. Na+/Na. These outcomes will contribute to the progress of developing low cost electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. N2O, NO, N2 and CO2 emissions from tropical savanna and grassland of northern Australia: an incubation experiment with intact soil cores (United States)

    Werner, C.; Reiser, K.; Dannenmann, M.; Hutley, L. B.; Jacobeit, J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.


    Strong seasonal variability of hygric and thermal soil conditions are a defining environmental feature in northern Australia. However, how such changes affect the soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and dinitrogen (N2) is still not well explored. By incubating intact soil cores from four sites (three savanna, one pasture) under controlled soil temperatures (ST) and soil moisture (SM) we investigated the release of the trace gas fluxes of N2O, NO and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, the release of N2 due to denitrification was measured using the helium gas flow soil core technique. Under dry pre-incubation conditions NO and N2O emissions were very low (soil uptake was observed. Substantial NO (max: 306.5 μg N m-2 h-1) and relatively small N2O pulse emissions (max: 5.8 ± 5.0 μg N m-2 h-1) were recorded following soil wetting, but these pulses were short lived, lasting only up to 3 days. The total atmospheric loss of nitrogen was generally dominated by N2 emissions (82.4-99.3% of total N lost), although NO emissions contributed almost 43.2% to the total atmospheric nitrogen loss at 50% SM and 30 °C ST incubation settings (the contribution of N2 at these soil conditions was only 53.2%). N2O emissions were systematically higher for 3 of 12 sample locations, which indicates substantial spatial variability at site level, but on average soils acted as weak N2O sources or even sinks. By using a conservative upscale approach we estimate total annual emissions from savanna soils to average 0.12 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (N2O), 0.68 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (NO) and 6.65 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (N2). The analysis of long-term SM and ST records makes it clear that extreme soil saturation that can lead to high N2O and N2 emissions only occurs a few days per year and thus has little impact on the annual total. The potential contribution of nitrogen released due to pulse events compared to the total annual emissions was found to be of importance for NO emissions

  4. Determination of 14CO2 in breath and 14C in stool after oral administration of cholyl-1-[14C]glycine: clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roda, A.; Roda, E.; Aldini, R.; Mazzella, G.; Festi, D.; Sama, C.; Barbara, L.


    Twenty patients with intestinal bacterial overgrowth and 20 control subjects were investigated for bile acid deconjugation, by measuring 14 CO 2 in the breath after cholyl-1-[ 14 C]glycine administration. 14 CO 2 output/24 h was 11.0 +- 5.2% (mean +- SD) in controls and 54.2 +- 14.0% (mean +- SD) in bacterial-overgrowth patients (P 14 CO 2 excretion rate in 12 h, when normalized to 100% of the dose at the 12th hour, gave an even finer discrimination between the two groups (no false responses). 14 C in stool, analyzed in 20 malabsorption patients and 20 controls by two different techniques, was 6.6 +- 4% and 31.38 +- 20.7% (mean +- SD), respectively. Results by the two different techniques described here correlated well (r = 0.99). Bile acid malabsorption was in reasonable agreement (r = 0.67) with percentage of ''chenoid'' (chenodeoxycholic acid plus ursodeoxycholic acid) in the stool by gas-liquid chromatography; a poorer correlation was observed when ''choloid'' (cholic acid plus its epimers) were plotted vs. 14 C in stool

  5. Asymmetric 1,8/13,2,x-M2C2B10 14-vertex metallacarboranes by direct electrophilic insertion reactions; the VCD and BHD methods in critical analysis of cage C atom positions. (United States)

    McAnaw, Amelia; Lopez, Maria Elena; Ellis, David; Rosair, Georgina M; Welch, Alan J


    The isolation of six isomeric, low-symmetry, dicobaltacarboranes with bicapped hexagonal antiprismatic cage structures, always in low yield, is described from reactions in which 13-vertex cobaltacarborane anions and sources of cobalt-containing cations were present. The vertex-to-centroid distance (VCD) and boron-H distance (BHD) methods are used to locate the correct C atom positions in the cages, thus allowing the compounds to be identified as 1,13-Cp2-1,13,2,10-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (1), 1,8-Cp2-3-OEt-1,8,2,10-closo-Co2C2B10H11 (2), 1,13-Cp2-1,13,2,9-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (3), 1,8-Cp2-1,8,2,4-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (4), 1,13-Cp2-1,13,2,4-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (5) and 1,8-Cp2-1,8,2,5-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (6). It is shown that a common alternative method of cage C atom identification, using refined (as B) U(eq) values, does not work well, at least in these cases. Having identified the correct isomeric forms of the six dicobaltacarboranes, their syntheses are tentatively rationalised in terms of the direct electrophilic insertion of a {CpCo(+)} fragment into [CpCoC2B10](-) anions and it is demonstrated that compounds 1, 4, 5 and 6 can be successfully prepared by deliberately performing such reactions.

  6. CO2 emissions from land-use change affected more by nitrogen cycle, than by the choice of land-cover data. (United States)

    Jain, Atul K; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Song, Yang; House, Joanna I


    The high uncertainty in land-based CO2 fluxes estimates is thought to be mainly due to uncertainty in not only quantifying historical changes among forests, croplands, and grassland, but also due to different processes included in calculation methods. Inclusion of a nitrogen (N) cycle in models is fairly recent and strongly affects carbon (C) fluxes. In this study, for the first time, we use a model with C and N dynamics with three distinct historical reconstructions of land-use and land-use change (LULUC) to quantify LULUC emissions and uncertainty that includes the integrated effects of not only climate and CO2 but also N. The modeled global average emissions including N dynamics for the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000-2005 were 1.8 ± 0.2, 1.7 ± 0.2, and 1.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr(-1) , respectively, (mean and range across LULUC data sets). The emissions from tropics were 0.8 ± 0.2, 0.8 ± 0.2, and 0.7 ± 0.3 GtC yr(-1) , and the non tropics were 1.1 ± 0.5, 0.9 ± 0.2, and 0.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr(-1) . Compared to previous studies that did not include N dynamics, modeled net LULUC emissions were higher, particularly in the non tropics. In the model, N limitation reduces regrowth rates of vegetation in temperate areas resulting in higher net emissions. Our results indicate that exclusion of N dynamics leads to an underestimation of LULUC emissions by around 70% in the non tropics, 10% in the tropics, and 40% globally in the 1990s. The differences due to inclusion/exclusion of the N cycle of 0.1 GtC yr(-1) in the tropics, 0.6 GtC yr(-1) in the non tropics, and 0.7 GtC yr(-1) globally (mean across land-cover data sets) in the 1990s were greater than differences due to the land-cover data in the non tropics and globally (0.2 GtC yr(-1) ). While land-cover information is improving with satellite and inventory data, this study indicates the importance of accounting for different processes, in particular the N cycle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Preparation of 2H- and 13C-labelled precursors of 2-hydroxy-1, 3-butadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turecek, F.


    2-exo-Vinylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-ols, specifically labelled with 2 H at C-3 and in the vinyl group were prepared from bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-one in several steps. [4- 13 C]oct-1-en-3-one was prepared in five steps from 13 CO 2 . These compounds serve as precursors for the preparation of specifically labelled neutral and ionized 2-hydroxy-1, 3-butadienes. (author)

  8. Natural variations in snow cover do not affect the annual soil CO2 efflux from a mid-elevation temperate forest. (United States)

    Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Schindlbacher, Sabine


    Climate change might alter annual snowfall patterns and modify the duration and magnitude of snow cover in temperate regions with resultant impacts on soil microclimate and soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ). We used a 5-year time series of Fsoil measurements from a mid-elevation forest to assess the effects of naturally changing snow cover. Snow cover varied considerably in duration (105-154 days) and depth (mean snow depth 19-59 cm). Periodically shallow snow cover (soil freezing or increased variation in soil temperature. This was mostly not reflected in Fsoil which tended to decrease gradually throughout winter. Progressively decreasing C substrate availability (identified by substrate induced respiration) likely over-rid the effects of slowly changing soil temperatures and determined the overall course of Fsoil . Cumulative CO2 efflux from beneath snow cover varied between 0.46 and 0.95 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) and amounted to between 6 and 12% of the annual efflux. When compared over a fixed interval (the longest period of snow cover during the 5 years), the cumulative CO2 efflux ranged between 0.77 and 1.18 t C ha(-1) or between 11 and 15% of the annual soil CO2 efflux. The relative contribution (15%) was highest during the year with the shortest winter. Variations in snow cover were not reflected in the annual CO2 efflux (7.44-8.41 t C ha(-1) ) which did not differ significantly between years and did not correlate with any snow parameter. Regional climate at our site was characterized by relatively high amounts of precipitation. Therefore, snow did not play a role in terms of water supply during the warm season and primarily affected cold season processes. The role of changing snow cover therefore seems rather marginal when compared to potential climate change effects on Fsoil during the warm season. © 2013 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Visible-light-driven g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ti{sup 3+}-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst co-exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets and its enhanced photocatalytic activities for organic pollutant degradation and Cr(VI) reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dan; Zhang, Gaoke, E-mail:; Wan, Zhen


    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration for the mechanism of photo-generated charge carrier transfers in g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ti{sup 3+}-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst and its visible-light photocatalytic performance. - Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ti{sup 3+}-TiO{sub 2} composite co-exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets of TiO{sub 2} was synthesized. • RhB and Cr(VI) aqueous solutions were used to evaluate the photocatalytic activities. • h{sup +} and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} are the critical reactive species in the degradation of RhB solution. • Surface heterojunction of co-exposed {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets improve the separation. - Abstract: Novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4/}Ti{sup 3+}-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst co-exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets of TiO{sub 2} was synthesized via a hydrothermal–sonication assisted strategy. The photocatalytic activities of the as-obtained photocatalyst were evaluated by the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and the reduction of Cr(VI) under visible-light irradiation. It was found that the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ti{sup 3+}-TiO{sub 2} composites with 6 wt% g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibited the highest visible-light photocatalytic efficiency, which is also higher than the pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ti{sup 3+}-TiO{sub 2}. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was discussed on the basis of the theoretical analyses and scavenger experiments. Results show that holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide anions (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) reactive species participated in the degradation of RhB solution over the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ti{sup 3+}-TiO{sub 2} composites. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ti{sup 3+}-TiO{sub 2} composites can be attributed to the wide optical adsorption of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ti{sup 3+} as well as the effectively separation and transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes pairs, which was resulted from the surface heterojunction between the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ti{sup 3+}-TiO{sub 2} nanosheets co-exposed {1

  10. Uncovering a facile large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers for high power lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Hua, Wei-Bo; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhong, Ben-He; Fang, Baizeng; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Heng


    Developing advanced electrode materials that deliver high energy at ultra-fast charge and discharge rates are very crucial to meet an increasing large-scale market demand for high power lithium ion batteries (LIBs). A three-dimensional (3D) nanoflower structure is successfully developed in the large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 material for the first time. The fast co-precipitation is the key technique to prepare the nanoflower structure in our method. After heat treatment, the obtained LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers (NL333) pronouncedly present a pristine flower-like nano-architecture and provide fast pathways for the transport of Li-ions and electrons. As a cathode material in a LIB, the prepared NL333 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high-rate capability. Particularly, in a narrow voltage range of 2.7-4.3 V, the discharge capacity at an ultra-fast charge-discharge rate (20C) is up to 126 mAh g-1, which reaches 78% of that at 0.2C, and is much higher than that (i.e., 44.17%) of the traditional bulk LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2.

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04229-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9 ) HAE00002983 Home-made, regular (lib1_ha) Histiona... 44 0.001 2 ( CK888692 ) SGP160684 Atlantic salmon Liver cDNA library...2 ( DE224908 ) Trifolium pratense DNA, clone:RCG16896. 42 4e-04 2 ( CK888010 ) SGP149211 Atlantic salmon Liver cDNA library...A for TCP1 protein. 46 6e-04 2 ( CK887535 ) SGP164401 Atlantic salmon Kidney cDNA library Sal... 44 6e-04 2 salar cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 0.001 2 ( CK889382 ) SGP161400 Atlantic salmon Liver cDNA library Salm... 4... salmon Liver cDNA library Salm... 44 0.001 2 ( CK888710 ) SGP160704 Atlantic salmon Liver cDNA library

  12. Negative CO2 emissions via subsurface mineral carbonation in fractured peridotite (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J.


    Uptake of CO2 from surface water via mineral carbonation in peridotite can be engineered to achieve negative CO2 emissions. Reaction with peridotite, e.g., CO2 + olivine (A), serpentine (B) and brucite (C), forms inert, non-toxic, solid carbonates such as magnesite. Experimental studies show that A can be 80% complete in a few hours with 30 micron powders and elevated P(CO2) [1,2,3]. B is slower, but in natural systems the rate of B+C is significant [4]. Methods for capture of dilute CO2 via mineral carbonation [4,5,6,7] are not well known, though CO2 storage via mineral carbonation has been discussed for decades [8,9]. Where crushed peridotite is available, as in mine tailings, increased air or water flow could enhance CO2 uptake at a reasonable cost [4,5]. Here we focus on enhancing subsurface CO2 uptake from surface water flowing in fractured peridotite, in systems driven by thermal convection such as geothermal power plants. Return of depleted water to the surface would draw down CO2 from the air [6,7]. CO2 uptake from water, rate limited by flow in input and output wells, could exceed 1000 tons CO2/yr [7]. If well costs minus power sales were 0.1M to 1M and each system lasts 10 years this costs oil industry. Uptake of 1 Gt CO2/yr at 1000 t/well/yr requires 1M wells, comparable to the number of producing oil and gas wells in the USA. Subsurface CO2 uptake could first be applied in coastal, sub-seafloor peridotite with onshore drilling. Sub-seafloor peridotite is extensive off Oman, New Caledonia and Papua New Guinea, with smaller amounts off Spain, Morocco, USA, etc. This would be a regional contribution, used in parallel with other methods elsewhere. To achieve larger scale is conceivable. There is a giant mass of seafloor peridotite along slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges. Could robotic drills enhance CO2 uptake at a reasonable cost, while fabric chimneys transport CO2-depleted water to the sea surface? Does anyone know James Cameron's phone number? [1] O

  13. CO2 enrichment alters diurnal stem radius fluctuations of 36-yr-old Larix decidua growing at the alpine tree line. (United States)

    Dawes, Melissa A; Zweifel, Roman; Dawes, Nicholas; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank


    To understand how trees at high elevations might use water differently in the future, we investigated the effects of CO2 enrichment and soil warming (separately and combined) on the water relations of Larix decidua growing at the tree line in the Swiss Alps. We assessed diurnal stem radius fluctuations using point dendrometers and applied a hydraulic plant model using microclimate and soil water potential data as inputs. Trees exposed to CO2 enrichment for 9 yr showed smaller diurnal stem radius contractions (by 46 ± 16%) and expansions (42 ± 16%) compared with trees exposed to ambient CO2 . Additionally, there was a delay in the timing of daily maximum (40 ± 12 min) and minimum (63 ± 14 min) radius values for trees growing under elevated CO2 . Parameters optimized with the hydraulic model suggested that CO2 -enriched trees had an increased flow resistance between the xylem and bark, representing a more buffered water supply system. Soil warming did not alter diurnal fluctuation dynamics or the CO2 response. Elevated CO2 altered the hydraulic water flow and storage system within L. decidua trees, which might have contributed to enhanced growth during 9 yr of CO2 enrichment and could ultimately influence the future competitive ability of this key tree-line species. © 2014 WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research - SLF. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(2)-1 - Earnings and profits. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits. 1.381(c)(2)-1 Section 1.381(c)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(2)-1 Earnings and profits. (a) In...

  15. Andrographolide inhibits hypoxia-induced hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and endothelin 1 expression through the heme oxygenase 1/CO/cGMP/MKP-5 pathways in EA.hy926 cells. (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Chih; Su, Shih-Li; Lin, Wan-Chun; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Yang, Ya-Chen; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Haw-Wen


    Andrographolide is a potent anti-inflammatory agent found in Andrographis paniculata. Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor with pro-inflammatory properties secreted in response to hypoxia. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 5 (MKP-5) is a dual-specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates threonine and tyrosine residues of MAPKs. We showed previously that hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression and ET-1 secretion are dependent on p38 MAPK in EA.hy926 cells. Here, we investigate what role MKP-5 plays in andrographolide's inhibition of hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α and ET-1. Hypoxic conditions were created using the hypoxia-mimetic agent CoCl 2 . Andrographolide enhanced HO-1 and MKP-5 expression and cellular cGMP content in addition to inhibiting hypoxia-induced ROS generation. Concomitantly, the HO-1 byproduct CO and the cGMP analogue 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) increased MKP-5 expression, and pretreatment with CO and 8-Br-cGMP inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and ET-1 expression. Transfection of HO-1 siRNA or pretreatment with the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP-9 or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a specific inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, reduced andrographolide-induced MKP-5 expression. Moreover, silencing MKP-5 or treatment with the phosphatase inhibitor vanadate abrogated andrographolide's suppressing hypoxia-induced p38 MAPK activation and HIF-1α expression. The inhibition of hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and ET-1 expression by andrographolide is likely associated with HO-1/CO/cGMP/MKP-5 pathways, which is involved in inhibiting hypoxia-induced p38 MAPK activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Crystal structures of three co-crystals of 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane with 4-alk-oxy-benzoic acids: 4-eth-oxy-benzoic acid-1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane (2/1), 4-n-propoxybenzoic acid-1,2-bis(pyridin-4-yl)ethane (2/1) and 4-n-but-oxy-benzoic acid-1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane (2/1). (United States)

    Tabuchi, Yohei; Gotoh, Kazuma; Ishida, Hiroyuki


    The crystal structures of three hydrogen-bonded co-crystals of 4-alk-oxy-benzoic acid-1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane (2/1), namely, 2C9H10O3·C12H12N2, (I), 2C10H12O3·C12H12N2, (II), and 2C11H14O3·C12H12N2, (III), have been determined at 93, 290 and 93 K, respectively. In (I), the asymmetric unit consists of one 4-eth-oxy-benzoic acid mol-ecule and one half-mol-ecule of 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane, which lies on an inversion centre. In (II) and (III), the asymmetric units each comprise two crystallographically independent 4-alk-oxy-benzoic acid mol-ecules and one 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane mol-ecule. In each crystal, the two components are linked by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a linear hydrogen-bonded 2:1unit of the acid and the base. Similar to the structure of 2:1 unit of (I), the units of (II) and (III) adopt nearly pseudo-inversion symmetry. The 2:1 units of (I), (II) and (III) are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming tape structures.

  17. Southern hemisphere ocean CO2 uptake: reconciling atmospheric and oceanic estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, T.; Matear, R.; Rayner, P.; Francey, R.


    Using an atmospheric inversion model we investigate the southern hemisphere ocean CO 2 uptake. From sensitivity studies that varied both the initial ocean flux distribution and the atmospheric data used in the inversion, our inversion predicted a total (ocean and land) uptake of 1.65-1.90 Gt C/yr. We assess the consistency between the mean southern hemisphere ocean uptake predicted by an atmospheric inversion model for the 1991-1997 period and the T99 ocean flux estimate based on observed pCO 2 in Takahashi et al. (2002; Deep-Sea Res II, 49, 1601-1622). The inversion can not match the large 1.8 Gt C/yr southern extratropical (20-90 deg S) uptake of the T99 ocean flux estimate without producing either unreasonable land fluxes in the southern mid-latitudes or by increasing the mismatches between observed and simulated atmospheric CO 2 data. The southern extratropical uptake is redistributed between the mid and high latitudes. Our results suggest that the T99 estimate of the Southern Ocean uptake south of 50 deg S is too large, and that the discrepancy reflects the inadequate representation of wintertime conditions in the T99 estimate

  18. Clinical significance of changes of serum levels of sICAM-1 and HA in patients with type-2 diabetes complicated with angiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lixia; Li Yugang


    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and hyaluronic acid (HA) levels in patients with type-2 diabetes complicated with angiopathy. Methods: Serum levels of sICAM-1 (by ELISA) and HA (by RIA) were measured in 66 cases of type-2 diabetes complicated with angiopathy and 35 controls. Contents of fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAIC) and urine microalbumin (MAlb) were also measured for correlation analysis studies. Results: Serum sICAM-1 and HA levels in patients with type-2 diabetic angiopathy were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.01) and were closely positively correlated to the contents of FBG, HbAIC and MAlb (p<0.01). Conclusion: Higher serum sICAM-1 and HA levels may play some role in the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetic angiopathy

  19. Electrical resistivity and thermopower of Y1-xPrxCo2 Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchima, K; Takaesu, Y; Teruya, A; Akamine, H; Kakihana, M; Tomori, K; Uejo, T; Nakamura, A; Hedo, M; Nakama, T; Yagasaki, K; Burkov, A T


    Electrical resistivity ρ and thermopower S of the pseudo-binary compounds of Y 1-x Pr x Co 2 have been measured in the temperature range between 2 and 300 K under magnetic fields up to 10 T, together with the pressure measurements of ρ and S in Y 0.4 Pr 0.6 Co 2 . The Curie temperature decreases with decreasing x, and vanishes at the critical composition x c ≈ 0.4, where the residual resistivity attains a maximum value. The Curie temperature and the residual resistivity of Y 0.4 Pr 0.6 Co 2 show the same pressure dependence as those of the heavy-rare-earth based compounds. These behaviors of ρ and S indicate the inhomogeneous distribution of the Co 3d magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the light-rare earth Y 1-x Pr x Co 2 system is negative in the whole range of x, except for x = 0 and 1, which is a characteristic behavior related with magnetic state and magnitude of the effective field acting on the Co 3d subsystem

  20. Net CO2 exchange rates in three different successional stages of the 'Dark Taiga' of central Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeser, C.; Schulze, E.D.; Montagnani, L.


    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of successional stages of the Abies-dominated dark taiga was measured in central Siberia (61 deg N, 90 deg E) during the growing season of the year 2000 using the eddy covariance technique. Measurements started before snow melt and canopy activity in spring on day of year (DOY) 99 and lasted until a permanent snow cover had developed and respiration had ceased in autumn DOY 299. Three stands growing in close vicinity were investigated: 50 yr-old Betula pubescens ('Betula stand', an early successional stage after fire), 250 yr-old mixed boreal forest, representing the transition from Betula-dominated to Abies-dominated canopies, and 200-yr-old Abies sibirica ('Abies stand', representing a late successional stage following the mixed boreal forest). The mixed boreal forest had a multi-layered canopy with dense under story and trees of variable height and age below the main canopy, which was dominated by Abies sibirica, Picea obovata and few old Betula pubescens and Populus tremula trees. The Abies stand had a uniform canopy dominated by Abies sibirica. This stand appears to have established not after fire but after wind break or insect damage in a later successional stage. The stands differed with respect to the number of days with net CO 2 uptake (Betula stand 89 days, mixed boreal forest 109 days, and Abies stand 135 days), maximum measured LAI (Betula 2.6 m 2 /m 2 , mixed boreal forest 3.5 m 2 /m 2 and Abies stand 4.1 m 2 /m 2 ) and basal area (Betula stand 30.2 m 2 /ha, mixed boreal forest 35.7 m 2 /ha, and Abies stand 46.5 m 2 /ha). In the mixed boreal forest, many days with net daytime CO 2 release were observed in summer. Both other sites were almost permanent sinks in summer. Mean daytime CO 2 exchange rates in July were 8.45 mol/m 2 /s in the Betula stand, 4.65 mol/m 2 /s in the mixed boreal forest and 6.31 mol/m 2 /s in the Abies stand. Measured uptake for the growing season was 247.2 g C/m 2 in the Betula stand, 99.7 g C/m 2


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L.


    We present fully sampled 38'' resolution maps of the CO and 13 CO J = 2-1 lines in the molecular clouds toward the H II region complex W3. The maps cover a 2. 0 0 x 1. 0 67 section of the galactic plane and span -70 to -20 km s -1 (LSR) in velocity with a resolution of ∼1.3 km s -1 . The velocity range of the images includes all the gas in the Perseus spiral arm. We also present maps of CO J = 3-2 emission for a 0. 0 5 x 0. 0 33 area containing the H II regions W3 Main and W3(OH). The J = 3-2 maps have velocity resolution of 0.87 km s -1 and 24'' angular resolution. Color figures display the peak line brightness temperature, the velocity-integrated intensity, and velocity channel maps for all three lines, and also the (CO/ 13 CO) J = 2-1 line intensity ratios as a function of velocity. The line intensity image cubes are made available in standard FITS format as electronically readable files. We compare our molecular line maps with the 1.1 mm continuum image from the BOLOCAM Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). From our 13 CO image cube, we derive kinematic information for the 65 BGPS sources in the mapped field, in the form of Gaussian component fits.

  2. CO dissociation and CO hydrogenation on smooth and ion-bombarded Pd(1 1 1): SFG and XPS spectroscopy at mbar pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupprechter, G.; Kaichev, V.V.; Unterhalt, H.; Morkel, M.; Bukhtiyarov, V.I


    The CO dissociation probability on transition metals is often invoked to explain the product distribution (selectivity) of catalytic CO hydrogenation. Along these lines, we have investigated CO adsorption and dissociation on smooth and ion-bombarded Pd(1 1 1) at pressures up to 1 mbar using vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Under high pressure, CO adsorbate structures were observed that were identical to high-coverage structures in UHV. On ion-bombarded surfaces an additional species was detected which was attributed to CO bridge bonded to defect (low-coordinated) sites. On both surfaces, no indications of CO dissociation were found even after hours of 0.1 mbar CO exposure. However, exposing CO/H{sub 2} mixtures to ion-bombarded Pd(1 1 1) produced carbonaceous deposits suggesting CH{sub x}O species as precursors for C---O bond cleavage and that the formation of CH{sub x}O is facilitated by surface defects. The relevance of the observations for CO hydrogenation on Pd catalysts is discussed.

  3. (Benzyl isocyanide-κC1chlorido(2-chloro-3-dimethylamino-1-phenylprop-1-en-1-yl-κ2C1,Npalladium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Mafud


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Pd(C11H13ClNCl(C8H7N], which crystallized in the chiral space group P212121, the PdII atom is coordinated by two C atoms, a Csp2 atom of the 2-chloro-3-dimethylamino-1-phenylprop-1-en-1-yl ligand and a Csp atom from the benzyl isocyanide ligand, as well as an N atom of the ligand and a Cl atom, in a square-planar geometry. In the complex, there is a short C—H...Cl hydrogen bond and a C—H...π interaction. In the crystal, molecules are linked via C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the a-axis direction.

  4. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, M. D.; Ball, J. C.; Wallington, T. J.


    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... to the atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  5. Leaching process for recovering valuable metals from the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode of lithium-ion batteries. (United States)

    He, Li-Po; Sun, Shu-Ying; Song, Xing-Fu; Yu, Jian-Guo


    In view of the importance of environmental protection and resource recovery, recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electrode scraps generated during manufacturing processes is quite necessary. An environmentally sound leaching process for the recovery of Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from spent LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 -based LIBs and cathode scraps was investigated in this study. Eh-pH diagrams were used to determine suitable leaching conditions. Operating variables affecting the leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 , such as the H 2 SO 4 concentration, temperature, H 2 O 2 concentration, stirring speed, and pulp density, were investigated to determine the most efficient conditions for leaching. The leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn reached 99.7% under the optimized conditions of 1M H 2 SO 4 , 1vol% H 2 O 2 , 400rpm stirring speed, 40g/L pulp density, and 60min leaching time at 40°C. The leaching kinetics of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 were found to be significantly faster than those of LiCoO 2 . Based on the variation in the weight fraction of the metal in the residue, the "cubic rate law" was revised as follows: θ(1-f) 1/3 =(1-kt/r 0 ρ), which could characterize the leaching kinetics optimally. The activation energies were determined to be 64.98, 65.16, 66.12, and 66.04kJ/mol for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn, respectively, indicating that the leaching process was controlled by the rate of surface chemical reactions. Finally, a simple process was proposed for the recovery of valuable metals from spent LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 -based LIBs and cathode scraps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The haemagglutination activity of equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein C. (United States)

    Andoh, Kiyohiko; Hattori, Shiho; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Takasugi, Maaya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Matsumura, Tomio; Kondo, Takashi; Kirisawa, Rikio; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken


    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) has haemagglutination (HA) activity toward equine red blood cells (RBCs), but the identity of its haemagglutinin is unknown. To identify the haemagglutinin of EHV-1, the major glycoproteins of EHV-1 were expressed in 293T cells, and the cells or cell lysates were mixed with equine RBCs. The results showed that only EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC)-producing cells adsorbed equine RBCs, and that the lysate of EHV-1 gC-expressing cells agglutinated equine RBCs. EHV-1 lacking gC did not show HA activity. HA activity was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for gC, but not by antibodies directed against other glycoproteins. In addition, HA activity was not inhibited by the addition of heparin. These results indicate that EHV-1 gC can bind equine RBCs irrespective of heparin, in contrast to other herpesvirus gC proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Cu Doping on the Structural and Electrochemical Performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode Materials (United States)

    Yang, Li; Ren, Fengzhagn; Feng, Qigao; Xu, Guangri; Li, Xiaobo; Li, Yuanchao; Zhao, Erqing; Ma, Jignjign; Fan, Shumin


    The structural and electrochemical performance of Cu-doped, Li[Ni1/3-xCo1/3 Mn1/3Cux]O2 (x = 0-0.1) cathode materials obtained by means of the sol-gel method are discussed; we used critic acid as gels and spent mixed batteries as the raw materials. The effects of the sintering time, sintering temperature, and Cu doping ratio on the phase structure, morphology, and element composition and the behavior in a galvanostatical charge/discharge test have been systemically studied. The results show that the Cu-doped material exhibits better galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling performance. At 0.2 C, its original discharge specific capacity is 180.4 mAh g-1 and its Coulomb efficiency is 90.3%. The Cu-doped material demonstrate an outstanding specific capacity at 0.2 C, 0.5 C, and 2.0 C. In comparison with the original capacities of 178 mAh g-1, 159.5 mAh g-1, and 119.4 mAh g-1, the discharge capacity after 50 cycles is 160.8 mAh g-1, 143.4 mAh g-1, and 90.1 mAh g-1, respectively. This obvious improvement relative to bare Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 cathode materials arises from an enlarged Li layer spacing and a reduced degree of cation mixing. Therefore, Cu-doped cathode materials have obvious advantages in the field of lithium-ion batteries and their applications.

  8. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of Co{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Wei An Elijah [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI-N), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Cheah, Yan Ling; Wong, Chui Ling [Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI-N), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Hng, Huey Hoon [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Madhavi, Srinivasan, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI-N), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); TUM CREATE Center for Electromobility, 1 CREATE Way, #10-02 CREATE Tower, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)


    Graphical abstract: MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited good cycling stability while CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed severe capacity fading phenomenon after 40 cycles. Notably, mixed solid solution having Co{sub 0.52}Mn{sub 0.48}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} composition improved the specific reversible discharge capacity to a stable value of ∼1000 mA h g{sup −1} (1 C-rate). - Highlights: • Mixed metal oxalates are synthesized by solvothermal method for the first time. • We control morphologies by varying solvent mixtures and transition metal types. • Li/Co{sub 0.52}Mn{sub 0.48}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} is the best capacity and rate-performing cell in this study. • The positive synergistic effect is attributed to optimal Co:Mn mole ratio. • Properties of Co give high capacity values while Mn give good cycling stability. - Abstract: A facile one-pot solvothermal route has been developed to synthesize phase pure M{sub x}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O (M = Mn, Co; 0 < x ⩽ 1) microstructures without employing any hard/soft template and their electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries has been systematically investigated. Morphology, microstructure and composition of the synthesized materials are characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Anhydrous micron-sized MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits specific reversible discharge capacity of ∼800 and 950 mA h g{sup −1} respectively, at 1 C-rate. MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited good cycling stability while CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed severe capacity fading phenomenon after 40 cycles, thereafter attaining 400–600 mA h g{sup −1} for all C-rates. Interestingly, mixed solid solution having Co{sub 0.52}Mn{sub 0.48}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} composition improved the specific reversible discharge capacity to a stable value of ∼1000 mA h g{sup −1} (1 C-rate), which is one of the highest reported values for such oxalates. The cycling stability of this

  9. Radiosynthesis and in vitro evaluation of 2-(N-alkyl-N-1'-11C-propyl)amino-5-hydroxytetralin analogs as high affinity agonists for dopamine D-2 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Bingzhi; Narayanan, Tanjore K.; Yang, Z.-Y.; Christian, Bradley T.; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar


    We have developed radiotracers based on agonists that may potentially allow the in vivo assessment of the high affinity (HA) state of the dopamine D-2 receptors. The population of HA state, which is likely the functional state of the receptor, may be altered in certain diseases. We carried out radiosyntheses and evaluated the binding affinities, lipophilicity, and in vitro autoradiographic binding characteristics of three dopamine D-2 receptor agonists: (±)-2-(N,N-dipropyl)amino-5-hydroxytetralin (5-OH-DPAT), (±)-2-(N-phenethyl-N-propyl)amino-5-hydroxytetralin (PPHT), and (±)-2-(N-cyclohexylethyl-N-propyl)amino-5-hydroxytetralin (ZYY-339). In 3 H-spiperone assays using rat striata, ZYY-339 exhibited subnanomolar affinity for D-2 receptor sites ( IC 50 =0.010 nM), PPHT was somewhat weaker ( IC 50 =0.65 nM), and 5-OH-DPAT exhibited the weakest affinity ( IC 50 =2.5 nM) of the three compounds. Radiosynthesis of these derivatives, 2-(N-propyl-N-1'- 11 C-propyl)amino-5-hydroxytetralin ( 11 C-5-OH-DPAT), 2-(N-phenethyl-N-1'- 11 C-propyl)amino-5-hydroxytetralin ( 11 C-PPHT), and 2-(N-cyclohexylethyl-N-1'- 11 C-propyl)amino-5-hydroxytetralin ( 11 C-ZYY-339) was achieved by first synthesizing 11 C-1-propionyl chloride and subsequent coupling with the appropriate secondary amine precursor to form the respective amide, which was then reduced to provide the desired tertiary amine products. The final products were obtained by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification in radiochemical yields of 5-10% after 60-75 min from the end of 11 CO 2 trapping and with specific activities in the range of 250-1,000 Ci/mmol. In vitro autoradiographs in rat brain slices with 11 C-5-OH-DPAT, 11 C-PPHT, and 11 C-ZYY-339 revealed selective binding of the three radiotracers to the dopamine D-2 receptors in the striata

  10. High rate performances of the cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized using low temperature hydroxide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Cuixia; Tan, Long; Liu, Haowen; Huang, Xintang


    Graphical abstract: A low-temperature reaction route is introduced based on hydroxide precipitation method to synthesize a cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 . The charge-discharge tests were performed at 1000 mA g -1 between 2.5 and 4.5 V and the discharge capacity is about 160 mAh g -1 . The discharge capacity of the material is strongly impacted by the reaction temperature. The powders sintered at 850 o C show the best electrochemical performance. Highlights: → A low-temperature reaction route is introduced based on hydroxide precipitation method to synthesize a novel cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 . → The charge-discharge tests were performed at higher current as 5 C between 2.5 and 4.5 V. → The discharge capacity of the material is strongly impacted by the reaction temperature. The powders sintered at 850 o C show the best electrochemical performance. -- Abstract: A low-temperature reaction route is introduced based on hydroxide precipitation method to synthesize the cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 . The crystal structure and morphology of the prepared powder have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scan electron microscope, respectively. The charge-discharge tests were performed between 2.5 and 4.5 V. The discharge capacity of the material is strongly impacted by the reaction temperature. The powders sintered at 850 o C show the best electrochemical performance and the initial discharge capacity is about 160 mAh g -1 at 5 C. Powder X-ray diffraction and Scan electron microscope results reveal that the excellent electrochemical performances should be ascribed to the lower precursor reaction temperature, the lower degree of cation mixing and analogous spherical small particles, which can improve the transfer of Li ions and electrons. All these results indicate that this material has potential application in lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Tuning of superconductivity by Ni substitution into noncentrosymmetric ThC o1 -xN ixC2 (United States)

    Grant, T. W.; Cigarroa, O. V.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Machado, A. J. S.; Fisk, Z.


    The recently discovered noncentrosymmetric superconductor ThCoC2 was observed to show unusual superconducting behavior with a critical temperature of Tc=2.65 K . Here we investigate the effect of nickel substitution on the superconducting state in ThC o1 -xN ixC2 . Magnetization, resistivity, and heat capacity measurements demonstrate Ni substitution has a dramatic effect with critical temperature increased up to Tc=12.1 K for x =0.4 Ni concentration, which is a rather high transition temperature for a noncentrosymmetric superconductor. In addition, the unusual superconducting characteristics observed in pure ThCoC2 appear to be suppressed or tuned with Ni substitution towards a more conventional fully gapped superconductor.

  12. Soil surface CO2 flux in a boreal black spruce fire chronosequence (United States)

    Wang, Chuankuan; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T.


    Understanding the effects of wildfire on the carbon (C) cycle of boreal forests is essential to quantifying the role of boreal forests in the global carbon cycle. Soil surface CO2 flux (Rs), the second largest C flux in boreal forests, is directly and indirectly affected by fire and is hypothesized to change during forest succession following fire. The overall objective of this study was to measure and model Rs for a black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] BSP) postfire chronosequence in northern Manitoba, Canada. The experiment design was a nested factorial that included two soil drainage classes (well and poorly drained) × seven postfire aged stands. Specific objectives were (1) to quantify the relationship between Rs and soil temperature for different aged boreal black spruce forests in well-drained and poorly drained soil conditions, (2) to examine Rs dynamics along postfire successional stands, and (3) to estimate annual soil surface CO2 flux for these ecosystems. Soil surface CO2 flux was significantly affected by soil drainage class (p = 0.014) and stand age (p = 0.006). Soil surface CO2 flux was positively correlated to soil temperature (R2 = 0.78, p aged stand combination. Soil surface CO2 flux was significantly greater at the well-drained than the poorly drained stands (p = 0.007) during growing season. Annual soil surface CO2 flux for the 1998, 1995, 1989, 1981, 1964, 1930, and 1870 burned stands averaged 226, 412, 357, 413, 350, 274, and 244 g C m-2 yr-1 in the well-drained stands and 146, 380, 300, 303, 256, 233, and 264 g C m-2 yr-1 in the poorly drained stands. Soil surface CO2 flux during the winter (from 1 November to 30 April) comprised from 5 to 19% of the total annual Rs. We speculate that the smaller soil surface CO2 flux in the recently burned than the older stands is mainly caused by decreased root respiration.

