WorldWideScience

Sample records for co2 reduction targets

  1. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andrés Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana María; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate CO 2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO 2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO 2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO 2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. An assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper. - Highlights: • Four energy and economy-wide models under carbon mitigation scenarios are compared. • Baseline results show that CO

  2. Atmospheric stabilization of CO2 emissions: Near-term reductions and absolute versus intensity-based targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes CO 2 emissions reduction targets for various countries and geopolitical regions by the year 2030 to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 at 450 ppm (550 ppm including non-CO 2 greenhouse gases) level. It also determines CO 2 intensity cuts that would be required in those countries and regions if the emission reductions were to be achieved through intensity-based targets without curtailing their expected economic growth. Considering that the stabilization of CO 2 concentrations at 450 ppm requires the global trend of CO 2 emissions to be reversed before 2030, this study develops two scenarios: reversing the global CO 2 trend in (i) 2020 and (ii) 2025. The study shows that global CO 2 emissions would be limited at 42 percent above 1990 level in 2030 if the increasing trend of global CO 2 emissions were to be reversed by 2020. If reversing the trend is delayed by 5 years, global CO 2 emissions in 2030 would be 52 percent higher than the 1990 level. The study also finds that to achieve these targets while maintaining expected economic growth, the global average CO 2 intensity would require a 68 percent drop from the 1990 level or a 60 percent drop from the 2004 level by 2030

  3. How can China reach its CO2 intensity reduction targets by 2020? A regional allocation based on equity and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Wenjing; Zou Lele; Guo Jie; Wang Kai; Wei Yiming

    2011-01-01

    In late 2009, the Chinese government committed to cut its carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 40% to 45% of 2005 levels by 2020. This has raised the issue of how to allocate the CO 2 reduction target regionally to meet the national reduction target. To meet this objective, the following aspects may be taken into consideration: equity principles, 'common but differentiated responsibilities'; intensity reduction target fulfillment; and economic difference and reduction potential among provinces. This paper selects per capita GDP, accumulated fossil fuel related CO 2 emissions and energy consumption per unit of industrial added value as indicators for emission reduction capacity, responsibility and potential, respectively. Based on these three indicators, a comprehensive index is developed and an intensity allocation model constructed. As decision makers may have different preferences when allocating the reduction burden, we allocate different weights to the indicators, analyzing the results using cluster analysis. The following aspects may also be considered together with the national regional development strategy to determine how to share the burden: the reduction potential of various regions; implementation potential of the plans; and promotion of a highly efficient low carbon economic development model. - Research highlights: → We compiled a comprehensive index using per capita GDP, accumulated fossil fuel related CO 2 emissions and energy consumption per unit of industrial added value as indicators for emission reduction capacity, responsibility and potential, respectively. → National CO 2 intensity reduction target is allocated according to different index values of provinces. → Equity principles were taken into account when allocating the target.

  4. Possible pathways for dealing with Japan's post-Fukushima challenge and achieving CO2 emission reduction targets in 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Xuanming; Zhou, Weisheng; Sun, Faming; Nakagami, Ken'Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Considering the unclear nuclear future of Japan after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident since Mar. 11, 2011, this study assesses a series of energy consumption scenarios including the reference scenario, nuclear limited scenarios and current nuclear use level scenario for Japan in 2030 by the G-CEEP (Glocal Century Energy Environment Planning) model. The simulation result for each scenario is firstly presented in terms of primary energy consumption, electricity generation, CO 2 emission, marginal abatement cost and GDP (gross domestic product) loss. According to the results, energy saving contributes the biggest share in total CO 2 emission reduction, regardless of different nuclear use levels and different CO 2 emission reduction levels. A certain amount of coal generation can be retained in the nuclear limited scenarios due to the applying of CCS (carbon capture and storage). The discussion indicates that Japan needs to improve energy use efficiency, increase renewable energy and introduce CCS in order to reduce the dependence on nuclear power and to achieve CO 2 emission reduction target in 2030. In addition, it is ambitious for Japan to achieve the zero nuclear scenario with 30% CO 2 emission reduction which will cause a marginal abatement cost of 383 USD/tC and up to −2.54% GDP loss from the reference scenario. Dealing with the nuclear power issue, Japan is faced with a challenge as well as an opportunity. - Highlights: • Nuclear use limited and carbon emission reduction scenarios for Japan in 2030. • Contributions of different abatement options to carbon emissions. • CCS for reducing dependence on nuclear power

  5. CO2 reduction by dematerialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    Current policy for the reduction of greenhouse gases is mainly concerned with a number of types of solutions: energy saving, shifting to the use of low-carbon fuels and the implementation of sustainable energy technologies. Recent research has shown that a strategy directed at a more efficient use of materials could make a considerable contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, the costs to society as a whole of such a measure appear to be very low.

  6. Scenario analysis of energy saving and CO_2 emissions reduction potentials to ratchet up Japanese mitigation target in 2030 in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Takako; Kuramochi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses to what extent CO_2 emissions from electricity in the residential sector can be further reduced in Japan beyond its post-2020 mitigation target (known as “Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)”). The paper examines the reduction potential of electricity demand and CO_2 emissions in the residential sector by conducting a scenario analysis. Electricity consumption scenarios are set up using a time-series regression model, and used to forecast the electricity consumption patterns to 2030. The scenario analysis also includes scenarios that reduce electricity consumption through enhanced energy efficiency and energy saving measures. The obtained results show that Japan can reduce electricity consumption and CO_2 emissions in the residential sector in 2030 more than the Japanese post-2020 mitigation target indicates. At the maximum, the electricity consumption could be reduced by 35 TWh, which contributes to 55.4 MtCO_2 of emissions reduction in 2030 compared to 2013 if the voluntarily targeted CO_2 intensity of electricity is achieved. The result implies that Japan has the potential to ratchet up post-2020 mitigation targets discussed under the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). - Highlights: • Further reduction of electricity consumption is possible beyond Japan's post-2020 mitigation target. • Energy saving efforts by households and incentives to reduce electricity demands are required. • Improvement of CO_2 intensity from electricity is a key factor in the reduction of CO_2 emissions.

  7. Economic efficiency of CO2 reduction programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvonen, O.; Storch, H. von; Storch, J. von

    1993-01-01

    A highly simplified time-dependent low-dimensional system has been designed to describe conceptually the interaction of climate and economy. Enhanced emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is understood as the agent that not only favors instantaneous consumption but also causes unfavorable climate changes at a later time. The problem of balancing these two counterproductive effects of CO 2 emissions on a finite time horizon is considered. The climate system is represented by just two parameters, namely a globally averaged near-surface air-temperature and a globally averaged troposheric CO 2 concentration. The costs of abating CO 2 emissions are monitored by a function which depends quadratically on the percentage reduction of emission compared to an 'uncontrolled emission' scenario. Parameters are fitted to historical climate data and to estimates from studies of CO 2 abatement costs. Two optimization approaches, which differ from earlier attempts to describe the interaction of economy and climate, are discussed. In the 'cost oriented' strategy an optimal emission path is identified which balances the abatement costs and explicitly formulated damage costs. These damage costs, whose estimates are very uncertain, are hypothesized to be a linear function of the time-derivative of temperature. In the 'target oriented' strategy an emission path is chosen so that the abatement costs are minimal while certain restrictions on the terminal temperature and concentration change are met. (orig.)

  8. Electrocatalytic Alloys for CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingfu; Johnson, Noah J J; Huang, Aoxue; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2018-01-10

    Electrochemically reducing CO 2 using renewable energy is a contemporary global challenge that will only be met with electrocatalysts capable of efficiently converting CO 2 into fuels and chemicals with high selectivity. Although many different metals and morphologies have been tested for CO 2 electrocatalysis over the last several decades, relatively limited attention has been committed to the study of alloys for this application. Alloying is a promising method to tailor the geometric and electric environments of active sites. The parameter space for discovering new alloys for CO 2 electrocatalysis is particularly large because of the myriad products that can be formed during CO 2 reduction. In this Minireview, mixed-metal electrocatalyst compositions that have been evaluated for CO 2 reduction are summarized. A distillation of the structure-property relationships gleaned from this survey are intended to help in the construction of guidelines for discovering new classes of alloys for the CO 2 reduction reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fairness and cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reduction targets in the European Union member states. An analysis based on scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Ybema, J.R.; Vos, D.

    1997-06-01

    The Member States of the European Union (EU) have agreed upon a common position in the international negotiations on the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions. The total commitment of the EU is the result of differentiated emission targets for the individual Member States. In this study the results of 4 recent scenario studies on CO2 emission reduction are used to assess the fairness and the cost-effectiveness of the differentiated targets. Here, fairness is measured by the average cost per capita in a country to reach the emission target. Cost-effectiveness is based on the marginal cost of emission reduction. It is noted that there are limitations in the comparability of the country results. Further, the coverage of the EU Member States is not complete in all 4 studies. Robust conclusions could thus not be drawn for all countries. Nonetheless, there are strong indications that the efforts to achieve the emission reduction targets are not evenly distributed. Based on the results the countries can be divided into four groups with different burdens to achieve reduction of CO2 emissions: (a) countries that will probably be faced with above average burdens: Sweden, Italy and the Netherlands; (b) countries that will presumably be faced with above average burdens but for which limited information is available: Austria and Denmark; (c) countries that will probably be faced with average burdens or for which the relative efforts are indistinct: Germany, Portugal, Belgium, Finland and Luxembourg; and (d) countries that will probably be faced with below average burdens: United Kingdom, France, Spain, Ireland and Greece. 1 fig., 12 tabs., 6 refs

  10. CO2 reduction through energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A study was carried out of the potential to economically reduce carbon dioxide emissions through energy conservation in the petroleum and natural gas industry. The study examined current and projected emissions levels, cogeneration at gas plants, flaring, economics, regulation, reporting requirements, implementation, and research and development. Economically attractive energy conservation measures can reduce oil and gas industry, exclusive of Athabasca oil sands operations, CO 2 emissions by 6-7%. The energy conservation options identified range from field energy awareness committees through to equipment retrofits and replacement. At ca 3 million tonnes/y, these reductions will not offset the increases in oil and gas related CO 2 emissions anticipated by producers and Alberta government agencies. There will be increasing emphasis on in-situ bitumen production, more energy intensive light crude oil production and increasing natural gas sales, increasing energy inputs in excess of reductions. Cogeneration of electricity for utility company distribution and for internally required steam at gas plants and in-situ production sites is not economic due to low electricity prices. 8 tabs

  11. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  12. Smart Transportation CO2 Emission Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulescu, S.; Tarulescu, R.; Soica, A.; Leahu, C. I.

    2017-10-01

    Transport represents the sector with the fastest growing greenhouse gas emissions around the world. The main global objective is to reduce energy usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. For this study it was analyzed the road transportation system from Brasov Metropolitan area. The study was made for the transportation route that connects Ghimbav city to the main surrounding objectives. In this study ware considered four optimization measures: vehicle fleet renewal; building the detour belt for the city; road increasing the average travel speed; making bicycle lanes; and implementing an urban public transport system for Ghimbav. For each measure it was used a mathematical model to calculate the energy consumption and carbon emissions from the road transportation sector. After all four measures was analyzed is calculated the general energy consumption and CO2 reduction if this are applied from year 2017 to 2020.

  13. A human development framework for CO2 reductions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Costa

    Full Text Available Although developing countries are called to participate in CO(2 emission reduction efforts to avoid dangerous climate change, the implications of proposed reduction schemes in human development standards of developing countries remain a matter of debate. We show the existence of a positive and time-dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI and per capita CO(2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Employing this empirical relation, extrapolating the HDI, and using three population scenarios, the cumulative CO(2 emissions necessary for developing countries to achieve particular HDI thresholds are assessed following a Development As Usual approach (DAU. If current demographic and development trends are maintained, we estimate that by 2050 around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8. In particular, 300 Gt of cumulative CO(2 emissions between 2000 and 2050 are estimated to be necessary for the development of 104 developing countries in the year 2000. This value represents between 20 % to 30 % of previously calculated CO(2 budgets limiting global warming to 2 °C. These constraints and results are incorporated into a CO(2 reduction framework involving four domains of climate action for individual countries. The framework reserves a fair emission path for developing countries to proceed with their development by indexing country-dependent reduction rates proportional to the HDI in order to preserve the 2 °C target after a particular development threshold is reached. For example, in each time step of five years, countries with an HDI of 0.85 would need to reduce their per capita emissions by approx. 17% and countries with an HDI of 0.9 by 33 %. Under this approach, global cumulative emissions by 2050 are estimated to range from 850 up to 1100 Gt of CO(2. These values are within the uncertainty range of emissions to limit global temperatures to 2 °C.

