WorldWideScience

Sample records for co2 sequestration module

  1. CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Jammes, L.; Guyot, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Le Thiez, P.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO 2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO 2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO 2 ; CO 2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO 2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  2. CO2 Sequestration short course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  3. The sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thiez, P.

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO 2 , represents a major technological and societal challenge in the fight against climate change. Among the measures likely to reduce anthropic CO 2 emissions, capture and geological storage holds out promise for the future. (author)

  4. CO2, the promises of geological sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouat, S.

    2006-01-01

    Trapping part of the world CO 2 effluents in the deep underground is a profitable and ecological way to limit the global warming. This digest paper presents the different ways of CO 2 sequestration (depleted oil and gas fields, unexploited coal seams, saline aquifers), the other possible solutions for CO 2 abatement (injection in the bottom of the ocean, conversion into carbonates by injection into basic rocks, fixation by photosynthesis thanks to micro-algae cultivation), and takes stock of the experiments in progress (Snoehvit field in Norway, European project Castor). (J.S.)

  5. Potential and economics of CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ciais, Ph.; Orr, J.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO 2 . Some techniques could be used to reduced CO 2 emission and stabilize atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including i) energy savings and energy efficiency, ii) switch to lower carbon content fuels (natural gas) and use energy sources with zero CO 2 emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, iii) capture and store CO 2 from fossil fuels combustion, and enhance the natural sinks for CO 2 (forests, soils, ocean...). The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO 2 and to review the various options for CO 2 sequestration by enhancing natural carbon sinks. Some of the factors which will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are discussed. Capturing CO 2 and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology, however, substantial R and D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO 2 emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to about 30% of the global anthropic CO 2 emission, it represents a valuable tool in the baffle against global warming. About 50% of the anthropic CO 2 is being naturally absorbed by the biosphere and the ocean. The 'natural assistance' provided by these two large carbon reservoirs to the mitigation of climate change is substantial. The existing natural sinks could be enhanced by deliberate action. Given the known and likely environmental consequences, which could be very damaging indeed, enhancing ocean sinks does not appears as a satisfactory option. In contrast, the promotion of land sinks through demonstrated carbon-storing approach to agriculture, forests and land management could

  6. Exploration of public acceptance regarding CO2 underground sequestration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, M.; Tokushige, K.; Mori, Y.; Furukawa, A.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms for gaining public acceptance of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) aquifer sequestration were investigated through the use of questionnaires and focus group interviews. The study was performed as part of a CO 2 sequestration technology promotion project in Japan. The questionnaire portion of the study was conducted to determine public opinions and the extent of public awareness of CO 2 sequestration technologies. Questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate students majoring in environmental sociology. Participants were provided with newspaper articles related to CO 2 sequestration. The focus group study was conducted to obtain qualitative results to complement findings from the questionnaire survey. Results of the survey suggested that many participants were not particularly concerned about global warming, and had almost no knowledge about CO 2 sequestration. The opinions of some students were influenced by an awareness of similar types of facilities located near their homes. Attitudes were also influenced by the newspaper articles provided during the focus group sessions. However, many older participants did not trust information presented to them in newspaper format. Results suggested that many people identified afforestation as an alternative technology to CO 2 sequestration, and tended to think of CO 2 in negative terms as it contributed to global warming. Some participants assumed that CO 2 was harmful. The majority of respondents agreed with the development of CO 2 sequestration technologies as part of a program of alternative emissions abatement technologies. The provision of detailed information concerning CO 2 sequestration did not completely remove anxieties concerning the technology's potential negative impacts. It was concluded that a confident communications strategy is needed to persuade Japanese residents of the need to implement CO 2 sequestration technologies. 11 refs., 2 figs

  7. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-07-01

    In order to plan for potential CO{sub 2} mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO{sub 2} mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO{sub 2} and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} sequestration, including captured CO{sub 2} storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO{sub 2} sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO{sub 2} sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO{sub 2}. No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO{sub 2} sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget.

  8. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  9. International Collaboration on CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter H. Israelsson; E. Eric Adams

    2007-06-30

    On December 4, 1997, the US Department of Energy (USDOE), the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan (NEDO), and the Norwegian Research Council (NRC) entered into a Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration. Government organizations from Japan, Canada, and Australia, and a Swiss/Swedish engineering firm later joined the agreement, which outlined a research strategy for ocean carbon sequestration via direct injection. The members agreed to an initial field experiment, with the hope that if the initial experiment was successful, there would be subsequent field evaluations of increasingly larger scale to evaluate environmental impacts of sequestration and the potential for commercialization. The evolution of the collaborative effort, the supporting research, and results for the International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration were documented in almost 100 papers and reports, including 18 peer-reviewed journal articles, 46 papers, 28 reports, and 4 graduate theses. These efforts were summarized in our project report issued January 2005 and covering the period August 23, 1998-October 23, 2004. An accompanying CD contained electronic copies of all the papers and reports. This report focuses on results of a two-year sub-task to update an environmental assessment of acute marine impacts resulting from direct ocean sequestration. The approach is based on the work of Auerbach et al. [6] and Caulfield et al. [20] to assess mortality to zooplankton, but uses updated information concerning bioassays, an updated modeling approach and three modified injection scenarios: a point release of negatively buoyant solid CO{sub 2} hydrate particles from a moving ship; a long, bottom-mounted diffuser discharging buoyant liquid CO{sub 2} droplets; and a stationary point release of hydrate particles forming a sinking plume. Results suggest that in particular the first two discharge modes could be

  10. Cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, Wouter J.J.; Comans, Rob N.J.; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2007-01-01

    A cost evaluation of CO 2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation has been made using either wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ) or steel slag as feedstock. First, the process was simulated to determine the properties of the streams as well as the power and heat consumption of the process equipment. Second, a basic design was made for the major process equipment, and total investment costs were estimated with the help of the publicly available literature and a factorial cost estimation method. Finally, the sequestration costs were determined on the basis of the depreciation of investments and variable and fixed operating costs. Estimated costs are 102 and 77 EUR/ton CO 2 net avoided for wollastonite and steel slag, respectively. For wollastonite, the major costs are associated with the feedstock and the electricity consumption for grinding and compression (54 and 26 EUR/ton CO 2 avoided, respectively). A sensitivity analysis showed that additional influential parameters in the sequestration costs include the liquid-to-solid ratio in the carbonation reactor and the possible value of the carbonated product. The sequestration costs for steel slag are significantly lower due to the absence of costs for the feedstock. Although various options for potential cost reduction have been identified, CO 2 sequestration by current aqueous carbonation processes seems expensive relative to other CO 2 storage technologies. The permanent and inherently safe sequestration of CO 2 by mineral carbonation may justify higher costs, but further cost reductions are required, particularly in view of (current) prices of CO 2 emission rights. Niche applications of mineral carbonation with a solid residue such as steel slag as feedstock and/or a useful carbonated product hold the best prospects for an economically feasible CO 2 sequestration process. (author)

  11. Geothermal energy combined with CO2 sequestration : An additional benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Bruining, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this transition period from a fossil-fuel based society to a sustainable-energy society, it is expected that CO2 capture and subsequent sequestration in geological formations plays a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. An alternative for CO2 emission reduction is to partially replace

  12. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams

    2000-08-23

    The specific objective of our project on CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration is to investigate its technical feasibility and to improve the understanding of any associated environmental impacts. Our ultimate goal is to minimize any impacts associated with the eventual use of ocean carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2001 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. At GHGT-4 in Interlaken, we presented a paper detailing our plans. The purpose of this paper is to present an update on our progress to date and our plans to complete the project. The co-authors of this paper are members of the project's Technical Committee, which has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project.

  13. Sequestration of CO2 in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.; Rothenburg, L.; Bachu, S.

    2002-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is thought to be greatly affected by anthropogenic and naturally generated gases, such as carbon dioxide. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere could be effected through the permanent storage of carbon dioxide in dissolved salt caverns. A large number of suitable salt deposits are located in Alberta, especially the Lotsberg Salt of east-central Alberta. A major advantage of this deposit is its proximity to present and future point sources of carbon dioxide associated with fossil fuel development projects. Using the perspective of the long term fate of the stored carbon dioxide, the authors presented the characteristics of the Lotsberg Salt and the overlying strata. A high level of security against leakage and migration of the gas back to the biosphere is ensured by several features discussed in the paper. The authors propose a procedure that would be applicable for the creation, testing, and filling of a salt cavern. Achieving a long term prediction of the behavior of the cavern during slow closure, coupled to the pressure and volume behavior of the gas within the cavern represents the critical factor. The authors came up with an acceptable prediction by using a semi-analytical model. The use of salt caverns for the permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide has not yet faced technical obstacles that would prevent it. The authors argue that sequestration of carbon dioxide in salt caverns represents an environmentally acceptable option in Alberta. 11 refs., 3 figs

  14. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark

    2016-07-19

    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs.

  15. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  16. Cost Evaluation of CO2 Sequestration by Aqueous Mineral Carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation has been made using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. First, the process was simulated to determine the properties of the streams as well as the power and heat consumption of the process equipment. Second, a

  17. Mineral CO2 sequestration in alkaline solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a promising sequestration route for the permanent and safe storage of carbon dioxide. In addition to calcium- or magnesium-containing primary minerals, suitable alkaline solid residues can be used as feedstock. The use of alkaline residues has several advantages, such as their availability close to CO2 sources and their higher reactivity for carbonation than primary minerals. In addition, the environmental quality of residues can potentially be improved by carbonation. In this study, key factors of the mineral CO2 sequestration process are identified, their influence on the carbonation process is examined, and environmental properties of the reaction products with regard to their possible beneficial utilization are investigated. The use of alkaline solid residues forms a potentially attractive alternative for the first mineral sequestration plants

  18. CO2 sequestration using principles of shell formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jang, Young-Nam [CO2 Sequestration Research Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si-Hyun; Lim, Kyoung-Soo; Jeong, Soon-Kwan [Energy Conservation Research Department of Clean Energy System Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The biomimetic sequestration of carbon dioxide to reduce the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere is introduced in this paper. Bivalve shells are used as a good model of CO2 sequestration in this paper, because the shell is derived from the calcium ions and CO2 in seawater. Carbonic anhydrase, hemocyte from diseased shell (HDS) and extrapallial fluid (EFP) are involved in shell formation. This paper compares the soluble protein extracted from Crassostrea gigas with bovine carbonic anhydrase II in terms of their ability to promote CO2 hydration and the production of calcium precipitates. The result demonstrates that HDS has more functional groups to bind calcium ions in aqueous systems, and a different process of calcium precipitation, than does bovine carbonic anhydrase II. To understand molecular weight and secondary protein structure, mass-spectroscopic analysis (MALDI-TOF) and circular dichroism (CD) analysis were used. With regard to EPF, EPF related to shell formation is composed of several fractions and plays a role in sequestration of CO2.

  19. Potential Hydrogeomechanical Impacts of Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, B. J.; Haerer, D.; Han, W.; Heath, J.; Morse, J.

    2006-12-01

    Long-term sequestration of anthropogenic "greenhouse gases" such as CO2 is a proposed approach to managing climate change. Deep brine reservoirs in sedimentary basins are possible sites for sequestration, given their ubiquitous nature. We used a mathematical sedimentary basin model, including coupling of multiphase CO2-groundwater flow and rock deformation, to evaluate residence times in possible brine reservoir storage sites, migration patterns and rates away from such sites, and effects of CO2 injection on fluid pressures and rock strain. Study areas include the Uinta and Paradox basins of Utah, the San Juan basin of New Mexico, and the Permian basin of west Texas. Regional-scale hydrologic and mechanical properties, including the presence of fracture zones, were calibrated using laboratory and field data. Our initial results suggest that, in general, long-term (~100 years or more) sequestration in deep brine reservoirs is possible, if guided by robust structural and hydrologic data. However, specific processes must be addressed to characterize and minimize risks. In addition to CO2 migration from target sequestration reservoirs into other reservoirs or to the land surface, another environmental issue is displacement of brines into freshwater aquifers. We evaluated the potential for such unintended aquifer contamination by displacement of brines out of adjacent sealing layers such as marine shales. Results suggest that sustained injection of CO2 may incur significant brine displacement out of adjacent sealing layers, depending on the injection history, initial brine composition, and hydrologic properties of both reservoirs and seals. Model simulations also suggest that as injection-induced overpressures migrate, effective stresses may follow this migration under some conditions, as will associated rock strain. Such "strain migration" may lead to induced or reactivated fractures or faults, but can be controlled through reservoir engineering.

  20. Mineral CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2005-12-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration, i.e., carbonation of alkaline silicate Ca/Mg minerals, analogous to natural weathering processes, is a possible technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline Ca-rich industrial residues are presented as a possible feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration. These materials are cheap, available near large point sources of CO2, and tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their chemical instability. Ground steel slag was carbonated in aqueous suspensions to study its reaction mechanisms. Process variables, such as particle size, temperature, carbon dioxide pressure, and reaction time, were systematically varied, and their influence on the carbonation rate was investigated. The maximum carbonation degree reached was 74% of the Ca content in 30 min at 19 bar pressure, 100C, and a particle size of <38 μm. The two must important factors determining the reaction rare are particle size (<2 mm to <38 μm) and reaction temperature (25-225C). The carbonation reaction was found to occur in two steps: (1) leaching of calcium from the steel slag particles into the solution; (2) precipitation of calcite on the surface of these particles. The first step and, more in particular, the diffusion of calcium through the solid matrix toward the surface appeared to be the rate-determining reaction step, The Ca diffusion was found to be hindered by the formation of a CaCO3-coating and a Ca-depleted silicate zona during the carbonation process. Research on further enhancement of the reaction rate, which would contribute to the development of a cost-effective CO2-sequestration process, should focus particularly on this mechanism

  1. Still needed data for successful deep CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, Gene C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite chemical knowledge about CO 2 that extends back centuries, some data bases are still evolving that are needed to predict even the sub-critical CO 2 behavior down the geothermal gradient's P- and T-values which will be encountered in sequestration utilizing deep mines and wells. These needed data include IR-spectral interpretations of CO 2 molecular structure as P and T change; the unraveling of the Joule Thomson coefficient (heating or cooling?) that changes algebraic polarity around 10 6 Pa; more exact equations of state (EOS) that correlate to potential CO 2 polarity changes in molecular structure; newer EOS than those that have currently been derived by templating directly measured data; and focus is needed on the EOS-derived properties, like fugacity. Also, natural analogues like (1) the carbonate stability in metamorphic silicate-carbonation facies and (2) Lake Nyos aqueous geochemistry with concern about the potential redox-equilibria-predicted presence of CO (and graphite), as well as CO 2 . (authors)

  2. Geomechanical Response of Jointed Caprock During CO2 Geological Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; Martinez, M. J.; Bishop, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 refers to the injection of supercritical CO2 into deep reservoirs trapped beneath a low-permeability caprock formation. Maintaining caprock integrity during the injection process is the most important factor for a successful injection. In this work we evaluate the potential for jointed caprock during injection scenarios using coupled three-dimensional multiphase flow and geomechanics modeling. Evaluation of jointed/fractured caprock systems is of particular concern to CO2 sequestration because creation or reactivation of joints (mechanical damage) can lead to enhanced pathways for leakage. In this work, we use an equivalent continuum approach to account for the joints within the caprock. Joint's aperture and non-linear stiffness of the caprock will be updated dynamically based on the effective normal stress. Effective permeability field will be updated based on the joints' aperture creating an anisotropic permeability field throughout the caprock. This feature would add another coupling between the solid and fluid in addition to basic Terzaghi's effective stress concept. In this study, we evaluate the impact of the joint's orientation and geometry of caprock and reservoir layers on geomechanical response of the CO2 geological systems. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers and formations: Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Thomas, Burt

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and sequestration in geologic media is one among many emerging strategies to reduce atmospheric emissions of anthropogenic CO2. This chapter looks at the potential of deep saline aquifers – based on their capacity and close proximity to large point sources of CO2 – as repositories for the geologic sequestration of CO2. The petrochemical characteristics which impact on the suitability of saline aquifers for CO2 sequestration and the role of coupled geochemical transport models and numerical tools in evaluating site feasibility are also examined. The full-scale commercial CO2 sequestration project at Sleipner is described together with ongoing pilot and demonstration projects.

  4. CO2 emissions abatement and geologic sequestration - industrial innovations and stakes - status of researches in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium was jointly organized by the French institute of petroleum (IFP), the French agency of environmental and energy mastery (Ademe) and the geological and mining research office (BRGM). This press kit makes a status of the advances made in CO 2 emissions abatement and geological sequestration: technological advances of CO 2 capture and sequestration, geological reservoir dimensioning with respect to the problem scale, duration of such an interim solution, CO 2 emissions abatement potentialities of geological sequestration, regulatory, economical and financial implications, international stakes of greenhouse gas emissions. This press kit comprises a press release about the IFP-Ademe-BRGM colloquium, a slide presentation about CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and four papers: a joint IFP-Ademe-BRGM press conference, IFP's answers to CO 2 emissions abatement, Ademe's actions in CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and BRGM's experience in CO 2 sequestration and climatic change expertise. (J.S.)

  5. Faults as Windows to Monitor Gas Seepage: Application to CO2 Sequestration and CO2-EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Klusman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of potential gas seepage for CO2 sequestration and CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery in geologic storage will involve geophysical and geochemical measurements of parameters at depth and at, or near the surface. The appropriate methods for MVA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting are needed for both cost and technical effectiveness. This work provides an overview of some of the geochemical methods that have been demonstrated to be effective for an existing CO2-EOR (Rangely, CA, USA and a proposed project at Teapot Dome, WY, USA. Carbon dioxide and CH4 fluxes and shallow soil gas concentrations were measured, followed by nested completions of 10-m deep holes to obtain concentration gradients. The focus at Teapot Dome was the evaluation of faults as pathways for gas seepage in an under-pressured reservoir system. The measurements were supplemented by stable carbon and oxygen isotopic measurements, carbon-14, and limited use of inert gases. The work clearly demonstrates the superiority of CH4 over measurements of CO2 in early detection and quantification of gas seepage. Stable carbon isotopes, carbon-14, and inert gas measurements add to the verification of the deep source. A preliminary accounting at Rangely confirms the importance of CH4 measurements in the MVA application.

  6. Elevated CO2 leads to carbon sequestration by modulating C4 photosynthesis pathway enzyme (PPDK) in Suaeda monoica and S. fruticosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sonam; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2018-01-01

    The C 4 halophytic species Suaeda monoica and S. fruticosa, possess the C 4 photosynthesis pathway without Kranz anatomy were grown at ambient (470ppm CO 2 ) and elevated (850ppm CO 2 ) atmospheric CO 2 under control containment facility to study the plant response under CO 2 stress condition. The relative growth of both Suaeda species was enhanced with atmospheric CO 2 enrichment compared to control (ambient) condition. The photosynthesis rate was found 2.5μmolCO 2 m -2 s -1 in both species under stress condition compared to about 1.9μmolCO 2 m -2 s -1 under control conditions. About 0.3molH 2 Om -2 s -1 conductance was detected under an unstressed condition which decreased significantly to ~0.07molH 2 Om -2 s -1 on the 6th day of stress treatment. Similarly, transpiration rate was also decreased significantly from 4.4-5.2mmolH 2 Om -2 s -1 to 1.7-1.9 under stress condition. In contrast, VpdL increased significantly from 1.9kPa to 2.5kPa under stress condition. A higher total chlorophyll content observed in S. monoica (56.36mgg -1 tissue) compared to S. fruticosa (33.12mgg -1 tissue) under unstressed (control) condition. A significant increase was found in the total chlorophyll content of S. fruticosa (45.47mgg -1 tissue) with stress treatment compared to control (33.12mgg -1 tissue). In contrast, the total chlorophyll decreased in S. monoica (51.58mgg -1 tissue) under similar stress condition compared to control plants (56.36mgg -1 tissue). About 6-6.8mg total sugar per gram tissue found under control condition which enhanced further (7.5 to 11mgg -1 tissue) under stress condition. Similarly, total reducing sugar (~2mgg -1 tissue) and total starch content (6.5-11mgg -1 tissue) increased under stress condition. About 6.5- and 3- fold higher expression of PPDK gene was observed for S. monoica and S. fruticosa, respectively under CO 2 stress condition. PPDK (1.2- and 1.5- fold) and antioxidant enzymes; APX (12.7- and two-fold), CAT (2.2- and 6.4- fold) and SOD (4

  7. Aluminosilicate Dissolution and Silicate Carbonation during Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yujia

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) is considered a promising method to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission. Assessing the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) gas or liquid phase water (g, l)-mineral interactions is critical to evaluating the viability of GCS processes. This work contributes to our understanding of geochemical reactions at CO 2-water (g, l)-mineral interfaces, by investigating the dissolution of aluminosilicates in CO2-acidified water (l). Plagioclase and biotite were chosen as model minerals in reservoir rock and caprock, respectively. To elucidate the effects of brine chemistry, first, the influences of cations in brine including Na, Ca, and K, have been investigated. In addition to the cations, the effects of abundant anions including sulfate and oxalate were also examined. Besides the reactions in aqueous phase, we also examine the carbonation of silicates in water (g)-bearing supercritical CO2 (scCO2) under conditions relevant to GCS. For the metal carbonation, in particular, the effects of particle sizes, water, temperature, and pressure on the carbonation of wollastonite were systematically examined. For understanding the cations effects in brine, the impacts of Na concentrations up to 4 M on the dissolution of plagioclase and biotite were examined. High concentrations of Na significantly inhibited plagioclase dissolution by competing adsorption with proton and suppressing proton-promoted dissolution. Ca has a similar effect to Na, and their effects did not suppress each other when Na and Ca co-existed. For biotite, the inhibition effects of Na coupled with an enhancing effect due to ion exchange reaction between Na and interlayer K, which cracked the basal surfaces of biotite. The K in aqueous phase significantly inhibited the dissolution. If the biotite is equilibrated with NaCl solutions initially, the biotite dissolved faster than the original biotite and the dissolution was inhibited by Na and K in brine. The outcomes improve our current knowledge of

  8. Making carbon dioxide sequestration feasible: Toward federal regulation of CO2 sequestration pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, Joel; Endemann, Buck

    2010-01-01

    As the United States moves closer to a national climate change policy, it will have to focus on a variety of factors affecting the manner in which the country moves toward a future with a substantially lower carbon footprint. In addition to encouraging renewable energy, smart grid, clean fuels and other technologies, the United States will need to make substantial infrastructure investments in a variety of industries. Among the significant contributors to the current carbon footprint in the United States is the use of coal as a major fuel for the generation of electricity. One of the most important technologies that the United States can employ to reduce its carbon footprint is to sequester the carbon dioxide ('CO 2 ') from coal-fired power plants. This article focuses on the legal and policy issues surrounding a critical piece of the necessary sequestration infrastructure: CO 2 pipelines that will carry CO 2 from where it is removed from fuel or waste gas streams to where it will be sequestered. Ultimately, this article recommends developing a federally regulated CO 2 pipeline program to foster the implementation of carbon sequestration technology.

  9. Simulation of CO2–water–rock interactions on geologic CO2 sequestration under geological conditions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianye; Wang, Huaiyuan; Zhang, Fengjun; Xu, Tianfu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We determined the feasibilities of geologic CO 2 sequestration in China. • We determined the formation of gibbsite suggested CO 2 can be captured by rocks. • We suggested the mechanisms of CO 2 –water–rock interactions. • We found the corrosion and dissolution of the rock increased as temperature rose. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study focused on the feasibility of geologic CO 2 sequestration within the actual geological conditions of the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) project in China. This study investigated CO 2 –water–rock interactions under simulated hydrothermal conditions via physicochemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mass loss measurement and SEM showed that corrosion of feldspars, silica, and clay minerals increased with increasing temperature. Corrosion of sandstone samples in the CO 2 -containing fluid showed a positive correlation with temperature. During reaction at 70 °C, 85 °C, and 100 °C, gibbsite (an intermediate mineral product) formed on the sample surface. This demonstrated mineral capture of CO 2 and supported the feasibility of geologic CO 2 sequestration. Chemical analyses suggested a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism underlying the CO 2 –water–rock interactions. The results of this study suggested that mineral dissolution, new mineral precipitation, and carbonic acid formation-dissociation are closely interrelated in CO 2 –water–rock interactions

  10. Analysis of ex situ processes of CO2 sequestration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touze, S.; Bourgeois, F.; Baranger, P.; Durst, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to bring quantitative elements to evaluate the validation of the CO 2 mineral sequestration to limit the greenhouse effect gases. This analysis aims to calculate the CO 2 accounting of the system (internal energy production balance the energy expend) sequestrated CO 2 and produced CO 2 . The first part detailed the possible experimental solutions. Then two carbonation processes, direct and indirect, have been chosen of the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  11. Simplified Predictive Models for CO2 Sequestration Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta; RaviGanesh, Priya; Schuetter, Jared; Mooney, Douglas; He, Jincong; Durlofsky, Louis

    2014-05-01

    We present results from an ongoing research project that seeks to develop and validate a portfolio of simplified modeling approaches that will enable rapid feasibility and risk assessment for CO2 sequestration in deep saline formation. The overall research goal is to provide tools for predicting: (a) injection well and formation pressure buildup, and (b) lateral and vertical CO2 plume migration. Simplified modeling approaches that are being developed in this research fall under three categories: (1) Simplified physics-based modeling (SPM), where only the most relevant physical processes are modeled, (2) Statistical-learning based modeling (SLM), where the simulator is replaced with a "response surface", and (3) Reduced-order method based modeling (RMM), where mathematical approximations reduce the computational burden. The system of interest is a single vertical well injecting supercritical CO2 into a 2-D layered reservoir-caprock system with variable layer permeabilities. In the first category (SPM), we use a set of well-designed full-physics compositional simulations to understand key processes and parameters affecting pressure propagation and buoyant plume migration. Based on these simulations, we have developed correlations for dimensionless injectivity as a function of the slope of fractional-flow curve, variance of layer permeability values, and the nature of vertical permeability arrangement. The same variables, along with a modified gravity number, can be used to develop a correlation for the total storage efficiency within the CO2 plume footprint. In the second category (SLM), we develop statistical "proxy models" using the simulation domain described previously with two different approaches: (a) classical Box-Behnken experimental design with a quadratic response surface fit, and (b) maximin Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS) based design with a Kriging metamodel fit using a quadratic trend and Gaussian correlation structure. For roughly the same number of

  12. CO2 geological sequestration: state of art in Italy and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Bencini, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a wide scenario on the state of art in Italy and abroad of industrial CO 2 geological sequestration, with particular attention to Weyburn Project. Geochemical monitoring techniques are described, mentioning also geophysical monitoring techniques for CO 2 injected into the soil. Critical choices and objections in Italy to a complete use of clean fossil fuels, hydrogen carrier, clean coal technologies: all of these approaches require geological sequestration of CO 2 [it

  13. Density-Driven Flow Simulation in Anisotropic Porous Media: Application to CO2 Geological Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers is considered as one of the most viable and promising ways to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CO2 is injected into deep saline formations at supercritical state where its density

  14. Leakage and Seepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO 2 may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO 2 leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO 2 overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO 2 bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s -1 at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s -1 . Liquid CO 2 bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO 2 bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO 2 and CH 4 at three different seepage rates reveals that

  15. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-01-01

    In order to plan for potential CO(sub 2) mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO(sub 2) mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO(sub 2) sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO(sub 2) and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO(sub 2) sequestration, including captured CO(sub 2) storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO(sub 2) sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO(sub 2) sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO(sub 2). No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO(sub 2) sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO(sub 2) sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget

  16. Mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible CO2 sequestration process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible carbon dioxide sequestration process were investigated experimentally by systematic variation of the reaction temperature, CO2 pressure, particle size, reaction time, liquid to solid ratio and agitation power. The carbonation reaction

  17. Microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell for CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral carbonation can be used for CO2 sequestration, but the reaction rate is slow. In order to accelerate mineral carbonation, acid generated in a microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) was examined to dissolve

  18. Energy consumption and net CO2 sequestration of aqueous mineral carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Ruijg, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2006-12-01

    Aqueous mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive sequestration technology to reduce CO2 emissions. The energy consumption of this technology, however, reduces the net amount of CO2 sequestered. Therefore, the energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency of aqueous mineral carbonation was studied in dependence of various process variables using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. For wollastonite, the maximum energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency within the ranges of process conditions studied was 75% at 200C, 20 bar CO2, and a particle size of <38μm. The main energy-consuming process steps were the grinding of the feedstock and the compression of the CO2 feed. At these process conditions, a significantly lower efficiency was determined for steel slag (69%), mainly because of the lower Ca content of the feedstock. The CO2 sequestration efficiency might be improved substantially for both types of feedstock by, e.g., reducing the amount of process water applied and further grinding of the feedstock. The calculated energetic efficiencies warrant a further assessment of the (energetic) feasibility of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation on the basis of a pilot-scale process

  19. Enhanced Oil Recovery with CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Maria; De Simoni, Michela; Delbianco, Alberto; Cazzani, Piero; Zanibelli, Laura

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents the results of a feasibility study aimed at extending the production life of a small oilfield in Italy through EOR, employing the CO2 captured from the flue gas streams of the refinery nearby. The EOR operation allows the recovery of additional reserves while a consistent amount of the CO2 injected remains permanently stored into the reservoir. The screening process selection for EOR-CO2 and the main elements of the pilot project for the proper upstream-downstream integration will be described. Evaluation of EOR-CO2 extension to other oilfields and its effect on oil production and project's economics will be reported.

  20. Some geomechanical aspects of geological CO2 sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoir depletion and subsequent CO 2 injection into the depleted geological reservoir induce stress changes that may mechanically damage top seal and wells, or trigger existing faults, creating the leakage pathways for CO 2 escape from the reservoir. The role of geomechanics is to assess the

  1. Some geomechanical aspects of geological CO2 sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir depletion and subsequent CO2 injection into the depleted geological reservoir induce stress changes that may mechanically damage top seal and wells, or trigger existing faults, creating the leakage pathways for CO2 escape from the reservoir. The role of geomechanics is to assess the

  2. Optimization of pipeline transport for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.X.; Wang, G.X.; Massarotto, P.; Rudolph, V.

    2006-01-01

    Coal fired power generation will continue to provide energy to the world for the foreseeable future. However, this energy use is a significant contributor to increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration and, hence, global warming. Capture and disposal of CO 2 has received increased R and D attention in the last decade as the technology promises to be the most cost effective for large scale reductions in CO 2 emissions. This paper addresses CO 2 transport via pipeline from capture site to disposal site, in terms of system optimization, energy efficiency and overall economics. Technically, CO 2 can be transported through pipelines in the form of a gas, a supercritical fluid or in the subcooled liquid state. Operationally, most CO 2 pipelines used for enhanced oil recovery transport CO 2 as a supercritical fluid. In this paper, supercritical fluid and subcooled liquid transport are examined and compared, including their impacts on energy efficiency and cost. Using a commercially available process simulator, ASPEN PLUS 10.1, the results show that subcooled liquid transport maximizes the energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO 2 transport over long distances under both isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Pipeline transport of subcooled liquid CO 2 can be ideally used in areas of cold climate or by burying and insulating the pipeline. In very warm climates, periodic refrigeration to cool the CO 2 below its critical point of 31.1 o C, may prove economical. Simulations have been used to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of inlet pressure, environmental temperature and ground level heat flux conditions

  3. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  4. Capture and geological sequestration of CO2: fighting against global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.

    2006-01-01

    In order to take up the global warming challenge, a set of emergency measures is to be implemented: energy saving, clean transportation systems, development of renewable energy sources.. CO 2 sequestration of massive industrial emission sources inside deep geologic formations is another promising solution, which can contribute to the division by two of the world CO 2 emissions between today and 2050. The CO 2 capture and sequestration industry is developing. Research projects and pilot facilities are on the increase over the world. Their aim is to warrant the efficiency and security of this technology over the centuries to come. (J.S.)

  5. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can

  6. RISING ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere could alter Earth's climate system, but it is thought that higher concentrations may improve plant growth by way of the fertilization effect. Forests, an important part of the Earth's carbon cycle, are postulated to sequester a...

  7. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ΔfG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than

  8. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration - Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO 2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO 2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO 2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO 2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO 2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO 2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO 2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO 2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO 2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO 2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO 2 and CH 4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of Δ f G 298 o and/or log K r,298 o are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log K r,T o or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist

  9. Offsetting China's CO2 Emissions by Soil Carbon Sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil fuel emissions of carbon (C) in China in 2000 was about 1 Pg/yr, which may surpass that of the U.S. (1.84 Pg C) by 2020. Terrestrial C pool of China comprises about 35 to 60 Pg in the forest and 120 to 186 Pg in soils. Soil degradation is a major issue affecting 145 Mha by different degradative processes, of which 126 Mha are prone to accelerated soil erosion. Similar to world soils, agricultural soils of China have also lost 30 to 50% or more of the antecedent soil organic carbon (SOC) pool. Some of the depleted SOC pool can be re-sequestered through restoration of degraded soils, and adoption of recommended management practices. The latter include conversion of upland crops to multiple cropping and rice paddies, adoption of integrated nutrient management (INM) strategies, incorporation of cover crops in the rotations cycle and adoption of conservation-effective systems including conservation tillage. A crude estimated potential of soil C sequestration in China is 119 to 226 Tg C/y of SOC and 7 to 138 Tg C/y for soil inorganic carbon (SIC) up to 50 years. The total potential of soil C sequestration is about 12 Pg, and this potential can offset about 25% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in China

  10. A simulation method for the rapid screening of potential depleted oil reservoirs for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Le Gallo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases emission is a growing concern of many industries. The oil and gas industry has a long commercial practice of gas injection, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and gas storage. Using a depleted oil or gas reservoir for CO 2 storage has several interesting advantages. The long-term risk analysis of the CO 2 behavior and its impact on the environment is a major concern. That is why the selection of an appropriate reservoir is crucial to the success of a sequestration operation. Our modeling study, based on a synthetic reservoir, quantifies uncertainties due to reservoir parameters in order to establish a set of guidelines to select the most appropriate depleted reservoirs. Several production and sequestration scenarios are investigated in order to quantify key parameter for CO 2 storage. The influence of parameters such as API gravity, heterogeneity (Dykstra-Parson coefficient), pressure support (water injection) and cap rock integrity are analyzed. Estimation of sequestration capacity is proposed through a sequestration factor (SF) estimated for different reservoir production drives. Multiple regression relationships were developed, allowing SF estimation. CO 2 sequestration optimization highlights the best clean oil recovery strategy (CO 2 injection and/or oil production)

  11. A sensitivity analysis on seismic tomography data with respect to CO2 saturation of a CO2 geological sequestration field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanho; Nguyen, Phung K. T.; Nam, Myung Jin; Kim, Jongwook

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring CO2 migration and storage in geological formations is important not only for the stability of geological sequestration of CO2 but also for efficient management of CO2 injection. Especially, geophysical methods can make in situ observation of CO2 to assess the potential leakage of CO2 and to improve reservoir description as well to monitor development of geologic discontinuity (i.e., fault, crack, joint, etc.). Geophysical monitoring can be based on wireline logging or surface surveys for well-scale monitoring (high resolution and nallow area of investigation) or basin-scale monitoring (low resolution and wide area of investigation). In the meantime, crosswell tomography can make reservoir-scale monitoring to bridge the resolution gap between well logs and surface measurements. This study focuses on reservoir-scale monitoring based on crosswell seismic tomography aiming describe details of reservoir structure and monitoring migration of reservoir fluid (water and CO2). For the monitoring, we first make a sensitivity analysis on crosswell seismic tomography data with respect to CO2 saturation. For the sensitivity analysis, Rock Physics Models (RPMs) are constructed by calculating the values of density and P and S-wave velocities of a virtual CO2 injection reservoir. Since the seismic velocity of the reservoir accordingly changes as CO2 saturation changes when the CO2 saturation is less than about 20%, while when the CO2 saturation is larger than 20%, the seismic velocity is insensitive to the change, sensitivity analysis is mainly made when CO2 saturation is less than 20%. For precise simulation of seismic tomography responses for constructed RPMs, we developed a time-domain 2D elastic modeling based on finite difference method with a staggered grid employing a boundary condition of a convolutional perfectly matched layer. We further make comparison between sensitivities of seismic tomography and surface measurements for RPMs to analysis resolution

  12. CO2 capture and sequestration: the association's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document gives an overview of the opinion of the FNE (France Nature Environnement), a French association involved in the protection of the environment, about the idea of developing technologies enabling the capturing and sequestrating of carbon dioxide. It outlines that industries are considering such technologies as the adequate solution as they would allow a development of activities while limiting greenhouse gas releases. But the FNE has an opposite point of view; advantages and limitations of this technology are thus discussed (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions but with an increase of energy consumption, industrial hazards, mobilization of large financial resources). The principles under which such technologies could be used and financed in some specific situations and under precise conditions are then discussed. Notably, it stresses the importance of a limitation of public financing, of participation and communication, of judicial guarantees

  13. Fluid characterization for miscible EOR projects and CO2 sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kristian; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2007-01-01

    Accurate performance prediction of miscible enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) projects or CO, sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs relies in part on the ability of an equation-of-state (EOS) model to adequately represent the properties of a wide range of mixtures of the resident fluid...... in the data reduction and demonstrate that for some gas/oil systems, swelling tests do not contribute to a more accurate prediction of multicontact miscibility. Finally, we report on the impact that use of EOS models based on different characterization procedures can have on recovery predictions from dynamic...... and the injected fluid(s). The mixtures that form when gas displaces oil in a porous medium will, in many cases, differ significantly from compositions created in swelling tests and other standard pressure/volume/temperature (PVT) experiments. Multicontact experiments (e.g., slimtube displacements) are often used...

  14. Total soil C and N sequestration in a grassland following 10 years of free air CO2 enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van C.; Boots, B.; Graaff, de M.A.; Harris, D.; Blum, H.; Six, J.

    2006-01-01

    Soil C sequestration may mitigate rising levels of atmospheric CO2. However, it has yet to be determined whether net soil C sequestration occurs in N-rich grasslands exposed to long-term elevated CO2. This study examined whether N-fertilized grasslands exposed to elevated CO2 sequestered additional

  15. FEASIBILITY OF LARGE-SCALE OCEAN CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter Brewer; Dr. James Barry

    2002-09-30

    We have continued to carry out creative small-scale experiments in the deep ocean to investigate the science underlying questions of possible future large-scale deep-ocean CO{sub 2} sequestration as a means of ameliorating greenhouse gas growth rates in the atmosphere. This project is closely linked to additional research funded by the DoE Office of Science, and to support from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. The listing of project achievements here over the past year reflects these combined resources. Within the last project year we have: (1) Published a significant workshop report (58 pages) entitled ''Direct Ocean Sequestration Expert's Workshop'', based upon a meeting held at MBARI in 2001. The report is available both in hard copy, and on the NETL web site. (2) Carried out three major, deep ocean, (3600m) cruises to examine the physical chemistry, and biological consequences, of several liter quantities released on the ocean floor. (3) Carried out two successful short cruises in collaboration with Dr. Izuo Aya and colleagues (NMRI, Osaka, Japan) to examine the fate of cold (-55 C) CO{sub 2} released at relatively shallow ocean depth. (4) Carried out two short cruises in collaboration with Dr. Costas Tsouris, ORNL, to field test an injection nozzle designed to transform liquid CO{sub 2} into a hydrate slurry at {approx}1000m depth. (5) In collaboration with Prof. Jill Pasteris (Washington University) we have successfully accomplished the first field test of a deep ocean laser Raman spectrometer for probing in situ the physical chemistry of the CO{sub 2} system. (6) Submitted the first major paper on biological impacts as determined from our field studies. (7) Submitted a paper on our measurements of the fate of a rising stream of liquid CO{sub 2} droplets to Environmental Science & Technology. (8) Have had accepted for publication in Eos the first brief account of the laser Raman spectrometer success. (9) Have had two

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION AND CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS DINIS DA GAMA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las principales contribuciones al desarrollo tecnológico del proceso de gasificación subterránea del carbón (G.S.C. y complementariamente la posibilidad de secuestración del CO2 en el medio ambiente subterráneo. Se busca explicar por que razones existen actualmente en el mundo muy pocas plantas industriales de G.S.C. que produzcan regularmente combustibles gaseosos oriundos de la combustión del carbón "in situ", a pesar de las ventajas de protección ambiental que resultan de este proceso. Un breve listado de los proyectos en curso es incluido. La posibilidad del almacenamiento subterráneo del CO2 con o sin simultaneidad respecto a la G.S.C. es analizada, destacando las principales dificultades de aplicación de esta técnica y los riesgos asociados a las soluciones integradas, que necesitan soluciones de innovación.

  17. CO2-ECBM and CO2 Sequestration in Polish Coal Seam – Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Baran

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: The results indicate successful sorption of carbon dioxide in each experiment. This provides the rationale to study the application of the coal tested to obtain methane genetic origin genetic methane with the use of the CO2 injection.

  18. Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have

  19. Interdisciplinary Investigation of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Shale Gas Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoback, Mark D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kovscek, Anthony R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Wilcox, Jennifer [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This project investigates the feasibility of geologic sequestration of CO2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. It is anticipated that over the next two decades, tens of thousands of wells will be drilled in the 23 states in which organic-rich shale gas deposits are found. This research investigates the feasibility of using these formations for sequestration. If feasible, the number of sites where CO2 can be sequestered increases dramatically. The research embraces a broad array of length scales ranging from the ~10 nanometer scale of the pores in the shale formations to reservoir scale through a series of integrated laboratory and theoretical studies.

  20. Calcium silicates synthesised from industrial residues with the ability for CO2 sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Flórez, Victor; Santos, Alberto; López, Antonio; Moriña, Isabel; Esquivias, Luis

    2014-12-01

    This work explored several synthesis routes to obtain calcium silicates from different calcium-rich and silica-rich industrial residues. Larnite, wollastonite and calcium silicate chloride were successfully synthesised with moderate heat treatments below standard temperatures. These procedures help to not only conserve natural resources, but also to reduce the energy requirements and CO2 emissions. In addition, these silicates have been successfully tested as carbon dioxide sequesters, to enhance the viability of CO2 mineral sequestration technologies using calcium-rich industrial by-products as sequestration agents. Two different carbon sequestration experiments were performed under ambient conditions. Static experiments revealed carbonation efficiencies close to 100% and real-time resolved experiments characterised the dynamic behaviour and ability of these samples to reduce the CO2 concentration within a mixture of gases. The CO2 concentration was reduced up to 70%, with a carbon fixation dynamic ratio of 3.2 mg CO2 per g of sequestration agent and minute. Our results confirm the suitability of the proposed synthesis routes to synthesise different calcium silicates recycling industrial residues, being therefore energetically more efficient and environmentally friendly procedures for the cement industry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Geologic CO2 Sequestration: Predicting and Confirming Performance in Oil Reservoirs and Saline Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. W.; Nitao, J. J.; Newmark, R. L.; Kirkendall, B. A.; Nimz, G. J.; Knauss, K. G.; Ziagos, J. P.

    2002-05-01

    Reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions ranks high among the grand scientific challenges of this century. In the near-term, significant reductions can only be achieved through innovative sequestration strategies that prevent atmospheric release of large-scale CO2 waste streams. Among such strategies, injection into confined geologic formations represents arguably the most promising alternative; and among potential geologic storage sites, oil reservoirs and saline aquifers represent the most attractive targets. Oil reservoirs offer a unique "win-win" approach because CO2 flooding is an effective technique of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), while saline aquifers offer immense storage capacity and widespread distribution. Although CO2-flood EOR has been widely used in the Permian Basin and elsewhere since the 1980s, the oil industry has just recently become concerned with the significant fraction of injected CO2 that eludes recycling and is therefore sequestered. This "lost" CO2 now has potential economic value in the growing emissions credit market; hence, the industry's emerging interest in recasting CO2 floods as co-optimized EOR/sequestration projects. The world's first saline aquifer storage project was also catalyzed in part by economics: Norway's newly imposed atmospheric emissions tax, which spurred development of Statoil's unique North Sea Sleipner facility in 1996. Successful implementation of geologic sequestration projects hinges on development of advanced predictive models and a diverse set of remote sensing, in situ sampling, and experimental techniques. The models are needed to design and forecast long-term sequestration performance; the monitoring techniques are required to confirm and refine model predictions and to ensure compliance with environmental regulations. We have developed a unique reactive transport modeling capability for predicting sequestration performance in saline aquifers, and used it to simulate CO2 injection at Sleipner; we are now

  2. Prediction of CO2 leakage during sequestration into marine sedimentary strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qi; Wu Zhishen; Li Xiaochun

    2009-01-01

    Deep ocean storage of CO 2 could help reduce the atmospheric level of greenhouse gas as part of a climate change mitigation strategy. In this paper, a multiphase flow model of CO 2 sequestration into deep ocean sediments was designed associated with the formation of CO 2 hydrates. A simplified assumption was proposed to predict the critical time of CO 2 leakage from marine sedimentary strata into seawater. Moreover, some principal parameters, which include the permeability, anisotropy, total injection amount, and length of the injection part of wellbores, were investigated by numerical simulations. The numerical estimates are used to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of CO 2 storage in deep ocean sediments. Accurately predicting the actual fate of liquid CO 2 sequestered into the marine sedimentary strata at depths greater than 500 m is complicated by uncertainties associated with not only the chemical-physical behavior of CO 2 under such conditions but also the geo-environment of disposal sites. Modeling results have shown some implications that the effectiveness of CO 2 ocean sequestration depends mainly on the injection conditions (such as injection rate, total injection amount, and the depth of injection), the site geology (such as permeability and anisotropy of disposal formations), and the chemical-physical behavior of CO 2 in marine environment

  3. Carbon Dioxide (CO2 Sequestration In Bio-Concrete, An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Alshalif A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission of CO2 into atmosphere which has increased rapidly in the last years has led to global warming. Therefore, in order to overcome the negative impacts on human and environment, the researchers focused mainly on the reduction and stabilization of CO2 which represent the main contributor in the increasing global warming. The natural capturing and conversion of CO2 from atmosphere is taken place by biological, chemical and physical processes. However, these processes need long time to cause a significant reduction in CO2. Recently, scientists shifted to use green technologies that aimed to produce concrete with high potential to adsorb CO2 in order to accelerate the reduction of CO2. In the present review the potential of bio-concrete to sequestrate CO2 based on carbonation process and as a function of carbonic anhydrase (CA is highlighted. The factors affecting CO2 sequestration in concrete and bacterial species are discussed. It is evident from the literatures, that the new trends to use bio-concrete might contribute in the reduction of CO2 and enhance the strength of non-reinforced concrete.

  4. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  5. Acute physiological impacts of CO2 ocean sequestration on marine animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimatsu, A.; Hayashi, M.; Lee, K.S.; Murata, K.; Kumagai, E.

    2005-01-01

    The biological impacts of ocean carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration must be carefully considered before it is implemented as a mitigation strategy. This paper presented details of a study investigating the effects of high CO 2 concentrations on marine fish, lobster, and octopus. The influence of water temperature on the physiological effects of CO 2 was also discussed. In the first part of the study, eggs and larvae of red seabream were exposed to both CO 2 and HCI-acidified seawater at identical pH levels. Seabream in the CO 2 group showed a much higher mortality rate than fish in the HCI group. Other tests showed that Japanese Flounder died after complete recovery of pH in seawater equilibrated with 5 per cent CO 2 . Cardiac output was rapidly depressed in Yellowtail fish without significant changes in blood oxygen concentrations. Lower temperatures resulted in higher mortality and delayed pH recovery during hypercapnia in all fish. Western rock lobsters were the most tolerant to CO 2 among all species tested. The recovery of hemolymph pH was complete at exposure to CO 2 concentrations of 1 per cent. Changes in hemolymph bicarbonate concentrations indicated that acid-based regulatory mechanisms differed between fish and lobsters. Mortality rates for octopus were significant at CO 2 concentrations of 1 per cent. The results of all tests showed that aquatic animals are more susceptible to increases in ambient CO 2 levels than terrestrial animals. It was concluded that even slight elevations in CO 2 concentration levels adversely affected physiological functioning in the tested species. It was concluded that CO 2 sequestration in deeper, colder waters will have a more pronounced effect on aquatic animals due to the interactions between CO 2 and lower temperatures, as well as the fact that most deep-sea fish are less tolerant to environmental perturbations. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  6. Efficient parallel simulation of CO2 geologic sequestration in saline aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Keni; Doughty, Christine; Wu, Yu-Shu; Pruess, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    An efficient parallel simulator for large-scale, long-term CO2 geologic sequestration in saline aquifers has been developed. The parallel simulator is a three-dimensional, fully implicit model that solves large, sparse linear systems arising from discretization of the partial differential equations for mass and energy balance in porous and fractured media. The simulator is based on the ECO2N module of the TOUGH2code and inherits all the process capabilities of the single-CPU TOUGH2code, including a comprehensive description of the thermodynamics and thermophysical properties of H2O-NaCl- CO2 mixtures, modeling single and/or two-phase isothermal or non-isothermal flow processes, two-phase mixtures, fluid phases appearing or disappearing, as well as salt precipitation or dissolution. The new parallel simulator uses MPI for parallel implementation, the METIS software package for simulation domain partitioning, and the iterative parallel linear solver package Aztec for solving linear equations by multiple processors. In addition, the parallel simulator has been implemented with an efficient communication scheme. Test examples show that a linear or super-linear speedup can be obtained on Linux clusters as well as on supercomputers. Because of the significant improvement in both simulation time and memory requirement, the new simulator provides a powerful tool for tackling larger scale and more complex problems than can be solved by single-CPU codes. A high-resolution simulation example is presented that models buoyant convection, induced by a small increase in brine density caused by dissolution of CO2

  7. Carbonation of steel slag for CO2 sequestration: Leaching of products and reaction mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Carbonation of industrial alkaline residues can be used as a CO2 sequestration technology to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this study, steel slag samples were carbonated to a varying extent. Leaching experiments and geochemical modeling were used to identify solubility-controlling processes of

  8. Supercritical Fluid Behavior at Nanoscale Interfaces: Implications for CO2 Sequestration in Geologic Formations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cole, D.R.; Chialvo, A. A.; Rother, G.; Vlček, Lukáš; Cummings, P. T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 90, 17-18 (2010), s. 2329-2363 ISSN 1478-6435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sequestration * nanostructures * supercritical CO2 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2010

  9. Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Oren; David S. Ellsworth; Kurt H. Johnsen; Nathan Phillips; Brent E. Ewers; Chris Maier; Karina V.R. Schafer; Heather McCarthy; George Hendrey; Steven G. McNulty; Gabriel G. Katul

    2001-01-01

    Northern mid-latitude forests are a large terrestrial carbon sink. Ignoring nutrient limitations, large increases in carbon sequestration from carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization are expected in these forests. Yet, forests are usually relegated to sites of moderate to poor fertility, where tree growth is often limited by nutrient supply, in...