  13. Synthesis of (+-)-[1,1'-15N2, 2'-13C]-trans-3'-methylnicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirimanne, S.R.; Maggio, V.L.; Patterson, D.G. Jr.


    The synthesis of (±)- [1,1'- 15 N 2 , 2'- 13 C]-trans-3'-methylnicotine is reported. 15 N-3-Bromopyridine obtained from bromination of pyridine was formylated with nBuLi/[carbonyl- 13 C]-methyl formate. The resulting 15 n-Pyridine-3-[ 13 C-carbonyl]-carboxaldehyde was reacted with 15 N-methylamine and then the resulting Schiff's base was condensed with succinic anhydride to give (±)- [1,1'- 15 N 2 , 5'- 13 C]-trans-4'-carboxycotinine. Reduction with lithium aluminum hydride and mesylation followed by reduction with Zn/NaI gave (±)-[1,1'- 15 N 2 , 2'- 13 C]-trans-3'-methylnicotine. (Author)

  14. Reduced tillage and cover crops as a strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil organic carbon sequestration in dry Mediterranean agroecosystems. (United States)

    Almagro, María; Garcia-Franco, Noelia; de Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Martínez-Mena, María


    The implementation of sustainable land management (SLM) practices in semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems can be beneficial to maintain or enhance levels of soil organic carbon and mitigate current atmospheric CO2 increase. In this study, we assess the effects of different tillage treatments (conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT), reduced tillage combined with green manure (RTG), and no tillage (NT)) on soil CO2 efflux, aggregation and organic carbon stabilization in two semiarid organic rainfed almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., var. Ferragnes) orchards located in SE Spain Soil CO2 efflux, temperature and moisture were measured monthly between May 2012 and December 2014 (site 1), and between February 2013 and December 2014 (site 2). In site 1, soil CO2 efflux rates were also measured immediately following winter and spring tillage operations. Aboveground biomass inputs were estimated at the end of the growing season in each tillage treatment. Soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected in the rows between the trees (n=4) in October 2012. Four aggregate size classes were distinguished by sieving (large and small macroaggregates, free microaggregates, and free silt plus clay fraction), and the microaggregates occluded within macroaggregates (SMm) were isolated. Soil CO2efflux rates in all tillage treatments varied significantly during the year, following changes during the autumn, winter and early spring, or changes in soil moisture during late spring and summer. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed that there were no significant differences in soil CO2 efflux between tillage treatments throughout the study period at both sites. Average annual values of C lost by soil respiration were slightly but not significantly higher under RT and RTG treatments (492 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) than under NT treatment (405 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) in site 1, while slightly but not significantly lower values were observed under RT and RTG treatments (468 and 439 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1

  15. Agricultural peatland restoration: effects of land-use change on greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) fluxes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. (United States)

    Knox, Sara Helen; Sturtevant, Cove; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Koteen, Laurie; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis


    Agricultural drainage of organic soils has resulted in vast soil subsidence and contributed to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was drained over a century ago for agriculture and human settlement and has since experienced subsidence rates that are among the highest in the world. It is recognized that drained agriculture in the Delta is unsustainable in the long-term, and to help reverse subsidence and capture carbon (C) there is an interest in restoring drained agricultural land-use types to flooded conditions. However, flooding may increase methane (CH4) emissions. We conducted a full year of simultaneous eddy covariance measurements at two conventional drained agricultural peatlands (a pasture and a corn field) and three flooded land-use types (a rice paddy and two restored wetlands) to assess the impact of drained to flooded land-use change on CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the Delta. We found that the drained sites were net C and greenhouse gas (GHG) sources, releasing up to 341 g C m(-2) yr(-1) as CO2 and 11.4 g C m(-2) yr(-1) as CH4. Conversely, the restored wetlands were net sinks of atmospheric CO2, sequestering up to 397 g C m(-2) yr(-1). However, they were large sources of CH4, with emissions ranging from 39 to 53 g C m(-2) yr(-1). In terms of the full GHG budget, the restored wetlands could be either GHG sources or sinks. Although the rice paddy was a small atmospheric CO2 sink, when considering harvest and CH4 emissions, it acted as both a C and GHG source. Annual photosynthesis was similar between sites, but flooding at the restored sites inhibited ecosystem respiration, making them net CO2 sinks. This study suggests that converting drained agricultural peat soils to flooded land-use types can help reduce or reverse soil subsidence and reduce GHG emissions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 1,1′-Binaphthyl-2,2′-dicarboxylic acid–urea (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Weber


    Full Text Available In the title co-crystal, C22H14O4·CH4N2O, the 1,1′-binaphthyl-2,2′-dicarboxylic acid (BNDA and urea molecules are connected via a system of hydrogen bonds into a chiral two-dimensional polymeric structure parallel to the (001 plane. As the crystal is centrosymmetric, it consists of alternately stacked BNDA–urea layers of opposite chirality. The urea H atoms trans to the C=O group are bonded in a chelating mode [R12(6] to the carbonyl O atom from one of the carboxylic acid groups which, in turn, acts as the donor of an O—H...O hydrogen bond to another urea molecule. The [010] chains thus formed are further connected via an R22(8 hydrogen-bond motif formed between urea and the second carboxylic acid group of BNDA.

  17. Lipid Signaling via Pkh1/2 Regulates Fungal CO2 Sensing through the Kinase Sch9. (United States)

    Pohlers, Susann; Martin, Ronny; Krüger, Thomas; Hellwig, Daniela; Hänel, Frank; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Saluz, Hans Peter; Van Dijck, Patrick; Ernst, Joachim F; Brakhage, Axel; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A; Kurzai, Oliver


    Adaptation to alternating CO 2 concentrations is crucial for all organisms. Carbonic anhydrases-metalloenzymes that have been found in all domains of life-enable fixation of scarce CO 2 by accelerating its conversion to bicarbonate and ensure maintenance of cellular metabolism. In fungi and other eukaryotes, the carbonic anhydrase Nce103 has been shown to be essential for growth in air (~0.04% CO 2 ). Expression of NCE103 is regulated in response to CO 2 availability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NCE103 is activated by the transcription factor ScCst6, and in Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, it is activated by its homologues CaRca1 and CgRca1, respectively. To identify the kinase controlling Cst6/Rca1, we screened an S. cerevisiae kinase/phosphatase mutant library for the ability to regulate NCE103 in a CO 2 -dependent manner. We identified ScSch9 as a potential ScCst6-specific kinase, as the sch9Δ mutant strain showed deregulated NCE103 expression on the RNA and protein levels. Immunoprecipitation revealed the binding capabilities of both proteins, and detection of ScCst6 phosphorylation by ScSch9 in vitro confirmed Sch9 as the Cst6 kinase. We could show that CO 2 -dependent activation of Sch9, which is part of a kinase cascade, is mediated by lipid/Pkh1/2 signaling but not TORC1. Finally, we tested conservation of the identified regulatory cascade in the pathogenic yeast species C. albicans and C. glabrata Deletion of SCH9 homologues of both species impaired CO 2 -dependent regulation of NCE103 expression, which indicates a conservation of the CO 2 adaptation mechanism among yeasts. Thus, Sch9 is a Cst6/Rca1 kinase that links CO 2 adaptation to lipid signaling via Pkh1/2 in fungi. All living organisms have to cope with alternating CO 2 concentrations as CO 2 levels range from very low in the atmosphere (0.04%) to high (5% and more) in other niches, including the human body. In fungi, CO 2 is sensed via two pathways. The first regulates virulence in

  18. Microwave assisted synthesis of core–shell LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C nanocomposite cathode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huanhuan [Automotive Engineering Research Institute, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Yunxing [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin [Automotive Engineering Research Institute, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wei, Jinping [Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Hongbo [China Aviation Lithium Battery Co. Ltd., Luoyang 471003 (China); Wang, Yaping, E-mail: [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)


    Highlights: • We firstly report a fast microwave heating way to prepare LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C. • The reversible discharge capacity of LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C is about 169 mA h g{sup −1}. • LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C nanocomposite elucidates excellent cyclic stability. • LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C nanocomposite exhibits attractive rate capability. - Abstract: A microwave assisted method is developed for synthesizing pure LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4} and LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C nanocomposite. Olivine LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4} coated with uniform amorphous carbon film of ∼5 nm in thickness with an average size of ∼200 nm is successfully obtained. Compared with pure LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}, LiFe{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}/C composite presents enhanced electrochemical Li-ion intercalation performances. It exhibits a high discharge capacity of 169 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C (theoretical capacity is 170 mA h g{sup −1}). The capacity retention is 99% after 30 cycles. Furthermore, the capacities are still retained 101 at 5 C and 76 mA h g{sup −1} and 20 C, respectively. Carbon coating can significantly improve the Li-ion diffusion, the reversibility of lithium extraction/insertion and electrical conductivity of LiCo{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Fe{sub 1/3}PO{sub 4}.

  19. Possible indicators for low dimensional superconductivity in the quasi-1D carbide Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidt, E-W; Hauf, C; Reiner, F; Eickerling, G; Scherer, W, E-mail: [CPM, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)


    The transition metal carbide Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4} consists of a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) structure with [CoC{sub 4}]{sub {infinity}} polyanionic chains embedded in a scandium matrix. At ambient temperatures Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4} displays metallic behavior. At lower temperatures, however, charge density wave formation has been observed around 143 K which is followed by a structural phase transition at 72 K. Below T{sub c}{sup onset} = 4.5 K the polycrystalline sample becomes superconductive. From H{sub c1}(0) and H{sub c2}(0) values we could estimate the London penetration depth ({lambda}{sub L} {approx_equal} 9750 A) and the Ginsburg-Landau (GL) coherence length ({xi}{sub GL} {approx_equal} 187 A). The resulting GL-parameter ({kappa} {approx_equal} 52) classifies Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4} as a type II superconductor. Here we compare the puzzling superconducting features of Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4}, such as the unusual temperature dependence i) of the specific heat anomaly and ii) of the upper critical field H{sub c2}(T) at T{sub c}, and iii) the magnetic hysteresis curve, with various related low dimensional superconductors: e.g., the quasi-1D superconductor (SN){sub x} or the 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides. Our results identify Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4} as a new candidate for a quasi-1D superconductor.

  20. The CO2 Abundance in Comets C2012 K1 (PanSTARRS), C2012 K5 (LINEAR), and 290P Jager as Measured with Spitzer (United States)

    McKay, Adam J.; Kelley, Michael S.P.; Cochran, Anita L.; Bodewits, Dennis; DiSanti, Michael A.; Dello Russo, Neil; Lisse, Carey M.


    Carbon dioxide is one of the most abundant ices present in comets and is therefore important for understanding cometary composition and activity. We present analysis of observations of CO2 and [O I] emission in three comets to measure the CO2 abundance and evaluate the possibility of employing observations of [O I] emission in comets as a proxy for CO2. We obtained NIR imaging sensitive to CO2 of comets C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS), C/2012 K5 (LINEAR), and 290P/Jager with the IRAC instrument on Spitzer. We acquired observations of [O I] emission in these comets with the ARCES echelle spectrometer mounted on the 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory and observations of OH with the Swift observatory (PanSTARRS) and with Keck HIRES (Jager). The CO2/H2O ratios derived from the Spitzer images are 12.6 +/- 1.3% (PanSTARRS), 28.9 +/- 3.6% (LINEAR), and 31.3 +/- 4.2% (Jager). These abundances are derived under the assumption that contamination from CO emission is negligible. The CO2 abundance for PanSTARRS is close to the average abundance measured in comets at similar heliocentric distance to date, while the abundances measured for LINEAR and Jager are significantly larger than the average abundance. From the coma morphology observed in PanSTARRS and the assumed gas expansion velocity, we derive a rotation period for the nucleus of about 9.2 h. Comparison of H2O production rates derived from ARCES and Swift data, as well as other observations, suggest the possibility of sublimation from icy grains in the inner coma. We evaluate the possibility that the [O I] emission can be employed as a proxy for CO2 by comparing CO2/H2O ratios inferred from the [O I] lines to those measured directly by Spitzer. We find that for PanSTARRS we can reproduce the observed CO2 abundance to an accuracy of approximately 20%. For LINEAR and Jager, we were only able to obtain upper limits on the CO2 abundance inferred from the [O I] lines. These upper limits are consistent with the CO2 abundances

  1. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and (delta)13C values across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current between New Zealand and Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enricomaria; Giglio, Federico; Langone, Leonardo; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo


    Measurements of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations were repeatedly carried out on the vessel 'Italica' of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica, during cruises from Italy to Antarctica. Discrete air samples were also collected in 4-L Pyrex flasks during these cruises in order to carry out (delta) 13 C analyses on atmospheric CO 2 . The results acquired between New Zealand and Antarctica are reported here. The mean growth rate of the CO 2 concentration from 1996 to 2003 in this area of the Southern Oceans is of about 1.8 ppmv/yr, in good agreement with NOAA/CMDL measurements. The rates of increase from cruise to cruise are rather variable. From 1996-1997 to 1998-1999 cruise the yearly growth rate is 2.75 ppmv/yr, close to the large growth rates measured in several areas and mainly related to the most severe El Nino event of the last years. The other yearly growth rates are of about 1.3 and 2 ppmv for the periods 1998-1999 to 2001-2002 and 2001-2002 to 2003-2004, respectively. The large difference between these two values is probably related to the uncertainty on the only two 2001-2002 discrete measurements of CO 2 concentration in this area. The measured (delta) 13 C values show two completely different distributions and a large interannual variability. The 1998-1999, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004 results obtained between about 55 deg S and 65 deg S across the Antarctic Polar Front show a marked negativization of up to more than 0.2% when compared to the background values. The results are related to local source regions of CO 2 , as frequently found in the Southern Ocean by several authors; the negative (delta) 13 C values are tentatively related to the possible contribution of different causes. Among them, the southward negative gradient of (delta) 13 C of the dissolved inorganic carbon, the contribution from upwelling deep waters and from subsurface processes between the Northern SubAntarctic Front and the Polar Front, and, partly, the contribution of CO 2

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06544-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7 ) Zea mays chromosome 5 clone CH201-250N7; ZMMBBc02... 34 3.0 2 ( CO164117 ) FLD1_46_A02.b1_A029 Root flood...Mixed stage fo... 36 3.4 2 ( CO164196 ) FLD1_46_A02.g1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 38 3.5 2 ( AC21

  3. Frozen cropland soil in northeast China as source of N2O and CO2 emissions. (United States)

    Miao, Shujie; Qiao, Yunfa; Han, Xiaozeng; Brancher Franco, Roberta; Burger, Martin


    Agricultural soils are important sources of atmospheric N2O and CO2. However, in boreal agro-ecosystems the contribution of the winter season to annual emissions of these gases has rarely been determined. In this study, soil N2O and CO2 fluxes were measured for 6 years in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in northeast China to quantify the contribution of wintertime N2O and CO2 fluxes to annual emissions. The treatments were chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus composted pig manure (NPKOM), and control (Cont.). Mean soil N2O fluxes among all three treatments in the winter (November-March), when soil temperatures are below -7°C for extended periods, were 0.89-3.01 µg N m(-2) h(-1), and in between the growing season and winter (October and April), when freeze-thaw events occur, 1.73-5.48 µg N m(-2) h(-1). The cumulative N2O emissions were on average 0.27-1.39, 0.03-0.08 and 0.03-0.11 kg N2O_N ha(-1) during the growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The average contributions of winter N2O efflux to annual emissions were 6.3-12.1%. In all three seasons, the highest N2O emissions occurred in NPKOM, while NPK and Cont. emissions were similar. Cumulative CO2 emissions were 2.73-4.94, 0.13-0.20 and 0.07-0.11 Mg CO2-C ha(-1) during growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The contribution of winter CO2 to total annual emissions was 2.0-2.4%. Our results indicate that in boreal agricultural systems in northeast China, CO2 and N2O emissions continue throughout the winter.

  4. Local atomic characterization of LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedoseykina, Tatiana; Kim, Sung-Soo; Nitta, Yoshiaki


    Co, Ni and Mn K-edge XAFS investigation of LiCo 1/3 Ni 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 as alternative cathode material to commercially used LiCoO 2 in lithium rechargeable battery has been performed. Parameters of a local atomic structure such as radii of metal-oxygen and metal-metal coordination shells and disorder in those shells have been determined. It has been found that the radius of the first coordination shell (metal-oxygen) as well as a local disorder in the second shell (metal-metal) around each of the 3d-metals are in a good agreement with obtained for superlattice model of √3 x √3] R30 o type in triangular lattice of sites by first principle calculation. Other parameters of the local atomic structure around Co, Ni and Mn atoms do not provide evidence for presence of superstructure in LiCo 1/3 Ni 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2

  5. Change in Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, Bodyweight, and HbA1c in High-Risk Adults. (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew; Edwardson, Charlotte L; Davies, Melanie J; Henson, Joseph; Gray, Laura; Khunti, Kamlesh; Yates, Thomas


    In recent years, there has been a migration toward the use of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in determining glycemic control. This study aimed to quantify the associations between changes in body weight, sedentary time, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time with HbA1c levels for a 3-yr period among adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. This study reports baseline and 3-yr follow-up data from the Walking Away from Type 2 Diabetes study. ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers captured sedentary time and MVPA. Linear regression examined the independent associations of changes in sedentary time, MVPA, and body weight with HbA1c between baseline and 3-yr follow-up. The sample composed of 489 participants (mean age = 64.2 ± 7.3 yr, body mass index = 31.7 ± 5.1, 63.4% male) with valid baseline and follow-up accelerometer, body weight, and HbA1c data. After adjustment for known confounders, an increase in MVPA time (per 30 min·d) was associated with a decrease in HbA1c percentage (β = -0.11 [-0.18 to -0.05], P = 0.001), and an increase in body weight (per 6 kg) was associated with an increase in HbA1c percentage (β = 0.08 [0.04-0.12], P HbA1c ≥ 6.0%) strengthened these associations (P HbA1c after adjustment for change in MVPA time. Increases in MVPA and body weight were associated with a reduction and increase in HbA1c, respectively, particularly in those with dysglycemia. Quantifying the effect that health behavior changes have on HbA1c can be used to inform prevention programs.

  6. Enhancement of electrochemical performance of LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2 by surface modification with MnO_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xin; Cong, Li-Na; Zhao, Qin; Tai, Ling-Hua; Wu, Xing-Long; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Rong-Shun; Xie, Hai-Ming; Sun, Li-Qun


    LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2 is successfully coated with MnO_2 by a chemical deposition method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) results demonstrate that MnO_2 forms a thin layer on the surface of LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2 without destroying the crystal structure of the core material. Compared with pristine LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2, the MnO_2-coated sample shows enhanced electrochemical performance especially the rate capability. Even at a current density of 750 mA g"−"1, the discharge capacity of MnO_2-coated LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2 is 155.15 mAh g"−"1, while that of the pristine electrode is only 132.84 mAh g"−"1 in the range of 2.5–4.5 V. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) curves show that the MnO_2 coating layer reacts with Li"+ during cycling, which is responsible for the higher discharge capacity of MnO_2-coated LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results confirmed that the MnO_2 coating layer plays an important role in reducing the charge transfer resistance on the electrolyte–electrode interfaces. - Highlights: • MnO_2 coated LiNi_1_/_3Co_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3O_2 cathode material is synthesized for the first time. • MnO_2 offers available sites for insertion of extracted lithium. • The preserved surface and crystal structures results in the improved kinetics.

  7. Pressure effect on electrical resistivity of Y1-xGdxCo2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakama, T.; Takaesu, Y.; Yagasaki, K.; Sakai, E.; Kurita, N.; Hedo, M.; Uwatoko, Y.; Burkov, A.T.


    Electrical resistivity of Y 1-x Gd x Co 2 alloy system has been measured at temperatures from 2 to 300K in magnetic field up to 15T and under pressure up to 10GPa. The compounds with the composition near to phase boundary between paramagnetic and ferromagnetic ground state (x c ∼0.12) show strong enhancement of electrical resistivity at low temperatures. Large positive magnetoresistance was observed in ferromagnetic alloys in composition range 0.15 1-x Gd x Co 2 at low temperatures is in agreement with the variation of magnetoresistance with the composition


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Mark R.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Finch, Charlie T.; Subasavage, John P.; Hambly, Nigel C.


    We present 2817 new southern proper motion systems with 0.''40 yr -1 > μ ≥ 0.''18 yr -1 and declination between -47 0 and 00 0 . This is a continuation of the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) proper motion searches of the southern sky. We use the same photometric relations as previous searches to provide distance estimates based on the assumption that the objects are single main-sequence stars. We find 79 new red dwarf systems predicted to be within 25 pc, including a few new components of previously known systems. Two systems-SCR 1731-2452 at 9.5 pc and SCR 1746-3214 at 9.9 pc-are anticipated to be within 10 pc. We also find 23 new white dwarf (WD) candidates with distance estimates of 15-66 pc, as well as 360 new red subdwarf candidates. With this search, we complete the SCR sweep of the southern sky for stars with μ ≥ 0.''18 yr -1 and R 59F ≤ 16.5, resulting in a total of 5042 objects in 4724 previously unreported proper motion systems. Here we provide selected comprehensive lists from our SCR proper motion search to date, including 152 red dwarf systems estimated to be within 25 pc (9 within 10 pc), 46 WDs (10 within 25 pc), and 598 subdwarf candidates. The results of this search suggest that there are more nearby systems to be found at fainter magnitudes and lower proper motion limits than those probed so far.

  9. Disease progression among 446 children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes located in Scandinavia, Europe, and North America during the last 27 yr. (United States)

    Max Andersen, Marie Louise; Nielsen, Lotte B; Svensson, Jannet; Pörksen, Sven; Hougaard, Philip; Beam, Craig; Greenbaum, Carla; Becker, Dorothy; Petersen, Jacob S; Hansen, Lars; Mortensen, Henrik B


    To clarify whether the rate of decline in stimulated C-peptide (SCP) from 2 to 15 months after diagnosis has changed over an interval of 27 yr. The rate of decline in SCP levels at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months after diagnosis was compared in four paediatric cohorts from Scandinavian and European countries including 446 children with new onset type 1 diabetes (T1D, 1982-2004). Findings were evaluated against 78 children (2004-2009) from the TrialNet studies. The mean rate of decline [%/month (±SEM)] in SCP for a 10-yr-old child was 7.7%/month (±1.5) in the 1982-1985 Cohort, 6.3%/month (±1.7) in the 1995-1998 Cohort, 7.8%/month (±0.7) in the 1999-2000 Cohort, and 10.7%/month (±0.9) in the latest 2004-2005 Cohort (p = 0.05). Including the TrialNet Cohort with a rate of decline in SCP of 10.0%/month (±0.9) the differences between the cohorts are still significant (p = 0.039). The rate of decline in SCP was negatively associated with age (p < 0.0001), insulin antibodies (IA) (p = 0.003), and glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65A) (p = 0.03) initially with no statistically significant effect of body mass index (BMI) Z-score at 3 months. Also, at 3 months the time around partial remission, the effect of age on SCP was significantly greater in children ≤5 yr compared with older children (p ≤ 0.0001). During the past 27 yr, initial C-peptide as well as the rate of C-peptide decline seem to have increased. The rate of decline was affected significantly by age, GAD65A, and IA, but not BMI Z-score or initial C-peptide. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana García


    Full Text Available Se prepararon catalizadores metálicos estructurados constituidos por perovskitas con composiciones LaCo0.6Fe0.4O3, LaCo0.4Fe0.6O3 y La0.9Ce0.1Co0.6Fe0.4O3 soportadas sobre estructuras cónicas de una malla de acero inoxidable 316, a fin de estudiar el efecto de la estructura metálica en la reacción. Estos fueron evaluados en el reformado de metano con CO2 y O2, realizando la comparación con el mismo catalizador en polvo. Las condiciones de reacción fueron seleccionadas a partir de barridos de temperatura de reacción y de relación CH4/CO2 de la alimentación. Se alcanzó una conversión máxima de 88% y relación H2/CO de 1.6, para la perovskita de mayor contenido de Co a 850 °C y composición molar 6/1/3 en CH4/CO2/O2. Los catalizadores estructurados en forma de cono y en polvo presentaron un comportamiento similar. La sustitución de La por Ce no generó diferencias apreciables en el comportamiento catalítico. El uso de una estructura metálica similar a un empaque comercial, parece mejorar la estabilidad del catalizador de perovskita LaCo0.6Fe0.4O3 con una mayor relación H2/CO en los productos.

  11. χ_{c1} and χ_{c2} Resonance Parameters with the Decays χ_{c1,c2}→J/ψμ^{+}μ^{-}. (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alfonso Albero, A; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Atzeni, M; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Baranov, A; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baryshnikov, F; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Beiter, A; Bel, L J; Beliy, N; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Beranek, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Berninghoff, D; Bertholet, E; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Bjørn, M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bordyuzhin, I; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brundu, D; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Byczynski, W; Cadeddu, S; Cai, H; Calabrese, R; Calladine, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Chapman, M G; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chitic, S-G; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Chubykin, A; Ciambrone, P; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Colombo, T; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Del Buono, L; Dembinski, H-P; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Nezza, P; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Douglas, L; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziewiecki, M; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fazzini, D; Federici, L; Ferguson, D; Fernandez, G; Fernandez Declara, P; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gabriel, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabowski, J P; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greim, R; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruber, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hancock, T H; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Hasse, C; Hatch, M; He, J; Hecker, M; Heinicke, K; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P H; Hu, W; Huard, Z C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Ibis, P; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kazeev, N; Kecke, M; Keizer, F; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Klimkovich, T; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Kopecna, R; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kotriakhova, S; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreps, M; Kress, F; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, P-R; Li, T; Li, Y; Li, Z; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Lionetto, F; Lisovskyi, V; Liu, X; Loh, D; Loi, A; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Luchinsky, A; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Macko, V; Mackowiak, P; Maddrell-Mander, S; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Maisuzenko, D; Majewski, M W; Malde, S; Malecki, B; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marangotto, D; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Mead, J V; Meadows, B; Meaux, C; Meier, F; Meinert, N; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Millard, E; Minard, M-N; Minzoni, L; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Mombächer, T; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Ossowska, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pisani, F; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poli Lener, M; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Ponce, S; Popov, A; Popov, D; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Pullen, H; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Quintana, B; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Ravonel Salzgeber, M; Reboud, M; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Robert, A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Ruiz Vidal, J; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarpis, G; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schreiner, H F; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sepulveda, E S; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stepanova, M; Stevens, H; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Stramaglia, M E; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, J; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szumlak, T; Szymanski, M; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Toriello, F; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R; Tournefier, E; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Usachov, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagner, A; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Verlage, T A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Weisser, C; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Winn, M; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, M; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zonneveld, J B; Zucchelli, S


    The decays χ_{c1}→J/ψμ^{+}μ^{-} and χ_{c2}→J/ψμ^{+}μ^{-} are observed and used to study the resonance parameters of the χ_{c1} and χ_{c2} mesons. The masses of these states are measured to be m(χ_{c1})=3510.71±0.04(stat)±0.09(syst)  MeV and m(χ_{c2})=3556.10±0.06(stat)±0.11(syst)  MeV, where the knowledge of the momentum scale for charged particles dominates the systematic uncertainty. The momentum-scale uncertainties largely cancel in the mass difference m(χ_{c2})-m(χ_{c1})=45.39±0.07(stat)±0.03(syst)  MeV. The natural width of the χ_{c2} meson is measured to be Γ(χ_{c2})=2.10±0.20(stat)±0.02(syst)  MeV. These results are in good agreement with and have comparable precision to the current world averages.

  12. Pentacarbonyl-1κ2C,2κ3C-[(diphenylphosphoryldiphenylphosphane-1κP]-μ-ethane-1,2-dithiolato-1:2κ4S,S′:S,S′-diiron(I(Fe—Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Feng Liu


    Full Text Available The dinuclear title compound, [Fe2(C2H4S2(C24H20OP2(CO5] or (μ-SCH2CH2S-μFe2(CO5[Ph2PP(OPh2], contains a butterfly-shaped Fe2S2 core in which the Fe...Fe separation is 2.5275 (6 Å. One of the Fe atoms is also coordinated to three carbonyl ligands and the other to two carbonyl ligands and one phosphane ligand [Ph2PP(OPh2]. Both Fe-atom geometries could be described as grossly distorted octahedral and the Ph2PP(OPh2 ligand lies trans to the Fe...Fe link.

  13. Concentrations and (delta)13C values of atmospheric CO2 from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo


    rate of about 1.7 ppmv/yr in excellent agreement with the NOAA/WMO data from land-based stations). Simultaneously, the mean (delta) 13 C value of atmospheric CO 2 over the Central Indian Ocean (Equator) decreased from -0.792% at the end of 1998 to -0.822% at the end of 2003; the mean decrease rate being of about -0.006%/yr. This rate as well as that calculated at 12 deg S (-0.005%/yr) are not far from the rates that may be calculated according to the data from the nearest NOAA sites (Crozet and Mahe islands); the rates calculated South of Australia and between Tasmania and N.Z. are almost identical to those calculated according to the data from Cape Grim NOAA site (Tasmania)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Atsushi; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, 4-1-1 Nukuikita-machi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Mizuno, Akira [Solar-terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)


    We present fully sampled ∼3' resolution images of {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1), {sup 13}CO(J = 2-1), and C{sup 18}O(J = 2-1) emission taken with the newly developed 1.85 m millimeter-submillimeter telescope over the entire area of the Orion A and B giant molecular clouds. The data were compared with J = 1-0 of the {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O data taken with the Nagoya 4 m telescope and the NANTEN telescope at the same angular resolution to derive the spatial distributions of the physical properties of the molecular gas. We explore the large velocity gradient formalism to determine the gas density and temperature using line combinations of {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1), {sup 13}CO(J = 2-1), and {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) assuming a uniform velocity gradient and abundance ratio of CO. The derived gas density is in the range of 500 to 5000 cm{sup –3}, and the derived gas temperature is mostly in the range of 20 to 50 K along the cloud ridge with a temperature gradient depending on the distance from the star forming region. We found that the high-temperature region at the cloud edge faces the H II region, indicating that the molecular gas is interacting with the stellar wind and radiation from the massive stars. In addition, we compared the derived gas properties with the young stellar objects distribution obtained with the Spitzer telescope to investigate the relationship between the gas properties and the star formation activity therein. We found that the gas density and star formation efficiency are positively well correlated, indicating that stars form effectively in the dense gas region.

  15. Socioeconomic Implications of Achieving 2.0 °C and 1.5 °C Climate Targets under Scientific Uncertainties (United States)

    Su, X.; Takahashi, K.; Fujimori, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Tanaka, K.; Shiogama, H.; Emori, S.; LIU, J.; Hanasaki, N.; Hijioka, Y.; Masui, T.


    Large uncertainty exists in the temperature projections, including contributions from carbon cycle, climate system and aerosols. For the integrated assessment models (IAMs), like DICE, FUND and PAGE, however, the scientific uncertainties mainly rely on the distribution of (equilibrium) climate sensitivity. This study aims at evaluating the emission pathways by limiting temperature increase below 2.0 ºC or 1.5 ºC after 2100 considering scientific uncertainties, and exploring how socioeconomic indicators are affected by such scientific uncertainties. We use a stochastic version of the SCM4OPT, with an uncertainty measurement by considering alternative ranges of key parameters. Three climate cases, namely, i) base case of SSP2, ii) limiting temperature increase below 2.0 ºC after 2100 and iii) limiting temperature increase below 1.5 ºC after 2100, and three types of probabilities - i) >66% probability or likely, ii) >50% probability or more likely than not and iii) the mean of the probability distribution, are considered in the study. The results show that, i) for the 2.0ºC case, the likely CO2 reduction rate in 2100 ranges from 75.5%-102.4%, with mean value of 88.1%, and 93.0%-113.1% (mean 102.5%) for the 1.5ºC case; ii) a likely range of forcing effect is found for the 2.0 ºC case (2.7-3.9 Wm-2) due to scientific uncertainty, and 1.9-3.1 Wm-2 for the 1.5 ºC case; iii) the carbon prices within 50% confidential interval may differ a factor of 3 for both the 2.0ºC case and the 1.5 ºC case; iv) the abatement costs within 50% confidential interval may differ a factor of 4 for both the 2.0ºC case and the 1.5 ºC case. Nine C4MIP carbon cycle models and nineteen CMIP3 AOGCMs are used to account for the scientific uncertainties, following MAGICC 6.0. These uncertainties will result in a likely radiative forcing range of 6.1-7.5 Wm-2 and a likely temperature increase of 3.1-4.5 ºC in 2100 for the base case of SSP2. If we evaluate the 2 ºC target by limiting the

  16. Optimizing the planar structure of (1 1 1) Au/Co/Au trilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumah, D P; Cebollada, A; Clavero, C; Garcia-MartIn, J M; Skuza, J R; Lukaszew, R A; Clarke, R


    Au/Co/Au trilayers are interesting for a range of applications which exploit their unusual optical and electronic transport behaviour in a magnetic field. Here we present a comprehensive structural and morphological study of a series of trilayers with 0-7 nm Co layer thickness fabricated on glass by ultrahigh vacuum vapour deposition. We use a combination of in situ electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and x-ray scattering to determine the optimum deposition conditions for highly textured, flat and continuous layered structures. The 16 nm Au-on-glass buffer layer, deposited at ambient temperature, is found to develop a smooth (1 1 1) texture on annealing at 350 deg. C for 10 min. Subsequent growth of the Co layer at 150 deg. C produces a (1 1 1) textured film with lateral grain size of ∼150 nm in the 7 nm-thick Co layer. A simultaneous in-plane and out-of-plane Co lattice expansion is observed for the thinnest Co layers, converging to bulk values for the thickest films. The roughness of the Co layer is similar to that of the Au buffer layer, indicative of conformal growth. The 6 nm Au capping layer smoothens the trilayer surface, resulting in a surface roughness independent of the Co layer thickness

  17. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xihua; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Nawaz, Faheem; Zhang, Yi


    Highlights: • A simple process to recycle cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries. • Complete separation of the cathode material from the aluminum foil is achieved. • The recovered aluminum foil is highly pure. • LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is directly resynthesized from the separated cathode material. - Abstract: To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15 vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g −1 , reacting at 40 °C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 are 201 mAh g −1 and 155.4 mAh g −1 (2.8–4.5 V, 0.1 C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g −1 even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%

  18. The Arizona Radio Observatory CO Mapping Survey of Galactic Molecular Clouds. V. The Sh2-235 Cloud in CO J=2-1, 13CO J=2-1, and CO J=3-2 (United States)

    Bieging, John H.; Patel, Saahil; Peters, William L.; Toth, L. Viktor; Marton, Gábor; Zahorecz, Sarolta


    We present the results of a program to map the Sh2-235 molecular cloud complex in the CO and 13CO J = 2 - 1 transitions using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The map resolution is 38″ (FWHM), with an rms noise of 0.12 K brightness temperature, for a velocity resolution of 0.34 km s-1. With the same telescope, we also mapped the CO J = 3 - 2 line at a frequency of 345 GHz, using a 64 beam focal plane array of heterodyne mixers, achieving a typical rms noise of 0.5 K brightness temperature with a velocity resolution of 0.23 km s-1. The three spectral line data cubes are available for download. Much of the cloud appears to be slightly sub-thermally excited in the J = 3 level, except for in the vicinity of the warmest and highest column density areas, which are currently forming stars. Using the CO and 13CO J = 2 - 1 lines, we employ an LTE model to derive the gas column density over the entire mapped region. Examining a 125 pc2 region centered on the most active star formation in the vicinity of Sh2-235, we find that the young stellar object surface density scales as approximately the 1.6-power of the gas column density. The area distribution function of the gas is a steeply declining exponential function of gas column density. Comparison of the morphology of ionized and molecular gas suggests that the cloud is being substantially disrupted by expansion of the H II regions, which may be triggering current star formation.

  19. Temperature dependence of the photodissociation of CO2 from high vibrational levels: 205-230 nm imaging studies of CO(X1Σ+) and O(3P, 1D) products (United States)

    Sutradhar, S.; Samanta, B. R.; Samanta, A. K.; Reisler, H.


    The 205-230 nm photodissociation of vibrationally excited CO2 at temperatures up to 1800 K was studied using Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) and time-sliced Velocity Map Imaging (VMI). CO2 molecules seeded in He were heated in an SiC tube attached to a pulsed valve and supersonically expanded to create a molecular beam of rotationally cooled but vibrationally hot CO2. Photodissociation was observed from vibrationally excited CO2 with internal energies up to about 20 000 cm-1, and CO(X1Σ+), O(3P), and O(1D) products were detected by REMPI. The large enhancement in the absorption cross section with increasing CO2 vibrational excitation made this investigation feasible. The internal energies of heated CO2 molecules that absorbed 230 nm radiation were estimated from the kinetic energy release (KER) distributions of CO(X1Σ+) products in v″ = 0. At 230 nm, CO2 needs to have at least 4000 cm-1 of rovibrational energy to absorb the UV radiation and produce CO(X1Σ+) + O(3P). CO2 internal energies in excess of 16 000 cm-1 were confirmed by observing O(1D) products. It is likely that initial absorption from levels with high bending excitation accesses both the A1B2 and B1A2 states, explaining the nearly isotropic angular distributions of the products. CO(X1Σ+) product internal energies were estimated from REMPI spectroscopy, and the KER distributions of the CO(X1Σ+), O(3P), and O(1D) products were obtained by VMI. The CO product internal energy distributions change with increasing CO2 temperature, suggesting that more than one dynamical pathway is involved when the internal energy of CO2 (and the corresponding available energy) increases. The KER distributions of O(1D) and O(3P) show broad internal energy distributions in the CO(X1Σ+) cofragment, extending up to the maximum allowed by energy but peaking at low KER values. Although not all the observations can be explained at this time, with the aid of available theoretical studies of CO2 VUV

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14913-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLD1_53_G01.g1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 50 0.16 1 ( CO165241 ) FLD1_53_G01.b1_A029 Root flooded... Pinus taeda cDNA... 50 0.16 1 ( CO163000 ) FLD1_38_G07.g1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 50 0.16 1 (... CO162917 ) FLD1_38_G07.b1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 50 0.16 1 ( CO15...9866 ) FLD1_16_B12.g1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 50 0.16 1 ( CO158395 ) FLD1_6_D06.g1_A029 Root flood

  1. MiR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells via targeting prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Guoxing [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Shi, Hui [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Li, Jiong; Yang, Zhe [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Fang, Runping; Ye, Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Weiying, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)


    Aberrant microRNA expression has been shown to be characteristic of many cancers. It has been reported that the expression levels of miR-30e are decreased in liver cancer tissues. However, the role of miR-30e in hepatocellular carcinoma remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the significance of miR-30e in hepatocarcinogenesis. Bioinformatics analysis reveals a putative target site of miR-30e in the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA. Moreover, luciferase reporter gene assays verified that miR-30e directly targeted 3′UTR of P4HA1 mRNA. Then, we demonstrated that miR-30e was able to reduce the expression of P4HA1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Enforced expression of miR-30e suppressed proliferation of HepG2 cells by 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay and reduced colony formation of these cells by colony formation analysis. Conversely, anti-miR-30e enhanced the proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro. Interestingly, the ectopic expression of P4HA1 could efficiently rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-30e in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, silencing of P4HA1 abolished the anti-miR-30e-induced proliferation of cells. Clinically, quantitative real-time PCR showed that miR-30e was down-regulated in liver tumor tissues relative to their peritumor tissues. The expression levels of miR-30e were negatively correlated to those of P4HA1 mRNA in clinical liver tumor tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells through targeting P4HA1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. - Highlights: • P4HA1 is a novel target gene of miR-30e. • P4HA1 is increased in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-30e is negatively correlated with P4HA1 in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-30e suppresses the proliferation of HCC cells through

  2. Land-use change to bioenergy production in Europe: implications for the greenhouse gas balance and soil carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Don, Axel; Osborne, Bruce; Hastings, Astley


    for Miscanthus). However, there was no positive or even negative effects on the C balance if energy crops are established on former grassland. Increased bioenergy production may also result in direct and indirect land-use changes with potential high C losses when native vegetation is converted to annual crops......Bioenergy from crops is expected to make a considerable contribution to climate change mitigation. However, bioenergy is not necessarily carbon neutral because emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 during crop production may reduce or completely counterbalance CO2 savings of the substituted fossil fuels...... of lower fertilizer requirements as well as a higher N-use efficiency, due to effective N-recycling. Perennial energy crops have the potential to sequester additional carbon in soil biomass if established on former cropland (0.44 Mg soil C ha 1 yr 1 for poplar and willow and 0.66 Mg soil C ha 1 yr 1...