  14. A human development framework for CO2 reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luís; Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2011-01-01

    Although developing countries are called to participate in CO(2) emission reduction efforts to avoid dangerous climate change, the implications of proposed reduction schemes in human development standards of developing countries remain a matter of debate. We show the existence of a positive and time-dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI) and per capita CO(2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Employing this empirical relation, extrapolating the HDI, and using three population scenarios, the cumulative CO(2) emissions necessary for developing countries to achieve particular HDI thresholds are assessed following a Development As Usual approach (DAU). If current demographic and development trends are maintained, we estimate that by 2050 around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8). In particular, 300 Gt of cumulative CO(2) emissions between 2000 and 2050 are estimated to be necessary for the development of 104 developing countries in the year 2000. This value represents between 20 % to 30 % of previously calculated CO(2) budgets limiting global warming to 2 °C. These constraints and results are incorporated into a CO(2) reduction framework involving four domains of climate action for individual countries. The framework reserves a fair emission path for developing countries to proceed with their development by indexing country-dependent reduction rates proportional to the HDI in order to preserve the 2 °C target after a particular development threshold is reached. For example, in each time step of five years, countries with an HDI of 0.85 would need to reduce their per capita emissions by approx. 17% and countries with an HDI of 0.9 by 33 %. Under this approach, global cumulative emissions by 2050 are estimated to range from 850 up to 1100 Gt of CO(2). These values are within the uncertainty range of emissions to limit global temperatures to 2 °C. © 2011 Costa et al.

  15. Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO2 Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Estimating potential of CO 2 emission reduction of non-capture CO 2 utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO 2 emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO 2 of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO 2 reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO 2 emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO 3 (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO 3 ). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO 2 reduction through the CO 2 carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO 2 reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO 2 emission technology.

  16. CO2 Emission Reduction in Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, A.; Sustersic, A.; Voncina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to human activities, concentrations of the greenhouse gases increase in the atmosphere much quicker than they naturally would. Today it is clear that climate change is the result of human activities. With the purpose of preventing, reducing and mitigating of climate change, the EU, whose member is also Slovenia, set ambitious goals. In order to keep rise of the global atmosphere temperature below 2 degrees of C, the European Council set an objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 - 95 % by 2050 compared to 1990. It is important that every single individual is included in achieving of these goals. Certainly, the most important role is assumed by individual sectors especially Public Electricity and Heat Production sector as one of the greatest emitters of the greenhouse gases. As a possible solution of radical reduction of the greenhouse gases emission from mentioned sector Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is implemented. In the article the range of CO 2 reduction possibilities, technology demands and environmental side effects of CCS technology are described. Evaluation of CCS implementation possibilities in Slovenia is also included.(author)

  17. EVs and post 2020 CO2 targets for passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Verbeek, M.; Zyl, S. van

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses what post 2020 targets may be necessary for the European CO2 legislation for passenger cars in order to reach the overall sectoral goal of 60% reduction of transport's greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 relative to 1990, as defined in the European Commission's White Paper. The

  18. Climate change and CO2 emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Duong, M.; Campos, A.S.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents the results of an opinion poll performed on a representative sample of 1000 persons about their sensitivity to climate change and to environment protection, their knowledge about technologies which are useful for environment protection, their opinion about geological CO 2 sequestration, and technologies to be developed to struggle against climate warming

  19. Reduction of CO2 emissions by influencing fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.; Zbinden, R.; Haan, P.; Gruetter, J.; Ott, W.

    2002-01-01

    The CO 2 law stipulates quantitative targets for CO 2 emissions (reductions of 10% by 2010 compared with 1990, 15% for heating fuels, 8% for motor fuels). For motor fuels, it is currently estimated that the target will be missed by about 15%, or 2 to 2.5 million tonnes of CO 2 . In order to reach the targets, therefore, all measures that can be taken to reduce emissions are to be checked out and, where sensible and possible, implemented too. The subject of this study is the preferential treatment of diesel, natural gas, liquefied gas and bio-fuels as far as taxation is concerned, with compensation of tax losses on the petrol side. Also, the possibilities for promoting energy-efficient cars are looked at. The reduction of the price for diesel (at least 25 Swiss cents when compensated for via the petrol price) is considered to be unsuitable for reaching the targets because, in the final analysis, fuel sales - the determining factor for the CO 2 emissions that are charged to Switzerland - will increase instead of decreasing. Also, reservations are expressed from the environmental point of view (increased NO x emissions and, in particular, emissions of particulate matter). The modified measure proposed (fixed difference between the prices for petrol and diesel of 25 Swiss cents, for example) is looked at less critically, because it does actually lead to a reduction of CO 2 , even if only a modest one (approx. 10% of the gap to be bridged). On the environmental side, the same reservations apply. Bonus-malus systems, on the other hand, permit a selective choice of the objects of promotion (efficient and, possibly, low-emission vehicles), avoid the unjust preferential treatment of goods traffic and can be implemented without disturbing international price structures (fuel tourism). A bonus-malus system applied at purchase (e.g. different levels of car taxation) is considered to be more efficient than a differentiation in vehicle (road) tax. The promotion of gas is a

  20. CO2 reduction strategies for the Northern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, Rene; Moll, Henk; Noorman, Klaas Jan; Wiersma, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    The concern about global warming initiated ambitious CO2 reduction goals in cities and regions in the Netherlands. This article describes a study of such a local initiative for the Northern Netherlands. The research aimed to develop CO2 reduction scenarios for 2035 with national and international

  1. Least cost planning for CO2-reduction strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1990-01-01

    A first recommendation for the determination of the minimum costs for a carbon-dioxide reduction strategy is presented. For this, the tabulation of so-called, 'CO 2 -ranking-lists', containing the relationship between the costs of a distinct measure to avoid the emission of certain amount of CO 2 (in dollar/t CO 2 ) versus its potential (in t CO 2 /yr), is indispensable. Some basic aspects of this approach are discussed and a first guess of the costs of some measures to avoid CO 2 -emissions into the atmosphere is presented. (orig.) [de

  2. Analysis of CO2 emissions reduction in the Malaysian transportation sector: An optimisation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapa, Siti Indati; Bekhet, Hussain Ali

    2016-01-01

    The demand for transport services is expected to rise, causing the CO 2 emissions level to increase as well. In Malaysia, the transportation sector accounts for 28% of total CO 2 emissions, of which 85% comes from road transport. By 2020, Malaysia is targeting a reduction in CO 2 emissions intensity by up to 40% and in this effort the role of road transport is paramount. This paper attempts to investigate effective policy options that can assist Malaysia in reducing the CO 2 emissions level. An Optimisation model is developed to estimate the potential CO 2 emissions mitigation strategies for road transport by minimising the CO 2 emissions under the constraint of fuel cost and demand travel. Several mitigation strategies have been applied to analyse the effect of CO 2 emissions reduction potential. The results demonstrate that removal of fuel price subsidies can result in reductions of up to 652 ktonnes of fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions can be decreased by 6.55%, which would enable Malaysia to hit its target by 2020. CO 2 emissions can be reduced significantly, up to 20%, by employing a combination of mitigation policies in Malaysia. This suggests that appropriate mitigation policies can assist the country in its quest to achieve the CO 2 emissions reduction target. - Highlights: • An optimisation model for CO 2 emissions reduction in Malaysia's road transport is formulated. • Sensible policy options to achieve the CO 2 emissions reduction target are provided. • Increase in fuel price has induced shift towards fuel efficient vehicles. • The CO 2 emissions can be reduced up to 5.7 MtCO 2 with combination of mitigation policies.

  3. Tuning of CO2 Reduction Selectivity on Metal Electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Junlang; Wang, Yifei; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2017-11-01

    Climate change, caused by heavy CO 2 emissions, is driving new demands to alleviate the rising concentration of atmospheric CO 2 levels. Enlightened by the photosynthesis of green plants, photo(electro)chemical catalysis of CO 2 reduction, also known as artificial photosynthesis, is emerged as a promising candidate to address these demands and is widely investigated during the past decade. Among various artificial photosynthetic systems, solar-driven electrochemical CO 2 reduction is widely recognized to possess high efficiencies and potentials for practical application. The efficient and selective electroreduction of CO 2 is the key to the overall solar-to-chemical efficiency of artificial photosynthesis. Recent studies show that various metallic materials possess the capability to play as electrocatalysts for CO 2 reduction. In order to achieve high selectivity for CO 2 reduction products, various efforts are made including studies on electrolytes, crystal facets, oxide-derived catalysts, electronic and geometric structures, nanostructures, and mesoscale phenomena. In this Review, these methods for tuning the selectivity of CO 2 electrochemical reduction of metallic catalysts are summarized. The challenges and perspectives in this field are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Uncertainty quantification of CO2 emission reduction for maritime shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jun; Ng, Szu Hui; Sou, Weng Sut

    2016-01-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has recently proposed several operational and technical measures to improve shipping efficiency and reduce the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The abatement potentials estimated for these measures have been further used by many organizations to project future GHG emission reductions and plot Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACC). However, the abatement potentials estimated for many of these measures can be highly uncertain as many of these measures are new, with limited sea trial information. Furthermore, the abatements obtained are highly dependent on ocean conditions, trading routes and sailing patterns. When the estimated abatement potentials are used for projections, these ‘input’ uncertainties are often not clearly displayed or accounted for, which can lead to overly optimistic or pessimistic outlooks. In this paper, we propose a methodology to systematically quantify and account for these input uncertainties on the overall abatement potential forecasts. We further propose improvements to MACCs to better reflect the uncertainties in marginal abatement costs and total emissions. This approach provides a fuller and more accurate picture of abatement forecasts and potential reductions achievable, and will be useful to policy makers and decision makers in the shipping industry to better assess the cost effective measures for CO 2 emission reduction. - Highlights: • We propose a systematic method to quantify uncertainty in emission reduction. • Marginal abatement cost curves are improved to better reflect the uncertainties. • Percentage reduction probability is given to determine emission reduction target. • The methodology is applied to a case study on maritime shipping.

  5. CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2014-06-01

    ABSTRACT CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction Amira Alazmi Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major greenhouse gases and its emission is a significant threat to global economy and sustainability. Efficient CO2 conversion leads to utilization of CO2 as a carbon feedstock, but activating the most stable carbon-based molecule, CO2, is a challenging task. Electrochemical conversion of CO2 is considered to be the beneficial approach to generate carbon-containing fuels directly from CO2, especially when the electronic energy is derived from renewable energies, such as solar, wind, geo-thermal and tidal. To achieve this goal, the development of an efficient electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction is essential. In this thesis, studies on CuZn alloys with heat treatments at different temperatures have been evaluated as electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction. It was found that the catalytic activity of these electrodes was strongly dependent on the thermal oxidation temperature before their use for electrochemical measurements. The polycrystalline CuZn electrode without thermal treatment shows the Faradaic efficiency for CO formation of only 30% at applied potential ~−1.0 V vs. RHE with current density of ~−2.55 mA cm−2. In contrast, the reduction of oxide-based CuZn alloy electrode exhibits 65% Faradaic efficiency for CO at lower applied potential about −1.0 V vs. RHE with current density of −2.55 mA cm−2. Furthermore, stable activity was achieved over several hours of the reduction reaction at the modified electrodes. Based on electrokinetic studies, this improvement could be attributed to further stabilization of the CO2•− on the oxide-based Cu-Zn alloy surface.

  6. Catholyte-Free Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction to Formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhee; Kim, Young Eun; Youn, Min Hye; Jeong, Soon Kwan; Park, Ki Tae

    2018-04-16

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into value-added chemicals is a promising strategy to reduce CO 2 emission and mitigate climate change. One of the most serious problems in electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction (CO 2 R) is the low solubility of CO 2 in an aqueous electrolyte, which significantly limits the cathodic reaction rate. This paper proposes a facile method of catholyte-free electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction to avoid the solubility limitation using commercial tin nanoparticles as a cathode catalyst. Interestingly, as the reaction temperature rises from 303 K to 363 K, the partial current density (PCD) of formate improves more than two times with 52.9 mA cm -2 , despite the decrease in CO 2 solubility. Furthermore, a significantly high formate concentration of 41.5 g L -1 is obtained as a one-path product at 343 K with high PCD (51.7 mA cm -2 ) and high Faradaic efficiency (93.3 %) via continuous operation in a full flow cell at a low cell voltage of 2.2 V. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An analysis of Chinas CO2 emission peaking target and pathways

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jian-Kun

    2017-01-01

    China has set the goal for its CO2 emissions to peak around 2030, which is not only a strategic decision coordinating domestic sustainable development and global climate change mitigation but also an overarching target and a key point of action for Chinas resource conservation, environmental protection, shift in economic development patterns, and CO2 emission reduction to avoid climate change. The development stage where China maps out the CO2 emission peak target is earlier than that of the ...

  8. Ni–Fe–S Cubanes in CO2 Reduction Electrocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varley, J. B.; Hansen, H. A.; Ammitzbøll, Nadia Luciw

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we perform extensive mechanistic studies of CO2 (electro)reduction by analogs to the active sites of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) enzymes. We explore structure–property relationships for different cluster compositions and interpret the results with a model for CO2...... electroreduction we recently developed and applied to transition metal catalysts. Our results validate the effectiveness of the CODH in catalyzing this important reaction and give insight into why specific cluster compositions were adopted by nature....