  10. CO2 sequestration in two mediterranean dune areas subjected to a different level of anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Ricotta, Carlo; Iberite, Mauro; Gratani, Loretta; Varone, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Coastal sand dunes are among the most threatened habitats, especially in the Mediterranean Basin, where the high levels of human pressure impair the presence of plant species, putting at risk the maintenance of the ecosystem services, such as CO2 sequestration provided by these habitats. The aim of this study was to analyze how disturbance-induced changes in plant species abundance patterns account for variations in annual CO2 sequestration flow (CS) of Mediterranean sand dune areas. Two sites characterized by a high (site HAD) and a lower (site LAD) anthropogenic disturbance level were selected. At both sites, plant species number, cover, height and CS based on net photosynthesis measurements were sampled. At the plant species level, our results highlighted that Ammophila arenaria and Pancratium maritimum, had a key role in CS. Moreover, the results revealed a patchy species assemblage in both sites. In particular, HAD was characterized by a higher extension of the anthropogenic aphytoic zone (64% of the total transect length) than LAD. In spite of the observed differences in plant species composition, there were not significant differences between HAD and LAD in structural and functional traits, such as plant height and net photosynthesis. As a consequence, HAD and LAD had a similar CS (443 and 421 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1, respectively). From a monetary point of view, our estimates based on the social costs of carbon revealed that the flow of sequestered CO2 valued on an average 3181 ± 114 ha-1 year-1 (mean value for the two sites). However, considering also the value of the CO2 negative flow related to loss of vegetated area, the annual net benefit arising from CO2 sequestration amounted to 1641 and 1772 for HAD and LAD, respectively. Overall, the results highlighted the importance to maximize the efforts to preserve dune habitats by applying an effective management policy, which could allow maintaining also a regulatory ecosystem service such as CO2 sequestration.

  11. Supercritical CO 2 -philic nanoparticles suitable for determining the viability of carbon sequestration in shale

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yisheng

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. A fracture spacing less than a decimeter is probably required for the successful sequestration of CO2 in shale. Tracer experiments using inert nanoparticles could determine if a fracturing this intense has been achieved. Here we describe the synthesis of supercritical CO2-philic nanoparticles suitable for this application. The nanoparticles are ~50 nm in diameter and consist of iron oxide (Fe3O4) and silica (SiO2) cores functionalized with a fluorescent polymeric corona. The nanoparticles stably disperse in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and are detectable to concentrations of 10 ppm. This journal is

  12. Uncertainties in relation to CO2 capture and sequestration. Preliminary results. Working Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, D.

    2003-03-01

    This paper has been presented at an expert meeting on CO2 capture technology learning at the IEA headquarters, January 24th, 2003. The electricity sector is a key source of CO2 emissions and a strong increase of emissions is forecast in a business-as-usual scenario. A range of strategies have been proposed to reduce these emissions. This paper focuses on one of the promising strategies, CO2 capture and storage. The future role of CO2 capture in the electricity sector has been assessed, using the Energy Technology Perspectives model (ETP). Technology data have been collected and reviewed in cooperation with the IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D implementing agreement and other expert groups. CO2 capture and sequestration is based on relatively new technology. Therefore, its characteristics and its future role in the energy system is subject to uncertainties, as for any new technology. The analysis suggests that the choice of a reference electricity production technology and the characteristics of the CO2 storage option constitute the two main uncertainties, apart from a large number of other factors of lesser importance. Based on the choices made cost estimates can range from less than zero USD for coal fired power plants to more than 150 USD per ton of CO2 for gas fired power plants. The results suggest that learning effects are important, but they do not affect the CO2 capture costs significantly, other uncertainties dominate the cost estimates. The ETP model analysis, where choices are based on the ideal market hypothesis and rational price based decision making, suggest up to 18% of total global electricity production will be equipped with CO2 capture by 2040, in case of a penalty of 50 US$ per ton of CO2. However this high penetration is only achieved in case coal fired IGCC-SOFC power plants are developed successfully. Without such technology only a limited amount of CO2 is captured from gas fired power plants. Higher penalties may result in a higher share of CO2

  13. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  14. Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA: A System for Biofuel Production, Wastewater Treatment, and CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan; Embaye, Tsegereda; Buckwalter, Patrick; Richardson, Tra-My; Kagawa, Hiromi; Reinsch, Sigrid; Martis, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We are developing Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA). OMEGAs are closed photo-bioreactors constructed of flexible, inexpensive, and durable plastic with small sections of semi-permeable membranes for gas exchange and forward osmosis (FO). Each OMEGA modules is filled with municipal wastewater and provided with CO2 from coastal CO2 sources. The OMEGA modules float just below the surface, and the surrounding seawater provides structural support, temperature control, and mixing for the freshwater algae cultures inside. The salinit7 gradient from inside to outside drives forward osmosis through the patches of FO membranes. This concentrates nutrients in the wastewater, which enhances algal growth, and slowly dewaters the algae, which facilitates harvesting. Thy concentrated algal biomass is harvested for producing biofuels and fertilizer. OMEGA system cleans the wastewater released into the surrounding coastal waters and functions as a carbon sequestration system.

  15. Potential for CO2 sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane production in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, D.; Pagnier, H.; Van Bergen, F.; Wolf, K.H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.; Schreurs, H.

    2001-03-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed Methane) in the Netherlands are explored. The potential and the economic performance are worked out for several ECBM recovery concepts and technological issues are outlined. The research includes the following main activities: Inventory of CO2 sources in the Netherlands and techno-economic analysis of CO2 removal and transport. Several scenarios for CO2 transport of different capacities and distances will be assessed. ECBM production locations are determined by analysis of coal reserves and their characteristics. Four potential areas are assessed: one in eastern Gelderland, two in Limburg and one in Zeeland. Description of ECBM theory and production technology resulting in a time dependent model for ECBM production and CO2 injection. Selection and description of various ECBM production/CO2 sequestration systems. Systems considered include direct delivery of methane to the natural gas grid, production of power (on various scales) and hydrogen. Information from the location assessment is combined with modelling results. Costs of CO2 sequestration are calculated for various scales and configurations. Evaluation of main uncertainties, environmental impacts and sensitivity analyses. Comparison of CBM production systems with reference systems and exploration of potential implementation schemes in the Dutch context. 72 refs

  16. Feasibility of CO2 Sequestration as a Closure Option for Underground Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sutapa; Dey, Kaushik

    2018-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, 1998, was signed by member countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a minimum acceptable level. India agreed to Kyoto Protocol since 2002 and started its research on GHG mitigation. Few researchers have carried out research work on CO2 sequestration in different rock formations. However, CO2 sequestration in abandoned mines has yet not drawn its attention largely. In the past few years or decades, a significant amount of research and development has been done on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies, since it is a possible solution for assuring less emission of CO2 to the atmosphere from power plants and some other major industrial plants. CCS mainly involves three steps: (a) capture and compression of CO2 from source (power plants and industrial areas), (b) transportation of captured CO2 to the storage mine and (c) injecting CO2 into underground mine. CO2 is stored at an underground mine mainly in three forms: (1) adsorbed in the coals left as pillars of the mine, (2) absorbed in water through a chemical process and (3) filled in void with compressed CO2. Adsorption isotherm is a graph developed between the amounts of adsorbate adsorbed on the surface of adsorbent and the pressure at constant temperature. Various types of adsorption isotherms are available, namely, Freundlich, Langmuir and BET theory. Indian coal is different in origin from most of the international coal deposits and thus demands isotherm experiments of the same to arrive at the right adsorption isotherm. To carry out these experiments, adsorption isotherm set up is fabricated in the laboratory with a capacity to measure the adsorbed volume up to a pressure level of 100 bar. The coal samples are collected from the pillars and walls of the underground coal seam using a portable drill machine. The adsorption isotherm experiments have been carried out for the samples taken from a mine. From the adsorption isotherm experiments, Langmuir Equation is found to be

  17. Feasibility of CO2 Sequestration as a Closure Option for Underground Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sutapa; Dey, Kaushik

    2018-04-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, 1998, was signed by member countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a minimum acceptable level. India agreed to Kyoto Protocol since 2002 and started its research on GHG mitigation. Few researchers have carried out research work on CO2 sequestration in different rock formations. However, CO2 sequestration in abandoned mines has yet not drawn its attention largely. In the past few years or decades, a significant amount of research and development has been done on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies, since it is a possible solution for assuring less emission of CO2 to the atmosphere from power plants and some other major industrial plants. CCS mainly involves three steps: (a) capture and compression of CO2 from source (power plants and industrial areas), (b) transportation of captured CO2 to the storage mine and (c) injecting CO2 into underground mine. CO2 is stored at an underground mine mainly in three forms: (1) adsorbed in the coals left as pillars of the mine, (2) absorbed in water through a chemical process and (3) filled in void with compressed CO2. Adsorption isotherm is a graph developed between the amounts of adsorbate adsorbed on the surface of adsorbent and the pressure at constant temperature. Various types of adsorption isotherms are available, namely, Freundlich, Langmuir and BET theory. Indian coal is different in origin from most of the international coal deposits and thus demands isotherm experiments of the same to arrive at the right adsorption isotherm. To carry out these experiments, adsorption isotherm set up is fabricated in the laboratory with a capacity to measure the adsorbed volume up to a pressure level of 100 bar. The coal samples are collected from the pillars and walls of the underground coal seam using a portable drill machine. The adsorption isotherm experiments have been carried out for the samples taken from a mine. From the adsorption isotherm experiments, Langmuir Equation is found to be

  18. Soil [N] modulates soil C cycling in CO2-fumigated tree stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieleman, W. I. J.; Luyssaert, S.; Rey, A.

    2010-01-01

    Under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, soil carbon (C) inputs are typically enhanced, suggesting larger soil C sequestration potential. However, soil C losses also increase and progressive nitrogen (N) limitation to plant growth may reduce the CO2 effect on soil C inputs with time. We...... compiled a data set from 131 manipulation experiments, and used meta-analysis to test the hypotheses that: (1) elevated atmospheric CO2 stimulates soil C inputs more than C losses, resulting in increasing soil C stocks; and (2) that these responses are modulated by N. Our results confirm that elevated CO2...... induces a C allocation shift towards below-ground biomass compartments. However, the increased soil C inputs were offset by increased heterotrophic respiration (Rh), such that soil C content was not affected by elevated CO2. Soil N concentration strongly interacted with CO2 fumigation: the effect...

  19. Microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell for CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2014-05-01

    Mineral carbonation can be used for CO2 sequestration, but the reaction rate is slow. In order to accelerate mineral carbonation, acid generated in a microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) was examined to dissolve natural minerals rich in magnesium/calcium silicates (serpentine), and the alkali generated by the same process was used to absorb CO2 and precipitate magnesium/calcium carbonates. The concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+ dissolved from serpentine increased 20 and 145 times by using the acid solution. Under optimal conditions, 24mg of CO2 was absorbed into the alkaline solution and 13mg of CO2 was precipitated as magnesium/calcium carbonates over a fed-batch cycle (24h). Additionally, the MEDCC removed 94% of the COD (initially 822mg/L) and achieved 22% desalination (initially 35g/L NaCl). These results demonstrate the viability of this process for effective CO2 sequestration using renewable organic matter and natural minerals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Optimizing geologic CO2 sequestration by injection in deep saline formations below oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Weon Shik; McPherson, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present a best-case paradigm for geologic CO 2 storage: CO 2 injection and sequestration in saline formations below oil reservoirs. This includes the saline-only section below the oil-water contact (OWC) in oil reservoirs, a storage target neglected in many current storage capacity assessments. This also includes saline aquifers (high porosity and permeability formations) immediately below oil-bearing formations. While this is a very specific injection target, we contend that most, if not all, oil-bearing basins in the US contain a great volume of such strata, and represent a rather large CO 2 storage capacity option. We hypothesize that these are the best storage targets in those basins. The purpose of this research is to evaluate this hypothesis. We quantitatively compared CO 2 behavior in oil reservoirs and brine formations by examining the thermophysical properties of CO 2 , CO 2 -brine, and CO 2 -oil in various pressure, temperature, and salinity conditions. In addition, we compared the distribution of gravity number (N), which characterizes a tendency towards buoyancy-driven CO 2 migration, and mobility ratio (M), which characterizes the impeded CO 2 migration, in oil reservoirs and brine formations. Our research suggests competing advantages and disadvantages of CO 2 injection in oil reservoirs vs. brine formations: (1) CO 2 solubility in oil is significantly greater than in brine (over 30 times); (2) the tendency of buoyancy-driven CO 2 migration is smaller in oil reservoirs because density contrast between oil and CO 2 is smaller than it between brine and oil (the approximate density contrast between CO 2 and crude oil is ∼100 kg/m 3 and between CO 2 and brine is ∼350 kg/m 3 ); (3) the increased density of oil and brine due to the CO 2 dissolution is not significant (about 7-15 kg/m 3 ); (4) the viscosity reduction of oil due to CO 2 dissolution is significant (from 5790 to 98 mPa s). We compared these competing

  1. An equivalence factor between CO2 avoided emissions and sequestration. Description and applications in forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.M.; Wilson, C.

    2000-01-01

    Concern about the issue of permanence and reversibility of the effects of carbon sequestration has led to the need to devise accounting methods that quantify the temporal value of storing carbon that has been actively sequestered or removed from the atmosphere, as compared to carbon stored as a result of activities taken to avoid emissions. This paper describes a method for accounting for the atmospheric effects of sequestration-based land-use projects in relation to the duration of carbon storage. Firstly, the time period over which sequestered carbon should be stored in order to counteract the radiative forcing effect of carbon emissions was calculated, based on the residence time and decay pattern of atmospheric CO2, its Absolute Global Warming Potential. This time period was called the equivalence time, and was calculated to be approximately 55 years. From this equivalence time, the effect of storage of 1 t CO2 for 1 year was derived, and found to be similar to preventing the effect of the emission of 0.0182 t CO2. Potential applications of this tonne.year figure, here called the equivalence factor, are then discussed in relation to the estimation of atmospheric benefits over time of sequestration-based land use projects. 15 refs

  2. Geomechanical issues of anthropogenic CO2 sequestration in exploited gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferronato, Massimiliano; Gambolati, Giuseppe; Janna, Carlo; Teatini, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO 2 sequestration in deep geological formations may represent a viable option to fulfil the requirements of the 1997 Kyoto protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Scenarios of CO 2 sequestration through three injection wells in an exploited gas field located in the Po sedimentary basin (Italy) are simulated with the final target to understand the geomechanical consequences of the injection of carbon dioxide. Investigated scenarios include, as a hypothetical case, the long-term injection of CO 2 until the initial reservoir pressure is exceeded by as much as 40% over a period of about 100 years. The process is analyzed from the geomechanical point of view using a finite element-interface element (FE-IE) model with the following main issues addressed: (1) prediction of the possible land vertical uplift and corresponding impact on the ground infrastructures; (2) evaluation of the stress state induced in the reservoir formation with the possible generation of fractures and (3) a risk analysis for the activation of existing faults. The geomechanical constitutive law of the Northern Adriatic basin relying on the radioactive marker interpretation is implemented into the FE model, while an elasto-plastic relationship based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion is used for the IE reproducing the fault behaviour. The in situ stress prior to the gas field exploitation is compressive with the principal horizontal stress in the direction perpendicular to the major faults equal to the vertical stress. The results show that the ground surface rebound due to the overpressure generated by the CO 2 sequestration partially mitigates the land subsidence experienced by the area because of the previous gas field depletion with differential displacements that are confined within the safety bounds suggested in the literature for the surface infrastructures. Activation of a few faults lying close to the northern reservoir boundary points to a slip of a couple of

  3. Modeling carbon sequestration in afforestation, agroforestry and forest management projects: the CO2FIX V.2 approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masera, O.R.; Garza-Caligaris, J.F.; Kanninen, M.; Karjalainen, T.; Liski, J.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Pussinen, A.; Jong de, B.H.J.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the Version 2 of the CO2FIX (CO2FIX V.2) model, a user-friendly tool for dynamically estimating the carbon sequestration potential of forest management, agroforesty and afforestation projects. CO2FIX V.2 is a multi-cohort ecosystem-level model based on carbon accounting of forest

  4. Nanoscale Chemical Processes Affecting Storage Capacities and Seals during Geologic CO2 Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young-Shin; Zhang, Lijie; Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun

    2017-07-18

    Geologic CO 2 sequestration (GCS) is a promising strategy to mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. Suitable geologic storage sites should have a porous reservoir rock zone where injected CO 2 can displace brine and be stored in pores, and an impermeable zone on top of reservoir rocks to hinder upward movement of buoyant CO 2 . The injection wells (steel casings encased in concrete) pass through these geologic zones and lead CO 2 to the desired zones. In subsurface environments, CO 2 is reactive as both a supercritical (sc) phase and aqueous (aq) species. Its nanoscale chemical reactions with geomedia and wellbores are closely related to the safety and efficiency of CO 2 storage. For example, the injection pressure is determined by the wettability and permeability of geomedia, which can be sensitive to nanoscale mineral-fluid interactions; the sealing safety of the injection sites is affected by the opening and closing of fractures in caprocks and the alteration of wellbore integrity caused by nanoscale chemical reactions; and the time scale for CO 2 mineralization is also largely dependent on the chemical reactivities of the reservoir rocks. Therefore, nanoscale chemical processes can influence the hydrogeological and mechanical properties of geomedia, such as their wettability, permeability, mechanical strength, and fracturing. This Account reviews our group's work on nanoscale chemical reactions and their qualitative impacts on seal integrity and storage capacity at GCS sites from four points of view. First, studies on dissolution of feldspar, an important reservoir rock constituent, and subsequent secondary mineral precipitation are discussed, focusing on the effects of feldspar crystallography, cations, and sulfate anions. Second, interfacial reactions between caprock and brine are introduced using model clay minerals, with focuses on the effects of water chemistries (salinity and organic ligands) and water content on mineral dissolution and

  5. Water Contact Angle Dependence with Hydroxyl Functional Groups on Silica Surfaces under CO2 Sequestration Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Ning; Li, Weizhong; Song, Yongchen

    2015-12-15

    Functional groups on silica surfaces under CO2 sequestration conditions are complex due to reactions among supercritical CO2, brine and silica. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the effects of hydroxyl functional groups on wettability. It has been found that wettability shows a strong dependence on functional groups on silica surfaces: silanol number density, space distribution, and deprotonation/protonation degree. For neutral silica surfaces with crystalline structure (Q(3), Q(3)/Q(4), Q(4)), as silanol number density decreases, contact angle increases from 33.5° to 146.7° at 10.5 MPa and 318 K. When Q(3) surface changes to an amorphous structure, water contact angle increases 20°. Water contact angle decreases about 12° when 9% of silanol groups on Q(3) surface are deprotonated. When the deprotonation degree increases to 50%, water contact angle decreases to 0. The dependence of wettability on silica surface functional groups was used to analyze contact angle measurement ambiguity in literature. The composition of silica surfaces is complicated under CO2 sequestration conditions, the results found in this study may help to better understand wettability of CO2/brine/silica system.

  6. Optimal Control of Partially Miscible Two-Phase Flow with Applications to Subsurface CO2 Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Simon, Moritz; Ulbrich, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by applications in subsurface CO2 sequestration, we investigate constrained optimal control problems with partially miscible two-phase flow in porous media. The objective is, e.g., to maximize the amount of trapped CO2 in an underground reservoir after a fixed period of CO2 injection, where the time-dependent injection rates in multiple wells are used as control parameters. We describe the governing two-phase two-component Darcy flow PDE system and formulate the optimal control problem. For the discretization we use a variant of the BOX method, a locally conservative control-volume FE method. The timestep-wise Lagrangian of the control problem is implemented as a functional in the PDE toolbox Sundance, which is part of the HPC software Trilinos. The resulting MPI parallelized Sundance state and adjoint solvers are linked to the interior point optimization package IPOPT. Finally, we present some numerical results in a heterogeneous model reservoir.

  7. Gas geochemistry of natural analogues for the studies of geological CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltattorni, N.; Sciarra, A.; Caramanna, G.; Cinti, D.; Pizzino, L.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Geological sequestration of anthropogenic CO 2 appears to be a promising method for reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. Geochemical modelling of the storage capacity for CO 2 in saline aquifers, sandstones and/or carbonates should be based on natural analogues both in situ and in the laboratory. The main focus of this paper has been to study natural gas emissions representing extremely attractive surrogates for the study and prediction of the possible consequences of leakage from geological sequestration sites of anthropogenic CO 2 (i.e., the return to surface, potentially causing localised environmental problems). These include a comparison among three different Italian case histories: (i) the Solfatara crater (Phlegraean Fields caldera, southern Italy) is an ancient Roman spa. The area is characterised by intense and diffuse hydrothermal activity, testified by hot acidic mud pools, thermal springs and a large fumarolic field. Soil gas flux measurements show that the entire area discharges between 1200 and 1500 tons of CO 2 per day; (ii) the Panarea Island (Aeolian Islands, southern Italy) where a huge submarine volcanic-hydrothermal gas burst occurred in November, 2002. The submarine gas emissions chemically modified seawater causing a strong modification of the marine ecosystem. All of the collected gases are CO 2 -dominant (maximum value: 98.43 vol.%); (iii) the Tor Caldara area (Central Italy), located in a peripheral sector of the quiescent Alban Hills volcano, along the faults of the Ardea Basin transfer structure. The area is characterised by huge CO 2 degassing both from water and soil. Although the above mentioned areas do not represent a storage scenario, these sites do provide many opportunities to study near-surface processes and to test monitoring methodologies.

  8. Velocity Model for CO2 Sequestration in the Southeastern United States Atlantic Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollmann, J.; Knapp, C. C.; Almutairi, K.; Almayahi, D.; Knapp, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is emerging as a major player in offsetting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. With 40% of the United States' anthropogenic CO2 emissions originating in the southeast, characterizing potential CO2 sequestration sites is vital to reducing the United States' emissions. The goal of this research project, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), is to estimate the CO2 storage potential for the Southeastern United States Atlantic Continental Margin. Previous studies find storage potential in the Atlantic continental margin. Up to 16 Gt and 175 Gt of storage potential are estimated for the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Cretaceous formations, respectively. Considering 2.12 Mt of CO2 are emitted per year by the United States, substantial storage potential is present in the Southeastern United States Atlantic Continental Margin. In order to produce a time-depth relationship, a velocity model must be constructed. This velocity model is created using previously collected seismic reflection, refraction, and well data in the study area. Seismic reflection horizons were extrapolated using well log data from the COST GE-1 well. An interpolated seismic section was created using these seismic horizons. A velocity model will be made using P-wave velocities from seismic reflection data. Once the time-depth conversion is complete, the depths of stratigraphic units in the seismic refraction data will be compared to the newly assigned depths of the seismic horizons. With a lack of well control in the study area, the addition of stratigraphic unit depths from 171 seismic refraction recording stations provides adequate data to tie to the depths of picked seismic horizons. Using this velocity model, the seismic reflection data can be presented in depth in order to estimate the thickness and storage potential of CO2 reservoirs in the Southeastern United States Atlantic Continental Margin.

  9. Advanced emission control system: CO2 sequestration using algae integrated management system (AIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Isa Syed Alwi; Mohd Norsham Che Yahya; Ruzanna Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    One of the companies under Algae tech, Sasaran Bio fuel Sdn. Bhd. provides project management, technology transfer and technical expertise to develop a solution to minimize and mitigate Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through the diversion of the CO 2 to open algal ponds and enclosed photo-bioreactors as algal propagation technologies to consume CO 2 waste stream. The company is presently consulting a listed company from Indonesia to address the technology know-how and implementation of microalgae development from the flue gas of the Groups power plants. Nowadays, one of the aspects that contribute to the air pollution is the emission of flue gases from the factories. So, we provide a system that can reduce the emission of flue gas to the atmosphere and at the same time, cultivate certain strain of algae. With the technology, Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS), it will be for sure a new beginning for way to reduce air pollution. The utilization of power plant resources for growing selected microalgae at a low energy cost for valuable products and bio-fuels while providing CO 2 sequestering. In the same time, it also a low cost algae agriculture. By doing so, it provides all year algae production which can be an income. This residual energy used CO 2 produced from power stations and industrial plants to feed the process (CO 2 recycling and bio-fixation) in cultivation of algae. This will be a low cost flue gas (CO 2 ) to the developer. In a nutshell, CO 2 Sequestration by algae reactors is a potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission by using the CO 2 in the stack gases to produce algae. (author)

  10. Gas-water-rock interactions induced by reservoir exploitation, CO2 sequestration, and other geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecourtier, J.

    2005-01-01

    Here is given a summary of the opening address of the IFP International Workshop: 'gas-water-rock interactions induced by reservoir exploitation, CO 2 sequestration, and other geological storage' (18-20 November 2003). 'This broad topic is of major interest to the exploitation of geological sites since gas-water-mineral interactions determine the physicochemical characteristics of these sites, the strategies to adopt to protect the environment, and finally, the operational costs. Modelling the phenomena is a prerequisite for the engineering of a geological storage, either for disposal efficiency or for risk assessment and environmental protection. During the various sessions, several papers focus on the great achievements that have been made in the last ten years in understanding and modelling the coupled reaction and transport processes occurring in geological systems, from borehole to reservoir scale. Remaining challenges such as the coupling of mechanical processes of deformation with chemical reactions, or the influence of microbiological environments on mineral reactions will also be discussed. A large part of the conference programme will address the problem of mitigating CO 2 emissions, one of the most important issues that our society must solve in the coming years. From both a technical and an economic point of view, CO 2 geological sequestration is the most realistic solution proposed by the experts today. The results of ongoing pilot operations conducted in Europe and in the United States are strongly encouraging, but geological storage will be developed on a large scale in the future only if it becomes possible to predict the long term behaviour of stored CO 2 underground. In order to reach this objective, numerous issues must be solved: - thermodynamics of CO 2 in brines; - mechanisms of CO 2 trapping inside the host rock; - geochemical modelling of CO 2 behaviour in various types of geological formations; - compatibility of CO 2 with oil-well cements

  11. Potential for iron oxides to control metal releases in CO2 sequestration scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, P.M.; Roy, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for the release of metals into groundwater following the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the subsurface during carbon sequestration projects remains an open research question. Changing the chemical composition of even the relatively deep formation brines during CO2 injection and storage may be of concern because of the recognized risks associated with the limited potential for leakage of CO2-impacted brine to the surface. Geochemical modeling allows for proactive evaluation of site geochemistry before CO2 injection takes place to predict whether the release of metals from iron oxides may occur in the reservoir. Geochemical modeling can also help evaluate potential changes in shallow aquifers were CO2 leakage to occur near the surface. In this study, we created three batch-reaction models that simulate chemical changes in groundwater resulting from the introduction of CO2 at two carbon sequestration sites operated by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC). In each of these models, we input the chemical composition of groundwater samples into React??, and equilibrated them with selected mineral phases and CO 2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The model then simulated the kinetic reactions with other mineral phases over a period of up to 100 years. For two of the simulations, the water was also at equilibrium with iron oxide surface complexes. The first model simulated a recently completed enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project in south-central Illinois in which the MGSC injected into, and then produced CO2, from a sandstone oil reservoir. The MGSC afterwards periodically measured the brine chemistry from several wells in the reservoir for approximately two years. The sandstone contains a relatively small amount of iron oxide, and the batch simulation for the injection process showed detectable changes in several aqueous species that were attributable to changes in surface complexation sites. After using the batch reaction

  12. Multiphase, multicomponent simulations and experiments of reactive flow, relevant for combining geologic CO2 sequestration with geothermal energy capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Martin O.

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the fluid dynamics of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in brine- filled porous media is important for predictions of CO2 flow and brine displacement during geologic CO2 sequestration and during geothermal energy capture using sequestered CO2 as the subsurface heat extraction fluid. We investigate multiphase fluid flow in porous media employing particle image velocimetry experiments and lattice-Boltzmann fluid flow simulations at the pore scale. In particular, we are interested in the motion of a drop (representing a CO2 bubble) through an orifice in a plate, representing a simplified porous medium. In addition, we study single-phase/multicomponent reactive transport experimentally by injecting water with dissolved CO2 into rocks/sediments typically considered for CO2 sequestration to investigate how resultant fluid-mineral reactions modify permeability fields. Finally, we investigate numerically subsurface CO2 and heat transport at the geologic formation scale.

  13. Surface monitoring of microseismicity at the Decatur, Illinois, CO2 sequestration demonstration site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaven, Joern; Hickman, Stephen H.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Ellsworth, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2 into subsurface reservoirs can play an important role in limiting future emission of CO2 into the atmosphere (e.g., Benson and Cole, 2008). For geologic sequestration to become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, large-volume injection of supercritical CO2 into deep sedimentary formations is required. These formations offer large pore volumes and good pore connectivity and are abundant (Bachu, 2003; U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013). However, hazards associated with injection of CO2 into deep formations require evaluation before widespread sequestration can be adopted safely (Zoback and Gorelick, 2012). One of these hazards is the potential to induce seismicity on pre-existing faults or fractures. If these faults or fractures are large and critically stressed, seismic events can occur with magnitudes large enough to pose a hazard to surface installations and, possibly more critical, the seal integrity of the cap rock. The Decatur, Illinois, carbon capture and storage (CCS) demonstration site is the first, and to date, only CCS project in the United States that injects a large volume of supercritical CO2 into a regionally extensive, undisturbed saline formation. The first phase of the Decatur CCS project was completed in November 2014 after injecting a million metric tons of supercritical CO2 over three years. This phase was led by the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and included seismic monitoring using deep borehole sensors, with a few sensors installed within the injection horizon. Although the deep borehole network provides a more comprehensive seismic catalog than is presented in this paper, these deep data are not publically available. We contend that for monitoring induced microseismicity as a possible seismic hazard and to elucidate the general patterns of microseismicity, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) surface and shallow borehole network described below

  14. The sequestration switch. Removing industrial CO2 by direct ocean absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ametistova, Lioudmila; Briden, James; Twidell, John

    2002-01-01

    This review paper considers direct injection of industrial CO 2 emissions into the mid-water oceanic column below 500 m depth. Such a process is a potential candidate for switching atmospheric carbon emissions directly to long term sequestration, thereby relieving the intermediate atmospheric burden. Given sufficient research justification, the argument is that harmful impact in both the Atmosphere and the biologically rich upper marine layer could be reduced. The paper aims to estimate the role that active intervention, through direct ocean CO 2 storage, could play and to outline further research and assessment for the strategy to be a viable option for climate change mitigation. The attractiveness of direct ocean injection lies in its bypassing of the Atmosphere and upper marine region, its relative permanence, its practicability using existing technologies and its quantification. The difficulties relate to the uncertainty of some fundamental scientific issues, such as plume dynamics, lowered pH of the exposed waters and associated ecological impact, the significant energy penalty associated with the necessary engineering plant and the uncertain costs. Moreover, there are considerable uncertainties regarding related international marine law. Development of the process would require acceptance of the evidence for climate change, strict requirements for large industrial consumers of fossil fuel to reduce CO 2 emissions into the Atmosphere and scientific evidence for the overall beneficial impact of ocean sequestration

  15. Mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible CO2 sequestration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2006-02-01

    The mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible carbon dioxide sequestration process were investigated experimentally by systematic variation of the reaction temperature, CO2 pressure, particle size, reaction time, liquid to solid ratio and agitation power. The carbonation reaction was observed to occur via the aqueous phase in two steps: (1) Ca leaching from the CaSiO3 matrix and (2) CaCO3 nucleation and growth. Leaching is hindered by a Ca-depleted silicate rim resulting from incongruent Ca-dissolution. Two temperature regimes were identified in the overall carbonation process. At temperatures below an optimum reaction temperature, the overall reaction rate is probably limited by the leaching rate of Ca. At higher temperatures, nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate is probably limiting the conversion, due to a reduced (bi)carbonate activity. The mechanisms for the aqueous carbonation of wollastonite were shown to be similar to those reported previously for an industrial residue and a Mg-silicate. The carbonation of wollastonite proceeds rapidly relative to Mg-silicates, with a maximum conversion in 15 min of 70% at 200C, 20 bar CO2 partial pressure and a particle size of <38 μm. The obtained insight in the reaction mechanisms enables the energetic and economic assessment of CO2 sequestration by wollastonite carbonation, which forms an essential next step in its further development

  16. Removal of Hg, As in FGD gypsum by different aqueous ammonia (amines) during CO2 sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenyi, Tan; Wenhui, Fan; Hongyi, Li; Zixin, Zhang; Yunkun, Zhu

    2017-12-01

    CO 2 sequestration by flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has become a promising FGDG disposal technology due to simultaneous CO 2 emission reduction and FGDG conversion into calcium carbonate. In this paper, another merit of the novel technology, i.e., the removal of toxic elements (e.g., Hg and As) in FGDG, will be addressed for the first time. In three different aqueous ammonia (or amines) media, removal efficiencies of Hg and As in FGDG samples were evaluated during CO 2 sequestration. Higher than 90% and 20% removal efficiencies, respectively, for Hg and As are achieved at 40°C in aqueous ammonia media, but they decrease at elevated temperatures. Ammonia loss takes place at 80°C and pH varies greatly with temperatures in aqueous ammonia. This is disadvantageous for the formation of Hg-ammonia complexes and for the yield of carbonates, which are responsible for Hg or As re-adsorption. The sequential chemical extraction method suggests that the speciation changes of Hg are induced by FGDG carbonation, and that unstable Hg speciation in triethanolamine increases at elevated temperatures.

  17. Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2 – An Assessment of Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dove, Patricia [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Richter, Frank [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; Rudnicki, John W [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Harris, Jerry [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Logan, John M. [Logan and Associates, Inc., Bandon, Oregon; Warpinski, Norman R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wawersik, Wolfgang R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, John L [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; Wong, Teng-Fong [State University of New York; Ortoleva, Peter J [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana; Orr, Jr., Franklin M [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Pyrak-Nolte, Laura [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1998-11-02

    Scientific debate about global warming prompted the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) of the U.S. Department of Energy to assess a broad range of research possibilities that might result in more efficient energy and reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere. Therefore, in May 1998, the Geosciences Research Program of OBES invited eleven panelists to a workshop in order to address the potential for the sequestration of CO2 in geologic formations as part of a possible OBES initiative on climate change technology. Starting with knowledge gained from the industrial use of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery, the panelists were asked to identify the fundamental scientific and technical issues that would enhance the safety, efficiency and predictability of terrestrial CO2 sequestration. This report is the product of the May, 1998 workshop and subsequent discussions among the panelists. Although many of the problems discussed cut across traditional geoscience disciplines, the background of the workshop participants naturally lead to a paper with four sections representing the perspectives of geohydrology, geochemistry, geomechanics, and geophysics.

  18. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.

    2009-04-23

    Large-scale implementation of geological CO2 sequestration requires quantification of risk and leakage potential. One potentially important leakage pathway for the injected CO2 involves existing oil and gas wells. Wells are particularly important in North America, where more than a century of drilling has created millions of oil and gas wells. Models of CO 2 injection and leakage will involve large uncertainties in parameters associated with wells, and therefore a probabilistic framework is required. These models must be able to capture both the large-scale CO 2 plume associated with the injection and the small-scale leakage problem associated with localized flow along wells. Within a typical simulation domain, many hundreds of wells may exist. One effective modeling strategy combines both numerical and analytical models with a specific set of simplifying assumptions to produce an efficient numerical-analytical hybrid model. The model solves a set of governing equations derived by vertical averaging with assumptions of a macroscopic sharp interface and vertical equilibrium. These equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse grid, with an analytical model embedded to solve for wellbore flow occurring at the sub-gridblock scale. This vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid refinement for sub-scale features. Through a series of benchmark problems, we show that VESA compares well with traditional numerical simulations and to a semi-analytical model which applies to appropriately simple systems. We believe that the VESA model provides the necessary accuracy and efficiency for applications of risk analysis in many CO2 sequestration problems. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Strength Reduction of Coal Pillar after CO2 Sequestration in Abandoned Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhao Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available CO2 geosequestration is currently considered to be the most effective and economical method to dispose of artificial greenhouse gases. There are a large number of coal mines that will be scrapped, and some of them are located in deep formations in China. CO2 storage in abandoned coal mines will be a potential option for greenhouse gas disposal. However, CO2 trapping in deep coal pillars would induce swelling effects of coal matrix. Adsorption-induced swelling not only modifies the volume and permeability of coal mass, but also causes the basic physical and mechanical properties changing, such as elastic modulus and Poisson ratio. It eventually results in some reduction in pillar strength. Based on the fractional swelling as a function of time and different loading pressure steps, the relationship between volumetric stress and adsorption pressure increment is acquired. Eventually, this paper presents a theory model to analyze the pillar strength reduction after CO2 adsorption. The model provides a method to quantitatively describe the interrelation of volumetric strain, swelling stress, and mechanical strength reduction after gas adsorption under the condition of step-by-step pressure loading and the non-Langmuir isothermal model. The model might have a significantly important implication for predicting the swelling stress and mechanical behaviors of coal pillars during CO2 sequestration in abandoned coal mines.

  20. Enclathration of CO2 as a co-guest of structure H hydrates and its implications for CO2 capture and sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yohan; Lee, Dongyoung; Lee, Jong-Won; Seo, Yongwon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine sH hydrates with CO 2 + N 2 + neohexane for CO 2 capture and sequestration. • The structural transition occurs in the CO 2 (40%) + N 2 (60%) + neohexane system. • CO 2 molecules are enclathrated into sH hydrates in the N 2 -rich systems. • CO 2 selectivity in sH hydrates is slightly lower than that in sI hydrates. • ΔH d values provide information on the structural transition of sH to sI hydrates. - Abstract: In this study, the thermodynamic behaviors, cage-specific guest distributions, structural transition, and dissociation enthalpies of sH hydrates with CO 2 + N 2 gas mixtures were investigated for their potential applications to hydrate-based CO 2 capture and sequestration. The stability conditions of the CO 2 + N 2 + water systems and the CO 2 + N 2 + neohexane (2,2-dimethylbutane, NH) + water systems indicated that the gas mixtures in the range of flue gas compositions could form sH hydrates, thereby mitigating the pressure and temperature required for gas hydrate formation. Structure identification using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) revealed the coexistence of sI and sH hydrates in the CO 2 (40%) + N 2 (60%) + NH system and the hydrate structure transformed from sH into sI as the CO 2 concentration increased. In addition, the Raman analysis clearly demonstrated that CO 2 molecules were enclathrated into the cages of sH hydrates in the N 2 -rich systems. It was found from direct CO 2 composition measurements that CO 2 selectivity in the sH hydrate phase was slightly lower than that in the corresponding sI hydrate phase. Dissociation enthalpy (ΔH d ) measurements using a high-pressure micro-differential scanning calorimeter (HP μ-DSC) indicated that the ΔH d values could also provide valuable information on the structural transition of sH to sI hydrates with respect to the CO 2 concentration in the feed gas. This study provides a better understanding of the thermodynamic and physicochemical background for CO 2

  1. Multiphase Flow in Porous Media with Emphasis on Co2 Sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, Alif

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulation has been used to predict multiphase flow in porous media. It is of great importance to incorporate accurate flow properties to obtain a proper simulation result thus reducing the risk of making wrong decision. Relative permeability and capillary pressure are important key parameters in multiphase flow as they describe how different fluid will interact in porous media. It is even more important in the case of three-phase flow as there are more fluid phases interact in the system. In most of the three-phase flow studies, capillary pressure has been neglected due to the lack of measured data and assumption that its effect is negligible. In other cases, two-phase capillary pressure has been used instead to describe the process in the system. This study will try to show how significant the impact of three-phase capillary pressure using different rock wettability. The three-phase capillary pressure surfaces are generated using a network model. Prior research shows that rock wettability is altered during Co2 sequestration due to the formation of carbonic acid (H2CO3) which leads to lower ph. In this study the effect of wettability alteration is incorporated to assess the safety of Johansen formation which is a good candidate for Co2 sequestration project. In addition, the wettability alteration effect to different flow parameters such as heterogeneity, solubility and diffusion is investigated. This thesis consists of two parts; the first part presents a theoretical background for the work, and the second part is a collection of papers. The papers are grouped into two main topics. The first three papers are discussing about three-phase flow simulation in porous media. The rest are discussing about wettability alteration during Co2 sequestration. Chapter 2 and 3 of the theoretical background include definitions and descriptions of interfacial tension, wettability, capillary pressure, relative permeability and hysteresis. Network model and technique for

  2. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C

  3. Density-Driven Flow Simulation in Anisotropic Porous Media: Application to CO2 Geological Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2014-04-21

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers is considered as one of the most viable and promising ways to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CO2 is injected into deep saline formations at supercritical state where its density is smaller than the hosting brine. This motivates an upward motion and eventually CO2 is trapped beneath the cap rock. The trapped CO2 slowly dissolves into the brine causing the density of the mixture to become larger than the host brine. This causes gravitational instabilities that is propagated and magnified with time. In this kind of density-driven flows, the CO2-rich brines migrate downward while the brines with low CO2 concentration move upward. With respect to the properties of the subsurface aquifers, there are instances where saline formations can possess anisotropy with respect to their hydraulic properties. Such anisotropy can have significant effect on the onset and propagation of flow instabilities. Anisotropy is predicted to be more influential in dictating the direction of the convective flow. To account for permeability anisotropy, the method of multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) in the framework of finite differences schemes is used. The MPFA method requires more point stencil than the traditional two-point flux approximation (TPFA). For example, calculation of one flux component requires 6-point stencil and 18-point stencil in 2-D and 3-D cases, respectively. As consequence, the matrix of coefficient for obtaining the pressure fields will be quite complex. Therefore, we combine the MPFA method with the experimenting pressure field technique in which the problem is reduced to solving multitude of local problems and the global matrix of coefficients is constructed automatically, which significantly reduces the complexity. We present several numerical scenarios of density-driven flow simulation in homogeneous, layered, and heterogeneous anisotropic porous media. The numerical results emphasize the

  4. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation. Feasibility of enhanced natural weathering as a CO2 emission reduction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonates. Potential advantages of mineral CO2 sequestration compared to, e.g., geological CO2 storage include (1) the permanent and inherently safe sequestration of CO2, due to the thermodynamic stability of the carbonate product formed and (2) the vast potential sequestration capacity, because of the widespread and abundant occurrence of suitable feedstock. In addition, carbonation is an exothermic process, which potentially limits the overall energy consumption and costs of CO2 emission reduction. However, weathering processes are slow, with timescales at natural conditions of thousands to millions of years. For industrial implementation, a reduction of the reaction time to the order of minutes has to be achieved by developing alternative process routes. The aim of this thesis is an investigation of the technical, energetic, and economic feasibility of CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. In Chapter 1 the literature published on CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation is reviewed. Among the potentially suitable mineral feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration, Ca-silicates, more particularly wollastonite (CaSiO3), a mineral ore, and steel slag, an industrial alkaline solid residue, are selected for further research. Alkaline Ca-rich residues seem particularly promising, since these materials are inexpensive and available near large industrial point sources of CO2. In addition, residues tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their (geo)chemical instability. Various process routes have been proposed for mineral carbonation, which often include a pre-treatment of the solid feedstock (e.g., size reduction and

  5. The Tiehchanshan structure of NW Taiwan: A potential geological reservoir for CO2 sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenn-Ming Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tiehchanshan structure is the largest gas-field in the outer foothills of northwestern Taiwan and has been regarded as the best site for CO2 sequestration. This study used a grid of seismic sections and wellbore data to establish a new 3-D geometry of subsurface structure, which was combined with lithofacies characters of the target reservoir rock, the Yutengping Sandstone, to build a geological model for CO2 sequestration. On the surface, the Tiehchanshan structure is characterized by two segmented anticlines offset by a tear fault. The subsurface geometry of the Tiehchanshan structure is, however, composed of two thrust-related anticlines with opposite vergence and laterally increasing fold symmetry toward each other. The folds are softly linked via the transfer zone in the subsurface, implying that the suspected tear fault in the surface transfer zone may not exist in the subsurface. The Yutengping Sandstone is composed of several sandstone units characterized by coarsening-upward cycles. The sandstone member can be further divided into four well-defined sandstone layers, separated by laterally continuous shale layers. In view of the structural and stratigraphic characteristics, the optimum area for CO2 injection and storage is in the structurally high in the northern part of the Tiehchanshan structure. The integrity of the closure and the overlying seal are not disrupted by the pre-orogenic high-angle faults. On the other hand, a thick continuous shale layer within the Yutengping Sandstone isolates the topmost sandy layer from the underlying ones and gives another important factor to the CO2 injection simulation.

  6. Pore-scale studies of multiphase flow and reaction involving CO2 sequestration in geologic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Q.; Wang, M.; Lichtner, P. C.

    2008-12-01

    In geologic CO2 sequestration, pore-scale interfacial phenomena ultimately govern the key processes of fluid mobility, chemical transport, adsorption, and reaction. However, spatial heterogeneity at the pore scale cannot be resolved at the continuum scale, where averaging occurs over length scales much larger than typical pore sizes. Natural porous media, such as sedimentary rocks and other geological media encountered in subsurface formations, are inherently heterogeneous. This pore-scale heterogeneity can produce variabilities in flow, transport, and reaction processes that take place within a porous medium, and can result in spatial variations in fluid velocity, aqueous concentrations, and reaction rates. Consequently, the unresolved spatial heterogeneity at the pore scale may be important for reactive transport modeling at the larger scale. In addition, current continuum models of surface complexation reactions ignore a fundamental property of physical systems, namely conservation of charge. Therefore, to better understand multiphase flow and reaction involving CO2 sequestration in geologic formations, it is necessary to quantitatively investigate the influence of the pore-scale heterogeneity on the emergent behavior at the field scale. We have applied the lattice Boltzmann method to simulating the injection of CO2 saturated brine or supercritical CO2 into geological formations at the pore scale. Multiple pore-scale processes, including advection, diffusion, homogeneous reactions among multiple aqueous species, heterogeneous reactions between the aqueous solution and minerals, ion exchange and surface complexation, as well as changes in solid and pore geometry are all taken into account. The rich pore scale information will provide a basis for upscaling to the continuum scale.

  7. Olivine Dissolution in Seawater: Implications for CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Weathering in Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced weathering of (ultra)basic silicate rocks such as olivine-rich dunite has been proposed as a large-scale climate engineering approach. When implemented in coastal environments, olivine weathering is expected to increase seawater alkalinity, thus resulting in additional CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. However, the mechanisms of marine olivine weathering and its effect on seawater–carbonate chemistry remain poorly understood. Here, we present results from batch reaction experiments, in which forsteritic olivine was subjected to rotational agitation in different seawater media for periods of days to months. Olivine dissolution caused a significant increase in alkalinity of the seawater with a consequent DIC increase due to CO2 invasion, thus confirming viability of the basic concept of enhanced silicate weathering. However, our experiments also identified several important challenges with respect to the detailed quantification of the CO2 sequestration efficiency under field conditions, which include nonstoichiometric dissolution, potential pore water saturation in the seabed, and the potential occurrence of secondary reactions. Before enhanced weathering of olivine in coastal environments can be considered an option for realizing negative CO2 emissions for climate mitigation purposes, these aspects need further experimental assessment. PMID:28281750

  8. Geochemical monitoring for potential environmental impacts of geologic sequestration of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Cole, David R.; Thordsen, James J.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Thomas, Randal B.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration is now considered an important component of the portfolio of options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to stabilize their atmospheric levels at values that would limit global temperature increases to the target of 2 °C by the end of the century (Pacala and Socolow 2004; IPCC 2005, 2007; Benson and Cook 2005; Benson and Cole 2008; IEA 2012; Romanak et al. 2013). Increased anthropogenic emissions of CO2 have raised its atmospheric concentrations from about 280 ppmv during pre-industrial times to ~400 ppmv today, and based on several defined scenarios, CO2 concentrations are projected to increase to values as high as 1100 ppmv by 2100 (White et al. 2003; IPCC 2005, 2007; EIA 2012; Global CCS Institute 2012). An atmospheric CO2 concentration of 450 ppmv is generally the accepted level that is needed to limit global temperature increases to the target of 2 °C by the end of the century. This temperature limit likely would moderate the adverse effects related to climate change that could include sea-level rise from the melting of alpine glaciers and continental ice sheets and from the ocean warming; increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, floods, droughts, and tropical storms; and changes in the amount, timing, and distribution of rain, snow, and runoff (IPCC 2007; Sundquist et al. 2009; IEA 2012). Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are also increasing the amount of CO2 dissolved in ocean water lowering its pH from 8.1 to 8.0, with potentially disruptive effects on coral reefs, plankton and marine ecosystems (Adams and Caldeira 2008; Schrag 2009; Sundquist et al. 2009). Sedimentary basins in general and deep saline aquifers in particular are being investigated as possible repositories for the large volumes of anthropogenic CO2 that must be sequestered to mitigate global warming and related climate changes (Hitchon 1996; Benson and Cole 2008; Verma and Warwick 2011).

  9. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2): Pump Canyon CO2-ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO 2 sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO 2 -enhanced coalbed methane (CO 2 /ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO 2 was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO 2 movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO 2 . In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO 2 fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO 2 . Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the results of the different MVA techniques.