  3. The palynology and sedimentology of a coastal swamp at Awana, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand, from c. 7000 yr B.P. to present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.


    Pollen and sediment analysis of two Holocene cores from Awana, Great Barrier Island, shows that at 7000 calibrated yr B.P. the local swamp was an estuarine salt marsh dominated by Restionaceae. By c. 6000 yr B.P. the water table was lower, and a fresh water swamp (Gleichenia-Leptospermum) had replaced the salt marsh. Regional conifer-hardwood forest c. 7000 yr B.P. was initially co-dominated by Libocedrus and Dacrydium cupressinum. Libocedrus declined from c. 6000 yr B.P. During the period c. 6000-c. 2500 yr B.P., relatively stable environmental conditions ensued with little change in local or regional vegetation. Around 2500 yr B.P., the swamp surface became drier and was invaded by Dacrycarpus and Laurelia swamp forest. This forest was subsequently repeatedly disturbed (not by fire), indicating climatic change to drier and windier conditions. Ascarina lucida was periodically a major component of swamp forest. Disturbance is also recorded in the clastic (mineral) sediments, where beds of sand within finer-grained sediment and peat are interpreted as wind blown material derived from partly devegetated dunes to seaward. The presence of the Kaharoa Tephra allows the timing of major Polynesian deforestation at Awana to be reliably dated to c. 600 calibrated yr B.P. In contrast, we see no evidence in the clastic sediment record of disturbance at Awana since Kaharoa time. We attribute this to the maintenance of stable dunes by a herb/scrub cover despite nearby fires, or to the presence of scrub or forest buffering the swamp from ablating dunes. (author). 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. [Synthesis and characterization of CO-3(2-) doping nano-hydroxyapatite]. (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Guo; Li, Yan-Qun; Duan, Xing-Ze; Liu, Qiong


    CO3(2-) doping is an effective method to increase the biological activity of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA). In the present study, calcium nitrate and trisodium phosphate were chosen as raw materials, with a certain amount of Na2CO3 as a source of CO-3(2-) ions, to synthesize nano-carbonate hydroxyapatite (n-CHA) slurry by solution precipitation method. The structure and micro-morphology of n-CHA were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). The results revealed that the synthetic n-HA crystals are acicular in nanometer scale and have a crystal size of 20-30 nm in diameter and 60-80 nm in length, which are similar to natural bone apatite. And the crystallinity of n-CHA crystals decreases to the increment of CO3(2-). Samples with more CO3(2) have composition and structure more similar to the bone apatite. The value of lattice parameters a decreases, value of c increases, and c/a value increases with the increase in the amount of CO3(2-), in accordance with crystal cell parameters change rule of type B replacement. In the AB mixed type (substitution OH- and PO4(3-)) CHA, IR characteristic peak of CO3(2-) out-of-plane bending vibration appears at 872 cm(-1), meanwhile, the asymmetry flexible vibration band is split into band at 1 454 cm(-1) and band at 1 420 cm(-1), while weak CO3(2)-peak appears at 1 540 cm(-1). CO3(2-) Raman peak of symmetric stretching vibration appears at 1 122 cm(-1). CO3(2-) B-type (substitution PO4(3-)) peak appeared at 1 071 cm(-1). Through the calculation of integral area ratio of PO4(3-)/ CO3(2-), OH-/CO3(2-), and PO4(3-)/OH-, low quantity CO3(2-) is B-type and high quantity CO3(2-) is A-type (substitution OH-). The results show that the synthesized apatite crystals are AB hybrid substitued nano-carbonate hydroxyapatite, however B-type replacement is the main substitute mode. Due to similarity inthe shape, size, crystal structure

  5. Comparison of the one-electron oxidations of CO-bridged vs unbridged bimetallic complexes: Electron-transfer chemistry of Os2Cp2(CO)4 and Os2Cp∗2(μ-CO)2(CO)2 (Cp = η5-C5H5, Cp∗ = η5-C5Me5)

    KAUST Repository

    Laws, Derek R.


    The one-electron oxidations of two dimers of half-sandwich osmium carbonyl complexes have been examined by electrochemistry, spectro-electrochemistry, and computational methods. The all-terminal carbonyl complex Os2Cp2(CO)4 (1, Cp = η5-C5H5) undergoes a reversible one-electron anodic reaction at E1/2 = 0.41 V vs ferrocene in CH2Cl2/0.05 M [NBu4][B(C6F5)4], giving a rare example of a metal-metal bonded radical cation unsupported by bridging ligands. The IR spectrum of 1+ is consistent with an approximately 1:1 mixture of anti and gauche structures for the 33 e- radical cation in which it has retained all-terminal bonding of the CO ligands. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations, including orbital-occupancy-perturbed Mayer bond-order analyses, show that the highest-occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) of anti-1 and gauche-1 are metal-ligand delocalized. Removal of an electron from 1 has very little effect on the Os-Os bond order, accounting for the resistance of 1+ to heterolytic cleavage. The Os-Os bond distance is calculated to decrease by 0.10 å and 0.06 å as a consequence of one-electron oxidation of anti-1 and gauche-1, respectively. The CO-bridged complex Os2Cp∗2(μ-CO)2(CO)2 (Cp∗ = η5-C5Me5), trans-2, undergoes a more facile oxidation, E1/2 = -0.11 V, giving a persistent radical cation shown by solution IR analysis to preserve its bridged-carbonyl structure. However, ESR analysis of frozen solutions of 2+ is interpreted in terms of the presence of two isomers, most likely anti-2+ and trans-2+, at low temperature. Calculations show that the HOMO of trans-2 is highly delocalized over the metal-ligand framework, with the bridging carbonyls accounting for about half of the orbital makeup. The Os-Os bond order again changes very little with removal of an electron, and the Os-Os bond length actually undergoes minor shortening. Calculations suggest that the second isomer of 2+ has the anti all-terminal CO structure. (Figure Presented) © 2014 American

  6. Interaction of photoactive cis(CO)-trans(I)-Ru-(4,4‧-dicarboxylate-2,2‧-bipyridine)(CO)2I2 with anatase (1 0 1) surface (United States)

    Haukka, Matti; Hirva, Pipsa


    The coordination of cis(CO)-trans(I)-Ru(4,4‧-dicarboxylate-2,2‧-bipyridine)(CO)2I2 on an anatase (1 0 1) surface was investigated using a computational density functional method. The adsorbate is able to interact with the anatase surface by one or two carboxylate substituents of the bipyridine ligand. Three of the studied coordination modes involved a single carboxylate as the binding group, including monodentate (1M), bidentate chelating (1BC) and bidentate bridging (1BB) modes. The possibility of monodentate binding via both carboxylate groups in (2M) was also studied. The results showed that the multidentate binding is clearly preferred over monodentate coordination. The stability of the modes increased in the order 1M, 1BC, 1BB and 2M. The flexibility of the bipyridine ligand was found to be the key factor in the binding via two carboxylate groups.

  7. CO2 loss by permafrost thawing implies additional emissions reductions to limit warming to 1.5 or 2 °C (United States)

    Burke, Eleanor J.; Chadburn, Sarah E.; Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Chris D.


    Large amounts of carbon are stored in the permafrost of the northern high latitude land. As permafrost degrades under a warming climate, some of this carbon will decompose and be released to the atmosphere. This positive climate-carbon feedback will reduce the natural carbon sinks and thus lower anthropogenic CO2 emissions compatible with the goals of the Paris Agreement. Simulations using an ensemble of the JULES-IMOGEN intermediate complexity climate model (including climate response and process uncertainty) and a stabilization target of 2 °C, show that including the permafrost carbon pool in the model increases the land carbon emissions at stabilization by between 0.09 and 0.19 Gt C year-1 (10th to 90th percentile). These emissions are only slightly reduced to between 0.08 and 0.16 Gt C year-1 (10th to 90th percentile) when considering 1.5 °C stabilization targets. This suggests that uncertainties caused by the differences in stabilization target are small compared with those associated with model parameterisation uncertainty. Inertia means that permafrost carbon loss may continue for many years after anthropogenic emissions have stabilized. Simulations suggest that between 225 and 345 Gt C (10th to 90th percentile) are in thawed permafrost and may eventually be released to the atmosphere for stabilization target of 2 °C. This value is 60-100 Gt C less for a 1.5 °C target. The inclusion of permafrost carbon will add to the demands on negative emission technologies which are already present in most low emissions scenarios.

  8. CO2 as a C1-organic building block: Enantioselective electrocarboxylation of aromatic ketones with CO2catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids under mild conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bao-Li; Tu, Zhuo-Ying; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Sun, Wen-Wen; Wang, Huan; Lu, Jia-Xing


    Highlights: •Cinchona alkaloids catalysis achieve enantioselective electrocarboxylation of racemic aromatic ketones. •The applications of CO 2 enantioselective electrochemical fixation into optically active hydroxyl carboxylic acids have been expanded. •The applications of alkaloids have been expanded. •The applications of asymmetric synthesis by electrochemical methodology have been expanded. -- Abstract: The enantioselective electrocarboxylation of pro-chiral aromatic ketones (2-acetonaphthone, 1-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)ethanone, 1-(4-methoxy-1-naphthyl)ethanone) with atmospheric pressure of CO 2 catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids in the presence of phenol was investigated in an undivided cell for the first time to give optically active 2-hydroxy-2-arylpropionic acid. For the model compound 2-acetonaphthone, the influence of various reaction conditions, such as cathode material, current density, catalyst type, ratio of proton to catalyst and catalyst quantity, on the enantiomeric excesses (ee) and yield has been investigated. Under the optimized conditions of 2-acetonaphthone, all the aromatic ketones examined are converted into corresponding optically active 2-hydroxy-2-arylpropionic acids in moderate yield (32.2% - 41.3%) and ee (48.1% - 48.6%). In addition, the electrochemical behavior of 2-acetonaphthone has been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in the absence and presence of CO 2 . Moreover, the probable reaction pathway was proposed accordingly

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of [Co(L2](ClO42 (L=1,3-bis(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-2-oxapropane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavman Aydin


    Full Text Available The reaction of 1,3-bis(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-2-oxapropane (L with Co(ClO42•6H2O in absolute ethanol produces di[1,3-bis(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-2-oxapropane-k2N,N’]cobalt(IIdiperchlorate chelate complex ([Co(L2](ClO42, 1. The complex 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic moment, molar conductivity, thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectrometry, and its solid state structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. According to the thermogravimetric analysis data, there is no any water coordinated or uncoordinated in 1 as well as elemental analysis. The complex 1 has 1:2 M:L ionic characteristic according to the molar conductivity. In the complex, the distances between the cobalt and the ethereal oxygen atoms (Co1-O2: 2.805(3; Co2-O1: 2.752(2 Å show the semi-coordination bonding and the Co(II ion is six-coordinated with a N4O2 ligand set, resulting in a distorted octahedron.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, N.; Bronfman, L.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A.; Lowe, V.; Cortes, P. C.; Simon, R.; Fissel, L.; Novak, G.


    We present the first results of neutral carbon ([C I] 3 P 1 - 3 P 0 at 492 GHz) and carbon monoxide ( 13 CO, J = 1-0) mapping in the Vela Molecular Ridge cloud C (VMR-C) and the G333 giant molecular cloud complexes with the NANTEN2 and Mopra telescopes. For the four regions mapped in this work, we find that [C I] has very similar spectral emission profiles to 13 CO, with comparable line widths. We find that [C I] has an opacity of 0.1-1.3 across the mapped region while the [C I]/ 13 CO peak brightness temperature ratio is between 0.2 and 0.8. The [C I] column density is an order of magnitude lower than that of 13 CO. The H 2 column density derived from [C I] is comparable to values obtained from 12 CO. Our maps show that C I is preferentially detected in gas with low temperatures (below 20 K), which possibly explains the comparable H 2 column density calculated from both tracers (both C I and 12 CO underestimate column density), as a significant amount of the C I in the warmer gas is likely in the higher energy state transition ([C I] 3 P 2 - 3 P 1 at 810 GHz), and thus it is likely that observations of both the above [C I] transitions are needed in order to recover the total H 2 column density

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00886-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clone XX-231B7, co... 44 8.7 1 ( FJ393927 ) Schistocerca cancellata isolate C2J 12S ribosomal... 44 8.7 1 ( ...FJ393926 ) Schistocerca cancellata isolate C1J 12S ribosomal... 44 8.7 1 ( CP000372 ) Drosophila melanogaste

  12. Rates of consumption of atmospheric CO2 through the weathering of loess during the next 100 yr of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pollard


    Full Text Available Quantifying how C fluxes will change in the future is a complex task for models because of the coupling between climate, hydrology, and biogeochemical reactions. Here we investigate how pedogenesis of the Peoria loess, which has been weathering for the last 13 kyr, will respond over the next 100 yr of climate change. Using a cascade of numerical models for climate (ARPEGE, vegetation (CARAIB and weathering (WITCH, we explore the effect of an increase in CO2 of 315 ppmv (1950 to 700 ppmv (2100 projection. The increasing CO2 results in an increase in temperature along the entire transect. In contrast, drainage increases slightly for a focus pedon in the south but decreases strongly in the north. These two variables largely determine the behavior of weathering. In addition, although CO2 production rate increases in the soils in response to global warming, the rate of diffusion back to the atmosphere also increases, maintaining a roughly constant or even decreasing CO2 concentration in the soil gas phase. Our simulations predict that temperature increasing in the next 100 yr causes the weathering rates of the silicates to increase into the future. In contrast, the weathering rate of dolomite – which consumes most of the CO2 – decreases in both end members (south and north of the transect due to its retrograde solubility. We thus infer slower rates of advance of the dolomite reaction front into the subsurface, and faster rates of advance of the silicate reaction front. However, additional simulations for 9 pedons located along the north–south transect show that the dolomite weathering advance rate will increase in the central part of the Mississippi Valley, owing to a maximum in the response of vertical drainage to the ongoing climate change. The carbonate reaction front can be likened to a terrestrial lysocline because it represents a depth interval over which carbonate dissolution rates increase drastically. However, in contrast to the lower

  13. Solid-state synthesis and characterization of LiCoO2 and LiNiyCo1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    than LiCoO2 and to possibly retain good lamellar struc- ture upon repeated cycling .... Julien C, Michael S S and Ziolkiewicz S 1999 Int. J. Inorg. Mater. 1 29. Kanno R, Kubo H, Kawamoto Y, Kamiyama T, Izumi F,. Takeda Y and Takano M 1994 ...

  14. Recent Changes to the Strength of the CO2 Sink in Boreal Land Regions (Invited) (United States)

    Hayes, D. J.; McGuire, A. D.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Gurney, K. R.; Melillo, J. M.


    Studies suggest that high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems have had a significant influence on the global carbon budget by acting as a substantial sink of atmospheric CO2 over the latter part of the 20th Century. However, recent changes in the controlling factors of this sink, including surface air temperature warming and increases in the frequency and severity of disturbances, have the potential to alter the C balance of boreal land regions. Whether these ecosystems continue to sequester atmospheric CO2 in the face of these changes is a key question in global change science and policy, as any changes to the strength of this major terrestrial sink will have important implications for the global C budget and climate system. Here, we diagnose and attribute contemporary terrestrial CO2 sink strength in the boreal land regions using a biogeochemical process model within a simulation framework that incorporates the impacts of recent changes in atmospheric chemistry and climate variability, as well as fire, forest management and agricultural land use regimes. The simulations estimate that the boreal land regions acted as a net sink of 102 TgC yr-1 from 1960 to 1980 that declined in strength to 28 TgC yr-1 for the 1990s and switched to a source of 99 TgC yr-1 from years 2000 to 2006. The weakening sink strength in the 1990s was largely a result of C losses from Boreal North American tundra and forest ecosystems through increasing decomposition of soil organic matter in response to warmer temperatures. Compared to previous decades, a near doubling of fire emissions was the major factor causing the boreal land regions to switch to a net C source since 2000 when large burn years occurred across the region, particularly in forests of Boreal Asia. A steady sink averaging 23 TgC yr-1 was estimated for Boreal European ecosystems from 1960 to 2006, with the ‘fertilization’ effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and N deposition primarily responsible for the

  15. Isothermal sections of the Co-Ni-Ti system at 950 and 1 000 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Han; Jin, Zhanpeng [Central South Univ., Changsha (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Zhou, Peng [Hunan Univ. of Science and Technology, Xiangtan (China). Hunan Provincial Key Defense Lab. of High Temperature Wear Resisting Materials and Preparation Technology; Du, Yong [Central South Univ., Changsha (China). State Key Lab. of Powder Metallurgy


    The isothermal sections of the Co-Ni-Ti system at 950 and 1000 C were investigated experimentally. Diffusion couples were measured by electron probe microanalysis to construct the phase relations at 950 C, whereas eleven key alloys annealed at 1000 C were investigated using X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. The ternary phase, τ-(Co,Ni){sub 3}Ti (hP24-VCo{sub 3}), was observed at both temperatures. At 950 C, continuous solid solutions are formed between CoTi{sub 2} and NiTi{sub 2} as well as between CoTi and NiTi. Eight 3-phase regions, i. e. Ni{sub 3}Ti + (Co,Ni)Ti + τ, Ni{sub 3}Ti + γ-(Co,Ni) + τ, τ + c-Co{sub 2}Ti + (Co,Ni)Ti, τ + c-Co{sub 2}Ti + Co{sub 3}Ti, τ + Co{sub 3}Ti + γ-(Co,Ni), c-Co{sub 2}Ti + h-Co{sub 2}Ti + Co{sub 3}Ti, L + β-(Ti) + (Co,Ni)Ti{sub 2} and L + (Co,Ni)Ti{sub 2} + (Co,Ni)Ti, were constructed at 1000 C. Considerable ternary solubilities in Ni{sub 3}Ti, Co{sub 3}Ti and c-Co{sub 2}Ti were determined.

  16. Effect of permafrost thaw on CO2 and CH4 exchange in a western Alaska peatland chronosequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Carmel E; Ewing, Stephanie A; Harden, Jennifer W; Fuller, Christopher C; Manies, Kristen; Varner, Ruth K; Wickland, Kimberly P; Koch, Joshua C; Jorgenson, M Torre


    Permafrost soils store over half of global soil carbon (C), and northern frozen peatlands store about 10% of global permafrost C. With thaw, inundation of high latitude lowland peatlands typically increases the surface-atmosphere flux of methane (CH 4 ), a potent greenhouse gas. To examine the effects of lowland permafrost thaw over millennial timescales, we measured carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and CH 4 exchange along sites that constitute a ∼1000 yr thaw chronosequence of thermokarst collapse bogs and adjacent fen locations at Innoko Flats Wildlife Refuge in western Alaska. Peak CH 4 exchange in July (123 ± 71 mg CH 4 –C m −2 d −1 ) was observed in features that have been thawed for 30 to 70 (<100) yr, where soils were warmer than at more recently thawed sites (14 to 21 yr; emitting 1.37 ± 0.67 mg CH 4 –C m −2 d −1 in July) and had shallower water tables than at older sites (200 to 1400 yr; emitting 6.55 ± 2.23 mg CH 4 –C m −2 d −1 in July). Carbon lost via CH 4 efflux during the growing season at these intermediate age sites was 8% of uptake by net ecosystem exchange. Our results provide evidence that CH 4 emissions following lowland permafrost thaw are enhanced over decadal time scales, but limited over millennia. Over larger spatial scales, adjacent fen systems may contribute sustained CH 4 emission, CO 2 uptake, and DOC export. We argue that over timescales of decades to centuries, thaw features in high-latitude lowland peatlands, particularly those developed on poorly drained mineral substrates, are a key locus of elevated CH 4 emission to the atmosphere that must be considered for a complete understanding of high latitude CH 4 dynamics. (paper)

  17. Fluxes of CH4 and CO2 from soil and termite mounds in south Sudanian savanna of Burkina Faso (West Africa) (United States)

    Brümmer, Christian; Papen, Hans; Wassmann, Reiner; Brüggemann, Nicolas


    The contribution of West African savanna ecosystems to global greenhouse gas budgets is highly uncertain. In this study we quantified soil-atmosphere CH4 and CO2 fluxes in the southwest of Burkina Faso from June to September 2005 and from April to September 2006 at four different agricultural fields planted with sorghum (n = 2), cotton, and peanut and at a natural savanna site with termite (Cubitermes fungifaber) mounds. During the rainy season both CH4 uptake and CH4 emission were observed in the savanna, which was on average a CH4 source of 2.79 and 2.28 kg CH4-C ha-1 a-1 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The crop sites were an average CH4 sink of -0.67 and -0.70 kg CH4-C ha-1 a-1 in the 2 years, without significant seasonal variation. Mean annual soil respiration ranged between 3.86 and 5.82 t CO2-C ha-1 a-1 in the savanna and between 2.50 and 4.51 t CO2-C ha-1 a-1 at the crop sites. CH4 emission from termite mounds was 2 orders of magnitude higher than soil CH4 emissions, whereas termite CO2 emissions were of the same order of magnitude as soil CO2 emissions. Termite CH4 and CO2 release in the savanna contributed 8.8% and 0.4% to the total soil CH4 and CO2 emissions, respectively. At the crop sites, where termite mounds had been almost completely removed because of land use change, termite fluxes were insignificant. Mound density-based upscaling of termite CH4 fluxes resulted in a global termite CH4 source of 0.9 Tg a-1, which corresponds to 0.15% of the total global CH4 budget of 582 Tg a-1, hence significantly lower than those obtained previously by biomass-based calculations. This study emphasizes that land use change, which is of high relevance in this region, has particularly affected soil CH4 fluxes in the past and might still do so in the future.

  18. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux. (United States)

    Oishi, A Christopher; Palmroth, Sari; Johnsen, Kurt H; McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram


    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity, but the long-term effects of these factors on Fsoil are less clear. Expanding on previous studies at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, we quantified the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil using daily measurements from automated chambers over 10 years. Consistent with previous results, compared to ambient unfertilized plots, annual Fsoil increased under elevated [CO2] (ca. 17%) and decreased with N (ca. 21%). N fertilization under elevated [CO2] reduced Fsoil to values similar to untreated plots. Over the study period, base respiration rates increased with leaf productivity, but declined after productivity saturated. Despite treatment-induced differences in aboveground biomass, soil temperature and water content were similar among treatments. Interannually, low soil water content decreased annual Fsoil from potential values - estimated based on temperature alone assuming nonlimiting soil water content - by ca. 0.7% per 1.0% reduction in relative extractable water. This effect was only slightly ameliorated by elevated [CO2]. Variability in soil N availability among plots accounted for the spatial variability in Fsoil , showing a decrease of ca. 114 g C m(-2) yr(-1) per 1 g m(-2) increase in soil N availability, with consistently higher Fsoil in elevated [CO2] plots ca. 127 g C per 100 ppm [CO2] over the +200 ppm enrichment. Altogether, reflecting increased belowground carbon partitioning in response to greater plant nutritional needs, the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil in this stand are sustained beyond the early stages of stand development and

  19. Synthesis of C-9-14C-1,8-dihydroxy-3-carboxyanthraquinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Witte, P.; Lemli, J.


    The synthesis of C-9- 14 C-rhein is reported using 14 CO 2 as a 14 C-source. After preparing 14 C-1, 8-dimethoxy-3-methylanthraquinone by a condensation reaction, the product is demethylated and the 3-methyl group converted to the corresponding 3-carboxy group. The radio-active yield of the total synthesis, starting with 1 Ci 14 CO 2 is 6,9% (6, 9 mCi); 352 mg 14 rhein is produced with a specific activity of 55,7 mCi/mmol. (author)

  20. Charge transfer processes in collisions of H+ ions with H2, D2, CO, CO2 CH4, C2H2, C2H6 and C3H8 molecules below 10 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, T.; Buenker, R.J.; Kimura, M.


    Charge transfer processes resulting from collisions of H + ions with H 2 , D 2 , CO, CO 2 CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 6 and C 3 H 8 molecules have been investigated in the energy range of 0.2 to 4.0 keV experimentally and theoretically. The initial growth rate method was employed in the experiment for studying the dynamics and cross sections. Theoretical analysis based on a molecular-orbital expansion method for H 2 , D 2 , CO, CH 4 and C 2 H 2 targets was also carried out. The present results for the H 2 , CO and CO 2 molecules by H + impact are found to be in excellent accord with most of previous measurements above 1 keV, but they show some differences below this energy where our result displays a stronger energy-dependence. For CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 6 and C 3 H 8 targets, both experimental and theoretical results indicate that if one assumes vibrationally excited molecular ions (CH 4 + , C 2 H 2 + , C 2 H 6 + and C 3 H 8 + ) formed in the exit channel, then charge transfer processes sometimes become more favorable since these vibrationally excited fragments meet an accidental resonant condition. This is a clear indication of the role of vibrational excited states for charge transfer, and is an important realization for general understanding. (author)

  1. CO adsorption on PdGa(1 0 0), (1 1 1) and (1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}) surfaces: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechthold, P.; Ardhengi, J.S.; Juan, A., E-mail:; González, E.A.; Jasen, P.V.


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CO adsorption is top on Pd sites for all surfaces. • Our results agree with TDS peak at 210 K for PdGa (1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}) attributed to CO-Pd bond. • Pd-CO bond is formed at expenses of metal-metal bond. No Ga-CO interaction is found. • A back-donation for all surfaces was detected. After adsorption Pd PDOS shift towards lower energies. • IR frequencies for the C-O adsorbed presents a red shift compared to gas phase. - Abstract: CO adsorption on (1 0 0), (1 1 1) and (1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}) planes is analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Changes in the electronic structure of these surfaces and CO bond after adsorption are also addressed here. CO is located on Pd atop geometry with a tilted configuration of 7.8° in the (1 0 0) plane, while in the (1 1 1) and (1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}) are perpendicular to the surface. No direct interaction of CO with Ga is detected. The overlap population (OP) of Pd-Pd and Pd-Ga bond decreases as the new Pd-CO bond is formed. In all cases, the C-O bond length changes less than 1% compared to the vacuum but its strength decrease about 50% as determined by the changes in the OP. The effect of CO is limited to its first Pd neighbor. Analysis of orbital interaction reveals that Pd-CO bond mainly involves s-s and s-p orbitals with less participation of Pd 4d orbitals. Computed CO vibration frequencies after adsorption shows a red shift from vacuum towards 1972.9, 1990.4 and 1988.6 cm{sup −1} on (1 0 0), (1 1 1) and (1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}) planes respectively, following the same trend that experimental data on the PdGa intermetallic compound.

  2. Framing Climate Goals in Terms of Cumulative CO2-Forcing-Equivalent Emissions (United States)

    Jenkins, S.; Millar, R. J.; Leach, N.; Allen, M. R.


    The relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and CO2-induced warming is determined by the Transient Climate Response to Emissions (TCRE), but total anthropogenic warming also depends on non-CO2 forcing, complicating the interpretation of emissions budgets based on CO2 alone. An alternative is to frame emissions budgets in terms of CO2-forcing-equivalent (CO2-fe) emissions—the CO2 emissions that would yield a given total anthropogenic radiative forcing pathway. Unlike conventional "CO2-equivalent" emissions, these are directly related to warming by the TCRE and need to fall to zero to stabilize warming: hence, CO2-fe emissions generalize the concept of a cumulative carbon budget to multigas scenarios. Cumulative CO2-fe emissions from 1870 to 2015 inclusive are found to be 2,900 ± 600 GtCO2-fe, increasing at a rate of 67 ± 9.5 GtCO2-fe/yr. A TCRE range of 0.8-2.5°C per 1,000 GtC implies a total budget for 0.6°C of additional warming above the present decade of 880-2,750 GtCO2-fe, with 1,290 GtCO2-fe implied by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 median response, corresponding to 19 years' CO2-fe emissions at the current rate.

  3. Reactions of laser-ablated iron atoms and cations with carbon monoxide: Infrared spectra of FeCO+, Fe(CO)2+, Fe(CO)x, and Fe(CO)x- (x=1-4) in solid neon (United States)

    Zhou, Mingfei; Andrews, Lester


    Laser-ablated iron atoms, cations, and electrons have been reacted with CO molecules during condensation in excess neon. The FeCO molecule is observed at 1933.7 cm-1 in solid neon. Based on isotopic shifts and density functional calculations, the FeCO molecule has the same 3Σ- ground state in solid neon that has been observed at 1946.5 cm-1 in a recent high resolution gas phase investigation [Tanaka et al., J. Chem. Phys. 106, 2118 (1997)]. The C-O stretching vibration of the Fe(CO)2 molecule is observed at 1917.1 cm-1 in solid neon, which is in excellent agreement with the 1928.2 cm-1 gas phase value for the linear molecule. Anions and cations are also produced and trapped, absorptions at 1782.0, 1732.9, 1794.5, and 1859.7 cm-1 are assigned to the linear FeCO-, Fe(CO)2-, trigonal planar Fe(CO)3-, and C3v Fe(CO)4- anions, respectively, and 2123.0, 2134.0 cm-1 absorptions to the linear FeCO+ and Fe(CO)2+ cations. Doping these experiments with CCl4 virtually eliminates the anion absorptions and markedly increases the cation absorptions, which confirms the charge identifications. Higher iron carbonyl Fe(CO)3, Fe(CO)4, and Fe(CO)5 absorptions are produced on photolysis.

  4. Crop productivity changes in 1.5 °C and 2 °C worlds under climate sensitivity uncertainty (United States)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Deryng, Delphine; Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Saeed, Fahad; Folberth, Christian; Liu, Wenfeng; Wang, Xuhui; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Thiery, Wim; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Rogelj, Joeri


    Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement, there has been an increasing interest in quantifying impacts at discrete levels of global mean temperature (GMT) increase such as 1.5 °C and 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Consequences of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions on agricultural productivity have direct and immediate relevance for human societies. Future crop yields will be affected by anthropogenic climate change as well as direct effects of emissions such as CO2 fertilization. At the same time, the climate sensitivity to future emissions is uncertain. Here we investigate the sensitivity of future crop yield projections with a set of global gridded crop models for four major staple crops at 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming above pre-industrial levels, as well as at different CO2 levels determined by similar probabilities to lead to 1.5 °C and 2 °C, using climate forcing data from the Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts project. For the same CO2 forcing, we find consistent negative effects of half a degree warming on productivity in most world regions. Increasing CO2 concentrations consistent with these warming levels have potentially stronger but highly uncertain effects than 0.5 °C warming increments. Half a degree warming will also lead to more extreme low yields, in particular over tropical regions. Our results indicate that GMT change alone is insufficient to determine future impacts on crop productivity.

  5. Strong and weak adsorption of CO{sub 2} on PuO{sub 2} (1 1 0) surfaces from first principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H.L. [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, X.D. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, G.; Lai, X.C. [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China); Meng, D.Q., E-mail: [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China)


    Highlights: • The CO{sub 2} adsorption on PuO{sub 2} (1 1 0) surface was studied by GGA + U. • Both weak and strong adsorptions exist between CO{sub 2} and the PuO{sub 2} (1 1 0) surface. • Electrostatic interactions were involved in the weak interactions. • Covalent bonding was developed in the strong adsorptions. - Abstract: The CO{sub 2} adsorption on plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) (1 1 0) surface was studied using projector-augmented wave (PAW) method based on density-functional theory corrected for onsite Coulombic interactions (GGA + U). It is found that CO{sub 2} has several different adsorption features on PuO{sub 2} (1 1 0) surface. Both weak and strong adsorptions exist between CO{sub 2} and the PuO{sub 2} (1 1 0) surface. Further investigation of partial density of states (PDOS) and charge density difference on two typical absorption sites reveal that electrostatic interactions were involved in the weak interactions, while covalent bonding was developed in the strong adsorptions.

  6. Production of polyclonal antibody against Tehran strain influenza virus (A/H1N1/2009 hemagglutinin conserved domain (HA2: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Zamani


    Full Text Available Background: The influenza virus is one of the most important factors for higher morbidity and mortality in the world. Recently, researchers have been focused on influenza conserved antigenic proteins such as hemagglutinin stalk domain (HA2 for vaccine production and serological studies. The HA2 plays a major role in the fusion of the virus with host cells membrane. The immunity system enables to produce antibody against HA2. The aim of this study is polyclonal antibody production against influenza HA2. Methods: This study was done in the Influenza Research Lab, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran for one year from September 2013 to October 2014. In the present study, recombinant HA2 protein was produced in prokaryotic system and purified using Nickel affinity chromatography. The purified HA2 was mixed with Freund’s adjuvant (complete and incomplete and injected into two New Zealand white rabbits by intramuscularly and subcutaneously routes. Immunization was continued for several months with two weeks interval. Before each immunization, blood was drawn by venous puncture from the rabbit ear. Function of rabbit's sera was evaluated using radial immunodiffusion (RID in both forms, Single RID (SRID and Double RID (DRID. Finally, antiserum activity against HA2 was evaluated using western blotting as serological assay. Results: Sedimentary line and zone was observed in RID assays (SRID and DRID represent interaction between HA2 protein and anti- HA2 antibody. As well as, western blotting results was positive for HA2 protein. Therefore, these results showed that polyclonal antibody produced against HA2 protein can identify HA2 protein antigenic sites. Conclusion: These findings show that humoral immune responses have properly been stimulated in rabbits and these antibodies can identify HA2 protein and may be suitable for other serological methods.

  7. Minimum variance and variance of outgoing quality limit MDS-1(c1, c2) plans (United States)

    Raju, C.; Vidya, R.


    In this article, the outgoing quality (OQ) and total inspection (TI) of multiple deferred state sampling plans MDS-1(c1,c2) are studied. It is assumed that the inspection is rejection rectification. Procedures for designing MDS-1(c1,c2) sampling plans with minimum variance of OQ and TI are developed. A procedure for obtaining a plan for a designated upper limit for the variance of the OQ (VOQL) is outlined.

  8. Synthesis, structure and chemical bonding of CaFe2−xRhxSi2 (x=0, 1.32, and 2) and SrCo2Si2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlukhyy, Viktor; Hoffmann, Andrea V.; Fässler, Thomas F.


    The finding of superconductivity in Ba 0.6 K 0.4 Fe 2 As 2 put the attention on the investigation of compounds that crystallize with ThCr 2 Si 2 structure type such as AT 2 X 2 (A=alkali/alkaline earth/rare earth element; T=transition metal and X=element of the 13–15th group). In this context the silicides CaFe 2 Si 2 , CaFe 0.68(6) Rh 1.32(6) Si 2 , CaRh 2 Si 2 and SrCo 2 Si 2 have been synthesized by reaction of the elements under an argon atmosphere. Single crystals were obtained by special heat treatment in welded niobium/tantalum ampoules. The compounds were investigated by means of powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. All compounds crystallize in the ThCr 2 Si 2 -type structure with space group I4/mmm (No. 139): a=3.939(1) Å, c=10.185(1) Å, R 1 =0.045, 85 F 2 values, 8 variable parameters for CaFe 2 Si 2 ; a=4.0590(2) Å, c=9.9390(8) Å, R 1 =0.030, 90 F 2 values, 10 variable parameters for CaFe 0.68(6) Rh 1.32(6) Si 2 ; a=4.0695(1) Å, c=9.9841(3) Å, R 1 =0.031, 114 F 2 values, 9 variable parameters for CaRh 2 Si 2 ; and a=3.974(1) Å, c=10.395(1) Å, R 1 =0.036, 95 F 2 values, 8 variable parameters for SrCo 2 Si 2 . The structure of SrCo 2 Si 2 contains isolated [Co 2 Si 2 ] 22D-layers in the ab-plane whereas in CaFe 2−x Rh x Si 2 the [T 2 Si 2 ] layers (T=Fe and Rh) are interconnected along the c-axis via Si3Si bonds resulting in a three-dimentional (3D) [T 2 Si 2 ] 2− polyanions and therefore belong to the so-called collapsed form of the ThCr 2 Si 2 -type structure. The SrCo 2 Si 2 and CaRh 2 Si 2 are isoelectronic to the parent 122 iron–pnictide superconductors AeFe 2 As 2 (Ae=alkaline earth elements), whereas CaFe 2 Si 2 is a full substituted variant (As/Si) of CaFe 2 As 2 . The crystal chemistry and chemical bonding in the title compounds are discussed in terms of LMTO band structure calculations and a topological analysis using the Electron Localization Function (ELF). - Graphical abstract: The SrCo 2 Si 2 and CaFe 2−x Rh x Si

  9. Synthesis and characterization of La1+xSr2-xCoMnO7-δ (x=0,0.2; δ=0,1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shinawi, H.; Bertha, A.; Hadermann, J.; Herranz, T.; Santos, B.; Marco, J.F.; Berry, F.J.; Greaves, C.