  9. Advances in Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction with Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsun Nahar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increasing level of CO2 in the atmosphere has not only contributed to global warming but has also triggered considerable interest in photocatalytic reduction of CO2. The reduction of CO2 with H2O using sunlight is an innovative way to solve the current growing environmental challenges. This paper reviews the basic principles of photocatalysis and photocatalytic CO2 reduction, discusses the measures of the photocatalytic efficiency and summarizes current advances in the exploration of this technology using different types of semiconductor photocatalysts, such as TiO2 and modified TiO2, layered-perovskite Ag/ALa4Ti4O15 (A = Ca, Ba, Sr, ferroelectric LiNbO3, and plasmonic photocatalysts. Visible light harvesting, novel plasmonic photocatalysts offer potential solutions for some of the main drawbacks in this reduction process. Effective plasmonic photocatalysts that have shown reduction activities towards CO2 with H2O are highlighted here. Although this technology is still at an embryonic stage, further studies with standard theoretical and comprehensive format are suggested to develop photocatalysts with high production rates and selectivity. Based on the collected results, the immense prospects and opportunities that exist in this technique are also reviewed here.

  10. Reaction mechanisms of CO2 activation and catalytic reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Niklas von

    2016-01-01

    The use of CO 2 as a C1 chemical feedstock for the fine chemical industry is interesting both economically and ecologically, as CO 2 is non-toxic, abundant and cheap. Nevertheless, transformations of CO 2 into value-added products is hampered by its high thermodynamic stability and its inertness toward reduction. In order to design new catalysts able to overcome this kinetic challenge, a profound understanding of the reaction mechanisms at play in CO 2 reduction is needed. Using novel N/Si+ frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs), the influence of CO 2 adducts and different hydro-borane reducing agents on the reaction mechanism in the catalytic hydroboration of CO 2 were investigated, both by DFT calculations and experiments. In a second step, the reaction mechanism of a novel reaction for the creation of C-C bonds from CO 2 and pyridyl-silanes (C 5 H 4 N-SiMe 3 ) was analyzed by DFT calculations. It was shown that CO 2 plays a double role in this transformation, acting both as a catalyst and a C1-building block. The fine understanding of this transformation then led to the development of a novel approach for the synthesis of sulfones and sulfonamides. Starting from SO 2 and aromatic silanes/amine silanes, these products were obtained in a single step under metal-free conditions. Noteworthy, sulfones and sulfonamides are common motifs in organic chemistry and found in a variety of highly important drugs. Finally, this concept was extended to aromatic halides as coupling partners, and it was thus shown for the first time that a sulfonylative Hiyama reaction is a possible approach to the synthesis of sulfones. (author) [fr

  11. Achieving CO2 Emissions Reduction Goals with Energy Infrastructure Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlinc, M.; Medved, K.; Simic, J.

    2013-01-01

    The EU has set its short-term goals in the Europe 2020 Strategy (20% of CO 2 emissions reduction, 20% increase in energy efficiency, 20% share of renewables in final energy). The analyses show that the EU Member States in general are on the right track of achieving these goals; they are even ahead (including Slovenia). But setting long-term goals by 2050 is a tougher challenge. Achieving CO 2 emissions reduction goes hand in hand with increasing the share of renewables and strategically planning the projects, which include exploiting the potential of renewable sources of energy (e.g. hydropower). In Slovenia, the expected share of hydropower in electricity production from large HPPs in the share of renewables by 2030 is 1/3. The paper includes a presentation of a hydro power plants project on the middle Sava river in Slovenia and its specifics (influenced by the expansion of the Natura 2000 protected sites and on the other hand by the changes in the Environment Protection Law, which implements the EU Industrial Emissions Directive and the ETS Directive). Studies show the importance of the HPPs in terms of CO 2 emissions reduction. The main conclusion of the paper shows the importance of energy infrastructure projects, which contribute to on the one hand the CO 2 emissions reduction and on the other the increase of renewables.(author)

  12. CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2014-01-01

    , especially when the electronic energy is derived from renewable energies, such as solar, wind, geo-thermal and tidal. To achieve this goal, the development of an efficient electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction is essential. In this thesis, studies on CuZn alloys

  13. Estimate of Possible CO2 Emission Reduction in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavcak, V.-P.; Jevsek, F.; Tirsek, A.

    1998-01-01

    The first estimation of possible CO 2 emission reduction, according to the obligations from Kyoto Protocol, is prepared. The results show that the required 8% reduction of greenhouses gases in Slovenia in the period from 2008 to 2012 with regard to year 1986 will require a through analytical treatment not only in electric power sector but also in transport and industry sectors, which are the main pollutants. (author)

  14. Radiolytic reduction of nifurtimose by CO2-· free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filali-Mouhim, A.; Champion, B.; Jore, D.; Ferradini, C.; Hickel, B.

    1991-01-01

    Nifurtimox is an antiparasitic drug often used in the treatment of the Chagas disease. Its therapeutic action seems to involve its monoelectronic reduction leading to a reduced radical capable of providing superoxide anion by reaction with oxygen. The oxidation reduction mechanisms involved in this action have been studied by steady state and pulse radiolysis methods. This study is devoted to the monoelectronic exchanges observed in the absence of air, the reducing radicals being the CO 2 - · anions [fr

  15. Assesment of Energy Options for CO2 Emission Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavlina, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, global anthropogenic CO 2 emissions grew by 52% which caused an increase in 10.8% in the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, and it tipped the 400 ppm mark in May 2013. The Fifth Assessment Report on climate impacts from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed earlier warnings that climate change is already stressing human communities, agriculture, and natural ecosystems, and the effects are likely to increase in the future. While European Union has long been committed to lowering carbon emissions, this places additional pressure on current EU goals for energy sector that includes significant reduction of CO 2 emissions. Current EU commitment has been formalized in so-called '20-20-20' plan, reducing carbon emissions, increasing energy efficiency and increasing energy production from renewables by 20% by 2020. Some EU member states are even more ambitious, like United Kingdom, planning to reduce carbon emissions by 80% by 2050. Bulk of carbon reduction will have to be achived in energy sector. In the power industry, most popular solution is use of solar and wind power. Since their production varies significantly during the day, for the purpose of base-load production they can be paired with gas-fired power plant. Other possible CO 2 -free solution is nuclear power plant. In this invited lecture, predicted cost of energy production for newly bulit nuclear power plant and newly built combination of wind or solar and gas-fired power plant are compared. Comparison was done using Levelized Unit of Energy Cost (LUEC). Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo method. For input parameters that have biggest uncertainty (gas cost, CO 2 emission fee) those uncertainties were addressed not only through probability distribution around predicted value, but also through different scenarious. (author)

  16. CO2 reduction strategies for the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kruijk, H.; Van den Broek, M.A.; Van Harmelen, T.; Van Oostvoorn, F.; Maly, M.

    1994-08-01

    Reduction of CO 2 emissions now has high priority on the international political agenda. The UN Convention on Climate Change provides countries the option for fulfilling the CO 2 reduction obligations individually or jointly. But before identifying opportunities, a reference path or scenario is needed to indicate how emissions will vary without joint implementation of projects or policies. This paper looks at the situation in the Czech Republic. First objective of the study concerns collecting information on CO 2 emissions in the Czech Republic, a reference scenario for CO 2 developments, and the reduction scope till the year 2015. Second objective is development of CEC energy/environmental model EFOM-ENV (Energy Flow and Optimization Model - ENVironment) for the Czech Republic. In the new orientation towards a market economy it is important to start preparing policy recommendations for energy and environmental needs based on the least cost approach. Presently the energy/environmental model EFOM-ENV is used for this type of studies by CEC, Directorate-General 12, and research institutes in almost all EC countries. It showed usefulness in EC countries for developing integrated energy /environmental strategies. Furthermore, based on its experience with this type of studies, the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation has the last years developed a GAMS PC-version of EFOM-ENV, very flexible and efficient to use. Increasing international cooperation in areas of energy and environmental policies requires a common analytical approach. Particularly for preparing harmonized emission control policies in Europe the use of the EC model EFOM-ENV for all Central European countries can provide comparable and useful insight in the relation between energy use and emissions in Central Europe. In fact similar studies have been and will be conducted for the Slovak Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, other Central European countries. 4 figs., 5 tabs., 6 refs

  17. An analysis of energy strategies for CO2 emission reduction in China. Case studies by MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangya

    1994-12-01

    The China's energy system has been analyzed by using the MARKAL model in this study and the time period is from the year 1990 to 2050. The MARKAL model is applied here to evaluate the cost effective energy strategies for CO 2 emission reduction in China. Firstly the Reference Energy System (RES) of China and its database were established, and the useful energy demand was projected on the basis of China's economic target and demographic forecasting. Four scenarios, BASE1-BASE4 were defined with different assumptions of crude oil and natural uranium availability. Analytical results show that without CO 2 emission constrains coal consumption will continue to hold a dominant position in primary energy supply, and CO 2 emissions in 2050 will be 9.55 BtCO 2 and 10.28 BtCO 2 with different natural uranium availability. Under the CO 2 emission constraints, nuclear and renewable energy will play important roles in CO 2 emission reduction, and feasible maximum CO 2 emission reduction estimated by this study is 3.16 BtCO 2 in 2050. The cumulative CO 2 emission from 1990 to 2050 will be 418.25 BtCO 2 and 429.16 BtCO 2 with different natural uranium availability. Total feasible maximum CO 2 emission reduction from 1990 to 2050 is 95.97 BtCO 2 . (author)

  18. CO2 emissions and reduction potential in China's chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Bing; Zhou, Wenji; Hu, Shanying; Li, Qiang; Griffy-Brown, Charla; Jin, Yong

    2010-01-01

    GHG (Increasing greenhouse gas) emissions in China imposes enormous pressure on China's government and society. The increasing GHG trend is primarily driven by the fast expansion of high energy-intensive sectors including the chemical industry. This study investigates energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the processes of chemical production in China through calculating the amounts of CO 2 emissions and estimating the reduction potential in the near future. The research is based on a two-level perspective which treats the entire industry as Level one and six key sub-sectors as Level two, including coal-based ammonia, calcium carbide, caustic soda, coal-based methanol, sodium carbonate, and yellow phosphorus. These two levels are used in order to address the complexity caused by the fact that there are more than 40 thousand chemical products in this industry and the performance levels of the technologies employed are extremely uneven. Three scenarios with different technological improvements are defined to estimate the emissions of the six sub-sectors and analyze the implied reduction potential in the near future. The results highlight the pivotal role that regulation and policy administration could play in controlling the CO 2 emissions by promoting average technology performances in this industry.

  19. Study on CO2 emission reduction using ENPEP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Song, K. D.; Im, C. Y.

    2003-01-01

    ENPEP was used to analyze the role of nuclear power in mitigating carbon emission in power generation sector. In this study, base scenario reflects business as usual case in Korea. Additional two scenarios were established. One stands for fuel switch scenario, where nuclear power plants scheduled to be introduced after 2008 were assumed to be replaced by Coal Power Plant, the other one is established to see the impact of carbon tax. In this scenario carbon tax(50$/ton-C0 2 ) is imposed on coal power plants from 2008. It is resulted that fuel switch from nuclear to coal in power generation sector has a great effect on CO 2 emission, while carbon tax imposition makes a slight contribution to the reduction of CO 2 emission. These findings mean that the role of nuclear power in Korea is important in view of the GHG mitigation

  20. Controlling selectivities in CO2 reduction through mechanistic understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang; Shi, Hui; Szanyi, János

    2017-09-11

    Catalytic CO2 conversion to energy carriers and intermediates is of utmost importance to energy and environmental goals. However, the lack of fundamental understanding of the reaction mechanism renders designing a selective catalyst inefficient. We performed operando FTIR/SSITKA experiments to understand the correlation between the kinetics of product formation and that of surface species conversion during CO2 reduction over Pd/Al2O3 catalysts. We found that the rate-determining step for CO formation is the conversion of adsorbed formate, while that for CH4 formation is the hydrogenation of adsorbed carbonyl. The balance of the hydrogenation kinetics between adsorbed formates and carbonyls governs the selectivities to CH4 and CO. We demonstrated how this knowledge can be used to design catalysts to achieve high selectivities to desired products.

  1. Mesostructure-Induced Selectivity in CO2 Reduction Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Anthony Shoji; Yoon, Youngmin; Wuttig, Anna; Surendranath, Yogesh

    2015-12-02

    Gold inverse opal (Au-IO) thin films are active for CO2 reduction to CO with high efficiency at modest overpotentials and high selectivity relative to hydrogen evolution. The specific activity for hydrogen evolution diminishes by 10-fold with increasing porous film thickness, while CO evolution activity is largely unchanged. We demonstrate that the origin of hydrogen suppression in Au-IO films stems from the generation of diffusional gradients within the pores of the mesostructured electrode rather than changes in surface faceting or Au grain size. For electrodes with optimal mesoporosity, 99% selectivity for CO evolution can be obtained at overpotentials as low as 0.4 V. These results establish electrode mesostructuring as a complementary method for tuning selectivity in CO2-to-fuels catalysis.

  2. CO2 substitution potential and CO2 reduction costs of an energetic exploitation of solid biomasses in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, S.