  10. On the feasibility of borehole-to-surface electromagnetics for monitoring CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Hibbs, A. D.; Black, N.; Gribenko, A. V.; Cuma, M.; Agundes, A.; Eiskamp, G.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects rely on storing supercritical CO2 in deep saline reservoirs where buoyancy forces drive the injected CO2 upward into the aquifer until a seal is reached. The permanence of the sequestration depends entirely on the long-term geological integrity of the seal. Active geophysical monitoring of the sequestration is critical for informing CO2 monitoring, accounting and verification (MVA) decisions. During injection, there exists a correlation between the changes in CO2 and water saturations in a saline reservoir. Dissolved salts react with the CO2 to precipitate out as carbonates, thereby generally decreasing the electrical resistivity. As a result, there is a correlation between the change in fluid saturation and measured electromagnetic (EM) fields. The challenge is to design an EM survey appropriate for monitoring large, deep reservoirs. Borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (BSEM) surveys consist of borehole-deployed galvanic transmitters and a surface-based array of electric and magnetic field sensors. During a recent field trial, it was demonstrated that BSEM could successfully identify the oil-water contact in the water-injection zone of a carbonate reservoir. We review the BSEM methodology, and perform full-field BSEM modeling. The 3D resistivity models used in this study are based on dynamic reservoir simulations of CO2 injection into a saline reservoir. Although the electric field response at the earth's surface is low, we demonstrate that it can be accurately measured and processed with novel methods of noise cancellation and sufficient stacking over the period of monitoring to increase the signal-to-noise ratio for subsequent seismic- and well-constrained 3D inversion. For long-term or permanent monitoring, we discuss the deployment of novel electric field sensors with chemically inert electrodes that couple to earth in a capacitive manner. This capacitive coupling is a purely EM phenomenon, which, to first order, has

  11. Numerical assessments of geological CO2 sequestration in the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park, Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2012-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants of the Taiwan Power Company are the main sources of CO2 emission in Taiwan. Due to the importation of coal mine and the need of cooling water circulation, power plants were built on the coast. Geological CO2 sequestration has been recognized as one of solutions for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emission by injecting CO2 captured from fossil fuel power plants into deep saline geologic formations. The Changhua Coastal Industrial Park (CCIP; 120.38° E, 24.11° N) in central Taiwan has been preliminary evaluated as one of potential sites for geological CO2 sequestration. The CCIP site has a sloping, layered heterogeneity formation with stagnant groundwater flow. Layers of sandstone and shale sequentially appeared to be the major components of geological formations with seaward transgression. Thickness of sedimentary formations gradually becomes thinner from east to west. Previous investigations [Chiao et al., 2010; Yu et al, 2011] did not find significant faults around this site. The TOUGHREACT/ECO2N model was employed with external mesh generator developed in this study to proceed to comprehensive assessments for CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers (salinity of 3%, pH of 7.2) at the CCIP site. A series of numerical experiments for investigating the physical, geochemical and its interactions included the deep saline-aquifer responses, CO2 plume migration, leakage risks, hydrogeochemistry processes, reservoir capacity and trapping mechanisms (i.e. hydrodynamics, capillarity, solubility, and mineral trapping) during and post CO2 injection were assessed. A 3-D lithological model applied in this study was conceptualized with two seismic profiles (along shore and cross shore) and one geological well nearby the study area. A total of 32 vertical layers was built with different porosities and permeabilities estimated from the TCDP-A borehole log samples adjusted with effects in geopressure differences. Cross-platform open source libraries of the CGAL

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration: Modeling the diffusive and convective transport under a CO2 cap

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A rise in carbon dioxide levels from industrial emissions is contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming. CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers is a strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels. Scientists and researchers rely on numerical simulators to predict CO2 storage by modeling the fluid transport behaviour. Studies have shown that after CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer, undissolved CO2 rises due to buoyant forces and will spread laterally away from the injection site under an area of low permeability. CO2 from this ‘capped\\' region diffuses into the fluid underlying it, and the resulting CO2-fluid mixture increases in density. This increase in density leads to gravity-driven convection. Accordingly, diffusive-convective transport is important to model since it predicts an enhanced storage capacity of the saline aquifer. This work incorporates the diffusive and convective transport processes into the transport modeling equation, and uses a self-generated code. Discretization of the domain is done with a cell-centered finite difference method. Cases are set up using similar parameters from published literature in order to compare results. Enhanced storage capacity is predicted in this work, similar to work done by others. A difference in the onset of convective transport between this work and published results is noticed and discussed in this paper. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the density model used in this work, and on the diffusivity value assumed. The analysis shows that the density model and diffusivity value is a key component on simulation results. Also, perturbations are added to porosity and permeability in order to see the effect of perturbations on the onset of convection, and results agree with similar findings by others. This work provides a basis for studying other cases, such as the impact of heterogeneity on the diffusion-convective transport. An extension of this work may involve the use of an equation of state to

  13. High-performance modeling of CO2 sequestration by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for CO2 sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel HPC systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, while the molecular dynamics simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Numerous technologies from different fields are employed to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in the subsurface geological formations, such as depleted reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the most attractive and practical solutions to reduce the CO2 emission problem to address the global-warming threat. To effectively solve such problems, fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures are essential for accuracy. In this work, the CO2 sequestration is presented as our first example to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics, while the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical process in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability are observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to a billion cells. To our best knowledge, the work represents the first attempt to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large scale modeling. Due to the complexity of the subsurface systems

  14. Interactions between the Design and Operation of Shale Gas Networks, Including CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifzadeh Mahdi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for energy continues to increase, shale gas, as an unconventional source of methane (CH4, shows great potential for commercialization. However, due to the ultra-low permeability of shale gas reservoirs, special procedures such as horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, periodic well shut-in, and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection may be required in order to boost gas production, maximize economic benefits, and ensure safe and environmentally sound operation. Although intensive research is devoted to this emerging technology, many researchers have studied shale gas design and operational decisions only in isolation. In fact, these decisions are highly interactive and should be considered simultaneously. Therefore, the research question addressed in this study includes interactions between design and operational decisions. In this paper, we first establish a full-physics model for a shale gas reservoir. Next, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of important design and operational decisions such as well length, well arrangement, number of fractures, fracture distance, CO2 injection rate, and shut-in scheduling in order to gain in-depth insights into the complex behavior of shale gas networks. The results suggest that the case with the highest shale gas production may not necessarily be the most profitable design; and that drilling, fracturing, and CO2 injection have great impacts on the economic viability of this technology. In particular, due to the high costs, enhanced gas recovery (EGR using CO2 does not appear to be commercially competitive, unless tax abatements or subsidies are available for CO2 sequestration. It was also found that the interactions between design and operational decisions are significant and that these decisions should be optimized simultaneously.

  15. Monotoring of CO2 Sequestration at Sleipner Using Full Waveform Inversion in Time-lapse Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselet, A.; Singh, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    It is now widely admitted that recent increase of CO2 in the atmosphere is due to human activities. The consecutive greenhouse effect is a major ecological concern. Geological storage is one proposed way to reduce atmosphere CO2 emissions. The Sleipner methane field, North Sea, is the very first site where CO2 has been injected back into a deep saline aquifer. In 1996, the Norwegian company Statoil and its partners began the production of the methane. The extracted methane contains a relatively high ratio of CO2, between 4% and 9%, that has to be reduced below 2.5% before delivering into the pipeline. An environmental tax introduced in Norway as early as 1991 prompted the company to store the separated CO2 instead of releasing it into the atmosphere as usually done. The CO2 is injected at the base of the Utsira sands. This water bearing formation lies at a depth between 800 and 1000m and is sealed by a thick shale layer. Seismic monitoring is a key tool in this strategy from a security standpoint and for sequestration optimization itself. Consequently, 3D seismic data were acquired before injection in 1994 and after injection in 1999, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. Well-log revealed that the reservoir is crossed by thin shale layers that are 1 to 10m thick. CO2 rises up and is confined vertically by the shale layers, favouring horizontal gas migration and creating gas bearing thin beds. Seismic imaging of the gas pockets is therefore a challenging problem because large velocity variations occur on very short distance. Classical processing of time-lapse data consists in subtracting repeated survey seismic traces from the pre- injection baseline traces to exhibit changes within the reservoir. This approach remains qualitative, providing only the shape and extent of the gas cloud. Instead, we propose to compare elastic models of the subsurface computed through 2D full wave form inversion, an advanced seismic imaging technique. This method is based on the wave equation

  16. Experimental observation and numerical simulation of permeability changes in dolomite at CO2 sequestration conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutolo, B. M.; Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    Injecting surface temperature CO2 into geothermally warm reservoirs for geologic storage or energy production may result in depressed temperature near the injection well and thermal gradients and mass transfer along flow paths leading away from the well. Thermal gradients are particularly important to consider in reservoirs containing carbonate minerals, which are more soluble at lower temperatures, as well as in CO2-based geothermal energy reservoirs where lowering heat exchanger rejection temperatures increases efficiency. Additionally, equilibrating a fluid with cation-donating silicates near a low-temperature injection well and transporting the fluid to higher temperature may enhance the kinetics of mineral precipitation in such a way as to overcome the activation energy required for mineral trapping of CO2. We have investigated this process by subjecting a dolomite core to a 650-hour temperature series experiment in which the fluid was saturated with CO2 at high pressure (110-126 bars) and 21°C. This fluid was recirculated through the dolomite core, increasing permeability from 10-16 to 10-15.2 m2. Subsequently, the core temperature was raised to 50° C, and permeability decreased to 10-16.2 m2 after 289 hours, due to thermally-driven CO2 exsolution. Increasing core temperature to 100°C for the final 145 hours of the experiment caused dolomite to precipitate, which, together with further CO2 exsolution, decreased permeability to 10-16.4 m2. Post-experiment x-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscope imagery of the dolomite core reveals abundant matrix dissolution and enlargement of flow paths at low temperatures, and subsequent filling-in of the passages at elevated temperature by dolomite. To place this experiment within the broader context of geologic CO2 sequestration, we designed and utilized a reactive transport simulator that enables dynamic calculation of CO2 equilibrium constants and fugacity and activity coefficients by incorporating

  17. Numerical Simulations for Enhanced Methane Recovery from Gas Hydrate Accumulations by Utilizing CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhara, Prathyusha

    transport properties with change in pressure and temperature due to the presence of the simple CO2-hydrate and mixed hydrates (mainly CH4-CO2 hydrate and CH4 -CO2-N2 hydrate) in the porous geologic media. These simulations on CO2/ CH4-CO2 hydrate reservoirs provided a basic insight to formulate and interpret a novel technological approach. This approach aims at prediction of enhanced gas production profiles from Class 2 hydrate accumulations by utilizing CO2 sequestration. The approach also offers a possibility to permanently store CO 2 in the geologic formation to a greater extent compared to a direct injection of CO2 into gas hydrate sediments. The production technique implies a three-stage approach using one vertical well design. In Stage I, the CO2 is injected into the underlying aquifer. In Stage II, the well is shut in and injected CO2 is allowed to be converted into immobile CO2 hydrate. Finally, during Stage III, decomposition of CH4 hydrate is induced by the depressurization method. The gas production potential is estimated over 15 years. The results reveal that methane production is increased together with simultaneous reduction of concomitant water production rate comparing to a conventional Class 2 reservoir production.

  18. Precipitation of hydrated Mg carbonate with the aid of carbonic anhydrase for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Dipple, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    and water was sampled for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and magnesium concentrations. Final precipitates were collected for X-ray powder diffraction and determination of the percent carbon. The presence of BCA increases the concentration of DIC, thus accelerating the rate-limiting step. In alkaline Mg-rich solutions, disordered hydrated magnesium carbonate, resembling dypingite, rapidly precipitated within hours to form micron-wide flakes. At concentrations of 200 and 100 mg BCA/L, the rates of carbon uptake were ~7 and ~4.4 times that of the control system during the first 24 hours, respectively. BCA is able to catalyze the hydration of CO2 thereby increasing concentrations of DIC relatively rapidly and allowing for the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 as hydrated Mg carbonate minerals.

  19. Model-Based Assessment of the CO2 Sequestration Potential of Coastal Ocean Alkalinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, E. Y.; Koeve, W.; Keller, D. P.; Oschlies, A.

    2017-12-01

    The potential of coastal ocean alkalinization (COA), a carbon dioxide removal (CDR) climate engineering strategy that chemically increases ocean carbon uptake and storage, is investigated with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity. The CDR potential and possible environmental side effects are estimated for various COA deployment scenarios, assuming olivine as the alkalinity source in ice-free coastal waters (about 8.6% of the global ocean's surface area), with dissolution rates being a function of grain size, ambient seawater temperature, and pH. Our results indicate that for a large-enough olivine deployment of small-enough grain sizes (10 µm), atmospheric CO2 could be reduced by more than 800 GtC by the year 2100. However, COA with coarse olivine grains (1000 µm) has little CO2 sequestration potential on this time scale. Ambitious CDR with fine olivine grains would increase coastal aragonite saturation Ω to levels well beyond those that are currently observed. When imposing upper limits for aragonite saturation levels (Ωlim) in the grid boxes subject to COA (Ωlim = 3.4 and 9 chosen as examples), COA still has the potential to reduce atmospheric CO2 by 265 GtC (Ωlim = 3.4) to 790 GtC (Ωlim = 9) and increase ocean carbon storage by 290 Gt (Ωlim = 3.4) to 913 Gt (Ωlim = 9) by year 2100.

  20. Analysis of Microbial Communities in the Oil Reservoir Subjected to CO2-Flooding by Using Functional Genes as Molecular Biomarkers for Microbial CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng eLiu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sequestration of CO2 in oil reservoirs is considered to be one of the feasible options for mitigating atmospheric CO2 building up and also for the in situ potential bioconversion of stored CO2 to methane. However, the information on these functional microbial communities and the impact of CO2 storage on them is hardly available. In this paper a comprehensive molecular survey was performed on microbial communities in production water samples from oil reservoirs experienced CO2-flooding by analysis of functional genes involved in the process, including cbbM, cbbL, fthfs, [FeFe]-hydrogenase and mcrA. As a comparison, these functional genes in the production water samples from oil reservoir only experienced water-flooding in areas of the same oil bearing bed were also analyzed. It showed that these functional genes were all of rich diversity in these samples, and the functional microbial communities and their diversity were strongly affected by a long-term exposure to injected CO2. More interestingly, microorganisms affiliated with members of the genera Methanothemobacter, Acetobacterium and Halothiobacillus as well as hydrogen producers in CO2 injected area either increased or remained unchanged in relative abundance compared to that in water-flooded area, which implied that these microorganisms could adapt to CO2 injection and, if so, demonstrated the potential for microbial fixation and conversion of CO2 into methane in subsurface oil reservoirs.

  1. Dissolution of cemented fractures in gas bearing shales in the context of CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide has a stronger binding than methane to the organic matter contained in the matrix of shale rocks [1]. Thus, the injection of CO2 into shale formation may enhance the production rate and total amount of produced methane, and simultaneously permanently store pumped CO2. Carbon dioxide can be injected during the initial fracking stage as CO2 based hydraulic fracturing, and/or later, as a part of enhanced gas recovery (EGR) [2]. Economic and environmental benefits makes CO2 sequestration in shales potentially very for industrial-scale operation [3]. However, the effective process requires large area of fracture-matrix interface, where CO2 and CH4 can be exchanged. Usually natural fractures, existing in shale formation, are preferentially reactivated during hydraulic fracturing, thus they considerably contribute to the flow paths in the resulting fracture system [4]. Unfortunately, very often these natural fractures are sealed by calcite [5]. Consequently the layer of calcite coating surfaces impedes exchange of gases, both CO2 and CH4, between shale matrix and fracture. In this communication we address the question whether carbonic acid, formed when CO2 is mixed with brine, is able to effectively dissolve a calcite layer present in the natural fractures. We investigate numerically fluid flow and dissolution of calcite coating in natural shale fractures, with CO2-brine mixture as a reactive fluid. Moreover, we discuss the differences between slow dissolution (driven by carbonic acid) and fast dissolution (driven by stronger hydrochloric acid) of calcite layer. We compare an impact of the flow rate and geometry of the fracture on the parameters of practical importance: available surface area, morphology of dissolution front, time scale of the dissolution, and the penetration length. We investigate whether the dissolution is sufficiently non-uniform to retain the fracture permeability, even in the absence of the proppant. The sizes of analysed fractures

  2. LIBS Sensor for Sub-surface CO2 Leak Detection in Carbon Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh JAIN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring carbon sequestration poses numerous challenges to the sensor community. For example, the subsurface environment is notoriously harsh, with large potential mechanical, thermal, and chemical stresses, making long-term stability and survival a challenge to any potential in situ monitoring method. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been demonstrated as a promising technology for chemical monitoring of harsh environments and hard to reach places. LIBS has a real- time monitoring capability and can be used for the elemental and isotopic analysis of solid, liquid, and gas samples. The flexibility of the probe design and the use of fiber- optics has made LIBS particularly suited for remote measurements. The paper focuses on developing a LIBS instrument for downhole high-pressure, high-temperature brine experiments, where CO2 leakage could result in changes in the trace mineral composition of an aquifer. The progress in fabricating a compact, robust, and simple LIBS sensor for widespread subsurface leak detection is presented.

  3. Testing CO2 Sequestration in an Alkaline Soil Treated with Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Identifying effective and economical methods for increasing carbon storage in soils is of interest for reducing soil CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere in order to partially offset anthropogenic CO2 contributions to climate change This study investigates an alternative strategy for increasing carbon retention in soils by accelerating calcite (CaCO3) precipitation and promoting soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces. The addition of calcium ion to soils with pH > 8, often found in arid and semi-arid regions, may accelerate the slow process of calcite precipitation. Increased ionic strength from addition of a soluble Ca source also suppresses microbial activity which oxidizes SOC to gaseous CO2. Through obtaining C mass balances in soil profiles, this study is quantifying the efficiency of gypsum amendments for mitigating C losses to the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to identify conditions in which inorganic and organic C sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils by gypsum treatment. As an inexpensive calcium source, we proposed to use flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), a byproduct of fossil fuel burning electric power plants. To test the hypothesis, laboratory column experiments have been conducted in calcite-buffered soil with addition of gypsum and FGDG. The results of several months of column monitoring are demonstrating that gypsum-treated soil have lowered amounts of soil organic carbon loss and increased inorganic carbon (calcite) production. The excess generation of FGDG relative to industrial and agricultural needs, FGDG, is currently regarded as waste. Thus application of FGDG application in some soils may be an effective and economical means for fixing CO2 in soil organic and inorganic carbon forms.Soil carbon cycle, with proposed increased C retention by calcite precipitation and by SOC binding onto soil mineral surfaces, with both processes driven by calcium released from gypsum dissolution.

  4. CO2 capture and sequestration. Technological and social stakes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Ha-Duong; Naceur, Chaabane

    2010-01-01

    Industrial technology already tested in Norway, North America and Algeria, the CO 2 capture and sequestration (CCS) consists in collecting carbon dioxide and to inject it into deep geological traps. This solution, which contributes to the fight against climatic change, arouses a growing up interest in France as a consequence of the Grenelle Environnement meetings. At a time when big research and demonstration programs are launched everywhere in Europe, this book proposes for the first time a status of the knowledge gathered so far by the specialists of the IPG (World Physics Institute), of the BRGM (Bureau of Geologic and Mining Researches), of the IFP (French Petroleum Institute), and of the CNRS (National Center of Scientific Research). It takes stock of the stakes of this new technology in France. Beyond the technical discussions between experts, the book deals with the external communication stakes and the open public debates. The point of views of the different intervening parties (research organizations, environmental non-governmental organizations, European lobby (Zero Emission Platform), citizens, journalists and companies are compared. A large part of the book aims at shading light on the social acceptability question of this technology. In addition to a synthesis of the available literature, it presents and analyses two participation instruments: a dialogue workshop and a geographical information web site. Content: 1 - scientific stakes of CO 2 geologic sequestration; 2 - technical stakes; 3 - economical stakes; 4 - risks and public opinion; 5 - social acceptability and territorial planning, the wind energy experience; 6 - the point of view of Action-Climat-France network (RAC-F); 7 - citizens' recommendations; 8 - the comeback of coal on the international energy scene; 9 - some consensus from a 'dialogue workshop': the social acceptability of CCS; 10 - bibliographic synthesis about the social acceptability of CCS; 11 - METSTOR, the interactive maping at

  5. Recovery and Sequestration of CO2 from Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Nakamura; C.L. Senior

    2005-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 31 March 2005 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. This report discusses results of the work pertaining to five tasks: Task 1--Supply of CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas to Photobioreactor; Task 2--Selection of Microalgae; Task 3--Optimization and Demonstration of Industrial Scale Photobioreactor; Task 4--Carbon Sequestration System Design; and Task 5--Economic Analysis. Based on the work conducted in each task summary conclusion is presented.

  6. Investigation of the potential of coal combustion fly ash for mineral sequestration of CO2 by accelerated carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukwattage, N.L.; Ranjith, P.G.; Wang, S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mineral carbonation of alkaline waste materials is being studied extensively for its potential as a way of reducing the increased level of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Carbonation converts CO 2 into minerals which are stable over geological time scales. This process occurs naturally but slowly, and needs to be accelerated to offset the present rate of emissions from power plants and other emission sources. The present study attempts to identify the potential of coal fly ash as a source for carbon storage (sequestration) through ex-situ accelerated mineral carbonation. In the study, two operational parameters that could affect the reaction process were tested to investigate their effect on mineralization. Coal fly ash was mixed with water to different water-to-solid ratios and samples were carbonated in a pressure vessel at different initial CO 2 pressures. Temperature was kept constant at 40 °C. According to the results, one ton of Hazelwood fly ash could sequester 7.66 kg of CO 2 . The pressure of CO 2 inside the vessel has an effect on the rate of CO 2 uptake and the water-to-solid ratio affects the weight gain after the carbonation of fly ash. The results confirm the possibility of the manipulation of process parameters in enhancing the carbonation reaction. - Highlights: ► Mineral sequestration CO 2 by of coal fly ash is a slow process under ambient conditions. ► It can be accelerated by manipulating the process parameters inside a reactor. ► Initial CO 2 pressure and water to solid mixing ratio inside the reactor are two of those operational parameters. ► According to the test results higher CO 2 initial pressure gives higher on rates of CO 2 sequestration. ► Water to fly ash mixing ratio effect on amount of CO 2 sequestered into fly ash

  7. Characterisation, quantification and modelling of CO2 transport and interactions in a carbonate vadose zone: application to a CO2 diffusive leakage in a geological sequestration context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is related to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration increase and especially anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. Geologic sequestration has the potential capacity and the longevity to significantly diminish anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. This sequestration in deep geological formation induces leakage risks from the geological reservoir. Several leakage scenarios have been imagined. Since it could continue for a long period, inducing environmental issues and risks for human, the scenario of a diffusive leakage is the most worrying. Thus, monitoring tools and protocols are needed to set up a near-surface monitoring plan. The present thesis deals with this problematic. The aims are the characterisation, the quantification and the modelling of transport and interactions of CO 2 in a carbonate unsaturated zone. This was achieved following an experimental approach on a natural pilot site in Saint-Emilion (Gironde, France), where diffusive gas leakage experiments were set up in a carbonate unsaturated zone. Different aspects were investigated during the study: natural pilot site description and instrumentation; the physical and chemical characterisation of carbonate reservoir heterogeneity; the natural functioning of the carbonate unsaturated zone and especially the set-up of a CO 2 concentrations baseline; the characterisation of gas plume extension following induced diffusive leakage in the carbonate unsaturated zone and the study of gas-water-rock interactions during a CO 2 diffusive leakage in a carbonate unsaturated zone through numerical simulations. The results show the importance of the carbonate reservoir heterogeneity characterisation as well as the sampling and analysing methods for the different phases. The baseline set-up is of main interest since it allows discrimination between the induced and the natural CO 2 concentrations variations. The transfer of CO 2 in a carbonate unsaturated zone is varying in function of physical and chemical properties

  8. Procedure to use phosphogypsum industrial waste for mineral CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cárdenas-Escudero, C.; Morales-Flórez, V.; Pérez-López, R.; Santos, A.; Esquivias, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phosphogypsum wastes are proposed to reduce CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions. ► Phosphogypsum dissolution with NaOH results in Ca(OH) 2 precipitation and Na 2 SO 4 . ► Aqueous carbonation of Ca(OH) 2 with CO 2 results in the CaCO 3 precipitation. ► Metals contained in the phosphogypsum are transferred to the final calcite. ► Applications of CaCO 3 and Na 2 SiO 4 by-products are proposed to improve viability. - Abstract: Industrial wet phosphoric acid production in Huelva (SW Spain) has led to the controversial stockpiling of waste phosphogypsum by-products, resulting in the release of significant quantities of toxic impurities in salt marshes in the Tinto river estuary. In the framework of the fight against global climate change and the effort to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a simple and efficient procedure for CO 2 mineral sequestration is presented in this work, using phosphogypsum waste as a calcium source. Our results demonstrate the high efficiency of portlandite precipitation by phosphogypsum dissolution using an alkaline soda solution. Carbonation experiments performed at ambient pressure and temperature resulted in total conversion of the portlandite into carbonate. The fate of trace elements present in the phosphogypsum waste was also investigated, and trace impurities were found to be completely transferred to the final calcite. We believe that the procedure proposed here should be considered not only as a solution for reducing old stockpiles of phosphogypsum wastes, but also for future phosphoric acid and other gypsum-producing industrial processes, resulting in more sustainable production.

  9. Carbon sequestration in soybean crop soils: the role of hydrogen-coupled CO2 fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A.; Layzell, D. B.; Scott, N. A.; Cen, Y.; Kyser, T. K.

    2011-12-01

    Conversion of native vegetation to agricultural land in order to support the world's growing population is a key factor contributing to global climate change. However, the extent to which agricultural activities contribute to greenhouse gas emissions compared to carbon storage is difficult to ascertain, especially for legume crops, such as soybeans. Soybean establishment often leads to an increase in N2O emissions because N-fixation leads to increased soil available N during decomposition of the low C:N legume biomass. However, soybean establishment may also reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by increasing soil fertility, plant growth, and soil carbon storage. The mechanism behind increased carbon storage, however, remains unclear. One explanation points to hydrogen coupled CO2 fixation; the process by which nitrogen fixation releases H2 into the soil system, thereby promoting chemoautotrophic carbon fixation by soil microbes. We used 13CO2 as a tracer to track the amount and fate of carbon fixed by hydrogen coupled CO2 fixation during one-year field and laboratory incubations. The objectives of the research are to 1) quantify rates of 13CO2 fixation in soil collected from a field used for long-term soybean production 2) examine the impact of H2 gas concentration on rates of 13CO2 fixation, and 3) measure changes in δ13C signature over time in 3 soil fractions: microbial biomass, light fraction, and acid stable fraction. If this newly-fixed carbon is incorporated into the acid-stable soil C fraction, it has a good chance of contributing to long-term soil C sequestration under soybean production. Soil was collected in the field both adjacent to root nodules (nodule soil) and >3cm away (root soil) and labelled with 13CO2 (1% v/v) in the presence and absence of H2 gas. After a two week labelling period, δ13C signatures already revealed differences in the four treatments of bulk soil: -17.1 for root, -17.6 for nodule, -14.2 for root + H2, and -6.1 for nodule + H2

  10. Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Male, E.J.; Pickles, W.L.; Silver, E.A.; Hoffmann, G.D.; Lewicki, J.; Apple, M.; Repasky, K.; Burton, E.A.

    2009-11-01

    Hyperspectral plant signatures can be used as a short-term, as well as long-term (100-yr timescale) monitoring technique to verify that CO2 sequestration fields have not been compromised. An influx of CO2 gas into the soil can stress vegetation, which causes changes in the visible to nearinfrared reflectance spectral signature of the vegetation. For 29 days, beginning on July 9th, 2008, pure carbon dioxide gas was released through a 100-meter long horizontal injection well, at a flow rate of 300 kg/day. Spectral signatures were recorded almost daily from an unmown patch of plants over the injection with a ''FieldSpec Pro'' spectrometer by Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc. Measurements were taken both inside and outside of the CO2 leak zone to normalize observations for other environmental factors affecting the plants.

  11. Impact of elevated CO_2 concentrations on carbonate mineral precipitation ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria and implications for CO_2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Varun G.; Wronkiewicz, David J.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2017-01-01

    and related mineralization is inhibited. • Hydrogen, lactate and formate served as suitable electron donors for SRB activity. • ∼53% of C in the precipitated calcite was derived from the supplied CO_2. • Ability of SRB to precipitate calcite can be used in mineral sequestration of CO_2.

  12. Experimental investigation of CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Koksalan, T.; Palandri, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Deep-saline aquifers are potential repositories for excess CO2, currently being emitted to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities, but the reactivity of supercritical CO2 with host aquifer fluids and formation minerals needs to be understood. Experiments reacting supercritical CO2 with natural and synthetic brines in the presence and absence of limestone and plagioclase-rich arkosic sandstone showed that the reaction of CO2-saturated brine with limestone results in compositional, mineralogical, and porosity changes in the aquifer fluid and rock that are dependent on initial brine composition, especially dissolved calcium and sulfate. Experiments reacting CO2-saturated, low-sulfate brine with limestone dissolved 10% of the original calcite and increased rock porosity by 2.6%. Experiments reacting high-sulfate brine with limestone, both in the presence and absence of supercritical CO2, were characterized by the precipitation of anhydrite, dolomitization of the limestone, and a final decrease in porosity of 4.5%. However, based on favorable initial porosity changes of about 15% due to the dissolution of calcite, the combination of CO2 co-injection with other mitigation strategies might help alleviate some of the well-bore scale and formation-plugging problems near the injection zone of a brine disposal well in Paradox Valley, Colorado, as well as provide a repository for CO2. Experiments showed that the solubility of CO2 is enhanced in brine in the presence of limestone by 9% at 25 ??C and 6% at 120 ??C and 200 bar relative to the brine itself. The solubility of CO2 is enhanced also in brine in the presence of arkosic sandstone by 5% at 120 ??C and 300 bar. The storage of CO 2 in limestone aquifers is limited to only ionic and hydraulic trapping. However, brine reacted with supercritical CO2 and arkose yielded fixation and sequestration of CO2 in carbonate mineral phases. Brine desiccation was observed in all experiments containing a discrete CO2 phase

  13. Exergy Analysis of a Syngas-Fueled Combined Cycle with Chemical-Looping Combustion and CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Urdiales Montesino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels are still widely used for power generation. Nevertheless, it is possible to attain a short- and medium-term substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere through a sequestration of the CO2 produced in fuels’ oxidation. The chemical-looping combustion (CLC technique is based on a chemical intermediate agent, which gets oxidized in an air reactor and is then conducted to a separated fuel reactor, where it oxidizes the fuel in turn. Thus, the oxidation products CO2 and H2O are obtained in an output flow in which the only non-condensable gas is CO2, allowing the subsequent sequestration of CO2 without an energy penalty. Furthermore, with shrewd configurations, a lower exergy destruction in the combustion chemical transformation can be achieved. This paper focus on a second law analysis of a CLC combined cycle power plant with CO2 sequestration using syngas from coal and biomass gasification as fuel. The key thermodynamic parameters are optimized via the exergy method. The proposed power plant configuration is compared with a similar gas turbine system with a conventional combustion, finding a notable increase of the power plant efficiency. Furthermore, the influence of syngas composition on the results is investigated by considering different H2-content fuels.

  14. Seismic monitoring at the Decatur, Ill., CO2 sequestration demonstration site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaven, Joern; Hickman, Stephen H.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Walter, Steve R.; Ellsworth, William L.

    2014-01-01

    The viability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases depends on the ability to safely sequester large quantities of CO2 over geologic time scales. One concern with CCS is the potential of induced seismicity. We report on ongoing seismic monitoring by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at a CCS demonstration site in Decatur, IL, in an effort to understand the potential hazards posed by injection-induced seismicity associated with geologic CO2 sequestration. At Decatur, super-critical CO2 is injected at 2.1 km depth into the 550-m-thick Mt. Simon Sandstone, which directly overlies granitic basement. The primary sealing cap rock is the Eau Claire Shale, a 100- to 150-m-thick unit at a depth of roughly 1.5 km. The USGS seismic network consists of 12 stations, three of which have surface accelerometers and three-component borehole geophones. We derived a one-dimensional velocity models from a vertical seismic profile acquired by Archer-Daniels-Midland (ADM) and the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) to a depth of 2.2 km, tied into shallow acoustic logs from our borehole stations and assuming a 6 km/sec P-wave velocity for granite below 2.2 km. We further assume a constant ratio of P- to S-wave velocities of 1.83, as derived from velocity model inversions. We use this velocity model to locate seismic events, all of which are within the footprint of our network. So far magnitudes of locatable events range from Mw = -1.52 to 1.07. We further improved the hypocentral precision of microseismic events when travel times and waveforms are sufficiently similar by employing double-difference relocation techniques, with relative location errors less than 80 m horizontally and 100 m vertically. We observe tend to group in three distinct clusters: ∼0.4 to 1.0 km NE, 1.6 to 2.4 km N, and ∼1.8 to 2.6 km WNW from the injection well. The first cluster of microseismicity forms a roughly linear trend, which may represent a pre-existing geologic

  15. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, V.; Barbier, C.; Riedacker, A.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO 2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO 2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  16. Towards CO2 sequestration and applications of CO2 hydrates: the effects of tetrahydrofuran on the phase equilibria of CO2 hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalik, M.S.; Peters, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing quantity of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere has caused widespread global concerns. Capturing CO 2 from its sources and stored it in the form of gas hydrates and application of CO 2 hydrates are among the proposed methods to overcome this problem. In order to make hydrate-based process more attractive, the use of cyclic ethers as promoters is suggested to reduce the required hydrate formation pressure and enhancing the corresponding kinetic rate. In the present work, tetrahydrofuran (THF) is chosen as a hydrate promoter, participating in forming hydrates and produces mixed hydrate together with CO 2 . The pressure and temperature ranges of hydrate stability region are carefully determined through phase equilibrium measurement of the ternary CO 2 , tetrahydrofuran (THF) and water systems. From the experimental results, it is confirmed that the presence of THF in CO 2 + water systems will extend the hydrate formation region to higher temperature at a constant pressure. The extension of the hydrate stability region is depended on the overall concentration of the ternary system. Moreover, four-phase equilibrium of H-Lw-Lv-V is observed in the system, which may be due to a liquid phase split. In the region where the four-phase equilibrium exists, the ternary system loses its concentration dependency of the hydrate equilibrium conditions. (Author)

  17. Utilization of the St. Peter Sandstone in the Illinois Basin for CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, Robert; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    This project is part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) under cooperative agreement DE-FE0002068 from 12/08/2009 through 9/31/2014. The study is to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon Sandstone as potential targets for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins. This report evaluates the potential injectivity of the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data acquired through funding in this project as well as existing data from two additional, separately funded projects: the US DOE funded Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) in Macon County, Illinois, and the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) Project funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), which received a phase two award from DOE. This study addresses the question of whether or not the St. Peter Sandstone may serve as a suitable target for CO2 sequestration at locations within the Illinois Basin where it lies at greater depths (below the underground source of drinking water (USDW)) than at the IBDP site. The work performed included numerous improvements to the existing St. Peter reservoir model created in 2010. Model size and spatial resolution were increased resulting in a 3 fold increase in the number of model cells. Seismic data was utilized to inform spatial porosity distribution and an extensive core database was used to develop porosity-permeability relationships. The analysis involved a Base Model representative of the St. Peter at “in-situ” conditions, followed by the creation of two hypothetical models at in-situ + 1,000 feet (ft.) (300 m) and in-situ + 2,000 ft. (600 m) depths through systematic depthdependent adjustment of the Base Model

  18. Limitation of the CO2 emissions to fight the climatic change. Challenges, prevention at the source and sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audibert, N.

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of a climatic change the CO 2 capture and sequestration is considered as an possible way of greenhouse effect gases impact decrease. Meanwhile many other actions in the energy production and consumption must also be implemented. The aim of this study is to offer a global aspect of the problem and a synthesis of bibliographic elements. The first part presents the context of the climatic change, the economical and political aspects. The second deals more specially with the actions possibilities, the energy recovery, the carbon sequestration. (A.L.B.)

  19. Modulation of magmatic processes by CO2 flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca; Sheldrake, Tom E.; Blundy, Jon

    2018-06-01

    Magmatic systems are the engines driving volcanic eruptions and the source of fluids responsible for the formation of porphyry-type ore deposits. Sudden variations of pressure, temperature and volume in magmatic systems can produce unrest, which may culminate in a volcanic eruption and/or the abrupt release of ore-forming fluids. Such variations of the conditions within magmatic systems are commonly ascribed to the injection of new magma from depth. However, as magmas fractionating at depth or rising to the upper crust release CO2-rich fluids, the interaction between carbonic fluids and H2O-rich magmas stored in the upper crust (CO2 flushing), must also be a common process affecting the evolution of subvolcanic magma reservoirs. Here, we investigate the effect of gas injection on the stability and chemical evolution of magmatic systems. We calculate the chemical and physical evolution of magmas subjected to CO2-flushing using rhyolite-MELTS. We compare the calculations with a set of melt inclusion data for Mt. St. Helens, Merapi, Etna, and Stromboli volcanoes. We provide an approach that can be used to distinguish between melt inclusions trapped during CO2 flushing, magma ascent and decompression, or those affected by post-entrapment H2O-loss. Our results show that CO2 flushing is a widespread process in both felsic and mafic magmatic systems. Depending upon initial magma crystallinity and duration of CO2 input, flushing can either lead to volcanic eruption or fluid release. We suggest that CO2 flushing is a fundamental process modulating the behaviour and chemical evolution of crustal magmatic systems.

  20. Synthetic seismic monitoring using reverse-time migration and Kirchhoff migration for CO2 sequestration in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Kim, Y.; Min, D.; Oh, J.; Huh, C.; Kang, S.

    2012-12-01

    During last two decades, CO2 sequestration in the subsurface has been extensively studied and progressed as a direct tool to reduce CO2 emission. Commercial projects such as Sleipner, In Salah and Weyburn that inject more than one million tons of CO2 per year are operated actively as well as test projects such as Ketzin to study the behavior of CO2 and the monitoring techniques. Korea also began the CCS (CO2 capture and storage) project. One of the prospects for CO2 sequestration in Korea is the southwestern continental margin of Ulleung basin. To monitor the behavior of CO2 underground for the evaluation of stability and safety, several geophysical monitoring techniques should be applied. Among various geophysical monitoring techniques, seismic survey is considered as the most effective tool. To verify CO2 migration in the subsurface more effectively, seismic numerical simulation is an essential process. Furthermore, the efficiency of the seismic migration techniques should be investigated for various cases because numerical seismic simulation and migration test help us accurately interpret CO2 migration. In this study, we apply the reverse-time migration and Kirchhoff migration to synthetic seismic monitoring data generated for the simplified model based on the geological structures of Ulleung basin in Korea. Synthetic seismic monitoring data are generated for various cases of CO2 migration in the subsurface. From the seismic migration images, we can investigate CO2 diffusion patterns indirectly. From seismic monitoring simulation, it is noted that while the reverse-time migration generates clear subsurface images when subsurface structures are steeply dipping, Kirchhoff migration has an advantage in imaging horizontal-layered structures such as depositional sediments appearing in the continental shelf. The reverse-time migration and Kirchhoff migration present reliable subsurface images for the potential site characterized by stratigraphical traps. In case of

  1. Final Report - "CO2 Sequestration in Cell Biomass of Chlorobium Thiosulfatophilum"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James L. Gaddy, PhD; Ching-Whan Ko, PhD

    2009-05-04

    World carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have increased at a rate of about 3 percent per year during the last 40 years to over 24 billion tons today. While a number of methods have been proposed and are under study for dealing with the carbon dioxide problem, all have advantages as well as disadvantages which limit their application. The anaerobic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum uses hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide to produce elemental sulfur and cell biomass. The overall objective of this project is to develop a commercial process for the biological sequestration of carbon dioxide and simultaneous conversion of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The Phase I study successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of utilizing this bacterium for carbon dioxide sequestration and hydrogen sulfide conversion to elemental sulfur by utilizing the bacterium in continuous reactor studies. Phase II studies involved an advanced research and development to develop the engineering and scale-up parameters for commercialization of the technology. Tasks include culture isolation and optimization studies, further continuous reactor studies, light delivery systems, high pressure studies, process scale-up, a market analysis and economic projections. A number of anaerobic and aerobic microorgansims, both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic, were examined to find those with the fastest rates for detailed study to continuous culture experiments. C. thiosulfatophilum was selected for study to anaerobically produce sulfur and Thiomicrospira crunogena waws selected for study to produce sulfate non-photosynthetically. Optimal conditions for growth, H2S and CO2 comparison, supplying light and separating sulfur were defined. The design and economic projections show that light supply for photosynthetic reactions is far too expensive, even when solar systems are considered. However, the aerobic non-photosynthetic reaction to produce sulfate with T

  2. Activation of magnesium rich minerals as carbonation feedstock materials for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto-Valer, M.M.; Kuchta, M.E.; Zhang, Y.; Andresen, J.M.; Fauth, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mineral carbonation, the reaction of magnesium-rich minerals such as olivine and serpentine with CO 2 to form stable mineral carbonates, is a novel and promising approach to carbon sequestration. However, the preparation of the minerals prior to carbonation can be energy intensive, where some current studies have been exploring extensive pulverization of the minerals below 37 μm, heat treatment of minerals up to 650 o C, prior separation of CO 2 from flue gases, and carbonation at high pressures, temperatures and long reaction times of up to 125 atm, 185 o C and 6 h, respectively. Thus, the objective of the mineral activation concept is to promote and accelerate carbonation reaction rates and efficiencies through surface activation to the extent that such rigorous reaction conditions were not required. The physical activations were performed with air and steam, while chemical activations were performed with a suite of acids and bases. The parent serpentine, activated serpentines, and carbonation products were characterized to determine their surface properties and assess their potential as carbonation minerals. The results indicate that the surface area of the raw serpentine, which is approximately 8 m 2 /g, can be increased through physical and chemical activation methods to over 330 m 2 /g. The chemical activations were more effective than the physical activations at increasing the surface area, with the 650 o C steam activated serpentine presenting a surface area of only 17 m 2 /g. Sulfuric acid was the most effective acid used during the chemical activations, resulting in surface areas greater than 330 m 2 /g. Several of the samples produced underwent varying degrees of carbonation. The steam activated serpentine underwent a 60% conversion to magnesite at 155 o C and 126 atm in 1 h, while the parent sample only exhibited a 7% conversion. The most promising results came from the carbonation of the extracted Mg(OH) 2 solution, where, based on the amount of

  3. Hydrothermal Valorization of Steel Slags—Part I: Coupled H2 Production and CO2 Mineral Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Crouzet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new process route for the valorization of BOF steel slags combining H2 production and CO2 mineral sequestration is investigated at 300°C (HT under hydrothermal conditions. A BOF steel slag stored several weeks outdoor on the production site was used as starting material. To serve as a reference, room temperature (RT carbonation of the same BOF steel slag has been monitored with in situ Raman spectroscopy and by measuring pH and PCO2 on a time-resolved basis. CO2 uptake under RT and HT are, respectively, 243 and 327 kg CO2/t of fresh steel slag, which add up with the 63 kg of atmospheric CO2 per ton already uptaken by the starting steel slag on the storage site. The CO2 gained by the sample at HT is bounded to the carbonation of brownmillerite. H2 yield decreased by about 30% in comparison to the same experiment performed without added CO2, due to sequestration of ferrous iron in a Mg-rich siderite phase. Ferric iron, initially present in brownmillerite, is partitioned between an Fe-rich clay mineral of saponite type and metastable hematite. Saponite is likely stabilized by the presence of Al, whereas hematite may represent a metastable product of brownmillerite carbonation. Mg-rich wüstite is involved in at least two competing reactions, i.e., oxidation into magnetite and carbonation into siderite. Results of both water-slag and water-CO2-slag experiments after 72 h are consistent with a kinetics enhancement of the former reaction when a CO2 partial pressure imposes a pH between 5 and 6. Three possible valorization routes, (1 RT carbonation prior to hydrothermal oxidation, (2 RT carbonation after hydrothermal treatment, and (3 combined HT carbonation and oxidation are discussed in light of the present results and literature data.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Sorption Behavior in Confined Coal Cores for Enhanced Coalbed Methane and CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, T.R.; Seshadri, K.S.; Irdi, G.A.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of CO2 in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed methane/CO2 sequestration field projects. Sorption isotherms measured in the lab can provide the upper limit on the amount of CO2 that might be sorbed in these projects. Because sequestration sites will most likely be in unmineable coals, many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may significantly reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh #8 was kept under a constant, three-dimensional external stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while it sorbed, CO2. Increases in sample density due to sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the computerized tomography showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core, and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO2 sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh #8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO2 source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO2 was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated volume elements differed from the initial distribution

  5. Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis and Chemical-Production Cell for H2 Production and CO2 Sequestration.

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping; Hatzell, Marta C; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    Natural mineral carbonation can be accelerated using acid and alkali solutions to enhance atmospheric CO2 sequestration, but the production of these solutions needs to be carbon-neutral. A microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis and chemical-production cell (MRECC) was developed to produce these solutions and H2 gas using only renewable energy sources (organic matter and salinity gradient). Using acetate (0.82 g/L) as a fuel for microorganisms to generate electricity in the anode chamber (liquid volume of 28 mL), 0.45 mmol of acid and 1.09 mmol of alkali were produced at production efficiencies of 35% and 86%, respectively, along with 10 mL of H2 gas. Serpentine dissolution was enhanced 17-87-fold using the acid solution, with approximately 9 mL of CO2 absorbed and 4 mg of CO2 fixed as magnesium or calcium carbonates. The operational costs, based on mineral digging and grinding, and water pumping, were estimated to be only $25/metric ton of CO2 fixed as insoluble carbonates. Considering the additional economic benefits of H2 generation and possible wastewater treatment, this method may be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for CO2 sequestration.

  6. Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis and Chemical-Production Cell for H2 Production and CO2 Sequestration.

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2014-03-24

    Natural mineral carbonation can be accelerated using acid and alkali solutions to enhance atmospheric CO2 sequestration, but the production of these solutions needs to be carbon-neutral. A microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis and chemical-production cell (MRECC) was developed to produce these solutions and H2 gas using only renewable energy sources (organic matter and salinity gradient). Using acetate (0.82 g/L) as a fuel for microorganisms to generate electricity in the anode chamber (liquid volume of 28 mL), 0.45 mmol of acid and 1.09 mmol of alkali were produced at production efficiencies of 35% and 86%, respectively, along with 10 mL of H2 gas. Serpentine dissolution was enhanced 17-87-fold using the acid solution, with approximately 9 mL of CO2 absorbed and 4 mg of CO2 fixed as magnesium or calcium carbonates. The operational costs, based on mineral digging and grinding, and water pumping, were estimated to be only $25/metric ton of CO2 fixed as insoluble carbonates. Considering the additional economic benefits of H2 generation and possible wastewater treatment, this method may be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for CO2 sequestration.

  7. A review of accelerated carbonation technology in the treatment of cement-based materials and sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Bertos, M.; Simons, S.J.R.; Hills, C.D.; Carey, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Moist calcium silicate minerals are known to readily react with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The reaction products can cause rapid hardening and result in the production of monolithic materials. Today, accelerated carbonation is a developing technology, which may have potential for the treatment of wastes and contaminated soils and for the sequestration of CO 2 , an important greenhouse gas. This paper reviews recent developments in this emerging technology and provides information on the parameters that control the process. The effects of the accelerated carbonation reaction on the solid phase are discussed and future potential applications of this technology are also considered

  8. System analysis of CO_2 sequestration from biomass cogeneration plants (Bio-CHP-CCS). Technology, economic efficiency, sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Claus

    2014-10-01

    In the present work a system analysis is carried out to determine the extent to which a combination of the three areas of energetic biomass use, combined heat and power (CHP) and CO_2 sequestration (CCS - Carbon Capture and Storage) is fundamentally possible and meaningful. The term ''CO_2 sequestration'' refers to the process chain from CO_2 capture, CO_2 transport and CO_2 storage. While the use of biomass in combined heat and power plants is a common practice, CO_2 sequestration (based on fossil fuels) is at the research and development stage. A combination of CCS with biomass has so far been little studied, a combination with combined heat and power plants has not been investigated at all. The two technologies for the energetic use of biomass and cogeneration represent fixed variables in the energy system of the future in the planning of the German federal government. According to the lead scenario of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, electricity generation from biomass is to be almost doubled from 2008 to 2020. At the same time, the heat generated in cogeneration is to be trebled [cf. Nitsch and Wenzel, 2009, p. 10]. At the same time, the CCS technology is to be used in half of all German coal-fired power plants until 2030 [cf. Krassuki et al., 2009, p. 17]. The combination of biomass and CCS also represents an option which is conceivable for the German federal policy [cf. Bundestag, 2008b, p. 4]. In addition, the CCS technology will provide very good export opportunities for the German economy in the future [cf. Federal Government, 2010, p. 20]. The combination of biomass combined heat and power plants with CCS offers the interesting opportunity to actively remove CO_2 from the atmosphere as a future climate protection instrument by means of CO_2 neutrality. Therefore, in the energy concept of the German federal government called for a storage project for industrial or biogenic CO_2 emissions to be established until 2020, as well as the use of CO_2 as

  9. Profitability Evaluation of a Hybrid Geothermal and CO2 Sequestration Project for a Coastal Hot Saline Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaksina, Tatyana; Kanfar, Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    With growing interest in commercial projects involving industrial volume CO2 sequestration, a concern about proper containment and control over the gas plume becomes particularly prominent. In this study, we explore the potential of using a typical coastal geopressured hot saline aquifer for two commercial purposes. The first purpose is to harvest geothermal heat of the aquifer for electricity generation and/or direct use and the second one is to utilize the same rock volume for safe and controlled CO2 sequestration without interruption of heat production. To achieve these goals, we devised and economically evaluated a scheme that recovers operational and capital costs within first 4 years and yields positive internal rate of return of about 15% at the end of the operations. Using our strategic design of well placement and operational scheduling, we were able to achieve in our numerical simulation study the following results. First, the hot water production rates allowed to run a 30 MW organic Rankine cycle plant for 20 years. Second, during the last 10 years of operation we managed to inject into the same reservoir (volume of 0.8 x 109 m3) approximately 10 million ton of the supercritical gas. Third, decades of numerical monitoring the plume after the end of the operations showed that this large volume of CO2 is securely sequestrated inside the reservoir without compromising the caprock integrity.

  10. Profitability Evaluation of a Hybrid Geothermal and CO2 Sequestration Project for a Coastal Hot Saline Aquifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaksina Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With growing interest in commercial projects involving industrial volume CO2 sequestration, a concern about proper containment and control over the gas plume becomes particularly prominent. In this study, we explore the potential of using a typical coastal geopressured hot saline aquifer for two commercial purposes. The first purpose is to harvest geothermal heat of the aquifer for electricity generation and/or direct use and the second one is to utilize the same rock volume for safe and controlled CO2 sequestration without interruption of heat production. To achieve these goals, we devised and economically evaluated a scheme that recovers operational and capital costs within first 4 years and yields positive internal rate of return of about 15% at the end of the operations. Using our strategic design of well placement and operational scheduling, we were able to achieve in our numerical simulation study the following results. First, the hot water production rates allowed to run a 30 MW organic Rankine cycle plant for 20 years. Second, during the last 10 years of operation we managed to inject into the same reservoir (volume of 0.8 x 109 m3 approximately 10 million ton of the supercritical gas. Third, decades of numerical monitoring the plume after the end of the operations showed that this large volume of CO2 is securely sequestrated inside the reservoir without compromising the caprock integrity.

  11. Short Term CO2 Enrichment Increases Carbon Sequestration of Air-Exposed Intertidal Communities of a Coastal Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit K. Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ production responses of air-exposed intertidal communities under CO2 enrichment are reported here for the first time. We assessed the short-term effects of CO2 on the light responses of the net community production (NCP and community respiration (CR of intertidal Z. noltei and unvegetated sediment communities of Ria Formosa lagoon, when exposed to air. NCP and CR were measured in situ in summer and winter, under present and CO2 enriched conditions using benthic chambers. Within chamber CO2 evolution measurements were carried out by a series of short-term incubations (30 min using an infra-red gas analyser. Liner regression models fitted to the NCP-irradiance responses were used to estimate the seasonal budgets of air-exposed, intertidal production as determined by the daily and seasonal variation of incident photosynthetic active radiation. High CO2 resulted in higher CO2 sequestration by both communities in both summer and winter seasons. Lower respiration rates of both communities under high CO2 further contributed to a potential negative climate feedback, except in winter when the CR of sediment community was higher. The light compensation points (LCP (light intensity where production equals respiration of Z. noltei and sediment communities also decreased under CO2 enriched conditions in both seasons. The seasonal community production of Z. noltei was 115.54 ± 7.58 g C m−2 season−1 in summer and 29.45 ± 4.04 g C m−2 season−1 in winter and of unvegetated sediment was 91.28 ± 6.32 g C m−2 season−1 in summer and 25.83 ± 4.01 g C m−2 season−1 in winter under CO2 enriched conditions. Future CO2 conditions may increase air-exposed seagrass production by about 1.5-fold and unvegetated sediments by about 1.2-fold.