    The n=2 Ruddlesden-Popper phases LaSr 2 CoMnO 7 and La 1.2 Sr 1.8 CoMnO 7 have been synthesized by a sol-gel method. The O6-type phases LaSr 2 CoMnO 6 and La 1.2 Sr 1.8 CoMnO 6 were produced by reduction of the O7 phases under a hydrogen atmosphere. The materials crystallize in the tetragonal I4/mmm space group with no evidence of long-range cation order in the neutron and electron diffraction data. Oxygen vacancies in the reduced materials are located primarily at the common apex of the double perovskite layers giving rise to square pyramidal coordination around cobalt and manganese ions. The oxidation states Co 3+ /Mn 4+ and Co 2+ /Mn 3+ predominate in the as-prepared and reduced materials, respectively. The materials are spin glasses at low temperature and the dominant magnetic interactions change from ferro- to antiferromagnetic following reduction. - Graphical abstract: The n=2 Ruddlesden-Popper phases LaSr 2 CoMnO 7 , La 1.2 Sr 1.8 CoMnO 7 , LaSr 2 CoMnO 6 and La 1.2 Sr 1.8 CoMnO 6 are synthesized and characterized.

  10. Scaffold protein harmonin (USH1C) provides molecular links between Usher syndrome type 1 and type 2. (United States)

    Reiners, Jan; van Wijk, Erwin; Märker, Tina; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Jürgens, Karin; te Brinke, Heleen; Overlack, Nora; Roepman, Ronald; Knipper, Marlies; Kremer, Hannie; Wolfrum, Uwe


    Usher syndrome (USH) is the most frequent cause of combined deaf-blindness in man. USH is clinically and genetically heterogeneous with at least 11 chromosomal loci assigned to the three USH types (USH1A-G, USH2A-C, USH3A). Although the different USH types exhibit almost the same phenotype in human, the identified USH genes encode for proteins which belong to very different protein classes and families. We and others recently reported that the scaffold protein harmonin (USH1C-gene product) integrates all identified USH1 molecules in a USH1-protein network. Here, we investigated the relationship between the USH2 molecules and this USH1-protein network. We show a molecular interaction between the scaffold protein harmonin (USH1C) and the USH2A protein, VLGR1 (USH2C) and the candidate for USH2B, NBC3. We pinpoint these interactions to interactions between the PDZ1 domain of harmonin and the PDZ-binding motifs at the C-termini of the USH2 proteins and NBC3. We demonstrate that USH2A, VLGR1 and NBC3 are co-expressed with the USH1-protein harmonin in the synaptic terminals of both retinal photoreceptors and inner ear hair cells. In hair cells, these USH proteins are also localized in the signal uptaking stereocilia. Our data indicate that the USH2 proteins and NBC3 are further partners in the supramolecular USH-protein network in the retina and inner ear which shed new light on the function of USH2 proteins and the entire USH-protein network. These findings provide first evidence for a molecular linkage between the pathophysiology in USH1 and USH2. The organization of USH molecules in a mutual 'interactome' related to the disease can explain the common phenotype in USH.

  11. PER, a Circadian Clock Component, Mediates the Suppression of MMP-1 Expression in HaCaT Keratinocytes by cAMP. (United States)

    Yeom, Miji; Lee, HansongI; Shin, Seoungwoo; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun


    Skin circadian clock system responds to daily changes, thereby regulating skin functions. Exposure of the skin to UV irradiation induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and causes DNA damage. It has been reported both DNA repair and DNA replication are regulated by the circadian clock in mouse skin. However, the molecular link between circadian clock and MMP-1 has little been investigated. We found PERIOD protein, a morning clock component, represses the expression of MMP-1 in human keratinocytes by using a PER-knockdown strategy. Treatment with siPer3 alleviated the suppression of MMP-1 expression induced by forskolin. Results revealed PER3 suppresses the expression of MMP-1 via cAMP signaling pathway. Additionally, we screened for an activator of PER that could repress the expression of MMP-1 using HaCaT cell line containing PER promoter-luciferase reporter gene. Results showed Lespedeza capitate extract (LCE) increased PER promoter activity. LCE inhibited the expression of MMP-1 and its effect of LCE was abolished in knockdown of PER2 or PER3, demonstrating LCE can repress the expression of MMP-1 through PER. Since circadian clock component PER can regulate MMP-1 expression, it might be a new molecular mechanism to develop therapeutics to alleviate skin aging and skin cancer.

  12. PER, a Circadian Clock Component, Mediates the Suppression of MMP-1 Expression in HaCaT Keratinocytes by cAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miji Yeom


    Full Text Available Skin circadian clock system responds to daily changes, thereby regulating skin functions. Exposure of the skin to UV irradiation induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 and causes DNA damage. It has been reported both DNA repair and DNA replication are regulated by the circadian clock in mouse skin. However, the molecular link between circadian clock and MMP-1 has little been investigated. We found PERIOD protein, a morning clock component, represses the expression of MMP-1 in human keratinocytes by using a PER-knockdown strategy. Treatment with siPer3 alleviated the suppression of MMP-1 expression induced by forskolin. Results revealed PER3 suppresses the expression of MMP-1 via cAMP signaling pathway. Additionally, we screened for an activator of PER that could repress the expression of MMP-1 using HaCaT cell line containing PER promoter-luciferase reporter gene. Results showed Lespedeza capitate extract (LCE increased PER promoter activity. LCE inhibited the expression of MMP-1 and its effect of LCE was abolished in knockdown of PER2 or PER3, demonstrating LCE can repress the expression of MMP-1 through PER. Since circadian clock component PER can regulate MMP-1 expression, it might be a new molecular mechanism to develop therapeutics to alleviate skin aging and skin cancer.

  13. (2-Benzoyl-1-phenylethenolato-κ2O,O′bis[2-(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylphenyl-κC1]iridium(III dichloromethane disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav I. Bezzubov


    Full Text Available We present here synthesis and crystal structure of a neutral IrIII complex, [Ir(C19H13N22(C15H11O22CH2Cl2 or [Ir(C^N2O^O]·2CH2Cl2, where C^N is 1,2-diphenyl-1H-benzimidazole and O^O is 2-benzoyl-1-phenylethenolate. The coordination sphere of the IrIII atom, located on a twofold rotation axis, is that of a slighlty distorted C2N2O2 octahedron, with the N atoms in a trans configuration. In the crystal, complex molecules assemble through weak C—H...π interactions in the range 2.699 (3–2.892 (3 Å. The solvent CH2Cl2 molecules reside in channels aligned along the a axis and are connected to the complex molecules by C—H...O interactions.

  14. Crystal structure of the HA3 subcomponent of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin. (United States)

    Nakamura, Toshio; Kotani, Mao; Tonozuka, Takashi; Ide, Azusa; Oguma, Keiji; Nishikawa, Atsushi


    The Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin contains a neurotoxin and several nontoxic components, designated nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (HA), HA1 (HA-33), HA2 (HA-17), HA3a (HA-22-23), and HA3b (HA-53). The HA3b subcomponent seems to play an important role cooperatively with HA1 in the internalization of the toxin by gastrointestinal epithelial cells via binding of these subcomponents to specific oligosaccharides. In this study, we investigated the sugar-binding specificity of the HA3b subcomponent using recombinant protein fused to glutathione S-transferase and determined the three-dimensional structure of the HA3a-HA3b complex based on X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure was determined at a resolution of 2.6 A. HA3b contains three domains, domains I to III, and the structure of domain I resembles HA3a. In crystal packing, three HA3a-HA3b molecules are assembled to form a three-leaved propeller-like structure. The three HA3b domain I and three HA3a alternate, forming a trimer of dimers. In a database search, no proteins with high structural homology to any of the domains (Z score >10) were found. Especially, HA3a and HA3b domain I, mainly composed of beta-sheets, reveal a unique fold. In binding assays, HA3b bound sialic acid with high affinity, but did not bind galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, or N-acetylglucosamine. The electron density of liganded N-acetylneuraminic acid was determined by crystal soaking. In the sugar-complex structure, the N-acetylneuraminic acid-binding site was located in the cleft formed between domains II and III of HA3b. This report provides the first determination of the three-dimensional structure of the HA3a-HA3b complex and its sialic acid binding site. Our results will provide useful information for elucidating the mechanism of assembly of the C16S toxin and for understanding the interactions with oligosaccharides on epithelial cells and internalization of the botulinum toxin complex.

  15. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy. (United States)

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent


    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Reduced Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Tomato Cropping Systems under Drip Irrigation and Fertigation (United States)

    Kennedy, T.; Suddick, E. C.; Six, J. W.


    In California, agriculture and forestry account for 8% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of which 50% is accounted for by nitrous oxide (N2O). Furrow irrigation and high temperatures in the Central Valley, together with conventional fertilization, are ideal for the production of food, but also N2O. These conditions lead to high N2O fluxes, but also mean there is great potential to reduce N2O emissions by optimizing fertilizer use and irrigation practices. Improving fertilizer use by better synchronizing nitrogen (N) availability and crop demand can reduce N losses and fertilizer costs. Smaller, more frequent fertilizer applications can increase the synchrony between available soil N and crop N uptake. Fertigation allows for more control over how much N is being added and can therefore allow for better synchrony throughout the growing season. In our study, we determined how management practices, such as fertilization, irrigation, tillage and harvest, affect direct N2O emissions in typical tomato cropping systems. We evaluated two contrasting irrigation managements and their associated fertilizer application method, i.e. furrow irrigation and knife injection versus drip irrigation and fertigation. Across two tomato-growing seasons, we found that shifts in fertilizer and irrigation water management directly affect GHG emissions. Seasonal N2O fluxes were 3.4 times lower under drip versus furrow irrigation. In 2010, estimated losses of fertilizer N as N2O were 0.60 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in the drip system versus 2.06 ± 0.11 N2O-N kg ha-1 yr-1 in the furrow system, which was equivalent to 0.29% and 0.87% of the added fertilizer, respectively. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were also lower in the drip system (2.21 ± 0.16 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) than the furrow system (4.65 ± 0.23 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1). Soil mineral N, dissolved organic carbon and soil moisture also varied between the two systems and correlated positively with N2O and CO2 emissions, depending

  17. Effect of Nb doping on electrochemical properties of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} at high cutoff voltage for lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiefan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Liu, Hongguang, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); CNOOC Tianjin Chemical Research & Design Institute, Tianjin 300131 (China); Ye, Xuehai; Xia, Jiping; Lu, Yang; Lin, Chaowang; Yu, Xiaowei [CNOOC Tianjin Chemical Research & Design Institute, Tianjin 300131 (China)


    Highlights: • Nb substituted LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 2} (x = 0–0.03) was prepared by sol–gel method. • 2% Nb-substituted sample showed better cycle performance at high cutoff voltage. • Ex situ analysis was used to show the structure changes of Nb-doped samples. - Abstract: Nb doped cathode materials with the formula LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 2} (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) have been prepared successfully by sol–gel method. The effect of Nb substitution on the crystal structure and electrochemical properties of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} were studied systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and various electrochemical measurements. The results showed Nb substitution played an important role in the good cycling performance of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}. Charge/discharge tests revealed that LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3–0.02}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 2} showed a capacity retention of 94.1% at 1 C after 50 cycles in a high cutoff voltage range (3.0–4.6 V), while discharge capacity of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} remains only 89.4% of that at 1 C. Ex-situ XRD analysis and EIS analysis indicated that the improved electrochemical properties of Nb-doped sample result from the more stable structure and lower resistance during the electrochemical cycling.

  18. Full genomic analysis of an influenza A (H1N2) virus identified during 2009 pandemic in Eastern India: evidence of reassortment event between co-circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 and A/Brisbane/10/2007-like H3N2 strains. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Tapasi Roy; Agrawal, Anurodh S; Chakrabarti, Sekhar; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta


    During the pandemic [Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09] period in 2009-2010, an influenza A (Inf-A) virus with H1N2 subtype (designated as A/Eastern India/N-1289/2009) was detected from a 25 years old male from Mizoram (North-eastern India). To characterize full genome of the H1N2 influenza virus. For initial detection of Influenza viruses, amplification of matrix protein (M) gene of Inf-A and B viruses was carried out by real time RT-PCR. Influenza A positive viruses are then further subtyped with HA and NA gene specific primers. Sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis was performed for the H1N2 strain to understand its origin. The outcome of this full genome study revealed a unique reassortment event where the N-1289 virus acquired it's HA gene from a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with swine origin and the other genes from H3N2-like viruses of human origin. This study provides information on possibility of occurrence of reassortment events during influenza season when infectivity is high and two different subtypes of Inf-A viruses co-circulate in same geographical location.

  19. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, Elaina M. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY (United States); Cerny, Ronald L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); DiRusso, Concetta C. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Black, Paul N., E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)


    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  20. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.


    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  1. Electrochemical characterization of Pt-CeO{sub 2}/C and Pt-Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2}/C catalysts for ethanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuxia; Qiu, Xinping; Xi, Jingyu; Wang, Jianshe; Li, Jinfeng; Zhu, Wentao; Chen, Liquan [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu, Jianjun [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Chemistry, Shijiazhuang College, Shijiazhuang 050801 (China)


    Pt-CeO{sub 2}/C and a series of Pt-Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2}/C catalyst powders with different Ce/Zr ratio were prepared and evaluated in terms of the electrochemical activity for ethanol electro-oxidation using cyclic voltammetry (CV), steady state polarization experiments and CO-stripping technique at room temperature. XRD results show that Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} and Pt coexist in the Pt-Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2}/C catalyst and Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} has no effect on the crystalline lattice of Pt. TEM results show that the Pt and Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} particles dispersed uniformly over the surface of the carbon black. Cyclic voltammetry results show that the mass activity and specific activity of Pt-CeO{sub 2}/C for ethanol electro-oxidation is higher than that of Pt/C. The structure and Ce/Zr ratio of Pt-Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2}/C has effect on the catalytic activity of catalysts. CO-stripping voltammetry showed that the inclusion of CeO{sub 2} and Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} favors the CO oxidation at lower potential. (author)

  2. Biomedical potential of chitosan/HA and chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/HA biomaterials as scaffolds for bone regeneration — A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przekora, Agata, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Palka, Krzysztof [Department of Materials Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin (Poland); Ginalska, Grazyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)


    The aim of this work was to compare biomedical potential of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (chit/HA) and novel chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/hydroxyapatite (chit/glu/HA) materials as scaffolds for bone regeneration via characterization of their biocompatibility, porosity, mechanical properties, and water uptake behaviour. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds was assessed in direct-contact with the materials using normal human foetal osteoblast cell line. Cytotoxicity and osteoblast proliferation rate were evaluated. Porosity was assessed using computed microtomography analysis and mechanical properties were determined by compression testing. Obtained results demonstrated that chit/HA scaffold possessed significantly better mechanical properties (compressive strength: 1.23 MPa, Young's modulus: 0.46 MPa) than chit/glu/HA material (compressive strength: 0.26 MPa, Young's modulus: 0.25 MPa). However, addition of bacterial β-1,3-glucan to the chit/HA scaffold improved its flexibility and porosity. Moreover, chit/glu/HA scaffold revealed significantly higher water uptake capability (52.6% after 24 h of soaking) compared to the chit/HA (30.7%) and thus can serve as a very good drug delivery carrier. Chit/glu/HA scaffold was also more favourable to osteoblast survival (near 100% viability after 24-h culture), proliferation, and spreading compared to the chit/HA (63% viability). The chit/glu/HA possesses better biomedical potential than chit/HA scaffold. Nevertheless, poor mechanical properties of the chit/glu/HA limit its application to non-load bearing implantation area. - Highlights: • Chitosan/HA and chit/β-1,3-glucan/HA scaffolds for bone regeneration were compared. • Chit/HA significantly reduced osteoblast viability to 63% compared to chit/glu/HA. • Unlike chit/HA, chit/glu/HA favoured cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. • Chit/HA had better compressive strength and Young's modulus than chit/glu/HA. • Chit/glu/HA revealed significantly higher

  3. C60-pentacene network formation by 2-D co-crystallization. (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Dougherty, Daniel B; Cullen, William G; Robey, Steven; Reutt-Robey, Janice E


    We report experiments highlighting the mechanistic role of mobile pentacene precursors in the formation of a network C(60)-pentacene co-crystalline structure on Ag(111). This co-crystalline arrangement was first observed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) by Zhang et al. (Zhang, H. L.; Chen, W.; Huang, H.; Chen, L.; Wee, A. T. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 2720-2721). We now show that this structure forms readily at room temperature from a two-dimensional (2-D) mixture. Pentacene, evaporated onto Ag(111) to coverages of 0.4-1.0 ML, produces a two-dimensional (2-D) gas. Subsequently deposited C(60) molecules combine with the pentacene 2-D gas to generate a network structure, consisting of chains of close-packed C(60) molecules, spaced by individual C(60) linkers and 1 nm x 2.5 nm pores containing individual pentacene molecules. Spontaneous formation of this stoichiometric (C(60))(4)-pentacene network from a range of excess pentacene surface coverage (0.4 to 1.0 ML) indicates a self-limiting assembly process. We refine the structure model for this phase and discuss the generality of this co-crystallization mechanism.

  4. CO gas sensing properties of In_4Sn_3O_1_2 and TeO_2 composite nanoparticle sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Park, Sunghoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Kheel, Hyejoon; Lee, Chongmu


    Highlights: • In4Sn3O12–TeO2 composite nanoparticles were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route. • The response of the In4Sn3O12–TeO2 composite sensor to CO was stronger than the pristine In4Sn3O12 sensor. • The response of the In4Sn3O12–TeO2 composite sensor to CO was faster than the pristine In4Sn3O12 sensor. • The improved sensing performance of the In4Sn3O12–TeO2 nanocomposite sensor is discussed in detail. • The In4Sn3O12-based nanoparticle sensors showed selectivity to CO over NH3, HCHO and H2. - Abstract: A simple hydrothermal route was used to synthesize In_4Sn_3O_1_2 nanoparticles and In_4Sn_3O_1_2–TeO_2 composite nanoparticles, with In(C_2H_3O_2)_3, SnCl_4, and TeCl_4 as the starting materials. The structure and morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The gas-sensing properties of the pure and composite nanoparticles toward CO gas were examined at different concentrations (5–100 ppm) of CO gas at different temperatures (100–300 °C). SEM observation revealed that the composite nanoparticles had a uniform shape and size. The sensor based on the In_4Sn_3O_1_2–TeO_2 composite nanoparticles showed stronger response to CO than its pure In_4Sn_3O_1_2 counterpart. The response of the In_4Sn_3O_1_2–TeO_2 composite-nanoparticle sensor to 100 ppm of CO at 200 °C was 10.21, whereas the maximum response of the In_4Sn_3O_1_2 nanoparticle sensor was 2.78 under the same conditions. Furthermore, the response time of the composite sensor was 19.73 s under these conditions, which is less than one-third of that of the In_4Sn_3O_1_2 sensor. The improved sensing performance of the In_4Sn_3O_1_2–TeO_2 nanocomposite sensor is attributed to the enhanced modulation of the potential barrier height at the In_4Sn_3O_1_2–TeO_2 interface, the stronger oxygen adsorption of p-type TeO_2, and the formation of preferential adsorption sites.

  5. Energy crops as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, J.E.


    The current Danish energy plan stipulates a production of 5 PI from energy crops in 2010. This may be attained through growing of either annual (e.g., cereal) or perennial energy crops (e.g., willow or Miscanthus). Existing Danish data and the IPCC methodology was used to calculate nitrous oxide emissions from and carbon sequestration in soils cropped with an annual energy crop (triticale) or a perennial energy crop (Miscanthus). The calculations for Miscanthus were performed separately for harvest in November or April, since the harvest time affects both yields and emissions. The estimates for Miscanthus were based on a 20-year duration of the cultivation period. The energy use for growing the crops was included in the energy budgets, as was the reduction in CO 2 emission that will result from substitution of fossil fuel (natural gas). The calculations were performed for both a coarse sandy soil and a loamy sand. The results were compared with current (reference) practice for growing cereals. There were only minor differences in production data and emissions between the two soil types. The area required to produce 5 PI was smallest for Miscanthus harvested in November (c. 25,000 ha), and about equal for triticale and Miscanthus harvested in April (c. 32,000 ha). The reduction in nitrous oxide emissions compared with cereal production was smallest for triticale (20 kt CO 2 equivalents /eq] yr -1 ) and about equal for Miscanthus at the two harvest times (30-36 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 ). Growing Miscanthus resulted in a carbon sequestration, with the highest rates (100 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 ) for Miscanthus harvested in April. The energy use for production of triticale was slightly lower than for normal cereal growing, whereas growing Miscanthus for harvest in April resulted in a smaller energy use which corresponded to an emission reduction of 20 kt CO 2 yr -1 . The substitution of fossil fuel corresponded to 285 kt CO 2 yr -1 . Summing all items, growing 5 PI worth of

  6. Updated estimate of carbon balance on Russian territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurganova, I. N.; Kudeyarov, V. N.; Gerenyu, V. O. Lopes de (Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, RAS, Pushchino (Russian Federation)), e-mail:


    The land use system in Russia changed considerably after 1990: 30.2 million ha of croplands were abandoned. Based on the own field investigations that were carried out in abandoned lands of different age (Luvic Phaeozems, deciduous forest zone; Moscow region, 54 deg 50' N, 37 deg 37' E), it has been shown that after 4.5 yr of abandonment, the former croplands acted as a stable sink of CO{sub 2}. The net ecosystem production (NEP) in the post-agrogenic ecosystems averaged 245 +- 73gCm-2 yr-1 for the first 15 yr after land use change that corresponds to an estimated 74 +- 22 Tg C yr-1 for the total area of abandoned lands in Russian Federation. Currently, the Russian territory acts as an absolute sink of atmospheric CO{sub 2} at a rate about 0.90 Pg C yr-1. Using three different approaches, it was demonstrated that after 1990, the carbon sequestration in Russian soils (0.20 cm layer) has averaged 34 +- 2.2 Tg C yr-1. This soil C forms net biome production (NBP) where carbon lifetime is much longer than in 'Kyoto forests'. Thus, the post-agrogenic ecosystems in Russia provide with the additional CO{sub 2} sink in NEP and NBP that could annually compensate about 25% of the current fossil fuel emissions in the Russian Federation

  7. Interaction between ALDH2*1*1 and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A1A1 genes may be associated with antisocial personality disorder not co-morbid with alcoholism. (United States)

    Lu, Ru-Band; Lee, Jia-Fu; Huang, San-Yuan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Wei-Wen; Wu, Pei-Lin; Ko, Huei-Chen


    Previous studies on acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) focused on drinking behavior or alcoholism because the ALDH2*2 allele protects against the risk of developing alcoholism. The mechanism provides that the ALDH2 gene's protective effect is also involved in dopamine metabolism. The interaction of the ALDH2 gene with neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, is suggested to be related to alcoholism. Because alcoholism is often co-morbid with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), previous association studies on antisocial alcoholism cannot differentiate whether those genes relate to ASPD with alcoholism or ASPD only. This study examined the influence of the interaction effect of the ALDH2*1*1, *1*2 or *2*2 polymorphisms with the dopamine 2 receptor (DRD2) Taq I polymorphism on ASPD. Our 541 Han Chinese male participants were classified into three groups: antisocial alcoholism (ASPD co-morbid with alcohol dependence, antisocial ALC; n = 133), ASPD without alcoholism (ASPD not co-morbid with alcohol dependence, antisocial non-ALC; n = 164) and community controls (healthy volunteers from the community; n = 244). Compared with healthy controls, individuals with the DRD2 A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1/*1 genotypes were at a 5.39 times greater risk for antisocial non-ALC than were those with other genotypes. Our results suggest that the DRD2/ANKK1 and ALDH2 genes interacted in the antisocial non-ALC group; a connection neglected in previous studies caused by not separating antisocial ALC from ASPD. Our study made this distinction and showed that these two genes may be associated ASPD without co-morbid alcoholism. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Normal co-ordinate analysis of 1, 8-dibromooctane (United States)

    Singh, Devinder; Jaggi, Neena; Singh, Nafa


    The organic compound 1,8-dibromooctane (1,8-DBO) exists in liquid phase at ambient temperatures and has versatile synthetic applications. In its liquid phase 1,8-DBO has been expected to exist in four most probable conformations, with all its carbon atoms in the same plane, having symmetries C 2h , C i , C 2 and C 1 . In the present study a detailed vibrational analysis in terms of assignment of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman bands of this molecule using normal co-ordinate calculations has been done. A systematic set of symmetry co-ordinates has been constructed for this molecule and normal co-ordinate analysis is carried out using the computer program MOLVIB. The force-field transferred from already studied lower chain bromo-alkanes is subjected to refinement so as to fit the observed infrared and Raman frequencies with those of calculated ones. The potential energy distribution (PED) has also been calculated for each mode of vibration of the molecule for the assumed conformations.

  9. Synthesis of 14C analogue of 1,2-diaryl-[2-14C]-pyrroles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saemian, N.; Shirvani, G.; Matloubi, H.


    Three 1,2-diaryl pyrroles selective COX-2 inhibitors, 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-methyl-1-(4-methylsulfonyl-phenyl)-1H pyrrole, 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1- [4-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl]-1H-pyrrole and 4-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]benzenesulfon-amide, all three labeled with 14 C in the 2-position were prepared from para-fluoro-benzaldehyde-[carbonyl- 14 C]. (author)

  10. (Sm,Zr(Fe,Co11.0-11.5Ti1.0-0.5 compounds as new permanent magnet materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kuno


    Full Text Available We investigated (Sm,Zr(Fe,Co11.0-11.5Ti1.0-0.5 compounds as permanent magnet materials. Good magnetic properties were observed in (Sm0.8Zr0.2(Fe0.75Co0.2511.5Ti0.5 powder containing a limited amount of the α-(Fe, Co phase, including saturation polarization (Js of 1.63 T, an anisotropic field (Ha of 5.90 MA/m at room temperature, and a Curie temperature (Tc of about 880 K. Notably, Js and Ha remained above 1.5 T and 3.70 MA/m, respectively, even at 473 K. The high-temperature magnetic properties of (Sm0.8Zr0.2(Fe0.75Co0.2511.5Ti0.5 were superior to those of Nd2Fe14B.

  11. Gold-Catalyzed Formal C-C Bond Insertion Reaction of 2-Aryl-2-diazoesters with 1,3-Diketones. (United States)

    Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Mo; Li, Ke; Zhu, Shou-Fei


    The transition-metal-catalyzed formal C-C bond insertion reaction of diazo compounds with monocarbonyl compounds is well established, but the related reaction of 1,3-diketones instead gives C-H bond insertion products. Herein, we report a protocol for a gold-catalyzed formal C-C bond insertion reaction of 2-aryl-2-diazoesters with 1,3-diketones, which provides efficient access to polycarbonyl compounds with an all-carbon quaternary center. The aryl ester moiety plays a crucial role in the unusual chemoselectivity, and the addition of a Brønsted acid to the reaction mixture improves the yield of the C-C bond insertion product. A reaction mechanism involving cyclopropanation of a gold carbenoid with an enolate and ring-opening of the resulting donor-acceptor-type cyclopropane intermediate is proposed. This mechanism differs from that of the traditional Lewis-acid-catalyzed C-C bond insertion reaction of diazo compounds with monocarbonyl compounds, which involves a rearrangement of a zwitterion intermediate as a key step. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Greenhouse effect gases sources and sinks (CO2, CH4, N2O) in grasslands and reduction strategies. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. Final report of the second part of the project. April 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussana, J.F.


    The project 'GES-Prairies' (Greenhouse Gases - Grasslands) had two main objectives: 1. To measure more accurately the fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O of French grasslands and determine the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of these areas. 2. To calculate the net GHG emissions of cattle production farms and finally to propose and evaluate some management scenarios leading to a reduction of GHG emissions. This project deals with three different spatial scales: the field scale, the farm scale and finally, the regional scale. At the field scale, during two years, fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O were measured in a mid-mountain permanent grassland, previously managed intensively by cutting and grazing (Laqueuille, Auvergne, France). Results from the first complete year of measurements show that the extensification process (reduction of the stocking rate and stopping N fertilization) allows to stock more carbon in the ecosystem. At the farm scale, We developed a model (FARMSIM, coupled to PASIM) able to simulate the GHG balance of a livestock farm. FARMSIM has been tested with data obtained from a mixed livestock farm in Lorraine (dairy and meat production, annual average stocking rate = 1.3 LU ha -1 ) of 100 ha (including 76 ha of grasslands and 21 of annual crops). The results indicate a net emission of 175 t equivalent C-CO 2 for this farm. If expressed per unit of product, it represents 1.34 t equivalent C-CO 2 per LU and per year or 0.54 kg CO 2 per kg of milk and per year. At the regional scale/. The PASIM model has been used to simulate the European grasslands with a spatial resolution of 1' (about 200 * 200 km). For each grid cell, a sensibility analysis allowed to determine the N application which correspond to 30% of the N application that would maximize the annual yield of the pasture. Simulation runs on mixed systems (combining grazing and cutting) show that almost one half of the grassland area is, on average, used for cutting. These simulations predict N 2 O

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15762-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9 Root cold Pinus taeda cDNA c... 46 6.7 1 ( CO166910 ) FLD1_65_A02.g1_A029 Root flood...ed Pinus taeda cDNA... 46 6.7 1 ( CO161061 ) FLD1_26_H12.b1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 46 6.

  14. Molecular aspects of zygotic embryogenesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): correlation of positive histone marks with HaWUS expression and putative link HaWUS/HaL1L. (United States)

    Salvini, Mariangela; Fambrini, Marco; Giorgetti, Lucia; Pugliesi, Claudio


    The link HaWUS/ HaL1L , the opposite transcriptional behavior, and the decrease/increase in positive histone marks bond to both genes suggest an inhibitory effect of WUS on HaL1L in sunflower zygotic embryos. In Arabidopsis, a group of transcription factors implicated in the earliest events of embryogenesis is the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) protein family including WUSCHEL (WUS) and other 14 WOX protein, some of which contain a conserved WUS-box domain in addition to the homeodomain. WUS transcripts appear very early in embryogenesis, at the 16-cell embryo stage, but gradually become restricted to the center of the developing shoot apical meristem (SAM) primordium and continues to be expressed in cells of the niche/organizing center of SAM and floral meristems to maintain stem cell population. Moreover, WUS has decisive roles in the embryonic program presumably promoting the vegetative-to-embryonic transition and/or maintaining the identity of the embryonic stem cells. However, data on the direct interaction between WUS and key genes for seed development (as LEC1 and L1L) are not collected. The novelty of this report consists in the characterization of Helianthus annuus WUS (HaWUS) gene and in its analysis regarding the pattern of the methylated lysine 4 (K4) of the Histone H3 and of the acetylated histone H3 during the zygotic embryo development. Also, a parallel investigation was performed for HaL1L gene since two copies of the WUS-binding site (WUSATA), previously identified on HaL1L nucleotide sequence, were able to be bound by the HaWUS recombinant protein suggesting a not described effect of HaWUS on HaL1L transcription.

  15. Groundwater data improve modelling of headwater stream CO2 outgassing with a stable DIC isotope approach (United States)

    Marx, Anne; Conrad, Marcus; Aizinger, Vadym; Prechtel, Alexander; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.


    A large portion of terrestrially derived carbon outgasses as carbon dioxide (CO2) from streams and rivers to the atmosphere. Particularly, the amount of CO2 outgassing from small headwater streams is highly uncertain. Conservative estimates suggest that they contribute 36 % (i.e. 0.93 petagrams (Pg) C yr-1) of total CO2 outgassing from all fluvial ecosystems on the globe. In this study, stream pCO2, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and δ13CDIC data were used to determine CO2 outgassing from an acidic headwater stream in the Uhlířská catchment (Czech Republic). This stream drains a catchment with silicate bedrock. The applied stable isotope model is based on the principle that the 13C / 12C ratio of its sources and the intensity of CO2 outgassing control the isotope ratio of DIC in stream water. It avoids the use of the gas transfer velocity parameter (k), which is highly variable and mostly difficult to constrain. Model results indicate that CO2 outgassing contributed more than 80 % to the annual stream inorganic carbon loss in the Uhlířská catchment. This translated to a CO2 outgassing rate from the stream of 34.9 kg C m-2 yr-1 when normalised to the stream surface area. Large temporal variations with maximum values shortly before spring snowmelt and in summer emphasise the need for investigations at higher temporal resolution. We improved the model uncertainty by incorporating groundwater data to better constrain the isotope compositions of initial DIC. Due to the large global abundance of acidic, humic-rich headwaters, we underline the importance of this integral approach for global applications.

  16. Preparation of no-carrier-added [1-11C]ethylene and [1-11C]1,2-dibromoethane as new labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, F.; Pike, V.W.; Dowsett, K.


    A method is described for the preparation of NCA [1- 11 C] ethylene based on the passage of [1- 11 C]ethanol over heated (550 o C) quartz glass in a stainless steel tube (in preference to dehydration by catalysis on γ-alumina or pyrolysis). The [1- 11 C]ethanol is prepared from cyclotron-produced NCA [ 11 C]carbon dioxide by 11 C-carboxylation of methylmagnesium bromide, freshly prepared in dibutyl ether, and reduction of the adduct with lithium aluminium hydride in diglyme. The use of involatile solvents avoids the formation of carrier ethylene and radioactive and stable diethyl ether by cracking processes over the heated catalyst. The preparation takes 21 min from the end of radionuclide production and has a radiochemical yield of 44%, decay-corrected from [ 11 C]carbon dioxide. NCA [1- 11 C] ethylene is converted quantitatively into [1- 11 C]1,2-dibromoethane when collected in a solution of bromine in carbon tetrachloride. The NCA [1- 11 C]ethylene and [1- 11 C]1,2-dibromoethane may serve as new and useful labelling agents. (Author)

  17. Oxygen isotope partitioning between rhyolitic glass/melt and CO2: An experimental study at 550-950 degrees C and 1 bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palin, J.M.; Epstein, S.; Stolper, E.M.


    Oxygen isotope partitioning between gaseous CO 2 and a natural rhyolitic glass and melt (77.7 wt% SiO 2 , 0.16 wt% H 2 O total ) has been measured at 550-950 degrees C and approximately 1 bar. Equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation factors (α CO2-rhyolite = ( 18 O/ 16 O) rhyolite ) determined in exchange experiments of 100-255 day duration. These values agree well with predictions based on experimentally determined oxygen isotope fractionation factors for CO 2 -silica glass and CO 2 -albitic glass/melt, if the rhyolitic glass is taken to be a simple mixture of normative silica and alkali feldspar components. The results indicate that oxygen isotope partitioning in felsic glasses and melts can be modeled by linear combinations of endmember silicate constituents. Rates of oxygen isotope exchange observed in the partitioning experiments are consistent with control by diffusion of molecular H 2 O dissolved in the glass/melt and are three orders of magnitude faster than predicted for rate control solely by diffusion of dissolved molecular CO 2 under the experimental conditions. Additional experiments using untreated and dehydrated (0.09 wt% H 2 O total ) rhyolitic glass quantatively support these interpretations. We conclude that diffusive oxygen isotope exchange in rhyolitic glass/melt, and probably other polymerized silicate materials, it controlled by the concentrations and diffusivities of dissolved oxygen-bearing volatile species rather than diffusion of network oxygen under all but the most volatile-poor conditions. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Oceanic uptake of CO2 re-estimated through δ13C in WOCE samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerperger, Michael; McNichol, A.P.; Peden, J.; Gagnon, A.R.; Elder, K.L.; Kutschera, W.; Rom, W.; Steier, P.


    In addition to 14 C, a large set of δ 13 C data was produced at NOSAMS as part of the World ocean circulation experiment (WOCE). In this paper, a subset of 973 δ 13 C results from 63 stations in the Pacific Ocean was compared to a total number of 219 corresponding results from 12 stations sampled during oceanographic programs in the early 1970s. The data were analyzed in light of recent work to estimate the uptake of CO 2 derived from fossil fuel and biomass burning in the oceans by quantifying the δ 13 C Suess effect in the oceans. In principle, the δ 13 C value of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) allows a quantitative estimate of how much of the anthropogenic CO 2 released into the atmosphere is taken up by the oceans, because the δ 13 C of CO 2 derived from organic matter (∼2.7 percent) is significantly different from that of the atmosphere (∼0.8 percent). Our new analysis indicates an apparent discrepancy between the old and the new data sets, possibly caused by a constant offset in δ 13 C values in a subset of the data. A similar offset was reported in an earlier work by Paul Quay et al. for one station that was not included in their final analysis. We present an estimate for this assumed offset based on data from water depths below which little or no change in δ 13 C over time would be expected. Such a correction leads to a significantly reduced estimate of the CO 2 uptake, possibly as low as one half of the amount of 2.1 GtC yr -1 (gigatons carbon per year) estimated previously. The present conclusion is based on a comparison with a relatively small data set from the 70s in the Pacific Ocean. The larger data set collected during the GEOSECS program was not used because of problems reported with the data. This work suggests there may also be problems in comparing non-GEOSECS data from the 1970s to the current data. The calculation of significantly lower uptake estimates based on an offset-related problem appears valid, but the exact figures are

  19. Greenhouse effect gases sources and sinks (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) in grasslands and reduction strategies. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. Final report of the second part of the project. April 2004; Sources et puits de gaz a effet de serre (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) en prairie paturee et strategies de reduction. GES-Prairies. Rapport final de la seconde tranche du projet. Avril 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soussana, J.F


    The project 'GES-Prairies' (Greenhouse Gases - Grasslands) had two main objectives: 1. To measure more accurately the fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O of French grasslands and determine the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of these areas. 2. To calculate the net GHG emissions of cattle production farms and finally to propose and evaluate some management scenarios leading to a reduction of GHG emissions. This project deals with three different spatial scales: the field scale, the farm scale and finally, the regional scale. At the field scale, during two years, fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were measured in a mid-mountain permanent grassland, previously managed intensively by cutting and grazing (Laqueuille, Auvergne, France). Results from the first complete year of measurements show that the extensification process (reduction of the stocking rate and stopping N fertilization) allows to stock more carbon in the ecosystem. At the farm scale, We developed a model (FARMSIM, coupled to PASIM) able to simulate the GHG balance of a livestock farm. FARMSIM has been tested with data obtained from a mixed livestock farm in Lorraine (dairy and meat production, annual average stocking rate = 1.3 LU ha{sup -1}) of 100 ha (including 76 ha of grasslands and 21 of annual crops). The results indicate a net emission of 175 t equivalent C-CO{sub 2} for this farm. If expressed per unit of product, it represents 1.34 t equivalent C-CO{sub 2} per LU and per year or 0.54 kg CO{sub 2} per kg of milk and per year. At the regional scale/. The PASIM model has been used to simulate the European grasslands with a spatial resolution of 1' (about 200 * 200 km). For each grid cell, a sensibility analysis allowed to determine the N application which correspond to 30% of the N application that would maximize the annual yield of the pasture. Simulation runs on mixed systems (combining grazing and cutting) show that almost one half of the grassland area is, on

  20. Preparation of layered oxide Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 via the sol-gel process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen; LIU Hanxing; HU Chen; ZHU Xianjun; LI Yanxi


    To obtain homogenous layered oxide Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material,the sol-gel process using citric acid as a chelating agent was applied.The material Li(Co1/3,Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 was synthesized at different calcination temperatures.XRD experiment indicated that the hyered Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2material could he synthesized at a lower temperature of 800℃,and the oxidation state of Co,Ni,and Mn in the cathode confirmed by XPS were +3,+2,and +4,respectively.SEM observations showed that the synthesized material could form homogenous particle morphology with the particle size of about 200nm In spite of different calcination temperatures,the charge-discharge curves of all the samples for the initial cycle were similar,and the cathode synthesized at 900℃ showed a small irreversible capacity loss of 11.24% and a high discharge capacity of 212.2 mAh.g-1 in the voltage range of 2.9-4.6 V.