    1995-01-01

    For the reduction of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, the CO 2 , emissions are clearly to be reduced in future, according to the resolution made by the Federal Republic. Against the background of this objective, possible contributions of the biogenous solid fuels for the reduction of the CO 2 release of fossil origin are presented and discussed. For that, first the existing potentials of biomass in Germany and their present use are shown. Based on this, the CO 2 emissions by the present use already avoided, as well as the existing unexploited potentials of the CO 2 reduction potentials still to be exploited are determined. In accordance with an 'integral' starting point, thereby all pre- and post-positioned processes are considered. Finally, the specific CO 2 reduction costs are analysed and compared with other options. (orig.) [de

  3. CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction allocation over provincial industrial sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Liang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DEA is used to evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of 30 provincial industrial sector in China. • A new DEA-based model is proposed to allocate the CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets. • The context-dependent DEA is used to characterize the production plans. - Abstract: High energy consumption by the industry of developing countries has led to the problems of increasing emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) (primarily CO_2) and worsening energy shortages. To address these problems, many mitigation measures have been utilized. One major measure is to mandate fixed reductions of GHG emission and energy consumption. Therefore, it is important for each developing country to disaggregate their national reduction targets into targets for various geographical parts of the country. In this paper, we propose a DEA-based approach to allocate China’s national CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets over Chinese provincial industrial sectors. We firstly evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of Chinese industry considering energy consumption and GHG emissions. Then, considering the necessity of mitigating GHG emission and energy consumption, we develop a context-dependent DEA technique which can better characterize the changeable production with reductions of CO_2 emission and energy intensity, to help allocate the national reduction targets over provincial industrial sectors. Our empirical study of 30 Chinese regions for the period 2005–2010 shows that the industry of China had poor energy and environmental efficiency. Considering three major geographical areas, eastern China’s industrial sector had the highest efficiency scores while in this aspect central and western China were similar to each other at a lower level. Our study shows that the most effective allocation of the national reduction target requires most of the 30 regional industrial to reduce CO_2 emission and energy intensity, while a

  4. Studies on CO2 removal and reduction. CO2 taisaku kenkyu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-02-01

    This paper summarizes study trends mainly in CO2 fixing processes. Underground CO2 storage is a most promising method because it can fix a huge amount of CO2 and has low effects on ecological systems. Storing CO2 in ocean includes such methods as storing it in deep oceans; storing it in deep ocean beds; dissolving it into sea water; neutralizing it with calcium carbonates; and precipitating it as dry ice. Japan, disposing CO2 in these ways, may create international problems. Separation of CO2 may use a chemical absorption process as a superior method. Other processes discussed include a physical adsorption method and a membrane separation method. A useful method for CO2 fixation using marine organisms is fixation using coral reefs. This process will require an overall study including circulation of phosphorus and nitrogen. Marine organisms may include planktons and algae. CO2 fixation using land plants may be able to fix one trillion and 8 hundred billion tons of CO2 as converted to carbon. This process would require forest protection, prevention of desertification, and tree planting. Discussions are being given also on improving power generation cycles, recovering CO2 from automotive exhausts, and backfilling carbons into ground by means of photosynthesis. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Subsurface oxide plays a critical role in CO2 activation by Cu(111) surfaces to form chemisorbed CO2, the first step in reduction of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Marco; Xiao, Hai; Cheng, Tao; Goddard, William A; Yano, Junko; Crumlin, Ethan J

    2017-06-27

    A national priority is to convert CO 2 into high-value chemical products such as liquid fuels. Because current electrocatalysts are not adequate, we aim to discover new catalysts by obtaining a detailed understanding of the initial steps of CO 2 electroreduction on copper surfaces, the best current catalysts. Using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy interpreted with quantum mechanical prediction of the structures and free energies, we show that the presence of a thin suboxide structure below the copper surface is essential to bind the CO 2 in the physisorbed configuration at 298 K, and we show that this suboxide is essential for converting to the chemisorbed CO 2 in the presence of water as the first step toward CO 2 reduction products such as formate and CO. This optimum suboxide leads to both neutral and charged Cu surface sites, providing fresh insights into how to design improved carbon dioxide reduction catalysts.

  6. Tackling CO2 reduction in India through use of CO2 capture and storage (CCS): Prospects and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackley, Simon; Verma, Preeti

    2008-01-01

    CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) is not currently a priority for the Government of India (GOI) because, whilst a signatory to the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, there are no existing greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and most commentators do not envisage compulsory targets for India in the post-2012 phase. The overwhelming priority for the GOI is to sustain a high level of economic growth (8%+) and provision of secure, reliable energy (especially electricity) is one of the widely recognised bottlenecks in maintaining a high growth rate. In such a supply-starved context, it is not easy to envisage adoption of CCS-which increases overall generation capacity and demand for coal without increasing actual electricity supply-as being acceptable. Anything which increases costs-even slightly-is very unlikely to happen, unless it is fully paid for by the international community. The majority viewpoint of the industry and GOI interviewees towards CCS appears to be that it is a frontier technology, which needs to be developed further in the Annex-1 countries to bring down the cost through RD and D and deployment. More RD and D is required to assess in further detail the potential for CO 2 storage in geological reservoirs in India and the international community has an important role to play in cultivating such research

  7. Investigation of CO2 emission reduction strategy from in-use gasoline vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arti; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-04-01

    On road transport emissions is kicking off in Indian cities due to high levels of urbanization and economic growth during the last decade in Indian subcontinent. In 1951, about 17% of India's population were living in urban areas that increased to 32% in 2011. Currently, India is fourth largest Green House Gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions. For achieving prospective carbon reduction targets, substantial opportunity among in-use vehicle is necessary to quantify. Since, urban traffic flow and operating condition has significant impact on exhaust emission (Choudhary and Gokhale, 2016). This study examined the influence of vehicular operating kinetics on CO2 emission from predominant private transportation vehicles of Indian metropolitan city, Guwahati. On-board instantaneous data were used to quantify the impact of CO2 emission on different mileage passenger cars and auto-rickshaws at different times of the day. Further study investigates CO2 emission reduction strategies by using International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to improve co-benefit in private transportation by integrated effort such as gradual phase-out of inefficient vehicle and low carbon fuel. The analysis suggests that fuel type, vehicles maintenance and traffic flow management have potential for reduction of urban sector GHG emissions. Keywords: private transportation, CO2, instantaneous emission, IVE model Reference Choudhary, A., Gokhale, S. (2016). Urban real-world driving traffic emissions during interruption and congestion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 43: 59-70.

  8. Uncertainty-averse TRANSCO planning for accommodating renewable energy in CO2 reduction environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    , demand-side variations, market price volatility, and transmission configuration. Three objectives, i.e. social CO2 reduction benefit, energy purchase and network expansion cost and power delivery profit, are optimized simultaneously by a developed two-phase multi-objective particle swarm optimization......The concern of the environment and energy sustainability requests a crucial target of CO2 abatement and results in a relatively high penetration of renewable energy generation in the transmission system. For maintaining system reliability and security, the transmission company (TRANSCO) has to make...

  9. A multinational model for CO2 reduction: defining boundaries of future CO2 emissions in nine countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, Tom; Hill, Douglas.

    1996-01-01

    A need to make substantial future reductions in greenhouse gas emissions would require major changes in national energy systems. Nine industrialized countries have explored the technical boundaries of CO 2 emission restrictions during the next 40 to 50 years using comparable scenario assumptions and a standard model, MARKAL. Quantitative results for the countries are shown side by side in a set of energy maps that compare the least-cost evolution of the national energy systems by the main factors that contribute to CO 2 emissions. The ability to restrict future CO 2 emissions and the most cost-effective measures for doing so differ among the countries; an international agreement that would mandate substantial emission restrictions among countries by an equal percentage reduction is clearly impossible. The results are a first step toward a basis for allocating such international reductions, and the multinational process by which they were produced provides an example for further international greenhouse gas abatement costing studies. (Author)

  10. Recent Advances in Transition-Metal-Mediated Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction: From Homogeneous to Heterogeneous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ming Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change and increasing demands for clean energy have brought intensive interest in the search for proper electrocatalysts in order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 to higher value carbon products such as hydrocarbons. Recently, transition-metal-centered molecules or organic frameworks have been reported to show outstanding electrocatalytic activity in the liquid phase. Their d-orbital electrons are believed to be one of the key factors to capture and convert CO2 molecules to value-added low-carbon fuels. In this review, recent advances in electrocatalytic CO2 reduction have been summarized based on the targeted products, ranging from homogeneous reactions to heterogeneous ones. Their advantages and fallbacks have been pointed out and the existing challenges, especially with respect to the practical and industrial application are addressed.

  11. Recent Advances in Transition-Metal-Mediated Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction: From Homogeneous to Heterogeneous Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Da-Ming

    2017-12-01

    Global climate change and increasing demands for clean energy have brought intensive interest in the search for proper electrocatalysts in order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) to higher value carbon products such as hydrocarbons. Recently, transition-metal-centered molecules or organic frameworks have been reported to show outstanding electrocatalytic activity in the liquid phase. Their d-orbital electrons are believed to be one of the key factors to capture and convert CO2 molecules to value-added low-carbon fuels. In this review, recent advances in electrocatalytic CO2 reduction have been summarized based on the targeted products, ranging from homogeneous reactions to heterogeneous ones. Their advantages and fallbacks have been pointed out and the existing challenges, especially with respect to the practical and industrial application are addressed.

  12. Regional CO2 budget, countermeasures and reduction aims for the Alpine tourist region of Davos, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, A.; Calonder, G.-P.; Hagedorn, F.; Lardelli, C.; Lundstroem, C.; Stoeckli, V.

    2008-01-01

    In its latest report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that global climate change can still be slowed down if greenhouse gas emissions are rapidly and strongly reduced. We present a detailed regional CO 2 budget for the Alpine tourist region of Davos, Switzerland, including emissions and potential sinks. The aim of the study was (1) to estimate the most important CO 2 sources and sinks, (2) to identify the most efficient reduction measures and (3) to assess the feasibility of different reduction targets. The results show that the emissions due to heating contribute to a proportion of 86.3% to the total budget, which is mainly due to the harsh local climate and the tourism-focused local economy. They also show that the yearly CO 2 emissions per capita in Davos exceed the Swiss average of 6 tonnes by 25%. The augmentation of the carbon pool through the natural environment compares to 10.3% of the total emissions, and further afforestation of the community forest can contribute to an improvement of the total budget by 2.6%. The reduction aim of -15% until 2015 (compared with 2004), as set by the municipality itself, could be easily reached through better building insulation and the use of renewable energy sources. More ambitious aims, such as a 2000 W-society or CO 2 neutrality, however, will not be realised without major drawbacks in living standards

  13. Throwing new light on the reduction of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2015-03-18

    While the chemical energy in fossil fuels has enabled the rapid rise of modern civilization, their utilization and accompanying anthropogenic CO2 emissions is occurring at a rate that is outpacing nature's carbon cycle. Its effect is now considered to be irreversible and this could lead to the demise of human society. This is a complex issue without a single solution, yet from the burgeoning global research activity and development in the field of CO2 capture and utilization, there is light at the end of the tunnel. In this article a couple of recent advances are illuminated. Attention is focused on the discovery of gas-phase, light-assisted heterogeneous catalytic materials and processes for CO2 photoreduction that operate at sufficiently high rates and conversion efficiencies, and under mild conditions, to open a new pathway for an energy transition from today's "fossil fuel economy" to a new and sustainable "CO2 economy". Whichever of the competing CO2 capture and utilization approaches proves to be the best way forward for the development of a future CO2-based solar fuels economy, hopefully this can occur in a period short enough to circumvent the predicted adverse consequences of greenhouse gas climate change. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. An analysis of China's CO2 emission peaking target and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun He

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China has set the goal for its CO2 emissions to peak around 2030, which is not only a strategic decision coordinating domestic sustainable development and global climate change mitigation but also an overarching target and a key point of action for China's resource conservation, environmental protection, shift in economic development patterns, and CO2 emission reduction to avoid climate change. The development stage where China maps out the CO2 emission peak target is earlier than that of the developed countries. It is a necessity that the non-fossil energy supplies be able to meet all the increased energy demand for achieving CO2 emission peaking. Given that China's potential GDP annual increasing rate will be more than 4%, and China's total energy demand will continue to increase by approximately 1.0%–1.5% annually around 2030, new and renewable energies will need to increase by 6%–8% annually to meet the desired CO2 emission peak. The share of new and renewable energies in China's total primary energy supply will be approximately 20% by 2030. At that time, the energy consumption elasticity will decrease to around 0.3, and the annual decrease in the rate of CO2 intensity will also be higher than 4% to ensure the sustained growth of GDP. To achieve the CO2 emission peaking target and substantially promote the low-carbon development transformation, China needs to actively promote an energy production and consumption revolution, the innovation of advanced energy technologies, the reform of the energy regulatory system and pricing mechanism, and especially the construction of a national carbon emission cap and trade system.