  12. Potential for CO2 sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Schreurs, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, Daan; Pagnier, H.; Bergen, F. van; Wolf, K.-H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using CO2 for the enhanced production of coal bed methane (ECBM) in the Netherlands. This concept could lead to both CO2 storage by adsorbing CO2 in deep coal layers that are not suitable for mining, as well as production of methane.

  13. Partitioning CO2 fluxes with isotopologue measurements and modeling to understand mechanisms of forest carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleska, Scott [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Davidson, Eric [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Finzi, Adrien [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Wehr, Richdard [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Moorcroft, Paul [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    1. Objectives This project combines automated in situ observations of the isotopologues of CO2 with root observations, novel experimental manipulations of belowground processes, and isotope-enabled ecosystem modeling to investigate mechanisms of below- vs. aboveground carbon sequestration at the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurements Site (EMS). The proposed objectives, which have now been largely accomplished, include: A. Partitioning of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) into photosynthesis and respiration using long-term continuous observations of the isotopic composition of NEE, and analysis of their dynamics ; B. Investigation of the influence of vegetation phenology on the timing and magnitude of carbon allocated belowground using measurements of root growth and indices of belowground autotrophic vs. heterotrophic respiration (via trenched plots and isotope measurements); C. Testing whether plant allocation of carbon belowground stimulates the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter, using in situ rhizosphere simulation experiments wherein realistic quantities of artificial isotopically-labeled exudates are released into the soil; and D. Synthesis and interpretation of the above data using the Ecosystem Demography Model 2 (ED2). 2. Highlights Accomplishments: • Our isotopic eddy flux record has completed its 5th full year and has been used to independently estimate ecosystem-scale respiration and photosynthesis. • Soil surface chamber isotopic flux measurements were carried out during three growing seasons, in conjunction with a trenching manipulation. Key findings to date (listed by objective): A. Partitioning of Net Ecosystem Exchange: 1. Ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night—the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light (the “Kok effect”) at the ecosystem scale. 2. Because it neglects the Kok effect, the standard NEE partitioning approach overestimates ecosystem photosynthesis (by ~25%) and

  14. Potential for CO2 sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Schreurs, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, Daan; Pagnier, H.; Bergen, F. van; Wolf, K.-H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using CO2 for the enhanced production of coal bed methane (ECBM) in the Netherlands. This concept could lead to both CO2 storage by adsorbing CO2 in deep coal layers that are not suitable for mining, as well as production of methane. For every two molecules of CO2 injected, roughly one molecule of methane is produced. The work included an investigation of the potential CBM reserves in the Dutch underground and the related CO2 s...

  15. Second generation CO2 FEP analysis: Cassifcarbon sequestration scenario identification framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yavuz, F.T.; Tilburg, T. van; Pagnier, H.

    2008-01-01

    A novel scenario analysis framework has been created, called Carbon Sequestration Scenario Identification Framework (CASSIF). This framework addresses containment performance defined by the three major categories: well, fault and seal integrity. The relevant factors that influence the integrity are

  16. Evaluation of the CO2 sequestration capacity for coal fly ash using a flow-through column reactor under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Ho Young; Ahn, Joon-Hoon; Jo, Hwanju

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A conceptual in-situ mineral carbonation method using a coal ash pond is proposed. ► CO 2 uptake occurred by carbonation reaction of CO 2 with Ca 2+ ions from coal fly ash. ► The CO 2 sequestration capacity was affected by the solid dosage. ► Seawater can be used as a solvent for mineral carbonation of coal fly ash. - Abstract: An in-situ CO 2 sequestration method using coal ash ponds located in coastal regions is proposed. The CO 2 sequestration capacity of coal fly ash (CFA) by mineral carbonation was evaluated in a flow-through column reactor under various conditions (solid dosage: 100–330 g/L, CO 2 flow rate: 20–80 mL/min, solvent type: deionized (DI) water, 1 M NH 4 Cl solution, and seawater). The CO 2 sequestration tests were conducted on CFA slurries using flow-through column reactors to simulate more realistic flow-through conditions. The CO 2 sequestration capacity increased when the solid dosage was increased, whereas it was affected insignificantly by the CO 2 flow rate. A 1 M NH 4 Cl solution was the most effective solvent, but it was not significantly different from DI water or seawater. The CO 2 sequestration capacity of CFA under the flow-through conditions was approximately 0.019 g CO 2 /g CFA under the test conditions (solid dosage: 333 g/L, CO 2 flow rate: 40 mL/min, and solvent: seawater).

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Nanoparticle Transport in Multiphase Flows in Porous Media: CO2 Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2012-09-03

    Geological storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in deep saline aquifers has recently received tremendous attention in the scientific literature. Injected CO2 plume buoyantly accumulates at the top part of the deep aquifer under a sealing cap rock, and some concern that the high-pressure CO2 could breach the seal rock. However, CO2 will diffuse into the brine underneath and generate a slightly denser fluid that may induce instability and convective mixing. Onset times of instability and convective mixing performance depend on the physical properties of the rock and fluids, such as permeability and density contrast. The novel idea is to adding nanoparticles to the injected CO2 to increase density contrast between the CO2-rich brine and the underlying resident brine and, consequently, decrease onset time of instability and increase convective mixing. As far as it goes, only few works address the issues related to mathematical and numerical modeling aspects of the nanoparticles transport phenomena in CO2 storages. In the current work, we will present mathematical models to describe the nanoparticles transport carried by injected CO2 in porous media. Buoyancy and capillary forces as well as Brownian diffusion are important to be considered in the model. IMplicit Pressure Explicit Saturation-Concentration (IMPESC) scheme is used and a numerical simulator is developed to simulate the nanoparticles transport in CO2 storages.

  18. Characterizing Microbial Diversity and Function in Natural Subsurface CO2 Reservoir Systems for Applied Use in Geologic Carbon Sequestration Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, A.; Thompson, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The injection of CO2 into geological formations at quantities necessary to significantly reduce CO2 emissions will represent an environmental perturbation on a continental scale. The extent to which biological processes may play a role in the fate and transport of CO2 injected into geological formations has remained an open question due to the fact that at temperatures and pressures associated with reservoirs targeted for sequestration CO2 exists as a supercritical fluid (scCO2), which has generally been regarded as a sterilizing agent. Natural subsurface accumulations of CO2 serve as an excellent analogue for studying the long-term effects, implications and benefits of CO2 capture and storage (CCS). While several geologic formations bearing significant volumes of nearly pure scCO2 phases have been identified in the western United States, no study has attempted to characterize the microbial community present in these systems. Because the CO2 in the region is thought to have first accumulated millions of years ago, it is reasonable to assume that native microbial populations have undergone extensive and unique physiological and behavioral adaptations to adjust to the exceedingly high scCO2 content. Our study focuses on the microbial communities associated with the dolomite limestone McElmo Dome scCO2 Field in the Colorado Plateau region, approximately 1,000 m below the surface. Fluid samples were collected from 10 wells at an industrial CO2 production facility outside Cortez, CO. Subsamples preserved on site in 3.7% formaldehyde were treated in the lab with Syto 9 green-fluorescent nucleic acid stain, revealing 3.2E6 to 1.4E8 microbial cells per liter of produced fluid and 8.0E9 cells per liter of local pond water used in well drilling fluids. Extracted DNAs from sterivex 0.22 um filters containing 20 L of sample biomass were used as templates for PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. 16S rRNA amplicons from these samples were cloned, sequenced and subjected to microbial

  19. Comprehensive analysis of pipeline transportation systems for CO2 sequestration. Thermodynamics and safety problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Rusin, Andrzej; Majkut, Mirosław; Rulik, Sebastian; Stolecka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive analysis of the efficiency and safety strategies of transport CO 2 . • Selection of safety zones around pipelines transporting CO 2 . • Optimization of CO 2 pipeline transportation conditions. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze CO 2 compression and transportation processes with safety issues for post-combustion CO 2 capture applications for basic technological concepts of a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Four various types of compressors including a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, an integrally geared centrifugal compressor, a supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines were used. This study emphasizes that total compression power is a strong function of the thermodynamic process and is not only determined by the compressor efficiency. The compressor increases the CO 2 pressure from normal pressure to critical pressure and the boosting pump continues to increase the pressure to the required pressure for the pipeline inlet. Another problem analyzed in this study is the transport of CO 2 by pipeline from the compressor outlet site to the disposal site under heat transfer conditions. Simulations were made to determine maximum safe pipeline distance to subsequent booster stations depending on inlet pressure, environmental temperature, the thermal insulation thickness and the ground level heat transfer conditions. From the point of view of environmental protection, the most important problem is to identify the hazards which indirectly affect CO 2 transportation in a strict and reliable manner. This identification is essential for effective hazard management. A failure of pipelines is usually caused by corrosion, material defects, ground movement or third party interference. After the rupture of the pipeline transporting liquid CO 2 , a large pressure drop will occur. The pressure will continue to fall until the liquid becomes a mixture of saturated vapour/liquid. In the vicinity of the

  20. A rigorous mechanistic model for predicting gas hydrate formation kinetics: The case of CO2 recovery and sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZareNezhad, Bahman; Mottahedin, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A mechanistic model for predicting gas hydrate formation kinetics is presented. ► A secondary nucleation rate model is proposed for the first time. ► Crystal–crystal collisions and crystal–impeller collisions are distinguished. ► Simultaneous determination of nucleation and growth kinetics are established. ► Important for design of gas hydrate based energy storage and CO 2 recovery systems. - Abstract: A rigorous mechanistic model for predicting gas hydrate formation crystallization kinetics is presented and the special case of CO 2 gas hydrate formation regarding CO 2 recovery and sequestration processes has been investigated by using the proposed model. A physical model for prediction of secondary nucleation rate is proposed for the first time and the formation rates of secondary nuclei by crystal–crystal collisions and crystal–impeller collisions are formulated. The objective functions for simultaneous determination of nucleation and growth kinetics are presented and a theoretical framework for predicting the dynamic behavior of gas hydrate formation is presented. Predicted time variations of CO 2 content, total number and surface area of produced hydrate crystals are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The proposed approach can have considerable application for design of gas hydrate converters regarding energy storage and CO 2 recovery processes.

  1. Carbon dioxide sequestration: Modeling the diffusive and convective transport under a CO2 cap

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca; Sun, Shuyu

    2012-01-01

    of low permeability. CO2 from this ‘capped' region diffuses into the fluid underlying it, and the resulting CO2-fluid mixture increases in density. This increase in density leads to gravity-driven convection. Accordingly, diffusive-convective transport

  2. Experimental observation of permeability changes in dolomite at CO2 sequestration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutolo, Benjamin M; Luhmann, Andrew J; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Saar, Martin O; Seyfried, William E

    2014-02-18

    Injection of cool CO2 into geothermally warm carbonate reservoirs for storage or geothermal energy production may lower near-well temperature and lead to mass transfer along flow paths leading away from the well. To investigate this process, a dolomite core was subjected to a 650 h, high pressure, CO2 saturated, flow-through experiment. Permeability increased from 10(-15.9) to 10(-15.2) m(2) over the initial 216 h at 21 °C, decreased to 10(-16.2) m(2) over 289 h at 50 °C, largely due to thermally driven CO2 exsolution, and reached a final value of 10(-16.4) m(2) after 145 h at 100 °C due to continued exsolution and the onset of dolomite precipitation. Theoretical calculations show that CO2 exsolution results in a maximum pore space CO2 saturation of 0.5, and steady state relative permeabilities of CO2 and water on the order of 0.0065 and 0.1, respectively. Post-experiment imagery reveals matrix dissolution at low temperatures, and subsequent filling-in of flow passages at elevated temperature. Geochemical calculations indicate that reservoir fluids subjected to a thermal gradient may exsolve and precipitate up to 200 cm(3) CO2 and 1.5 cm(3) dolomite per kg of water, respectively, resulting in substantial porosity and permeability redistribution.

  3. Numerical modeling of pore-scale phenomena during CO2 sequestration in oceanic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Qinjun; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    Direct disposal of liquid CO 2 on the ocean floor is one of the approaches considered for sequestering CO 2 in order to reduce its concentration in the atmosphere. At oceanic depths deeper than approximately 3000 m, liquid CO 2 density is higher than the density of seawater and CO 2 is expected to sink and form a pool at the ocean floor. In addition to chemical reactions between CO 2 and seawater to form hydrate, fluid displacement is also expected to occur within the ocean floor sediments. In this work, we consider two different numerical models for hydrate formation at the pore scale. The first model consists of the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) method applied to a single-phase supersaturated solution in a constructed porous medium. The second model is based on the Invasion Percolation (IP) in pore networks, applied to two-phase immiscible displacement of seawater by liquid CO 2 . The pore-scale results are upscaled to obtain constitutive relations for porosity, both transverse and for the entire domain, and for permeability. We examine deposition and displacement patterns, and changes in porosity and permeability due to hydrate formation, and how these properties depend on various parameters including a parametric study of the effect of hydrate formation kinetics. According to the simulations, the depth of CO 2 invasion in the sediments is controlled by changes in the pore-scale porosity close to the hydrate formation front. (author)

  4. Geological Sequestration of CO2 by Hydrous Carbonate Formation with Reclaimed Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von L. Richards; Kent Peaslee; Jeffrey Smith

    2008-02-06

    The concept of this project is to develop a process that improves the kinetics of the hydrous carbonate formation reaction enabling steelmakers to directly remove CO2 from their furnace exhaust gas. It is proposed to bring the furnace exhaust stream containing CO2 in contact with reclaimed steelmaking slag in a reactor that has an environment near the unit activity of water resulting in the production of carbonates. The CO2 emissions from the plant would be reduced by the amount sequestered in the formation of carbonates. The main raw materials for the process are furnace exhaust gases and specially prepared slag.

  5. Towards the generic conceptual and numerical framework for the simulation of CO 2 sequestration in different types of georeservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görke, Uwe Jens; Taron, Joshua; Singh, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, conceptual and numerical modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes during CO 2 injection and storage is presented. The commonly used averaging procedure combining the Theory of Mixtures and the Concept of Volume Fractions serves as background for the complex porous...... mathematical models are of similar structure. Thus, the paper is mainly focused on a generic theoretical framework for the coupled processes under consideration. Within this context, CO 2 sequestration in georeservoirs of different type can be simulated (e.g., saline aquifers, (nearly) depleted hydrocarbon...... media approach presented here. Numerical models are based on a generalized formulation of the individual and overall balance equations for mass and momentum, as well as, in non-isothermal case, the energy balance equation. Within the framework of a standard Galerkin approach, the method of weighted...

  6. A novel CO2 sequestration system for environmentally producing hydrogen from fossil-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucker IV, W.

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbers are currently used to capture carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial flue gases in various fossil-fuel based energy production systems. MEA is a highly volatile, corrosive, physiologically toxic, and foul-smelling chemical that requires replacement after 1000 operational hours. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), a novel class of materials with negligible vapor pressures and potentiality as benign solvents, may be the ideal replacement for MEA. Ab initio computational modeling was used to investigate the molecular interactions of ILs with CO 2 . The energetic and thermodynamic parameters of the RTILs as CO 2 solvents are on par with MEA. As viable competitors to the present CO 2 separation technology, RTILs may economize the fossil-fuel decarbonization process with the ultimate aim of realizing a green hydrogen economy

  7. Preliminary reactive geochemical transport simulation study on CO2 geological sequestration at the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park Site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral trapping by precipitated carbonate minerals is one of critical mechanisms for successful long-term geological sequestration (CGS) in deep saline aquifer. Aquifer acidification induced by the increase of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) as the dissolution of injected CO2 may induce the dissolution of minerals and hinder the effectiveness of cap rock causing potential risk of CO2 leakage. Numerical assessments require capabilities to simulate complicated interactions of thermal, hydrological, geochemical multiphase processes. In this study, we utilized TOUGHREACT model to demonstrate a series of CGS simulations and assessments of (1) time evolution of aquifer responses, (2) migration distance and spatial distribution of CO2 plume, (3) effects of CO2-saline-mineral interactions, and (4) CO2 trapping components at the Changhua Costal Industrial Park (CCIP) Site, Taiwan. The CCIP Site is located at the Southern Taishi Basin with sloping and layered heterogeneous formations. At this preliminary phase, detailed information of mineralogical composition of reservoir formation and chemical composition of formation water are difficult to obtain. Mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks and chemical compositions of formation water for CGS in deep saline aquifer from literatures (e.g. Xu et al., 2004; Marini, 2006) were adopted. CGS simulations were assumed with a constant CO2 injection rate of 1 Mt/yr at the first 50 years. Hydrogeological settings included porosities of 0.103 for shale, 0.141 for interbedding sandstone and shale, and 0.179 for sandstone; initial pore pressure distributions of 24.5 MPa to 28.7 MPa, an ambient temperature of 70°C, and 0.5 M of NaCl in aqueous solution. Mineral compositions were modified from Xu et al. (2006) to include calcite (1.9 vol. % of solid), quartz (57.9 %), kaolinite (2.0 %), illite (1.0 %), oligoclase (19.8 %), Na-smectite (3.9 %), K-feldspar (8.2 %), chlorite (4.6 %), and hematite (0.5 %) and were

  8. Pilot inquiry on the perception of the CO2 capture and sequestration technology in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Ha-Duong; Mardon, G.

    2007-06-01

    We led a communication experiment on the perception of carbon capture and sequestration, an emergent climate change mitigation technology. We tested the sensitivity of the approbation level to the effects of 1/ Additional information on the risks and 2/ Semantics (Storage versus Sequestration). We collected about 600 answers using on-line self-selected survey. Results reveals that semantics can have a significant effect on the level of appreciation. The survey also shows the opinion is not firmly anchored, as an additional information has a significant effect. The information about risks led respondents to decrease their level of appreciation. Admittedly, this method does not allow to control well the sample biases. The results only allow to reject the hypothesis 'Semantic and additional information are neutral'. This pilot allowed us to elaborate a full-scale experiment, given to a representative sample of the French population in April 2007. (authors)

  9. Predictive modeling of CO2 sequestration in deep saline sandstone reservoirs: Impacts of geochemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balashov, Victor N.; Guthrie, George D.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Lopano, Christina L.; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Brantley, Susan L.

    2013-03-01

    One idea for mitigating the increase in fossil-fuel generated CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is to inject CO{sub 2} into subsurface saline sandstone reservoirs. To decide whether to try such sequestration at a globally significant scale will require the ability to predict the fate of injected CO{sub 2}. Thus, models are needed to predict the rates and extents of subsurface rock-water-gas interactions. Several reactive transport models for CO{sub 2} sequestration created in the last decade predicted sequestration in sandstone reservoirs of ~17 to ~90 kg CO{sub 2} m{sup -3|. To build confidence in such models, a baseline problem including rock + water chemistry is proposed as the basis for future modeling so that both the models and the parameterizations can be compared systematically. In addition, a reactive diffusion model is used to investigate the fate of injected supercritical CO{sub 2} fluid in the proposed baseline reservoir + brine system. In the baseline problem, injected CO{sub 2} is redistributed from the supercritical (SC) free phase by dissolution into pore brine and by formation of carbonates in the sandstone. The numerical transport model incorporates a full kinetic description of mineral-water reactions under the assumption that transport is by diffusion only. Sensitivity tests were also run to understand which mineral kinetics reactions are important for CO{sub 2} trapping. The diffusion transport model shows that for the first ~20 years after CO{sub 2} diffusion initiates, CO{sub 2} is mostly consumed by dissolution into the brine to form CO{sub 2,aq} (solubility trapping). From 20-200 years, both solubility and mineral trapping are important as calcite precipitation is driven by dissolution of oligoclase. From 200 to 1000 years, mineral trapping is the most important sequestration mechanism, as smectite dissolves and calcite precipitates. Beyond 2000 years, most trapping is due to formation of aqueous HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. Ninety-seven percent of the

  10. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-03-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  11. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-12-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  12. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Steven M. Masutani

    2001-08-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  13. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Takashi Nakamura

    2003-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  14. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-01-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report is the summary first year report covering the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  15. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-01-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO(sub 2) from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO(sub 2) sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO(sub 2) sequestration system

  16. Use of relational databases to evaluate regional petroleum accumulation, groundwater flow, and CO2 sequestration in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T.R.; Merriam, D.F.; Bartley, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale relational databases and geographic information system tools are used to integrate temperature, pressure, and water geo-chemistry data from numerous wells to better understand regional-scale geothermal and hydrogeological regimes of the lower Paleozoic aquifer systems in the mid-continent and to evaluate their potential for geologic CO2 sequestration. The lower Paleozoic (Cambrian to Mississippian) aquifer systems in Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma comprise one of the largest regional-scale saline aquifer systems in North America. Understanding hydrologic conditions and processes of these regional-scale aquifer systems provides insight to the evolution of the various sedimentary basins, migration of hydrocarbons out of the Anadarko and Arkoma basins, and the distribution of Arbuckle petroleum reservoirs across Kansas and provides a basis to evaluate CO2 sequestration potential. The Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphic units form a saline aquifer that is in hydrologic continuity with the freshwater recharge from the Ozark plateau and along the Nemaha anticline. The hydrologic continuity with areas of freshwater recharge provides an explanation for the apparent underpressure in the Arbuckle Group. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of CO2 on shallow groundwater chemistry: observations at a natural analog site and implications for carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fessenden, Julianna [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kanjorski, Nancy [NON LANL; Koning, Dan [NM BUREAU OF GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES; Pawar, Rajesh [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In a natural analog study of risks associated with carbon sequestration, impacts of CO{sub 2} on shallow groundwater quality have been measured in a sandstone aquifer in New Mexico, USA. Despite relatively high levels of dissolved CO{sub 2}, originating from depth and producing geysering at one well, pH depression and consequent trace element mobility are relatively minor effects due to the buffering capacity of the aquifer. However, local contamination due to influx of saline waters in a subset of wells is significant. Geochemical modeling of major ion concentrations suggests that high alkalinity and carbonate mineral dissolution buffers pH changes due to CO{sub 2} influx. Analysis oftrends in dissolved trace elements, chloride, and CO2 reveal no evidence of in-situ trace element mobilization. There is clear evidence, however, that As, U, and Pb are locally co-transported into the aquifer with CO{sub 2}-rich saline water. This study illustrates the role that local geochemical conditions will play in determining the effectiveness of monitoring strategies for CO{sub 2} leakage. For example, if buffering is significant, pH monitoring may not effectively detect CO2 leakage. This study also highlights potential complications that CO{sub 2}carrier fluids, such as saline waters, pose in monitoring impacts ofgeologic sequestration.

  18. Experimental investigation of geochemical and mineralogical effects of CO2 sequestration on flow characteristics of reservoir rock in deep saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnaweera, T. D.; Ranjith, P. G.; Perera, M. S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between injected CO2, brine, and rock during CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers alter their natural hydro-mechanical properties, affecting the safety, and efficiency of the sequestration process. This study aims to identify such interaction-induced mineralogical changes in aquifers, and in particular their impact on the reservoir rock’s flow characteristics. Sandstone samples were first exposed for 1.5 years to a mixture of brine and super-critical CO2 (scCO2), then tested to determine their altered geochemical and mineralogical properties. Changes caused uniquely by CO2 were identified by comparison with samples exposed over a similar period to either plain brine or brine saturated with N2. The results show that long-term reaction with CO2 causes a significant pH drop in the saline pore fluid, clearly due to carbonic acid (as dissolved CO2) in the brine. Free H+ ions released into the pore fluid alter the mineralogical structure of the rock formation, through the dissolution of minerals such as calcite, siderite, barite, and quartz. Long-term CO2 injection also creates a significant CO2 drying-out effect and crystals of salt (NaCl) precipitate in the system, further changing the pore structure. Such mineralogical alterations significantly affect the saline aquifer’s permeability, with important practical consequences for the sequestration process. PMID:26785912

  19. Comparison of Pore-scale CO2-water-glass System Wettability and Conventional Wettability Measurement on a Flat Plate for Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M.; Cao, S. C.; Jung, J.

    2017-12-01

    Goelogical CO2 sequestration (GCS) has been recently introduced as an effective method to mitigate carbon dioxide emission. CO2 from main producer sources is collected and then is injected underground formations layers to be stored for thousands to millions years. A safe and economical storage project depends on having an insight of trapping mechanisms, fluids dynamics, and interaction of fluids-rocks. Among different forces governing fluids mobility and distribution in GCS condition, capillary pressure is of importance, which, in turn, wettability (measured by contact angel (CA)) is the most controversial parameters affecting it. To explore the sources of discrepancy in the literature for CA measurement, we conducted a series of conventional captive bubble test on glass plates under high pressure condition. By introducing a shape factor, we concluded that surface imperfection can distort the results in such tests. Since the conventional methods of measuring the CA is affected by gravity and scale effect, we introduced a different technique to measure pore-scale CA inside a transparent glass microchip. Our method has the ability to consider pore sizes and simulate static and dynamics CA during dewetting and imbibition. Glass plates shows a water-wet behavior (CA 30° - 45°) by a conventional experiment consistent with literature. However, CA of miniature bubbles inside of the micromodel can have a weaker water-wet behavior (CA 55° - 69°). In a more realistic pore-scale condition, water- CO2 interface covers whole width of a pore throats. Under this condition, the receding CA, which is used for injectability and capillary breakthrough pressure, increases with decreasing pores size. On the other hand, advancing CA, which is important for residual or capillary trapping, does not show a correlation with throat sizes. Static CA measured in the pores during dewetting is lower than static CA on flat plate, but it is much higher when measured during imbibition implying

  20. A Hydromechanic-Electrokinetic Model for CO2 Sequestration in Geological Formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Khoury, R.I.N.; Talebian, M.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, a finite element model for simulating coupled hydromechanic and electrokinetic flow in a multiphase domain is outlined. The model describes CO2 flow in a deformed, unsaturated geological formation and its associated streaming potential flow. The governing field equations are

  1. FY 1999 survey report on the survey of the trend of the development of CO2 underground sequestration; 1999 nendo CO{sub 2} chichu kakuri gijutsu ni kansuru kaihatsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Paying attention to the CO2 sequestration technology, especially underground sequestration technology, this survey proposed a model case of the CO2 underground project including CO2 emission sources, means of transportation and CO2 injection equipment in terms of economical efficiency, environmental loads and technology in Japan and in other areas, and also studied projects on underground sequestration which are viable under CTI and other frameworks. The sequestration technology is classified into ocean sequestration, biological sequestration, underground sequestration and material sequestration. The underground sequestration is classified into the enhanced oil recovery, enhanced coal bed methane recovery, depleted oil/gas reservoir sequestration, and deep aquifer sequestration. The cost of sequestration is $100-300 per 1 ton of CO2, and is low in competitiveness at present. However, in the tertiary oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery, it costs nothing for CO2 reduction. As to the enhanced oil recovery, 66 projects were carried out in 1998 in the U.S. As to the enhanced coal bed methane recovery, projects in Canada, the U.S., and the U.K. As to the deep aquifer sequestration, one project in Norway. Concerning NEDO's project, there are great possibilities in aquifer and depleted oil/gas reservoir sequestration. (NEDO)

  2. Alteration of fault rocks by CO2-bearing fluids with implications for sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeyer, P. B.; Kirschner, D. L.; Solum, J. G.; Naruk, S.

    2011-12-01

    Carbonates and sulfates commonly occur as primary (diagenetic) pore cements and secondary fluid-mobilized veins within fault zones. Stable isotope analyses of calcite, formation fluid, and fault zone fluids can help elucidate the carbon sources and the extent of fluid-rock interaction within a particular reservoir. Introduction of CO2 bearing fluids into a reservoir/fault system can profoundly affect the overall fluid chemistry of the reservoir/fault system and may lead to the enhancement or degradation of porosity within the fault zone. The extent of precipitation and/or dissolution of minerals within a fault zone can ultimately influence the sealing properties of a fault. The Colorado Plateau contains a number of large carbon dioxide reservoirs some of which leak and some of which do not. Several normal faults within the Paradox Basin (SE Utah) dissect the Green River anticline giving rise to a series of footwall reservoirs with fault-dependent columns. Numerous CO2-charged springs and geysers are associated with these faults. This study seeks to identify regional sources and subsurface migration of CO2 to these reservoirs and the effect(s) faults have on trap performance. Data provided in this study include mineralogical, elemental, and stable isotope data for fault rocks, host rocks, and carbonate veins that come from two localities along one fault that locally sealed CO2. This fault is just tens of meters away from another normal fault that has leaked CO2-charged waters to the land surface for thousands of years. These analyses have been used to determine the source of carbon isotopes from sedimentary derived carbon and deeply sourced CO2. XRF and XRD data taken from several transects across the normal faults are consistent with mechanical mixing and fluid-assisted mass transfer processes within the fault zone. δ13C range from -6% to +10% (PDB); δ18O values range from +15% to +24% (VSMOW). Geochemical modeling software is used to model the alteration

  3. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashi Nakamura

    2004-11-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run further, pilot and full scale, carbon sequestration tests with actual propane combustion gases utilizing two different strains of microalgae. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns. Aquasearch also tested an alternative cell separation technology. University of Hawaii performed experiments at the Mera Pharmaceuticals facility in Kona in mid June to obtain data on the carbon venting rate out of the photobioreactor; gas venting rates were measured with an orifice flow meter and gas samples were collected for GC analysis to determine the carbon content of the vented gases.

  4. An experimental study on mineral sequestration of CO2 in basics and ultra basics rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufaud, F.

    2006-11-01

    The first part of the thesis is dedicated to dissolution data of siderite FeCO 3 and magnetite Fe 3 O 4 which have been monitored in situ on the FAME beamline of the european synchrotron radiation facility in Grenoble. Iron in solution close to siderite single crystals is shown to be divalent hydrated. The small size of the experimentally investigated volume of solution (200 *400 micrometer and 3 mm height) allowed to work with single crystals in well defined geometries. No specific interaction was observed between iron (II) and dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting that modelling siderite evolution under high CO 2 pressures by using CO 2 -less very acidic (pH 1-2) solutions is adequate. Using initial reaction rates, we get an activation energy for siderite dissolution of 62 kJ.mol -1 , consistent with existing literature data. Such a value is suggestive of a mineral/solution interface mechanism.. Data from this study and from literature are consistent over a temperature range 25 C - 125 C and a pH range pH 1-7 with an empirical law: pk = pH + E a /(ln(10)*RT(K)) - log(S/V) - 10,5 where E a = 62 kJ.mol -1 and S/V is the ratio between solid surface S and fluid volume V. A value of activation energy of 73.5 kJ.mol -1 is obtained in the case of magnetite, also consistent with mineral/solution processes. The second and major part of the thesis work is the realization of analogical experiments for simulating carbonation of basic and ultra basic minerals. Experiments were carried out on consolidated rock cores at 90 C and 280 bar of CO 2 (low temperature experiments) and on powders contained in metallic capsules at 400-500 C and 1000-1700 bars of CO 2 (high temperature experiments). The rate of mineral storage of CO 2 was defined as the molar ratio of solid carbonate formed over total CO 2 injected. It is of about 1% in three months in low temperature experiments whereas it reaches several tens of percents per hour in high temperature experiments. In all cases

  5. Direct gas-solid carbonation kinetics of steel slag and the contribution to in situ sequestration of flue gas CO(2) in steel-making plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sicong; Jiang, Jianguo; Chen, Xuejing; Yan, Feng; Li, Kaimin

    2013-12-01

    Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag under various operational conditions was investigated to determine the sequestration of the flue gas CO2 . X-ray diffraction analysis of steel slag revealed the existence of portlandite, which provided a maximum theoretical CO2 sequestration potential of 159.4 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) as calculated by the reference intensity ratio method. The carbonation reaction occurred through a fast kinetically controlled stage with an activation energy of 21.29 kJ mol(-1) , followed by 10(3) orders of magnitude slower diffusion-controlled stage with an activation energy of 49.54 kJ mol(-1) , which could be represented by a first-order reaction kinetic equation and the Ginstling equation, respectively. Temperature, CO2 concentration, and the presence of SO2 impacted on the carbonation conversion of steel slag through their direct and definite influence on the rate constants. Temperature was the most important factor influencing the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag in terms of both the carbonation conversion and reaction rate. CO2 concentration had a definite influence on the carbonation rate during the kinetically controlled stage, and the presence of SO2 at typical flue gas concentrations enhanced the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag. Carbonation conversions between 49.5 % and 55.5 % were achieved in a typical flue gas at 600 °C, with the maximum CO2 sequestration amount generating 88.5 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) . Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag showed a rapid CO2 sequestration rate, high CO2 sequestration amounts, low raw-material costs, and a large potential for waste heat utilization, which is promising for in situ carbon capture and sequestration in the steel industry. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  7. Pre-stack estimation of time-lapse seismic velocity changes : an example from the Sleipner CO2-sequestration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, A.; Landro, M.; Ghaderi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is being injected into a shallow sand formation at around a 1,000 metre depth at the Sleipner Field located in the North Sea. It is expected that the CO 2 injected in the bottom of the formation, will form a plume consisting of CO 2 accumulating in thin lenses during migration up through the reservoir. Several studies have been published using stacked seismic data from 1994, 1999, 2001 and 2002. A thorough analysis of post-stack seismic data from the Sleipner CO2-Sequestration Pilot Project was conducted. Interpretation of seismic data is usually done on post-stack data. For a given subsurface reflection point, seismic data are acquired for various incidence angles, typically 40 angles. These 40 seismic signals are stacked together in order to reduce noise. The term pre-stack refers to seismic data prior to this step. For hydrocarbon-related 4-dimensional seismic studies, travel time shift estimations have been used. This paper compared pre-stack and post-stack estimation of average velocity changes based on measured 4-dimensional travel time shifts. It is more practical to compare estimated velocity changes than the actual travel time changes, since the time shifts vary with offset for pre-stack time-lapse seismic analysis. It was concluded that the pre-stack method gives smaller velocity changes when estimated between two key horizons. Therefore, pre-stack travel time analysis in addition to conventional post-stack analysis is recommended. 6 refs., 12 figs

  8. Shale-Gas Experience as an Analog for Potential Wellbore Integrity Issues in CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, James W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simpson, Wendy S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ziock, Hans-Joachim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Shale-gas development in Pennsylvania since 2003 has resulted in about 19 documented cases of methane migration from the deep subsurface (7,0000) to drinking water aquifers, soils, domestic water wells, and buildings, including one explosion. In all documented cases, the methane leakage was due to inadequate wellbore integrity, possibly aggravated by hydrofracking. The leakage of methane is instructive on the potential for CO{sub 2} leakage from sequestration operations. Although there are important differences between the two systems, both involve migrating, buoyant gas with wells being a primary leakage pathway. The shale-gas experience demonstrates that gas migration from faulty wells can be rapid and can have significant impacts on water quality and human health and safety. Approximately 1.4% of the 2,200 wells drilled into Pennsylvania's Marcellus Formation for shale gas have been implicated in methane leakage. These have resulted in damage to over 30 domestic water supplies and have required significant remediation via well repair and homeowner compensation. The majority of the wellbore integrity problems are a result of over-pressurization of the wells, meaning that high-pressure gas has migrated into an improperly protected wellbore annulus. The pressurized gas leaks from the wellbore into the shallow subsurface, contaminating drinking water or entering structures. The effects are localized to a few thousands of feet to perhaps two-three miles. The degree of mixing between the drinking water and methane is sufficient that significant chemical impacts are created in terms of elevated Fe and Mn and the formation of black precipitates (metal sulfides) as well as effervescing in tap water. Thus it appears likely that leaking CO{sub 2} could also result in deteriorated water quality by a similar mixing process. The problems in Pennsylvania highlight the critical importance of obtaining background data on water quality as well as on problems associated with

  9. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. C.L. Senior

    2001-03-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period from 1 October to 31 December 2000. During this period planning of chemostat experiments at Aquasearch was initiated. These experiments will be used to select microalgae for the photobioreactor demonstrations. An initial survey of techniques for removing CO{sub 2} from coal-fired flue gas was begun. Chemical adsorption using MEA is the most mature technology and looks to be the most economically viable in the near future.

  10. Characterization of the Helderberg Group as a geologic seal for CO 2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Avary, K.L.; Carter, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership recognizes that both the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone and the Silurian Salina Group offer potential for subsurface carbon dioxide storage in northern West Virginia. The Silurian-Devonian Helderberg Group lies stratigraphically between these two units, and consequendy, its potential as a geologic seal must be evaluated. Predominantly a carbonate interval with minor interbedded siliciclastics and chert, the Helderberg Group was deposited in an ancient epeiric sea. Although most previous investigations of this unit have concentrated on outcrops in eastern West Virginia, new information is available from an injection well drilled along the Ohio River at First Energy's R. E. Burger electric power plant near Shadyside, Ohio. Geophysical, seismic, and core data from this well have been combined with existing outcrop information to evaluate the Helderberg Group's potential as a seal. The data collected suggest that only secondary porosity remains, and permeability, if it exists, most likely occurs along faults or within fractures. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  11. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  12. Fundamentals of carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR): a supporting document of the assessment methodology for hydrocarbon recovery using CO2-EOR associated with carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide basic technical information regarding the CO2-EOR process, which is at the core of the assessment methodology, to estimate the technically recoverable oil within the fields of the identified sedimentary basins of the United States. Emphasis is on CO2-EOR because this is currently one technology being considered as an ultimate long-term geologic storage solution for CO2 owing to its economic profitability from incremental oil production offsetting the cost of carbon sequestration.

  13. Performance evaluation of a green process for microalgal CO2 sequestration in closed photobioreactor using flue gas generated in-situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geetanjali; Karemore, Ankush; Dash, Sukanta Kumar; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, carbon-dioxide capture from in situ generated flue gas was carried out using Chlorella sp. in bubble column photobioreactors to develop a cost effective process for concomitant carbon sequestration and biomass production. Firstly, a comparative analysis of CO2 sequestration with varying concentrations of CO2 in air-CO2 and air-flue gas mixtures was performed. Chlorella sp. was found to be tolerant to 5% CO2 concentration. Subsequently, inhibitory effect of pure flue gas was minimized using various strategies like use of high initial cell density and photobioreactors in series. The final biofixation efficiency was improved by 54% using the adopted strategies. Further, sequestered microalgal biomass was analyzed for various biochemical constituents for their use in food, feed or biofuel applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flow regime analysis for fluid injection into a confined aquifer: implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Zheng, Z.; Celia, M. A.; Stone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection into a confined saline aquifer may be modeled as an axisymmetric two-phase flow problem. Assuming the two fluids segregate in the vertical direction due to strong buoyancy, and neglecting capillary pressure and miscibility, the lubrication approximation leads to a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors in the system are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of the displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ , the gravity number, which represents the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. Four different analytical solutions can be derived as the asymptotic approximations, representing specific values of the parameter pairs. The four solutions correspond to: (1) Γ 1; and (4) Γ >> 1, any M values. The first two of these solutions are new, while the third corresponds to the solution of Nordbotten and Celia (2006) for confined injections and the fourth corresponds to the solution of (Lyle et al., 2005) for gravity currents in an unconfined aquifer. Overall, the various axisymmetric flows can be summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime (Fig. 1). Data from a number of CO2 injection sites around the world can be used to compute the two dimensionless groups Γ and M associated with each injection. When plotted on the regime diagram, these values show the flow behavior for each injection and how the values vary from site to site. For all the CO2 injections, M is always larger than 1, while Γ can range from 0.01 up to 100. The pairs of (Γ, M) with lower Γ values correspond to solution (3), while the ones with higher Γ values can move up to the intermediate regime and the flow regime for solution (4). The higher values of Γ correspond to pilot-scale injections with low injection rates; most industrial-scale injection

  15. Direct Measurement of Static and Dynamic Contact Angles Using a Random Micromodel Considering Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pore-level two-phase fluids flow mechanism needs to be understood for geological CO2 sequestration as a solution to mitigate anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide. Capillary pressure at the interface of water–CO2 influences CO2 injectability, capacity, and safety of the storage system. Wettability usually measured by contact angle is always a major uncertainty source among important parameters affecting capillary pressure. The contact angle is mostly determined on a flat surface as a representative of the rock surface. However, a simple and precise method for determining in situ contact angle at pore-scale is needed to simulate fluids flow in porous media. Recent progresses in X-ray tomography technique has provided a robust way to measure in situ contact angle of rocks. However, slow imaging and complicated image processing make it impossible to measure dynamic contact angle. In the present paper, a series of static and dynamic contact angles as well as contact angles on flat surface were measured inside a micromodel with random pattern of channels under high pressure condition. Our results showed a wide range of pore-scale contact angles, implying complexity of the pore-scale contact angle even in a highly smooth and chemically homogenous glass micromodel. Receding contact angle (RCA showed more reproducibility compared to advancing contact angle (ACA and static contact angle (SCA for repeating tests and during both drainage and imbibition. With decreasing pore size, RCA was increased. The hysteresis of the dynamic contact angle (ACA–RCA was higher at pressure of one megapascal in comparison with that at eight megapascals. The CO2 bubble had higher mobility at higher depths due to lower hysteresis which is unfavorable. CO2 bubbles resting on the flat surface of the micromodel channel showed a wide range of contact angles. They were much higher than reported contact angle values observed with sessile drop or captive bubble tests on a

  16. Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rogers

    2011-12-31

    The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume

  17. Deriving Geomechanical Constraints from Microseismic Monitoring Demonstrated with Data from the Decatur CO2 Sequestration Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz-Allmann, B. P.; Oye, V.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of induced and triggered microseismicity is of increasing concern to the general public. The underlying human causes are numerous and include hydrocarbon production and geological storage of CO2. The concerns of induced seismicity are the potential hazards from large seismic events and the creation of fluid pathways. However, microseismicity is also a unique tool to gather information about real-time changes in the subsurface, a fact generally ignored by the public. The ability to detect, locate and characterize microseismic events, provides a snapshot of the stress conditions within and around a geological reservoir. In addition, data on rapid stress changes (i.e. microseismic events) can be used as input to hydro-mechanical models, often used to map fluid propagation. In this study we investigate the impact of microseismic event location accuracy using surface seismic stations in addition to downhole geophones. Due to signal-to-noise conditions and the small magnitudes inherent in microseismicity, downhole systems detect significantly more events with better precision of phase arrival times than surface networks. However, downhole systems are often limited in their ability to obtain large enough observational apertures required for accurate locations. We therefore jointly locate the largest microseismic events using surface and downhole data. This requires careful evaluation in the weighting of input data when inverting for the event location. For the smaller events only observed on the downhole geophones, we define event clusters using waveform cross-correlation methods. We apply this methodology to microseismic data collected in the Illinois Basin-Decatur Project. A previous study revealed over 10,000 events detected by the downhole sensors. In our analysis, we include up to 12 surface sensors, installed by the USGS. The weighting scheme for this assembly of data needs to take into account significant uncertainties in the near-surface velocity

  18. Interaction of ice storms and management practices on current carbon sequestration in forests with potential mitigation under future CO2 atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather R. McCarthy; Ram Oren; Hyun-Seok Kim; Kurt H. Johnsen; Chris Maier; Seth G. Pritchard; Michael A. Davis

    2006-01-01

    Ice storms are disturbance events with potential impacts on carbon sequestration. Common forest management practices, such as fertilization and thinning, can change wood and stand properties and thus may change vulnerability to ice storm damage. At the same time, increasing atmospheric CO2 levels may also influence ice storm vulnerability. Here...

  19. Reduction of the greenhouse effect by geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO2 in basic rocks: bibliographic synthesis and possibilities in France. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, J.C.; Lachassagne, P.

    2004-01-01

    The report constitutes a first bibliographic study defining the environments the most adapted to the geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO 2 . For each environment the lithology and the rocks permeability and porosity are analyzed. Thus the possible rocks and deposits in France are presented. (A.L.B.)

  20. Borophene as a Promising Material for Charge-Modulated Switchable CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2017-06-14

    Ideal carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture materials for practical applications should bind CO 2 molecules neither too weakly to limit good loading kinetics nor too strongly to limit facile release. Although charge-modulated switchable CO 2 capture has been proposed to be a controllable, highly selective, and reversible CO 2 capture strategy, the development of a practical gas-adsorbent material remains a great challenge. In this study, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have examined the possibility of conductive borophene nanosheets as promising sorbent materials for charge-modulated switchable CO 2 capture. Our results reveal that the binding strength of CO 2 molecules on negatively charged borophene can be significantly enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At saturation CO 2 capture coverage, the negatively charged borophene achieves CO 2 capture capacities up to 6.73 × 10 14 cm -2 . In contrast to the other CO 2 capture methods, the CO 2 capture/release processes on negatively charged borophene are reversible with fast kinetics and can be easily controlled via switching on/off the charges carried by borophene nanosheets. Moreover, these negatively charged borophene nanosheets are highly selective for separating CO 2 from mixtures with CH 4 , H 2 , and/or N 2 . This theoretical exploration will provide helpful guidance for identifying experimentally feasible, controllable, highly selective, and high-capacity CO 2 capture materials with ideal thermodynamics and reversibility.

  1. Reactive Transport at the Pore Scale with Applications to the Dissolution of Carbonate Rocks for CO2 Sequestration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boek, E.; Gray, F.; Welch, N.; Shah, S.; Crawshaw, J.

    2014-12-01

    In CO2 sequestration operations, CO2 injected into a brine aquifer dissolves in the liquid to create an acidic solution. This may result in dissolution of the mineral grains in the porous medium. Experimentally, it is hard to investigate this process at the pore scale. Therefore we develop a new hybrid particle simulation algorithm to study the dissolution of solid objects in a laminar flow field, as encountered in porous media flow situations. First, we calculate the flow field using a multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm implemented on GPUs, which demonstrates a very efficient use of the GPU device and a considerable performance increase over CPU calculations. Second, using a stochastic particle approach, we solve the advection-diffusion equation for a single reactive species and dissolve solid voxels according to our reaction model. To validate our simulation, we first calculate the dissolution of a solid sphere as a function of time under quiescent conditions. We compare with the analytical solution for this problem [1] and find good agreement. Then we consider the dissolution of a solid sphere in a laminar flow field and observe a significant change in the sphericity with time due to the coupled dissolution - flow process. Second, we calculate the dissolution of a cylinder in channel flow in direct comparison with corresponding dissolution experiments. We discuss the evolution of the shape and dissolution rate. Finally, we calculate the dissolution of carbonate rock samples at the pore scale in direct comparison with micro-CT experiments. This work builds on our recent research on calculation of multi-phase flow [2], [3] and hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular propagator distributions for solute transport in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media using LB simulations [4]. It turns out that the hybrid simulation model is a suitable tool to study reactive flow processes at the pore scale. This is of great importance for CO2 storage and

  2. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Heath, Jason E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert

    2013-09-01

    In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration, interfacial processes at the supercritical fluid-mineral interface will strongly affect core- and reservoir-scale hydrologic properties. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that water films will form on mineral surfaces in supercritical CO2, but will be thinner than those that form in vadose zone environments at any given matric potential. The theoretical model presented here allows assessment of water saturation as a function of matric potential, a critical step for evaluating relative permeabilities the CO2 sequestration environment. The experimental water adsorption studies, using Quartz Crystal Microbalance and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy methods, confirm the major conclusions of the adsorption/condensation model. Additional data provided by the FTIR study is that CO2 intercalation into clays, if it occurs, does not involve carbonate or bicarbonate formation, or significant restriction of CO2 mobility. We have shown that the water film that forms in supercritical CO2 is reactive with common rock-forming minerals, including albite, orthoclase, labradorite, and muscovite. The experimental data indicate that reactivity is a function of water film thickness; at an activity of water of 0.9, the greatest extent of reaction in scCO2 occurred in areas (step edges, surface pits) where capillary condensation thickened the water films. This suggests that dissolution/precipitation reactions may occur preferentially in small pores and pore throats, where it may have a disproportionately large effect on rock hydrologic properties. Finally, a theoretical model is presented here that describes the formation and movement of CO2 ganglia in porous media, allowing assessment of the effect of pore size and structural heterogeneity on capillary trapping efficiency. The model results also suggest possible engineering approaches for optimizing trapping capacity and for

  3. Separation and capture of CO2 from large stationary sources and sequestration in geological formations--coalbeds and deep saline aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Curt M; Strazisar, Brian R; Granite, Evan J; Hoffman, James S; Pennline, Henry W

    2003-06-01

    The topic of global warming as a result of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration is arguably the most important environmental issue that the world faces today. It is a global problem that will need to be solved on a global level. The link between anthropogenic emissions of CO2 with increased atmospheric CO2 levels and, in turn, with increased global temperatures has been well established and accepted by the world. International organizations such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have been formed to address this issue. Three options are being explored to stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and global temperatures without severely and negatively impacting standard of living: (1) increasing energy efficiency, (2) switching to less carbon-intensive sources of energy, and (3) carbon sequestration. To be successful, all three options must be used in concert. The third option is the subject of this review. Specifically, this review will cover the capture and geologic sequestration of CO2 generated from large point sources, namely fossil-fuel-fired power gasification plants. Sequestration of CO2 in geological formations is necessary to meet the President's Global Climate Change Initiative target of an 18% reduction in GHG intensity by 2012. Further, the best strategy to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO2 results from a multifaceted approach where sequestration of CO2 into geological formations is combined with increased efficiency in electric power generation and utilization, increased conservation, increased use of lower carbon-intensity fuels, and increased use of nuclear energy and renewables. This review covers the separation and capture of CO2 from both flue gas and fuel gas using wet scrubbing technologies, dry regenerable sorbents, membranes, cryogenics, pressure and temperature swing adsorption, and other advanced concepts. Existing

  4. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George Rizeq; Ravi Kumar; Janice West; Vitali Lissianski; Neil Widmer; Vladimir Zamansky

    2001-01-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE-EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H(sub 2) and sequestration-ready CO(sub 2) from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE-EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE-EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO(sub 2), and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H(sub 2) energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R and D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO(sub 2) and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the 1st quarterly progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program

  5. Mineral CO2 sequestration in basalts and ultra-basic rocks: impact of secondary silicated phases on the carbonation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissmann, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The formation of carbonates constitutes a stable option for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) geological sequestration, and is prone to play a significant role in reducing emissions of anthropic origin. However, our comprehension of the carbonation mechanism, as well as of the kinetics limitations encountered during this chemical reaction, remains poorly developed. Though there is a large number of studies focusing on the dissolution kinetics of basic silicates and on the precipitation of carbonates, few have inquired about the impact that the formation of non-carbonated secondary phases can have on these reaction's kinetics. It is the approach chosen here, as only solid knowledge of the global carbonation mechanism can make this process predictive and efficient. Experimental data on dissolution and carbonation have therefore been determined in batch reactors, on relevant minerals and rocks. Firstly, we studied the carbonation of olivine (a major phase within peridotites and minor within basalts) at 90 deg. C and under pCO 2 of 280 bars. The dissolution of San Carlos olivine (Mg 1.76 Fe 0.24 SiO 4 ) is slowed down by the formation of a surface silica gel, when the fluid reaches equilibrium with amorphous silica. The transport of species to the reactive medium becomes the limiting step of the process, slowing down the dissolution process of San Carlos olivine by 5 orders of magnitude. However, this passivation doesn't occur during the alteration of Ca-olivine (Ca 2 SiO 4 ), though a surface silica layer does form. This comparison suggests that it isn't the structure of the silicate but its chemical composition, which controls the transport properties through the interfacial layer. The second part explores the effects of organic ligands and of temperature variations on the formation of those phases. The addition of citrate at 90 deg. C increases the kinetics of San Carlos olivine by one order of magnitude, and allows the release of enough Mg in the aqueous medium to form

  6. Enhanced CO2 sequestration by a novel microalga: Scenedesmus obliquus SA1 isolated from bio-diversity hotspot region of Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Samarpita; Roy, Abhijit Sarma; Mohanty, Kaustubha; Ghoshal, Aloke K

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to isolate a high CO2 and temperature tolerant microalga capable of sequestering CO2 from flue gas. Microalga strain SA1 was isolated from a freshwater body of Assam and identified as Scenedesmus obliquus (KC733762). At 13.8±1.5% CO2 and 25 °C, maximum biomass (4.975±0.003 g L(-1)) and maximum CO2 fixation rate (252.883±0.361 mg L(-1) d(-1)) were obtained which were higher than most of the relevant studies. At elevated temperature (40 °C) and 13.8±1.5% CO2 maximum biomass (0.883±0.001 g L(-1)) was obtained. The carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and chlorophyll content of the CO2 treated SA1 were 30.87±0.64%, 9.48±1.65%, 33.04±0.46% and 6.03±0.19% respectively, which were higher than previous reports. Thus, SA1 could prove to be a potential candidate for CO2 sequestration from flue gas as well as for the production of value added substances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. History Matching and Parameter Estimation of Surface Deformation Data for a CO2 Sequestration Field Project Using Ensemble-Based Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Reza; Srinivasan, Sanjay; Wheeler, Mary

    2015-04-01

    The application of ensemble-based algorithms for history matching reservoir models has been steadily increasing over the past decade. However, the majority of implementations in the reservoir engineering have dealt only with production history matching. During geologic sequestration, the injection of large quantities of CO2 into the subsurface may alter the stress/strain field which in turn can lead to surface uplift or subsidence. Therefore, it is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict and quantify the uncertainty of CO2 plume movement for long-term, large-scale CO2 sequestration projects. In this work, we simulate and estimate the properties of a reservoir that is being used to store CO2 as part of the In Salah Capture and Storage project in Algeria. The CO2 is separated from produced natural gas and is re-injected into downdip aquifer portion of the field from three long horizontal wells. The field observation data includes ground surface deformations (uplift) measured using satellite-based radar (InSAR), injection well locations and CO2 injection rate histories provided by the operators. We implement variations of ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble smoother algorithms for assimilating both injection rate data as well as geomechanical observations (surface uplift) into reservoir model. The preliminary estimation results of horizontal permeability and material properties such as Young Modulus and Poisson Ratio are consistent with available measurements and previous studies in this field. Moreover, the existence of high-permeability channels (fractures) within the reservoir; especially in the regions around the injection wells are confirmed. This estimation results can be used to accurately and efficiently predict and quantify the uncertainty in the movement of CO2 plume.