  1. Changes in CO2 during Ocean Anoxic Event 1d indicate similarities to other carbon cycle perturbations (United States)

    Richey, Jon D.; Upchurch, Garland R.; Montañez, Isabel P.; Lomax, Barry H.; Suarez, Marina B.; Crout, Neil M. J.; Joeckel, R. M.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Smith, Jon J.


    Past greenhouse intervals of the Mesozoic were repeatedly punctuated by Ocean Anoxic Events (OAEs), major perturbations to the global carbon cycle and abrupt climate changes that may serve as relevant analogs for Earth's greenhouse gas-forced climate future. The key to better understanding these transient climate disruptions and possible CO2-forced tipping-points resides in high-resolution, precise, and accurate estimates of atmospheric CO2 for individual OAEs. Here we present a high-temporal resolution, multi-proxy pCO2 reconstruction for the onset of mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian Boundary) OAE1d. Coupling of pCO2 estimates with carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of charcoal, vitrain, and cuticle from the Rose Creek Pit (RCP), Nebraska, reveals complex phasing, including a lag between the well-documented negative δ13C excursion defining the onset of OAE1d and the CO2 increase. This lag indicates that increased CO2 or other C-based greenhouse gases may not have been the primary cause of the negative excursion. Our study reveals a pCO2 increase within the interval of the negative δ13C excursion, reaching a maximum of up to ∼840 ppm (95% confidence interval -307 ppm/+167 ppm) toward its end. The reconstructed magnitude of CO2 increase (∼357 ppm) is similar to that of Late Cretaceous OAE2 but of smaller magnitude than that of other major carbon cycle perturbations of the Mesozoic assessed via stomatal methods (e.g., the Toarcian OAE [TOAE], Triassic-Jurassic boundary event, Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary event). Furthermore, our results indicate a possible shared causal or developmental mechanism with OAE1a and the TOAE.

  2. Ca-Embedded C2N: an efficient adsorbent for CO2 capture. (United States)

    Liu, Yuzhen; Meng, Zhaoshun; Guo, Xiaojian; Xu, Genjian; Rao, Dewei; Wang, Yuhui; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng


    Carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas causes severe impacts on the environment, whereas it is also a necessary chemical feedstock that can be converted into carbon-based fuels via electrochemical reduction. To efficiently and reversibly capture CO 2 , it is important to find novel materials for a good balance between adsorption and desorption. In this study, we performed first-principles calculations and grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations, to systematically study metal-embedded carbon nitride (C 2 N) nanosheets for CO 2 capture. Our first-principles results indicated that Ca atoms can be uniformly trapped in the cavity center of C 2 N structure, while the transition metals (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) are favorably embedded in the sites off the center of the cavity. The determined maximum number of CO 2 molecules with strong physisorption showed that Ca-embedded C 2 N monolayer is the most promising CO 2 adsorbent among all considered metal-embedded materials. Moreover, GCMC simulations revealed that at room temperature the gravimetric density for CO 2 adsorbed on Ca-embedded C 2 N reached 50 wt% at 30 bar and 23 wt% at 1 bar, higher than other layered materials, thus providing a satisfactory system for the CO 2 capture and utilization.

  3. Crystal structure of U2+xCo2Ga1-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskii, A.V.; Fedorchuk, A.A.


    In studies of phase equilibria in the U-Co-Ga system at 600 degrees C, the authors found a ternary compound close in composition to U 2 Co 2 Ga. A sample of composition U 42 Co 40 Ga 18 was prepared by arc-melting a mixture of high-purity U (99.4%), Co (99.99%), and Ga (99.99%) in a purified argon atmosphere. The sample was homogenized at 600 degrees C for 720 h in an evacuated quartz tube and then quenched in cold water. In structure determination, the authors used a DRON-4-07 powder X-ray diffractometer (CuK α radiation, 0.02 degrees 2θ scan step) and the CSD software package. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed tetragonal symmetry, with lattice parameters obtained from least-squares refinements a = 0.707729(5) and c = 0.34707(4) nm

  4. AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments for 1.5°C and 2.0°C (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.


    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has developed novel methods for Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of agriculture and food security in a changing world. The present study performs a proof-of-concept of the CGRA to demonstrate advantages and challenges of the framework. This effort responds to the request by UNFCCC for the implications of limiting global temperature increases to 1.5°C and 2.0°C above pre-industrial conditions. The protocols for the 1.5°C/2.0°C assessment establish explicit and testable linkages across disciplines and scales, connecting outputs and inputs from the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs), HAPPI and CMIP5 ensemble scenarios, global gridded crop models, global agricultural economic models, site-based crop models, and within-country regional economic models. CGRA results show that at the global scale, mixed areas of positive and negative simulated yield changes, with declines in some breadbasket regions led to overall declines in productivity at both 1.5°C and 2.0°C. These projected global yield changes resulted in increases in prices of major commodities in a global economic model. Simulations for 1.5°C and 2.0°C using site-based crop models had mixed results depending on region and crop, but with more negative effects on productivity at 2.0°C than at 1.5°C for the most part. In conjunction with price changes from the global economics models, these productivity declines resulted generally in small positive effects on regional farm livelihoods, showing that farming systems should continue to be viable under high mitigation scenarios. CGRA protocols focus on how mitigation actions and effects differ across scales, with main mechanisms studied in the integrated assessment models being policies and technologies that reduce direct non-CO2 emissions from agriculture, reduce CO2 emissions from land use change and forest sink enhancement

  5. More than a century of Grain for Green Program is expected to restore soil carbon stock on alpine grassland revealed by field "1"3C pulse labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Dongdong; Zhao, Liang; Yang, Xue; Xu, Shixiao; Zhao, Xinquan


    Anthropogenic changes in land use/cover have altered the vegetation, soil, and carbon (C) cycling on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP) over the last ~ 50 years. As a result, the Grain for Green Program (GfGP) has been widely implemented over the last 10 years to mitigate the impacts of cultivation. To quantify the effects of the GfGP on C partitioning and turnover rates at the ecosystem scale, an in situ "1"3C pulse labeling experiment was conducted on natural and GfGP grasslands in an agro-pastoral ecotone in the Lake Qinghai region on the QTP. We found that there were significant differences in the C stocks of all the considered pools in both the natural and GfGP grasslands, with higher CO_2 uptake rates in the GfGP grassland than that in the natural grassland. Partitioning of photoassimilate (% of recovered "1"3C) in C pools of both grasslands was similar 25 days after labeling, except in the roots of the 0–15 and 5–15 cm soil layer. Soil organic C (SOC) sequestration rate in the GfGP grassland was 11.59 ± 1.89 g C m"−"2 yr"−"1 significantly greater than that in the natural grassland. The results confirmed that the GfGP is an efficient approach for grassland restoration and C sequestration. However, it will take more than a century (119.19 ± 20.26 yr) to restore the SOC stock from the current cropland baseline level to the approximate level of natural grassland. We suggest that additional measures are needed in the selection of suitable plant species for vegetation restoration, and in reasonable grazing management. - Highlights: • Grain for Green Project initiated in 1999 converts cropland to grassland/shrubland. • Impact of Grain for Green on carbon cycling on Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau is unknown. • Effects on carbon partitioning and turnover were accessed by "1"3CO_2 pulse labeling. • Different mass of "1"3C in excess, similar "1"3C partitioning are shown in grasslands. • Soil organic carbon of cropland will be restored to natural

  6. Role of Atmospheric CO2 in the Ice Ages (Invited) (United States)

    Toggweiler, J. R.


    Ice cores from Antarctica provide our most highly resolved records of glacial-interglacial climate change. They feature big transitions every 100,000 years or so in which Antarctica warms by up to 10 deg. C while the level of atmospheric CO2 rises by up to 100 ppm. We have no other records like these from any other location, so the assumption is often made that the Earth's mean temperature varies like the temperatures in Antarctica. The striking co-variation between the two records is taken to mean 1) that there is a causal relationship between the global temperature and atmospheric CO2 and 2) that atmospheric CO2 is a powerful agent of climate change during the ice ages. The problem is that the mechanism most often invoked to explain the CO2 variations operates right next to Antarctica and, as such, provides a fairly direct way to explain the temperature variations in Antarctica as well. If so, Antarctic temperatures go up and down for the same reason that atmospheric CO2 goes up and down, in which case no causation can be inferred. Climate models suggest that the 100-ppm CO2 increases during the big transitions did not increase surface temperatures by more than 2 deg. C. This is not nearly enough to explain the observed variability. A better reason for thinking that atmospheric CO2 is important is that its temporal variations are concentrated in the 100,000-yr band. In my presentation I will argue that atmospheric CO2 is important because it has the longest time scale in the system. We observe empirically that atmospheric CO2 remains low for 50,000 years during the second half of each 100,000-yr cycle. The northern ice sheets become especially large toward the ends of these intervals, and it is large ice sheets that make the Earth especially cold. This leads me to conclude that atmospheric CO2 is important because of its slow and persistent influence on the northern ice sheets over the second half of each 100,000-yr cycle.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codella, C.; Fontani, F.; Gómez-Ruiz, A.; Vasta, M.; Viti, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Podio, L.; Benedettini, M.; Busquet, G.; Caselli, P.


    We present the first detection of N 2 H + toward a low-mass protostellar outflow, namely, the L1157-B1 shock, at ∼0.1 pc from the protostellar cocoon. The detection was obtained with the IRAM 30 m antenna. We observed emission at 93 GHz due to the J = 1-0 hyperfine lines. Analysis of this emission coupled with HIFI CHESS multiline CO observations leads to the conclusion that the observed N 2 H + (1-0) line originated from the dense (≥10 5 cm –3 ) gas associated with the large (20''-25'') cavities opened by the protostellar wind. We find an N 2 H + column density of a few 10 12 cm –2 corresponding to an abundance of (2-8) × 10 –9 . The N 2 H + abundance can be matched by a model of quiescent gas evolved for more than 10 4 yr, i.e., for more than the shock kinematical age (≅2000 yr). Modeling of C-shocks confirms that the abundance of N 2 H + is not increased by the passage of the shock. In summary, N 2 H + is a fossil record of the pre-shock gas, formed when the density of the gas was around 10 4 cm –3 , and then further compressed and accelerated by the shock

  8. Soil [N] modulates soil C cycling in CO2-fumigated tree stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieleman, W. I. J.; Luyssaert, S.; Rey, A.


    Under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, soil carbon (C) inputs are typically enhanced, suggesting larger soil C sequestration potential. However, soil C losses also increase and progressive nitrogen (N) limitation to plant growth may reduce the CO2 effect on soil C inputs with time. We...... compiled a data set from 131 manipulation experiments, and used meta-analysis to test the hypotheses that: (1) elevated atmospheric CO2 stimulates soil C inputs more than C losses, resulting in increasing soil C stocks; and (2) that these responses are modulated by N. Our results confirm that elevated CO2...... induces a C allocation shift towards below-ground biomass compartments. However, the increased soil C inputs were offset by increased heterotrophic respiration (Rh), such that soil C content was not affected by elevated CO2. Soil N concentration strongly interacted with CO2 fumigation: the effect...

  9. Neutron investigation of Ru-doped Nd1/2Ca1/2MnO3. Comparison with Cr-doped Nd1/2Ca1/2MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritomo, Yutaka; Nonobe, Toshihiko; Machida, Akihiko; Ohoyama, Kenji


    Lattice and magnetic properties are investigated for 3% Ru- and Cr-doped Nd 1/2 Ca 1/2 MnO 3 . The parent Nd 1/2 Ca 1/2 MnO 3 is a charge-ordered insulator (T CO =250K). With decreasing temperature below ≅210K, these compounds are separated into two perovskite phases, that is, the long-c and short-c phases. The long-c region shows a ferromagnetic transition at T C ≅210K for the Ru-doped compound and ≅130K for the Cr-doped compound, while the short-c region shows antiferromagnetic transition at T N ≅150K for Ru and ≅110K for Cr. We discuss the origin of the enhanced T C for the Ru-doped compound in terms of the effective one-electron bandwidth W of the e g -band. (author)

  10. Synthesis, characterization, DNA-binding, and DNA-photocleavage properties of [Co(bpy)2(7-NO2-dppz)]3+, [Co(dmb)2(7-NO2-dppz)]3+, and [Co(phen)2(7-NO2-dppz)]3+ complexes: (7-nitro-dppz = 7-nitro dipyrido[3,2-a:2'-3'-c]phenazine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and their toxicity on different microorganisms. (United States)

    Reddy, Kotha Laxma; Reddy, Y Harish Kumar; Kumar, K Ashwini; Vidhisha, S; Satyanarayana, S


    The polypyridyl ligand 7-Nitro dipyrido[3,2-a:2'-3'-c]phenazine (7-Nitro-dppz) and its complexes [Co(bpy)(2)(7-NO(2)-dppz)](3+)(1) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), [Co(dmb)(2)(7-NO(2)-dppz)](3+)(2), (dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine), and [Co(phen)(2)(7-NO(2)-dppz)](3+)(3) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized by UV/VIS, IR, elemental analysis, (1)H and (13)C-NMR, and mass spectra. The binding properties of the three complexes to CT-DNA were investigated by different spectroscopic methods and viscosity measurements and DNA cleavage assay. The experimental results suggest that these complexes bind to CT-DNA through an intercalative mode. Also, the three complexes promote the photocleavage of plasmid pBR-322 DNA under irradiation. Toxicological effects of the selected complexes were estimated with different microorganisms.

  11. (Carbonyl-1κC)bis-[2,3(η)-cyclo-penta-dien-yl][μ(3)-(S-methyl trithio-carbonato)methylidyne-1:2:3κC,S'':C:C](triphenyl-phosphine-1κP)(μ(3)-sulfido-1:2:3κS)dicobalt(II)iron(II) trifluoro-methane-sulfonate. (United States)

    Manning, Anthony R; McAdam, C John; Palmer, Anthony J; Simpson, Jim


    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [FeCo(2)(C(5)H(5))(2)(C(3)H(3)S(3))S(C(18)H(15)P)(CO)]CF(3)SO(3), consists of a triangular irondicobalt cluster cation and a trifluoro-methane-sulfonate anion. In the cation, the FeCo(2) triangle is symmetrically capped on one face by an S atom and on the other by a C atom linked to a methyl trithio-carbonate residue that bridges the Fe-C bond. Each Co atom carries a cyclo-penta-dienyl ligand while the Fe atom coordinates to one carbonyl and one triphenyl-phosphine ligand. In the crystal structure, the cation is linked to the anion by a number of weak non-classical C-H⋯O and C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds and weak S⋯O (3.317 Å) and S⋯F (3.198 Å) inter-actions. The structure is further stabilized by additional inter-molecular C-H⋯O, C-H⋯F and O⋯O (2.942 Å) contacts, together with an unusual S⋯π(Cp) inter-action (S⋯centroid distance = 3.385 Å), generating an extended network.

  12. Paleomagnetic study of areas B1, C1 and E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.; Sopher, C.


    Sediments from all three areas retain a stable primary remanence with a small viscous overprint which can be removed by AF cleaning. This marginally reduces the scatter in NRM data and improves the constraints on some reversal boundaries. Excellent reversal stratigraphies exist in all cores, particularly within area E2, with the exception of core B1-43P. This core is normally magnetized throughout and has a larger viscous component than other cores. Sedimentation rates are slower during the Brunhes epoch in all cores except C1-32P and C1-33P. Cores C1-34P and E2-46P have almost constant sedimentation rates throughout. The abnormally low average sedimentation rate during the Brunhes in core C1-35P suggest a loss of up to 2m of sediment, either during coring or by in situ erosion. Overall sedimentation rates are highest in area B1, lowest in area E2, and show least variation between cores in area E2. There is no general correlation between lithology and the paleomagnetic record. Ash layers and horizons with abnormally low water contents sometimes coincide with spikes in the paleomagnetic records

  13. Studies on the syntheses, structural Characterization, antimicrobial of the CO-CRYSTAL 1,10-phenanthrolin-1-IUM(1,10-phenH+)-caffeine(caf)-hexafluorophosphate (United States)

    El Hamdani, H.; El Amane, M.; Duhayon, C.


    Co-crystal of 1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium-caffeine-hexafluorophosphate was synthesized, studied by FTIR, 1H, 13C NMR, DSC and X-ray structure and crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2/c. The unit cell parameters are a = 19.3761 (3), b = 17.9548 (3), c = 13.8074 (3) with β = 117.8132 (10). The final R value is 0.069 for 29,522 measured reflections. The co-crystal structure analysis indicate the 1,10-phenanthroline is protonated by one nitrogen atom and formed the 1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium cation, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds N+-H…Odbnd C interaction with carbonyl and imidazol ring in caffeine molecule. The intermolecular hydrogen bonds: Csbnd H...O, Csbnd H...N, Nsbnd H...O, Csbnd H...F and intramolecular hydrogen bond: C1sbnd H12...O14, together play a vital role in stabilizing the structure of co-crystal. The X-ray structural analysis confirm the assignments of the structure from infrared, 1H, 13C NMR, spectroscopic data DSC and molar conductivity analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the co-crystal was studied.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of metastable, 20 nm-sized Pna2{sub 1}-LiCoPO{sub 4} nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Jennifer [Technical University of Munich, Department of Chemistry, Synthesis and Characterization of Innovative Materials, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching (Germany); Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Doeff, Marca M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nilges, Tom, E-mail: [Technical University of Munich, Department of Chemistry, Synthesis and Characterization of Innovative Materials, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching (Germany)


    The majority of research activities on LiCoPO{sub 4} are focused on the phospho-olivine (space group Pnma), which is a promising high-voltage cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In contrast, comparably little is known about its metastable Pna2{sub 1} modification. Herein, we present a comprehensive study on the structure–property relationships of 15–20 nm Pna2{sub 1}-LiCoPO{sub 4} nanospheres prepared by a simple microwave-assisted solvothermal process. Unlike previous reports, the results indicate that the compound is non-stoichiometric and shows cation-mixing with Co ions on the Li sites, which provides an explanation for the poor electrochemical performance. Co L{sub 2,3}-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic data confirm the local tetrahedral symmetry of Co{sup 2+}. Comprehensive studies on the thermal stability using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and in situ powder X-ray diffraction show an exothermic phase transition to olivine Pnma-LiCoPO{sub 4} at 527 °C. The influence of the atmosphere and the particle size on the thermal stability is also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Blue nano-sized Pna2{sub 1}-LiCoPO{sub 4,} featuring tetrahedrally-coordinated Co{sup 2+}, was synthesized in a rapid one-step microwave-assisted solvothermal process. The phase relation between this metastable and the stable polymorph was analyzed and electrochemical properties are discussed. - Highlights: • Preparation of uniform 15–20 nm nanospheres of metastable Pna2{sub 1}-LiCoPO{sub 4} polymorph. • Structure redetermination shows cation-mixing (Co blocking Li sites). • In situ investigation of phase transformation to olivine Pnma-LiCoPO{sub 4} at 527 °C. • Pna2{sub 1}-LiCoPO{sub 4} reemerges as a stable high-temperature phase above 800 °C. • X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirms local tetrahedral symmetry (T{sub d} Co{sup 2+}).

  15. One-pot synthesis of 4,8-dibromobenzo[1,2-c;4,5-c']bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole. (United States)

    Tam, Teck Lip; Li, Hairong; Wei, Fengxia; Tan, Ke Jie; Kloc, Christian; Lam, Yeng Ming; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Grimsdale, Andrew C


    A one-step synthesis of 4,8-dibromobenzo[1,2-c;4,5-c']bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole with use of 1,2,4,5-tetraaminobenzene tetrahydrobromide and thionyl bromide in good yield is reported. This unit can then be used in the synthesis of low bandgap materials via palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions. The approach offers a quick and easy way to prepare low bandgap materials as compared to the current literature methods.

  16. The potential of willow and poplar plantations as carbon sinks in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie


    A large share, estimated at 12–25%, of the annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is attributed to global deforestation. Increasing the forested areas therefore has a positive impact on carbon (C) sequestration and mitigation of high atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Fast-growing species, such as willow and poplar, are of high interest as producers of biomass for fuel, but also as C sinks. The present study estimated the rate of C sequestration in biomass and soil in willow and poplar plantations. Calculations were based on above- and below-ground biomass production data from field experiments, including fine root turnover, litter decomposition rates, and production levels from commercial plantations. Accumulation of C in woody biomass, above and below ground, was estimated at 76.6–80.1 Mg C ha1 and accumulation of C in the soil at 9.0–10.3 Mg C ha1 over the first 20–22 years. The average rates of C sequestration were 3.5–4.0 Mg C ha1 yr1 in woody biomass, and 0.4–0.5 Mg C ha1 yr1 in the soil. If 400,000 ha of abandoned arable land in Sweden were planted with willow and poplar, about 1.5 Tg C would be sequestered annually in woody biomass and 0.2 Tg C in soils. This would be nearly one tenth of the annual anthropogenic emissions of C in Sweden today. These calculations show the potential of fast-growing plantations on arable land to mitigate the effect of high CO 2 concentrations over a short time span. Knowledge gaps were found during the calculation process and future research areas were suggested. -- Highlights: ► Poplars and willows as producers of biomass for fuel and as C sinks. ► Calculation of C sequestration rates in biomass and soil in willow and poplar plantations. ► Increasing forested areas has positive impact on high CO 2 levels. ► Willow and poplar plantations on arable land mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emissions.

  17. Application of high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy: Vibrational resolved C 1s and O 1s spectra of CO adsorbed on Ni(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehlisch, A.; Nilsson, A.; Martensson, N. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others


    There are various effects which determine the line shape of a core-level electron spectrum. These are due to the finite life-time of the core hole, inelastic scattering of the outgoing photoelectron, electronic shake-up and shake-off processes and vibrational excitations. For free atoms and molecules the different contributions to the observed line shapes can often be well separated. For solids, surfaces and adsorbates the line shapes are in general much broader and it has in the past been assumed that no separation of the various contributions can be made. In the present report the authors will show that this is indeed not the case. Surprisingly, the vibrational fine structure of CO adsorbed on Ni(100) can be resolved in the C 1s and O 1s electron spectra. This was achieved by the combination of highly monochromatized soft X-rays from B18.0 with a high resolution Scienta 200 mm photoelectron spectrometer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with tunable excitation energy yields as a core level spectroscopy atomic and site-specific information. The presented measurements allow for a determination of internuclear distances and potential energy curves in corehole ionized adsorbed molecules. The authors analysis of the c(2x2) phase CO/Ni(100) on {open_quotes}top{close_quotes} yielded a vibrational splitting of 217 +/- 2 meV for C 1s ionization. For O 1s ionization a splitting of 173 +/- 8 meV was found.

  18. An ab initio study of CO adsorption on ceria(1 1 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Carsten; Freysoldt, Christoph; Baudin, Micael; Hermansson, Kersti


    Hartree-Fock and DFT calculations are reported for the CO/CeO 2 (1 1 0) surface system. The electron density, electrostatic potential, atomic charges and projected electronic density of states have been calculated from an ECP-and-point-charge-embedded cluster model and is compared with periodic calculations. The agreement between the two surface models is reasonably good. A number of weakly bonding CO adsorption sites were found, with E ads (BSSE-corrected) ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 eV per adsorbed molecule. The two most favourable sites are found in the vicinity of surface cerium ions, with the CO molecule oriented in a tilted fashion, C-end down. The surface-induced CO stretching vibrational frequency shifts on these sites are a redshift of ∼-30 cm -1 and a blueshift of ∼25 cm -1 , respectively

  19. Magnetic instabilities in Er1-xYxCo3 studied by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, H.; Fukumura, T.; Kinjou, H.; Kinjou, T.; Pieper, M.W.; Gratz, E.; Paul-Boncour, V.; Markosyan, A.S.


    The field dependence of 59 Co NMR in ferrimagnetic Er 1-x Y x Co 3 was measured up to 8T at 4.2K. For pure ErCo 3 in fields perpendicular to the c axis the resonance frequencies change discontinuously between 2 and 3T due to a field induced metamagnetic transition. The transition is characterized by rotations of Er and Co magnetic moments away from the easy c-axis. The angles between the Co moments and the c axis at x=0.1 are obtained. The easy axis is found to be along the c axis for x=0 and 0.1, and inclined from the c axis for x=0.3 and 0.5

  20. Full genomic analysis of an influenza A (H1N2 virus identified during 2009 pandemic in Eastern India: evidence of reassortment event between co-circulating A(H1N1pdm09 and A/Brisbane/10/2007-like H3N2 strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Tapasi Roy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the pandemic [Influenza A(H1N1pdm09] period in 2009-2010, an influenza A (Inf-A virus with H1N2 subtype (designated as A/Eastern India/N-1289/2009 was detected from a 25 years old male from Mizoram (North-eastern India. Objective To characterize full genome of the H1N2 influenza virus. Methods For initial detection of Influenza viruses, amplification of matrix protein (M gene of Inf-A and B viruses was carried out by real time RT-PCR. Influenza A positive viruses are then further subtyped with HA and NA gene specific primers. Sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis was performed for the H1N2 strain to understand its origin. Results The outcome of this full genome study revealed a unique reassortment event where the N-1289 virus acquired it’s HA gene from a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with swine origin and the other genes from H3N2-like viruses of human origin. Conclusions This study provides information on possibility of occurrence of reassortment events during influenza season when infectivity is high and two different subtypes of Inf-A viruses co-circulate in same geographical location.

  1. Improved Charge Transfer in a Mn2O3@Co1.2Ni1.8O4 Hybrid for Highly Stable Alkaline Direct Methanol Fuel Cells with Good Methanol Tolerance. (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Yuanzhen; Li, Sai; Shu, Chenyong; Fang, Yuan; Song, Bo


    A three-dimensional Mn 2 O 3 @Co 1.2 Ni 1.8 O 4 hybrid was synthesized via facile two-step processes and employed as a cathode catalyst in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) for the first time. Because of the unique architecture with ultrathin and porous nanosheets of the Co 1.2 Ni 1.8 O 4 shell, this composite exhibits better electrochemical performance than the pristine Mn 2 O 3 . Remarkably, it shows excellent methanol tolerance, even in a high concentration solution. The DMFC was assembled with Mn 2 O 3 @Co 1.2 Ni 1.8 O 4 , polymer fiber membranes, and PtRu/C as the cathode, membrane, and anode, respectively. The power densities of 57.5 and 70.5 mW cm -2 were recorded at 18 and 28 °C, respectively, especially the former is the best result reported in the literature at such a low temperature. The stability of the Mn 2 O 3 @Co 1.2 Ni 1.8 O 4 catalyzed cathode was evaluated, and the results show that this compound possesses excellent stability in a high methanol concentration. The improved electrochemical activity could be attributed to the narrow band gap of the hybrid, which accelerates the electrons jumping from the valence band to the conduction band. Therefore, Mn III could be oxidized into Mn IV more easily, simultaneously providing an electron to the absorbed oxygen.

  2. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-2 - Public office. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public office. 1.1402(c)-2 Section 1.1402(c)-2...) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-2 Public office. (a) In general—(1) General rule... public office does not constitute a trade or business. (2) Fee basis public officials—(i) In general. If...

  3. Development of Li+ Selective Microelectrode Using PPy [3,3'-Co(1,2-C2B9H112] as a Solid Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safae MERZOUK


    Full Text Available Planar all solid-contact ion-selective microelectrodes (ASC-µISEs with a conducting polymer (polypyrrole doped with cobaltabis(dicarbollide anion [3,3'-Co(1,2-C2B9H112] as a solid contact layer between the polymeric membrane sensitive to lithium (Li and the gold (Au substrate were prepared and investigated. The N,N-dicyclohexyl-N',N'-diisobutylyl-cis-cyclohexane-1,2- dicarboxamide (ETH 1810 was used as ionophore for Li recognition. The developed microelectrodes show a linear response for Li+ concentration between 6´10-5 M and 1´10-1 M with slope of 53±1 mV per decade and exhibits remarkably enhanced selectivity for Li over other cations. The calibration plots using artificial serum containing three different levels of sodium chloride (NaCl (135, 145 and 155 mM as a background electrolyte were shown a linear response with a slope of 50 mV per decade in the clinical range of interest (0.7-1.5´10-3 M Li+. The developed microelectrodes will be used to determine Li+ concentrations in serum samples of manic-depressive patients under Li treatment.

  4. Modelling CO2 emissions from water surface of a boreal hydroelectric reservoir. (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Kim, Youngil; Strachan, Ian B; Del Giorgio, Paul; Prairie, Yves T; Tremblay, Alain


    To quantify CO 2 emissions from water surface of a reservoir that was shaped by flooding the boreal landscape, we developed a daily time-step reservoir biogeochemistry model. We calibrated the model using the measured concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (C) in a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir, Eastmain-1 (EM-1), in northern Quebec, Canada. We validated the model against observed CO 2 fluxes from an eddy covariance tower in the middle of EM-1. The model predicted the variability of CO 2 emissions reasonably well compared to the observations (root mean square error: 0.4-1.3gCm -2 day -1 , revised Willmott index: 0.16-0.55). In particular, we demonstrated that the annual reservoir surface effluxes were initially high, steeply declined in the first three years, and then steadily decreased to ~115gCm -2 yr -1 with increasing reservoir age over the estimated "engineering" reservoir lifetime (i.e., 100years). Sensitivity analyses revealed that increasing air temperature stimulated CO 2 emissions by enhancing CO 2 production in the water column and sediment, and extending the duration of open water period over which emissions occur. Increasing the amount of terrestrial organic C flooded can enhance benthic CO 2 fluxes and CO 2 emissions from the reservoir water surface, but the effects were not significant over the simulation period. The model is useful for the understanding of the mechanism of C dynamics in reservoirs and could be used to assist the hydro-power industry and others interested in the role of boreal hydroelectric reservoirs as sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Remarks on surfaces with $c_1^2 =2\\chi -1$ having non-trivial 2-torsion


    MURAKAMI, Masaaki


    We shall show that any complex minimal surface of general type with $c_1^2 = 2\\chi -1$ having non-trivial 2-torsion divisors, where $c_1^2$ and $\\chi$ are the first Chern number of a surface and the Euler characteristic of the structure sheaf respectively, has the Euler characteristic $\\chi$ not exceeding 4. Moreover, we shall give a complete description for the surfaces of the case $\\chi =4$, and prove that the coarse moduli space for surfaces of this case is a unirational variety of dimensi...

  6. System for δ13C-CO2 and xCO2 analysis of discrete gas samples by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (United States)

    Dickinson, Dane; Bodé, Samuel; Boeckx, Pascal


    A method was devised for analysing small discrete gas samples (50 mL syringe) by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). Measurements were accomplished by inletting 50 mL syringed samples into an isotopic-CO2 CRDS analyser (Picarro G2131-i) between baseline readings of a reference air standard, which produced sharp peaks in the CRDS data feed. A custom software script was developed to manage the measurement process and aggregate sample data in real time. The method was successfully tested with CO2 mole fractions (xCO2) ranging from 20 000 ppm and δ13C-CO2 values from -100 up to +30 000 ‰ in comparison to VPDB (Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite). Throughput was typically 10 samples h-1, with 13 h-1 possible under ideal conditions. The measurement failure rate in routine use was ca. 1 %. Calibration to correct for memory effects was performed with gravimetric gas standards ranging from 0.05 to 2109 ppm xCO2 and δ13C-CO2 levels varying from -27.3 to +21 740 ‰. Repeatability tests demonstrated that method precision for 50 mL samples was ca. 0.05 % in xCO2 and 0.15 ‰ in δ13C-CO2 for CO2 compositions from 300 to 2000 ppm with natural abundance 13C. Long-term method consistency was tested over a 9-month period, with results showing no systematic measurement drift over time. Standardised analysis of discrete gas samples expands the scope of application for isotopic-CO2 CRDS and enhances its potential for replacing conventional isotope ratio measurement techniques. Our method involves minimal set-up costs and can be readily implemented in Picarro G2131-i and G2201-i analysers or tailored for use with other CRDS instruments and trace gases.

  7. Synthesis of (R,S)-[2,3-13C2]-1-(1'-methyl-2'-pyrrolidinyl)propan-2-one; {(R,S)-[2',3'-13C2]hygrinePound right bracePound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, T.W.; Leete, Edward


    2-Ethoxy-1-methyl-5-pyrrolidinone (1) was reacted with ethyl [3,4- 13 C 2 ]-acetoacetate (2) in the presence of TiCl 4 to give ethyl [3,4- 13 C 2 ]-2-(1'-methyl-5'-oxo-2'-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutanoate (3) in 85% yield. Decarboethoxylation of ethyl [3,4- 13 C 2 ]-2-(1'-methyl-5'-oxo-2'-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutan-oate (3) was accomplished using NaCl and H 2 O in DMSO to give (R,S)-[2,3- 13 C 2 ]-1-(1'-methyl-5'-oxo-2'-pyrrolidinyl)propan-2-o ne (4) in 91% yield. Protection of the ketone as a ketal (ethylene glycol, H + ), followed by reduction of the amide to the amine using LiAlH 4 and subsequent deprotection of the ketal gave (R,S)-[2,3- 13 C 2 ]-1-(1'-methyl-2'-pyrrolidinyl)propan-2-one ((R,s)-[2', 3'- 13 C 2 ]Hygrine) (8) in 78% yield. (61% overall yield from ethyl [3,4- 13 C 2 ]acetoacetate). (Author)

  8. Two S-wave gap symmetry for single crystals of the superconductor BaFe1.8Co0.2As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ki-Young; Kim, Soo Hyun; Choi, Changho; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Wang, X.F.; Chen, X.H.; Noh, Jae Dong; Lee, Sung-IK


    To clarify the gap structure of the iron-pnictide superconductors, we synthesized optimally doped single crystals of BaFe 1.8 Co 0.2 As 2 , which had a critical temperature, T c , of 23.6 K. The initial M-H curve was used to find the lower critical field, H c1 . The full range of the temperature dependence of H c1 was explained by using a two S-wave gap symmetry. We estimate the two gap as Δ 1 (0) = 1.64 ± 0.2 meV for the small gap and Δ 2 (0) = 6.20 ± 0.2 meV for the large gap.

  9. Evaluation of the immunogenicity and protective effects of a trivalent chimeric norovirus P particle immunogen displaying influenza HA2 from subtypes H1, H3 and B. (United States)

    Gong, Xin; Yin, He; Shi, Yuhua; He, Xiaoqiu; Yu, Yongjiao; Guan, Shanshan; Kuai, Ziyu; Haji, Nasteha M; Haji, Nafisa M; Kong, Wei; Shan, Yaming


    The ectodomain of the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) stem is highly conserved across strains and has shown promise as a universal influenza vaccine in a mouse model. In this study, potential B-cell epitopes were found through sequence alignment and epitope prediction in a stem fragment, HA2:90-105, which is highly conserved among virus subtypes H1, H3 and B. A norovirus (NoV) P particle platform was used to express the HA2:90-105 sequences from subtypes H1, H3 and B in loops 1, 2 and 3 of the protrusion (P) domain, respectively. Through mouse immunization and microneutralization assays, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the chimeric NoV P particle (trivalent HA2-PP) were tested against infection with three subtypes (H1N1, H3N2 and B) of IAV in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The protective efficacy of the trivalent HA2-PP was also evaluated preliminarily in vivo by virus challenge in the mouse model. The trivalent HA2-PP immunogen induced significant IgG antibody responses, which could be enhanced by a virus booster vaccination. Moreover, the trivalent HA2-PP immunogen also demonstrated in vitro neutralization of the H3 and B viruses, and in vivo protection against the H3 virus. Our results support the notion that a broadly protective vaccine approach using an HA2-based NoV P particle platform can provide cross-protection against challenge viruses of different IAV subtypes. The efficacy of the immunogen should be further enhanced for practicality, and a better understanding of the protective immune mechanism will be critical for the development of HA2-based multivalent vaccines.

  10. Measurement of sigma chi c2 B(chi c2-->J/psi gamma)/sigma chi c1 B(chi c1 -->J/psi gamma) in pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV. (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S


    We measure the ratio of cross section times branching fraction, Rp=sigma chi c2 B(chi c2-->J/psi gamma)/sigma chi c1 B(chi c1-->J/psi gamma), in 1.1 fb(-1) of pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV. This measurement covers the kinematic range pT(J/psi)>4.0 GeV/c, |eta(J/psi)1.0 GeV/c. For events due to prompt processes, we find Rp=0.395+/-0.016(stat)+/-0.015(syst). This result represents a significant improvement in precision over previous measurements of prompt chi c1,2 hadro production.