  15. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, V.; Barbier, C.; Riedacker, A.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO 2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO 2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  16. The pH and pCO2 dependence of sulfate reduction in shallow-sea hydrothermal CO2 – venting sediments (Milos Island, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Price, Roy E.; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Finster, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (SR) is a dominant process of organic matter mineralization in sulfate-rich anoxic environments at neutral pH. Recent studies have demonstrated SR in low pH environments, but investigations on the microbial activity at variable pH and CO2 partial pressure are still lacking. In this study, the effect of pH and pCO2 on microbial activity was investigated by incubation experiments with radioactive 35S targeting SR in sediments from the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent system of Milos, Greece, where pH is naturally decreased by CO2 release. Sediments differed in their physicochemical characteristics with distance from the main site of fluid discharge. Adjacent to the vent site (T ~40–75°C, pH ~5), maximal sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were observed between pH 5 and 6. SR in hydrothermally influenced sediments decreased at neutral pH. Sediments unaffected by hydrothermal venting (T ~26°C, pH ~8) expressed the highest SRR between pH 6 and 7. Further experiments investigating the effect of pCO2 on SR revealed a steep decrease in activity when the partial pressure increased from 2 to 3 bar. Findings suggest that sulfate reducing microbial communities associated with hydrothermal vent system are adapted to low pH and high CO2, while communities at control sites required a higher pH for optimal activity. PMID:23658555

  17. The pH and pCO2 dependence of sulfate reduction in shallow-sea hydrothermal CO2 - venting sediments (Milos Island, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Price, Roy E; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Finster, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (SR) is a dominant process of organic matter mineralization in sulfate-rich anoxic environments at neutral pH. Recent studies have demonstrated SR in low pH environments, but investigations on the microbial activity at variable pH and CO2 partial pressure are still lacking. In this study, the effect of pH and pCO2 on microbial activity was investigated by incubation experiments with radioactive (35)S targeting SR in sediments from the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent system of Milos, Greece, where pH is naturally decreased by CO2 release. Sediments differed in their physicochemical characteristics with distance from the main site of fluid discharge. Adjacent to the vent site (T ~40-75°C, pH ~5), maximal sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were observed between pH 5 and 6. SR in hydrothermally influenced sediments decreased at neutral pH. Sediments unaffected by hydrothermal venting (T ~26°C, pH ~8) expressed the highest SRR between pH 6 and 7. Further experiments investigating the effect of pCO2 on SR revealed a steep decrease in activity when the partial pressure increased from 2 to 3 bar. Findings suggest that sulfate reducing microbial communities associated with hydrothermal vent system are adapted to low pH and high CO2, while communities at control sites required a higher pH for optimal activity.

  18. A supply chain optimization framework for CO2 emission reduction: Case of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyanarengan Ravi, N.; Zondervan, E.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Fransoo, J.C.; Grievink, J.; Claus, T.; Herrmann, F.; Manitz, M.; Rose, O.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for the industrial deployment of a CO2 emission reduction methodology is to reduce the overall cost and the integration of all the nodes in the supply chain for CO2 emission reduction. In this work, we develop a mixed integer linear optimization model that selects appropriate sources, capture process, transportation network and CO2 storage sites and optimize for a minimum overall cost. Initially, we screen the sources and storage options available in the Netherlands at diffe...

  19. A supply chain optimization framework for CO2 emission reduction : Case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyanarengan Ravi, N.; Zondervan, E.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Fransoo, J.C.; Grievink, J.; Claus, T.; Herrmann, F.; Manitz, M.; Rose, O.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for the industrial deployment of a CO2 emission reduction methodology is to reduce the overall cost and the integration of all the nodes in the supply chain for CO2 emission reduction. In this work, we develop a mixed integer linear optimization model that selects appropriate

  20. Reduction of CO2 by nickel (II) macrocycle catalyst at HMDE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    CO is the major product in the gaseous phase and. HCOOH the sole product formed in the solution phase. Keywords. Nickel (II) azamacrocycle; electrocatalytic reduction of CO2; electrochemical reduction. 1. Introduction. Electrochemical processes for the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic substances have ...

  1. Cocatalysts in Semiconductor-based Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jingrun; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Ever-increasing fossil-fuel combustion along with massive CO 2 emissions has aroused a global energy crisis and climate change. Photocatalytic CO 2 reduction represents a promising strategy for clean, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly conversion of CO 2 into hydrocarbon fuels by utilizing solar energy. This strategy combines the reductive half-reaction of CO 2 conversion with an oxidative half reaction, e.g., H 2 O oxidation, to create a carbon-neutral cycle, presenting a viable solution to global energy and environmental problems. There are three pivotal processes in photocatalytic CO 2 conversion: (i) solar-light absorption, (ii) charge separation/migration, and (iii) catalytic CO 2 reduction and H 2 O oxidation. While significant progress is made in optimizing the first two processes, much less research is conducted toward enhancing the efficiency of the third step, which requires the presence of cocatalysts. In general, cocatalysts play four important roles: (i) boosting charge separation/transfer, (ii) improving the activity and selectivity of CO 2 reduction, (iii) enhancing the stability of photocatalysts, and (iv) suppressing side or back reactions. Herein, for the first time, all the developed CO 2 -reduction cocatalysts for semiconductor-based photocatalytic CO 2 conversion are summarized, and their functions and mechanisms are discussed. Finally, perspectives in this emerging area are provided. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Role of nuclear energy in CO2 emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1675 and 1992 worldwide primary energy consumption has been multiplied by about 100 and has reached about 11 billions of tons of equivalent weight of coal, while human population has been multiplied by 8 and will probably reach 9 billions in 2030. The increase of atmospheric CO 2 production due to fossil fuel burn up will become a critical pollution and climatic problem which can be significantly reduced by a more widely use of nuclear energy in replacement of primary energies. However, perspectives of nuclear energy depend principally on the safety improvements of nuclear plants and on the solutions found to solve the management of radioactive waste. Renewable energies sources such as photovoltaic plants, wind engines, hydraulic plants have not yet been used at a large scale because they require large surfaces for their installation. To avoid any monolithic solution to solve the energy and environmental problems, a combination of renewable and nuclear energies seems to be a good compromise. For instance, the conception of a safety non-refueling nuclear reactor with an overheating hybrid system combining solar and fossil fuel energies should be conceivable. (J.S.)

  3. CO_2 emissions reduction of Chinese light manufacturing industries: A novel RAM-based global Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrouznejad, Ali; Yang, Guo-liang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has become one of the most challenging issues facing the world. Chinese government has realized the importance of energy conservation and prevention of the climate changes for sustainable development of China's economy and set targets for CO_2 emissions reduction in China. In China industry contributes 84.2% of the total CO_2 emissions, especially manufacturing industries. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Malmquist productivity (MP) index are the widely used mathematical techniques to address the relative efficiency and productivity of a group of homogenous decision making units, e.g. industries or countries. However, in many real applications, especially those related to energy efficiency, there are often undesirable outputs, e.g. the pollutions, waste and CO_2 emissions, which are produced inevitably with desirable outputs in the production. This paper introduces a novel Malmquist–Luenberger productivity (MLP) index based on directional distance function (DDF) to address the issue of productivity evolution of DMUs in the presence of undesirable outputs. The new RAM (Range-adjusted measure)-based global MLP index has been applied to evaluate CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries. Recommendations for policy makers have been discussed. - Highlights: •CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries are measured. •A novel RAM based Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index has been developed. •Recommendation to policy makers for reducing CO_2 reduction in China are given.

  4. The improvement of CO2 emission reduction policies based on system dynamics method in traditional industrial region with large CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fujia; Dong, Suocheng; Li, Zehong; Li, Yu; Li, Shantong; Wan, Yongkun

    2012-01-01

    Some traditional industrial regions are characterized by high industrial proportion and large CO 2 emission. They are facing dual pressures of maintaining economic growth and largely reducing CO 2 emission. From the perspective of study of typological region, taking the typical traditional industrial region—Liaoning Province of China as a case, this study establishes a system dynamics model named EECP and dynamically simulates CO 2 emission trends under different conditions. Simulation results indicate, compared to the condition without CO 2 emission reduction policies, CO 2 emission intensity under the condition of implementing CO 2 emission reduction policies of “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” is decreased by 11% from 2009 to 2030, but the economic cost is high, making the policies implementation faces resistance. Then some improved policies are offered and proved by EECP model that they can reduce CO 2 emission intensity after 2021 and decrease the negative influence to GDP, realizing the improvement objects of reducing CO 2 emission and simultaneously keeping a higher economy growth speed. The improved policies can provide reference for making and improving CO 2 emission reduction policies in other traditional industrial regions with large CO 2 emission. Simultaneously, EECP model can provide decision-makers with reference and help for similar study of energy policy. - Highlights: ► We build EECP model for CO 2 emission reduction study in traditional industry region. ► By the model, we simulate CO 2 emission trend and improve emission reduction policy. ► By improvement, both CO 2 emission intensity and economic cost can be largely reduced. ► Besides CO 2 emission is reduced effectively, higher GDP increment speed is kept. ► EECP model can be widely used for making and improving regional energy policies.

  5. Emissions of CO2 from road freight transport in London: Trends and policies for long run reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanni, Alberto M.; Bristow, Abigail L.

    2010-01-01

    Freight transport has been receiving increasing attention in both literature and practice following the growing recognition of its importance in urban transport planning. This paper analyses historical and projected road freight CO 2 emissions in the city of London and explores the potential mitigation effect of a set of freight transport policies and logistics solutions. Findings indicate a range of policies with potential to reduce emissions in the period up to 2050. However, this reduction would appear to only be capable of partly counterbalancing the projected increase in freight traffic. More profound behavioural measures therefore appear to be necessary for London's CO 2 emissions reduction targets to be met.

  6. Stockholm CHP potential - An opportunity for CO2 reductions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danestig, Maria; Gebremehdin, Alemayehu; Karlsson, Bjoern

    2007-01-01

    The potential for combined heat and power (CHP) generation in Stockholm is large and a total heat demand of about 10 TWh/year can be met in a renewed large district heating system. This model of the Stockholm district heating system shows that CHP generation can increase from 8% in 2004 to 15.5% of the total electricity generation in Sweden. Increased electricity costs in recent years have awakened an interest to invest in new electricity generation. Since renewable alternatives are favoured by green certificates, bio-fuelled CHP is most profitable at low electricity prices. Since heat demand in the district heating network sets the limit for possible electricity generation, a CHP alternative with a high electricity to heat ratio will be more profitable at when electricity prices are high. The efficient energy use in CHP has the potential to contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in Europe, when they are required and the European electricity market is working perfectly. The potential in Stockholm exceeds Sweden's undertakings under the Kyoto protocol and national reduction goals. (author)

  7. Evaluation of potential cost reductions from improved amine-based CO2 capture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Anand B.; Rubin, Edward S.; Keith, David W.; Granger Morgan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Technological innovations in CO 2 capture and storage technologies are being pursued worldwide under a variety of private and government-sponsored R and D programs. While much of this R and D is directed at novel concepts and potential breakthrough technologies, there are also substantial efforts to improve CO 2 capture technologies already in use. In this paper, we focus on amine-based CO 2 capture systems for power plants and other combustion-based applications. The current performance and cost of such systems have been documented in several recent studies. In this paper we examine the potential for future cost reductions that may result from continued process development. We used the formal methods of expert elicitation to understand what experts in this field believe about possible improvements in some of the key underlying parameters that govern the performance and cost of this technology. A dozen leading experts from North America, Europe and Asia participated in this study, providing their probabilistic judgments via a detailed questionnaire coupled with individual interviews. Judgments about detailed technical parameters were then used in an integrated power plant modeling framework (IECM-CS) developed for USDOE to evaluate the performance and costs of alternative carbon capture and sequestration technologies for fossil-fueled power plants. The experts' responses have allowed us to build a picture of how the overall performance and cost of amine-based systems might improve over the next decade or two. Results show how much the cost of CO 2 capture could be reduced via targeted R and D in key areas

  8. Strategic research on CO2 emission reduction for China. Application of MARKAL to China energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongping

    1995-09-01

    MARKAL was applied to the energy system for analyzing the CO 2 emission reduction in China over the time period from 1990 to 2050. First the Chinese Reference Energy System (CRES) was established based on the framework of MARKAL model. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study. When shifting from scenario LH (low useful energy demand and high import fuel prices) to HL (high demand and low prices), another 33 EJ of primary energy will be consumed and another 2.31 billion tons of CO 2 will be emitted in 2050. Detailed analyses on the disaggregation of CO 2 emissions by Kaya Formula show. The energy intensity (primary energy/GDP) decreases much faster in scenario HL, but the higher growth rate of GDP per capita is the overwhelming factor that results in higher CO 2 emission per capita in the baseline case of scenario HL in comparison with LH. When the carbon taxes are imposed on CO 2 emissions, the residential sector will make the biggest contribution to CO 2 emission abatement from a long-term point of view. However, it's difficult to stabilize CO 2 emission per capita before 2030 in both scenarios even with heavy carbon taxes. When nuclear moratorium occurs, more 560 million tons of CO 2 will be emitted to the atmosphere in 2050 under the same CO 2 tax regime. From the analysis of value flow, CO 2 emission reduction depends largely on new or advanced technologies particularly in the field of electricity generation. The competent technologies switch to those CO 2 less-emitting technologies when surcharging CO 2 emissions. Nuclear power shows significant potential in saving fossil energy resources and reducing CO 2 emissions. (J.P.N.)