  8. History matching and parameter estimation of surface deformation data for a CO2 sequestration field project using ensemble-based algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, J.; Tavakoli, R.; Min, B.; Srinivasan, S.; Wheeler, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Optimal management of subsurface processes requires the characterization of the uncertainty in reservoir description and reservoir performance prediction. The application of ensemble-based algorithms for history matching reservoir models has been steadily increasing over the past decade. However, the majority of implementations in the reservoir engineering have dealt only with production history matching. During geologic sequestration, the injection of large quantities of CO2 into the subsurface may alter the stress/strain field which in turn can lead to surface uplift or subsidence. Therefore, it is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict and quantify the uncertainty of CO2 plume movement for long-term, large-scale CO2 sequestration projects. In this work, we simulate and estimate the properties of a reservoir that is being used to store CO2 as part of the In Salah Capture and Storage project in Algeria. The CO2 is separated from produced natural gas and is re-injected into downdip aquifer portion of the field from three long horizontal wells. The field observation data includes ground surface deformations (uplift) measured using satellite-based radar (InSAR), injection well locations and CO2 injection rate histories provided by the operators. We implement ensemble-based algorithms for assimilating both injection rate data as well as geomechanical observations (surface uplift) into reservoir model. The preliminary estimation results of horizontal permeability and material properties such as Young Modulus and Poisson Ratio are consistent with available measurements and previous studies in this field. Moreover, the existence of high-permeability channels/fractures within the reservoir; especially in the regions around the injection wells are confirmed. This estimation results can be used to accurately and efficiently predict and monitor the movement of CO2 plume.

  9. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Vladimir Zamansky; Linda Denton; Hana Loreth; Tomasz Wiltowski

    2001-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the third quarterly technical progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program

  10. Effect of Flow Direction on Relative Permeability Curves in Water/Gas Reservoir System: Implications in Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrauf Rasheed Adebayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gravity on vertical flow and fluids saturation, especially when flow is against gravity, is not often a subject of interest to researchers. This is because of the notion that flow in subsurface formations is usually in horizontal direction and that vertical flow is impossible or marginal because of the impermeable shales or silts overlying them. The density difference between two fluids (usually oil and water flowing in the porous media is also normally negligible; hence gravity influence is neglected. Capillarity is also often avoided in relative permeability measurements in order to satisfy some flow equations. These notions have guided most laboratory core flooding experiments to be conducted in horizontal flow orientation, and the data obtained are as good as what the experiments tend to mimic. However, gravity effect plays a major role in gas liquid systems such as CO2 sequestration and some types of enhanced oil recovery techniques, particularly those involving gases, where large density difference exists between the fluid pair. In such cases, laboratory experiments conducted to derive relative permeability curves should take into consideration gravity effects and capillarity. Previous studies attribute directional dependence of relative permeability and residual saturations to rock anisotropy. It is shown in this study that rock permeability, residual saturation, and relative permeability depend on the interplay between gravity, capillarity, and viscous forces and also the direction of fluid flow even when the rock is isotropic. Rock samples representing different lithology and wide range of permeabilities were investigated through unsteady-state experiments covering drainage and imbibition in both vertical and horizontal flow directions. The experiments were performed at very low flow rates to capture capillarity. The results obtained showed that, for each homogeneous rock and for the same flow path along the core length

  11. Electricity from fossil fuels without CO2 emissions: assessing the costs of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration in U.S. electricity markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T L; Keith, D W

    2001-10-01

    The decoupling of fossil-fueled electricity production from atmospheric CO2 emissions via CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) is increasingly regarded as an important means of mitigating climate change at a reasonable cost. Engineering analyses of CO2 mitigation typically compare the cost of electricity for a base generation technology to that for a similar plant with CO2 capture and then compute the carbon emissions mitigated per unit of cost. It can be hard to interpret mitigation cost estimates from this plant-level approach when a consistent base technology cannot be identified. In addition, neither engineering analyses nor general equilibrium models can capture the economics of plant dispatch. A realistic assessment of the costs of carbon sequestration as an emissions abatement strategy in the electric sector therefore requires a systems-level analysis. We discuss various frameworks for computing mitigation costs and introduce a simplified model of electric sector planning. Results from a "bottom-up" engineering-economic analysis for a representative U.S. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region illustrate how the penetration of CCS technologies and the dispatch of generating units vary with the price of carbon emissions and thereby determine the relationship between mitigation cost and emissions reduction.

  12. Single mode CO2 laser frequency modulation up to 350 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, W. R.; Peruso, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments on internal frequency modulation (FM) of a CO2 laser showed no limitation of FM by the linewidth. However, distortions in the form of strong enhancement of sideband amplitude arise for frequencies equal to the cavity resonant frequencies, most pronounced if the modulator is positioned near a cavity mirror.

  13. Understanding CO2 Plume Behavior and Basin-Scale Pressure Changes during Sequestration Projects through the use of Reservoir Fluid Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetaru, H.E.; Frailey, S.M.; Damico, J.; Mehnert, E.; Birkholzer, J.; Zhou, Q.; Jordan, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    Large scale geologic sequestration tests are in the planning stages around the world. The liability and safety issues of the migration of CO2 away from the primary injection site and/or reservoir are of significant concerns for these sequestration tests. Reservoir models for simulating single or multi-phase fluid flow are used to understand the migration of CO2 in the subsurface. These models can also help evaluate concerns related to brine migration and basin-scale pressure increases that occur due to the injection of additional fluid volumes into the subsurface. The current paper presents different modeling examples addressing these issues, ranging from simple geometric models to more complex reservoir fluid models with single-site and basin-scale applications. Simple geometric models assuming a homogeneous geologic reservoir and piston-like displacement have been used for understanding pressure changes and fluid migration around each CO2 storage site. These geometric models are useful only as broad approximations because they do not account for the variation in porosity, permeability, asymmetry of the reservoir, and dip of the beds. In addition, these simple models are not capable of predicting the interference between different injection sites within the same reservoir. A more realistic model of CO2 plume behavior can be produced using reservoir fluid models. Reservoir simulation of natural gas storage reservoirs in the Illinois Basin Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone suggest that reservoir heterogeneity will be an important factor for evaluating storage capacity. The Mt. Simon Sandstone is a thick sandstone that underlies many significant coal fired power plants (emitting at least 1 million tonnes per year) in the midwestern United States including the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio. The initial commercial sequestration sites are expected to inject 1 to 2 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Depending on the geologic structure and

  14. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the carbon dioxide gas hydrate formation kinetics at the onset of turbidity regarding CO2 capture and sequestration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZareNezhad, Bahman; Mottahedin, Mona; Varaminian, Farshad

    2013-01-01

    The carbon dioxide gas hydrate formation kinetics at the onset of turbidity is experimentally and theoretically investigated. It is shown that the time-dependent heterogeneous nucleation and growth kinetics are simultaneously governing the hydrate formation process at the onset of turbidity. A new approach is also presented for determination of gas hydrate-liquid interfacial tension. The CO 2 hydrate-liquid interfacial tension according to the suggested heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is found to be about 12.7 mJ/m 2 . The overall average absolute deviation between predicted and measured CO 2 molar consumption is about 0.61%, indicating the excellent accuracy of the proposed model for studying the hydrate-based CO 2 capture and sequestration processes over wide ranges of pressures and temperatures

  15. Coupled multiphase reactive flow and mineral dissolution-precipitation kinetics: Examples of long-term CO2 sequestration in Utsira Sand, Norway and Mt. Simon Formation, Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, G.; Lu, P.; Hu, B.; Zhu, C.

    2017-12-01

    : Calibration to seismic data for the uppermost layer and model sensitivity analysis. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 43, 233-246. 3Zhang, G., Lu, P., Zhang, Y., Wei, X., Zhu, C. (2015). Effects of rate law formulation on predicting CO2 sequestration in sandstone formations. International Journal of Energy Research, 39(14), 1890-1908.

  16. Reduced tillage and cover crops as a strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil organic carbon sequestration in dry Mediterranean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, María; Garcia-Franco, Noelia; de Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Martínez-Mena, María

    2016-04-01

    , respectively) than under CT treatment (399 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) in site 2. Tillage operations had a rapid but short-lived effect on soil CO2 efflux rates, with no significant influence on the annual soil CO2 emissions. The larger amounts of plant biomass incorporated into soil annually in the reduced tillage treatments compared to the conventional tillage treatment promoted soil aggregation and the physico-chemical soil organic carbon stabilization while soil CO2 emissions did not significantly increase. According to our results, reduced-tillage is strongly recommended as a beneficial SLM strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil carbon sequestration and stabilization in semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems.

  17. Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-10-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  18. Intensity Modulation Techniques for Continuous-Wave Lidar for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Obland, M. D.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.; Erxleben, W. H.; McGregor, D.; Dobler, J. T.; Pal, S.; O'Dell, C.

    2017-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America project are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the ASCENDS and ACT-America science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) and Linear Swept Frequency modulations to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that take advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques and provides very high (at sub-meter level) range resolution. We compare BPSK to linear swept frequency and introduce a new technique to eliminate sidelobes in situations from linear swept frequency where the SNR is high with results that rival BPSK. We also investigate the effects of non-linear modulators, which can in some circumstances degrade the orthogonality of the waveforms, and show how to avoid this. These techniques are used in a new data processing architecture written in

  19. Ancient and modern sites of natural CO2 leakage: Geochemistry and geochronology of Quaternary and modern travertine deposits on the Colorado Plateau, USA, and implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priewisch, A.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; McPherson, B. J.; Mozley, P.

    2013-12-01

    Travertine-precipitating springs and travertine deposits of the Colorado Plateau serve as natural analogues for evaluating potential leakage associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Extensive Quaternary and modern travertine deposits occur along the Jemez lineament and Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Arizona, and in the Paradox Basin in Utah, along the Little Grand Wash Fault and the Salt Wash Graben. These groundwater discharge deposits are interpreted to be sites of persistent and significant CO2 degassing along faults and above magmatic systems. Analysis of the geochemical and isotopic composition of U-series dated travertine deposits and modern travertine-precipitating waters allows evaluation of the flow paths of CO2-charged waters. Initial results from New Mexico and Arizona travertine deposits show characteristic rare earth element (REE) signatures for individual travertine deposits and yet generally overlap in concentrations of other trace elements such as Al, As, B, Ba, K, and Si. We report stable oxygen and carbon isotopes of the travertines in New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah. Different travertine deposits have different carbon-oxygen isotope variation patterns suggesting that these stable isotopes are tracers that have the ability to identify distinctive groundwater sources within and between spring groups based on the travertine record. Stable isotope analyses of travertine deposits in New Mexico and Arizona overlap substantially between deposits and cluster around -10‰ to -6‰ for δ18O and around 3.5‰ to 6.5‰ for δ13C. Travertine deposits in Utah show a distinctly different range of stable isotope values: δ18O values cluster around -14‰ to -10.5‰ and δ13C around 4.5‰ to 6.5‰. U-series dating of travertine deposits shows episodic travertine formation in New Mexico and Arizona over the last 700,000 years, and travertine accumulation over the last 400,000 years in Utah. We use U-series dating and volumetric

  20. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of the prediction technology for environmental effects of CO2 ocean sequestration. Ocean survey and development of the assessment technology for capacity of CO2 sequestration; 2000 nendo nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaiyo chosa oyobi CO2 kakuri noryoku hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Assuming the dissolution/sequestration of CO2 at the medium-depth sea area around Japan (depth: 1,000-2,000m), the development was being proceeded with of the assessment technology for capacity of CO2 ocean sequestration and the prediction technology of environmental effects at the point of CO2 discharge. In FY 2000, conducted were the ocean survey and the development of assessment technology for CO2 sequestration capacity. In the investigational study, the following three were carried out: 1) survey/observation of the flow field on the line of 165 degrees of east longitude, and acquisition of various data such as the distribution of carbonic acid base substances and the speed of carbon transport; 2) study of the amount of existence of organisms and kind/composition of the medium-depth plankton at the typical observation points; 3) test/experiment actually conducted in the sea area for the experimental equipment for CaCO3 dissolution experimental equipment for studying interactions between the CO2 and CaCO3 dissolved into the medium-depth sea. As to the development of the assessment technology, carried out were the heightening of accuracy of medium-depth ocean circulation models using the inverse method already developed and the estimation of the flow field using the observation data. At the same time, the estimation of the flow field, etc. were conducted using large circulation ocean models. (NEDO)

  2. Experimental study on the thrust modulation performance of powdered magnesium and CO2 bipropellant engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Hu, Chunbo; Zhu, Xiaofei; Hu, Jiaming; Li, Yue; Hu, Xu

    2018-06-01

    Powdered Mg and CO2 bipropellant engine providing a practical demonstration of in situ resource utilization (ISRU) for Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission seems to be feasible by current investigations. However, essential functions of the engine to satisfy the complicated ballistics requirements such as thrust modulation and multiple pulse have not been established yet. The aim of this experimental study is to evaluate the engine's thrust modulation feasibility and to investigate its thrust modulation characteristics. A powdered Mg and CO2 bipropellant engine construction aiming to achieve thrust modulation ability was proposed. A mass flow rate calibration experiment to evaluate the gas-solid mass flow rate regulating performance was conducted before fire tests. Fire test result shows that the engine achieved successful ignition as well as self-sustaining combustion; Thrust modulation of the engine is feasible, detail thrust estimating result of the test shows that maximum thrust is 135.91 N and the minimum is 5.65 N with a 22.11 thrust modulation ratio, moreover, the transportation period is quick and the thrust modulation ratio is adjustable. At the same time, the powder feed system reaches a two-step flow rate regulating with a modulation ratio of 4.5-5. What' more, caused by the uneven engine working conditions, there is an obvious difference in combustion efficiency value, maximum combustion efficiency of the powdered Mg and CO2 bipropellant engine is 80.20%.

  3. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in

  4. CO2 Capture Project-An Integrated, Collaborative Technology Development Project for Next Generation CO2 Separation, Capture and Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helen Kerr; Linda M. Curran

    2005-04-15

    -combustion De-carbonization (hydrogen fuel) technologies showed excellent results and may be able to meet the CCP's aggressive cost reduction targets for new-build plants. Chemical looping to produce oxygen for oxyfuel combustion shows real promise. Post-combustion technologies emerged as higher cost options that may only have niche roles. Storage, measurement, and verification studies suggest that geologic sequestration will be a safe form of long-term CO{sub 2} storage. Economic modeling shows that options to reduce costs by 50% exist. A rigorous methodology for technology evaluation was developed. Public acceptance and awareness were enhanced through extensive communication of results to the stakeholder community (scientific, NGO, policy, and general public). Two volumes of results have been published and are available to all. Well over 150 technical papers were produced. All funded studies for this phase of the CCP are complete. The results are summarized in this report and all final reports are presented in the attached appendices.

  5. Effects of freshwater Synechococcus sp. cyanobacteria pH buffering on CaCO3 precipitation: Implications for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Raul E.; Weber, Sebastian; Grimm, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a mixed-flow steady-state bio-reactor was designed to biomineralize CO 2 as a consequence of photosynthesis from active Synechococcus sp. Dissolved CO 2 , generated by constant air bubbling of inorganic and cyanobacteria stock solutions, was the only source of inorganic carbon. The release of hydroxide ion by cyanobacteria from photosynthesis maintained highly alkaline pH conditions. In the presence of Ca 2+ and carbonate species, this led to calcite supersaturation under steady state conditions. Ca 2+ remained constant throughout the experiments showing the presence of steady state conditions. Similarly, the Synechococcus sp. biomass concentration remained stable within uncertainty. A gradual pH decrease was observed for the highest Ca 2+ condition coinciding with the formation of CaCO 3 . The high degree of supersaturation, under steady-state conditions, contributed to the stabilization of calcite and maintained a constant driving force for the mineral nucleation and growth. For the highest Ca 2+ condition a fast crystal growth rate was consistent with rapid calcite precipitation as suggested further by affinity calculations. Although saturation state based kinetic precipitation models cannot accurately reflect the controls on crystal growth kinetics or reliably predict growth mechanisms, the relatively reaction orders obtained from modeling of calcite precipitation rates as function of decreasing carbonate concentration suggest that the precipitation occurred via surface-controlled rate determining reactions. These high reaction orders support in addition the hypothesis that crystal growth proceeded through complex surface controlled mechanisms. In conclusion, the steady state supersaturated conditions generated by a constant cyanobacteria biomass and metabolic activity strongly suggest that these microorganisms could be used for the development of efficient CO 2 sequestration methods in a controlled large-scale environment. - Highlights:

  6. Heterogeneity-enhanced gas phase formation in shallow aquifers during leakage of CO2-saturated water from geologic sequestration sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Lassen, Rune Nørbæk; Sakaki, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    sands. Soil moisture sensors were utilized to observe the formation of gas phase near the porous media interfaces. Results indicate that the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution can be successfully predicted through analysis of simple parameters, including the dissolved CO2......, it is important to understand the physical processes that CO2 will undergo as it moves through naturally heterogeneous porous media formations. Previous studies have shown that heterogeneity can enhance the evolution of gas phase CO2 in some cases, but the conditions under which this occurs have not yet been...... quantitatively defined, nor tested through laboratory experiments. This study quantitatively investigates the effects of geologic heterogeneity on the process of gas phase CO2 evolution in shallow aquifers through an extensive set of experiments conducted in a column that was packed with layers of various test...

  7. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D project on the industrial technology for the global environment. R and D of the prediction technology of environmental effects brought by CO2 ocean sequestration (Ocean survey and development of evaluation technology for CO2 sequestration ability); 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo NEDO seika hokokusho. Nisankatanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (Kaiyo chosa oyobi CO2 kakuri noryoku hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Assuming the melting and sequestration of CO2 at the intermediate depth of the sea area around Japan, study of evaluation technology of CO2 sequestration ability in ocean was studied, and the FY 1999 results were summed up. In the ocean survey, survey was conducted by ship (No.2 Hakurei-maru) mainly at typical observation points and traverse lines of long. 147 E and long. 155 E. In the survey, the following data were acquired: data on seawater density and chemical tracer, data on release of intermediate-depth/independent buoys, concentration distribution of carbonic acid base substances/nutrient salts/chlorophyll, data on the existing amount of marine organisms and primary production speed measurement experiment, data on experiment on CO2 on-board exposure to organisms in the intermediate depth of ocean, etc. In the measurement/analysis of the sediment particle flux amount, sediment traps were installed/recovered. Further, for the purpose of measuring the neutralizing effect of calcium carbonate, operation test on CaCO{sub 3} melting experimental equipment was conducted in the actual sea area. In the development of a model for evaluation of CO2 sequestration ability, carried out were the improvement of the model using the inverse method, study of the estimated accuracy using the ocean observation data, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Heterogeneity-enhanced gas phase formation in shallow aquifers during leakage of CO2-saturated water from geologic sequestration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Lassen, Rune N.; Sakaki, Toshihiro; Porter, Mark L.; Pawar, Rajesh J.; Jensen, Karsten H.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2014-12-01

    A primary concern for geologic carbon storage is the potential for leakage of stored carbon dioxide (CO2) into the shallow subsurface where it could degrade the quality of groundwater and surface water. In order to predict and mitigate the potentially negative impacts of CO2 leakage, it is important to understand the physical processes that CO2 will undergo as it moves through naturally heterogeneous porous media formations. Previous studies have shown that heterogeneity can enhance the evolution of gas phase CO2 in some cases, but the conditions under which this occurs have not yet been quantitatively defined, nor tested through laboratory experiments. This study quantitatively investigates the effects of geologic heterogeneity on the process of gas phase CO2 evolution in shallow aquifers through an extensive set of experiments conducted in a column that was packed with layers of various test sands. Soil moisture sensors were utilized to observe the formation of gas phase near the porous media interfaces. Results indicate that the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution can be successfully predicted through analysis of simple parameters, including the dissolved CO2 concentration in the flowing water, the distance between the heterogeneity and the leakage location, and some fundamental properties of the porous media. Results also show that interfaces where a less permeable material overlies a more permeable material affect gas phase evolution more significantly than interfaces with the opposite layering.

  9. Capillary pressure - saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine: Implications for capillary/residual trapping in carbonate reservoirs during geologic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    In geologic carbon sequestration (GCS), data on capillary pressure (Pc) - saturation (Sw) relations are routinely needed to appraise reservoir processes. Capillarity and its hysteresis have been often experimentally studied in oil-water, gas-water and three phase gas-oil-water systems, but fewer works have been reported on scCO2-water under in-situ reservoir conditions. Here, Pc-Sw relations of supercritical (sc) CO2 displacing brine, and brine rewetting the porous medium to trap scCO2 were studied to understand CO2 transport and trapping behavior in carbonate reservoirs under representative reservoir conditions. High-quality drainage and imbibition (and associated capillary pressure hysteresis) curves were measured under elevated temperature and pressure (45 ºC, 8.5 and 12 MPa) for scCO2-brine as well as at room temperature and pressure (23 ºC, 0.1 MPa) for air-brine in unconsolidated limestone and dolomite sand columns using newly developed semi-automated multistep outflow-inflow porous plate apparatus. Drainage and imbibition curves for scCO2-brine deviated from the universal scaling curves for hydrophilic interactions (with greater deviation under higher pressure) and shifted to lower Pc than predicted based on interfacial tension (IFT) changes. Augmented scaling incorporating differences in IFT and contact angle improved the scaling results but the scaled curves still did not converge onto the universal curves. Equilibrium residual trapping of the nonwetting phase was determined at Pc =0 during imbibition. The capillary-trapped amounts of scCO2 were significantly larger than for air. It is concluded that the deviations from the universal capillary scaling curves are caused by scCO2-induced wettability alteration, given the fact that pore geometry remained constant and IFT is well constrained. In-situ wettability alteration by reactive scCO2 is of critical importance and must be accounted for to achieve reliable predictions of CO2 behavior in GCS reservoirs.

  10. Plasma-assisted CO2 conversion: optimizing performance via microwave power modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britun, Nikolay; Silva, Tiago; Chen, Guoxing; Godfroid, Thomas; van der Mullen, Joost; Snyders, Rony

    2018-04-01

    Significant improvement in the energy efficiency of plasma-assisted CO2 conversion is achieved with applied power modulation in a surfaguide microwave discharge. The obtained values of CO2 conversion and energy efficiency are, respectively, 0.23 and 0.33 for a 0.95 CO2  +  0.05 N2 gas mixture. Analysis of the energy relaxation mechanisms shows that power modulation can potentially affect the vibrational-translational energy exchange in plasma. In our case, however, this mechanism does not play a major role, likely due to the low degree of plasma non-equilibrium in the considered pressure range. Instead, the gas residence time in the discharge active zone together with plasma pulse duration are found to be the main factors affecting the CO2 conversion efficiency at low plasma pulse repetition rates. This effect is confirmed experimentally by the in situ time-resolved two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence measurements of CO molecular density produced in the discharge as a result of CO2 decomposition.

  11. JOINT ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID POWER SUPPLY FOR LARGE SCALE RO-DESALINATION PLANT: WITH AND WITHOUT CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMAN A. TORA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi- objective optimization approach is introduced to define a hybrid power supply system for a large scale RO- desalination plant. The target is to integrate a number of locally available energy resources to generate the electricity demand of the RO- desalination plant with minimizing both the electricity generation cost and the greenhouse gas emissions whereby carbon dioxide sequestration may be an option. The considered energy resources and technologies are wind turbines, solar PV, combined cycles with natural gas turbines, combined cycles with coal gasification, pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization, and biomass combined heat and power CHP. These variable energy resources are investigated under different constraints on the renewable energy contribution. Likewise, the effect of carbon dioxide sequestration is included. Accordingly, five scenarios have been analyzed. Trade- offs between the minimum electricity generation cost and the minimum greenhouse gas emissions have been determined and represented in Pareto curves using the constraint method (. The results highlight that among the studied fossil fuel technologies, the integrated combined cycle natural gas turbines can provide considerable fraction of the needed power supply. Likewise, wind turbines are the most effective technology among renewable energy options. When CO2 sequestration applied, the costs increase and significant changes in the optimum combination of renewable energy resources have been monitored. In that case, solar PV starts to appreciably compete. The optimum mix of energy resources extends to include biomass CHP as well.

  12. Characterization of a metal resistant Pseudomonas sp. isolated from uranium mine for its potential in heavy metal (Ni2+, Co2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+) sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sangeeta; Sar, Pinaki

    2009-05-01

    Heavy metal sequestration by a multimetal resistant Pseudomonas strain isolated from a uranium mine was characterized for its potential application in metal bioremediation. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed phylogenetic relatedness of this isolate to Pseudomonas fluorescens. Metal uptake by this bacterium was monophasic, fast saturating, concentration and pH dependent with maximum loading of 1048 nmol Ni(2+) followed by 845 nmol Co(2+), 828 nmol Cu(2+) and 700 nmol Cd(2+)mg(-1) dry wt. Preferential metal deposition in cell envelope was confirmed by TEM and cell fractionation. FTIR spectroscopy and EDX analysis revealed a major role of carboxyl and phosphoryl groups along with a possible ion exchange mechanism in cation binding. Binary system demonstrated selective metal binding affinity in the order of Cu(2+)>Ni(2+)>Co(2+)>Cd(2+). A comparison with similar metal uptake reports considering live bacteria strongly indicated the superiority of this strain in metal sequestration, which could be useful for developing efficient metal removal system.

  13. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Nehrir, A. R.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 MeasurementsJoel F. Campbell1, Bing Lin1, Michael D. Obland1, Zhaoyan Liu1, Susan Kooi2, Tai-Fang Fan2, Amin R. Nehrir1, Byron Meadows1, Edward V. Browell31NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 2SSAI, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 3STARSS-II Affiliate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 AbstractGlobal and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America project are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the ASCENDS and ACT-America science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby minimizing bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new sub-meter hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. These techniques are used in a new data processing

  14. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2003-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and

  15. Application of Cutting-Edge 3D Seismic Attribute Technology to the Assessment of Geological Reservoirs for CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Liner; Jianjun Zeng; Po Geng Heather King Jintan Li; Jennifer Califf; John Seales

    2010-03-31

    The goals of this project were to develop innovative 3D seismic attribute technologies and workflows to assess the structural integrity and heterogeneity of subsurface reservoirs with potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Our specific objectives were to apply advanced seismic attributes to aide in quantifying reservoir properies and lateral continuity of CO{sub 2} sequestration targets. Our study area is the Dickman field in Ness County, Kansas, a type locality for the geology that will be encountered for CO{sub 2} sequestration projects from northern Oklahoma across the U.S. midcontent to Indiana and beyond. Since its discovery in 1962, the Dickman Field has produced about 1.7 million barrels of oil from porous Mississippian carbonates with a small structural closure at about 4400 ft drilling depth. Project data includes 3.3 square miles of 3D seismic data, 142 wells, with log, some core, and oil/water production data available. Only two wells penetrate the deep saline aquifer. Geological and seismic data were integrated to create a geological property model and a flow simulation grid. We systematically tested over a dozen seismic attributes, finding that curvature, SPICE, and ANT were particularly useful for mapping discontinuities in the data that likely indicated fracture trends. Our simulation results in the deep saline aquifer indicate two effective ways of reducing free CO{sub 2}: (a) injecting CO{sub 2} with brine water, and (b) horizontal well injection. A tuned combination of these methods can reduce the amount of free CO{sub 2} in the aquifer from over 50% to less than 10%.

  16. Inverse Modeling of Water-Rock-CO2 Batch Experiments: Potential Impacts on Groundwater Resources at Carbon Sequestration Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changbing; Dai, Zhenxue; Romanak, Katherine D; Hovorka, Susan D; Treviño, Ramón H

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a multicomponent geochemical model to interpret responses of water chemistry to introduction of CO2 into six water-rock batches with sedimentary samples collected from representative potable aquifers in the Gulf Coast area. The model simulated CO2 dissolution in groundwater, aqueous complexation, mineral reactions (dissolution/precipitation), and surface complexation on clay mineral surfaces. An inverse method was used to estimate mineral surface area, the key parameter for describing kinetic mineral reactions. Modeling results suggested that reductions in groundwater pH were more significant in the carbonate-poor aquifers than in the carbonate-rich aquifers, resulting in potential groundwater acidification. Modeled concentrations of major ions showed overall increasing trends, depending on mineralogy of the sediments, especially carbonate content. The geochemical model confirmed that mobilization of trace metals was caused likely by mineral dissolution and surface complexation on clay mineral surfaces. Although dissolved inorganic carbon and pH may be used as indicative parameters in potable aquifers, selection of geochemical parameters for CO2 leakage detection is site-specific and a stepwise procedure may be followed. A combined study of the geochemical models with the laboratory batch experiments improves our understanding of the mechanisms that dominate responses of water chemistry to CO2 leakage and also provides a frame of reference for designing monitoring strategy in potable aquifers.

  17. Up-scaling of a two-phase flow model including gravity effect in geological heterogeneous media: application to CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Tri-Dat

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the migration under gravity and capillarity effects of the supercritical CO 2 injected into a geological heterogeneous sequestration site. The simulations are performed with the code DuMux. Particularly, we consider the up-scaling, from the cell scale to the reservoir scale, of a two-phase (CO 2 -brine) flow model within a periodic stratified medium made up of horizontal low permeability barriers, continuous or discontinuous. The up-scaling is done by the two-scale asymptotic method. First, we consider perfectly layered media. An homogenized model is developed and validated by numerical simulation for different values of capillary number and the incident flux of CO 2 . The homogenization method is then applied to the case of a two-dimensional medium made up of discontinuous layers. Due to the gravity effect, the CO 2 accumulates under the low permeability layers, which leads to a non-standard local mathematical problem. This stratification is modeled using the gravity current approach. This approach is then extended to the case of semi-permeable strata taking into account the capillarity. The up-scaled model is compared with numerical simulations for different types of layers, with or without capillary pressure, and its limit of validity is discussed in each of these cases. The final part of this thesis is devoted to the study of the parallel computing performances of the code DuMux to simulate the injection and migration of CO 2 in three-dimensional heterogeneous media (layered periodic media, fluvial media and reservoir model SPE 10). (author) [fr

  18. Adjoint based optimal control of partially miscible two-phase flow in porous media with applications to CO2 sequestration in underground reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Simon, Moritz

    2014-11-14

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. With the target of optimizing CO2 sequestration in underground reservoirs, we investigate constrained optimal control problems with partially miscible two-phase flow in porous media. Our objective is to maximize the amount of trapped CO2 in an underground reservoir after a fixed period of CO2 injection, while time-dependent injection rates in multiple wells are used as control parameters. We describe the governing two-phase two-component Darcy flow PDE system, formulate the optimal control problem and derive the continuous adjoint equations. For the discretization we apply a variant of the so-called BOX method, a locally conservative control-volume FE method that we further stabilize by a periodic averaging feature to reduce oscillations. The timestep-wise Lagrange function of the control problem is implemented as a variational form in Sundance, a toolbox for rapid development of parallel FE simulations, which is part of the HPC software Trilinos. We discuss the BOX method and our implementation in Sundance. The MPI parallelized Sundance state and adjoint solvers are linked to the interior point optimization package IPOPT, using limited-memory BFGS updates for approximating second derivatives. Finally, we present and discuss different types of optimal control results.

  19. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  20. The influence of deep-seabed CO2 sequestration on small metazoan (meiofaunal) viability and community structure: final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thistle, D

    2008-09-30

    Since the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuel has produced carbon dioxide at an increasing rate. Present atmospheric concentration is about ~1.5 times the preindustrial level and is rising. Because carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, its increased concentration in the atmosphere is thought to be a cause of global warming. If so, the rate of global warming could be slowed if industrial carbon dioxide were not released into the atmosphere. One suggestion has been to sequester it in the deep ocean, but theory predicts that deep-sea species will be intolerant of the increased concentrations of carbon dioxide and the increased acidity it would cause. The aim of our research was to test for consequences of carbon dioxide sequestration on deep-sea, sediment-dwelling meiofauna. Recent technical advances allowed us to test for effects in situ at depths proposed for sequestration. The basic experimental unit was an open-topped container into which we pumped ~20 L of liquid carbon dioxide. The liquid carbon dioxide mixed with near-bottom sea water, which produced carbon dioxide-rich sea water that flowed out over the near-by seabed. We did 30-day experiments at several locations and with different numbers of carbon dioxide-filled containers. Harpacticoid copepods (Crustacea) were our test taxon. In an experiment we did during a previous grant period, we found that large numbers of individuals exposed to carbon dioxide-rich sea water had been killed (Thistle et al. 2004). During the present grant period, we analyzed the species-level data in greater detail and discovered that, although individuals of many species had been killed by exposure to carbon dioxide-rich sea water, individuals of some species had not (Thistle et al. 2005). This result suggests that seabed sequestration of carbon dioxide will not just reduce the abundance of the meiofauna but will change the composition of the community. In another experiment, we found that some harpacticoid species swim

  1. Relative permeabilities of supercritical CO2 and brine in carbon sequestration by a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian.-Fei.; He, S.; Zu, Y. Q.; Lamy-Chappuis, B.; Yardley, B. W. D.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the migration of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in realistic sandstone rocks under conditions of saline aquifers, with applications to the carbon geological storage, has been investigated by a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Firstly the digital images of sandstone rocks were reproduced utilizing the X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT), and high resolutions (up to 2.5 μm) were applied to the pore-scale LBM simulations. For the sake of numerical stability, the digital images were "cleaned" by closing the dead holes and removing the suspended particles in sandstone rocks. In addition, the effect of chemical reactions occurred in the carbonation process on the permeability was taken into account. For the wetting brine and non-wetting supercritical CO2 flows, they were treated as the immiscible fluids and were driven by pressure gradients in sandstone rocks. Relative permeabilities of brine and supercritical CO2 in sandstone rocks were estimated. Particularly the dynamic saturation was applied to improve the reliability of the calculations of the relative permeabilities. Moreover, the effects of the viscosity ratio of the two immiscible fluids and the resolution of digital images on the relative permeability were systematically investigated.

  2. Magnesium hydroxide extracted from a magnesium-rich mineral for CO2 sequestration in a gas-solid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Chung; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Hsiao, Ching-Ta; Teng, Hsisheng

    2008-04-15

    Magnesium hydroxide extracted from magnesium-bearing minerals is considered a promising agent for binding CO2 as a carbonate mineral in a gas-solid reaction. An efficient extraction route consisting of hydrothermal treatment on serpentine in HCl followed by NaOH titration for Mg(OH)2 precipitation was demonstrated. The extracted Mg(OH)2 powder had a mean crystal domain size as small as 12 nm and an apparent surface area of 54 m2/g. Under one atmosphere of 10 vol% CO2/N2, carbonation of the serpentine-derived Mg(OH)2 to 26% of the stoichiometric limit was achieved at 325 degrees C in 2 h; while carbonation of a commercially available Mg(OH)2, with a mean crystal domain size of 33 nm and an apparent surface area of 3.5 m2/g, reached only 9% of the stoichiometric limit. The amount of CO2 fixation was found to be inversely proportional to the crystal domain size of the Mg(OH)2 specimens. The experimental data strongly suggested that only a monolayer of carbonates was formed on the crystal domain boundary in the gas-solid reaction, with little penetration of the carbonates into the crystal domain.

  3. The Carbonation of Wollastonite: A Model Reaction to Test Natural and Biomimetic Catalysts for Enhanced CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Di Lorenzo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising strategies for the safe and permanent disposal of anthropogenic CO2 is its conversion into carbonate minerals via the carbonation of calcium and magnesium silicates. However, the mechanism of such a reaction is not well constrained, and its slow kinetics is a handicap for the implementation of silicate mineral carbonation as an effective method for CO2 capture and storage (CCS. Here, we studied the different steps of wollastonite (CaSiO3 carbonation (silicate dissolution → carbonate precipitation as a model CCS system for the screening of natural and biomimetic catalysts for this reaction. Tested catalysts included carbonic anhydrase (CA, a natural enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2(aq, and biomimetic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs. Our results show that dissolution is the rate-limiting step for wollastonite carbonation. The overall reaction progresses anisotropically along different [hkl] directions via a pseudomorphic interface-coupled dissolution–precipitation mechanism, leading to partial passivation via secondary surface precipitation of amorphous silica and calcite, which in both cases is anisotropic (i.e., (hkl-specific. CA accelerates the final carbonate precipitation step but hinders the overall carbonation of wollastonite. Remarkably, one of the tested Zr-based MOFs accelerates the dissolution of the silicate. The use of MOFs for enhanced silicate dissolution alone or in combination with other natural or biomimetic catalysts for accelerated carbonation could represent a potentially effective strategy for enhanced mineral CCS.

  4. Analytical solution for Joule-Thomson cooling during CO2 geo-sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, S.A.; Gluyas, J.G.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2010-05-21

    Mathematical tools are needed to screen out sites where Joule-Thomson cooling is a prohibitive factor for CO{sub 2} geo-sequestration and to design approaches to mitigate the effect. In this paper, a simple analytical solution is developed by invoking steady-state flow and constant thermophysical properties. The analytical solution allows fast evaluation of spatiotemporal temperature fields, resulting from constant-rate CO{sub 2} injection. The applicability of the analytical solution is demonstrated by comparison with non-isothermal simulation results from the reservoir simulator TOUGH2. Analysis confirms that for an injection rate of 3 kg s{sup -1} (0.1 MT yr{sup -1}) into moderately warm (>40 C) and permeable formations (>10{sup -14} m{sup 2} (10 mD)), JTC is unlikely to be a problem for initial reservoir pressures as low as 2 MPa (290 psi).

  5. Geologic Sequestration of CO2 in Deep, Unmineable Coalbeds: An Integrated Researdh and Commercial-Scale Field Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Reeves; George Koperna

    2008-09-30

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative consortium with the objective of advancing industry's understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. This will allow primary recovery, enhanced recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration operations to be commercially enhanced and/or economically deployed. The project was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coalseams. The initial project accomplished a number of important objectives, which mainly revolved around performing baseline experimental studies, documenting and analyzing existing field projects, and establishing a global network for technology exchange. The results from that Phase have been documented in a series of reports which are publicly available. An important outcome of the initial phase was that serious limitations were uncovered in our knowledge of reservoir behavior when CO{sub 2} is injected into coal. To address these limitations, the project was extended in 2005 as a government-industry collaborative consortium. Selected accomplishments from this phase have included the identification and/or development of new models for multi-component sorption and diffusion, laboratory studies of coal geomechanical and permeability behavior with CO{sub 2} injection, additional field validation studies, and continued global technology exchange. Further continuation of the consortium is currently being considered. Some of the topics that have been identified for investigation include further model development/refinement related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins, the extension of the work to gas shale

  6. Combining coal gasification, natural gas reforming, and external carbonless heat for efficient production of gasoline and diesel with CO2 capture and sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkuyeh, Yaser Khojasteh; Adams, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Several systems are presented which convert NG, coal, and carbonless heat to fuel. • Using nuclear heat can reduce the direct fossil fuel consumption by up to 22%. • The use of CCS depended on the carbon tax: above $20-30/t is sufficient to use CCS. • CTL is only the most economical when the price of NG is more than $5 /MMBtu. • Compared to a traditional CTL plant, total CO 2 emission can be reduced up to 79%. - Abstract: In this paper, several novel polygeneration systems are presented which convert natural gas, coal, and a carbonless heat source such as high-temperature helium to gasoline and diesel. The carbonless heat source drives a natural gas reforming reaction to produce hydrogen rich syngas, which is mixed with coal-derived syngas to produce a syngas blend ideal for the Fischer–Tropsch reaction. Simulations and techno-economic analyses performed for 16 different process configurations under a variety of market conditions indicate significant economic and environmental benefits. Using a combination of coal, gas, and carbonless heat, it is possible to reduce CO 2 emissions (both direct and indirect) by 79% compared to a traditional coal-to-liquids process, and even achieve nearly zero CO 2 emissions when carbon capture and sequestration technology is employed. Using a carbonless heat source, the direct fossil fuel consumption can be reduced up to 22% and achieve a carbon efficiency up to 72%. Market considerations for this analysis include prices of coal, gas, high-temperature helium, gasoline, and CO 2 emission tax rates. The results indicate that coal-only systems are never the most economical choice, unless natural gas is more than 5 $/MMBtu

  7. Carbon sequestration by afforestation and revegetation as a means of limiting net-CO2 emissions in Iceland. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurdsson B.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Iceland has lost about 95/ of its woodlands and 50/ of its vegetative cover during the 1,100 years of human settlement. Efforts to reclaim lost woodlands and herbaceous ecosystems have been continuing since the early 20th century. It is emphasised that for Icelandic conditions, effective carbon sequestration can be achieved by restoring (reclaiming herbaceous ecosystems on carbon-poor soils. Since 1990, about 4,000 ha per year have been afforested or revegetated. In 1995, the estimated C-sequestration of those areas was 65,100 t CO2, or 2.9/ of the national emissions for that year. In 1999, the estimated sequestration was up in 127,600 t CO2, or 4.7/ of the predicted CO2 emissions for the year 2000.

  8. An efficient IMPES-based, shifting matrix algorithm to simulate two-phase, immiscible flow in porous media with application to CO 2 sequestration in the subsurface

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2012-01-01

    The flow of two or more immiscible fluids in porous media is ubiquitous particularly in oil industry. This includes secondary and tertiary oil recovery, CO2 sequestration, etc. Accurate predictions of the development of these processes are important in estimating the benefits, e.g., in the form of increased oil extraction, when using certain technology. However, this accurate prediction depends to a large extent on two things; the first is related to our ability to correctly characterize the reservoir with all its complexities and the second depends on our ability to develop robust techniques that solve the governing equations efficiently and accurately. In this work, we introduce a new robust and efficient numerical technique to solving the governing conservation laws which govern the movement of two immiscible fluids in the subsurface. This work will be applied to the problem of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifer; however, it can also be extended to incorporate more cases. The traditional solution algorithms to this problem are based on discretizing the governing laws on a generic cell and then proceed to the other cells within loops. Therefore, it is expected that, calling and iterating these loops several times can take significant amount of CPU time. Furthermore, if this process is done using programming languages which require repeated interpretation each time a loop is called like Matlab, Python or the like, extremely longer time is expected particularly for larger systems. In this new algorithm, the solution is done for all the nodes at once and not within loops. The solution methodology involves manipulating all the variables as column vectors. Then using shifting matrices, these vectors are sifted in such a way that subtracting relevant vectors produces the corresponding difference algorithm. It has been found that this technique significantly reduces the amount of CPU times compared with traditional technique implemented within the framework of

  9. A balanced ATP driving force module for enhancing photosynthetic biosynthesis of 3-hydroxybutyrate from CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jason T; Lan, Ethan I

    2018-03-01

    Using engineered photoautotrophic microorganisms for the direct chemical synthesis from CO 2 is an attractive direction for both sustainability and CO 2 mitigation. However, the behaviors of non-native metabolic pathways may be difficult to control due to the different intracellular contexts between natural and heterologous hosts. While most metabolic engineering efforts focus on strengthening driving forces in pathway design to favor biochemical production in these organisms, excessive driving force may be detrimental to product biosynthesis due to imbalanced cellular intermediate distribution. In this study, an ATP-hydrolysis based driving force module was engineered into cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to produce 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), a valuable chemical feedstock for the synthesis of biodegradable plastics and antibiotics. However, while the ATP driving force module is effective for increasing product formation, uncontrolled accumulation of intermediate metabolites likely led to metabolic imbalance and thus to cell growth inhibition. Therefore, the ATP driving force module was reengineered by providing a reversible outlet for excessive carbon flux. Upon expression of this balanced ATP driving force module with 3HB biosynthesis, engineered strain produced 3HB with a cumulative titer of 1.2 g/L, a significant increase over the initial strain. This result highlighted the importance of pathway reversibility as an effective design strategy for balancing driving force and intermediate accumulation, thereby achieving a self-regulated control for increased net flux towards product biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Utility of thermo-alkali-stable γ-CA from polyextremophilic bacterium Aeribacillus pallidus TSHB1 in biomimetic sequestration of CO2 and as a virtual peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Himadri; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2017-04-01

    Aeribacillus pallidus TSHB1 polyextremophilic bacterium produces a γ-carbonic anhydrase (ApCA), which is a homotrimeric biocatalyst with a subunit molecular mass of 32 ± 2 kDa. The enzyme is stable in the pH range between 8.0 and 11.0 and thus alkali-stable and moderately thermostable with T 1/2 values of 40 ± 1, 15 ± 1, and 8 ± 0.5 min at 60, 70, and 80 °C, respectively. Activation energy for irreversible inactivation "E d " of carbonic anhydrase is 67.119 kJ mol -1 . The enzyme is stable in the presence of various flue gas contaminants such as SO 3 2- ,SO 4 2- , and NO 3 - and cations Mg 2+ , Mn 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Ba 2+ . Fluorescence studies in the presence of N-bromosuccinimide and fluorescence quenching using KI and acrylamide revealed the importance of tryptophan residues in maintaining the structural integrity of the enzyme. ApCA is more efficient than the commercially available bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) in CO 2 sequestration. The enzyme was successfully used in biomineralization of CO 2 from flue gas. Replacement of active site Zn 2+ with Mn 2+ enabled ApCA to function as a peroxidase which exhibited alkali-stability and moderate thermostability like ApCA.

  11. Impact on the deep biosphere of CO2 geological sequestration in (ultra)mafic rocks and retroactive consequences on its fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménez, Bénédicte; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Dupraz, Sébastien; Guyot, François; Arnar Alfreősson, Helgi; Reynir Gíslason, Sigurőur; Sigurőardóttir, Hólmfríiur

    2010-05-01

    Due to their reactivity and high potential of carbonation, mafic and ultramafic rocks constitute targets of great interest to safely and permanently sequestrate anthropogenic CO2 and thus, limit the potential major environmental consequences of its increasing atmospheric level. In addition, subsurface (ultra)mafic environments are recognized to harbor diverse and active microbial populations that may be stimulated or decimated following CO2 injection (± impurities) and subsequent acidification. However, the nature and amplitude of the involved biogeochemical pathways are still unknown. To avoid unforeseen consequences at all time scales (e.g. reservoir souring and clogging, bioproduction of H2S and CH4), the impact of CO2 injection on deep biota with unknown ecology, and their retroactive effects on the capacity and long-term stability of CO2 storage sites, have to be determined. We present here combined field and experimental investigations focused on the Icelandic pilot site, implemented in the Hengill area (SW Iceland) at the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant (thanks to the CarbFix program, a consortium between the University of Iceland, Reykjavik Energy, the French CNRS of Toulouse and Columbia University in N.Y., U.S.A. and to the companion French ANR-CO2FIX project). This field scale injection of CO2 charged water is here designed to study the feasibility of storing permanently CO2 in basaltic rocks and to optimize industrial methods. Prior to the injection, the microbiological initial state was characterized through regular sampling at various seasons (i.e., October '08, July '09, February '10). DNA was extracted and amplified from the deep and shallow observatory wells, after filtration of 20 to 30 liters of groundwater collected in the depth interval 400-980 m using a specifically developed sampling protocol aiming at reducing contamination risks. An inventory of living indigenous bacteria and archaea was then done using molecular methods based on the

  12. CO2 laser with modulated losses: Theoretical models and experiments in the chaotic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pando L, C.L.; Meucci, R.; Ciofini, M.; Arecchi, F.T.

    1993-04-01

    We compare two different theoretical models for a CO 2 laser, namely the two-and four-level model, and show that the second one traces with much better accuracy the experimental behavior in the case of a chaotic dynamics due to time modulation of the cavity losses. Even though the two-level model provides a qualitative explanation of the chaotic dynamics, only the four-level one assures a quantitative fitting. We also show that, at the onset of chaos, the chaotic dynamics is low dimensional and can be described in terms of a noninvertible unidimensional map. (author). 12 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Energy modulation of nonrelativistic electrons with a CO2 laser using a metal microslit

    OpenAIRE

    Jongsuck, Bae; Ryo, Ishikawa; Sumio, Okuyama; Takashi, Miyajima; Taiji, Akizuki; Tatsuya, Okamoto; Koji, Mizuno

    2000-01-01

    A metal microslit has been used as an interaction circuit between a CO2 laser beam and nonrelativistic free electrons. Evanescent waves which are induced on the slit by illumination of the laser light modulate the energy of electrons passing close to the surface of the slit. The electron-energy change of more than ±5 eV for the 80 keV electron beam has been observed using the 7 kW laser beam at the wavelength of 10.6 μm.