  11. Enhanced CO2 sequestration by a novel microalga: Scenedesmus obliquus SA1 isolated from bio-diversity hotspot region of Assam, India. (United States)

    Basu, Samarpita; Roy, Abhijit Sarma; Mohanty, Kaustubha; Ghoshal, Aloke K


    The present study aimed to isolate a high CO2 and temperature tolerant microalga capable of sequestering CO2 from flue gas. Microalga strain SA1 was isolated from a freshwater body of Assam and identified as Scenedesmus obliquus (KC733762). At 13.8±1.5% CO2 and 25 °C, maximum biomass (4.975±0.003 g L(-1)) and maximum CO2 fixation rate (252.883±0.361 mg L(-1) d(-1)) were obtained which were higher than most of the relevant studies. At elevated temperature (40 °C) and 13.8±1.5% CO2 maximum biomass (0.883±0.001 g L(-1)) was obtained. The carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and chlorophyll content of the CO2 treated SA1 were 30.87±0.64%, 9.48±1.65%, 33.04±0.46% and 6.03±0.19% respectively, which were higher than previous reports. Thus, SA1 could prove to be a potential candidate for CO2 sequestration from flue gas as well as for the production of value added substances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Over-expressing the C3 photosynthesis cycle enzyme Sedoheptulose-1-7 Bisphosphatase improves photosynthetic carbon gain and yield under fully open air CO2 fumigation (FACE) (United States)


    Background Biochemical models predict that photosynthesis in C3 plants is most frequently limited by the slower of two processes, the maximum capacity of the enzyme Rubisco to carboxylate RuBP (Vc,max), or the regeneration of RuBP via electron transport (J). At current atmospheric [CO2] levels Rubisco is not saturated; consequently, elevating [CO2] increases the velocity of carboxylation and inhibits the competing oxygenation reaction which is also catalyzed by Rubisco. In the future, leaf photosynthesis (A) should be increasingly limited by RuBP regeneration, as [CO2] is predicted to exceed 550 ppm by 2050. The C3 cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphatase (SBPase, EC has been shown to exert strong metabolic control over RuBP regeneration at light saturation. Results We tested the hypothesis that tobacco transformed to overexpressing SBPase will exhibit greater stimulation of A than wild type (WT) tobacco when grown under field conditions at elevated [CO2] (585 ppm) under fully open air fumigation. Growth under elevated [CO2] stimulated instantaneous A and the diurnal photosynthetic integral (A') more in transformants than WT. There was evidence of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO2] via downregulation of Vc,max in both WT and transformants. Nevertheless, greater carbon assimilation and electron transport rates (J and Jmax) for transformants led to greater yield increases than WT at elevated [CO2] compared to ambient grown plants. Conclusion These results provide proof of concept that increasing content and activity of a single photosynthesis enzyme can enhance carbon assimilation and yield of C3 crops grown at [CO2] expected by the middle of the 21st century. PMID:21884586

  13. 1/2-BPS correlators as c = 1 S-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevicki, Antal; Yoneya, Tamiaki


    We argue from two complementary viewpoints of Holography that the 2-point correlation functions of 1/2-BPS multi-trace operators in the large-N (planar) limit are nothing but the (Wick-rotated) S-matrix elements of c = 1 matrix model. On the bulk side, we consider an Euclideanized version of the so-called bubbling geometries and show that the corresponding droplets reach the conformal boundary. Then the scattering matrix of fluctuations of the droplets gives directly the two-point correlators through the GKPW prescription. On the Yang-Mills side, we show that the two-point correlators of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic operators are essentially equivalent with the transformation functions between asymptotic in- and out-states of c = 1 matrix model. Extension to non-planar case is also discussed

  14. GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li diffusion; LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2; lithium ion batteries; layered structure. 1. Introduction ... The coin-type cell CR2012 consisting of a metallic- lithium foil anode ... and the polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) binder with a mass ratio of 4:1:1 in NMP ...

  15. Inference of past atmospheric delta13C and P/sub CO2/ from 13C/12C measurements in tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, S.W.


    Carbon dioxide release from fossil-fuel burning is significant enough that we may soon experience perceptible changes in climate with important human consequences. An accurate reconstruction of past 13 C/ 12 C ratios of atmospheric CO 2 may provide key constraints on the historical activity of the biosphere as CO 2 source or sink. Tree rings appear to be a repository of this information but there is much noise in the collection of previous reconstructions, presumably associated with site selection, radial variability, choice of representative wood chemical constituent, and subtle effects of climate on fractionation. This study attempts to avoid these pitfalls and develop a 50-yr delta 13 C/sub ATM/ record from juniper trees (genus Juniperus), in fact, by taking advantage of the influence of climate on fractionation. Trees were harvested from suitable sites in close proximity to weather stations with monthly records of temperature and precipitation. The most useful relationships for at most 7 of the 10 sites were delta 13 C with December temperature or precipitation, because the coefficients were nearly constant from one interval to the next and the intercepts differed. Local pollution effects are believed responsible for the three anomalous sites. The separation of these regression lines of different intervals is interpreted as the response of the trees to the changing delta 13 C of atmospheric CO 2 so that delta 13 C/sub ATM/ curves are constructed from this spacing. The shape of the best-fit reconstruction suggests the biosphere has acted as CO 2 source to about 1965 and may now be a net sink

  16. Thermal, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the Co xNi1-x(SeO3).2H2O (x = 0, 0.4, 1) phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larranaga, A.; Mesa, J.L.; Pizarro, J.L.; Pena, A.; Chapman, J.P.; Arriortua, M.I.; Rojo, T.


    The Co x Ni 1-x (SeO 3 ).2H 2 O (x = 0, 0.4, 1) family of compounds has been hydrothermally synthesized under autogeneous pressure and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared and UV-vis spectroscopies and thermogravimetric and thermodiffractometric techniques. The crystal structure of Co 0.4 Ni 0.6 (SeO 3 ).2H 2 O has been solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. This phase is isostructural with the M(SeO 3 ).2H 2 O (M = Co and Ni) minerals and crystallizes in the P2 1 /n space group, with a 6.4681(7), b = 8.7816(7), c = 7.5668(7) A, β = 98.927(9) deg and Z = 4. The crystal structure of this series of compounds consists of a three-dimensional framework formed by (SeO 3 ) 2- selenite oxoanions and edge-sharing M 2 O 10 dimeric octahedra in which the metallic cations are coordinated by the oxygens belonging to both the selenite groups and water molecules. The diffuse reflectance spectra show the essential characteristics of Co(II) and Ni(II) cations in slightly distorted octahedral environments. The calculated values of the Dq and Racah (B and C) parameters are those habitually found for the 3d 7 and 3d 8 cations in octahedral coordination. The magnetic measurements indicate the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions in all the compounds. The magnetic exchange pathways involve the metal orbitals from edge-sharing dimeric octahedra and the (SeO 3 ) 2- anions which are linked to the M 2 O 10 polyhedra in three dimensions

  17. Synthesis of New Pyrazolo[5,1-c]triazine, Triazolo[5,1-c]triazine, Triazino[4,3-b]indazole and Benzimidazo[2,1-c]triazine Derivatives Incorporating Chromen-2-one Moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mohamed A.; Sayed, Samia M.; Raslan, Mohamed A. [Aswan Univ., Aswan (Egypt)


    The versatile, hitherto unreported 3-(4-(2-phenyldiazenyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-3-oxopropanenitrile 3 was prepared by two convenient routes: either by the reaction of ethyl 4-(2-phenyldiazenyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate 2 with acetonitrile in the presence of sodium hydride or by treatment of 4-(2-phenyldiazenyl)-3-(2-bromoacetyl)-2H-chromen-2-one 5 with potassium cyanide. Reaction of 3 with heterocyclic diazonium salts 6, 7, 14 and 17 furnished the corresponding hydrazones 8, 9, 15 and 18. The latter hydrazones underwent intramolecular cyclization into the corresponding pyrazolo[5,1-c]-1,2,4-triazine 10, 1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-c]-1,2,4-triazine 11, 1,2,4-triazino[4,3-b]indazole 16 and imidazo[2,1-c]-1,2,4-triazine 19 derivatives, respectively upon refluxing in pyridine.

  18. Role of nuclear dynamics in the asymmetric molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions for C 1s photoejection from CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabe, S.; Haxton, D. J.; Rescigno, T. N.; McCurdy, C. W.


    We report the results of semiclassical calculations of the asymmetric molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions for C 1s ionization of CO 2 measured with respect to the CO + and O + ions produced by subsequent Auger decay, and show how the decay event can be used to probe ultrafast molecular dynamics of the transient cation. The fixed-nuclei photoionization amplitudes were constructed using variationally obtained electron-molecular-ion scattering wave functions. The amplitudes are then used in a semiclassical manner to investigate their dependence on the nuclear dynamics of the cation. The method introduced here can be used to study other core-level ionization events.

  19. Preparo do solo e emissão de CO2, temperatura e umidade do solo em área canavieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano L. Iamaguti


    Full Text Available O preparo mecânico do solo é uma das práticas agrícolas que contribuem para o aumento da perda de carbono via emissão de CO2 do solo (FCO2. Com este trabalho objetivou-se investigar o efeito de três sistemas de preparo do solo na FCO2, temperatura e umidade do solo em área de reforma da cultura de cana-de-açúcar. A área experimental foi constituída de três parcelas, cada uma recebendo um dos preparos do solo: preparo convencional (PC, subsolagem convencional (SC e subsolagem localizada (SL. A FCO2, temperatura e a umidade do solo foram avaliadas durante o período total de 17 dias. A FCO2 foi maior no preparo PC (0,75 g CO2 m-2 h-1. A temperatura do solo não diferiu (p > 0,05 entre as subsolagens: SL (26,2 ºC e SC (25,9 ºC. A umidade do solo foi maior na SL (24%, seguida pela SC (21,8% e preparo PC (18,3%. Apenas no preparo PC foi observada correlação significativa (r = –0,71; p < 0,05 entre FCO2 e a temperatura do solo. O preparo PC apresentou emissão total (2.864,3 kg CO2 ha-1, superior às emissões nas subsolagens: SC (1.970,9 kg CO2 ha-1 e SL (1.707,7 kg CO2 ha-1. A conversão do sistema de preparo PC para a SL diminuiu as emissões de CO2 do solo, reduzindo a contribuição da agricultura para o aumento dos gases de efeito estufa na atmosfera.

  20. Crystal structure of a 2:1 piroxicam–gentisic acid co-crystal featuring neutral and zwitterionic piroxicam molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Horstman


    Full Text Available A new 2:1 co-crystal of piroxicam and gentisic acid [systematic name: 4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-N-(pyridin-2-yl-2H-1λ6,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide–2-(4-oxido-1,1-dioxo-2H-1λ6,2-benzothiazine-3-amidopyridin-1-ium–2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2C15H13N3O4S·C7H6O4] has been synthesized using a microfluidic platform and initially identified using Raman spectroscopy. In the co-crystal, one piroxicam molecule is in its neutral form and an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The other piroxicam molecule is zwitterionic (proton transfer from the OH group to the pyridine N atom and two intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds occur. The gentisic acid molecule shows whole-molecule disorder over two sets of sites in a 0.809 (2:0.191 (2 ratio. In the crystal, extensive hydrogen bonding between the components forms layers propagating in the ab plane.

  1. Non-weight-bearing status compromises the functional level up to 1 yr after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza-Vega, Patrocinio; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Kristensen, Morten Tange


    , age, health status, and cognitive impairment of the patient were associated negatively with the 1-yr functional outcome (P ≤ 0.03). Prefracture functional level and non-WB status were the strongest determinants of functional level (β = 0.599 and -0.204, respectively; P ... after surgery, in addition to prefracture function, cognitive status, health status, age and fracture type, was found to be an independent predictor of the 1-yr functional outcome in hip fracture patients....

  2. Synthesis of 1-benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy[2-14C]-1-indanon)-2-YL]-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (E2020-14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimura, Youichi; Mishima, Mannen; Sugimoto, Hachiro


    1-Benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy[2- 14 C]-1-indanon)-2-yl]-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (E2020- 14 C), and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for studying the pharmacokinetic profiles of E2020, was synthesized from 5,6-dimethoxy[2- 14 C]-1-indanone as the labelled starting material. (author)

  3. CO2 laser photolysis of clustered ions, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Yasumasa; Soga, Takeshi; Suzuki, Kazuya; Ohno, Shin-ichi.


    Vibrational excitation and the following decomposition of cluster ions by CO 2 laser photons are studied. Characteristics of the cluster ion and the CO 2 laser photon are summarized in their relation to the photolysis of cluster ions. An apparatus was installed, which is composed of (1) corona discharge-jet expansion section (formation of cluster ions), (2) CO 2 laser section (photolysis of cluster ions), and (3) mass spectrometer section. Experimental results of ammonia cluster ions were described. Effects of repeller voltage, shape of repellers, and adiabatic cooling are examined on the formation of ammonia cluster ions by corona discharge-jet expansion method. Collisional dissociation of cluster ions was observed at high repeller voltages. Size distribution of the ammonia cluster ion is discussed in connection with the temperature of cluster ions. Intensity of CO 2 laser was related to decomposition yield of cluster ions. (author)

  4. Synthesis, Physico-chemical Characterization, Crystal Structure and Influence on Microbial and Tumor Cells of Some Co(II Complexes with 5,7-Dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Măruţescu


    Full Text Available Three complexes, namely [Co(dmtp2(OH24][CoCl4] (1, [Co(dmtp2Cl2] (2 and [Co(dmtp2(OH24]Cl22H2O (3 (dmtp: 5,7-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, were synthesized and characterized by spectral (IR, UV-Vis-NIR, and magnetic measurements at room temperature, as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex (1 crystallizes in monoclinic system (space group C2/c, complex (2 adopts an orthorhombic system (space group Pbca, and complex (3 crystallizes in triclinic system (space group P1. Various types of extended hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions provide a supramolecular architecture for all complexes. All species were evaluated for antimicrobial activity towards planktonic and biofilm-embedded microbial cells and influence on HEp-2 cell viability, cellular cycle and gene expression.

  5. Estimating photosynthesis and concurrent export rates in C3 and C4 species at ambient and elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinski, B.; Jiao, J.; Leonardos, E.D.


    The ability of 21 C3 and C4 monocot and dicot species to rapidly export newly fixed C in the light at both ambient and enriched CO2 levels was compared. Photosynthesis and concurrent export rates were estimated during isotopic equilibrium of the transport sugars using a steady-state 14CO2-labeling procedure. At ambient CO2 photosynthesis and export rates for C3 species were 5 to 15 and 1 to 10 micromole C m-2 s-1, respectively, and 20 to 30 and 15 to 22 micromole C m-2 s-1, respectively, for C4 species. A linear regression plot of export on photosynthesis rate of all species had a correlation coefficient of 0.87. When concurrent export was expressed as a percentage of photosynthesis, several C3 dicots that produced transport sugars other than Suc had high efflux rates relative to photosynthesis, comparable to those of C4 species. At high CO2 photosynthetic and export rates were only slightly altered in C4 species, and photosynthesis increased but export rates did not in all C3 species. The C3 species that had high efflux rates relative to photosynthesis at ambient CO2 exported at rates comparable to those of C4 species on both an absolute basis and as a percentage of photosynthesis. At ambient CO2 there were strong linear relationships between photosynthesis, sugar synthesis, and concurrent export. However, at high CO2 the relationships between photosynthesis and export rate and between sugar synthesis and export rate were not as strong because sugars and starch were accumulated

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11980-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available one) Debaryomyces hansenii chromosome... 75 1e-11 AY155346_1( AY155346 |pid:none) Bactrocera cucurbita... |pid:none) Bactrocera tryoni scarlet gene, co... 52 2e-04 AY055816_1( AY055816 |pid:none) Bactrocera cucu...rbitae ABC membrane... 52 2e-04 CP000497_149( CP000497 |pid:none) Pichia stipitis C

  7. Modeling single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 genes: implications for functional and genotyping analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W Arthur


    Full Text Available Enzymes encoded by the AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 genes are responsible for the metabolism of progesterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT, respectively. The effect of amino acid substitutions, resulting from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the AKR1C2 gene, on the enzyme kinetics of the AKR1C2 gene product were determined experimentally by Takashi et al. In this paper, we used homology modeling to predict and analyze the structure of AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 genetic variants. The experimental reduction in enzyme activity in the AKR1C2 variants F46Y and L172Q, as determined by Takahashi et al., is predicted to be due to increased instability in cofactor binding, caused by disruptions to the hydrogen bonds between NADP and AKR1C2, resulting from the insertion of polar residues into largely non-polar environments near the site of cofactor binding. Other AKR1C2 variants were shown to involve either conservative substitutions or changes taking place on the surface of the molecule and distant from the active site, confirming the experimental finding of Takahashi et al. that these variants do not result in any statistically significant reduction in enzyme activity. The AKR1C1 R258C variant is predicted to have no effect on enzyme activity for similar reasons. Thus, we provide further insight into the molecular mechanism of the enzyme kinetics of these proteins. Our data also highlight previously reported difficulties with online databases.

  8. Insertion and C-H Bond Activation of Unsaturated Substrates by Bis(benzamidinato)yttrium Alkyl, [PhC(NSiMe3)2]2YR (R = CH2Ph·THF, CH(SiMe3)2), and Hydrido, {[PhC(NSiMe3)2]2Y(μ-H)}2, Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchateau, Robbert; Wee, Cornelis T. van; Teuben, Jan H.


    The reactivity of benzamidinate-stabilized yttrium complexes [PhC(NSiMe3)2]2YR (R = CH2Ph·THF, CH(SiMe3)2) and {[PhC(NSiMe3)2]2Y(μ-H)}2 has been investigated. The complexes are thermally stable showing no sign of decomposition, ligand or solvent metalation, or H/D exchange after hours at 100 °C in

  9. Effect of dolomite and biochar addition on N2O and CO2 emissions from acidic tea field soil. (United States)

    Oo, Aung Zaw; Sudo, Shigeto; Akiyama, Hiroko; Win, Khin Thuzar; Shibata, Akira; Yamamoto, Akinori; Sano, Tomohito; Hirono, Yuhei


    A laboratory study was conducted to study the effects of liming and different biochar amendments on N2O and CO2 emissions from acidic tea field soil. The first experiment was done with three different rates of N treatment; N 300 (300 kg N ha-1), N 600 (600 kg N ha-1) and N 900 (900 kg N ha-1) and four different rates of bamboo biochar amendment; 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% biochar. The second experiment was done with three different biochars at a rate of 2% (rice husk, sawdust, and bamboo) and a control and lime treatment (dolomite) and control at two moisture levels (50% and 90% water filled pore space (WFPS)). The results showed that dolomite and biochar amendment significantly increased soil pH. However, only biochar amendment showed a significant increase in total carbon (C), C/N (the ratio of total carbon and total nitrogen), and C/IN ratio (the ratio of total carbon and inorganic nitrogen) at the end of incubation. Reduction in soil NO3--N concentration was observed under different biochar amendments. Bamboo biochar with the rates of 0.5, 1 and 2% reduced cumulative N2O emission by 38%, 48% and 61%, respectively, compare to the control soil in experiment 1. Dolomite and biochar, either alone or combined significantly reduced cumulative N2O emission by 4.6% to 32.7% in experiment 2. Reduction in N2O production under biochar amendment was due to increases in soil pH and decreases in the magnitude of mineral-N in soil. Although, both dolomite and biochar increased cumulative CO2 emission, only biochar amendment had a significant effect. The present study suggests that application of dolomite and biochar to acidic tea field soil can mitigate N2O emissions.

  10. Synthesis and two-electron redox behavior of diazuleno[2,1-a:1,2-c]naphthalenes. (United States)

    Ito, Shunji; Nomura, Akiko; Morita, Noboru; Kabuto, Chizuko; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Maejima, Seiko; Fujimori, Kunihide; Yasunami, Masafumi


    The Diels-Alder reaction of di-2-azulenylacetylene with tetraphenylcyclopentadienone afforded 7,8,9,10-tetraphenyldiazuleno[2,1-a:1,2-c]naphthalene in one pot via autoxidation of the presumed 1,2-di-2-azulenylbenzene derivative. In contrast, a similar reaction of bis(1-methoxycarbonyl-2-azulenyl)acetylene with tetraphenylcyclopentadienone gave the 1,2-di-2-azulenylbenzene derivative. The following cyclodehydrogenation reaction of the benzene derivative with iron(III) chloride afforded diazuleno[2,1-a:1,2-c]naphthalene 6,11-bismethoxycarbonyl derivative. The redox behavior of these novel diazuleno[2,1-a:1,2-c]naphthalenes was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). These compounds exhibited two-step oxidation waves at +0.22 to +0.71 V upon CV, which revealed the formation of a radical cation and dication stabilized by the fused two azulene rings under the electrochemical oxidation conditions. Since the 1,2-di-2-azulenylbenzene derivative was oxidized at higher oxidation potentials (+0.83 and +1.86 V), the fusion of the two azulene rings to naphthalene increased electron-donating properties because of the formation of a closed-shell dicationic structure. Formation of the radical cation was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy under the electrochemical oxidation conditions, although no evidence was obtained for the presumed dication under the conditions of the UV-vis spectroscopy measurement.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Rh-Co Butterfly Clusters Capped by Functionally Substituted 1-Alkynes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱保华; 胡斌; 张伟强; 边治国; 赵全义; 殷元骐; 孙杰


    By the reactions of [Rh2Co2(CO)12] 1 with functionally substituted alkyne ligands HC≡CR 2 (R = FeCp2) and 3 (R = 2-OH-C6H4COOCH2), respectively in n-hexane at room temperature, two new cluster derivatives [Rh2Co2(CO)6(μ-CO)4(μ4, η2-HC≡CR)] 4 (R = FeCp2) and 5 (R = 2-OH-C6H4COOCH2) were obtained respectively. The alkyne was inserted into the Co-Co bond of cluster 1 to give two butterfly clusters. Cluster 4 has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic data: C22H10Co2FeO10Rh2, Mr = 813.83, orthorhombic, space group P212121, a = 11.5318(7), b = 12.6572(7), c = 17.018(1) A。, V = 2483.9(3) A。3, Z = 4, Dc = 2.176 g/cm3, F(000) = 1568, μ = 3.233 mm-1, the final R = 0.0366 and wR = 0.0899 for 5367 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The two clusters have also been characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  12. Hb variants in Korea: effect on HbA1c using five routine methods. (United States)

    Yun, Yeo-Min; Ji, Misuk; Ko, Dae-Hyun; Chun, Sail; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Lee, Kyunghoon; Song, Sang Hoon; Seong, Moon Woo; Park, Sung Sup; Song, Junghan


    Quantification of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a challenge in patients with hemoglobin (Hb) variants. We evaluated the impact of various Hb variants on five routine HbA1c assays by comparing with the IFCC reference measurement procedure (RMP). Whole blood samples showing warning flags or no results on routine HPLC HbA1c assays were confirmed for Hb variants and were submitted to HbA1c quantification using Sebia Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing, Roche Tina-quant HbA1c Gen. 2, Bio-Rad Variant II Turbo 2.0, ADAMS HA-8180, Tosoh G8 standard mode, and IFCC RMP using LC-MS. Among 114 samples, the most common variants were Hb G-Coushatta (n=47), Queens (n=41), Ube-4 (n=11), Chad (n=4), Yamagata (n=4), G-His-Tsou (n=2), G-Taipei (n=1), Fort de France (n=1), Hoshida (n=1), and two novel variants (Hb α-globin, HBA 52 Gly>Cys and Hb β-globin, HBB 146 His>Asn). In terms of control samples, all the result of HbA1c were "acceptable", within the criteria of ±7% compared to IFCC RMP target values. However, percentage of "unacceptable" results of samples with Hb variants were 16% for Capillarys 2, 7% for Tina-quant, 51% for Variant II Turbo 2.0, 95% for G8 standard mode, and 89% for HA-8180. The Capillarys 2 and HA-8180 assay did not provide the results in 5 and 40 samples with Hb variants, respectively. HbA1c results from five routine assays in patients with relatively common Hb variants in Korea showed various degrees of bias compared to those of IFCC RMP. Therefore, laboratories should be aware of the limitation of their methods with respect to interference from Hb variants found commonly in their local population and suggest an alternative HbA1c quantification method.

  13. Global and regional emissions estimates of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) from in situ and air archive observations (United States)

    Simmonds, P. G.; Rigby, M.; Manning, A. J.; Lunt, M. F.; O'Doherty, S.; McCulloch, A.; Fraser, P. J.; Henne, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Mühle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Salameh, P. K.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Wenger, A.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Dunse, B. L.; Miller, B. R.; Lunder, C. R.; Hermansen, O.; Schmidbauer, N.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Park, S.; Li, S.; Yao, B.; Zhou, L. X.; Arduini, J.; Maione, M.; Wang, R. H. J.; Ivy, D.; Prinn, R. G.


    High frequency, in situ observations from 11 globally distributed sites for the period 1994-2014 and archived air measurements dating from 1978 onward have been used to determine the global growth rate of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2). These observations have been combined with a range of atmospheric transport models to derive global emission estimates in a top-down approach. HFC-152a is a greenhouse gas with a short atmospheric lifetime of about 1.5 years. Since it does not contain chlorine or bromine, HFC-152a makes no direct contribution to the destruction of stratospheric ozone and is therefore used as a substitute for the ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). The concentration of HFC-152a has grown substantially since the first direct measurements in 1994, reaching a maximum annual global growth rate of 0.84 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1 in 2006, implying a substantial increase in emissions up to 2006. However, since 2007, the annual rate of growth has slowed to 0.38 ± 0.04 ppt yr-1 in 2010 with a further decline to an annual average rate of growth in 2013-2014 of -0.06 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1. The annual average Northern Hemisphere (NH) mole fraction in 1994 was 1.2 ppt rising to an annual average mole fraction of 10.1 ppt in 2014. Average annual mole fractions in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) in 1998 and 2014 were 0.84 and 4.5 ppt, respectively. We estimate global emissions of HFC-152a have risen from 7.3 ± 5.6 Gg yr-1 in 1994 to a maximum of 54.4 ± 17.1 Gg yr-1 in 2011, declining to 52.5 ± 20.1 Gg yr-1 in 2014 or 7.2 ± 2.8 Tg-CO2 eq yr-1. Analysis of mole fraction enhancements above regional background atmospheric levels suggests substantial emissions from North America, Asia, and Europe. Global HFC emissions (so called "bottom up" emissions) reported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are based on cumulative national emission data reported to the UNFCCC, which in turn are based on

  14. Altered expression of hyaluronan, HAS1-2, and HYAL1-2 in oral lichen planus. (United States)

    Siponen, Maria; Kullaa, Arja; Nieminen, Pentti; Salo, Tuula; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna


    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated mucosal disease of unclear etiology and of unresolved pathogenesis. Hyaluronan (HA) is an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan involved in inflammation and tumor progression. However, its presence in OLP has not been reported. We therefore aimed to study the immunohistochemical expression of HA, its receptor CD44, hyaluronan synthases (HAS1-3), and hyaluronidases (HYAL1-2) in OLP. The presence of HA, CD44, HAS1-3, and HYAL1-2 was studied by immunohistochemical methods in 55 OLP and 23 control oral mucosal specimens (CTR). The localization, intensity, and differences of the epithelial expression between OLP and CTRs were analyzed. HA and CD44 were found on cell membranes in the epithelial basal and intermediate layers in CTR and OLP specimens. The HA staining intensity was stronger in the basal layer of the epithelium in OLP than in CTRs (P < 0.001). HAS1 (P = 0.001) and HAS2 (P < 0.001) showed stronger staining in the basal and weaker staining in the superficial (P < 0.001) epithelial layers in OLP than in CTRs. The immunostaining of HAS3 was low in both OLP and CTRs. Positive HYAL1 and HYAL2 staining were mainly found in the basal and intermediate epithelial layers, and their intensities were significantly increased in OLP, except HYAL 2 in the intermediate epithelial layer. HA, HAS1-2, and HYAL1-2 have altered expression in OLP compared to CTRs and may therefore have a role in OLP pathogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Spectroelectrochemical Study of Carbon Monoxide and Ethanol Oxidation on Pt/C, PtSn(3:1/C and PtSn(1:1/C Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Rizo


    Full Text Available PtSn-based catalysts are one of the most active materials toward that contribute ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR. In order to gain a better understanding of the Sn influence on the carbon monoxide (principal catalyst poison and ethanol oxidation reactions in acidic media, a systematic spectroelectrochemical study was carried out. With this end, carbon-supported PtSnx (x = 0, 1/3 and 1 materials were synthesized and employed as anodic catalysts for both reactions. In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS indicate that Sn diminishes the amount of bridge bonded CO (COB and greatly improves the CO tolerance of Pt-based catalysts. Regarding the effect of Sn loading on the EOR, it enhances the catalytic activity and decreases the onset potential. FTIRS and DEMS analysis indicate that the C-C bond scission occurs at low overpotentials and at the same potential values regardless of the Sn loading, although the amount of C-C bond breaking decreases with the rise of Sn in the catalytic material. Therefore, the elevated catalytic activity toward the EOR at PtSn-based electrodes is mainly associated with the improved CO tolerance and the incomplete oxidation of ethanol to form acetic acid and acetaldehyde species, causing the formation of a higher amount of both C2 products with the rise of Sn loading.

  16. A novel layered bimetallic phosphite intercalating with organic amines: Synthesis and characterization of Co(H2O)4Zn4(HPO3)6.C2N2H1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhien; Fan Wei; Gao Feifei; Chino, Naotaka; Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Okubo, Tatsuya


    A new layered cobalt-zinc phosphite, Co(H 2 O) 4 Zn 4 (HPO 3 ) 6 .C 2 N 2 H 1 has been synthesized in the presence of ethylenediamine as the structure-directing agent. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group Cc (No. 9), a=18.2090(8), b=9.9264(7), c=15.4080(7) A, β=114.098(4) o , V=2542.3(2) A 3 , Z=4, R=0.0323, wR=0.0846. The structure consists of ZnO 4 tetrahedra, CoO 6 octahedra and HPO 3 pseudopyramids through their vertices forming bimetallic phosphite layers parallel to the ab plane. Organic cations, which reside between the inorganic layers, are mobile and can be exchanged by NH 4 + cations without the collapse of the framework

  17. Growth mechanisms for spherical mixed hydroxide agglomerates prepared by co-precipitation method: A case of Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3(OH)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; Xie, Ming; He, Yinghe; Huang, Guoyong; Yang, Youcai


    Highlights: • Anisotropic growth of Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 (OH) 2 along the [0 0 1] direction was revealed. • DFT calculation results show crystal surface energies of (0 0 1) plane is highest. • A new model was proposed to explain the formation of spherical agglomerates. - Abstract: Spherical Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 (OH) 2 agglomerates were synthesized by the co-precipitation method in the presence of ammonia. The results show that the growth mechanism of spherical agglomerates follows three-stages, i.e. nucleation and anisotropic growth of single crystals; agglomeration of polycrystalline crystallites agglomerated by single crystal grains as primary particles to form embryonic agglomerates; formation, growth and consolidation of spherical agglomerates or particles by agglomeration of embryonic agglomerates, continued growth of individual crystals in the agglomerates and further attachment of primary particles. The first two stages are very fast while the last stage takes almost the entire process to complete. The main reason for the anisotropic growth of Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 (OH) 2 crystal is that crystal surface energy of E (001) , E (100) , E (101) and E (102) is different with E (001) being the highest. The morphology of the final spherical agglomerates is explained by partial re-crystallization of contacting primary particles. The growth process of spherical agglomerates was examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and calculation of crystal surface energy using density function theory

  18. Evaluation of the immunogenicity and protective effects of a trivalent chimeric norovirus P particle immunogen displaying influenza HA2 from subtypes H1, H3 and B


    Gong, Xin; Yin, He; Shi, Yuhua; He, Xiaoqiu; Yu, Yongjiao; Guan, Shanshan; Kuai, Ziyu; Haji, Nasteha M; Haji, Nafisa M; Kong, Wei; Shan, Yaming


    The ectodomain of the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) stem is highly conserved across strains and has shown promise as a universal influenza vaccine in a mouse model. In this study, potential B-cell epitopes were found through sequence alignment and epitope prediction in a stem fragment, HA2:90-105, which is highly conserved among virus subtypes H1, H3 and B. A norovirus (NoV) P particle platform was used to express the HA2:90-105 sequences from subtypes H1, H3 and B in loops 1, 2 ...

  19. Solvent-Mediated Synthesis of M(II-Coordination Polymer Part 1: Crystal Structure of Poly(1,2-di(4-pyridylethylene-k2N,N'-bis(1,4-benzenediacetato-k4O,O′,O′′,O′′'zinc(II], C22H18ZnN2O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Adie Adalikwu


    Full Text Available An interaction of water-methanol solution of sodium1,4-benzenediacetate (bda and 4,4′-bipyridylethelene (bpee with aqueous solution of Zn(NO32·6H2O at room temperature yielded colourless crystals of 1 after three weeks in a sealed glass tube. The compound with composition C22H18ZnN2O4 crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/c, with the following cell dimensions: a = 10.4566(2, b = 13.3085(2, c = 13.7189(2 Å, β = 101.491(1°. In the structure of 1, two Zn(II neighbours are connected by two bda ligands adopting chelating and bidentate-bridging coordination modes to form a dimeric unit (Zn2O8N4 with the Zn–Zn distance of 4.0432(6 Å. The carboxyl-bridged dimeric units are extended along the [001] direction by bpee co-ligands and further linked by bda ligand to form a three-dimensional network structure. The IR shows the characteristic bands of the carboxylates at 1611/1507 cm−1 and 1424/1373 cm−1, respectively, for asymmetric and symmetric stretching −CO2− vibrations. The separation ∆[νasym(CO2− − νsym(CO2−] values of 187 and 134 cm−1 are indicative of chelating and bidentate bridging coordination modes of the carboxylate to the metal centre.

  20. Anaerobic C1 metabolism of the O-methyl-14C-labeled substituent of vanillate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazer, A.C.; Young, L.Y.


    The O-methyl substituents of aromatic compounds constitute a C 1 growth substrate for a number of taxonomically diverse anaerobic acetogens. In this study, strain TH-001, an O-demethylating obligate anaerobe, was chosen to represent this physiological group, and the carbon flow when cells were grown on O-methyl substituents as a C 1 substrate was determined by 14 C radiotracer techniques. O-[methyl- 14 C]vanillate (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoate) was used as the labeled C 1 substrate. The data showed that for every O-methyl carbon converted to [ 14 C]acetate, two were oxidized to 14 CO 2 . Quantitation of the carbon recovered in the two products, acetate and CO 2 , indicated that acetate was formed in part by the fixation of unlabeled CO 2 . The specific activity of 14 C in acetate was 70% of that in the O-methyl substrate, suggesting that only one carbon of acetate was derived from the O-methyl group. Thus, it is postulated that the carboxyl carbon of the product acetate is derived from CO 2 and the methyl carbon is derived from the O-methyl substituent of vanillate

  1. Synthesis of 0.3Li2MnO3·0.7LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials using 3-D urchin-like MnO2 as precursor for high performance lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chenhao; Hu, Zhibiao; Zhou, Yunlong; Fang, Shuzhen; Cai, Shaohan


    In the paper, we report synthesis of lithium rich layered oxide 0.3Li 2 MnO 3 ·0.7LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 by using an urchin-like MnO 2 as precursor. The influences of calcination temperatures on the structures and electrochemical performances of as-prepared materials are systematically studied. The results show that the obtained sample can partially retain the morphology of urchin-like precursor especially at low temperature, and a higher calcination temperature helps to improve the layered structure and particle size. As lithium ion battery cathodes, the 750 °C sample with the size of 100–200 nm reveals an optimal electrochemical performance. The initial discharge capacity of 234.6 mAh g −1 with high Coulombic efficiency of 84.6 % can be reached at 0.1C within 2.0–4.7 V. After 50 cycles, the capacity retention can reach 90.2 % at 0.5C. Even at high current density of 5C, the sample also shows a stable discharge capacity of 120.5 mAh g −1 . Anyways, the urchin-like MnO 2 directed route is suitable to prepare 0.3Li 2 MnO 3 ·0.7LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 as lithium ion battery cathode

  2. Carbon dynamics in an Imperata grassland in Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrabati Thokchom


    Full Text Available Carbon stocks and soil CO2 flux were assessed in an Imperata cylindrica grassland of Manipur, Northeast India. Carbon stocks in the vegetative components were estimated to be 11.17 t C/ha and soil organic carbon stocks were 55.94 t C/ha to a depth of 30 cm. The rates of carbon accumulation in above-ground and below-ground biomass were estimated to be 11.85 t C/ha/yr and 11.71 t C/ha/yr, respectively. Annual soil CO2 flux was evaluated as 6.95 t C/ha and was highly influenced by soil moisture, soil temperature and soil organic carbon as well as by C stocks in above-ground biomass. Our study on the carbon budget of the grassland ecosystem revealed that annually 23.56 t C/ha was captured by the vegetation through photosynthesis, and 6.95 t C/ha was returned to the atmosphere through roots and microbial respiration, with a net balance of 16.61 t C/ha/yr being retained in the grassland ecosystem. Thus the present Imperata grassland exhibited a high capacity to remove atmospheric CO2 and to induce high C stocks in the soil provided it is protected from burning and overgrazing.Keywords: Above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass, carbon stocks, carbon storage, net primary productivity, soil CO2 flux.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(419-28  

  3. Interaction of C1q and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) with C1r, C1s, MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2, and the MBL-associated protein MAp19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, S; Petersen, Steen Vang; Vorup-Jensen, T


    . There is controversy as to whether MBL can utilize C1r and C1s or, inversely, whether C1q can utilize MASP-1 and 2. Serum deficient in C1r produced no complement activation in IgG-coated microwells, whereas activation was seen in mannan-coated microwells. In serum, C1r and C1s were found to be associated only with C1q...

  4. Urchin-Like Ni1/3Co2/3(CO3)1/2(OH)·0.11H2O for Ultrahigh-Rate Electrochemical Supercapacitors: Structural Evolution from Solid to Hollow. (United States)

    Wei, Wutao; Cui, Shizhong; Ding, Luoyi; Mi, Liwei; Chen, Weihua; Hu, Xianluo


    Portable electronics and electric or hybrid electric vehicles are developing in the trend of fast charge and long electric mileage, which ask us to design a novel electrode with sufficient electronic and ionic transport channels at the same time. Herein, we fabricate a uniform hollow-urchin-like Ni 1/3 Co 2/3 (CO 3 ) 1/2 (OH)·0.11H 2 O electrode material through an easy self-generated and resacrificial template method. The one-dimensional chain-like crystal structure unit containing the metallic bonding and the intercalated OH - and H 2 O endow this electrode material with abundant electronic and ionic transport channels. The hollow-urchin-like structure built by nanorods contributes to the large electrode-electrolyte contact area ensuring the supply of ions at high current. CNTs are employed to transport electrons between electrode material and current collector. The as-assembled NC-CNT-2//AC supercapacitor device exhibits a high specific capacitance of 108.3 F g -1 at 20 A g -1 , a capacitance retention ratio of 96.2% from 0.2 to 20 A g -1 , and long cycle life. Comprehensive investigations unambiguously highlight that the unique hollow-urchin-like Ni 1/3 Co 2/3 (CO 3 ) 1/2 (OH)·0.11H 2 O electrode material would be the right candidate for advanced next-generation supercapacitors.