  9. Controlled electropolymerisation of a carbazole-functionalised iron porphyrin electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xinming; Salmi, Zakaria; Lillethorup, Mie

    2016-01-01

    Using a one-step electropolymerisation procedure, CO2 absorbing microporous carbazole-functionalised films of iron porphyrins are prepared in a controlled manner. The electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 for these films is investigated to elucidate their efficiency and the origin of their ultimate...

  10. Opportunities and challenges in the electrocatalysis of CO2 and CO reduction using bifunctional surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanov, Zarko; Hansen, Heine A.; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Electrolysis could enable the large-scale conversion of CO2 to fuels and small molecules. This perspective discusses the state-of-the-art understanding of CO2 and CO reduction electrocatalysis and provides an overview of the most promising approaches undertaken thus far. We set to explore "bifunc...

  11. CO2 reduction: is increasing the diesel share the way to go?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Havenith, C.; Baarbe, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    Different scenarios have been compared for the future reduction of CO2-emission under real-world driving conditions. A significant shift towards diesel appears hardly to benefit the CO2 but would carry a real NOx penalty. Introduction of DI petrol engines and a shift towards gaseous fuels for s.i.

  12. Reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO2. Innovation an industrial stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.; Podkanski, J.; Socolow, R.; Dron, D.; Reiner, D.; Horrocks, P.; Fernandez Ruiz, P.; Dechamps, P.; Stromberg, L.; Wright, I.; Gazeau, J.C.; Wiederkehr, P.; Morcheoine, A.; Vesseron, P.; Feron, P.; Feraud, A.; Torp, N.T.; Christensen, N.P.; Le Thiez, P.; Czernichowski, I.; Hartman, J.; Roulet, C.; Roberts, J.; Zakkour, P.; Von Goerne, G.; Armand, R.; Allinson, G.; Segalen, L.; Gires, J.M.; Metz, B.; Brillet, B.

    2005-01-01

    An international symposium on the reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO 2 was held in Paris from 15 to 16 September 2005. The event, jointly organized by IFP, ADEME and BRGM, brought together over 400 people from more than 25 countries. It was an opportunity to review the international stakes related to global warming and also to debate ways of reducing CO 2 emissions, taking examples from the energy and transport sectors. The last day was dedicated to technological advances in the capture and geological storage of CO 2 and their regulatory and economic implications. This document gathers the available transparencies and talks presented during the colloquium: Opening address by F. Loos, French Minister-delegate for Industry; Session I - Greenhouse gas emissions: the international stakes. Outlook for global CO 2 emissions. The global and regional scenarios: Alternative scenarios for energy use and CO 2 emissions until 2050 by C. Mandil and J. Podkanski (IEA), The stabilization of CO 2 emissions in the coming 50 years by R. Socolow (Princeton University). Evolution of the international context: the stakes and 'factor 4' issues: Costs of climate impacts and ways towards 'factor 4' by D. Dron (ENS Mines de Paris), CO 2 emissions reduction policy: the situation in the United States by D. Reiner (MIT/Cambridge University), Post-Kyoto scenarios by P. Horrocks (European Commission), Possibilities for R and D in CO 2 capture and storage in the future FP7 program by P. Fernandez Ruiz and P. Dechamps (European Commission). Session II - CO 2 emission reductions in the energy and transport sectors. Reducing CO 2 emissions during the production and conversion of fossil energies (fixed installations): Combined cycles using hydrogen by G. Haupt (Siemens), CO 2 emission reductions in the oil and gas industry by I. Wright (BP). Reducing CO 2 emissions in the transport sector: Sustainable transport systems by P. Wiederkehr (EST International), The prospects for reducing

  13. Reduction of CO2 emissions by reduction of paper use for publication applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Reek, J.A.

    1999-10-01

    The main research question of this study is as follows: What is the technical potential for reducing paper use in the field of publication applications in Western Europe within a time frame of 10-20 years, and what will the consequences for CO2 emissions be? To answer this central question we have defined the next four subquestions, all related to Western Europe: (1) How were the historical trends for the consumption figures of publication papers?; (2) What will be the expected publication paper consumption the next 10-20 years based on the historical trends, and what will be the influence on the related CO2 emissions?; (3) What technical opportunities do we see to reduce the future paper consumption trend for publication applications and what will be the individual and cumulative technical potential of these innovations?; (4) Does implementation of the technical opportunities lead to a significant dematerialization effect? Chapter 2 describes the chosen research method. In Chapter 3 we will introduce and define the paper types studied. Furthermore, Chapter 3 describes the detailed division of publication papers we have used in this study and the relationship with pulp and papermaking. After reading this chapter it has to be clear which paper production methods and paper types are (per ton) responsible for how much CO2 emissions. To get an overall-impression of the relevance of certain papers for CO2 emission numbers it is important to have insight into the historical consumption patterns of publication papers. Chapter 4 pays attention to these consumption patterns. Chapter 5 describes the most important trend factors that may influence future paper consumption patterns and in Chapter 6 this is translated into three possible consumption growth scenarios. The first and second growth scenarios are only based on extrapolations from historical figures, the third scenario is based on some of the most significant potential reduction measures. Furthermore, Chapter 6 gives

  14. Climate Change Mitigation Pathways for Southeast Asia: CO2 Emissions Reduction Policies for the Energy and Transport Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew Fulton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As of June 2017, 150 countries have ratified the Paris Climate Agreement. This agreement calls for, among other things, strong reductions in CO2 emissions by 2030 and beyond. This paper reviews the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDCs plans of six Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN countries and compares their current and projected future CO2 levels across sectors, and their stated targets in the context of their economic and demographic situations. This comparison reveals wide variations in the types of targets, with the “ambition” level changing as the perspective changes from total CO2 to CO2/capita and per unit gross domestic product (GDP. We also review national plans as stated in NDCs and find that while there are many types of policies listed, few are quantified and no attempts are made to score individual or groups of policies for their likelihood in achieving stated targets. We conclude that more analysis is needed to better understand the possible impacts of current policies and plans on CO2 emissions, and whether current plans are adequate to hit targets. Considerations on better aligning targets are also provided.

  15. Novel, Regenerable Microlith Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Reduction via Bosch Process, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop an extremely compact, lightweight and regenerable MicrolithREG catalytic CO2 reduction reactor, capable of...

  16. Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO over Zn in propylene carbonate/tetrabutylammonium perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng-xia; Shi, Jin; Chen, Tian-you; Shi, Feng; Li, Qing-yuan; Zhen, Jian-zheng; Li, Yun-fei; Dai, Yong-nian; Yang, Bin; Qu, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Developing low cost and high efficient electrode for carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction in organic media is essential for practical application. Zn is a cheap metal and has high catalytic effects on CO2 reduction to carbon monoxide (CO) in aqueous solution. However, little attention has been given to investigate the performance of Zn in organic media for CO2 reduction. In present work, we have conducted CO2 reduction in propylene carbonate/tetrabutylammonium perchlorate on Zn due to that propylene carbonate is a widely used industrial absorber, and tetrabutylammonium perchlorate is a commonly used organic supporting electrolyte. In addition, because electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO naturally produces H2O, we have discussed water effects on CO2 reduction in propylene carbonate/tetrabutylammonium perchlorate+6.8 wt % H2O. Our experiment results reveal that the faradaic efficiency for CO formation reaches to 83%, and the current density remains stable at 6.72 mA/cm2 at voltage -2.3 V for 4 h. Interestingly, Zn presents higher catalytic activity than Ag, and slightly lower than Au. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirm that no poisonous species is formed and absorbed on the cathode, which is an important advantage in practical application.

  17. Progress and Perspective of Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction for Renewable Carbonaceous Fuels and Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Hu, Yi; Ma, Lianbo; Zhu, Guoyin; Wang, Yanrong; Xue, Xiaolan; Chen, Renpeng; Yang, Songyuan; Jin, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    The worldwide unrestrained emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has caused serious environmental pollution and climate change issues. For the sustainable development of human civilization, it is very desirable to convert CO 2 to renewable fuels through clean and economical chemical processes. Recently, electrocatalytic CO 2 conversion is regarded as a prospective pathway for the recycling of carbon resource and the generation of sustainable fuels. In this review, recent research advances in electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction are summarized from both experimental and theoretical aspects. The referred electrocatalysts are divided into different classes, including metal-organic complexes, metals, metal alloys, inorganic metal compounds and carbon-based metal-free nanomaterials. Moreover, the selective formation processes of different reductive products, such as formic acid/formate (HCOOH/HCOO - ), monoxide carbon (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), methane (CH 4 ), ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), methanol (CH 3 OH), ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH), etc. are introduced in detail, respectively. Owing to the limited energy efficiency, unmanageable selectivity, low stability, and indeterminate mechanisms of electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction, there are still many tough challenges need to be addressed. In view of this, the current research trends to overcome these obstacles in CO 2 electroreduction field are summarized. We expect that this review will provide new insights into the further technique development and practical applications of CO 2 electroreduction.

  18. Polyoxometalate-Promoted Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction at Nanostructured Silver in Dimethylformamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Si-Xuan; Li, Fengwang; Chen, Lu; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Zhang, Jie

    2018-04-18

    Electrochemical reduction of CO 2 is a promising method to convert CO 2 into fuels or useful chemicals, such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons, and alcohols. In this study, nanostructured Ag was obtained by electrodeposition of Ag in the presence of a Keggin type polyoxometalate, [PMo 12 O 40 ] 3- (PMo). Metallic Ag is formed upon reduction of Ag + . Adsorption of PMo on the surface of the newly formed Ag lowers its surface energy thus stabilizes the nanostructure. The electrocatalytic performance of this Ag-PMo nanocomposite for CO 2 reduction was evaluated in a CO 2 saturated dimethylformamide medium containing 0.1 M [ n-Bu 4 N]PF 6 and 0.5% (v/v) added H 2 O. The results show that this Ag-PMo nanocomposite can catalyze the reduction of CO 2 to CO with an onset potential of -1.70 V versus Fc 0/+ , which is only 0.29 V more negative than the estimated reversible potential (-1.41 V) for this process and 0.70 V more positive than that on bulk Ag metal. High faradaic efficiencies of about 90% were obtained over a wide range of applied potentials. A Tafel slope of 60 mV dec -1 suggests that rapid formation of *CO 2 •- is followed by the rate-determining protonation step. This is consistent with the voltammetric data which suggest that the reduced PMo interacts strongly with CO 2 (and presumably CO 2 •- ) and hence promotes the formation of CO 2 •- .

  19. Evaluating the CO 2 emissions reduction potential and cost of power sector re-dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel C.; Bielen, David A.; Townsend, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies of the U.S. electricity sector have recognized the potential to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by substituting generation from coal-fired units with generation from under-utilized and lower-emitting natural gas-fired units; in fact, this type of 're-dispatch' was invoked as one of the three building blocks used to set the emissions targets under the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. Despite the existence of surplus natural gas capacity in the U.S., power system operational constraints not often considered in power sector policy analyses, such as transmission congestion, generator ramping constraints, minimum generation constraints, planned and unplanned generator outages, and ancillary service requirements, could limit the potential and increase the cost of coal-to-gas re-dispatch. Using a highly detailed power system unit commitment and dispatch model, we estimate the maximum potential for re-dispatch in the Eastern Interconnection, which accounts for the majority of coal capacity and generation in the U.S. Under our reference assumptions, we find that maximizing coal-to-gas re-dispatch yields emissions reductions of 230 million metric tons (Mt), or 13% of power sector emissions in the Eastern Interconnection, with a corresponding average abatement cost of $15-$44 per metric ton of CO2, depending on the assumed supply elasticity of natural gas.

  20. Organic reactions for the electrochemical and photochemical production of chemical fuels from CO2--The reduction chemistry of carboxylic acids and derivatives as bent CO2 surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Oana R; Fenwick, Aidan Q

    2015-11-01

    The present review covers organic transformations involved in the reduction of CO2 to chemical fuels. In particular, we focus on reactions of CO2 with organic molecules to yield carboxylic acid derivatives as a first step in CO2 reduction reaction sequences. These biomimetic initial steps create opportunities for tandem electrochemical/chemical reductions. We draw parallels between long-standing knowledge of CO2 reactivity from organic chemistry, organocatalysis, surface science and electrocatalysis. We point out some possible non-faradaic chemical reactions that may contribute to product distributions in the production of solar fuels from CO2. These reactions may be accelerated by thermal effects such as resistive heating and illumination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction of CO2 emissions during cement clinker burning : Part 2 = Ein Beitrag zur Reduzierung der CO2-Emissionen beim Zementklinkerbrand; Teil 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.; Kolditz, K.; Beilmann, F.; Finger, F.A.; Ott-Reinhardt, D.; Kralisch, D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research project entitled "New technology in cement production for reducing CO2 emissions" sponsored by the German Federal Environmental Foundation was to lower the CO2 emissions during clinker burning. A possible reduction, relative to an industrial example, of up to 21 % in the

  2. Reduction of CO2 emissions during cement clinker burning; part 1 = Ein Beitrag zur Reduzierung der CO2-Emissionen beim Zementklinkerbrand; Teil 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.; Kolditz, K.; Bellmann, F.; Ott-Reinhardt, D.; Kralisch, D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research project entitled "New technology in cement production for reducing CO2 emissions" sponsored by the German Federal Environmental Foundation was to lower the CO2 emissions during clinker burning. A possible reduction, relative to an industrial example, of up to 21 % in the

  3. Prediction of the viscosity reduction due to dissolved CO2 of and an elementary approach in the supercritical CO2 assisted continuous particle production of a polyester resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalawade, Sameer P.; Nieborg, Vincent H. J.; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, L. P. B. M.