  14. Energy modulation of nonrelativistic electrons with a CO2 laser using a metal microslit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jongsuck; Ishikawa, Ryo; Okuyama, Sumio; Miyajima, Takashi; Akizuki, Taiji; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Mizuno, Koji

    2000-04-01

    A metal microslit has been used as an interaction circuit between a CO2 laser beam and nonrelativistic free electrons. Evanescent waves which are induced on the slit by illumination of the laser light modulate the energy of electrons passing close to the surface of the slit. The electron-energy change of more than ±5 eV for the 80 keV electron beam has been observed using the 7 kW laser beam at the wavelength of 10.6 μm.

  15. Geochemical effects of CO2 sequestration in sandstones under simulated in situ conditions of deep saline aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigand, M.; Carey, J.W.; Schuett, H.; Spangenberg, E.; Erzinger, J.

    2008-01-01

    The geochemical effects of brine and supercritical CO 2 (SCCO 2 ) on reservoir rocks from deep (1500-2000 m) saline aquifers were examined via experimental simulation at in situ conditions. Dry sandstone samples were mounted in a triaxial cell and autoclave system, evacuated, and saturated with 1 M NaCl solution. The brine-rock system was allowed to react at 30 MPa confining pressure, 15 MPa pore fluid pressure, and 60 deg. C while SCCO 2 was injected at a pressure gradient of 1-2 MPa. The experiment was conducted for a period of 1496 h, during which fluids were periodically sampled and analyzed. The pH measured in partially degassed fluid samples at 25 deg. C decreased from a starting value of 7.0-4.3 (9 days) and finally 5.1 after saturation with SCCO 2 . Fluid analyses indicate that most of the major (e.g. Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn) and trace elements (e.g. Sr, Ba, Pb) of the sandstone increase in concentration during the reaction with brine and SCCO 2 . These results are supported by scanning electron microscopy which indicates dissolution of dolomite cement, K-feldspar, and albite. In addition to dissolution reactions the formation of montmorillonite was observed. By adjusting surface area and reaction rates of dissolution and precipitation, geochemical modeling of the experiments could reproduce long-term trends in solution chemistry and indicated limited rates of dissolution as the system remained strongly undersaturated with most minerals, including carbonates. The geochemical models could not account for decreases in concentration of some elements, changes in solution composition resulting from changes in imposed pressure gradient, and the observed Ca/Mg and Si/Al ratios in solution

  16. Precipitation kinetics of Mg-carbonates, influence of organic ligands and consequences for CO2 mineral sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Forming magnesium carbonate minerals through carbonation of magnesium silicates has been proposed as a safe and durable way to store carbon dioxide, with a possibly high potential to offset anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. To date however, chemical reactions involved in this process are facing strong kinetic limitations, which originate in the low reactivity of both Mg-silicates and Mg-carbonates. Numerous studies have focused on the dissolution of Mg-silicates, under the questionable hypothesis that this step limits the whole process. This thesis work focuses instead on the mechanisms and rates of formation of magnesium carbonates, which are the final products of carbonation reactions. The first part of the work is dedicated to studying the influence on magnesite precipitation kinetics of three organic ligands known to accelerate Mg-silicates dissolution rates: oxalate, citrate and EDTA. With help of mixed-flow reactor experiments performed between 100 and 150 C, we show that these ligands significantly reduce magnesite growth rates, through two combined mechanisms: (1) complexation of Mg 2+ cations in aqueous solution, which was rigorously estimated from a thermodynamic database established through a critical review of the literature, and (2) adsorption of ligands to a limited number of surface sites, leading to a decrease of the precipitation rate constant. The observed growth inhibition is maximal with citrate. We then used hydrothermal atomic force microscopy to probe the origin of the documented growth inhibition. Our observations show that citrate and oxalate interact with the crystal growth process on magnesite surface, modifying the shape of growth hillocks as well as the step generation frequency through spiral growth. We also show that the ligands adsorb preferentially on different kink-sites, which is probably related to their different structures and chemical properties. We propose that the stronger magnesite growth inhibition caused by citrate is related

  17. CH4 recovery and CO2 sequestration using flue gas in natural gas hydrates as revealed by a micro-differential scanning calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yohan; Kim, Yunju; Lee, Jaehyoung; Lee, Huen; Seo, Yongwon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The extent of the replacement was improved due to the enclathration of N 2 in small cages. • The dissociation enthalpies of the replaced gas hydrates were measured. • There was no noticeable heat flow change during the CH 4 –flue gas replacement. • The replacement could occur without significant destruction of gas hydrates. - Abstract: The CH 4 –flue gas replacement in naturally occurring gas hydrates has attracted significant attention due to its potential as a method of exploitation of clean energy and sequestration of CO 2 . In the replacement process, the thermodynamic and structural properties of the mixed gas hydrates are critical factors to predict the heat flow in the hydrate-bearing sediments and the heat required for hydrate dissociation, and to evaluate the CO 2 storage capacity of hydrate reservoirs. In this study, the 13 C NMR and gas composition analyses confirmed that the preferential enclathration of N 2 molecules in small 5 12 cages of structure I hydrates improved the extent of the CH 4 recovery. A high pressure micro-differential scanning calorimeter (HP μ-DSC) provided reliable hydrate stability conditions and heat of dissociation values in the porous silica gels after the replacement, which confirmed that CH 4 in the hydrates was successfully replaced with flue gas. A heat flow change associated with the dissociation and formation of hydrates was not noticeable during the CH 4 –flue gas replacement. Therefore, this study reveals that CH 4 –flue gas swapping occurs without structural transitions and significant hydrate dissociations

  18. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Tomasz Wiltowski; Tom Miles; Bruce Springsteen

    2002-01-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this sixth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was implemented and tested within the Linear Eddy Model (LEM). ISAT type 3 is being tested so that extrapolation can be performed and further improve the retrieval rate. Further testing of the LEM for subgrid chemistry was performed for parallel applications and for multi-step chemistry. Validation of the software on backstep and bluff-body reacting cases were performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment at Georgia Tech using their LES code were performed. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. A new and improved Artificial Neural Network (ANN), with log-transformed output, for the 1-step chemistry was implemented in CFDRC's LES code and gave reasonable results. This quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting was held at CFDRC. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for multi-step chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, will be accomplished

  19. Environmental CO2 inhibits Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying by modulating olfactory neurons and evokes widespread changes in neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenk, Lorenz A.; de Bono, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) gradients are ubiquitous and provide animals with information about their environment, such as the potential presence of prey or predators. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans avoids elevated CO2, and previous work identified three neuron pairs called “BAG,” “AFD,” and “ASE” that respond to CO2 stimuli. Using in vivo Ca2+ imaging and behavioral analysis, we show that C. elegans can detect CO2 independently of these sensory pathways. Many of the C. elegans sensory neurons we examined, including the AWC olfactory neurons, the ASJ and ASK gustatory neurons, and the ASH and ADL nociceptors, respond to a rise in CO2 with a rise in Ca2+. In contrast, glial sheath cells harboring the sensory endings of C. elegans’ major chemosensory neurons exhibit strong and sustained decreases in Ca2+ in response to high CO2. Some of these CO2 responses appear to be cell intrinsic. Worms therefore may couple detection of CO2 to that of other cues at the earliest stages of sensory processing. We show that C. elegans persistently suppresses oviposition at high CO2. Hermaphrodite-specific neurons (HSNs), the executive neurons driving egg-laying, are tonically inhibited when CO2 is elevated. CO2 modulates the egg-laying system partly through the AWC olfactory neurons: High CO2 tonically activates AWC by a cGMP-dependent mechanism, and AWC output inhibits the HSNs. Our work shows that CO2 is a more complex sensory cue for C. elegans than previously thought, both in terms of behavior and neural circuitry. PMID:26100886

  20. Advanced concept of 100 kJ CO2 laser module for reactor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Matoba, M.; Fujita, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Daido, H.

    1980-01-01

    The design study of 100 kJ CO 2 laser module for inertial fusion confinement is in progress. The basic requirement for the design of a 100 kJ laser is that the structure should be simple enough so as to be one module which can be compiled to set up a 1 MJ system. The requirements imposed on the design are the single gain medium to extract 100 kJ, the multi-pass amplification to achieve high efficiency, laser beam passing the gain medium many times, the possibility to preserve the arbitrary angle of beam injection, and the possibility of construction based on the established or tractable techniques. The gain medium of cylindrical shape was adopted to preserve all directional access with equal configuration. Demonstration experiments are planned to find out the optimized condition regarding to the vibrational relaxation, the time interval of each passage of a laser pulse, gas mixture and pressure, and pumping condition. The optical design of one beam for a 100 kJ test module is presented. This optical design named PENTAGONAL 10 has the following features; compact optics, high parasitic oscillation threshold, and the same intervals of multiple passing for energy extraction with four beams. The laser is an electron beam (E-beam)-controlled discharge laser. An electric power source and feed through were also studied. The construction of a 100 kJ laser system will be possible with the conventional techniques. (Kato, T.)

  1. Parallel Work of CO2 Ejectors Installed in a Multi-Ejector Module of Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodys, Jakub; Palacz, Michal; Haida, Michal; Smolka, Jacek; Nowak, Andrzej J.; Banasiak, Krzysztof; Hafner, Armin

    2016-09-01

    A performance analysis on of fixed ejectors installed in a multi-ejector module in a CO2 refrigeration system is presented in this study. The serial and the parallel work of four fixed-geometry units that compose the multi-ejector pack was carried out. The executed numerical simulations were performed with the use of validated Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM). The computational tool ejectorPL for typical transcritical parameters at the motive nozzle were used in all the tests. A wide range of the operating conditions for supermarket applications in three different European climate zones were taken into consideration. The obtained results present the high and stable performance of all the ejectors in the multi-ejector pack.

  2. Potentiel des méthodes de séparation et stockage du CO2 dans la lutte contre l'effet de serreThe role of CO2 capture and sequestration in mitigation of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Ducroux, René

    2003-06-01

    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO 2. Technical solutions exist to reduce CO 2 emission and stabilise atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including energy saving and energy efficiency, switch to lower carbon content fuels like natural gas and to energy sources that operate with zero CO 2 emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, enhance the natural sinks for CO 2 (forests, soils, etc.), and last but not least, sequester CO 2 from fossil fuels combustion. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO 2. Some of the factors that will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are also discussed. Capturing CO 2 and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology; however, substantial R&D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO 2 emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to more than 30% of the global anthropogenic CO 2 emission, it represents a valuable tool in the battle against global warming. To cite this article: P. Jean-Baptiste, R. Ducroux, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  3. Modulating calcium phosphate formation using CO2 laser engineering of a polymeric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, D.G.; Lawrence, J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of simulated body fluid (SBF) is widely used as a screening technique to assess the ability of materials to promote calcium phosphate formation. This paper details the use of CO 2 laser surface treatment of nylon® 6,6 to modulate calcium phosphate formation following immersion in SBF for 14 days. Through white light interferometry (WLI) it was determined that the laser surface processing gave rise to maximum Ra and Sa parameters of 1.3 and 4.4 μm, respectively. The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) enabled a maximum increase in surface oxygen content of 5.6%at. to be identified. The laser-induced surface modifications gave rise to a modulation in the wettability characteristics such that the contact angle, θ, decreased for the whole area processed samples, as expected, and increased for the patterned samples. The increase in θ can be attributed to a transition in wetting nature to a mixed-state wetting regime. It was seen for all samples that calcium phosphate formed on each surface following 14 days. The largest increase in mass, Δg, owed to calcium phosphate formation, was brought about by the whole area processed sample irradiated with a fluence of 51 J cm −2 . No correlation between the calcium phosphate formation and the laser patterned surface properties was determined due to the likely affect of the mixed-state wetting regime. Strong correlations between θ, the surface energy parameters and the calcium phosphate formation for the whole area processed samples allow one to realize the potential for this surface treatment technique in predicting the bone forming ability of laser processed materials. - Highlights: ► Surface modifications brought about a modulation in the wetting of nylon 6,6. ► An increase in θ can be attributed to a mixed-state wetting regime. ► Laser surface treatment modulated the ability to promote apatite formation. ► Mixed-state wetting regime affected the promotion of uniform apatite formation.

  4. A Comparison of Potential IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Ismail, Syed

    2014-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) Decadal Survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column-mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different carrier based modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Techniques are investigated that reduce or eliminate sidelobes. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space. A comparison of various properties such as signal to noise ratio (SNR) and time-bandwidth product are discussed.

  5. The role of metabolism in modulating CO2 fluxes in boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Matthew J.; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2016-10-01

    Lake CO2 emissions are increasingly recognized as an important component of the global CO2 cycle, yet the origin of these emissions is not clear, as specific contributions from metabolism and in-lake cycling, versus external inputs, are not well defined. To assess the coupling of lake metabolism with CO2 concentrations and fluxes, we estimated steady state ratios of gross primary production to respiration (GPP:R) and rates of net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP-R) from surface water O2 dynamics (concentration and stable isotopes) in 187 boreal lakes spanning long environmental gradients. Our findings suggest that internal metabolism plays a dominant role in regulating CO2 fluxes in most lakes, but this pattern only emerges when examined at a resolution that accounts for the vastly differing relationships between lake metabolism and CO2 fluxes. Fluxes of CO2 exceeded those from NEP in over half the lakes, but unexpectedly, these effects were most common and typically largest in a subset ( 30% of total) of net autotrophic lakes that nevertheless emitted CO2. Equally surprising, we found no environmental characteristics that distinguished this category from the more common net heterotrophic, CO2 outgassing lakes. Excess CO2 fluxes relative to NEP were best predicted by catchment structure and hydrologic properties, and we infer from a combination of methods that both catchment inputs and internal anaerobic processes may have contributed this excess CO2. Together, our findings show that the link between lake metabolism and CO2 fluxes is often strong but can vary widely across the boreal biome, having important implications for catchment-wide C budgets.

  6. CO2-dependent metabolic modulation in red blood cells stored under anaerobic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Larry J.; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaerobic RBC storage reduces oxidative damage, maintains ATP & 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels and has superior 24hr recovery at 6weeks compared to standard storage. This study will determine if removal of CO2 during O2 depletion by gas exchange may affect RBC during anaerobic storage. Methods This is a matched 3 arm study (n=14): control, O2&CO2 depleted with Ar (AN), O2 depleted with 95%Ar/5%CO2 (AN[CO2]). RBC in additives AS-3 or OFAS3 were evenly divided into 3 bags, and anaerobic conditions were established by gas exchange. Bags were stored 1-6°C in closed chambers under anaerobic conditions or ambient air, sampled weekly for up to 9weeks for a panel of in vitro tests. A full metabolomics screening was conducted for the first 4 weeks of storage. Results Purging with Ar (AN) results in alkalization of the RBC and increased glucose consumption. The addition of 5%CO2 to the purging gas prevented CO2 loss with an equivalent starting and final pH and lactate to control bags (p>0.5, days0-21). ATP levels are higher in AN[CO2] (p<0.0001). DPG was maintained beyond 2 weeks in the AN arm (p<0.0001). Surprisingly, DPG was lost at the same rate in both control and AN[CO2] arms (p=0.6). Conclusion Maintenance of ATP in the AN[CO2] arm demonstrates that ATP production is not solely a function of the pH effect on glycolysis. CO2 in anaerobic storage prevented the maintenance of DPG, and DPG production appears to be pH dependent. CO2 as well as O2 depletion provides metabolic advantage for stored RBC. PMID:26477888

  7. CO2 -dependent metabolic modulation in red blood cells stored under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Larry J; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic red blood cell (RBC) storage reduces oxidative damage, maintains adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels, and has superior 24-hour recovery at 6 weeks compared to standard storage. This study will determine if removal of CO2 during O2 depletion by gas exchange may affect RBCs during anaerobic storage. This is a matched three-arm study (n = 14): control, O2 and CO2 depleted with Ar (AN), and O2 depleted with 95%Ar/5%CO2 (AN[CO2 ]). RBCs in additives AS-3 or OFAS-3 were evenly divided into three bags, and anaerobic conditions were established by gas exchange. Bags were stored at 1 to 6°C in closed chambers under anaerobic conditions or ambient air, sampled weekly for up to 9 weeks for a panel of in vitro tests. A full metabolomics screening was conducted for the first 4 weeks of storage. Purging with Ar (AN) results in alkalization of the RBC and increased glucose consumption. The addition of 5% CO2 to the purging gas prevented CO2 loss with an equivalent starting and final pH and lactate to control bags (p > 0.5, Days 0-21). ATP levels are higher in AN[CO2 ] (p < 0.0001). DPG was maintained beyond 2 weeks in the AN arm (p < 0.0001). Surprisingly, DPG was lost at the same rate in both control and AN[CO2 ] arms (p = 0.6). Maintenance of ATP in the AN[CO2 ] arm demonstrates that ATP production is not solely a function of the pH effect on glycolysis. CO2 in anaerobic storage prevented the maintenance of DPG, and DPG production appears to be pH dependent. CO2 as well as O2 depletion provides metabolic advantage for stored RBCs. © 2015 AABB.

  8. Limiting the Magnitude of Potential Injection-Induced Seismicity Associated With Waste-Water Disposal, Hydraulic Fracturing and CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, Mark

    2017-04-01

    into basement. This suggests that an important criterion for large-scale CO2 sequestration projects is that the injection zone is isolated from crystalline basement rocks by viscoplastic shales to prevent rupture propagation from extending down into basement.

  9. Isotopic separation of carbon by dissociation of CF2HCl irradiated by a Q-modulated CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezubchenko, A.N.; Ilyukhin, A.I.; Karchevskii, A.I.; Krasnikov, N.S.; Merzylakov, A.V.; Soloukhin, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    Isotopic separation of carbon by selective dissociation of CF 2 HCl by radiation from a CO 2 laser with mechanical Q-modulation has been studied experimentally. The modulation frequency was 10 4 sec -1 with a 20 W output. The peak radiation intensity is increased by a factor of 20-100 when modulated, while the average power is 0.5-0.9 that of the laser when operating in continuous mode. The authors show that under these conditions, a separation coefficient on the order of 40-50 is achieved as well as a high degree of the target isotope extraction (70%)

  10. Reactions between olivine and CO2-rich seawater at 300 °C: Implications for H2 generation and CO2 sequestration on the early Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisahiro Ueda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand the influence of fluid CO2 on ultramafic rock-hosted seafloor hydrothermal systems on the early Earth, we monitored the reaction between San Carlos olivine and a CO2-rich NaCl fluid at 300 °C and 500 bars. During the experiments, the total carbonic acid concentration (ΣCO2 in the fluid decreased from approximately 65 to 9 mmol/kg. Carbonate minerals, magnesite, and subordinate amount of dolomite were formed via the water-rock interaction. The H2 concentration in the fluid reached approximately 39 mmol/kg within 2736 h, which is relatively lower than the concentration generated by the reaction between olivine and a CO2-free NaCl solution at the same temperature. As seen in previous hydrothermal experiments using komatiite, ferrous iron incorporation into Mg-bearing carbonate minerals likely limited iron oxidation in the fluids and the resulting H2 generation during the olivine alteration. Considering carbonate mineralogy over the temperature range of natural hydrothermal fields, H2 generation is likely suppressed at temperatures below approximately 300 °C due to the formation of the Mg-bearing carbonates. Nevertheless, H2 concentration in fluid at 300 °C could be still high due to the temperature dependency of magnetite stability in ultramafic systems. Moreover, the Mg-bearing carbonates may play a key role in the ocean-atmosphere system on the early Earth. Recent studies suggest that the subduction of carbonated ultramafic rocks may transport surface CO2 species into the deep mantle. This process may have reduced the huge initial amount of CO2 on the surface of the early Earth. Our approximate calculations demonstrate that the subduction of the Mg-bearing carbonates formed in komatiite likely played a crucial role as one of the CO2 carriers from the surface to the deep mantle, even in hot subduction zones.

  11. How could the family-scale photovoltaic module help the poor farmer out of poverty and reduce CO2 emission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xu; Jin, Ran

    2016-04-01

    China, the world's most populous country, is facing great opportunities and challenges. On the one hand, China's increasing economy is raising hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. On the other hand, there are still 100 million of whose daily income is less than 1 US dollar. In addition, China is the world's largest solar panel producer and also the largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Could we find a feasible way to use solar panels to help the poor and meanwhile reduce CO2 emissions? To do this, we reviewed the literature and investigated the related field sites and institutions in China. Results show that the extension of family-scale photovoltaic modules to countryside could help. The 3 kW-module is recommended for widely distribution because its technology is mature and the cost is relatively low (3500 US dollars). Besides their own use to improve their living standard, farmers can sell the excess electricity to the grid at the price of 0.17 UD/kWh. The farmer's annual income could be increased by 460-615 US dollars by selling electricity, and this is equivalent to half of their annual income in many rural regions. The photovoltaic module can be used for 25 years and the payback period is 7 years. In addition to its economic benefit, the photovoltaic module can reduce CO2 emissions by 0.93 kg/kWh. This is equivalent to annual reduction of 3000-4000 kg CO2 per family. Therefore, it is concluded that the family-scale photovoltaic module not only can help the farmers out of poverty but also can reduce CO2 emissions significantly. To promote its sustainable development, it is worthwhile to further investigations its business models as well as the effects of long-term support policies under different social and nature conditions.

  12. Laboratory investigations into the reactive transport module of carbon dioxide sequestration and geochemical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidaryan, E. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Masjidosolayman Branch; Enayati, M.; Mokhtari, B. [Iranian Offshore Oil Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Over long time periods, geological sequestration in some systems shows mineralization effects or mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide, converting the carbon dioxide to a less mobile form. However, a detailed investigation of these geological systems is needed before disposing of carbon dioxide into these formations. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs and underground aquifers are proposed candidates for carbon dioxide injection. This paper presented an experimental investigation into the reactive transport module for handling aquifer sequestration of carbon dioxide and modeling of simultaneous geochemical reactions. Two cases of laboratory carbon dioxide sequestration experiments, conducted for different rock systems were modeled using the fully coupled geochemical compositional simulator. The relevant permeability relationships were compared to determine the best fit with the experimental results. The paper discussed the theory of modeling; geochemical reactions and mineral trapping of carbon dioxide; and application simulator for modeling including the remodeling of flow experiments. It was concluded that simulated changes in porosity and permeability could mimic experimental results to some extent. The study satisfactorily simulated the results of experimental observations and permeability results could be improved if the Kozeny-Carman equation was replaced by the Civan power law. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs.

  13. Adjoint based optimal control of partially miscible two-phase flow in porous media with applications to CO2 sequestration in underground reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Simon, Moritz; Ulbrich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    is to maximize the amount of trapped CO2 in an underground reservoir after a fixed period of CO2 injection, while time-dependent injection rates in multiple wells are used as control parameters. We describe the governing two-phase two-component Darcy flow PDE

  14. Development of two U.H.F. band resonators for application to CO2 laser electro-optical modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.G.; Blanc, P.; Sexton, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the design and testing of two U.H.F. band resonators destined for use in the linear electro-optical modulator of the CO 2 Laser Rapid Interferometer diagnostic at present under development for the WEGA Tokamak. The resonators take the form of a re-entrant coaxial line cavity and an interdigital line filter, both of which possess the regions of high electric field necessary to activate the linear electro-optical effect

  15. Modeling of intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser absorption spectrometer systems for atmospheric CO(2) column measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Ismail, Syed; Wallace Harrison, F; Browell, Edward V; Nehrir, Amin R; Dobler, Jeremy; Moore, Berrien; Refaat, Tamer; Kooi, Susan A

    2013-10-10

    The focus of this study is to model and validate the performance of intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) CO(2) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) systems and their CO(2) column measurements from airborne and satellite platforms. The model accounts for all fundamental physics of the instruments and their related CO(2) measurement environments, and the modeling results are presented statistically from simulation ensembles that include noise sources and uncertainties related to the LAS instruments and the measurement environments. The characteristics of simulated LAS systems are based on existing technologies and their implementation in existing systems. The modeled instruments are specifically assumed to be IM-CW LAS systems such as the Exelis' airborne multifunctional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) operating in the 1.57 μm CO(2) absorption band. Atmospheric effects due to variations in CO(2), solar radiation, and thin clouds, are also included in the model. Model results are shown to agree well with LAS atmospheric CO(2) measurement performance. For example, the relative bias errors of both MFLL simulated and measured CO(2) differential optical depths were found to agree to within a few tenths of a percent when compared to the in situ observations from the flight of 3 August 2011 over Railroad Valley (RRV), Nevada, during the summer 2011 flight campaign. In addition, the horizontal variations in the model CO(2) differential optical depths were also found to be consistent with those from MFLL measurements. In general, the modeled and measured signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the CO(2) column differential optical depths (τd) agreed to within about 30%. Model simulations of a spaceborne IM-CW LAS system in a 390 km dawn/dusk orbit for CO(2) column measurements showed that with a total of 42 W of transmitted power for one offline and two different sideline channels (placed at different locations on the side of the CO(2) absorption line), the accuracy of the

  16. Soil [N] modulates soil C cycling in CO2-fumigated tree stands: a meta-analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dieleman, W. I. J.; Luyssaert, S.; Rey, A.; De Angelis, P.; Barton, C. V. M.; Broadmeadow, M.; Broadmeadow, S. B.; Chigwerewe, K. S.; Crookshanks, M.; Dufrene, E.; Jarvis, P. G.; Kasurinen, A.; Kellomäki, S.; Le Dantec, V.; Liberloo, M.; Marek, Michal V.; Medlyn, B.; Pokorný, Radek; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.; Temperton, V. M.; Tingey, D.; Urban, Otmar; Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 12 (2010), s. 2001-2011 ISSN 0140-7791 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : [CO2] enrichment * fine root production * microbial respiration * N fertilization * root biomass Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.145, year: 2010

  17. Geological Sequestration Training and Research Program in Capture and Transport: Development of the Most Economical Separation Method for CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahdat, Nader

    2013-09-30

    The project provided hands-on training and networking opportunities to undergraduate students in the area of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and transport, through fundamental research study focused on advanced separation methods that can be applied to the capture of CO2 resulting from the combustion of fossil-fuels for power generation . The project team’s approach to achieve its objectives was to leverage existing Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) course materials and teaching methods to create and implement an annual CCS short course for the Tuskegee University community; conduct a survey of CO2 separation and capture methods; utilize data to verify and develop computer models for CO2 capture and build CCS networks and hands-on training experiences. The objectives accomplished as a result of this project were: (1) A comprehensive survey of CO2 capture methods was conducted and mathematical models were developed to compare the potential economics of the different methods based on the total cost per year per unit of CO2 avoidance; and (2) Training was provided to introduce the latest CO2 capture technologies and deployment issues to the university community.

  18. Carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Rattan

    2008-02-27

    Developing technologies to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from annual emissions of 8.6PgCyr-1 from energy, process industry, land-use conversion and soil cultivation is an important issue of the twenty-first century. Of the three options of reducing the global energy use, developing low or no-carbon fuel and sequestering emissions, this manuscript describes processes for carbon (CO2) sequestration and discusses abiotic and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric CO2 into other long-lived global pools including oceanic, pedologic, biotic and geological strata to reduce the net rate of increase in atmospheric CO2. Engineering techniques of CO2 injection in deep ocean, geological strata, old coal mines and oil wells, and saline aquifers along with mineral carbonation of CO2 constitute abiotic techniques. These techniques have a large potential of thousands of Pg, are expensive, have leakage risks and may be available for routine use by 2025 and beyond. In comparison, biotic techniques are natural and cost-effective processes, have numerous ancillary benefits, are immediately applicable but have finite sink capacity. Biotic and abiotic C sequestration options have specific nitches, are complementary, and have potential to mitigate the climate change risks.

  19. Experimental observation of parametric effects near period doubling in a loss-modulated CO2 laser

    OpenAIRE

    Chizhevsky, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    A number of parametric effects, such as suppression of period doubling, shift of the bifurcation point, scaling law relating the shift and the perturbation amplitude, influence of the detuning on the suppression, reaching of the maximum gain between the original and shifted bifurcation points, and scaling law for idler power are experimentally observed near period doubling bifurcation in a loss-driven CO2 laser that is subjected to periodic loss perturbations at a frequency that is close to a...

  20. FY 2000 report on the results of the project on the R and D of the global environmental industry technology. R and D of the technology for predicting environmental effects associated with the CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point and survey for supporting study); 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    To obtain the technical outlook for CO2 ocean sequestration by CO2 discharge into the intermediate layer, the R and D was conducted of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the elucidation study of the behavior at the time of discharging liquid CO2, the melting process of CO2 droplets discharged/dispersed into the seawater of the intermediate layer was observed, and the specific phenomenon of hydrate formation in the process of CO2 droplet formation was grasped. As to the technology for sending CO2 into the ocean and diluting it, experimental study was made of CO2 transportation technology from on the sea to the intermediate layer, technology for rapid dilution immediately after discharge, etc. About the indoor experiment on the CO2 influence on marine organisms, experiment on the CO2 influence was carried out using shells, sea urchin, red sea bream, etc. In the developmental study of models for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, the 3D two-phase flow LES model was developed as a model for predicting the CO2 behavior, and the simulation of the liquid CO2 discharge was made at the planned experimental site. The model for evaluation of the biological influence was also made which can consider the interaction between two kinds of organisms. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the project on the R and D of the global environmental industry technology. R and D of the technology for predicting environmental effects associated with the CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point and survey for supporting study); 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    To obtain the technical outlook for CO2 ocean sequestration by CO2 discharge into the intermediate layer, the R and D was conducted of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the elucidation study of the behavior at the time of discharging liquid CO2, the melting process of CO2 droplets discharged/dispersed into the seawater of the intermediate layer was observed, and the specific phenomenon of hydrate formation in the process of CO2 droplet formation was grasped. As to the technology for sending CO2 into the ocean and diluting it, experimental study was made of CO2 transportation technology from on the sea to the intermediate layer, technology for rapid dilution immediately after discharge, etc. About the indoor experiment on the CO2 influence on marine organisms, experiment on the CO2 influence was carried out using shells, sea urchin, red sea bream, etc. In the developmental study of models for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, the 3D two-phase flow LES model was developed as a model for predicting the CO2 behavior, and the simulation of the liquid CO2 discharge was made at the planned experimental site. The model for evaluation of the biological influence was also made which can consider the interaction between two kinds of organisms. (NEDO)

  2. Experimental study of chemical-mechanical coupling during percolation of reactive fluid through rocks under stress, in the context of the CO2 geological sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, Y.

    2006-10-01

    CO 2 injection into geological repositories will induce chemical and mechanical instabilities. The study of these instabilities is based on experimental deformation of natural rock samples under stress, in the presence of fluids containing, or not, dissolved CO 2 . Triaxial cells used for the experiments permitted an independent control and measurement of stress, temperature, fluid pressure and composition. Vertical strains were measured during several months, with a resolution of 1.10 -12 s -1 on the strain rate. Simultaneously, fluids were analysed in order to quantify fluid-rock interactions. For limestone samples, percolation of CO 2 -rich fluids increases strain rate by a factor 1.7 up to 5; on the other hand, sandstone deformation remained almost the same. Increase in strain rate with limestone samples was explained by injected water acidification by the CO 2 which increases rock solubility and reaction kinetics. On the opposite, small effect of CO 2 on quartz explains the absence of deformation. X-ray observations confirmed the importance of rock composition and structure on the porosity evolution. Numerical simulations of rock elastic properties showed increasing shear stress into the sample. Measured deformation showed an evolution of reservoir rocks mechanical properties. It was interpreted as the consequence of pressure solution mechanisms both at grains contacts and on grain free surfaces. (author)

  3. The Analysis of Pipeline Transportation Process for CO2 Captured From Reference Coal-Fired 900 MW Power Plant to Sequestration Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three commercially available intercooled compression strategies for compressing CO2 were studied. All of the compression concepts required a final delivery pressure of 153 bar at the inlet to the pipeline. Then, simulations were used to determine the maximum safe pipeline distance to subsequent booster stations as a function of inlet pressure, environmental temperature, thickness of the thermal insulation and ground level heat flux conditions. The results show that subcooled liquid transport increases energy efficiency and minimises the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under heat transfer conditions. The study also found that the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipe in atmospheric conditions in Poland. The most important problems from the environmental protection point of view are rigorous and robust hazard identification which indirectly affects CO2 transportation. This paper analyses ways of reducing transport risk by means of safety valves.

  4. ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY AND ECONOMICS OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION/USE ON AN EXISTING COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2000-01-31

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility and the economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration/use technologies for retrofitting an existing pulverized coal-fired power plant. To accomplish this objective three alternative CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration systems will be evaluated to identify their impact on an existing boiler, associated boiler auxiliary components, overall plant operation and performance and power plant cost, including the cost of electricity. The three retrofit technologies that will be evaluated are as follows: (1) Coal combustion in air, followed by CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas with Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global's commercial MEA-based absorption/stripping process. (2) Coal combustion in an O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment with CO{sub 2} recycle. (3) Coal combustion in air with oxygen removal and CO{sub 2} captured by tertiary amines In support of this objective and execution of the evaluation of the three retrofit technologies a literature survey was conducted. It is presented in an ''annotated'' form, consistent with the following five sections: (1) Coal Combustion in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Media; (2) Oxygen Separation Technologies; (3) Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Separation Technologies; (4) Potential Utilization of CO{sub 2}; and (5) CO{sub 2} Sequestration. The objective of the literature search was to determine if the three retrofit technologies proposed for this project continue to be sound choices. Additionally, a review of the literature would afford the opportunity to determine if other researchers have made significant progress in developing similar process technologies and, in that context, to revisit the current state-of-the-art. Results from this literature survey are summarized in the report.

  5. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D project on the industrial technology for the global environment. R and D of the prediction technology of environmental effects brought by CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of prediction technology of environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge and the research support survey); 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo NEDO seika hokokusho. Nisankatanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of studying viability of CO2 ocean sequestration by discharging it at the intermediate depth of ocean, the R and D were conducted of 'prediction technology of environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge,' and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the study of elucidation of behavior of liquid CO2 at the time of discharge, melting speed of CO2 in water and seawater, 2D CO2 concentration distribution, etc. were measured using the circulation type deep-sea simulation experimental equipment. In the study of technology to send CO2 into the sea and dilute it, the process test using mock liquid was conducted. In the indoor experiment on CO2 effects on marine organisms, conducted were the detailed experiment on long-term effects of low concentration CO2 on sea urchins and shellfish, experiment on CO2 acute effects on eggs/fry and experiment on CO2 effects on adult fish. In the developmental study of the model to predict environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge, carried out were the improvement of the model for prediction of effects on marine organisms, study of the CO2 diffusion in topographic features supposed to be Hawaii, etc. In the international joint study, measurement/observation technology, facilities, etc. were studied in preparation for the experiment actually conducted in the sea. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D project on the industrial technology for the global environment. R and D of the prediction technology of environmental effects brought by CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of prediction technology of environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge and the research support survey); 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo NEDO seika hokokusho. Nisankatanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of studying viability of CO2 ocean sequestration by discharging it at the intermediate depth of ocean, the R and D were conducted of 'prediction technology of environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge,' and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the study of elucidation of behavior of liquid CO2 at the time of discharge, melting speed of CO2 in water and seawater, 2D CO2 concentration distribution, etc. were measured using the circulation type deep-sea simulation experimental equipment. In the study of technology to send CO2 into the sea and dilute it, the process test using mock liquid was conducted. In the indoor experiment on CO2 effects on marine organisms, conducted were the detailed experiment on long-term effects of low concentration CO2 on sea urchins and shellfish, experiment on CO2 acute effects on eggs/fry and experiment on CO2 effects on adult fish. In the developmental study of the model to predict environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge, carried out were the improvement of the model for prediction of effects on marine organisms, study of the CO2 diffusion in topographic features supposed to be Hawaii, etc. In the international joint study, measurement/observation technology, facilities, etc. were studied in preparation for the experiment actually conducted in the sea. (NEDO)

  7. A phase-field lattice Boltzmann model for simulating multiphase flows in porous media: Application and comparison to experiments of CO2 sequestration at pore scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Abbas; Li, Yaofa; Bolster, Diogo; Christensen, Kenneth T.

    2018-04-01

    We implement a phase-field based lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method for numerical simulation of multiphase flows in heterogeneous porous media at pore scales with wettability effects. The present method can handle large density and viscosity ratios, pertinent to many practical problems. As a practical application, we study multiphase flow in a micromodel representative of CO2 invading a water-saturated porous medium at reservoir conditions, both numerically and experimentally. We focus on two flow cases with (i) a crossover from capillary fingering to viscous fingering at a relatively small capillary number, and (ii) viscous fingering at a relatively moderate capillary number. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons are made between numerical results and experimental data for temporal and spatial CO2 saturation profiles, and good agreement is found. In particular, a correlation analysis shows that any differences between simulations and results are comparable to intra-experimental differences from replicate experiments. A key conclusion of this work is that system behavior is highly sensitive to boundary conditions, particularly inlet and outlet ones. We finish with a discussion on small-scale flow features, such as the emergence of strong recirculation zones as well as flow in which the residual phase is trapped, including a close look at the detailed formation of a water cone. Overall, the proposed model yields useful information, such as the spatiotemporal evolution of the CO2 front and instantaneous velocity fields, which are valuable for understanding the mechanisms of CO2 infiltration at the pore scale.

  8. The likely impact of elevated [CO2], nitrogen deposition, increased temperature and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riitta Hyvönen; Göran I. Ågren; Sune Linder; Tryggve Persson; M. Francesca Cotrufo; Alf Ekblad; Michael Freeman; Achim Grelle; Ivan A. Janssens; Paul G. Jarvis; Seppo Kellomäki; Anders Lindroth; Denis Loustau; Tomas Lundmark; Richard J. Norby; Ram Oren; Kim Pilegaard; Michael G. Ryan; Bjarni D. Sigurdsson; Monika Strömgren; Marcel van Oijen; Göran Wallin

    2007-01-01

    Temperate and boreal forest ecosystems contain a large part of the carbon stored on land, in the form of both biomass and soil organic matter. Increasing atmospheric [CO2], increasing temperature, elevated nitrogen deposition and intensified management will change this C store. Well documented single-factor responses of net primary production are: higher photosynthetic...

  9. SIMULTANEOUS MECHANICAL AND HEAT ACTIVATION: A NEW ROUTE TO ENHANCE SERPENTINE CARBONATION REACTIVITY AND LOWER CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION PROCESS COST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McKelvy; J. Diefenbacher; R. Nunez; R.W. Carpenter; A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2005-01-01

    Coal can support a large fraction of global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other candidate technologies, which propose long-term storage (e.g., ocean and geological sequestration), mineral sequestration permanently disposes of CO{sub 2} as geologically stable mineral carbonates. Only benign, naturally occurring materials are formed, eliminating long-term storage and liability issues. Serpentine carbonation is a leading mineral sequestration process candidate, which offers large scale, permanent sequestration. Deposits exceed those needed to carbonate all the CO{sub 2} that could be generated from global coal reserves, and mining and milling costs are reasonable ({approx}$4 to $5/ton). Carbonation is exothermic, providing exciting low-cost process potential. The remaining goal is to develop an economically viable process. An essential step in this development is increasing the carbonation reaction rate and degree of completion, without substantially impacting other process costs. Recently, the Albany Research Center (ARC) has accelerated serpentine carbonation, which occurs naturally over geological time, to near completion in less than an hour. While reaction rates for natural serpentine have been found to be too slow for practical application, both heat and mechanical (attrition grinding) pretreatment were found to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity. Unfortunately, these processes are too energy intensive to be cost-effective in their present form. In this project we explored the potential that utilizing power plant waste heat (e.g., available up to {approx}200-250 C) during mechanical activation (i.e., thermomechanical activation) offers to enhance serpentine mineral carbonation, while reducing pretreatment energy consumption and process cost. This project was carried out in collaboration with the Albany Research Center (ARC) to maximize the insight into the

  10. Abundance and Diversity of CO2-Assimilating Bacteria and Algae Within Red Agricultural Soils Are Modulated by Changing Management Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongzhao; Ge, Tida; Chen, Xiangbi; Liu, Shoulong; Zhu, Zhenke; Wu, Xiaohong; Wei, Wenxue; Whiteley, Andrew Steven; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-11-01

    of algal cbbL community composition. Our results provide new insights into the diversity, abundance, and modulation of organisms responsible for microbial autotrophic CO(2) fixation in red acidic soils subjected to changing management regimes.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A CO2 SEQUESTRATION MODULE BY INTEGRATING MINERAL ACTIVATION AND AQUEOUS CARBONATION. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George Alexander; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Parvana Aksoy; Harold Schobert

    2006-01-01

    Mineral carbonation provides a potential option for the long-term storage of carbon dioxide. Serpentine has been chosen as the feedstock mineral, due to its abundance and availability. However, the relatively low reactivity of serpentine has warranted research into physical and chemical treatments that have been shown to greatly increase its reactivity. The use of sulfuric acid as an accelerating medium for the removal of magnesium from serpentine has recently been investigated. In addition to the challenges presented by the dissolution of serpentine, another challenge is the subsequent carbonation of the magnesium ions. A stable hydration sphere for the magnesium ion reduces the carbonation kinetics by obstructing the formation of the carbonation products. Accordingly, this research has evaluated the solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solution, the interaction between the dissociation products of carbon dioxide, and the carbonation potential of the magnesium ion

  12. An efficient implicit-pressure/explicit- saturation-method-based shifting-matrix algorithm to simulate two-phase, immiscible flow in porous media with application to CO2 sequestration in the subsurface

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-07-04

    The flow of two or more immiscible fluids in porous media is widespread, particularly in the oil industry. This includes secondary and tertiary oil recovery and carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. Accurate predictions of the development of these processes are important in estimating the benefits and consequences of the use of certain technologies. However, this accurate prediction depends--to a large extent--on two things. The first is related to our ability to correctly characterize the reservoir with all its complexities; the second depends on our ability to develop robust techniques that solve the governing equations efficiently and accurately. In this work, we introduce a new robust and efficient numerical technique for solving the conservation laws that govern the movement of two immiscible fluids in the subsurface. As an example, this work is applied to the problem of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers; however, it can also be extended to incorporate more scenarios. The traditional solution algorithms to this problem are modeled after discretizing the governing laws on a generic cell and then proceed to the other cells within loops. Therefore, it is expected that calling and iterating these loops multiple times can take a significant amount of computer time. Furthermore, if this process is performed with programming languages that require repeated interpretation each time a loop is called, such as Matlab, Python, and others, much longer time is expected, particularly for larger systems. In this new algorithm, the solution is performed for all the nodes at once and not within loops. The solution methodology involves manipulating all the variables as column vectors. By use of shifting matrices, these vectors are shifted in such a way that subtracting relevant vectors produces the corresponding difference algorithm. It has been found that this technique significantly reduces the amount of central-processing-unit (CPU) time compared with a traditional

  13. The thermal behaviour and structural stability of nesquehonite, MgCO3.3H2O, evaluated by in situ laboratory parallel-beam X-ray powder diffraction: New constraints on CO2 sequestration within minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballirano, Paolo; De Vito, Caterina; Ferrini, Vincenzo; Mignardi, Silvano

    2010-06-15

    In order to gauge the appropriateness of CO(2) reaction with Mg chloride solutions as a process for storing carbon dioxide, the thermal behaviour and structural stability of its solid product, nesquehonite (MgCO(3).3H(2)O), were investigated in situ using real-time laboratory parallel-beam X-ray powder diffraction. The results suggest that the nesquehonite structure remains substantially unaffected up to 373 K, with the exception of a markedly anisotropic thermal expansion acting mainly along the c axis. In the 371-390 K range, the loss of one water molecule results in the nucleation of a phase of probable composition MgCO(3).2H(2)O, which is characterized by significant structural disorder. At higher temperatures (423-483 K), both magnesite and MgO.2MgCO(3) coexist. Finally, at 603 K, periclase nucleation starts and the disappearance of carbonate phases is completed at 683 K. Consequently, the structural stability of nesquehonite at high temperatures suggests that it will remain stable under the temperature conditions that prevail at the Earth's surface. These results will help (a) to set constraints on the temperature conditions under which nesquehonite may be safely stored and (b) to develop CO(2) sequestration via the synthesis of nesquehonite for industrial application. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A numerical analysis of carbon dynamics of the Southern Ocean phytoplankton community: the roles of light and grazing in effecting both sequestration of atmospheric CO 2 and food availability to larval krill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Lenes, Jason

    2001-01-01

    Reduced ice extent within coastal regions of the Southern Ocean may lead to deeper surface mixed layers (SML), as prevail in offshore areas. A future decline of ice melt-induced stability of the water column may be associated with a shift in dominant food webs, from larger, sun-adapted diatoms grazed by euphausiids to smaller, shade-adapted flagellates consumed by salps. A basically one-dimensional numerical model of three dominant groups of the Antarctic phytoplankton community (diatoms, cryptophytes, and colonial prymnesiophytes) and four types of herbivore (protozoans, salps, copepods, and euphausiids) is used to explore the seasonal importance of both light limitation and grazing pressure on the amount of annual carbon sequestration and larval krill survival within contrasting oceanic and neritic waters, where respective validation data have been gathered during austral spring by the European JGOFS and RACER programs. With imposition of moderate and large grazing stresses, thought to be typical of offshore waters, we were able to replicate the European JGOFS 1992 observations of light penetration, phytoplankton biomass, primary production, pCO 2, bacterial biomass, labile DOC, ammonium, and total particle effluxes at 100 m within the deep SML of our model. The fidelity of such a large set of simulated state variables suggests that multiple limiting factors are indeed operating on different components of the oceanic phytoplankton community — selective grazing losses on the flagellates, but light limitation of diatoms. Release of protozoan grazing pressure in our model instead leads to unobserved spring blooms of cryptophytes, found only in laboratory enclosures. On an annual basis, weak sequestration of atmospheric CO 2 is simulated in a habitat typical of the Polar Front, while evasion of carbon dioxide occurs under biophysical conditions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Stratification in shallow SML and the same absolute grazing demands by krill and

  15. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration on dynamics of leaf photosynthesis in Fagus sylvatica is modulated by sky conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Otmar; Klem, Karel; Holišová, Petra; Šigut, Ladislav; Šprtová, Mirka; Teslová-Navrátilová, Petra; Zitová, Martina; Špunda, Vladimír; Marek, Michal V.; Grace, John

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that atmospheric CO 2 concentration and frequency of cloud cover will increase in future. It remains unclear, however, how elevated CO 2 influences photosynthesis under complex clear versus cloudy sky conditions. Accordingly, diurnal changes in photosynthetic responses among beech trees grown at ambient (AC) and doubled (EC) CO 2 concentrations were studied under contrasting sky conditions. EC stimulated the daily sum of fixed CO 2 and light use efficiency under clear sky. Meanwhile, both these parameters were reduced under cloudy sky as compared with AC treatment. Reduction in photosynthesis rate under cloudy sky was particularly associated with EC-stimulated, xanthophyll-dependent thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy. Under clear sky, a pronounced afternoon depression of CO 2 assimilation rate was found in sun-adapted leaves under EC compared with AC conditions. This was caused in particular by stomata closure mediated by vapour pressure deficit. -- Highlights: • Sky conditions affect the relative impact of elevated CO 2 on photosynthesis. • Cloudy skies reduce light use efficiency and carbon gain when CO 2 is elevated. • Stimulation of photosynthesis by high CO 2 may decline with increasing cloud cover. • High CO 2 leads to marked afternoon photosynthesis depression in sun-adapted leaves. -- The stimulatory effect of elevated CO 2 concentration on photosynthetic carbon assimilation can be expected to diminish as cloud cover increases

  16. Antecedent moisture and temperature conditions modulate the response of ecosystem respiration to elevated CO2 and warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrestrial plant and soil respiration, or ecosystem respiration (Reco), represents a major CO2 flux in the global carbon cycle. However, there is disagreement in how Reco will respond to future global changes, such as elevated atmosphere CO2 and warming. To address this, we synthesized six years (2...

  17. The response of Plantago major ssp pleiosperma to elevated CO2 is modulated by the formation of secondary shoots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho Guerra da Fonseca, F.M; den Hertog, J; Stulen, G

    The effect of elevated CO2 on the relative growth rate (RGR) of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma was studied during the vegetative stage, in relation to plant development, by growing plants at 350 mu l l(-1) or at 700 mu l l(-1) CO2 in non-limiting nutrient solution with nitrate. To minimize

  18. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration on dynamics of leaf photosynthesis in Fagus sylvatica is modulated by sky conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Otmar; Klem, Karel; Holišová, Petra; Šigut, Ladislav; Šprtová, Mirka; Teslová-Navrátilová, Petra; Zitová, Martina; Špunda, Vladimír; Marek, Michal V; Grace, John

    2014-02-01

    It has been suggested that atmospheric CO2 concentration and frequency of cloud cover will increase in future. It remains unclear, however, how elevated CO2 influences photosynthesis under complex clear versus cloudy sky conditions. Accordingly, diurnal changes in photosynthetic responses among beech trees grown at ambient (AC) and doubled (EC) CO2 concentrations were studied under contrasting sky conditions. EC stimulated the daily sum of fixed CO2 and light use efficiency under clear sky. Meanwhile, both these parameters were reduced under cloudy sky as compared with AC treatment. Reduction in photosynthesis rate under cloudy sky was particularly associated with EC-stimulated, xanthophyll-dependent thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy. Under clear sky, a pronounced afternoon depression of CO2 assimilation rate was found in sun-adapted leaves under EC compared with AC conditions. This was caused in particular by stomata closure mediated by vapour pressure deficit. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. STOMP Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases: STOMP-CO2 and STOMP-CO2e Guide: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; McGrail, B. Peter; Watson, David J.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2012-04-03

    This STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) guide document describes the theory, use, and application of the STOMP-CO2 and STOMP-CO2e operational modes. These operational modes of the STOMP simulator are configured to solve problems involving the sequestration of CO2 in geologic saline reservoirs. STOMP-CO2 is the isothermal version and STOMP-CO2e is the nonisothermal version. These core operational modes solve the governing conservation equations for component flow and transport through geologic media; where, the STOMP-CO2 components are water, CO2 and salt and the STOMP-CO2e operational mode also includes an energy conservation equation. Geochemistry can be included in the problem solution via the ECKEChem (Equilibrium-Conservation-Kinetic-Equation Chemistry) module, and geomechanics via the EPRMech (Elastic-Plastic-Rock Mechanics) module. This addendum is designed to provide the new user with a full guide for the core capabilities of the STOMP-CO2 and -CO2e simulators, and to provide the experienced user with a quick reference on implementing features. Several benchmark problems are provided in this addendum, which serve as starting points for developing inputs for more complex problems and as demonstrations of the simulator’s capabilities.