  5. Responses of C4 grasses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment : I. Effect of irradiance. (United States)

    Sionit, Nasser; Patterson, David T


    The growth and photosynethetic responses to atmospheric CO 2 enrichment of 4 species of C 4 grasses grown at two levels of irradiance were studied. We sought to determine whether CO 2 enrichment would yield proportionally greater growth enhancement in the C 4 grasses when they were grown at low irradiance than when grown at high irradiance. The species studied were Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, and Setaria faberi. Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers at 350, 675 and 1,000 μl 1 -1 CO 2 and 1,000 or 150 μmol m -2 s -1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). An increase in CO 2 concentration and PPFD significantly affected net photosynthesis and total biomass production of all plants. Plants grown at low PPFD had significantly lower rates of photosynthesis, produced less biomass, and had reduced responses to increases in CO 2 . Plants grown in CO 2 -enriched atmosphere had lower photosynthetic capacity relative to the low CO 2 grown plants when exposed to lower CO 2 concentration at the time of measurement, but had greater rate of photosynthesis when exposed to increasing PPFD. The light level under which the plants were growing did not influence the CO 2 compensation point for photosynthesis.

  6. Solid-phase reversible trap for [ sup 1 sup 1 C]carbon dioxide using carbon molecular sieves

    CERN Document Server

    Mock, B H; Mulholland, G T


    A simple, maintenance-free trapping technique which concentrates and purifies no-carrier-added sup 1 sup 1 CO sub 2 from gas targets is described. The trap requires no liquid nitrogen cooling and has no moving parts besides solenoid valves. It employs carbon molecular sieves to adsorb sup 1 sup 1 CO sub 2 selectively from gas targets at room temperature. Nitrogen, O sub 2 , CO, NO and moisture in the target gas which could interfere with subsequent radiochemical steps are not retained. Trapping efficiency of 1 g of sieve for sup 1 sup 1 CO sub 2 from a 240 cm sup 3 target gas dump and helium flush cycle is <99%, and the adsorbed sup 1 sup 1 CO sub 2 is recovered quantitatively as a small concentrated bolus from the carbon sieve trap by thermal desorption. This durable trap has performed reliably for more than 1 y with a single charge of carbon sieve. It has simplified the production, and improved the yields of several sup 1 sup 1 C-radiochemicals at this laboratory.

  7. Changes in Air CO2 Concentration Differentially Alter Transcript Levels of NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 Aquaporin Genes in Tobacco Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Secchi


    Full Text Available The aquaporin specific control on water versus carbon pathways in leaves is pivotal in controlling gas exchange and leaf hydraulics. We investigated whether Nicotiana tabacum aquaporin 1 (NtAQP1 and Nicotiana tabacum plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2;1 (NtPIP2;1 gene expression varies in tobacco leaves subjected to treatments with different CO2 concentrations (ranging from 0 to 800 ppm, inducing changes in photosynthesis, stomatal regulation and water evaporation from the leaf. Changes in air CO2 concentration ([CO2] affected net photosynthesis (Pn and leaf substomatal [CO2] (Ci. Pn was slightly negative at 0 ppm air CO2; it was one-third that of ambient controls at 200 ppm, and not different from controls at 800 ppm. Leaves fed with 800 ppm [CO2] showed one-third reduced stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration (E, and their gs was in turn slightly lower than in 200 ppm– and in 0 ppm–treated leaves. The 800 ppm air [CO2] strongly impaired both NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 gene expression, whereas 0 ppm air [CO2], a concentration below any in vivo possible conditions and specifically chosen to maximize the gene expression alteration, increased only the NtAQP1 transcript level. We propose that NtAQP1 expression, an aquaporin devoted to CO2 transport, positively responds to CO2 scarcity in the air in the whole range 0–800 ppm. On the contrary, expression of NtPIP2;1, an aquaporin not devoted to CO2 transport, is related to water balance in the leaf, and changes in parallel with gs. These observations fit in a model where upregulation of leaf aquaporins is activated at low Ci, while downregulation occurs when high Ci saturates photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure.

  8. Decadal trends in global CO emissions as seen by MOPITT (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Broquet, G.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Pison, I.; Saunois, M.


    Negative trends of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations are observed in the recent decade by both surface measurements and satellite retrievals over many regions of the globe, but they are not well explained by current emission inventories. Here, we analyse the observed CO concentration decline with an atmospheric inversion that simultaneously optimizes the two main CO sources (surface emissions and atmospheric hydrocarbon oxidations) and the main CO sink (atmospheric hydroxyl radical OH oxidation). Satellite CO column retrievals from Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), version 6, and surface observations of methane and methyl chloroform mole fractions are assimilated jointly for the period covering 2002-2011. Compared to the model simulation prescribed with prior emission inventories, trends in the optimized CO concentrations show better agreement with that of independent surface in situ measurements. At the global scale, the atmospheric inversion primarily interprets the CO concentration decline as a decrease in the CO emissions (-2.3 % yr-1), more than twice the negative trend estimated by the prior emission inventories (-1.0 % yr-1). The spatial distribution of the inferred decrease in CO emissions indicates contributions from western Europe (-4.0 % yr-1), the United States (-4.6 % yr-1) and East Asia (-1.2 % yr-1), where anthropogenic fuel combustion generally dominates the overall CO emissions, and also from Australia (-5.3 % yr-1), the Indo-China Peninsula (-5.6 % yr-1), Indonesia (-6.7 % y-1), and South America (-3 % yr-1), where CO emissions are mostly due to biomass burning. In contradiction with the bottom-up inventories that report an increase of 2 % yr-1 over China during the study period, a significant emission decrease of 1.1 % yr-1 is inferred by the inversion. A large decrease in CO emission factors due to technology improvements would outweigh the increase in carbon fuel combustions and may explain this decrease. Independent

  9. Poly[[[diaquacobalt(II]-bis[μ2-1,1′-(butane-1,4-diyldiimidazole-κ2N3:N3′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Co(C10H14N42(H2O2](NO32}n, the CoII ion lies on an inversion center and is six-coordinated in an octahedral environment by four N atoms from four different 1,1′-butane-1,4-diyldiimidazole ligands and two O atoms from the two water molecules. The CoII atoms are bridged by ligands, generating a two-dimensional (4,4-network. Adjacent fishnet planes are linked to the nitrate anions via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  10. Co-hydrothermal synthesis of LiMn{sub 23/24}Mg{sub 1/24}PO{sub 4}·LiAlO{sub 2}/C nano-hybrid cathode material with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Key Laboratory of Dielectric and Electrolyte Functional Material Hebei Province, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Luo, Shaohua, E-mail: [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Key Laboratory of Dielectric and Electrolyte Functional Material Hebei Province, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Chang, Longjiao [School of New Energy, Bohai University, Jinzhou, 121013 (China); Hao, Aimin; Wang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yanguo [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Key Laboratory of Dielectric and Electrolyte Functional Material Hebei Province, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Xu, Qian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yahui [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Key Laboratory of Dielectric and Electrolyte Functional Material Hebei Province, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110004 (China)


    Highlights: • A co-hydrothermal approach to synthesize LiMn{sub 23/24}Mg{sub 1/24}PO{sub 4}·LiAlO{sub 2}/C composite material in water/PEG system is present. • The Mn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}PO{sub 4} precursor is prepared by precipitation reaction. • Co-modified with Mg{sup 2+} doping and LiAlO{sub 2} compositing strategies play an important role in improving the electronic conductivity and facilitating the diffusion of lithium ion. • LiMn{sub 23/24}Mg{sub 1/24}PO{sub 4}·LiAlO{sub 2}/C composite material exhibits a high specific discharge capacity of 151.8 mAh/g at 0.05C. - Abstract: LiMn{sub 23/24}Mg{sub 1/24}PO{sub 4}·LiAlO{sub 2}/C is synthesized by a co-hydrothermal method in water/PEG system using Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, AAO and Mn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}PO{sub 4} as raw material. The electronic structure and micromorphology of multi-component compound LiMn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}PO{sub 4}/C (x = 0, 1/24, 1/12, 1/6) and nano-hybrid LiMn{sub 23/24}Mg{sub 1/24}PO{sub 4}·LiAlO{sub 2}/C cathode materials are studied by first-principles calculation and experimental research including XRD, SEM, TEM. The calculated band gap of LiMn{sub 23/24}Mg{sub 1/24}PO{sub 4}/C is 2.296 eV, which is lower than other percentages Mg{sup 2+} doping samples. Electrochemical tests exhibit LiMn{sub 23/24}Mg{sub 1/24}PO{sub 4}/C has better cycling performance and rate capability than other contents Mg{sup 2+} doping samples with the discharge capacity of 143.5 mAh/g, 141.5 mAh/g, 139.2 mAh/g and 136.3 mAh/g at 0.05C, 0.1C, 0.5C and 1C in order. After compositing and preparation of LiMn{sub 23/24}Mg{sub 1/24}PO{sub 4}·LiAlO{sub 2}/C composite material by co-hydrothermal route, the initial discharge capacity reaches up to 151.8 mAh/g, which suggests that co-modified with Mg{sup 2+} doping and LiAlO{sub 2} compositing material can improve the electronic conductivity of LiMnPO{sub 4}/C by facilitating the lithium ion diffusion rate in the interior of the materials.

  11. Crystal structure of a 2:1 piroxicam–gentisic acid co-crystal featuring neutral and zwitterionic piroxicam molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstman, Elizabeth M.; Bertke, Jeffery A.; Woods, Toby J.; Kenis, Paul J. A.


    A new 2:1 co-crystal of piroxicam and gentisic acid [systematic name: 4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-N-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-1λ6,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide–2-(4-oxido-1,1-dioxo-2H-1λ6,2-benzothiazine-3-amido)pyridin-1-ium–2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2C15H13N3O4C7H6O4] has been synthesized using a microfluidic platform and initially identified using Raman spectroscopy. In the co-crystal, one piroxicam molecule is in its neutral form and an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The other piroxicam molecule is zwitterionic (proton transfer from the OH group to the pyridine N atom) and two intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds occur. The gentisic acid molecule shows whole-molecule disorder over two sets of sites in a 0.809(2):0.191(2) ratio. In the crystal, extensive hydrogen bonding between the components forms layers propagating in theabplane.

  12. Conformational heterogeneity of the bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor HA in reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas viridis revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis. (United States)

    Breton, J; Bibikova, M; Oesterhelt, D; Nabedryk, E


    The light-induced Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectra corresponding to the photoreduction of either the HA bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor (HA-/HA spectrum) or the QA primary quinone (QA-/QA spectrum) in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodopseudomonas viridis are reported. These spectra have been compared for wild-type (WT) RCs and for two site-directed mutants in which the proposed interactions between the carbonyls on ring V of HA and the RC protein have been altered. In the mutant EQ(L104), the putative hydrogen bond between the protein and the 9-keto C=O of HA should be affected by changing Glu L104 to a Gln. In the mutant WF(M250), the van der Waals interactions between Trp M250 and the 10a-ester C=O of HA should be modified. The characteristic effects of both mutations on the FTIR spectra support the proposed interactions and allow the IR modes of the 9-keto and 10a-ester C=O of HA and HA- to be assigned. Comparison of the HA-/HA and QA-/QA spectra leads us to conclude that the QA-/QA IR signals in the spectral range above 1700 cm-1 are largely dominated by contributions from the electrostatic response of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA upon QA photoreduction. A heterogeneity in the conformation of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA in WT RCs, leading to three distinct populations of HA, appears to be related to differences in the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the carbonyls of ring V of HA and the RC protein. The possibility that this structural heterogeneity is related to the observed multiexponential kinetics of electron transfer and the implications for primary processes are discussed. The effect of 1H/2H exchange on the QA-/QA spectra of the WT and mutant RCs shows that neither Glu L104 nor any other exchangeable carboxylic residue changes appreciably its protonation state upon QA reduction.

  13. Qualidade de caqui 'Rama forte' após armazenamento refrigerado, influenciada pelos tratamentos 1-MCP e/ou CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Peterson Pereira Gardin


    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos tratamentos com CO2 e 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno sobre a adstringência (índice de tanino, firmeza da polpa e distúrbios da epiderme em caqui 'Rama Forte'. Frutos foram tratados com 1-MCP por 24 h, logo após a colheita e/ou com alto CO2 (70% por 24 ou 48 h, um dia após a colheita ou após o armazenamento refrigerado (AR. Os caquis foram armazenados sob atmosfera modificada a 0 ºC, por 45 dias, e a seguir mantidos a 23 ºC, por 9 dias. Frutos-controle (não tratados com 1-MCP nem com CO2 amoleceram em três dias e perderam aproximadamente 50% da adstringência em 6 dias após o AR. A exposição ao CO2 acelerou a redução da adstringência. Esse efeito do CO2 foi menor em frutos tratados com 1-MCP, especialmente quando o CO2 foi aplicado após o AR, por apenas 24 h. O tratamento com 1-MCP inibiu o amolecimento e a redução da adstringência, especialmente nos frutos não tratados com CO2. O amolecimento de frutos tratados com 1-MCP foi maior quando a exposição ao CO2 ocorreu antes do AR. A combinação dos tratamentos com 1-MCP e alto CO2 reduziu a incidência de podridões e manchas translúcidas, mas não alterou o desenvolvimento de pintas pretas ('estrias'. Os resultados indicam que é possível induzir perda da adstringência sem excessiva perda da firmeza da polpa de caquis 'Rama Forte' após o AR pela associação dos tratamentos com 1-MCP logo após a colheita e alto CO2 após o AR.

  14. Targeting MUC1-C suppresses BCL2A1 in triple-negative breast cancer. (United States)

    Hiraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Takahiro; Mehrotra, Neha; Jin, Caining; Alam, Maroof; Bouillez, Audrey; Hata, Tsuyoshi; Tagde, Ashujit; Keating, Amy; Kharbanda, Surender; Singh, Harpal; Kufe, Donald


    B-cell lymphoma 2-related protein A1 (BCL2A1) is a member of the BCL-2 family of anti-apoptotic proteins that confers resistance to treatment with anti-cancer drugs; however, there are presently no agents that target BCL2A1. The MUC1-C oncoprotein is aberrantly expressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promotes anti-cancer drug resistance. The present study demonstrates that targeting MUC1-C genetically and pharmacologically in TNBC cells results in the downregulation of BCL2A1 expression. The results show that MUC1-C activates the BCL2A1 gene by an NF-κB p65-mediated mechanism, linking this pathway with the induction of EMT. The MCL-1 anti-apoptotic protein is also of importance for the survival of TNBC cells and is an attractive target for drug development. We found that inhibiting MCL-1 with the highly specific MS1 peptide results in the activation of the MUC1-C→NF-κB→BCL2A1 pathway. In addition, selection of TNBC cells for resistance to ABT-737, which inhibits BCL-2, BCL-xL and BCL-W but not MCL-1 or BCL2A1, is associated with the upregulation of MUC1-C and BCL2A1 expression. Targeting MUC1-C in ABT-737-resistant TNBC cells suppresses BCL2A1 and induces death, which is of potential therapeutic importance. These findings indicate that MUC1-C is a target for the treatment of TNBCs unresponsive to agents that inhibit anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 family.

  15. Identification of rabbit cytochromes P450 2C1 and 2C2 as arachidonic acid epoxygenases. (United States)

    Laethem, R M; Koop, D R


    Microsomes prepared from COS-1 cells transiently expressing rabbit cytochromes P450 2C1 and 2C2 catalyzed the metabolism of arachidonic acid to predominantly 11,12- and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) when microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity was inhibited by 0.2 mM 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane. P450 2C2 catalyzed the formation of 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET at a ratio of 3.0 and also produced 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (19-HETE). The 11,12-EET, 14,15-EET, and 19-HETE represented 48.3, 15.9, and 12.8%, respectively, of the total metabolites formed. P450 2C1 produced a similar but distinct ratio of 11,12-EET to 14,15-EET (2.0) and did not produce any detectable 19-HETE. The 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET represented 63.0 and 31.1%, respectively, of the total metabolites formed. The 8,9- and 5,6-EETs were not detected with either enzyme. The ratio of the 11,12-EET to 14,15-EET was 1.5 with P450 2CAA, a P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase (P450 2CAA) that had an amino-terminal sequence identical to that of P450 2C2 [J. Biol. Chem. 267:5552-5559 (1992)]. P450 2C1, 2C2, and 2CAA metabolized lauric acid. The ratio of omega-1- to omega-hydroxylated laurate was 3.6, 3.4, and 2.4 for P450 2CAA, P450 2C2, and P450 2C1, respectively. Purified P450 2CAA had a slightly greater apparent molecular weight than expressed P450 2C2 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The results clearly establish that rabbit P450 2C1 and 2C2 are arachidonic acid epoxygenases, and they suggest that P450 2CAA and 2C2 are very similar but may not be identical isoforms.

  16. CO2 Capture and Separation Properties in the Ionic Liquid 1-n-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Nonafluorobutylsulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Zhou


    Full Text Available Recently, the use of ionic liquids (ILs for carbon capture and separation processes has gained great interest by many researchers due to the high solubility of CO2 in ILs. In the present work, solubility measurements of CO2 in the novel IL 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluorobutylsulfonate [C4mim][CF3CF2CF2CF2SO3] were performed with a high-pressure view-cell technique in the temperature range from 293.15 to 343.15 K and pressures up to about 4.2 MPa. For comparison, solubilities of H2, N2, and O2 in the IL were also measured at 323.15 K via the same procedure. The Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation was employed to correlate the measured solubility data. Henry’s law constants, enthalpies, and entropies of absorption for CO2 in the IL were also determined and presented. The CO2 solubility in this IL was compared with other ILs sharing the same cation. It was shown that the solubility of CO2 in these ILs follows the sequence: [C4mim][CF3CF2CF2CF2SO3] ≈ [C4mim][Tf2N] > [C4mim][CF3CF2CF2COO] > [C4mim][BF4], and the solubility selectivity of CO2 relative to O2, N2, and H2 in [C4mim][CF3CF2CF2CF2SO3] was 8, 16, and 22, respectively. Furthermore, this IL is regenerable and exhibits good stability. Therefore, the IL reported here would be a promising sorbent for CO2.

  17. A study of vibronic coupling in the tilde C state of CO2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Ferrett, T.A.; Schmidt, V.; Parr, A.C.; Southworth, S.H.; Hardis, J.E.; Bartlett, R.; Trela, W.; Dehmer, J.L.


    We have studied vibronic coupling in vibrationally resolved photoionization to the fourth electronic state of CO 2 + , C( 2 Σ/sub g/ + ), in the photon-energy range h nu = 20 to 28.5 eV. The measurements utilize high-resolution hemispherical electron analyzers, equipped with area detectors, and the SURF-II synchrotron radiation source at the National Bureau of Standards. The angular distribution asymmetry-parameters (β) for the allowed C(0,0,0) and forbidden C(1,0,1) (19.747 eV binding energy) peaks are found to be quite different. However, similarities between the C(1,0,1) β curve and that for the B state suggest that vibronic coupling to the B( 2 Σ/sub u/ + ) state of CO 2 + is the explanation for the intensity of the C state forbidden band in the first 8 eV above threshold

  18. On the stability of copper overlayers on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) electrodes under low potential conditions and in the presence on CO and CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaup, Christian Georg; Horch, Sebastian; Chorkendorff, Ib


    We have studied the stability of Cu overlayers on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) electrodes under low potential conditions and in the presence of CO and CO2 by means of electrochemical STM (EC-STM). For preparation we utilized the well known underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper, which, depending...... on the electrolyte (HClO4 and H2SO4), leads to Cu coverages in the submonolayer to monolayer range. For a Cu submonolayer on Au(1 1 1) we found that independent from the actual gas coadsorbate its closed film-like structure collapses at low potentials due to the desorption of coadsorbed anions. In contrast we found...... for a full Cu monolayer on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) the formation of an alloy phase under low potential conditions, which also occurs independent from the presence of gas coadsorbates....

  19. A coordination polymer of CdII with benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate and 1,4-bis[1-(2-pyridylmethylbenzimidazol-2-yl]butane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ping Zhang


    Full Text Available The title CdII coordination polymer, catena-poly[[{1,4-bis[1-(2-pyridylmethylbenzimidazol-2-yl]butane}cadmium(II]-μ-benzene-1,3-dicarboxylato], [Cd(C8H4O4(C30H28N6]n, was obtained by reaction of CdCO3, benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (H2btc and 1,4-bis[1-(2-pyridylmethylbenzimidazol-2-yl]butane (L. The CdII cation is six-coordinated by an N2O4-donor set. L acts as a bidentate ligand and btc anions link CdII centers into a chain propagating parallel to [010].

  20. Arctic Ocean CO2 uptake: an improved multiyear estimate of the air-sea CO2 flux incorporating chlorophyll a concentrations (United States)

    Yasunaka, Sayaka; Siswanto, Eko; Olsen, Are; Hoppema, Mario; Watanabe, Eiji; Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Murata, Akihiko; Lauvset, Siv K.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Takahashi, Taro; Kosugi, Naohiro; Omar, Abdirahman M.; van Heuven, Steven; Mathis, Jeremy T.


    We estimated monthly air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas north of 60° N from 1997 to 2014. This was done by mapping partial pressure of CO2 in the surface water (pCO2w) using a self-organizing map (SOM) technique incorporating chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, sea ice concentration, atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio, and geographical position. We applied new algorithms for extracting Chl a from satellite remote sensing reflectance with close examination of uncertainty of the obtained Chl a values. The overall relationship between pCO2w and Chl a was negative, whereas the relationship varied among seasons and regions. The addition of Chl a as a parameter in the SOM process enabled us to improve the estimate of pCO2w, particularly via better representation of its decline in spring, which resulted from biologically mediated pCO2w reduction. As a result of the inclusion of Chl a, the uncertainty in the CO2 flux estimate was reduced, with a net annual Arctic Ocean CO2 uptake of 180 ± 130 Tg C yr-1. Seasonal to interannual variation in the CO2 influx was also calculated.

  1. Activation of Nrf2 Reduces UVA-Mediated MMP-1 Upregulation via MAPK/AP-1 Signaling Cascades: The Photoprotective Effects of Sulforaphane and Hispidulin (United States)

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Lohakul, Jinaphat; Soontrapa, Kitipong; Sampattavanich, Somponnat; Akarasereenont, Pravit


    UVA irradiation plays a role in premature aging of the skin through triggering oxidative stress-associated stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) responsible for collagen degradation, a hallmark of photoaged skin. Compounds that can activate nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor regulating antioxidant gene expression, should therefore serve as effective antiphotoaging agents. We investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2 could relieve UVA-mediated MMP-1 upregulation via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein 1 (AP-1) signaling using human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Antiphotoaging effects of hispidulin (HPD) and sulforaphane (SFN) were assessed on their abilities to activate Nrf2 in controlling MMP-1 and collagen expressions in association with phosphorylation of MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38), c-Jun, and c-Fos, using the skin of BALB/c mice subjected to repetitive UVA irradiation. Our findings suggested that depletion of Nrf2 promoted both mRNA expression and activity of MMP-1 in the UVA-irradiated HaCaT cells. Treatment of Nrf2 knocked-down HaCaT cells with MAPK inhibitors significantly suppressed UVA-induced MMP-1 and AP-1 activities. Moreover, pretreatment of the mouse skin with HPD and SFN, which could activate Nrf2, provided protective effects against UVA-mediated MMP-1 induction and collagen depletion in correlation with the decreased levels of phosphorylated MAPKs, c-Jun, and c-Fos in the mouse skin. In conclusion, Nrf2 could influence UVA-mediated MMP-1 upregulation through the MAPK/AP-1 signaling cascades. HPD and SFN may therefore represent promising antiphotoaging candidates. PMID:28011874

  2. A novel PKD2L1 C-terminal domain critical for trimerization and channel function. (United States)

    Zheng, Wang; Hussein, Shaimaa; Yang, JungWoo; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Fan; Hernandez-Anzaldo, Samuel; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Cao, Ying; Zeng, Hongbo; Tang, Jingfeng; Chen, Xing-Zhen


    As a transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily member, polycystic kidney disease 2-like-1 (PKD2L1) is also called TRPP3 and has similar membrane topology as voltage-gated cation channels. PKD2L1 is involved in hedgehog signaling, intestinal development, and sour tasting. PKD2L1 and PKD1L3 form heterotetramers with 3:1 stoichiometry. C-terminal coiled-coil-2 (CC2) domain (G699-W743) of PKD2L1 was reported to be important for its trimerization but independent studies showed that CC2 does not affect PKD2L1 channel function. It thus remains unclear how PKD2L1 proteins oligomerize into a functional channel. By SDS-PAGE, blue native PAGE and mutagenesis we here identified a novel C-terminal domain called C1 (K575-T622) involved in stronger homotrimerization than the non-overlapping CC2, and found that the PKD2L1 N-terminus is critical for dimerization. By electrophysiology and Xenopus oocyte expression, we found that C1, but not CC2, is critical for PKD2L1 channel function. Our co-immunoprecipitation and dynamic light scattering experiments further supported involvement of C1 in trimerization. Further, C1 acted as a blocking peptide that inhibits PKD2L1 trimerization as well as PKD2L1 and PKD2L1/PKD1L3 channel function. Thus, our study identified C1 as the first PKD2L1 domain essential for both PKD2L1 trimerization and channel function, and suggest that PKD2L1 and PKD2L1/PKD1L3 channels share the PKD2L1 trimerization process.

  3. Magnetic structure and phase transitions of Co1-xMnxCl2.2H2O and Co1-xMnxCl2.2D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, T.; Lippert, M.; Kubo, H.; Zenmyo, K.; Mayer, H.M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Hohlwein, D.; Krimmel, A.


    We present neutron diffraction results of the magnetic structure, phase transitions and magnetic short-range order of Co 1-x Mn x Cl 2 .2H 2 O/D 2 O single crystals. For samples in an intermediate composition range, where a spin glass phase exists, we found the coexistence of spin glass and long-range antiferromagnetic order. ((orig.))

  4. Catalytic conversion of 11CO2 and 11CO into synthesis precursors for 11C labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, J.T.


    The positron emitter carbon-11 (T 1/2 =20.3 min) is an ideal radio nuclide for tracers in positron emission tomography (PET). In this study catalytic methods for the synthesis of [ 11 C]alcohols have been investigated. The formation of [ 11 C]methanol has been studied on Pd/Al 2 O 3 and Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 catalysts with respect to CO and CO 2 carrier addition to the synthesis gas. Carbon monoxide was identified as the precursor of methanol formation on the Pd/Al 2 O 3 -catalyst. In contrast on the Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 -catalyst methanol was formed on a reaction pathway via an adsorbed CO 2 -species. A n.c.a.-[ 11 C]methanol synthesis basing on the Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 -catalyst has been developed by substitution of the oxygen containing components CO and CO 2 in the synthesis gas by N 2 O. The radiochemical yield, the low selectivity of [ 11 C]methanol production and the rather slow kinetics of this process were arguments against the practical use of this process in the synthesis of 11 C-labelling agents. (orig.)

  5. Variations and trends of CO2 in the surface seawater in the Southern Ocean south of Australia between 1969 and 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki; Ishii, M.


    Measurements of the partial pressure of CO 2 in surface seawater (pCO sw 2 ) were made in the Southern Ocean south of Australia during four cruises in January to February 1969, December 1983 to January 1984, December 1994 to January 1995 and January 2002. The spatial distribution of pCO sw 2 for the four cruises showed the same pattern north of the Sub-Antarctic Front (SAF), while year-to-year changes were noted south of the SAF. We evaluated the long-term trend of the pCO sw 2 representative of the zone between oceanographic fronts by taking into account changes in the seasonal variation in pCO sw 2 and the long-term increase of the sea-surface temperature (SST) of the Southern Hemisphere. The observed growth rate of pCO sw 2 was 0.7 ± 0.1 μatm/yr at its minimum, which was observed at the SST of 15 deg C north of the Subtropical Front (STF), 1.0 ± 0.5 μatm/yr in the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ) between STF and SAF, 1.5 ± 0.4 μatm/yr in the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) between SAF and the Polar Front (PF) and 1.8 ± 0.2 μμatm/yr in the Polar Zone (PZ) between PF and 62 deg S, determined as the northern edge of the Seasonal Sea Ice Zone (SSIZ) on the basis of surface salinity and satellite images. These increases were caused by the uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 as well as variations in the thermodynamic temperature effect, ocean transport and biological activity. In the SSIZ between 62 and 66.5 deg S, we could not clearly evaluate the long-term trend of pCO sw 2 due to the remarkable CO 2 drawdown due to biological activity in January 2002. The relatively low growth rates of pCO sw 2 close to the STF and in the SAZ are probably associated with the formation of Subtropical Mode Water and Sub-Antarctic Mode Water in their respective zones. Between the north of the STF and the PZ, the growth rate of total dissolved inorganic carbon was calculated to be about 0.5-0.8 μmol/kg/yr via the buffer factor

  6. Oligomeric recombinant H5 HA1 vaccine produced in bacteria protects ferrets from homologous and heterologous wild-type H5N1 influenza challenge and controls viral loads better than subunit H5N1 vaccine by eliciting high-affinity antibodies. (United States)

    Verma, Swati; Dimitrova, Milena; Munjal, Ashok; Fontana, Juan; Crevar, Corey J; Carter, Donald M; Ross, Ted M; Khurana, Surender; Golding, Hana


    Recombinant hemagglutinin from influenza viruses with pandemic potential can be produced rapidly in various cell substrates. In this study, we compared the functionality and immunogenicity of bacterially produced oligomeric or monomeric HA1 proteins from H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/04) with those of the egg-based licensed subunit H5N1 (SU-H5N1) vaccine in ferrets challenged with homologous or heterologous H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza strains. Ferrets were vaccinated twice with the oligomeric or monomeric rHA1 or with SU-H5N1 (Sanofi Pasteur) emulsified with Titermax adjuvant and were challenged with wild-type homologous (A/Vietnam/1203/04; clade 1) or heterologous (A/Whooperswan/Mongolia/244/2005; clade 2.2) virus. Only the oligomeric rHA1 (not the monomeric rHA1) immunogen and the SU-H5N1 vaccine provided protection against the lethality and morbidity of homologous and heterologous highly pathogenic H5N1. Oligomeric rHA1 generated more cross-neutralizing antibodies and higher levels of serum antibody binding to HA1, with stronger avidity and a better IgG/IgM ratio, than monomeric HA1 and SU-H5N1 vaccines, as determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Importantly, viral loads after heterologous H5N1 challenge were more efficiently controlled in ferrets vaccinated with the oligomeric rHA1 immunogen than in SU-H5N1-vaccinated ferrets. The reduction of viral loads in the nasal washes correlated strongly with higher-avidity antibodies to oligomeric rHA1 derived from H5N1 clade 1 and clade 2.2 viruses, as measured by SPR. This is the first study to show the role of antibody avidity for the HA1 globular head domain in reduction of viral loads in the upper respiratory tract, which could significantly reduce viral transmission.

  7. Core-excitation processes of O(1s) in CO, CO{sub 2} and OCS molecules by electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arretche, F; Mazon, K T; Falck, A S; Marin, A; Oliveira, H L; Pessoa, O A; Travessini, D; Michelin, S E; Fujimoto, M M; Lee, M T [Departamento de Fisica, UFSC, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil) and Departamento de Fisica, UFPR, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil) and Departamento de Quimica, UFSCar, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:


    Distorted-wave approximation is applied to study electron-impact excitation of core electrons in CO{sub 2}, CO and OCS. Differential and integral cross sections for the transitions: X{sup 1}{sigma}{sup +}{sub g} {yields} {sup 1,3} {pi}{sub u}(1{sigma}{sub g} {yields} 2{pi}{sub u}) in CO{sub 2}, X{sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} {yields} {sup 1,3} {pi} (2{sigma} {yields} 4{pi}) in OCS, and X{sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} {yields} {sup 1,3} {pi} (1{sigma} {yields} 2{pi}) in CO are calculated and reported in the (550-1000)-eV incident energy range. Comparison is made among the calculated data for the three targets. The physical origins of the similarity and difference of these data are also discussed. In addition, the generalized oscillator strengths for singlet 1{sigma}{sub g} {yields} 2{pi}{sub u} and 1{sigma}{sub u} {yields} 2{pi}{sub u} transitions for CO{sub 2} are calculated at 1300 eV. The comparison of these results with the available data in the literature is encouraging.{sup 1}.

  8. Transient responses of SFG spectra of D 2O ice/CO/Pt(1 1 1) interface with irradiation of ultra-short NIR pump pulses (United States)

    Kubota, Jun; Wada, Akihide; Domen, Kazunari; Kano, Satoru S.


    The behavior of D 2O ice on CO/Pt(1 1 1) and Pt(1 1 1) under the irradiation of near-IR pulses (NIR) was studied by sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. The peaks assigned to the O-D stretching modes of ice were obtained for the first 30 molecular layers on Pt(1 1 1). When the D2O/ CO/ Pt(1 1 1) was irradiated, the signal of D 2O was weakened after 500 ps, but that of CO was weakened immediately after the pumping. A similar time response was observed for the D 2O peak in D2O/ Pt(1 1 1) . The weakening of SFG is attributed to the broadening of bands due to thermal excitation. This indicates that the energy of the pump pulse is deposited on the Pt(1 1 1) surface and diffused into the layers of D 2O ice in the 500 ps timescale.

  9. Composites Li2MnO3·LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2: Optimized synthesis and applications as advanced high-voltage cathode for batteries working at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuang; Li Guangshe; Guan Xiangfeng; Zheng Jing; Li Liping; Chen Tianwen


    Highlights: ► Composites xLi 2 MnO 3 ·(1 − x)LiMn 1/3 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 (x = 0.1–0.4) were prepared by a novel two-step molten-salt route. ► Structure and chemical compositions of the composites were optimized to show an optimum electrochemical property. ► Composite electrode 0.3Li 2 MnO 3 ·0.7LiMn 1/3 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 exhibited an excellent electrochemical performance at elevated temperature of 45.4 °C. ► Electrode kinetics of composites was uncovered for the excellent electrochemical performance at elevated temperature. - Abstract: This work reports on the optimized preparation of a series of composites xLi 2 MnO 3 ·(1 − x)LiMn 1/3 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 (x = 0.1–0.4) with an aim to find an advanced high-voltage cathode for lithium-ion batteries that can work at elevated temperatures. Developing a two-step molten-salt method leads to composites with a layered-type structure, showing a particle size distribution ranging from 350 to 450 nm. The composites are featured by oxidation states stabilized as Mn 4+ , Ni 2+ , and Co 3+ , and by lattice occupation of Li + in both transition-metal layers and lithium layer of LiMn 1/3 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 . When acting as a cathode of lithium-ion batteries, the composite at x = 0.3 shows an optimum electrochemical performance as characterized by a discharge capacity of 120 mAh g −1 at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 and a capacity retention of 64% after 20 cycles. Surprisingly, this electrochemical performance is significantly improved at elevated temperatures. Namely, discharge capacity is increased to 140.4 mAh g −1 at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 , while average capacity decay rate becomes very small to 0.76%. These excellent performance is explained in terms of the dramatically improved lithium-ion diffusions in both electrode and surface films at elevated temperatures.

  10. The synthesis of SL-75.212 (Betaxolol) labelled with carbon 14: 1-[4-(2-cyclopropyl methoxyethyl-[1-14C]) phenoxy]-3-isopropyl amino-2-propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, F.; Beaucourt, J.P.; Pichat, L.


    Carbonation with 14 CO 2 of the Grigard reagent 1 gave 4-benzyloxy [carboxyl- 14 C] benzoic acid: 2 (87 % yield). 2 was successively treated in diethyl ether solution with diazomethane and lithium aluminium hydride giving rise to [7- 14 C] 4 benzyloxybenzyl alcohol 4 (82 % yield). Alcohol 4 was transformed into the corresponding chloride 5 when exposed to thionylchloride in ether. 5 was condensed with NaCN in DMF to give the nitrile 6 which was hydrolysed into the acid 7 isolated in a 75 % overall yield from Ba 14 CO 3 . 7 gave the alcohol 9 by successive treatments with diazomethane and LiAlH 4 in ether. 9 with NaH gave the corresponding alkoxide which when condensed with bromomethylcyclopropane gave the ether 10 purified by silicagel column chromatography and isolated with an overall yield of 71 % from Ba 14 CO 3 . Hydrogenolysis of 10 gave the phenol 11. The epoxide 12 was secured by condensation with epichlorhydrin in presence of NaOH. After purification by silicagel column chromatography 10 was opened with isopropylamine leading to the target compound BETAXOLOL 13 isolated as the hydrochloride. After extensive purification by Sephadex G-10 column chromatography, SL 75.212 [ethyl-1- 14 C] was obtained in an overall yield of 26 % from barium [ 14 C] carbonate and a radiochemical purity better than 99 % (specific activity 57 mCi/mole). (author)

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01890-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mfvplswfyglmn*skeis ltl*fsfknlqlkigknvilkvyslllsiidhymkklnhi*kvii*i*iiillksnifnn fffyfptkkkkkkkqkkkkn Translated...tum chromosome 30. 114 5e-25 AM494967_147( AM494967 |pid:none) Leishmania braziliensis chromoso... 112...a infantum chromosome 27. 79 5e-13 AM494964_217( AM494964 |pid:none) Leishmania braziliensi...2 ( CO474648 ) GQ0045.B3_N06 GQ004: Non-lignified secondary xyle... 62 6e-06 2 ( CO166798 ) FLD1_64_C09.g1_A029 Root flooded...nghamella elegans pBluescript (... 30 0.043 3 ( BC134880 ) Danio rerio apoptosis antagonizing trans

  12. Application of Six Sigma Model to Evaluate the Analytical Quality of Four HbA1c Analyzers. (United States)

    Maesa, Jos Eacute M; Fern Aacute Ndez-Riejos, Patricia; S Aacute Nchez-Mora, Catalina; Toro-Crespo, Mar Iacute A De; Gonz Aacute Lez-Rodriguez, Concepci Oacute N


    The Six Sigma Model is a global quality management system applicable to the determination of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In addition, this model can ensure the three characteristics influencing the patient risk: the correct performance of the analytical method with low inaccuracy and bias, the quality control strategy used by the laboratory, and the necessary quality of the analyte. The aim of this study is to use the Six Sigma Model for evaluating quality criteria in the determination of glycated hemoglobin HbA1c and its application to assess four different HbA1c analyzers. Four HbA1c analyzers were evaluated: HA-8180V®, D-100®, G8®, and Variant II Turbo®. For 20 consecutive days, two levels of quality control (high and low) provided by the manufacturers were measured in each of the instruments. Imprecision (CV), bias, and Sigma values (σ) were calculated with the data obtained and a method decision chart was developed considering a range of quality requirements (allowable total error, TEa). For a TEa = 3%, HA-8180V = 1.54 σ, D-100 = 1.63 σ, G8 = 2.20 σ, and Variant II Turbo = -0.08 σ. For a TEa = 4%, HA-8180V = 2.34 σ, D-100 = 2.32 σ, G8 = 3.74 σ, and Variant II Turbo = 0.16 σ. For a TEa = 10%, HA8180V = 7.12 σ, D-100 = 6.46 σ, G8 = 13.0 σ, and Variant II Turbo = 1.56 σ. Applying the Stockholm consensus and its subsequent Milan review to the results: the maximum level in quality requirements for HbA1c is an allowable total error (TEa) = 3%, G8 is located in region 2 σ (2.20), which is a poor result, and HA-8180V and D-100 are both in region 1 σ (1.54 and 1.63, respectively), which is an unacceptable analytical performance.