    2006-01-01

    The dissolution of CO2 in a polymer causes plasticization of the polymer and hence, its viscosity is reduced. A model based on the free volume theory has been used for a polyester resin, which shows a considerable reduction in the viscosity due to dissolved M. Therefore, superctitical CO2 has been

  4. Performance Limits of Photoelectrochemical CO2 Reduction Based on Known Electrocatalysts and the Case for Two-Electron Reduction Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Seger, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Solar-drivenreduction of CO2 to solar fuels as an alternative to H2 via water splitting is an intriguing proposition. We modelthe solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies using realistic parameters basedon recently reported CO2 reduction catalysts with a highperformance tandem photoabsorber structure. CO...... due to excessiveoverpotentials and poor selectivity. This work considers breakingup the multielectron reduction pathway into individually optimized,separate two-electron steps as a way forward....

  5. Realizing CO2 emission reduction through industrial symbiosis: A cement production case study for Kawasaki

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Shizuka; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Geng, Yong; Nagasawa, Emiri

    2010-01-01

    This article is one effort to examine the present and potential performances of CO2 emission reduction though industrial symbiosis by employing a case study approach and life cycle CO2 analysis for alternative industrial symbiosis scenarios. As one of the first and the best-known eco-town projects, Kawasaki Eco-town was chosen as a case study area. First, the current industrial symbiosis practices in this area are introduced. To evaluate the potential of reducing the total CO2 emission throug...

  6. A single gene target of an ETS-family transcription factor determines neuronal CO2-chemosensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Julia P; Aziz-Zaman, Sonya; Juozaityte, Vaida

    2012-01-01

    . We report here a mechanism that endows C. elegans neurons with the ability to detect CO(2). The ETS-5 transcription factor is necessary for the specification of CO(2)-sensing BAG neurons. Expression of a single ETS-5 target gene, gcy-9, which encodes a receptor-type guanylate cyclase, is sufficient...

  7. Optimal production resource reallocation for CO2 emissions reduction in manufacturing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate the effects of climate change, countries worldwide are advancing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes and measures optimal production resource reallocation using data envelopment analysis. This research attempts to clarify the effect of optimal production resource reallocation on CO2 emissions reduction, focusing on regional and industrial characteristics. We use finance, energy, and CO2 emissions data from 13 industrial sectors in 39 countries from...

  8. Incentives for subcontractors to adopt CO2 emission reporting and reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kleinsmann, Renske

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the incentives for subcontractors (couriers) of a transport and logistics company to report about their CO 2 emissions and to implement CO 2 reducing technologies. Furthermore, we try to find out whether these incentives differ between British and Dutch couriers. We find that several incentives play a significant role. Subcontractors in the Netherlands predominantly are extrinsically motivated to engage in CO 2 reporting and reduction techniques. This is because they are mainly driven by regulatory compliance, energy costs and implementation costs. In contrast, British subcontractors are much more intrinsically motivated to comply. They are predominantly driven by energy costs, environmental awareness, relationship building and reputation building. The contractor will have to account for these differences in making its policies work. - Research highlights: → We investigate incentives for couriers to report CO 2 emissions and to implement CO 2 reduction techniques. → We compare couriers in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. → Several incentives are significant for the adoption of CO 2 reporting and reduction measures. → There are significant differences in the sensitivity for incentives in the Netherlands and the UK.

  9. Subsurface oxide plays a critical role in CO_2 activation by Cu(111) surfaces to form chemisorbed CO_2 , the first step in reduction of CO_2

    OpenAIRE

    Favaro, Marco; Xiao, Hai; Cheng, Tao; Goddard, William A.; Yano, Junko; Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2017-01-01

    A national priority is to convert CO_2 into high-value chemical products such as liquid fuels. Because current electrocatalysts are not adequate, we aim to discover new catalysts by obtaining a detailed understanding of the initial steps of CO_2 electroreduction on copper surfaces, the best current catalysts. Using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy interpreted with quantum mechanical prediction of the structures and free energies, we show that the presence of a thin suboxide s...

  10. Subsurface oxide plays a critical role in CO2 activation by Cu(111) surfaces to form chemisorbed CO2, the first step in reduction of CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Favaro, M; Xiao, H; Cheng, T; Goddard, WA; Crumlin, EJ

    2017-01-01

    A national priority is to convert CO2 into high-value chemical products such as liquid fuels. Because current electrocatalysts are not adequate, we aim to discover new catalysts by obtaining a detailed understanding of the initial steps of CO2 electroreduction on copper surfaces, the best current catalysts. Using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy interpreted with quantum mechanical prediction of the structures and free energies, we show that the presence of a thin suboxide str...

  11. Strategi for CO2-reduktion i den individuelle varmeforsyning: Strategy for CO2 reduction in the individual heat supply

    OpenAIRE

    Schjerling, Tina Gliese

    2008-01-01

    The project is made in cooperation with Lolland municipality, which has set a series of ambitious goals in relation to reducing the CO2 emissions in the municipality. One of the challenges faced by the municipality in this connection is to achieve a cleaner heat supply. The collective heat supply is almost 100% CO2-neutral, as the district heating plants primarily use CO2-neutral fuel. However, there are a great number of households outside the collective heat supply, which are heated by mean...

  12. Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Pang, Yuanjie; Zhang, Bo; de Luna, Phil; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Xu, Jixian; Zheng, Xueli; Dinh, Cao Thang; Fan, Fengjia; Cao, Changhong; de Arquer, F. Pelayo García; Safaei, Tina Saberi; Mepham, Adam; Klinkova, Anna; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Filleter, Tobin; Sinton, David; Kelley, Shana O.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) is the first step in the synthesis of more complex carbon-based fuels and feedstocks using renewable electricity. Unfortunately, the reaction suffers from slow kinetics owing to the low local concentration of CO2 surrounding typical CO2 reduction reaction catalysts. Alkali metal cations are known to overcome this limitation through non-covalent interactions with adsorbed reagent species, but the effect is restricted by the solubility of relevant salts. Large applied electrode potentials can also enhance CO2 adsorption, but this comes at the cost of increased hydrogen (H2) evolution. Here we report that nanostructured electrodes produce, at low applied overpotentials, local high electric fields that concentrate electrolyte cations, which in turn leads to a high local concentration of CO2 close to the active CO2 reduction reaction surface. Simulations reveal tenfold higher electric fields associated with metallic nanometre-sized tips compared to quasi-planar electrode regions, and measurements using gold nanoneedles confirm a field-induced reagent concentration that enables the CO2 reduction reaction to proceed with a geometric current density for CO of 22 milliamperes per square centimetre at -0.35 volts (overpotential of 0.24 volts). This performance surpasses by an order of magnitude the performance of the best gold nanorods, nanoparticles and oxide-derived noble metal catalysts. Similarly designed palladium nanoneedle electrocatalysts produce formate with a Faradaic efficiency of more than 90 per cent and an unprecedented geometric current density for formate of 10 milliamperes per square centimetre at -0.2 volts, demonstrating the wider applicability of the field-induced reagent concentration concept.

  13. Single site porphyrine-like structures advantages over metals for selective electrochemical CO2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Alexander; Ju, Wen; Varela, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Currently, no catalysts are completely selective for the electrochemical CO2 Reduction Reaction (CO2RR). Based on trends in density functional theory calculations of reaction intermediates we find that the single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure has a simple advantage of limiting...... the competing Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). The single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure requires an ontop site binding of hydrogen, compared to the hollow site binding of hydrogen on a metal catalyst surface. The difference in binding site structure gives a fundamental energy-shift in the scaling...... relation of ∼0.3eV between the COOH* vs. H* intermediate (CO2RR vs. HER). As a result, porphyrine-like catalysts have the advantage over metal catalyst of suppressing HER and enhancing CO2RR selectivity....

  14. Estimation and reduction of CO2 emissions from crude oil distillation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, M.; Olujic, Z.; Jobson, M.; Smith, R.

    2006-01-01

    Distillation systems are energy-intensive processes, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). A simple model for the estimation of CO 2 emissions associated with operation of heat-integrated distillation systems as encountered in refineries is introduced. In conjunction with a shortcut distillation model, this model has been used to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower unit aiming at minimization of CO 2 emissions. Simulation results indicate that the total CO 2 emissions of the existing crude oil unit can be cut down by 22%, just by changing the process conditions accordingly, and that the gain in this respect can be doubled by integrating a gas turbine. In addition, emissions reduction is accompanied by substantial profit increase due to utility saving and/or export

  15. Energy in the Netherlands. Optimized pathways to CO2 reduction in the Dutch context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This document reports the findings of research undertaken by the Energy Forum NL (EFNL) which consists of companies active in different parts of the energy sector. The group strives for a more long-term, stable energy policy and investment climate in the Netherlands, one that will help realize overall climate ambitions. This report is part of the group's contribution to the energy debate in the Netherlands; it lays out a fact-based, objective analysis of the potential energy mix if one assumes a continued focus on carbon abatement. In this report, the Energy Forum NL provides pathways that show how the Netherlands can best contribute to the EU target of 80% CO2e emission reduction by 2050 compared to 1990. They particularly focus on the goal for the next 20 years: reducing CO2e emissions by 40% by 2030 compared to 1990. The Forum selected 40% as a midway target for 80% in 2050; this falls within the EU ambition of 40%-44% in 2030.1 The period beyond 2030, which is much more uncertain, is modeled in less detail. However, the Forum took care to not let the choice of any pathway during 2010-2030 lock a pathway after 2030 in or out. A 'least cost' approach, which works across sectors, is used to reduce emissions. In a 'least cost' approach, all emission reduction measures are ranked on costs and implemented progressively (starting from the cheapest) until the targeted abatement level is reached. In addition, a few developing technologies are implemented even if they are more expensive than alternatives. This choice prevents technology lock-in, ensures a more versatile, resilient energy system and provides a reasonable starting position for the period post-2030. The report assumes a pan-European approach for the power sector, which is the key sector in the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS); in this case, Dutch abatement options 'compete' with those in other EU countries. For the other sectors it uses a national approach. Non-cost factors

  16. Electrochemical CO2 Reduction by Ni-containing Iron Sulfides: How Is CO2 Electrochemically Reduced at Bisulfide-Bearing Deep-sea Hydrothermal Precipitates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Takai, Ken; Ishii, Takumi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the late 1970's has led to many hypotheses concerning chemical evolution in the prebiotic ocean and the early evolution of energy metabolism in ancient Earth. Such studies stand on the quest for the bioenergetic evolution to utilize reducing chemicals such as H 2 for CO 2 reduction and carbon assimilation. In addition to the direct reaction of H 2 and CO 2 , the electrical current passing across a bisulfide-bearing chimney structure has pointed to the possible electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction at the cold ocean-vent interface (R. Nakamura, et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 7692 − 7694). To confirm the validity of this hypothesis, here, we examined the energetics of electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction by iron sulfide (FeS) deposits at slightly acidic pH. Although FeS deposits inefficiently reduced CO 2 , the efficiency of the reaction was substantially improved by the substitution of Fe with Ni to form FeNi 2 S 4 (violarite), of which surface was further modified with amine compounds. The potential-dependent activity of CO 2 reduction demonstrated that CO 2 reduction by H 2 in hydrothermal fluids was involved in a strong endergonic electron transfer reaction, suggesting that a naturally occurring proton-motive force (PMF) as high as 200 mV would be established across the hydrothermal vent chimney wall. However, in the chimney structures, H 2 generation competes with CO 2 reduction for electrical current, resulting in rapid consumption of the PMF. Therefore, to maintain the PMF and the electrosynthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal vent mineral deposits, we propose a homeostatic pH regulation mechanism of FeS deposits, in which elemental hydrogen stored in the hydrothermal mineral deposits is used to balance the consumption of the electrochemical gradient by H 2 generation

  17. Potential energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of China's cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Jing; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes current energy and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission trends in China's cement industry as the basis for modeling different levels of cement production and rates of efficiency improvement and carbon reduction in 2011–2030. Three cement output projections are developed based on analyses of historical production and physical and macroeconomic drivers. For each of these three production projections, energy savings and CO 2 emission reduction potentials are estimated in a best practice scenario and two continuous improvement scenarios relative to a frozen scenario. The results reveal the potential for cumulative final energy savings of 27.1 to 37.5 exajoules and energy-related direct emission reductions of 3.2 to 4.4 gigatonnes in 2011–2030 under the best practice scenarios. The continuous improvement scenarios produce cumulative final energy savings of 6.0 to 18.9 exajoules and reduce CO 2 emissions by 1.0 to 2.4 gigatonnes. This analysis highlights that increasing energy efficiency is the most important policy measure for reducing the cement industry's energy and emissions intensity, given the current state of the industry and the unlikelihood of significant carbon capture and storage before 2030. In addition, policies to reduce total cement production offer the most direct way of reducing total energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: ► This study models output and efficiency improvements in Chinese cement industry from 2011–2030. ► Energy savings and CO 2 emission reductions estimated for 3 scenarios relative to frozen scenario. ► Results reveal cumulative final energy savings potential of 27.1–37.5 EJ and 3.2–4.4 Gt CO 2 reductions. ► Increasing efficiency is the most important policy for reducing cement energy and emissions intensity.