  20. Atmospheric CO2 Column Measurements with an Airborne Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave 1.57-micron Fiber Laser Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Jeremy T.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Browell, Edward V.; Lin, Bing; McGregor, Doug; Kooi, Susan; Choi, Yonghoon; Ismail, Syed

    2013-01-01

    The 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space recommended Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as a mid-term, Tier II, NASA space mission. ITT Exelis, formerly ITT Corp., and NASA Langley Research Center have been working together since 2004 to develop and demonstrate a prototype Laser Absorption Spectrometer for making high-precision, column CO2 mixing ratio measurements needed for the ASCENDS mission. This instrument, called the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), operates in an intensity-modulated, continuous-wave mode in the 1.57- micron CO2 absorption band. Flight experiments have been conducted with the MFLL on a Lear-25, UC-12, and DC-8 aircraft over a variety of different surfaces and under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Very high-precision CO2 column measurements resulting from high signal-to-noise (great than 1300) column optical depth measurements for a 10-s (approximately 1 km) averaging interval have been achieved. In situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 profiles were used to derive the expected CO2 column values, and when compared to the MFLL measurements over desert and vegetated surfaces, the MFLL measurements were found to agree with the in situ-derived CO2 columns to within an average of 0.17% or approximately 0.65 ppmv with a standard deviation of 0.44% or approximately 1.7 ppmv. Initial results demonstrating ranging capability using a swept modulation technique are also presented.

  1. Vertically averaged approaches for CO 2 migration with solubility trapping

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Celia, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    The long-term storage security of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential component of geological carbon sequestration operations. In the postinjection phase, the mobile CO2 plume migrates in large part because of buoyancy forces, following

  2. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard J. Herzog; E. Eric Adams

    2003-04-01

    The main goal of our work during this time period (August 23, 2001-August 23, 2002) was to conduct a field experiment in Norwegian waters. Preparation for the field experiment included building the apparatus, designing and obtaining the measurement systems, planning the logistics (ships, crew, supplies, etc.) and conducting a survey cruise. The survey cruise, conducted in July 2002, is documented in this report. The field experiment, scheduled for August 2002, was postponed when the Norwegian environmental minister revoked our permit under pressure from Greenpeace. Events surrounding the permitting situation are documented in the Appendix.

  3. Random-modulation differential absorption lidar based on semiconductor lasers and single photon counting for atmospheric CO2 sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatrevalet, M.; Ai, X.; Pérez-Serrano, A.; Adamiec, P.; Barbero, J.; Fix, A.; Rarity, J. G.; Ehret, G.; Esquivias, I.

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major anthropogenic greenhouse gas contributing to global warming and climate change. Its concentration has recently reached the 400-ppm mark, representing a more than 40 % increase with respect to its level prior to the industrial revolution.

  4. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    Carbon capture and sequestration (or storage)known as CCShas attracted interest as a : measure for mitigating global climate change because large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) : emitted from fossil fuel use in the United States are potentiall...

  5. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, K.; Kovscek, A.R.; Orr, F.M. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage. [Author

  6. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, Kristian; Kovscek, Anthony R.; Orr, Franklin M.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage

  7. Highly dissipative Hénon map behavior in the four-level model of the CO 2 laser with modulated losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando L., C. L.; Acosta, G. A. Luna; Meucci, R.; Ciofini, M.

    1995-02-01

    We show that the four-level model for the CO 2 laser with modulated losses behaves in a qualitatively similar way as the highly dissipative Hénon map. The ubiquity of elements of the universal sequence, their related symbolic dynamics, and the presence of reverse bifurcations of chaotic bands in the model are reminiscent of the logistic map which is the limit of the Hénon map when the Jacobian equals zero. The coexistence of attractors, its dynamics related to contraction of volumes in phase space and the associated return maps can be correlated with those of the highly dissipative Hénon map.

  8. A shell-formation related carbonic anhydrase in Crassostrea gigas modulates intracellular calcium against CO2 exposure: Implication for impacts of ocean acidification on mollusk calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiudan; Wang, Mengqiang; Jia, Zhihao; Song, Xiaorui; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2017-08-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) could decrease the shells and skeletons formation of mollusk by reducing the availability of carbonate ions at calcification sites. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) convert CO 2 to HCO 3 - and play important roles in biomineralization process from invertebrate to vertebrate. In the present study, a CA (designated as CgCA) was identified and characterized in Pacific oyster C. gigas. The cDNA of CgCA was of 927bp encoding a predicted polypeptide of 308 amino acids with a signal peptide and a CA catalytic function domain. The mRNA transcripts of CgCA were constitutively expressed in all tested tissues with the highest levels in mantle and hemocytes. During the early development period, the mRNA transcripts of CgCA could be detected in all the stages with the highest level in D-veliger larvae. Elevated CO 2 increased the mRNA transcripts of CgCA in muscle, mantle, hepatopancreas, gill and hemocytes significantly (p<0.05) and induced the translocation of CgCA in hemocytes and mantle. Moreover, elevated CO 2 also caused the decrease of intracellular Ca 2+ in hemocytes (p<0.05). The inhibition of CA by acetazolamide and suppression of CgCA gene via RNA interference could increase the intracellular Ca 2+ in hemocytes (p<0.05). Besides, the decrease of intracellular Ca 2+ content caused by Ca 2+ reagent ionomycin could affect localization of CgCA in mantle tissue. The results indicated CgCA played essential roles in calcification and elevated CO 2 accelerated the mutual modulation between calcium and CgCA, implying reduced calcification rate and dissolved shells under OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of the impacts of operational and geologic conditions on Area of Review (AOR, Post Injection Site Care (PISC and Risk associated with CO2 Sequestration in South-region of United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Andrés Arcentales Bastidas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 capture is important to consider: gas storage’s formation capacity, saturation and pressure plume size after injection; including the risks associated with CO2 leakage and faults reactivation. A formation with a reasonable pore volume would be a good candidate for CO2 storage, however, not all high porosity formations have the ability to store large amounts of gas over a long period of time. That's the biggest concern when it refers to CO2 capture. Saturation and pressure plume size during CO2 injection as well as site monitoring after injection were simulated in this research, using CRD field reservoir models. The application of Pareto diagrams and surface responses allowed us to determine the most important parameters that affected the saturation and pressure plume, quantifying the correlation between different parameters of adjusted and dimensioned historical models.

  10. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.

    2014-01-01

    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) real-time forecast is now available as part of the preoperational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO 2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO 2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO 2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO 2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO 2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO 2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO 2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO 2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO 2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO 2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO 2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO 2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO 2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO 2 products retrieved from satellite

  11. Shifting terrestrial feedbacks from CO2 fertilization to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan; Canadell, Josep; Obersteiner, Michael; Piao, Shilong; Vautard, Robert; Sardans Jordi Sardans, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Humans are increasingly fertilizing the planet. Our activities are increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, nitrogen inputs to ecosystems and global temperatures. Individually and combined, they lead to biospheric availability of carbon and nitrogen, enhanced metabolic activity, and longer growing seasons. Plants can consequently grow more and take up more carbon that can be stored in ecosystem carbon pools, thus enhancing carbon sinks for atmospheric CO2. Data on the increased strength of carbon sinks are, however, inconclusive: Some data (eddy covariance, short-term experiments on elevated CO2 and nutrient fertilization) suggest that biospheric carbon uptake is already effectively increasing but some other data suggest it is not, or are not general and conclusive (tree-ring, forest inventory). The combined land-ocean CO2 sink flux per unit of excess atmospheric CO2 above preindustrial levels declined over 1959-2012 by a factor of about 1/3, implying that CO2 sinks increased more slowly than excess CO2. We will discuss the available data, and the discussion will drive us to revisit our projections for enhanced carbon sinks. We will reconsider the performance of the modulators of increased carbon uptake in a CO2 fertilized and warmed world: nutrients, climate, land use and pollution. Nutrient availability in particular plays a crucial role. A simple mass-balance approach indicates that limited phosphorus availability and the corresponding N:P imbalances can jointly reduce the projected future carbon storage by natural ecosystems during this century. We then present a new paradigm: we are shifting from a fertilization to a warming era. Compared to the historical period, future impacts of warming will be larger than the benefits of CO2 fertilization given nutrient limitations, management and disturbance (which reduces C stocks and thus sequestration potential) and because CO2 will decrease by 2050 in RCP2.6, meaning loss of CO2 fertilization, and CO2

  12. Precession and atmospheric CO2 modulated variability of sea ice in the central Okhotsk Sea since 130,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Li; Belt, Simon T.; Lattaud, Julie; Friedrich, Tobias; Zeeden, Christian; Schouten, Stefan; Smik, Lukas; Timmermann, Axel; Cabedo-Sanz, Patricia; Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Zhou, Liping; Ou, Tsong-Hua; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Wang, Liang-Chi; Chou, Yu-Min; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chen, Min-Te; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Song, Sheng-Rong; Fang, Tien-Hsi; Gorbarenko, Sergey A.; Wang, Wei-Lung; Lee, Teh-Quei; Elderfield, Henry; Hodell, David A.

    2018-04-01

    Recent reduction in high-latitude sea ice extent demonstrates that sea ice is highly sensitive to external and internal radiative forcings. In order to better understand sea ice system responses to external orbital forcing and internal oscillations on orbital timescales, here we reconstruct changes in sea ice extent and summer sea surface temperature (SSST) over the past 130,000 yrs in the central Okhotsk Sea. We applied novel organic geochemical proxies of sea ice (IP25), SSST (TEX86L) and open water marine productivity (a tri-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid and biogenic opal) to marine sediment core MD01-2414 (53°11.77‧N, 149°34.80‧E, water depth 1123 m). To complement the proxy data, we also carried out transient Earth system model simulations and sensitivity tests to identify contributions of different climatic forcing factors. Our results show that the central Okhotsk Sea was ice-free during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e and the early-mid Holocene, but experienced variable sea ice cover during MIS 2-4, consistent with intervals of relatively high and low SSST, respectively. Our data also show that the sea ice extent was governed by precession-dominated insolation changes during intervals of atmospheric CO2 concentrations ranging from 190 to 260 ppm. However, the proxy record and the model simulation data show that the central Okhotsk Sea was near ice-free regardless of insolation forcing throughout the penultimate interglacial, and during the Holocene, when atmospheric CO2 was above ∼260 ppm. Past sea ice conditions in the central Okhotsk Sea were therefore strongly modulated by both orbital-driven insolation and CO2-induced radiative forcing during the past glacial/interglacial cycle.

  13. Climate change and CO2 emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Duong, M.; Campos, A.S.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents the results of an opinion poll performed on a representative sample of 1000 persons about their sensitivity to climate change and to environment protection, their knowledge about technologies which are useful for environment protection, their opinion about geological CO 2 sequestration, and technologies to be developed to struggle against climate warming

  14. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Response of Microbial Reactions to High CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qusheng; Kirk, Matthew F

    2016-01-01

    Geological carbon sequestration captures CO 2 from industrial sources and stores the CO 2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO 2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO 2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The results show that increasing CO 2 levels decreases groundwater pH and modulates chemical speciation of weak acids in groundwater, which in turn affect microbial reactions in different ways and to different extents. Specifically, a thermodynamic analysis shows that increasing CO 2 partial pressure lowers the energy available from syntrophic oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis, but raises the available energy of microbial iron reduction, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Kinetic modeling suggests that high CO 2 has the potential of inhibiting microbial sulfate reduction while promoting iron reduction. These results are consistent with the observations of previous laboratory and field studies, and highlight the complexity in microbiological responses to elevated CO 2 abundance, and the potential power of biogeochemical modeling in evaluating and quantifying these responses.

  15. Thermodynamic and kinetic response of microbial reactions to high CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusheng Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Geological carbon sequestration captures CO2 from industrial sources and stores the CO2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The results show that increasing CO2 levels decreases groundwater pH and modulates chemical speciation of weak acids in groundwater, which in turn affect microbial reactions in different ways and to different extents. Specifically, a thermodynamic analysis shows that increasing CO2 partial pressure lowers the energy available from syntrophic oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis, but raises the available energy of microbial iron reduction, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Kinetic modeling suggests that high CO2 has the potential of inhibiting microbial sulfate reduction while promoting iron reduction. These results are consistent with the observations of previous laboratory and field studies, and highlight the complexity in microbiological responses to elevated CO2 abundance, and the potential power of biogeochemical modeling in evaluating and quantifying these responses.

  16. Geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.

    2005-01-01

    The industrial storage of CO 2 is comprised of three steps: - capture of CO 2 where it is produced (power plants, cement plants, etc.); - transport (pipe lines or boats); - storage, mainly underground, called geological sequestration... Three types of reservoirs are considered: - salted deep aquifers - they offer the biggest storage capacity; - exhausted oil and gas fields; - non-exploited deep coal mine streams. The two latter storage types may allow the recovery of sellable products, which partially or totally offsets the storage costs. This process is largely used in the petroleum industry to improve the productivity of an oil field, and is called FOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery). A similar process is applied in the coal mining industry to recover the imprisoned gas, and is called ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed methane). Two storage operations have been initiated in Norway and in Canada, as well as research programmes in Europe, North America, Australia and Japan. International organisations to stimulate this technology have been created such as the 'Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum' and 'the Intergovernmental Group for Climate Change'. This technology will be taken into account in the instruments provided by the Tokyo Protocol. (author)

  17. Risk analysis and liabilities related to CO{sup 2} capture and sequestration in oil reservoirs; Analise de riscos e responsabilidades relacionadas a captura e sequestro de CO2 em reservatorios petroliferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Andre Ribeiro [Shell Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Although until the present moment there are no initiatives known to the public regarding carbon capture and sequestration projects to be performed in Brazil, this technique has gained great projection internationally as an initiative that makes it possible to meet the growing energetic and industrial needs of the world while mitigating the release of harmful emissions to the atmosphere. Considering its relevance and the interest of companies and countries in this activity, this paper intends to briefly analyze, from the Brazilian law perspective, the liabilities that would bind companies if they already performed carbon capture and storage in Brazil today. (author)

  18. Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savioli, Gabriela B; Santos, Juan E

    2011-01-01

    Storage of CO 2 in geological formations is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Saline aquifers are a good alternative as storage sites due to their large volume and their common occurrence in nature. The first commercial CO 2 injection project is that of the Sleipner field in the Utsira Sand aquifer (North Sea). Nevertheless, very little was known about the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration over very long periods of time. In this way, numerical modeling of CO 2 injection and seismic monitoring is an important tool to understand the behavior of CO 2 after injection and to make long term predictions in order to prevent CO 2 leaks from the storage into the atmosphere. The description of CO 2 injection into subsurface formations requires an accurate fluid-flow model. To simulate the simultaneous flow of brine and CO 2 we apply the Black-Oil formulation for two phase flow in porous media, which uses the PVT data as a simplified thermodynamic model. Seismic monitoring is modeled using Biot's equations of motion describing wave propagation in fluid-saturated poroviscoelastic solids. Numerical examples of CO 2 injection and time-lapse seismics using data of the Utsira formation show the capability of this methodology to monitor the migration and dispersal of CO 2 after injection.

  19. Laboratory batch experiments and geochemical modelling of water-rock-supercritical CO2 reactions in Southern San Joaquin Valley, California oil field sediments: Implications for future carbon capture and sequestration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickler, P. J.; Rivas, C.; Freeman, S.; Tan, T. W.; Baron, D.; Horton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Storage of CO2 as supercritical liquid in oil reservoirs has been proposed for enhanced oil recovery and a way to lower atmospheric CO2 levels. The fate of CO2 after injection requires an understanding of mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions occurring between the formation minerals and the existing formation brines at formation temperatures and pressures in the presence of supercritical CO2. In this study, core samples from three potential storage formations, the Vedder Fm. (Rio Bravo oil field), Stevens Fm. (Elk Hills oil field) and Temblor Fm. (McKittrick oil field) were reacted with a synthetic brine and CO2(sc) at reservoir temperature (110°C) and pressure (245-250 bar). A combination of petrographic, SEM-EDS and XRD analyses, brine chemistry, and PHREEQ-C modelling were used to identify geochemical reactions altering aquifer mineralogy. XRD and petrographic analyses identified potentially reactive minerals including calcite and dolomite (~2%), pyrite (~1%), and feldspars (~25-60%). Despite the low abundance, calcite dissolution and pyrite oxidation were dominant geochemical reactions. Feldspar weathering produced release rates ~1-2 orders of magnitude slower than calcite dissolution. Calcite dissolution increased the aqueous concentrations of Ca, HCO3, Mg, Mn and Sr. Silicate weathering increased the aqueous concentrations of Si and K. Plagioclase weathering likely increased aqueous Ca concentrations. Pyrite oxidation, despite attempts to remove O2 from the experiment, increased the aqueous concentration of Fe and SO4. SEM-EDS analysis of post-reaction samples identified mixed-layered illite-smectites associated with feldspar grains suggesting clay mineral precipitation in addition to calcite, pyrite and feldspar dissolution. The Vedder Fm. sample underwent complete disaggregation during the reaction due to cement dissolution. This may adversely affect Vedder Formation CCS projects by impacting injection well integrity.

  20. Stable isotope reactive transport modeling in water-rock interactions during CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Lagneau, Vincent; Agrinier, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Stable isotopes can be of great usefulness in the characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites. Stable isotopes can be used to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources. Moreover, they provide unique information about the chemical reactions that take place on the CO2-water-rock system. However, there is a lack of appropriate tools that help modelers to incorporate stable isotope information into the flow and transport models used in CO2 sequestration problems. In this work, we present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable isotopes in groundwater reactive systems. The code is an extension of the groundwater single-phase flow and reactive transport code HYTEC [2]. HYTEC's transport module was modified to include element isotopes as separate species. This way, it is able to track isotope composition of the system by computing the mixing between the background water and the injected solution accounting for the dependency of diffusion on the isotope mass. The chemical module and database have been expanded to included isotopic exchange with minerals and the isotope fractionation associated with chemical reactions and mineral dissolution or precipitation. The performance of the code is illustrated through a series of column synthetic models. The code is also used to model the aqueous phase CO2 injection test carried out at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory site (Palisades, New York, USA) [1]. References [1] N. Assayag, J. Matter, M. Ader, D. Goldberg, and P. Agrinier. Water-rock interactions during a CO2 injection field-test: Implications on host rock dissolution and alteration effects. Chemical Geology, 265(1-2):227-235, July 2009. [2] Jan van der Lee, Laurent De Windt, Vincent Lagneau, and Patrick Goblet. Module-oriented modeling of reactive transport with HYTEC. Computers & Geosciences, 29(3):265-275, April 2003.

  1. Simulation of CO2 Injection in Porous Media with Structural Deformation Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is one of the most attractive methods to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by injecting it into the geological formations. Furthermore, it is also an effective mechanism for enhanced oil recovery

  2. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  3. CO2 laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The research and development programs on high-energy, short-pulse CO 2 lasers were begun at LASL in 1969. Three large systems are now either operating or are being installed. The Single-Beam System (SBS), a four-stage prototype, was designed in 1971 and has been in operation since 1973 with an output energy of 250 J in a 1-ns pulse with an on-target intensity of 3.5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The Dual-Beam System (DBS), now in the final stages of electrical and optical checkout, will provide about ten times more power for two-beam target irradiation experiments. Four such dual-beam modules are being installed in the Laser-Fusion Laboratory to provide an Eight-Beam System (EBS) scheduled for operation at the 5- to 10-TW level in 1977. A fourth system, a 100- to 200-TW CO 2 laser, is being designed for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) program

  4. Kinetics of CO2 and methane hydrate formation : an experimental analysis in the bulk phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Rudolph, E.S.J.; Zitha, P.L.J.; Golombok, M.

    2011-01-01

    Gas resources captured in the form of gas hydrates are by an order of magnitude larger than the resources available from conventional resources. In order to keep the CO2CO2 footprint in the world as small as possible, the idea is to produce methane hydrates and sequestrate CO2CO2 into hydrates in

  5. Capture and geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This dossier about carbon sequestration presents: 1 - the world fossil fuels demand and its environmental impact; 2 - the solutions to answer the climatic change threat: limitation of fossil fuels consumption, development of nuclear and renewable energies, capture and storage of CO 2 (environmental and industrial advantage, cost); 3 - the CO 2 capture: post-combustion smokes treatment, oxi-combustion techniques, pre-combustion techniques; 4 - CO 2 storage: in hydrocarbon deposits (Weyburn site in Canada), in deep saline aquifers (Sleipner and K12B (North Sea)), in non-exploitable coal seams (Recopol European project); 5 - international and national mobilization: IEA R and D program, USA (FutureGen zero-emission coal-fired power plant, Carbon Sequestration Leadership forum), European Union (AZEP, GRACE, GESTCO, CO2STORE, NASCENT, RECOPOL, Castor, ENCAP, CO2sink etc programs), French actions (CO 2 club, network of oil and gas technologies (RTPG)), environmental stake, competitiveness, research stake. (J.S.)

  6. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2007-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection

  7. Molecular simulations of CO2 at interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestri, Alessandro

    trapping mechanisms that act over dierent time scales, where eectiveness is determined by phenomena that occur at the interfaces between CO2, pore uids and the pore surfaces. Solid theoretical understanding of the nanoscale interactions that result from the interplay of intermolecular and surface forces...... variety of conditions: pressure, temperature, pore solution salinity and various mineral surfaces. However, achieving representative subsurface conditions in experiments is challenging and reported data are aected by experimental uncertainties and sometimes are contradictory. Molecular modelling...... rock record and the formations are generally porous so their probable response to CO2 sequestration needs to be investigated. However, despite the large number of geologic sequestration publications on water{rock interactions over the last decade, studies on carbonate reservoirs remain scarce...

  8. Extraction of Seabed/Subsurface Features in a Potential CO2 Sequestration Site in the Southern Baltic Sea, Using Wavelet Transform of High-resolution Sub-Bottom Profiler Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegowski, J.; Zajfert, G.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) efficiently prevents the release of anthropogenic CO2 into the atmosphere. We investigate a potential site in the Polish Sector of the Baltic Sea (B3 field site), consisting in a depleted oil and gas reservoir. An area ca. 30 x 8 km was surveyed along 138 acoustic transects, realised from R/V St. Barbara in 2012 and combining multibeam echosounder, sidescan sonar and sub-bottom profiler. Preparation of CCS sites requires accurate knowledge of the subsurface structure of the seafloor, in particular deposit compactness. Gas leaks in the water column were monitored, along with the structure of upper sediment layers. Our analyses show the shallow sub-seabed is layered, and quantified the spatial distribution of gas diffusion chimneys and seabed effusion craters. Remote detection of gas-containing surface sediments can be rather complex if bubbles are not emitted directly into the overlying water and thus detectable acoustically. The heterogeneity of gassy sediments makes conventional bottom sampling methods inefficient. Therefore, we propose a new approach to identification, mapping, and monitoring of potentially gassy surface sediments, based on wavelet analysis of echo signal envelopes of a chirp sub-bottom profiler (EdgeTech SB-0512). Each echo envelope was subjected to wavelet transformation, whose coefficients were used to calculate wavelet energies. The set of echo envelope parameters was input to fuzzy logic and c-means algorithms. The resulting classification highlights seafloor areas with different subsurface morphological features, which can indicate gassy sediments. This work has been conducted under EC FP7-CP-IP project No. 265847: Sub-seabed CO2 Storage: Impact on Marine Ecosystems (ECO2).

  9. CO2 capture takes its industrial turn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remoue, A.; Lutzky, A.

    2009-01-01

    The CO 2 capture and sequestration is entering the industrial era. The technologies are ready, the regulation is progressively put into action, the financing of demonstration facilities is unfreezing and companies are on the starting line from Canada to China, including the USA and Europe. The market takeoff is expected for 2015 but the competition is already hard between equipment manufacturers who wish to develop proprietary technologies. (J.S.)

  10. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded...... simulations were made for seven oil samples within a wide range of temperature, pressure and salinity. The results were analyzed in terms of the change in oil recovery due to different phase equilibrium descriptions, the delay in breakthrough and the CO2 lost to the aqueous phase. The influence of different...

  11. Field demonstration of CO2 leakage detection in potable aquifers with a pulselike CO2-release test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D; Delgado-Alonso, Jesus; Mickler, Patrick J; Treviño, Ramón H; Phillips, Straun

    2014-12-02

    This study presents two field pulselike CO2-release tests to demonstrate CO2 leakage detection in a shallow aquifer by monitoring groundwater pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) using the periodic groundwater sampling method and a fiber-optic CO2 sensor for real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 in groundwater. Measurements of groundwater pH, alkalinity, DIC, and dissolved CO2 clearly deviated from their background values, showing responses to CO2 leakage. Dissolved CO2 observed in the tests was highly sensitive in comparison to groundwater pH, DIC, and alkalinity. Comparison of the pulselike CO2-release tests to other field tests suggests that pulselike CO2-release tests can provide reliable assessment of geochemical parameters indicative of CO2 leakage. Measurements by the fiber-optic CO2 sensor, showing obvious leakage signals, demonstrated the potential of real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 for leakage detection at a geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) site. Results of a two-dimensional reactive transport model reproduced the geochemical measurements and confirmed that the decrease in groundwater pH and the increases in DIC and dissolved CO2 observed in the pulselike CO2-release tests were caused by dissolution of CO2 whereas alkalinity was likely affected by carbonate dissolution.

  12. Study of Adsorbents for the Capture of CO2 in Post-combustion. Contribution of CIEMAT to Module 4 of the CENITCO2 Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, E.; Marono, M.; Sanchez-Hervas, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of CIEMAT within the CENIT-CO 2 project has been the development of a process for CO 2 capture from combustion flue gases by physical adsorption. In the first stage, screening studies to select promising adsorbents were carried out at laboratory scale, using simplified gas compositions. After that, pilot plant studies were performed using appropriate configurations of promising adsorbents under realistic conditions. CO 2 adsorption cyclic capacity of different adsorbents has been studied. Lastly, for the adsorbent selected as most promising, its cyclic efficiency and selectivity for CO 2 adsorption in the presence of other gaseous components (SO 2 , H 2 O, NO) of the combustion gas has been determined, as well as its performance along multiple sorption-desorption cycles in the presence of simulated combustion gas. None of the studied adsorbents, though being promising since they all have a capture efficiency of about 90%, seem to be susceptible of direct application to CO 2 capture by physical adsorption under conditions representative of gases exiting the desulphurization tower of conventional pulverized coal combustion plants. As an alternative, the development of hybrid and regenerable solid sorbents (physical-chemical adsorption) is proposed or the application of new technologies under development such as the electrochemical promotion in capturing CO 2 . (Author) 33 refs.

  13. Diurnal changes in photosynthetic parameters of Populus tremuloides, modulated by elevated concentrations of CO2 and/or O3 and daily climatic variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kets, Katre; Darbah, Joseph N.T.; Sober, Anu; Riikonen, Johanna; Sober, Jaak; Karnosky, David F.

    2010-01-01

    The diurnal changes in light-saturated photosynthesis (Pn) under elevated CO 2 and/or O 3 in relation to stomatal conductance (g s ), water potential, intercellular [CO 2 ], leaf temperature and vapour-pressure difference between leaf and air (VPD L ) were studied at the Aspen FACE site. Two aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones differing in their sensitivity to ozone were measured. The depression in Pn was found after 10:00 h. The midday decline in Pn corresponded with both decreased g s and decreased Rubisco carboxylation efficiency, Vc max . As a result of increasing VPD L , g s decreased. Elevated [CO 2 ] resulted in more pronounced midday decline in Pn compared to ambient concentrations. Moreover, this decline was more pronounced under combined treatment compared to elevated CO 2 treatment. The positive impact of CO 2 on Pn was relatively more pronounced in days with environmental stress but relatively less pronounced during midday depression. The negative impact of ozone tended to decrease in both cases. - Diurnal and seasonal patterns of environmental stress (drought, high air temperature) affects a relative impact of elevated concentrations of CO 2 and O 3 on trees.

  14. CO2NNIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based......% of the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  15. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept

  16. Carbon sequestration in wood and paper products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Geraldine A. Nicholson

    2000-01-01

    Recognition that increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere will affect the global climate has spurred research into reduction global carbon emissions and increasing carbon sequestration. The main nonhuman sources of atmospheric CO2 are animal respiration and decay of biomass. However, increases in atmospheric levels are...

  17. Coccolithophore surface distributions in the North Atlantic and their modulation of the air-sea flux of CO2 from 10 years of satellite Earth observation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Shutler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Coccolithophores are the primary oceanic phytoplankton responsible for the production of calcium carbonate (CaCO3. These climatically important plankton play a key role in the oceanic carbon cycle as a major contributor of carbon to the open ocean carbonate pump (~50% and their calcification can affect the atmosphere-to-ocean (air-sea uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2 through increasing the seawater partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2. Here we document variations in the areal extent of surface blooms of the globally important coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, in the North Atlantic over a 10-year period (1998–2007, using Earth observation data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS. We calculate the annual mean sea surface areal coverage of E. huxleyi in the North Atlantic to be 474 000 ± 104 000 km2, which results in a net CaCO3 carbon (CaCO3-C production of 0.14–1.71 Tg CaCO3-C per year. However, this surface coverage (and, thus, net production can fluctuate inter-annually by −54/+8% about the mean value and is strongly correlated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO climate oscillation index (r=0.75, pE. huxleyi blooms in the North Atlantic can increase the pCO2 and, thus, decrease the localised air-sea flux of atmospheric CO2. In regions where the blooms are prevalent, the average reduction in the monthly air-sea CO2 flux can reach 55%. The maximum reduction of the monthly air-sea CO2 flux in the time series is 155%. This work suggests that the high variability, frequency and distribution of these calcifying plankton and their impact on pCO2 should be considered if we are to fully understand the variability of the North Atlantic air-to-sea flux of CO2. We estimate that these blooms can reduce the annual N. Atlantic net sink atmospheric CO2 by between 3–28%.

  18. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  19. Novel concepts for CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkstra, J.W.; Jansen, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the possibilities for power generation with CO 2 capture using envisaged key technologies: gas turbines, membranes and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). First, the underlying programs in the Netherlands and at ECN are introduced. Then the key technologies are introduced, and concepts using these technologies are discussed. A literature overview of systems for power generation with fuel cells in combination with CO 2 capture is presented. Then a novel concept is introduced. This concept uses a water gas shift membrane reactor to convert the CO and H 2 in the SOFC anode off-gas to gain a CO 2 rich stream, which can be used for sequestration without elaborate treatment. Several implementation schemes of the technique are discussed such as atmospheric systems and hybrid SOFC-GT systems

  20. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  1. ECO2M: A TOUGH2 Fluid Property Module for Mixtures of Water, NaCl, and CO2, Including Super- and Sub-Critical Conditions, and Phase Change Between Liquid and Gaseous CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.

    2011-04-01

    ECO2M is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.0) that was designed for applications to geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. It includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamics and thermophysical properties of H{sub 2}O - NaCl - CO{sub 2} mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for temperature, pressure and salinity conditions in the range of 10 C {le} T {le} 110 C, P {le} 600 bar, and salinity from zero up to full halite saturation. The fluid property correlations used in ECO2M are identical to the earlier ECO2N fluid property package, but whereas ECO2N could represent only a single CO{sub 2}-rich phase, ECO2M can describe all possible phase conditions for brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. This allows for seamless modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO{sub 2}-rich) phase, as well as two-and three-phase mixtures of aqueous, liquid CO{sub 2} and gaseous CO{sub 2} phases. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. TOUGH2/ECO2M is upwardly compatible with ECO2N and accepts ECO2N-style inputs. This report gives technical specifications of ECO2M and includes instructions for preparing input data. Code applications are illustrated by means of several sample problems, including problems that had been previously solved with TOUGH2/ECO2N.

  2. Well technologies for CO2 geological storage: CO2-resistant cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlet-Gouedard, V.; Rimmele, G.; Porcherie, O.; Goffe, B.

    2007-01-01

    Storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) underground is considered the most effective way for long-term safe and low-cost CO 2 sequestration. This recent application requires long-term well-bore integrity. A CO 2 leakage through the annulus may occur much more rapidly than geologic leakage through the formation rock, leading to economic loss, reduction of CO 2 storage efficiency, and potential compromise of the field for storage. The possibility of such leaks raises considerable concern about the long-term well-bore isolation and the durability of hydrated cement that is used to isolate the annulus across the producing/injection intervals in CO 2 -storage wells. We propose a new experimental procedure and methodology to study reactivity of CO 2 -Water-Cement systems in simulating the interaction of the set cement with injected supercritical CO 2 under downhole conditions. The conditions of experiments are 90 deg. C under 280 bars. The evolution of mechanical, physical and chemical properties of Portland cement with time is studied up to 6 months. The results are compared to equivalent studies on a new CO 2 -resistant material; the comparison shows significant promise for this new material. (authors)

  3. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  4. Modulation of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic climate by variable drawdown of atmospheric pCO2 from weathering of basaltic provinces on continents drifting through the equatorial humid belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The small reservoir of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (pCO2 that modulates climate through the greenhouse effect reflects a delicate balance between large fluxes of sources and sinks. The major long-term source of CO2 is global outgassing from sea-floor spreading, subduction, hotspot activity, and metamorphism; the ultimate sink is through weathering of continental silicates and deposition of carbonates. Most carbon cycle models are driven by changes in the source flux scaled to variable rates of ocean floor production, but ocean floor production may not be distinguishable from being steady since 180 Ma. We evaluate potential changes in sources and sinks of CO2 for the past 120 Ma in a paleogeographic context. Our new calculations show that decarbonation of pelagic sediments by Tethyan subduction contributed only modestly to generally high pCO2 levels from the Late Cretaceous until the early Eocene, and thus shutdown of this CO2 source with the collision of India and Asia at the early Eocene climate optimum at around 50 Ma was inadequate to account for the large and prolonged decrease in pCO2 that eventually allowed the growth of significant Antarctic ice sheets by around 34 Ma. Instead, variation in area of continental basalt terranes in the equatorial humid belt (5° S–5° N seems to be a dominant factor controlling how much CO2 is retained in the atmosphere via the silicate weathering feedback. The arrival of the highly weatherable Deccan Traps in the equatorial humid belt at around 50 Ma was decisive in initiating the long-term slide to lower atmospheric pCO2, which was pushed further down by the emplacement of the 30 Ma Ethiopian Traps near the equator and the southerly tectonic extrusion of SE Asia, an arc terrane that presently is estimated to account for 1/4 of CO2 consumption from all basaltic provinces that account for ~1/3 of the total CO2 consumption by continental silicate weathering (Dessert et al., 2003. A negative climate

  5. Natural analogue study of CO2 storage monitoring using probability statistics of CO2-rich groundwater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. K.; Hamm, S. Y.; Kim, S. O.; Yun, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    For confronting global climate change, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of several very useful strategies as using capture of greenhouse gases like CO2 spewed from stacks and then isolation of the gases in underground geologic storage. CO2-rich groundwater could be produced by CO2 dissolution into fresh groundwater around a CO2 storage site. As consequence, natural analogue studies related to geologic storage provide insights into future geologic CO2 storage sites as well as can provide crucial information on the safety and security of geologic sequestration, the long-term impact of CO2 storage on the environment, and field operation and monitoring that could be implemented for geologic sequestration. In this study, we developed CO2 leakage monitoring method using probability density function (PDF) by characterizing naturally occurring CO2-rich groundwater. For the study, we used existing data of CO2-rich groundwaters in different geological regions (Gangwondo, Gyeongsangdo, and Choongchungdo provinces) in South Korea. Using PDF method and QI (quantitative index), we executed qualitative and quantitative comparisons among local areas and chemical constituents. Geochemical properties of groundwater with/without CO2 as the PDF forms proved that pH, EC, TDS, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SiO2 were effective monitoring parameters for carbonated groundwater in the case of CO2leakage from an underground storage site. KEY WORDS: CO2-rich groundwater, CO2 storage site, monitoring parameter, natural analogue, probability density function (PDF), QI_quantitative index Acknowledgement This study was supported by the "Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2013R1A1A2058186)" and the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from KEITI (Project number: 2014001810003).

  6. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calfapietra, C.; Gielen, B.; Galema, A.N.J.; Lukac, M.; Angelis, de P.; Moscatelli, M.C.; Ceulemans, R.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible contribution of Short Rotation Cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]). A dense poplar plantation (1 x 1 m) was exposed to a [CO2] of 550 ppm in Central Italy using the free-air CO2 enrichment

  7. Sequestering CO2 in the Ocean: Options and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Caldeira, K.

    2002-12-01

    The likelihood of negative climate and environmental impacts associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 has prompted serious consideration of various CO2 mitigation strategies. Among these are methods of capturing and storing of CO2 in the ocean. Two approaches that have received the most attention in this regard have been i) ocean fertilization to enhanced biological uptake and fixation of CO2, and ii) the chemical/mechanical capture and injection of CO2 into the deep ocean. Both methods seek to enhance or speed up natural mechanisms of CO2 uptake and storage by the ocean, namely i) the biological CO2 "pump" or ii) the passive diffusion of CO2 into the surface ocean and subsequent mixing into the deep sea. However, as will be reviewed, concerns about the capacity and effectiveness of either strategy in long-term CO2 sequestration have been raised. Both methods are not without potentially significant environmental impacts, and the costs of CO2 capture and injection (option ii) are currently prohibitive. An alternate method of ocean CO2 sequestration would be to react and hydrate CO2 rich waste gases (e.g., power plant flue gas) with seawater and to subsequently neutralize the resulting carbonic acid with limestone to produce calcium and bicarbonate ions in solution. This approach would simply speed up the CO2 uptake and sequestration that naturally (but very slowly) occurs via global carbonate weathering. This would avoid much of the increased acidity associated with direct CO2 injection while obviating the need for costly CO2 separation and capture. The addition of the resulting bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich solution to the ocean would help to counter the decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration, and hence loss of biological calcification that is presently occurring as anthropogenic CO2 invades the ocean from the atmosphere. However, as with any approach to CO2 mitigation, the costs, impacts, risks, and benefits of this method need to be better understood

  8. Computational Modeling of the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  9. The impact of long-term elevated CO2 on C and N retention in stable SOM pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.A.; Kessel, van C.; Six, J.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 frequently increases plant production and concomitant soil C inputs, which may cause additional soil C sequestration. However, whether the increase in plant production and additional soil C sequestration under elevated CO2 can be sustained in the long-term is unclear. One

  10. Decarbonization and sequestration for mitigating global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.

    2000-01-01

    Mitigating the global warming greenhouse effect while maintaining a fossil fuel economy, requires improving efficiency of utilization of fossil fuels, use of high hydrogen content fossil fuels, decarbonization of fossil fuels, and sequestering of carbon and CO 2 applied to all the sectors of the economy, electric power generation, transportation, and industrial, and domestic power and heat generation. Decarbonization means removal of carbon as C or CO 2 either before or after fossil fuel combustion and sequestration means disposal of the recovered C or CO 2 including its utilization. Removal and recovery of CO 2 from power generation plants and sequestration in the ocean represents one possibility of making a major impact on reducing CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper will briefly review the progress made in ocean disposal and present some alternative schemes. (author)

  11. Making carbon sequestration a paying proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengxiang X.; Lindner, Jeff S.; Wang, Chuji

    2007-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased from a preindustrial concentration of about 280 ppm to about 367 ppm at present. The increase has closely followed the increase in CO2 emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the major environmental challenge for the 21st century. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO2 requires multiple mitigation pathways, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, the application of renewable energy sources, and sequestration. Sequestration is a major tool for managing carbon emissions. In a majority of cases CO2 is viewed as waste to be disposed; however, with advanced technology, carbon sequestration can become a value-added proposition. There are a number of potential opportunities that render sequestration economically viable. In this study, we review these most economically promising opportunities and pathways of carbon sequestration, including reforestation, best agricultural production, housing and furniture, enhanced oil recovery, coalbed methane (CBM), and CO2 hydrates. Many of these terrestrial and geological sequestration opportunities are expected to provide a direct economic benefit over that obtained by merely reducing the atmospheric CO2 loading. Sequestration opportunities in 11 states of the Southeast and South Central United States are discussed. Among the most promising methods for the region include reforestation and CBM. The annual forest carbon sink in this region is estimated to be 76 Tg C/year, which would amount to an expenditure of 11.1-13.9 billion/year. Best management practices could enhance carbon sequestration by 53.9 Tg C/year, accounting for 9.3% of current total annual regional greenhouse gas emission in the next 20 years. Annual carbon storage in housing, furniture, and other wood products in 1998 was estimated to be 13.9 Tg C in the region. Other sequestration options

  12. To harness, transport and store the CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    This article about the CO 2 sequestration is divided in eight parts. The first part concerns the question of why it is important to harness the carbon dioxide. The second part reviews the different technologies to harness it. In part three, the conditioning and transport of CO 2 are studied. Then, the question of geological storage is tackled. The economical aspect of the CO 2 sequestration makes the following part. The acceptability of a underground storage is evoked because of the risk relative to the CO 2 storage. Some examples and projects (Usa, Canada, France) are presented. The conclusion ends this article with the assurance that the CO 2 sequestration is possible, but expansive on the energy level and financing (double investment cost and increasing at least 30% for the production costs for the energy coming from coal). It should be realized on a big scale only if significant tax are imposed to the atmospheric releases in CO 2 as it is the case in the Norwegian example (Sleipner field). The storage potentials are important by calling for aquifer layers. The questions of law and acceptability by the public are uncertain but not insurmountable if we think to the aquifers under the seas. (N.C.)

  13. Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Soil CO2 Efflux in a Young Longleaf Pine System

    OpenAIRE

    Runion, G. Brett; Butnor, J. R.; Prior, S. A.; Mitchell, R. J.; Rogers, H. H.

    2012-01-01

    The southeastern landscape is composed of agricultural and forest systems that can store carbon (C) in standing biomass and soil. Research is needed to quantify the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on terrestrial C dynamics including CO2 release back to the atmosphere and soil sequestration. Longleaf pine savannahs are an ecologically and economically important, yet understudied, component of the southeastern landscape. We investigated the effects of ambient and elevated C...

  14. CO2 chemical valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlero De Rosbo, Guillaume; Rakotojaona, Loic; Bucy, Jacques de; Clodic, Denis; Roger, Anne-Cecile; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Thybaud, Nathalie; Oeser, Christian; Forti, Laurent; Gimenez, Michel; Savary, David; Amouroux, Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Facing global warming, different technological solutions exist to tackle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Some inevitable short term emissions can be captured so as to avoid direct emissions into the atmosphere. This CO 2 must then be managed and geological storage seems to currently be the only way of dealing with the large volumes involved. However, this solution faces major economic profitability and societal acceptance challenges. In this context, alternative pathways consisting in using CO 2 instead of storing it do exist and are generating growing interest. This study ordered by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), aims at taking stock of the different technologies used for the chemical conversion of CO 2 in order to have a better understanding of their development potential by 2030, of the conditions in which they could be competitive and of the main actions to be implemented in France to foster their emergence. To do this, the study was broken down into two main areas of focus: The review and characterization of the main CO 2 chemical conversion routes for the synthesis of basic chemical products, energy products and inert materials. This review includes a presentation of the main principles underpinning the studied routes, a preliminary assessment of their performances, advantages and drawbacks, a list of the main R and D projects underway, a focus on emblematic projects as well as a brief analysis of the markets for the main products produced. Based on these elements, 3 routes were selected from among the most promising by 2030 for an in-depth modelling and assessment of their energy, environmental and economic performances. The study shows that the processes modelled do have favorable CO 2 balances (from 1 to 4 t-CO 2 /t-product) and effectively constitute solutions to reduce CO 2 emissions, despite limited volumes of CO 2 in question. Moreover, the profitability of certain solutions will remain difficult to reach, even with an

  15. Safe and quick carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiano, M.

    2016-01-01

    Geological sequestration of carbon dioxyde is considered as an important tool to fight global warming but long term safety is an essential issue due to the risk of accidental leakages. The CarbFix experimentation has shown the possibility to turn hundreds tons of CO 2 into inert carbonated rocks in less than 2 years. This CO 2 injection took place in basaltic rocks. Basaltic rocks allows an adequate diffusion of the gas because of its porosity and favors the acido-base chemical reaction that turns CO 2 into inert and stable carbonates. This experiment was performed with CO 2 dissolved in water in order to limit leaks, basaltic layers being naturally cracked, and to accelerate the formation of carbonates by dissolving the metal ions coming from the rocks. The important quantity of water required for this technique, limits its use to coastal sites. (A.C.)

  16. Feasibility of Large-Scale Ocean CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Brewer

    2008-08-31

    Scientific knowledge of natural clathrate hydrates has grown enormously over the past decade, with spectacular new findings of large exposures of complex hydrates on the sea floor, the development of new tools for examining the solid phase in situ, significant progress in modeling natural hydrate systems, and the discovery of exotic hydrates associated with sea floor venting of liquid CO{sub 2}. Major unresolved questions remain about the role of hydrates in response to climate change today, and correlations between the hydrate reservoir of Earth and the stable isotopic evidence of massive hydrate dissociation in the geologic past. The examination of hydrates as a possible energy resource is proceeding apace for the subpermafrost accumulations in the Arctic, but serious questions remain about the viability of marine hydrates as an economic resource. New and energetic explorations by nations such as India and China are quickly uncovering large hydrate findings on their continental shelves. In this report we detail research carried out in the period October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2008. The primary body of work is contained in a formal publication attached as Appendix 1 to this report. In brief we have surveyed the recent literature with respect to the natural occurrence of clathrate hydrates (with a special emphasis on methane hydrates), the tools used to investigate them and their potential as a new source of natural gas for energy production.

  17. CO2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  18. Coupled Model for CO2 Leaks from Geological Storage: Geomechanics, Fluid Flow and Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, G.; Prevost, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deep saline aquifers are considered as a promising option for long-term storage of carbon dioxide. However, risk of CO2 leakage from the aquifers through faults, natural or induced fractures or abandoned wells cannot be disregarded. Therefore, modeling of various leakage scenarios is crucial when selecting a site for CO2 sequestration and choosing proper operational conditions. Carbon dioxide is injected into wells at supercritical conditions (t > 31.04 C, P > 73.82 bar), and these conditions are maintained in the deep aquifers (at 1-2 km depth) due to hydrostatic pressure and geothermal gradient. However, if CO2 and brine start to migrate from the aquifer upward, both pressure and temperature will decrease, and at the depth of 500-750 m, the conditions for CO2 will become subcritical. At subcritical conditions, CO2 starts boiling and the character of the flow changes dramatically due to appearance of the third (vapor) phase and latent heat effects. When modeling CO2 leaks, one needs to couple the multiphase flow in porous media with geomechanics. These capabilities are provided by Dynaflow, a finite element analysis program [1]; Dynaflow has already showed to be efficient for modeling caprock failure causing CO2 leaks [2, 3]. Currently we have extended the capabilities of Dynaflow with the phase transition module, based on two-phase and three-phase isenthalpic flash calculations [4]. We have also developed and implemented an efficient method for solving heat and mass transport with the phase transition using our flash module. Therefore, we have developed a robust tool for modeling CO2 leaks. In the talk we will give a brief overview of our method and illustrate it with the results of simulations for characteristic test cases. References: [1] J.H. Prevost, DYNAFLOW: A Nonlinear Transient Finite Element Analysis Program. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. http://www.princeton.edu/~dynaflow/ (last update 2013

  19. Effects of outplanting horticultural species on soil CO2 efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is widely thought to be the main driving factor behind global climate change. Much of the work on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and methods of carbon (C) sequestration has been conducted in row crop and forest systems; however, virt...

  20. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.; Nordbotten, Jan M.; Celia, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act

  1. CO2-strategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...

  2. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  3. Methanogenic Conversion of CO2 Into CH4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.H., Ferry, J.G., Schoell, M.

    2012-05-06

    This SBIR project evaluated the potential to remediate geologic CO2 sequestration sites into useful methane gas fields by application of methanogenic bacteria. Such methanogens are present in a wide variety of natural environments, converting CO2 into CH4 under natural conditions. We conclude that the process is generally feasible to apply within many of the proposed CO2 storage reservoir settings. However, extensive further basic R&D still is needed to define the precise species, environments, nutrient growth accelerants, and economics of the methanogenic process. Consequently, the study team does not recommend Phase III commercial application of the technology at this early phase.

  4. CO2 capture by gas hydrate crystallization: Application on the CO2-N2 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchemoua, A.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 capture and sequestration represent a major industrial and scientific challenge of this century. There are different methods of CO 2 separation and capture, such as solid adsorption, amines adsorption and cryogenic fractionation. Although these processes are well developed at industrial level, they are energy intensive. Hydrate formation method is a less energy intensive and has an interesting potential to separate carbon dioxide. Gas hydrates are Document crystalline compounds that consist of hydrogen bonded network of water molecules trapping a gas molecule. Gas hydrate formation is favored by high pressure and low temperature. This study was conducted as a part of the SECOHYA ANR Project. The objective is to study the thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of the process to capture CO 2 by gas hydrate crystallization. Firstly, we developed an experimental apparatus to carry out experiments to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic formation conditions of CO 2 -N 2 gas hydrate mixture in water as liquid phase. We showed that the operative pressure may be very important and the temperature very low. For the feasibility of the project, we used TBAB (Tetrabutylammonium Bromide) as thermodynamic additive in the liquid phase. The use of TBAB may reduce considerably the operative pressure. In the second part of this study, we presented a thermodynamic model, based on the van der Waals and Platteeuw model. This model allows the estimation of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Experimental equilibrium data of CO 2 -CH 4 and CO 2 -N 2 mixtures are presented and compared to theoretical results. (author)

  5. Implications of generator siting for CO2 pipeline infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer, Adam; Apt, Jay

    2008-01-01

    The location of a new electric power generation system with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) affects the profitability of the facility and determines the amount of infrastructure required to connect the plant to the larger world. Using a probabilistic analysis, we examine where a profit-maximizing power producer would locate a new generator with carbon capture in relation to a fuel source, electric load, and CO 2 sequestration site. Based on models of costs for transmission lines, CO 2 pipelines, and fuel transportation, we find that it is always preferable to locate a CCS power facility nearest the electric load, reducing the losses and costs of bulk electricity transmission. This result suggests that a power system with significant amounts of CCS requires a very large CO 2 pipeline infrastructure

  6. CO2 sensing and CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance: advances and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Cawas; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Guard cells form epidermal stomatal gas exchange valves in plants and regulate the aperture of stomatal pores in response to changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in leaves. Moreover, the development of stomata is repressed by elevated CO2 in diverse plant species. Evidence suggests that plants can sense CO2 concentration changes via guard cells and via mesophyll tissues in mediating stomatal movements. We review new discoveries and open questions on mechanisms mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements and CO2 modulation of stomatal development, which together function in CO2-regulation of stomatal conductance and gas exchange in plants. Research in this area is timely in light of the necessity of selecting and developing crop cultivars which perform better in a shifting climate. PMID:26482956

  7. Pore-scale imaging of capillary trapped supercritical CO2 as controlled by water-wet vs. CO2-wet media and grain shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, K.; Cardenas, M.; Wolfe, W. W.; Maisano, J. A.; Ketcham, R. A.; Bennett, P.

    2013-12-01

    The capillary trapping of supercritical CO2 (s-CO2) is postulated to comprise up to 90% of permanently trapped CO2 injected during geologic sequestration. Successive s-CO2/brine flooding experiments under reservoir conditions showed that water-wet rounded beads trapped 15% of injected s-CO2 both as clusters and as individual ganglia, whereas CO2¬-wet beads trapped only 2% of the injected s-CO2 as minute pockets in pore constrictions. Angular water-wet grains trapped 20% of the CO2 but flow was affected by preferential flow. Thus, capillary trapping is a viable mechanism for the permanent CO2 storage, but its success is constrained by the media wettability.