  13. Crop-Cattle Integrated Farming System: An Alternative of Climatic Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An integrated farming system is one of the alternatives for climatic change mitigation. This paper reports the application of corn-cattle based integrated farming system in Agrotechno Park Center of Palembang, and discusses its impact on CO2 fixation and the reduction of methane emissions. The study was based on the data of the first 6 yr from 2003 until 2009. The CO2 fixed in the soil and plants was determined based on the content of organic C which was multiplied by the index of 3.67. The methane gas produced by Balinese cattle and its dung was observed and modified into feed rations. The results showed that soil organic C increased from 40.80 tons C/ha in the 1st yr to 66.40 tons C/ha in the 6th yr. In addition, there was organic C fixation equivalent to 93.95 tons of CO2e. Corn biomass increased from 6.67 tons/ha to 18.66 tons/ha, equivalent to an increase in the fixation of atmospheric CO2e as much as 19.80 tons CO2e/ha. The supplementation of 60%-80% grass fodder with concentrate lowered the concentration of methane gas in cattle breathing by 28.7%, from 617 ppm to 440 ppm, while the methane emissions from cattle manure decreased by 31%, from 1367 mL/head/d to 943 mL/head/d. Installing a bio digester that generates biogas served to accommodate methane gas emissions from cattle dung and used it for bioenergy. Composting reduced the formation of methane gas from cattle manure through a regular process of turning over that gives aeration and forms aerobic condition in the heap of cattle dung. Recycling produces a variety of organic products that store carbon for a longer period of time and slowed the conversion of organic C into CO2. This study showed that the diverse activities of an integrated crop-cattle farming could be an alternative solution to climatic change mitigation.

  14. Low Temperature Synthesis, Chemical and Electrochemical Characterization of LiNi(x)Co(1-x)O2 (0 less than x less than 1) (United States)

    Nanjundaswamy, K. S.; Standlee, D.; Kelly, C. O.; Whiteley, R. V., Jr.


    A new method of synthesis for the solid solution cathode materials LiNi(x)Co(1-x)O2 (0 less than x less than 1) involving enhanced reactions at temperatures less than or equal to 700 deg. C, between metal oxy-hydroxide precursors MOOH (M = Ni, Co) and Li-salts (Li2CO3, LiOH, and LiNO3) has been investigated. The effects of synthesis conditions and sources of Li, on phase purity, microstructure, and theoretical electrochemical capacity (total M(3+) content) are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis and room temperature magnetic susceptibility. An attempt has been made to correlate the electrochemical properties with the synthesis conditions and microstructure.

  15. Reduced probability of ice-free summers for 1.5 °C compared to 2 °C warming (United States)

    Jahn, Alexandra


    Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly with increasing global temperatures. However, it is largely unknown how Arctic summer sea-ice impacts would vary under the 1.5 °C Paris target compared to scenarios with greater warming. Using the Community Earth System Model, I show that constraining warming to 1.5 °C rather than 2.0 °C reduces the probability of any summer ice-free conditions by 2100 from 100% to 30%. It also reduces the late-century probability of an ice cover below the 2012 record minimum from 98% to 55%. For warming above 2 °C, frequent ice-free conditions can be expected, potentially for several months per year. Although sea-ice loss is generally reversible for decreasing temperatures, sea ice will only recover to current conditions if atmospheric CO2 is reduced below present-day concentrations. Due to model biases, these results provide a lower bound on summer sea-ice impacts, but clearly demonstrate the benefits of constraining warming to 1.5 °C.

  16. Electrical resistivity and thermopower of Nd1-xTbxCo2 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchima, K; Takaesu, Y; Yonamine, S; Kinjyo, A; Hedo, M; Nakama, T; Yagasaki, K; Burkov, A T


    Electrical resistivity ρ and thermopower S of Nd 1-x Tb x Co 2 Laves phase quasibinary alloys (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) are investigated at temperatures from 2 K to 300 K. The magnetic transition temperature T C , determined from resistivity magnetic anomaly, increases linearly with increasing x. The low temperature thermopower changes its sign from negative to positive at the critical composition where the relative orientation of total magnetization and cobalt 3d moment is changed. We propose that this change is related to the dependence of s-d scattering rate on relative polarization of conduction electrons and cobalt 3d band.

  17. Insertion and C-H bond activation of unsaturated substrates by bis(benzamidinato)yttrium alkyl, [PhC(NSiMe(3))(2)](2)YR (R=CH(2)Ph center dot THF,CH(SiMe(3))(2)), and hydride, {[PhC(NSiMe(3))(2)]Y-2(mu-H)}(2), compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchateau, R; vanWee, CT; Teuben, JH


    The reactivity of benzamidinate-stabilized yttrium complexes [PhC(NSiMe(3))(2)](2)YR (R = CH(2)Ph . THF, CH(SiMe(3))(2) and {[PhC(NSiMe(3))(2)]Y-2(mu-H)}(2) have been investigated. The complexes are thermally stable showing no sign of decomposition, ligand or solvent metalation or H/D exchange after

  18. Method of forming an oxide superconducting thin film having an R1A2C3 crystalline phase over an R2A1C1 crystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelental, M.; Romanofsky, H.J.


    This patent describes a process which comprises forming a mixed rare earth alkaline earth copper oxide layer on a substrate and converting the mixed rare earth alkaline earth copper oxide layer to an electrically conductive layer. It comprises crystalline R 1 A 2 C 3 oxide phase by heating in the presence of oxygen, wherein rare earth and R is in each instance chosen from among yttrium, lanthanum, samarium, europium, gadolinium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium and alkaline earth and A is in each instance chosen from among calcium, strontium and barium, characterized in that a crystalline R 2 A 1 C 1 oxide phase is first formed as a layer on the substrate and the crystalline R 1 A 2 C 3 oxide phase is formed over the crystalline R 2 A 1 C 1 oxide phase by coating a mixed rare earth alkaline earth copper oxide on the crystalline R 2 A 1 C 1 oxide phase and heating the mixed rare earth alkaline earth copper oxide to a temperature of at least 1000 degrees C

  19. Processing of water-based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 pastes for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results show that a substitution of the conventional organic solvent-based manufacturing route for LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes by water-based processing exhibits a promising way to realise Li-ion batteries with comparable electrochemical behaviour, while avoiding toxic processing aids and reducing overall ...

  20. How easy is CO2 fixation by M-C bond containing complexes (M = Cu, Ni, Co, Rh, Ir)?

    KAUST Repository

    Nolan, Steve; Cavallo, Luigi; Poater, Albert; Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Talarico, Giovanni


    A comparison between different M–C bonds (M = Cu(I), Ni(II), Co(I), Rh(I) and Ir(I)) has been reported by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations to explore the role of the metal in the fixation or incorporation of CO2 into such complexes. The systems investigated are various metal based congeners of the Ir-complex 8 [(cod)(IiPr)Ir-CCPh], with a ligand scaffold based on cod and IiPr ligands (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; IiPr = 1,3-bis(isopropyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). The results of this study show that the calculated CO2 insertion barriers follow the trend: Cu(I) (20.8 kcal mol−1) < Rh(I) (30.0 kcal mol−1) < Co(I) (31.3 kcal mol−1) < Ir(I) (37.5 kcal mol−1) < Ni(II) (45.4 kcal mol−1), indicating that the Cu(I) based analogue is the best CO2 fixer, while Ni(II) is the worst in the studied series.

  1. How easy is CO2 fixation by M-C bond containing complexes (M = Cu, Ni, Co, Rh, Ir)?

    KAUST Repository

    Nolan, Steve


    A comparison between different M–C bonds (M = Cu(I), Ni(II), Co(I), Rh(I) and Ir(I)) has been reported by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations to explore the role of the metal in the fixation or incorporation of CO2 into such complexes. The systems investigated are various metal based congeners of the Ir-complex 8 [(cod)(IiPr)Ir-CCPh], with a ligand scaffold based on cod and IiPr ligands (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; IiPr = 1,3-bis(isopropyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). The results of this study show that the calculated CO2 insertion barriers follow the trend: Cu(I) (20.8 kcal mol−1) < Rh(I) (30.0 kcal mol−1) < Co(I) (31.3 kcal mol−1) < Ir(I) (37.5 kcal mol−1) < Ni(II) (45.4 kcal mol−1), indicating that the Cu(I) based analogue is the best CO2 fixer, while Ni(II) is the worst in the studied series.

  2. A convenient method for 14C-labeling of 2-methylthio-1-[4-N-α-ethoxycarbonylbenzyl)-amino-benzyl] -5-hydroxymethyl-2-[14C]-1H-imidazole and 1-[4-N-α-ethoxy-carbonylbenzyl)-aminobenzyl]-5-hydroxymethyl-2-[14C] -1H-imidazole as potential antihypertensives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader Saemian; Gholamhossein Shirvani; Mohsen Javaheri; Sayed Sajad Oliyaee


    The key synthetic intermediate, (2-mercapto-1-(4-nitrobenzyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methanol-[2- 14 C], has been synthesized by using one pot procedure from potassium[ 14 C]-thiocyanate. It was converted to two nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists, 2-methylthio-1-[4-N-α-ethoxycarbonyl benzyl)-aminobenzyl]-5-hydroxymethyl-1H-imidazole-[2- 14 C] and 1-[4-N-α-ethoxy-carbonylbenzyl)-aminobenzyl] -5-hydroxymethyl-1H-imidazole-[2- 14 C] via a 3-step sequence synthetic pathway. (author)

  3. Magnetic phase diagram of Co(Cr1-xA lx) 2O4 (x = 0.0-1.0) (United States)

    Padam, R.; Sarkar, T.; Mathieu, R.; Thota, S.; Pal, D.


    We report the role of Al substitution in the magnetic properties of spinel CoCr2O4 by means of temperature dependent dc and ac magnetization and heat capacity measurements. Various compositions (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) of polycrystalline Co(Cr1-xAlx)2O4 samples have been prepared by sol-gel processing and their crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction which was found to crystallize in the normal cubic spinel structure. For x ≤ 0.1, the system exhibits multiple magnetic orderings (long range ferrimagnetic ordering TC, spin-spiral ordering TS, and lock-in transition TL), similar to that of the parent compound, CoCr2O4. However, all the compositions between x = 0.1 and 0.5 exhibit long range ferrimagnetic ordering below TC and also a short range order at low temperature. Spin-glass like ordering was noticed between x = 0.6 and 0.8 due to the diluted B-site occupancy, whereas the end compound CoAl2O4 (x = 1.0) shows antiferromagnetic behavior. On the basis of these results, we propose a magnetic phase diagram for the Co(Cr1-xAlx)2O4 series as a function of the Al content (x) and measuring temperature (T).

  4. Evasion of CO2 from streams - the dominant component of the carbon export through the aquatic conduit in a boreal landscape. (United States)

    Wallin, Marcus B; Grabs, Thomas; Buffam, Ishi; Laudon, Hjalmar; Agren, Ånneli; Öquist, Mats G; Bishop, Kevin


    Evasion of gaseous carbon (C) from streams is often poorly quantified in landscape C budgets. Even though the potential importance of the capillary network of streams as C conduits across the land-water-atmosphere interfaces is sometimes mentioned, low-order streams are often left out of budget estimates due to being poorly characterized in terms of gas exchange and even areal surface coverage. We show that evasion of C is greater than all the total dissolved C (both organic and inorganic) exported downstream in the waters of a boreal landscape. In this study evasion of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) from running waters within a 67 km(2) boreal catchment was studied. During a 4 year period (2006-2009) 13 streams were sampled on 104 different occasions for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). From a locally determined model of gas exchange properties, we estimated the daily CO2 evasion with a high-resolution (5 × 5 m) grid-based stream evasion model comprising the entire ~100 km stream network. Despite the low areal coverage of stream surface, the evasion of CO2 from the stream network constituted 53% (5.0 (±1.8) g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ) of the entire stream C flux (9.6 (±2.4) g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ) (lateral as DIC, DOC, and vertical as CO2 ). In addition, 72% of the total CO2 loss took place already in the first- and second-order streams. This study demonstrates the importance of including CO2 evasion from low-order boreal streams into landscape C budgets as it more than doubled the magnitude of the aquatic conduit for C from this landscape. Neglecting this term will consequently result in an overestimation of the terrestrial C sink strength in the boreal landscape. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure thiocrown ethers derived from 1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, H. Thijs; Kellogg, Richard M.


    Synthetic methodology is given for the preparation of two different types of thiocrown ethers from optically pure 1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diol (10). The conceptually simplest approach starts from optically pure 10 itself, which is alkylated (4 equiv of K2CO3 in DMF at 110 degrees C) with

  6. Infrared Spectra of the 10-μm Bands of 1,2-Difluoroethane and 1,1,2-Trifluoroethane: Vibrationally Mediated Torsional Tunneling in 1,1,2-Trifluoroethane (United States)

    Stone, Stephen C.; Miller, C. Cameron; Philips, Laura A.; Andrews, A. M.; Fraser, G. T.; Pate, B. H.; Xu, Li-Hong


    The 3-MHz-resolution infrared spectra of the 10-μm bands of thegaucheconformer of 1,2-difluoroethane (HFC152) and theC1-symmetry conformer of 1,1,2-trifluoroethane (HFC143) have been measured using a molecular-beam electric-resonance optothermal spectrometer with a tunable microwave-sideband CO2laser source. For 1,2-difluoroethane, two bands have been studied, the ν17B-symmetry C-F stretch at 1077.3 cm-1and the ν13B-symmetry CH2rock at 896.6 cm-1. Both bands are well fit to a asymmetric-rotor Hamiltonian to better than 0.5 MHz. The ν13band is effectively unperturbed, while the ν17band is weakly perturbed, as shown by the large change in centrifugal distortion constants from the ground state values. Two bands have also been studied for 1,1,2-trifluoroethane, the ν11symmetric CF2stretch at 1077.2 cm-1and the ν13C-C stretch at 905.1 cm-1. One of the two bands, ν11, is unperturbed and fit to near the experimental precision. The ν13vibration, on the other hand, is weakly perturbed by an interaction with a nearby state. This perturbation leads to a doubling or splitting of the lines, due to a perturbation-induced lifting of the degeneracy of the symmetric and antisymmetric tunneling states associated with tunneling between the two equivalentC1forms. For theJ,Kastates studied, the splittings are as large as 37 MHz. Combining this observation with published low-resolution far-infrared measurements of torsional sequence-band and hot-band frequencies and calculations from an empirical torsional potential allows us to identify the perturbing state as ν17+ 6ν18. Here, ν17is the CF2twist and ν18is the torsion. The matrix element responsible for this interaction exchanges eight vibrational quanta!

  7. Evidence of amino acid precursors: C-N bond coupling in simulated interstellar CO2/NH3 ices (United States)

    Esmaili, Sasan


    Low energy secondary electrons are abundantly produced in astrophysical or planetary ices by the numerous ionizing radiation fields typically encountered in space environments and may thus play a role in the radiation processing of such ices [1]. One approach to determine their chemical effect is to irradiate nanometer thick molecular solids of simple molecular constituents, with energy selected electron beams and to monitor changes in film chemistry with the surface analytical techniques [2].Of particular interest is the formation of HCN, which is a signature of dense gases in interstellar clouds, and is ubiquitous in the ISM. Moreover, the chemistry of HCN radiolysis products such as CN- may be essential to understand of the formation of amino acids [3] and purine DNA bases. Here we present new results on the irradiation of multilayer films of CO2 and NH3 with 70 eV electrons, leading to CN bond formations. The electron stimulated desorption (ESD) yields of cations and anions are recorded as a function of electron fluence. The prompt desorption of cationic reaction/scattering products [4], is observed at low fluence (~4x1013 electrons/cm2). Detected ions include C2+, C2O2+, C2O+, CO3+, C2O3+ or CO4+ from pure CO2, and N+, NH+, NH2+, NH3+, NH4+, N2+, N2H+ from pure NH3, and NO+, NOH+ from CO2/NH3 mixtures. Most saliently, increasing signals of negative ion products desorbing during prolonged irradiation of CO2/NH3 films included C2-, C2H-, C2H2-, as well as CN-, HCN- and H2CN-. The identification of particular product ions was accomplished by using 13CO2 and 15NH3 isotopes. The chemistry induced by electrons in pure films of CO2 and NH3 and mixtures with composition ratios (3:1), (1:1), and (1:3), was also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Irradiation of CO2/NH3 mixed films at 22 K produces species containing the following bonds/functional groups identified by XPS: C=O, O-H, C-C, C-O, C=N and N=O. (This work has been funded by NSERC).

  8. Sequence diversity within the HA-1 gene as detected by melting temperature assay without oligonucleotide probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattiuz Pier


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags are self-peptides derived from common cellular proteins and presented by MHC class I and II molecules. Disparities in mHags are a potential risk for the development of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD in the recipients of bone marrow from HLA-identical donors. Two alleles have been identified in the mHag HA-1. The correlation between mismatches of the mHag HA-1 and GvHD has been suggested and methods to facilitate large-scale testing were afterwards developed. Methods We used sequence specific primer (SSP PCR and direct sequencing to detect HA-1 gene polymorphisms in a sample of 131 unrelated Italian subjects. We then set up a novel melting temperature (Tm assay that may help identification of HA-1 alleles without oligonucleotide probes. Results We report the frequencies of HA-1 alleles in the Italian population and the presence of an intronic 5 base-pair deletion associated with the immunogeneic allele HA-1H. We also detected novel variable sites with respect to the consensus sequence of HA-1 locus. Even though recombination/gene conversion events are documented, there is considerable linkage disequilibrium in the data. The gametic associations between HA-1R/H alleles and the intronic 5-bp ins/del polymorphism prompted us to try the Tm analysis with SYBR® Green I. We show that the addition of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO during the assay yields distinct patterns when amplicons from HA-1H homozygotes, HA-1R homozygotes, and heterozygotes are analysed. Conclusion The possibility to use SYBR® Green I to detect Tm differences between allelic variants is attractive but requires great caution. We succeeded in allele discrimination of the HA-1 locus using a relatively short (101 bp amplicon, only in the presence of DMSO. We believe that, at least in certain assets, Tm assays may benefit by the addition of DMSO or other agents affecting DNA strand conformation and stability.

  9. Microstructure, crystal structure and electrical properties of Cu0.1Ni0.8Co0.2Mn1.9O4 ceramics obtained at different sintering conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodak, O.; Akselrud, L.; Demchenko, P.; Kotur, B.; Mrooz, O.; Hadzaman, I.; Shpotyuk, O.; Aldinger, F.; Seifert, H.; Volkov, S.; Pekhnyo, V.


    Details of the formation of Cu 0.1 Ni 0.8 Co 0.2 Mn 1.9 O 4 ceramics under different sintering conditions have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) microanalyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrical resistivity measurements. Microstructure studies of samples sintered at 1170 deg. C for 1 h indicated the presence of a secondary phase besides the main spinel phase with modified composition. XRD measurements showed that the spinel phase exhibits a tetragonally distorted spinel structure (space group I4 1 /amd, a=5.9410(5) A, c=8.4196(15) A). The secondary phase (solid solution based on NiO) crystallizes with the NaCl-type structure (space group Fm3-bar m, a=4.1872(3) A). The content of the secondary phase in ceramics is 10.61 mass%. For NiMn 2 O 4 ceramics, prepared under the same sintering conditions, the decomposition with Ni 1-x Mn x O solid solution (NaCl-type structure) and spinel phase formation have been observed. The tetragonal modification of the spinel phase for NiMn 2 O 4 ceramics is more preferable (space group I4 1 /amd, a=5.9764(5) A, c=8.4201(8) A). The distribution of atoms in the structure has been proposed for both ceramics. According to XRD results the Cu 0.1 Ni 0.8 Co 0.2 Mn 1.9 O 4 ceramic samples, sintered at 920 deg. C for 8 h (program 1), at 920 deg. C for 8 h and at 750 deg. C for 24 h (program 2), at 920 deg. C for 8 h, at 1200 deg. C for 1 h and at 920 deg. C for 24 h (program 3) and at 920 deg. C for 8 h, at 1200 deg. C for 1 h, at 920 deg. C for 24 h and at 750 deg. C for 48 h (program 4), contain a single phase with the cubic spinel structure (space group Fd3-bar m). Small residuals of the secondary phase for the ceramics, prepared via programs 3 and 4, have been observed by SEM investigations. The structure transformations of the spinel phase for Cu 0.1 Ni 0.8 Co 0.2 Mn 1.9 O 4 ceramics sintered at 1170 deg. C are attributed to a Jahn

  10. IGF-1 prevents simvastatin-induced myotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes. (United States)

    Bonifacio, Annalisa; Sanvee, Gerda M; Brecht, Karin; Kratschmar, Denise V; Odermatt, Alex; Bouitbir, Jamal; Krähenbühl, Stephan


    Statins are generally well tolerated, but treatment with these drugs may be associated with myopathy. The mechanisms of statin-associated myopathy are not completely understood. Statins inhibit AKT phosphorylation by an unclear mechanism, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) activates the IGF-1/AKT signaling pathway and promotes muscle growth. The aims of the study were to investigate mechanisms of impaired AKT phosphorylation by simvastatin and to assess effects of IGF-1 on simvastatin-induced myotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 mouse myotubes were exposed to 10 μM simvastatin and/or 10 ng/mL IGF-1 for 18 h. Simvastatin inhibited the IGF-1/AKT signaling pathway, resulting in increased breakdown of myofibrillar proteins, impaired protein synthesis and increased apoptosis. Simvastatin inhibited AKT S473 phosphorylation, indicating reduced activity of mTORC2. In addition, simvastatin impaired stimulation of AKT T308 phosphorylation by IGF-1, indicating reduced activation of the IGF-1R/PI3K pathway by IGF-1. Nevertheless, simvastatin-induced myotoxicity could be at least partially prevented by IGF-1. The protective effects of IGF-1 were mediated by activation of the IGF-1R/AKT signaling cascade. Treatment with IGF-1 also suppressed muscle atrophy markers, restored protein synthesis and inhibited apoptosis. These results were confirmed by normalization of myotube morphology and protein content of C2C12 cells exposed to simvastatin and treated with IGF-1. In conclusion, impaired activity of AKT can be explained by reduced function of mTORC2 and of the IGF-1R/PI3K pathway. IGF-1 can prevent simvastatin-associated cytotoxicity and metabolic effects on C2C12 cells. The study gives insight into mechanisms of simvastatin-associated myotoxicity and provides potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  11. The CO-H2 van der Waals complex and complex organic molecules in cold molecular clouds: A TMC-1C survey (United States)

    Potapov, A.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Graf, U. U.; Möller, Th.; Schlemmer, S.


    Context. Almost 200 different species have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) during the last decades, revealing not only simple species but complex molecules with more than six atoms. Other exotic compounds, like the weakly-bound dimer (H2)2, have also been detected in astronomical sources like Jupiter. Aims: We aim to detect, for the first time, the CO-H2 van der Waals complex in the ISM, which could be a sensitive indicator for low temperatures if detected. Methods: We used the IRAM 30 m telescope, located in Pico Veleta (Spain), to search for the CO-H2 complex in a cold, dense core in TMC-1C (with a temperature of ~10 K). All the brightest CO-H2 transitions in the 3 mm (80-110 GHz) band were observed with a spectral resolution of 0.5-0.7 km s-1, reaching a rms noise level of ~2 mK. The simultaneous observation of a broad frequency band, 16 GHz, allowed us to conduct a serendipitous spectral line survey. Results: We did not detected any lines belonging to the CO-H2 complex. We set up a new, more stringent upper limit for its abundance to be [CO-H2]/[CO] ~ 5 × 10-6, while we expect the abundance of the complex to be in the range ~10-8-10-3. The spectral line survey has allowed us to detect 75 lines associated with 41 different species (including isotopologues). We detect a number of complex organic species, for example methyl cyanide (CH3CN), methanol (CH3OH), propyne (CH3CCH), and ketene (CH2CO), associated with cold gas (excitation temperatures ~7 K), confirming the presence of these complex species not only in warm objects but also in cold regimes. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).Reduced spectra (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  12. Enantiomers of HA-966 (3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one) exhibit distinct central nervous system effects: (+)-HA-966 is a selective glycine/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, but (-)-HA-966 is a potent gamma-butyrolactone-like sedative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L.; Donald, A.E.; Foster, A.C.; Hutson, P.H.; Iversen, L.L.; Iversen, S.D.; Kemp, J.A.; Leeson, P.D.; Marshall, G.R.; Oles, R.J.; Priestley, T.; Thorn, L.; Tricklebank, M.D.; Vass, C.A.; Williams, B.J.


    The antagonist effect of ±-3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one (HA-966) at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor occurs through a selective interaction with the glycine modulatory site within the receptor complex. When the enantiomers of ±-HA-966 were resolved, the (R)-(+)-enantiomer was found to be a selective glycine/NMDA receptor antagonist, a property that accounts for its anticonvulsant activity in vivo. In contrast, the (S)-(-)-enantiomer was only weakly active as an NMDA-receptor antagonist, but nevertheless it possessed a marked sedative and muscle relaxant action in vivo. In radioligand binding experiments, (+)-HA-966 inhibited strychnine-insensitive [ 3 H]glycine binding to rat cerebral cortex synaptic membranes with an IC 50 of 12.5 μM, whereas (-)-HA-966 had an IC 50 value of 339 μM. In mice, (+)-HA-966 antagonized sound and N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMDLA)-induced seizures. The coadministration of D-serine dose-dependently antagonized the anticonvulsant effect of a submaximal dose of (+)-HA-966 against NMDLA-induced seizures. The sedative/ataxic effect of racemic HA-966 was mainly attributable to the (-)-enantiomer. It is suggested that, as in the case of the sedative γ-butyrolactone, disruption of striatal dopaminergic mechanisms may be responsible for this action

  13. Multistep carcinogenesis of normal human fibroblasts. Human fibroblasts immortalized by repeated treatment with Co-60 gamma rays were transformed into tumorigenic cells with Ha-ras oncogenes. (United States)

    Namba, M; Nishitani, K; Fukushima, F; Kimoto, T


    Two normal mortal human fibroblast cell strains were transformed into immortal cell lines, SUSM-1 and KMST-6, by treatment with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) and Co-60 gamma rays, respectively. These immortalized cell lines showed morphological changes of cells and remarkable chromosome aberrations, but neither of them grew in soft agar or formed tumors in nude mice. The immortal cell line, KMST-6, was then converted into neoplastic cells by treatment with Harvey murine sarcoma virus (Ha-MSV) or the c-Ha-ras oncogene derived from a human lung carcinoma. These neoplastically transformed cells acquired anchorage-independent growth potential and developed tumors when transplanted into nude mice. All the tumors grew progressively without regression until the animals died of tumors. In addition, the tumors were transplantable into other nude mice. Normal human fibroblasts, on the other hand, were not transformed into either immortal or tumorigenic cells by treatment with Ha-MSV or c-Ha-ras alone. Our present data indicate that (1) the chemical carcinogen, 4NQO, or gamma rays worked as an initiator of carcinogenesis in normal human cells, giving rise to immortality, and (2) the ras gene played a role in the progression of the immortally transformed cells to more malignant cells showing anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity. In other words, the immortalization process of human cells seems to be a pivotal or rate-limiting step in the carcinogenesis of human cells.

  14. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system (United States)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.


    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4

  15. Alkali/TX{sub 2} catalysts for CO/H{sub 2} conversion to C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alcohols. Technical progress report, March 1989--August 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Bastian, R.D.; Flanagan, K.L.


    Ruthenium disulfide catalysts have been synthesized, tested, and characterized during this period of research. It was observed that both the undoped and Cs-doped RuS{sub 2} catalysts produced alcohols and lower amounts of hydrocarbons from H{sub 2}/CO = 1.0 synthesis gas at temperatures above 300{degree}C. Calcination and catalytic testing resulted in partial reduction of the RuS{sub 2} to Ru{sup o}. Calcination under H{sub 2}S prevented the partial reduction of the RuS{sub 2} catalyst, but subsequent catalytic testing again resulted in the formation of a quantity of Ru{sup o}. A Cs-doped RuS{sub 2} catalyst was prepared, but it might have had too high of a loading of Cs. Upon testing, a lower activity was observed for the doped catalyst compared with the undoped catalyst, but the alcohol selectivity was the same for the two catalysts.

  16. Bonding wood-saxon potential and the mechanism of resonance states in the ''1''2C+''1''2C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G.; Khaydarov, R.R.


    In present work the ''1''2C+''1''2C system are investigated in the realistic Woods--Saxon potential with Coulomb interaction. The comparison of the calculated states with the experimental data has shown, that the observed (identified) resonances may be explained by the single-channel description, i.e., as potential resonances. The quadrupole moments and transition probabilities for low-laying states have been calculated

  17. GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized by citric acid assisted high-energy ball milling ... The State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science; The Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, P. R. ...

  18. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Novel 2,5-Diphenylindolo[2,3-e] Pyrazolo[1',5':3",4"]pyrimido[2",1"-c] [1,2,4]triazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed G. Marei


    Full Text Available The formation of (E-3-{2-(2,5-diphenylpyrazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-7-ylhydrazono}indolin-2-ones 3 has been achieved by condensation of equimolar amounts of 7-hydrazino-2,5-diphenylpyrazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (1 and isatin (or isatin derivatives 2 at room temperature. The (E-products could be isomerized into corresponding the (Z-3 isomers. Reactions of the latter fused heterocyclic hydrazones towards different electro-philic reagents yielded the corresponding 3-substituted derivatives 4–7. Dehydrative cyclisation of the hydrazones 3 using phosphorus oxychloride afforded the 2,5-diphenyl- indolo[2,3-e]pyrazolo[1',5':3",4"]pyrimido[2",1"-c][1,2,4] triazines 13. The polyfused heterocyclic ring system 13 underwent electrophilic substitution reactions at position 4 rather than at position 3. The 3-bromo isomer of 17 was prepared by a sequence of reactions starting from 2,5-diphenylpyrazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine-7(6H-thione (11. The orientation of the electrophilic attack was supported by spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Some of the synthesized compounds were found to possess slight to moderate activity against the microorganisms Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Sr2Ir1−xMxO4 (M=Ti, Fe, Co) solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatimu, Alvin J.; Berthelot, Romain; Muir, Sean; Sleight, Arthur W.; Subramanian, M.A.


    The effects of Ti, Fe and Co substitutions for Ir on the structure and on the physical properties of Sr 2 IrO 4 are investigated. A complete solid solution Sr 2 Ir 1−x Ti x O 4 is obtained while both Fe and Co doping are relatively limited. In each case however, the c-axis cell parameter and the initial IrO 6 octahedra tilting decreases with substitution. Doping with Ti, Fe and Co results in a decrease of the magnetic susceptibility and in an increase in the paramagnetic effective moment for Co and Fe doped samples and a suppression of the weak ferromagnetic ordering observed for Sr 2 IrO 4 . - Graphical abstract: Solid solutions of Sr 2 Ir 1−x M x O 4 (M=Ti, Fe, Co) have been synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, magnetism and electrical measurements. Changes in the a parameter and decreases in both the c-axis cell parameters and the initial IrO 6 octahedra tilting are found to be correlated. Highlights: ► Solid Solutions of Sr 2 Ir 1−x M x O 4 (M=Ti, Fe, Co) are synthesized. ► The Sr 2 Ir 1−x Ti x O 4 solid solution is complete while those of Fe and Co are relatively limited. ► The change in a cell parameter with substitution is much less than that of the c parameter. ► Decreased tilting and the smaller size of the M cation contrastingly affect the a parameter. ► Doping results in a suppression of the weak ferromagnetic ordering in Sr 2 IrO 4 .

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis, thermal, structural, spectroscopic and magnetic studies of the Mn5-x Co x (HPO4)2(PO4)2(H2O)4 (x=1.25, 2, 2.5 and 3) finite solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrea, Edurne S.; Mesa, Jose L.; Pizarro, Jose L.; Arriortua, Maria I.; Rojo, Teofilo


    The Mn 5- x Co x (HPO 4 ) 2 (PO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O) 4 (x=1.25, 2, 2.5, 3) finite solid solution has been synthesized by mild hydrothermal conditions under autogeneous pressure. The phases crystallize in the C2/c space group with Z=4, belonging to the monoclinic system. The unit-cell parameters obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction are: a=17.525(1), b=9.0535(6), c=9.4517(7) A, β=96.633(5) o being R1=0.0436, wR2=0.0454 for Mn75Co25; a=17.444(2), b=9.0093(9), c=9.400(1) A, β=96.76(1) o being R1=0.0381, wR2=0.0490 for Mn60Co40; a=17.433(2), b=8.9989(9), c=9.405(1) A, β=96.662(9) o being R1=0.0438, wR2=0.0515 for Mn50Co50 and a=17.4257(9), b=8.9869(5), c=9.3935(5) A, β=96.685(4) o being R1=0.0296, wR2=0.0460 for Mn40Co60. The structure consists of a three dimensional network formed by octahedral pentameric entities (Mn,Co) 5 O 16 (H 2 O) 6 sharing vertices with the (PO 4 ) 3- and (HPO 4 ) 2- tetrahedra. The limit of thermal stability of these compounds is, approximately, 165 deg. C, near to this mean temperature the phases loose their water content in two successive steps. IR spectra show the characteristic bands of the water molecules and the phosphate and hydrogen-phosphate oxoanions. The diffuse reflectance spectra are consistent with the presence of MO 6 octahedra environments in slightly distorted octahedral geometry, except for the M(3)O 6 octahedron which presents a remarkable distortion and so a higher Dq parameter. The mean value for the Dq and B-Racah parameter for the M(1),(2)O 6 octahedra is 685 and 850 cm -1 , respectively. These parameters for the most distorted M(3)O 6 polyhedron are 825 and 880 cm -1 , respectively. The four phases exhibit antiferromagnetic couplings as the major magnetic interactions. However, a small spin canting phenomenon is observed at low temperatures for the two phases with major content in the anisotropic-Co(II) cation. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of the finite solid solution Mn 5-x Co x (HPO 4 ) 2 (PO 4 ) 2 (H

  1. Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 0 to 14-yr-old children in Croatia--2004 to 2012 study. (United States)

    Rojnic Putarek, Natasa; Ille, Jasenka; Spehar Uroic, Anita; Skrabic, Veselin; Stipancic, Gordana; Krnic, Nevena; Radica, Ana; Marjanac, Igor; Severinski, Srecko; Svigir, Alen; Bogdanic, Ana; Dumic, Miroslav


    The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among children and adolescents increased during the last 50 yr. The T1DM incidence in Croatia was 8.87/100.000/yr over 1995-2003, with an annual increase of 9%, which placed Croatia among countries with moderate risk for T1DM. To investigate incidence rates and trends of T1DM from 2004 to 2012 in 0 to 14-yr-old Croatian children, and to compare the results with previous studies in Croatia and other European countries. T1DM crude incidence rates are estimated for the entire group and three subgroups: 0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 yr. Standardized incidence is calculated using the method of direct standardization according to World Health Organization (WHO) standard world population. The incidence rates by gender, age groups, seasonality, and calendar year, and their interactions were analyzed using Poisson regression model. A total of 1066 cases were ascertained over 2004-2012. The standardized incidence was 17.23/100.000/yr (95% CI: 16.19-18.26), with no significant differences in incidence rates or trends between boys and girls. Statistically significant annual increase of 5.87% (p Croatia, thus placing Croatia among countries with high risk for T1DM. The annual increment of 5.87% is considerably lower than 9.0% reported earlier, but still higher than the European average (3.9%). The increase in incidence ceased in youngest children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Synthesis and characteristics of a novel 3-D organic amine oxalate: (enH2)1.5[Bi3(C2O4)6(CO2CONHCH2CH2NH3)].6.5H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaohong; Zhang Hanhui; Cao Yanning; Chen Yiping; Wang Zhen


    A novel 3-D compound of (enH 2 ) 1.5 [Bi 3 (C 2 O 4 ) 6 (CO 2 CONHCH 2 CH 2 NH 3 )].6.5H 2 O has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection integral spectrum (UV-Vis DRIS), fluorescence spectra, TGA and single crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c with a=31.110(8)A, b=11.544(3)A, c=22.583(6)A, β=112.419(3) o , V=7497(3)A 3 , Z=8, R 1 =0.0463 and wR 2 =0.1393 for unique 7686 reflections I>2σ(I). In the title compound, the Bi atoms have eight-fold and nine-fold coordination with respect to the oxygen atoms, with the Bi atoms in distorted dodecahedron and monocapped square antiprism, respectively. The 3-D framework of the title compound contains channels and is composed of linkages between Bi atoms and oxalate units, forming honeycomb-like layers with two kinds of 6+6 membered aperture, and pillared by oxalate ligands and monamide groups. The channels have N-ethylamine oxalate monamide group - CO 2 CONHCH 2 CH 2 NH 3 + , which is formed by the in situ reaction of en and oxalate acid. At room temperature, the complex exhibits intense blue luminescence with an emission peak at 445nm

  3. Photosynthesis of C3 and C4 Species in Response to Increased CO2 Concentration and Drought Stress