  8. CO2 flowrate calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carossi, Jean-Claude

    1969-02-01

    A CO 2 flowrate calculator has been designed for measuring and recording the gas flow in the loops of Pegase reactor. The analog calculator applies, at every moment, Bernoulli's formula to the values that characterize the carbon dioxide flow through a nozzle. The calculator electronics is described (it includes a sampling calculator and a two-variable function generator), with its amplifiers, triggers, interpolator, multiplier, etc. Calculator operation and setting are presented

  9. A Multi-scale Approach for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Middleton, R. S.; Pan, F.; Ampomah, W.; Yang, C.; Jia, W.; Lee, S. Y.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.; Grigg, R.; White, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Using carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce carbon sequestration costs in the absence of greenhouse gas emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multi-scale approach to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis for understanding CO2 storage potential within an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil-water flow and transport in the Marrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2 injection rate, CO2 first breakthrough time, CO2 production rate, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil and CH4 production, and water injection and production rates. A global sensitivity analysis indicates that reservoir permeability, porosity, and thickness are the major intrinsic reservoir parameters that control net CO2 injection/storage and oil/CH4 recovery rates. The well spacing (the distance between the injection and production wells) and the sequence of alternating CO2 and water injection are the major operational parameters for designing an effective five-spot CO2-EOR pattern. The response surface analysis shows that net CO2 injection rate increases with the increasing reservoir thickness, permeability, and porosity. The oil/CH4 production rates are positively correlated to reservoir permeability, porosity and thickness, but negatively correlated to the initial water saturation. The mean and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying the uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. The results from this study provide useful insights for understanding the CO2 storage potential and the corresponding risks of commercial-scale CO2-EOR fields.

  10. CO2 leakage monitoring and analysis to understand the variation of CO2 concentration in vadose zone by natural effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joun, Won-Tak; Ha, Seung-Wook; Kim, Hyun Jung; Ju, YeoJin; Lee, Sung-Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2017-04-01

    Controlled ex-situ experiments and continuous CO2 monitoring in the field are significant implications for detecting and monitoring potential leakage from CO2 sequestration reservoir. However, it is difficult to understand the observed parameters because the natural disturbance will fluctuate the signal of detections in given local system. To identify the original source leaking from sequestration reservoir and to distinguish the camouflaged signal of CO2 concentration, the artificial leakage test was conducted in shallow groundwater environment and long-term monitoring have been performed. The monitoring system included several parameters such as pH, temperature, groundwater level, CO2 gas concentration, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, borehole pressure, and rainfall event etc. Especially in this study, focused on understanding a relationship among the CO2 concentration, wind speed, rainfall and pressure difference. The results represent that changes of CO2 concentration in vadose zone could be influenced by physical parameters and this reason is helpful in identifying the camouflaged signal of CO2 concentrations. The 1-D column laboratory experiment also was conducted to understand the sparking-peak as shown in observed data plot. The results showed a similar peak plot and could consider two assumptions why the sparking-peak was shown. First, the trapped CO2 gas was escaped when the water table was changed. Second, the pressure equivalence between CO2 gas and water was broken when the water table was changed. These field data analysis and laboratory experiment need to advance due to comprehensively quantify local long-term dynamics of the artificial CO2 leaking aquifer. Acknowledgement Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003)

  11. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter D.; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  12. Numerical Study on CO2-Brine-Rock Interaction of Enhanced Geothermal Systems with CO2 as Heat Transmission Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yuyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS with CO2 instead of water as heat transmission fluid is an attractive concept for both geothermal resources development and CO2 geological sequestration. Previous studies show that CO2 has lots of favorable properties as heat transmission fluid and also can offer geologic storage of CO2 as an ancillary benefit. However, after CO2 injection into geological formations, chemical reaction between brine and rock can change chemical characteristics of saline and properties of rock such as porosity and permeability. Is this advantage or disadvantage for EGS operating? To answer this question, we have performed chemically reactive transport modeling to investigate fluid-rock interactions and CO2 mineral carbonation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS site at Desert Peak (Nevada operated with CO2. The simulation results show that (1 injection CO2 can create a core zone fulfilled with CO2 as main working domain for EGS, and (2 CO2 storage can induced self-enhancing alteration of EGS.

  13. Recent developments in CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Keming

    1993-05-01

    CO2 lasers have been used in industry mainly for such things as cutting, welding, and surface processing. To conduct a broad spectrum of high-speed and high-quality applications, most of the developments in industrial CO2 lasers at the ILT are aimed at increasing the output power, optimizing the beam quality, and reducing the production costs. Most of the commercial CO2 lasers above 5 kW are transverse-flow systems using dc excitation. The applications of these lasers are limited due to the lower beam quality, the poor point stability, and the lower modulation frequency. To overcome the problems we developed a fast axial- flow CO2 laser using rf excitation with an output of 13 kW. In section 2 some of the results are discussed concerning the gas flow, the discharge, the resonator design, optical effects of active medium, the aerodynamic window, and the modulation of the output power. The first CO2 lasers ever built are diffusion-cooled systems with conventional dc excited cylindrical discharge tubes surrounded by cooling jackets. The output power per unit length is limited to 50 W/m by those lasers with cylindrical tubes. In the past few years considerable increases in the output power were achieved, using new mechanical geometries, excitation- techniques, and resonator designs. This progress in diffusion-cooled CO2 lasers is presented in section 3.

  14. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO2 laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1997-09-01

    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO 2 laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO 2 lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO 2 lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. The authors discuss applications of TWps-CO 2 lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for γ-γ (or γ-lepton) colliders, for a possible table-top source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams

  15. Micromotor-Based Biomimetic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Towards Mobile Microscrubbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun, Murat; Singh, Virendra V; Kaufmann, Kevin; Uygun, Deniz A; de Oliveira, Severina D S; Wang, Joseph

    2015-10-26

    We describe a mobile CO2 scrubbing platform that offers a greatly accelerated biomimetic sequestration based on a self-propelled carbonic anhydrase (CA) functionalized micromotor. The CO2 hydration capability of CA is coupled with the rapid movement of catalytic micromotors, and along with the corresponding fluid dynamics, results in a highly efficient mobile CO2 scrubbing microsystem. The continuous movement of CA and enhanced mass transport of the CO2 substrate lead to significant improvements in the sequestration efficiency and speed over stationary immobilized or free CA platforms. This system is a promising approach to rapid and enhanced CO2 sequestration platforms for addressing growing concerns over the buildup of greenhouse gas. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongjie; Wang Zhe; Sun Jining; Zhang Lili; Li Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO 2 pipeline for CCS application. ► We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ► We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ► We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ► We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO 2 mitigation and an optimized CO 2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO 2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO 2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO 2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO 2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO 2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO 2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO 2 /year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO 2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO 2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO 2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

  17. Numerical modeling of CO2 mineralisation during storage in deep saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, P.; Van Hemert, P.; Rudolph, S.J.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations are performed to evaluate the feasibility of a potential site within the Rotliegend sandstone formation in the Dutch subsurface at a depth of around 3000 m for CO2 sequestration using the numerical simulator CMG-GEM. Three CO2 storage trapping mechanisms are studied: (1) mobility

  18. Soil CO2 flux in response to wheel traffic in a no-till system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of soil CO2 flux in the absence of living plants can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of soil management practices for C sequestration, but field CO2 flux is spatially variable and may be affected by soil compaction and percentage of total pore space filled with water (%WFPS). The ...

  19. Chrysotile dissolution rates: Implications for carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, James G.M.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Power, Ian M.; Harrison, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties in serpentine dissolution kinetics hinder carbon sequestration models. • A pH dependent, far from equilibrium dissolution rate law for chrysotile. • F chrysotile (mol/m 2 /s) = 10 −0.21pH−10.57 at 22 °C over pH 2–10. • Laboratory dissolution rates consistent with mine waste weathering observations. • Potential for carbon sequestration in mine tailings and aquifers is assessed. - Abstract: Serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile) are a potentially important medium for sequestration of CO 2 via carbonation reactions. The goals of this study are to report a steady-state, far from equilibrium chrysotile dissolution rate law and to better define what role serpentine dissolution kinetics will have in constraining rates of carbon sequestration via serpentine carbonation. The steady-state dissolution rate of chrysotile in 0.1 m NaCl solutions was measured at 22 °C and pH ranging from 2 to 8. Dissolution experiments were performed in a continuously stirred flow-through reactor with the input solutions pre-equilibrated with atmospheric CO 2 . Both Mg and Si steady-state fluxes from the chrysotile surface, and the overall chrysotile flux were regressed and the following empirical relationships were obtained: F Mg =-0.22pH-10.02;F Si =-0.19pH-10.37;F chrysotile =-0.21pH-10.57 where F Mg , F Si , and F chrysotile are the log 10 Mg, Si, and molar chrysotile fluxes in mol/m 2 /s, respectively. Element fluxes were used in reaction-path calculations to constrain the rate of CO 2 sequestration in two geological environments that have been proposed as potential sinks for anthropogenic CO 2 . Carbon sequestration in chrysotile tailings at 10 °C is approximately an order of magnitude faster than carbon sequestration in a serpentinite-hosted aquifer at 60 °C on a per kilogram of water basis. A serpentinite-hosted aquifer, however, provides a larger sequestration capacity. The chrysotile dissolution rate law determined in this study has

  20. Canadian CO2 Capture and Storage Technology Network : promoting zero emissions technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This brochure provided information on some Canadian initiatives in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage. There has been growing interest in the implementation of components of CO 2 capture, storage and utilization technologies in Canada. Technology developments by the CANMET Energy Technology Centre concerning CO 2 capture using oxy-fuel combustion and amine separation were examined. Techniques concerning gasification of coal for electricity production and CO 2 capture were reviewed. Details of a study of acid gas underground injection were presented. A review of monitoring technologies in CO 2 storage in enhanced oil recovery was provided. Issues concerning the enhancement of methane recovery through the monitoring of CO 2 injected into deep coal beds were discussed. Storage capacity assessment of Canadian sedimentary basins, coal seams and oil and gas reservoirs were reviewed, in relation to their suitability for CO 2 sequestration. Details of the International Test Centre for Carbon Dioxide Capture in Regina, Saskatchewan were presented, as well as issues concerning the sequestration of CO 2 in oil sands tailings streams. A research project concerning the geologic sequestration of CO 2 and simultaneous CO 2 and methane production from natural gs hydrate reservoirs was also discussed. 12 figs.

  1. CO2 Laser Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Samuel

    1989-03-01

    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  2. Behavior of highly diluted electrolytes in strong electric fields-prevention of alumina deposition on grading electrodes in HVDC transmission modules by CO2-induced pH-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Immo; Mallick, Bert; Schild, Matthias; Kareth, Sabine; Puchta, Ralph; van Eldik, Rudi

    2014-09-15

    Alumina deposition on platinum grading electrodes in high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission modules is an unsolved problem that has been around for more than three decades. This is due to the unavoidable corrosion of aluminum heat sinks that causes severe damage to electrical power plants and losses in the range of a million Euro range per day in power outage. Simple experiments in a representative HV test setup showed that aluminates at concentrations even below 10(-8) mol L(-1) can deposit on anodes through neutralization by protons produced in de-ionized water (κ≤0.15 μS cm(-1)) at 20-35 kV (8 mA) per electrode. In this otherwise electrolyte-poor aqueous environment, the depositions are formed three orders of magnitude below the critical precipitation concentration at pH 7! In the presence of an inert electrolyte such as TMAT (tetramethylammonium-p-toluenesulfonate), at a concentration level just above that of the total dissolved aluminum, no deposition was observed. Deposition can be also prevented by doping with CO2 gas at a concentration level that is magnitudes lower than that of the dissolved aluminum. From an overview of aqueous aluminum chemistry, the mystery of the alumina deposition process and its inhibition by CO2 is experimentally resolved and fully explained by field accumulation and repulsion models in synergism with acid-base equilibria. The extraordinary size of the alumina depositions is accounted for in terms of proton tunneling through "hydrated" alumina, which is supported by quantum chemical calculations. As a consequence, pulse-purging with pure CO2 gas is presented as a technical solution to prevent the deposition of alumina. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Algae-Based Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haoyang, Cai

    2018-03-01

    Our civilization is facing a series of environmental problems, including global warming and climate change, which are caused by the accumulation of green house gases in the atmosphere. This article will briefly analyze the current global warming problem and propose a method that we apply algae cultivation to absorb carbon and use shellfish to sequestrate it. Despite the importance of decreasing CO2 emissions or developing carbon-free energy sources, carbon sequestration should be a key issue, since the amount of carbon dioxide that already exists in the atmosphere is great enough to cause global warming. Algae cultivation would be a good choice because they have high metabolism rates and provides shellfish with abundant food that contains carbon. Shellfish’s shells, which are difficult to be decomposed, are reliable storage of carbon, compared to dead organisms like trees and algae. The amount of carbon that can be sequestrated by shellfish is considerable. However, the sequestrating rate of algae and shellfish is not high enough to affect the global climate. Research on algae and shellfish cultivation, including gene technology that aims to create “super plants” and “super shellfish”, is decisive to the solution. Perhaps the baton of history will shift to gene technology, from nuclear physics that has lost appropriate international environment after the end of the Cold War. Gene technology is vital to human survival.

  4. Glucose Modulation Induces Lysosome Formation and Increases Lysosomotropic Drug Sequestration via the P-Glycoprotein Drug Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Nicole A; Lane, Darius J R; Jansson, Patric J; Richardson, Des R

    2016-02-19

    Pgp is functional on the plasma membrane and lysosomal membrane. Lysosomal-Pgp can pump substrates into the organelle, thereby trapping certain chemotherapeutics (e.g. doxorubicin; DOX). This mechanism serves as a "safe house" to protect cells against cytotoxic drugs. Interestingly, in contrast to DOX, lysosomal sequestration of the novel anti-tumor agent and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) substrate, di-2-pyridylketone-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization. This mechanism of lysosomal-Pgp utilization enhances cytotoxicity to multidrug-resistant cells. Consequently, Dp44mT has greater anti-tumor activity in drug-resistant relative to non-Pgp-expressing tumors. Interestingly, stressors in the tumor microenvironment trigger endocytosis for cell signaling to assist cell survival. Hence, this investigation examined how glucose variation-induced stress regulated early endosome and lysosome formation via endocytosis of the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the impact of glucose variation-induced stress on resistance to DOX was compared with Dp44mT and its structurally related analogue, di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (DpC). These studies showed that glucose variation-induced stress-stimulated formation of early endosomes and lysosomes. In fact, through the process of fluid-phase endocytosis, Pgp was redistributed from the plasma membrane to the lysosomal membrane via early endosome formation. This lysosomal-Pgp actively transported the Pgp substrate, DOX, into the lysosome where it became trapped as a result of protonation at pH 5. Due to increased lysosomal DOX trapping, Pgp-expressing cells became more resistant to DOX. In contrast, cytotoxicity of Dp44mT and DpC was potentiated due to more lysosomes containing functional Pgp under glucose-induced stress. These thiosemicarbazones increased lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cell death. This mechanism has critical implications for drug-targeting in

  5. Achieving Negative CO2 Emissions by Protecting Ocean Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannara, A.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial Age CO2 added 1.8 trillion tons to the atmosphere. About ¼ has dissolved in seas. The rest still dissolves, bolstered by present emissions of >30 gigatons/year. Airborne & oceanic CO2 have induced sea warming & ocean acidification*. This paper suggests a way to induce a negative CO2-emissions environment for climate & oceans - preserve the planet`s dominant CO2-sequestration system ( 1 gigaton/year via calcifying sea life**) by promptly protecting ocean chemistry via expansion of clean power for both lime production & replacement of CO2-emitting sources. Provide natural alkali (CaO, MgO…) to oceans to maintain average pH above 8.0, as indicated by marine biologists. That alkali (lime) is available from past calcifying life's limestone deposits, so can be returned safely to seas once its CO2 is removed & permanently sequestered (Carbfix, BSCP, etc.***). Limestone is a dense source of CO2 - efficient processing per mole sequestered. Distribution of enough lime is possible via cargo-ship transits - 10,000 tons lime/transit, 1 million transits/year. New Panamax ships carry 120,000 tons. Just 10,000/transit allows gradual reduction of present & past CO2 emissions effects, if coupled with combustion-power reductions. CO2 separation from limestone, as in cement plants, consumes 400kWHrs of thermal energy per ton of output lime (or CO2). To combat yearly CO2 dissolution in seas, we must produce & distribute about 10gigatons of lime/year. Only nuclear power produces the clean energy (thousands of terawatt hours) to meet this need - 1000 dedicated 1GWe reactors, processing 12 cubic miles of limestone/year & sequestering CO2 into a similar mass of basalt. Basalt is common in the world. Researchers*** report it provides good, mineralized CO2 sequestration. The numbers above allow gradual CO2 reduction in air and seas, if we return to President Kennedy's energy path: http://tinyurl.com/6xgpkfa We're on an environmental precipice due to failure to eliminate

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF CO2 ON WELL CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage is one way to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Underground gas storage operations and CO2 sequestration in aquifers relay on both the proper wellbore construction and sealing properties of the cap rock. CO2 injection candidates may be new wells or old wells. In both cases, the long-term wellbore integrity (up to 1 000 years is one of the key performance criteria in the geological storage of CO2. The potential leakage paths are the migration CO2 along the wellbore due to poor cementation and flow through the cap rock. The permeability and integrity of the set cement will determine how effective it is in preventing the leakage. The integrity of the cap rock is assured by an adequate fracture gradient and by sufficient set cement around the casing across the cap rock and without a micro-annulus. CO2 storage in underground formations has revived the researc of long term influence of the injected CO2 on Portland cements and methods for improving the long term efficiency of the wellbore sealant. Some researchers predicted that set cement will fail when exposed to CO2 leading to potential leakage to the atmosphere or into underground formations that may contain potable water. Other researchers show set cement samples from 30 to 50 year-old wells (CO2 EOR projects that have maintained sealing integrity and prevented CO2 leakage, in spite of some degree of carbonation. One of reasons for the discrepancy between certain research lab tests and actual field performance measurements is the absence of standard protocol for CO2 resistance-testing devices, conditions, or procedures. This paper presents potential flow paths along the wellbore, CO2 behaviour under reservoir conditions, and geochemical alteration of hydrated Portland cement due to supercritical CO2 injection.

  7. Possible impacts of CO2 storage on the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poremski, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the potential impacts of deep-sea carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration on the marine environment. The upper layers of oceans are currently saturated with CO 2 , while deeper ocean waters remain undersaturated. Arctic and Antarctic waters have higher uptake rates of CO 2 due to their lower temperatures. CO 2 deposited in Arctic and Antarctic waters sinks to the bottom of the ocean, and is then transported to equatorial latitudes, where stored amounts of CO 2 that are not fixed by biochemical processes will be released and enter the atmosphere again after a period of approximately 1000 years. Nearly 50 per cent of CO 2 fixation occurs as a result of phytoplankton growth, which is dependent on the availability of a range of nutrients, essential trace metals, and optimal physical conditions. Fertilization-induced CO 2 fixation in the sediments of southern oceans will result in nutrient depletion of bottom layers, which will in turn result in lower primary production levels at equatorial latitudes. Current modelling approaches to CO 2 injection assume that the injected CO 2 will dissolve in a plume extending 100 m around a riser. Retention times of several hundred years are anticipated. However, further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of CO 2 deep ocean storage technologies. Increased CO 2 uptake can also increase the formation of bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) acidification, decrease pH values, and inhibit the formation of biomass in addition to impacting on the calcification of many organisms. It was concluded that ocean storage by injection or deep storage is an untenable option at present due to the fact that the effects of excessive CO 2 in marine environments are not fully understood. 22 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Comparison of monitoring technologies for CO2 storage and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jihun; Koh, Yongkwon; Choi, Jongwon; Lee, Jongyoul

    2013-01-01

    The monitoring techniques used in radioactive waste disposal have fundamentals of geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry etc, which could be applied to CO 2 sequestration. Large and diverse tools are available to monitoring methods for radioactive waste and CO 2 storage. They have fundamentals on geophysical and geochemical principles. Many techniques are well established while others are both novel and at an early stage of development. Reliable and cost-effective monitoring will be an important part of making geologic sequestration a safe, effective and acceptable method for radioactive waste disposal and CO 2 storage. In study, we discuss the monitoring techniques and the role of these techniques in providing insight in the risks of radioactive waste disposal and CO 2 sequestration

  9. CO2/Brine transport into shallow aquifers along fault zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Elizabeth H; Newell, Dennis L; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J W; Zyvoloski, G; Pawar, Rajesh

    2013-01-02

    Unintended release of CO(2) from carbon sequestration reservoirs poses a well-recognized risk to groundwater quality. Research has largely focused on in situ CO(2)-induced pH depression and subsequent trace metal mobilization. In this paper we focus on a second mechanism: upward intrusion of displaced brine or brackish-water into a shallow aquifer as a result of CO(2) injection. Studies of two natural analog sites provide insights into physical and chemical mechanisms controlling both brackish water and CO(2) intrusion into shallow aquifers along fault zones. At the Chimayó, New Mexico site, shallow groundwater near the fault is enriched in CO(2) and, in some places, salinity is significantly elevated. In contrast, at the Springerville, Arizona site CO(2) is leaking upward through brine aquifers but does not appear to be increasing salinity in the shallow aquifer. Using multiphase transport simulations we show conditions under which significant CO(2) can be transported through deep brine aquifers into shallow layers. Only a subset of these conditions favor entrainment of salinity into the shallow aquifer: high aspect-ratio leakage pathways and viscous coupling between the fluid phases. Recognition of the conditions under which salinity is favored to be cotransported with CO(2) into shallow aquifers will be important in environmental risk assessments.

  10. Possible use of Fe/CO2 fuel cells for CO2 mitigation plus H2 and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, Greg H.

    2004-01-01

    The continuous oxidation of scrap iron in the presence of a constant CO 2 -rich waste gas stream and water is evaluated as a means of sequestering anthropogenic CO 2 as well as generating hydrogen gas and electricity. The stoichiometry of the net reaction, Fe 0 + CO 2 + H 2 O → FeCO 3 + H 2 , and assumptions about reaction rates, reactant and product prices/values and overhead costs suggest that CO 2 might be mitigated at a net profit in excess of $30/tonne CO 2 . The principle profit center of the process would be hydrogen production, alone providing a gross income of >$160/tonne CO 2 reacted. However, the realization of such fuel cell economics depends on a number of parameters including: (1) the rate at which the reaction can be sustained, (2) the areal and volumetric density with which H 2 and electricity can be produced, (3) the purity of the H 2 produced, (4) the transportation costs of the reactants (Fe, CO 2 and H 2 O) and products (FeCO 3 or Fe(HCO 3 ) 2 ) to/from the cells and (5) the cost/benefit trade-offs of optimizing the preceding variables in a given market and regulatory environment. Because of the carbon intensity of conventional iron metal production, a net carbon sequestration benefit for the process can be realized only when waste (rather than new) iron and steel are used as electrodes and/or when Fe(HCO 3 ) 2 is the end product. The used electrolyte could also provide a free source of Fe 2+ ions for enhancing iron-limited marine photosynthesis and, thus, greatly increasing the CO 2 sequestration potential of the process. Alternatively, the reaction of naturally occurring iron oxides (iron ore) with CO 2 can be considered for FeCO 3 formation and sequestration, but this foregoes the benefits of hydrogen and electricity production. Use of Fe/CO 2 fuel cells would appear to be particularly relevant for fossil fuel gasification/steam reforming systems given the highly concentrated CO 2 they generate and given the existing infrastructure they

  11. CO2 enhanced oil recovery and storage in the North Sea - a UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckly, Andy; Hughes, David S.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable technical and economic challenges must be overcome if the potential for CO 2 injection and sequestration is to be fully realised. However, there is an opportunity to exploit the synergy between the need to reduce CO 2 emissions and the potential to use CO 2 to increase North Sea oil reserves and extend the life of the basin. This opportunity is available now, while the infrastructure remains in place

  12. Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Supercritical CO2 during Reservoir Depressurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Jiang, Peixue; He, Di; Chen, Xue; Xu, Ruina

    2017-08-01

    CO 2 sequestration in saline aquifers is a promising way to address climate change. However, the pressure of the sequestration reservoir may decrease in practice, which induces CO 2 exsolution and expansion in the reservoir. In this study, we conducted a core-scale experimental investigation on the depressurization of CO 2 -containing sandstone using NMR equipment. Three different series of experiments were designed to investigate the influence of the depressurization rate and the initial CO2 states on the dynamics of different trapping mechanisms. The pressure range of the depressurization was from 10.5 to 4.0 MPa, which covered the supercritical and gaseous states of the CO 2 (named as CO 2 (sc) and CO 2 (g), respectively). It was found that when the aqueous phase saturated initially, the exsolution behavior strongly depended on the depressurization rate. When the CO 2 and aqueous phase coexisting initially, the expansion of the CO 2 (sc/g) contributed to the incremental CO 2 saturation in the core only when the CO 2 occurred as residually trapped. It indicates that the reservoir depressurization has the possibility to convert the solubility trapping to the residual trapping phase, and/or convert the residual trapping to mobile CO 2 .

  13. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  14. Vertically averaged approaches for CO 2 migration with solubility trapping

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.

    2011-05-20

    The long-term storage security of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential component of geological carbon sequestration operations. In the postinjection phase, the mobile CO2 plume migrates in large part because of buoyancy forces, following the natural topography of the geological formation. The primary trapping mechanisms are capillary and solubility trapping, which evolve over hundreds to thousands of years and can immobilize a significant portion of the mobile CO2 plume. However, both the migration and trapping processes are inherently complex, spanning multiple spatial and temporal scales. Using an appropriate model that can capture both large- and small-scale effects is essential for understanding the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO2 sequestration operations. Traditional numerical models quickly become prohibitively expensive for the type of large-scale, long-term modeling that is necessary for characterizing the migration and immobilization of CO2 during the postinjection period. We present an alternative modeling option that combines vertically integrated governing equations with an upscaled representation of the dissolution-convection process. With this approach, we demonstrate the effect of different modeling choices for typical large-scale geological systems and show that practical calculations can be performed at the temporal and spatial scales of interest. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Co2 injection into oil reservoir associated with structural deformation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the problem of structural deformation with two-phase flow of carbon sequestration is presented. A model to simulate miscible CO2 injection with structural deformation in the aqueous phase is established. In the first part of this paper, we developed analytical solution for the problem under consideration with certain types of boundary conditions, namely, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The second part concerns to numerical simulation using IMPDES scheme. A simulator based on cell-centered finite difference method is used to solve this equations system. Distributions of CO2 saturation, and horizontal and vertical displacements have been introduced.

  16. Capture and Geological Storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.; Brockett, S.; Hegan, L.; Barbucci, P.; Tullius, K.; Scott, J.; Otter, N.; Cook, P.; Hill, G.; Dino, R.; Aimard, N.; Giese, R.; Christensen, N.P.; Munier, G.; Paelinck, Ph.; Rayna, L.; Stromberg, L.; Birat, J.P.; Audigane, P.; Loizzo, M.; Arts, R.; Fabriol, H.; Radgen, P.; Hartwell, J.; Wartmann, S.; Drosin, E.; Willnow, K.; Moisan, F.

    2009-01-01

    To build on the growing success of the first two international symposia on emission reduction and CO 2 capture and geological storage, held in Paris in 2005 and again in 2007, IFP, ADEME and BRGM organised a third event on the same topic the 5-6 November 2009. This time, the focus was on the urgency of industrial deployment. Indeed, the IPCC 4. assessment report indicates that the world must achieve a 50 to 85% reduction in CO 2 emissions by 2050 compared to 2000, in order to limit the global temperature increase to around 2 deg. C. Moreover, IPCC stresses that a 'business as usual' scenario could lead to a temperature increase of between 4 deg. C to 7 deg. C across the planet. The symposium was organized in 4 sessions: Session I - Regulatory framework and strategies for enabling CCS deployment: - CCS: international status of political, regulatory and financing issues (Tom Kerr, IEA); - EC regulatory framework (Scott Brockett, European Commission, DG ENV); - Canada's investments towards implementation of CCS in Canada (Larry Hegan, Office of Energy Research and Development - Government of Canada); - A power company perspective (Pietro Barbucci, ENEL); - EC CCS demonstration network (Kai Tullius, European Commission, DG TREN); - Strategies and policies for accelerating global CCS deployment (Jesse Scott, E3G); - The global CCS Institute, a major initiative to facilitate the rapid deployment of CCS (Nick Otter, GCCSI); Session II - From pilot to demonstration projects: - Otway project, Australia (David Hilditch, CO2 CRC); - US regional partnerships (Gerald Hill, Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - SECARB); - CCS activities in Brazil (Rodolfo Dino, Petrobras); - Lessons learnt from Ketzin CO2Sink project in Germany (Ruediger Giese, GFZ); - CO 2 storage - from laboratory to reality (Niels-Peter Christensen, Vattenfall); - Valuation and storage of CO 2 : A global project for carbon management in South-East France (Gilles Munier, Geogreen); Session III

  17. Feasibility of Autonomous Monitoring of CO2 Leakage in Aquifers: Results From Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, R.; Leger, E.; Dafflon, B.

    2016-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is one of the primary proposed approaches for reducing total atmospheric CO2 concentrations. MVAA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting and Assessment) of CO2 sequestration is an essential part of the geologic CO2 sequestration cycle. MVAA activities need to meet multiple operational, regulatory and environmental objectives, including ensuring the protection of underground sources of drinking water. Anticipated negative consequences of CO2 leakage into groundwater, besides possible brine contamination and release of gaseous CO2, include a significant increase of dissolved CO2 into shallow groundwater systems, which will decrease groundwater pH and can potentially mobilize naturally occurring trace metals and ions that are commonly absorbed to or contained in sediments. Autonomous electrical geophysical monitoring in aquifers has the potential of allowing for rapid and automated detection of CO2 leakage. However, while the feasibility of such monitoring has been demonstrated by a number of different field experiments, automated interpretation of complex electrical resistivity data requires the development of quantitative relationships between complex electrical resistivity signatures and dissolved CO2 in the aquifer resulting from leakage Under a DOE SBIR funded effort we performed multiple tank scale experiments in which we investigated complex electrical resistivity signatures associated with dissolved CO2 plumes in saturated sediments. We also investigated the feasibility of distinguishing CO2 leakage signatures from signatures associated with other processes such as salt water movement, temperature variations and other variations in chemical or physical conditions. In addition to these experiments we also numerically modeled the tank experiments. These experiments showed that (a) we can distinguish CO2 leakage signatures from other signatures, (b) CO2 leakage signatures have a consistent characteristic, (c) laboratory experiments

  18. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  19. Facile synthesis of triazine-triphenylamine-based microporous covalent polymer adsorbent for flue gas CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar; Wang, Xinbo; Lai, Zhiping

    2017-01-01

    The sustainable capture and sequestration of CO2 from flue gas emission is an important and unavoidable challenge to control greenhouse gas release and climate change. In this report, we describe a triazine-triphenylamine-based microporous covalent

  20. Development of sustainable CO2 conversion processes for the methanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Nguyen, Tuan B.H.; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2015-01-01

    reforming process has to be integrated with the existing conventional methanol plant to obtain a reduced CO2 emission as well as lowered production costs. On the other hand, the CO2 hydrogenation based methanol plant could achieve a reduction of net CO2 emission at a reasonable production cost only......Utilization of CO2 feedstock through CO2 conversion for producing valuable chemicals as an alternative to sequestration of the captured CO2 is attracting increasing attention in recent studies. Indeed, the methanol production process via thermochemical CO2 conversion reactions is considered a prime...... candidate for commercialization. The aim of this study is to examine two different options for a sustainable methanol plant employing the combined reforming and CO2 hydrogenation reactions, respectively. In addition, process improvement strategies for the implementation of the developed processes are also...

  1. Biomass burial and storage to reduce atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.

    2012-04-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a theoretical carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC/y, but probably 1-3 GtC/y can be realized in practice. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from forest industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  2. Numerical simulation of CO2 geological storage in saline aquifers – case study of Utsira formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    CO2 geological storage (CGS) is one of the most promising technologies to address the issue of excessive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion for electricity generation. In order to fully exploit the storage potential, numerical simulations can help in determining injection strategies before the deployment of full scale sequestration in saline aquifers. This paper presents the numerical simulations of CO2 geological storage in Utsira saline formation where the sequestration is currently underway. The effects of various hydrogeological and numerical factors on the CO2 distribution in the topmost hydrogeological layer of Utsira are discussed. The existence of multiple pathways for upward mobility of CO2 into the topmost layer of Utsira as well as the performance of the top seal are also investigated.

  3. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  4. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  5. Carbon sequestration by Australian tidal marshes

    KAUST Repository

    Macreadie, Peter I.

    2017-03-10

    Australia\\'s tidal marshes have suffered significant losses but their recently recognised importance in CO2 sequestration is creating opportunities for their protection and restoration. We compiled all available data on soil organic carbon (OC) storage in Australia\\'s tidal marshes (323 cores). OC stocks in the surface 1 m averaged 165.41 (SE 6.96) Mg OC ha-1 (range 14-963 Mg OC ha-1). The mean OC accumulation rate was 0.55 ± 0.02 Mg OC ha-1 yr-1. Geomorphology was the most important predictor of OC stocks, with fluvial sites having twice the stock of OC as seaward sites. Australia\\'s 1.4 million hectares of tidal marshes contain an estimated 212 million tonnes of OC in the surface 1 m, with a potential CO2-equivalent value of $USD7.19 billion. Annual sequestration is 0.75 Tg OC yr-1, with a CO2-equivalent value of $USD28.02 million per annum. This study provides the most comprehensive estimates of tidal marsh blue carbon in Australia, and illustrates their importance in climate change mitigation and adaptation, acting as CO2 sinks and buffering the impacts of rising sea level. We outline potential further development of carbon offset schemes to restore the sequestration capacity and other ecosystem services provided by Australia tidal marshes.

  6. Variation in salt marsh CO2 fluxes across a latitudinal gradient along the US Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, I.; Nahrawi, H. B.; Leclerc, M.; O'Connell, J. L.; Mishra, D. R.; Fogarty, M. C.; Edson, J. B.; Lule, A. V.; Vargas, R.; Giblin, A. E.; Alber, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt marshes occur at the dynamic interface of land and ocean, where they play an important role as sink and source of nutrients, carbon (C) and sediment. They often are strong carbon sinks, because they continuously accumulate soil organic matter and sediment to keep their position relative to sea level. Decadal average C sequestration rates can be inferred from soil carbon density and mass accumulation rates, but little information about biological and climatic controls on C cycling and storage in these systems exists. In this study, we report measurements of atmospheric CO2 exchange from salt marshes along the US Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to Georgia. These measurements were made over periods from one to five years. Spartina alterniflora is the dominant vegetation at all sites. At the northern most site, Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) LTER, and the southern most site, Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) LTER, flux measurements over several years have shown variations in the net CO2 flux influenced by the local climate. For example, annual net C uptake at the PIE LTER over 5 years (2013-2017) depends on rainfall in the growing season (June-August) which modulates soil salinity levels. This pattern is not as evident at the GCE LTER (2014-2015). Furthermore, the growing season length differs between both sites. Based on the CO2 flux measurements, a temperature threshold of 15o C limits the net C uptake at both sites and daily rates of net C uptake are generally smaller during the longer growing season in Georgia. Nevertheless, gross primary production (GPP) is similar for both sites. We will extend this analysis to include sites from Delaware and North Carolina to assess controls (e.g. leaf area using MODIS vegetation indices, temperature, photoperiod) on Spartina phenology and CO2 exchange.

  7. Simple dielectric mixing model in the monitoring of CO2 leakage from geological storage aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, L. K.; Bello, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The principle of the dielectric mixing for multiphase systems in porous media has been employed to investigate CO2-water-porous media system and monitor the leakage of CO2, in analogy to scenarios that can be encountered in geological carbon sequestration. A dielectric mixing model was used to relate the relative permittivity for different subsurface materials connected with the geological carbon sequestration. The model was used to assess CO2 leakage and its upward migration, under the influences of the depth-dependent characteristics of the subsurface media as well as the fault-connected aquifers. The results showed that for the upward migration of CO2 in the subsurface, the change in the bulk relative permittivity (εb) of the CO2-water-porous media system clearly depicts the leakage and movement of CO2, especially at depth shallower than 800 m. At higher depth, with higher pressure and temperature, the relative permittivity of CO2 increases with pressure, while that of water decreases with temperature. These characteristics of water and supercritical CO2, combine to limit the change in the εb, at higher depth. Furthermore, it was noted that if the pore water was not displaced by the migrating CO2, the presence of CO2 in the system increases the εb. But, with the displacement of pore water by the migrating CO2, it was shown how the εb profile decreases with time. Owing to its relative simplicity, composite dielectric behaviour of multiphase materials can be effectively deployed for monitoring and enhancement of control of CO2 movement in the geological carbon sequestration.

  8. Potential impacts of leakage from deep CO2 geosequestration on overlying freshwater aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mark G; Jackson, Robert B

    2010-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage may use deep saline aquifers for CO(2) sequestration, but small CO(2) leakage could pose a risk to overlying fresh groundwater. We performed laboratory incubations of CO(2) infiltration under oxidizing conditions for >300 days on samples from four freshwater aquifers to 1) understand how CO(2) leakage affects freshwater quality; 2) develop selection criteria for deep sequestration sites based on inorganic metal contamination caused by CO(2) leaks to shallow aquifers; and 3) identify geochemical signatures for early detection criteria. After exposure to CO(2), water pH declines of 1-2 units were apparent in all aquifer samples. CO(2) caused concentrations of the alkali and alkaline earths and manganese, cobalt, nickel, and iron to increase by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Potentially dangerous uranium and barium increased throughout the entire experiment in some samples. Solid-phase metal mobility, carbonate buffering capacity, and redox state in the shallow overlying aquifers influence the impact of CO(2) leakage and should be considered when selecting deep geosequestration sites. Manganese, iron, calcium, and pH could be used as geochemical markers of a CO(2) leak, as their concentrations increase within 2 weeks of exposure to CO(2).

  9. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  10. Near-term deployment of carbon capture and sequestration from biorefineries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel L; Johnson, Nils; McCoy, Sean T; Turner, Peter A; Mach, Katharine J

    2018-05-08

    Capture and permanent geologic sequestration of biogenic CO 2 emissions may provide critical flexibility in ambitious climate change mitigation. However, most bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) technologies are technically immature or commercially unavailable. Here, we evaluate low-cost, commercially ready CO 2 capture opportunities for existing ethanol biorefineries in the United States. The analysis combines process engineering, spatial optimization, and lifecycle assessment to consider the technical, economic, and institutional feasibility of near-term carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Our modeling framework evaluates least cost source-sink relationships and aggregation opportunities for pipeline transport, which can cost-effectively transport small CO 2 volumes to suitable sequestration sites; 216 existing US biorefineries emit 45 Mt CO 2 annually from fermentation, of which 60% could be captured and compressed for pipeline transport for under $25/tCO 2 A sequestration credit, analogous to existing CCS tax credits, of $60/tCO 2 could incent 30 Mt of sequestration and 6,900 km of pipeline infrastructure across the United States. Similarly, a carbon abatement credit, analogous to existing tradeable CO 2 credits, of $90/tCO 2 can incent 38 Mt of abatement. Aggregation of CO 2 sources enables cost-effective long-distance pipeline transport to distant sequestration sites. Financial incentives under the low-carbon fuel standard in California and recent revisions to existing federal tax credits suggest a substantial near-term opportunity to permanently sequester biogenic CO 2 This financial opportunity could catalyze the growth of carbon capture, transport, and sequestration; improve the lifecycle impacts of conventional biofuels; support development of carbon-negative fuels; and help fulfill the mandates of low-carbon fuel policies across the United States. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation: Opportunities for the stone and cement industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; San, Juan A.; Rau, Greg H.; Caldeira, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of limestone fines co-produced during the processing of crushed limestone may be useful in the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL) is proposed as a low-tech method to capture and sequester CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plants and other point sources such as cement manufacturing. AWL reactants are readily available, inexpensive and environmentally benign. Waste CO2 is hydrated with water to produce carbonic acid. This reacts with and is neutralized by limestone fines, thus converting CO2 gas to dissolved calcium bicarbonate.

  12. Does Elevated CO2 Alter Silica Uptake in Trees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson W. Fulweiler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C and N (N cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global carbon dioxide fertilization, long-term free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine, and five hardwood species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica (BSi concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20% and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.

  13. Techno-economic study of CO2 capture from an existing coal-fired power plant: MEA scrubbing vs. O2/CO2 recycle combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Croiset, E.; Douglas, P.L.; Douglas, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The existing fleet of modern pulverised coal fired power plants represents an opportunity to achieve significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the coming years providing that efficient and economical CO 2 capture technologies are available for retrofit. One option is to separate CO 2 from the products of combustion using conventional approaches such as amine scrubbing. An emerging alternative, commonly known as O 2 /CO 2 recycle combustion, involves burning the coal with oxygen in an atmosphere of recycled flue gas. Both approaches can be retrofitted to existing units, however they consume significant amounts of energy to capture, purify and compress the CO 2 for subsequent sequestration. This paper presents a techno-economic comparison of the performance of the two approaches. The comparison was developed using the commercial process simulation packages, Hysys and Aspen Plus. The results show that both processes are expensive options to capture CO 2 from coal power plants, however O 2 /CO 2 appears to be a more attractive retrofit than MEA scrubbing. The CO 2 capture cost for the MEA case is USD 53/ton of CO 2 avoided, which translates into 3.3 cents/kW h. For the O 2 /CO 2 case the CO 2 capture cost is lower at USD 35/ton of CO 2 avoided, which translates into 2.4 cents/kW h. These capture costs represent an approximate increase of 20-30% in current electricity prices

  14. Reactivity of dissolved- vs. supercritical-CO2 phase toward muscovite basal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Kim, Y.; Wang, S.; Altoe, M. V. P.; Ashby, P. D.; DePaolo, D.

    2015-12-01

    The current understanding of geochemical reactions in reservoirs for geological carbon sequestration (GCS) is largely based on aqueous chemistry (CO2 dissolves in reservoir brine and brine reacts with rocks). However, only a portion of the injected supercritical (sc) CO2 dissolves before the buoyant plume contacts caprock, where it is expected to reside for a long time. Although numerous studies have addressed scCO2-mineral reactions occurring within adsorbed aqueous films, possible reactions resulting from direct CO2-rock contact remain less understood. Does CO2 as a supercritical phase react with reservoir rocks? Do mineral react differently with scCO2 than with dissolved CO2? We selected muscovite, one of the more stable and common rock-forming silicate minerals, to react with scCO2 phase (both water-saturated and water-free) and compared with CO2-saturated-brine. The reacted basal surfaces were analyzed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for examining the changes in surface morphology and chemistry. The results show that scCO2 (regardless of its water content) altered muscovite considerably more than CO2-saturated brine; suggest CO2 diffusion into mica interlayers and localized mica dissolution into scCO2 phase. The mechanisms underlying these observations and their implications for GCS need further exploration.

  15. Woody biomass production during the second rotation of a bio-energy Populus plantation increases in a future high CO2 world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberloo, M.; Calfapietra, C.; Lukac, M.; Godbold, D.; Luos, Z.B.; Polles, A.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Kull, O.; Marek, M.; Rianes, Chr.; Rubino, M.; Taylors, G.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.; Ceulemans, R.

    2006-01-01

    The quickly rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)-levels, justify the need to explore all carbon (C) sequestration possibilities that might mitigate the current CO2 increase. Here, we report the likely impact of future increases in atmospheric CO2 on woody biomass production of three poplar

  16. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  17. CO2: a worldwide myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerondeau, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    In this book, the author demonstrates the paradox that reducing CO 2 emissions leads to no CO 2 abatement at all. This assertion is based on an obvious statement. Everybody knows that oil resources are going to be exhausted in few decades. The oil that industrialized countries will not use will be consumed by emerging countries and the CO 2 emissions will remain the same. Who would believe that the oil, gas or coal still available will remain unused? The Kyoto protocol, the national policies, the European agreements of emissions abatement, the carbon taxes, the emissions abatement requests sent to the rest of the world, all these actions cost a lot and are useless. CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere will inescapably double during the 21. century but, according to the author, without any catastrophic consequence for the Earth. (J.S.)

  18. Micro-PIV Study of Supercritical CO2-Water Interactions in Porous Micromodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemifar, Farzan; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth T.

    2015-11-01

    Multiphase flow of immiscible fluids in porous media is encountered in numerous natural systems and engineering applications such as enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and CO2 sequestration among others. Geological sequestration of CO2 in saline aquifers has emerged as a viable option for reducing CO2 emissions, and thus it has been the subject of numerous studies in recent years. A key objective is improving the accuracy of numerical models used for field-scale simulations by incorporation/better representation of the pore-scale flow physics. This necessitates experimental data for developing, testing and validating such models. We have studied drainage and imbibition processes in a homogeneous, two-dimensional porous micromodel with CO2 and water at reservoir-relevant conditions. Microscopic particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique was applied to obtain spatially- and temporally-resolved velocity vector fields in the aqueous phase. The results provide new insight into the flow processes at the pore scale.

  19. Impact of thermal processes on CO2 injectivity into a coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H Y; Liu, J S; Pan, Z J; Connell, L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate how thermal gradients, caused by CO2 injection, expansion and adsorption, affect the permeability and adsorption capacity of coal during CO2 sequestration. A new permeability model is developed in which the concept of elastic modulus reduction ratio is introduced to partition the effective strain between coal matrix and fracture. This model is implemented into a fully coupled mechanical deformation, gas flow and heat transport finite element simulator. To predict the amount of CO2 sequested, the extended Langmuir sorption model is used, with parameters values taken from the literature. The coupled heat and gas flow equations, are solved in COMSOL using the finite element method. The simulation results for a constant volume reservoir demostrate that thermal strain acts to significantly reduce both CO2 injectivity and adsorption capacity. These impacts need to be considered in the calculation of the optimum injection rate and the total sequestration capacity.

  20. Connecting CO2. Feasibility study CO2 network Southwest Netherlands; Connecting CO2. Haalbaarheidsstudie CO2-netwerk Zuidwest-Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, M.

    2009-06-10

    An overview is given of supply and demand of CO2 in the region Southwest Netherlands and the regions Antwerp and Gent in Belgium. Also attention is paid to possible connections between these regions [Dutch] Een inventarisatie wordt gegeven van vraag en aanbod van CO2 in de regio Zuidwest- Nederland en de regios Antwerpen en Gent in Belgie. Ook worden mogelijke koppelingen tussen de regios besproken.

  1. Foraminiferal calcification and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijer, L. D.; Toyofuku, T.; Reichart, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing burning of fossil fuels increases atmospheric CO2, elevates marine dissolved CO2 and decreases pH and the saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate. Intuitively this should decrease the ability of CaCO3-producing organisms to build their skeletons and shells. Whereas on geological time scales weathering and carbonate deposition removes carbon from the geo-biosphere, on time scales up to thousands of years, carbonate precipitation increases pCO2 because of the associated shift in seawater carbon speciation. Hence reduced calcification provides a potentially important negative feedback on increased pCO2 levels. Here we show that foraminifera form their calcium carbonate by active proton pumping. This elevates the internal pH and acidifies the direct foraminiferal surrounding. This also creates a strong pCO2 gradient and facilitates the uptake of DIC in the form of carbon dioxide. This finding uncouples saturation state from calcification and predicts that the added carbon due to ocean acidification will promote calcification by these organisms. This unknown effect could add substantially to atmospheric pCO2 levels, and might need to be accounted for in future mitigation strategies.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Black Shales after CO2-Water-Rock Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, Qiao; Ranjith, Pathegama Gamage; Long, Xinping; Ji, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests together with an acoustic emission (AE) system and SEM and EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days) in water dissoluted with gaseous/supe...

  3. Continuous CO2 gas monitoring to clarify natural pattern and artificial leakage signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joun, W.; Ha, S. W.; Joo, Y. J.; Lee, S. S.; Lee, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous CO2 gas monitoring at shallow aquifer is significant for early detection and immediate handling of an aquifer impacted by leaking CO2 gas from the sequestration reservoir. However, it is difficult to decide the origin of CO2 gas because detected CO2 includes not only leaked CO2 but also naturally emitted CO2. We performed CO2 injection and monitoring tests in a shallow aquifer. Before the injection of CO2 infused water, we have conducted continuous monitoring of multi-level soil CO2 gas concentration and physical parameters such as temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. The monitoring data represented that CO2 gas concentrations in unsaturated soil zone borehole showed differences at depths and daily variation (360 to 6980 ppm volume). Based on the observed data at 5 m and 8 m depths, vertical flux of gas was calculated as 0.471 L/min (LPM) for inflow from 5 m to 8 m and 9.42E-2 LPM for outflow from 8 m to 5 m. The numerical and analytical models were used to calculate the vertical flux of gas and to compare with observations. The results showed that pressure-based modeling could not explain the rapid change of CO2 gas concentration in borehole. Acknowledgement Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003)

  4. CO2 exsolution - challenges and opportunities in subsurface flow management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally

    2014-05-01

    In geological carbon sequestration, a large amount of injected CO2 will dissolve in brine over time. Exsolution occurs when pore pressures decline and CO2 solubility in brine decreases, resulting in the formation of a separate CO2 phase. This scenario occurs in storage reservoirs by upward migration of carbonated brine, through faults, leaking boreholes or even seals, driven by a reverse pressure gradient from CO2 injection or ground water extraction. In this way, dissolved CO2 could migrate out of storage reservoirs and form a gas phase at shallower depths. This paper summarizes the results of a 4-year study regarding the implications of exsolution on storage security, including core-flood experiments, micromodel studies, and numerical simulation. Micromodel studies have shown that, different from an injected CO2 phase, where the gas remains interconnected, exsolved CO2 nucleates in various locations of a porous medium, forms disconnected bubbles and propagates by a repeated process of bubble expansion and snap-off [Zuo et al., 2013]. A good correlation between bubble size distribution and pore size distribution is observed, indicating that geometry of the pore space plays an important role in controlling the mobility of brine and exsolved CO2. Core-scale experiments demonstrate that as the exsolved gas saturation increases, the water relative permeability drops significantly and is disproportionately reduced compared to drainage relative permeability [Zuo et al., 2012]. The CO2 relative permeability remains very low, 10-5~10-3, even when the exsolved CO2 saturation increases to over 40%. Furthermore, during imbibition with CO2 saturated brines, CO2 remains trapped even under relatively high capillary numbers (uv/σ~10-6) [Zuo et al., submitted]. The water relative permeability at the imbibition endpoint is 1/3~1/2 of that with carbonated water displacing injected CO2. Based on the experimental evidence, CO2 exsolution does not appear to create significant risks

  5. Numerical simulation of CO2 disposal by mineral trapping in deep aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide disposal into deep aquifers is a potential means whereby atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases may be reduced. However, our knowledge of the geohydrology, geochemistry, geophysics, and geomechanics of CO 2 disposal must be refined if this technology is to be implemented safely, efficiently, and predictably. As a prelude to a fully coupled treatment of physical and chemical effects of CO 2 injection, the authors have analyzed the impact of CO 2 immobilization through carbonate mineral precipitatio