  18. Strength Reduction of Coal Pillar after CO2 Sequestration in Abandoned Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhao Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available CO2 geosequestration is currently considered to be the most effective and economical method to dispose of artificial greenhouse gases. There are a large number of coal mines that will be scrapped, and some of them are located in deep formations in China. CO2 storage in abandoned coal mines will be a potential option for greenhouse gas disposal. However, CO2 trapping in deep coal pillars would induce swelling effects of coal matrix. Adsorption-induced swelling not only modifies the volume and permeability of coal mass, but also causes the basic physical and mechanical properties changing, such as elastic modulus and Poisson ratio. It eventually results in some reduction in pillar strength. Based on the fractional swelling as a function of time and different loading pressure steps, the relationship between volumetric stress and adsorption pressure increment is acquired. Eventually, this paper presents a theory model to analyze the pillar strength reduction after CO2 adsorption. The model provides a method to quantitatively describe the interrelation of volumetric strain, swelling stress, and mechanical strength reduction after gas adsorption under the condition of step-by-step pressure loading and the non-Langmuir isothermal model. The model might have a significantly important implication for predicting the swelling stress and mechanical behaviors of coal pillars during CO2 sequestration in abandoned coal mines.

  19. Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 at Metal Electrodes in a Distillable Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Guo, Si-Xuan; Li, Fengwang; Bentley, Cameron; Horne, Mike; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-08

    The electroreduction of CO2 in the distillable ionic liquid dimethylammonium dimethylcarbamate (dimcarb) has been investigated with 17 metal electrodes. Analysis of the electrolysis products reveals that aluminum, bismuth, lead, copper, nickel, palladium, platinum, iron, molybdenum, titanium and zirconium electroreduce the available protons in dimcarb to hydrogen rather than reducing CO2 . Conversely, indium, tin, zinc, silver and gold are able to catalyze the reduction of CO2 to predominantly carbon monoxide (CO) and to a lesser extent, formate ([HCOO](-) ). In all cases, the applied potential was found to have a minimal influence on the distribution of the reduction products. Overall, indium was found to be the best electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction in dimcarb, with faradaic efficiencies of approximately 45 % and 40 % for the generation of CO and [HCOO](-) , respectively, at a potential of -1.34 V versus Cc(+/0) (Cc(+) =cobaltocenium) employing a dimethylamine to CO2 ratio of less than 1.8:1. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Rational Design of a Hierarchical Tin Dendrite Electrode for Efficient Electrochemical Reduction of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Da Hye; Choi, Chang Hyuck; Chung, Jaehoon; Chung, Min Wook; Kim, Eun-Hee; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2015-09-21

    Catalysis is a key technology for the synthesis of renewable fuels through electrochemical reduction of CO2 . However, successful CO2 reduction still suffers from the lack of affordable catalyst design and understanding the factors governing catalysis. Herein, we demonstrate that the CO2 conversion selectivity on Sn (or SnOx /Sn) electrodes is correlated to the native oxygen content at the subsurface. Electrochemical analyses show that the reduced Sn electrode with abundant oxygen species effectively stabilizes a CO2 (.-) intermediate rather than the clean Sn surface, and consequently results in enhanced formate production in the CO2 reduction. Based on this design strategy, a hierarchical Sn dendrite electrode with high oxygen content, consisting of a multi-branched conifer-like structure with an enlarged surface area, was synthesized. The electrode exhibits a superior formate production rate (228.6 μmol h(-1)  cm(-2) ) at -1.36 VRHE without any considerable catalytic degradation over 18 h of operation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Coupled Metal/Oxide Catalysts with Tunable Product Selectivity for Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shengjuan; Weng, Zhe; Wu, Zishan; Zhong, Yiren; Wu, Yueshen; Fang, Jianhui; Wang, Hailiang

    2017-08-30

    One major challenge to the electrochemical conversion of CO 2 to useful fuels and chemical products is the lack of efficient catalysts that can selectively direct the reaction to one desirable product and avoid the other possible side products. Making use of strong metal/oxide interactions has recently been demonstrated to be effective in enhancing electrocatalysis in the liquid phase. Here, we report one of the first systematic studies on composition-dependent influences of metal/oxide interactions on electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction, utilizing Cu/SnO x heterostructured nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a model catalyst system. By adjusting the Cu/Sn ratio in the catalyst material structure, we can tune the products of the CO 2 electrocatalytic reduction reaction from hydrocarbon-favorable to CO-selective to formic acid-dominant. In the Cu-rich regime, SnO x dramatically alters the catalytic behavior of Cu. The Cu/SnO x -CNT catalyst containing 6.2% of SnO x converts CO 2 to CO with a high faradaic efficiency (FE) of 89% and a j CO of 11.3 mA·cm -2 at -0.99 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, in stark contrast to the Cu-CNT catalyst on which ethylene and methane are the main products for CO 2 reduction. In the Sn-rich regime, Cu modifies the catalytic properties of SnO x . The Cu/SnO x -CNT catalyst containing 30.2% of SnO x reduces CO 2 to formic acid with an FE of 77% and a j HCOOH of 4.0 mA·cm -2 at -0.99 V, outperforming the SnO x -CNT catalyst which only converts CO 2 to formic acid in an FE of 48%.

  2. Surface-reconstructed Cu Electrode via a Facile Electrochemical Anodization-Reduction Process for Low Overpotential CO 2 reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Min, Shixiong; Yang, Xiulin; Lu, Ang-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Chih; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Lai, Zhiping; Li, Lain-Jong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2017-01-01

    A high-surface-area Cu electrode, fabricated by a simple electrochemical anodization-reduction method, exhibits high activity and selectivity for CO2 reduction at low overpotential in 0.1 M KHCO3 solution. A faradaic efficiency of 37% for HCOOH

  3. High-throughput synthesis of mixed-metal electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jingfu; Dettelbach, Kevan E.; Li, Tengfei; Salvatore, Danielle A.; Berlinguette, Curtis P.

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of CO 2 as a feedstock requires fundamental breakthroughs in catalyst design. The efficiencies and activities of pure metal electrodes towards the CO 2 reduction reaction are established, but the corresponding data on mixed-metal systems are not as well developed. In this study we show that the near-infrared driven decomposition (NIRDD) of solution-deposited films of metal salts and subsequent electrochemical reduction offers the unique opportunity to form an array of mixed-metal electrocatalyst coatings with excellent control of the metal stoichiometries. This synthetic method enabled us to develop an empirical structure-property correlation to help inform the development of optimized CO 2 catalyst compositions. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. CO2 Reduction Catalyzed by Nitrogenase: Pathways to Formate, Carbon Monoxide, and Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Nimesh; Dean, Dennis R; Smith, Dayle; Hoffman, Brian M; Raugei, Simone; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2016-09-06

    The reduction of N2 to NH3 by Mo-dependent nitrogenase at its active-site metal cluster FeMo-cofactor utilizes reductive elimination of Fe-bound hydrides with obligatory loss of H2 to activate the enzyme for binding/reduction of N2. Earlier work showed that wild-type nitrogenase and a nitrogenase with amino acid substitutions in the MoFe protein near FeMo-cofactor can catalytically reduce CO2 by two or eight electrons/protons to carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) at low rates. Here, it is demonstrated that nitrogenase preferentially reduces CO2 by two electrons/protons to formate (HCOO(-)) at rates >10 times higher than rates of CO2 reduction to CO and CH4. Quantum mechanical calculations on the doubly reduced FeMo-cofactor with a Fe-bound hydride and S-bound proton (E2(2H) state) favor a direct reaction of CO2 with the hydride ("direct hydride transfer" reaction pathway), with facile hydride transfer to CO2 yielding formate. In contrast, a significant barrier is observed for reaction of Fe-bound CO2 with the hydride ("associative" reaction pathway), which leads to CO and CH4. Remarkably, in the direct hydride transfer pathway, the Fe-H behaves as a hydridic hydrogen, whereas in the associative pathway it acts as a protic hydrogen. MoFe proteins with amino acid substitutions near FeMo-cofactor (α-70(Val→Ala), α-195(His→Gln)) are found to significantly alter the distribution of products between formate and CO/CH4.

  5. Energy efficiency and reduction of CO2 emissions from campsites management in a protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moretto, Deny; Branca, Teresa Annunziata; Colla, Valentina

    2018-06-02

    Campsites can be a pollution source, mainly due to the energy consumption. In addition, the green areas, thanks to the direct CO 2 sequestration and the shading, indirectly prevent the CO 2 emissions related to energy consumption. The methodology presented in this paper allowed assessing the annual CO 2 emissions directly related to the campsite management and the consequent environmental impact in campsite clusters in Tuscany. The software i-Tree Canopy was exploited, enabling to evaluate in terms of "canopy" the tonnes of CO 2 sequestered by the vegetation within each campsite. Energy and water consumptions from 2012 to 2015 were assessed for each campsite. As far as the distribution of sequestered CO 2 is concerned, the campsites ranking was in accordance to their size. According to the indicator "T-Tree" or canopy cover, a larger area of the canopy cover allows using less outdoor areas covered by trees for the sequestration of the remaining amount of pollutants. The analysis shows that the considered campsites, that are located in a highly naturalistic Park, present significant positive aspects both in terms of CO 2 emission reductions and of energy efficiency. However, significant margins of improvement are also possible and they were analysed in the paper. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of copper oxide electrocatalyst on CO2 reduction using Co3O4 as anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.K. Yadav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 to products electrochemically (RCPE in 0.5 M NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 liquid phase electrolyte solutions was investigated. Cobalt oxide (Co3O4 as anode and cuprous oxide (Cu2O as the cathode were considered, respectively. The impacts of applied potential with time of reaction during reduction of CO2 to products were studied. The anode and cathode were prepared by depositing electrocatalysts on the graphite plate. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC was used to analyze the products obtained from the reduction of CO2. The feasible way of reduction by applying voltages with current densities was clearly correlated. The results illustrate the capability of electrocatalyst successfully to remove atmospheric CO2 in the form of valuable chemicals. Maximum Faradaic efficiency of ethanol was 98.1% at 2 V and for formic acid (36.6% at 1.5 V was observed in NaHCO3. On the other hand, in Na2CO3 electrolyte solution maximum efficiency for ethanol was 55.21% at 1.5 V and 25.1% for formic acid at 2 V. In both electrolytes other end products like methanol, propanol, formaldehyde and acetic acid were formed at various applied voltage and output current densities.

  7. Low Overpotential and High Current CO2 Reduction with Surface Reconstructed Cu Foam Electrodess

    KAUST Repository

    Min, Shixiong; Yang, Xiulin; Lu, Ang-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Chih; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Li, Lain-Jong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    for large-scale fuel synthesis. Here we report an extremely high current density for CO2 reduction at low overpotential using a Cu foam electrode prepared by air-oxidation and subsequent electroreduction. Apart from possessing three-dimensional (3D) open

  8. In situ spectroscopic monitoring of CO2 reduction at copper oxide electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liying; Gupta, Kalyani; Goodall, Josephine B M; Darr, Jawwad A; Holt, Katherine B

    2017-04-28

    Copper oxide modified electrodes were investigated as a function of applied electrode potential using in situ infrared spectroscopy and ex situ Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In deoxygenated KHCO 3 electrolyte bicarbonate and carbonate species were found to adsorb to the electrode during reduction and the CuO was reduced to Cu(i) or Cu(0) species. Carbonate was incorporated into the structure and the CuO starting material was not regenerated on cycling to positive potentials. In contrast, in CO 2 saturated KHCO 3 solution, surface adsorption of bicarbonate and carbonate was not observed and adsorption of a carbonato-species was observed with in situ infrared spectroscopy. This species is believed to be activated, bent CO 2 . On cycling to negative potentials, larger reduction currents were observed in the presence of CO 2 ; however, less of the charge could be attributed to the reduction of CuO. In the presence of CO 2 CuO underwent reduction to Cu 2 O and potentially Cu, with no incorporation of carbonate. Under these conditions the CuO starting material could be regenerated by cycling to positive potentials.

  9. Electrochemical reduction of CO2 on compositionally variant Au-Pt bimetallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, M.; Hansen, H.A.; Valenti, M.; Wang, Z.; Cao, A.; Dong, M.; Smith, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    The electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 on Au-Pt bimetallic catalysts with different compositions was evaluated, offering a platform for uncovering the correlation between the catalytic activity and the surface composition of bimetallic electrocatalysts. The Au-Pt alloy films were synthesized by a

  10. Nature and Distribution of Stable Subsurface Oxygen in Copper Electrodes During Electrochemical CO2 Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo Carlo; Ferragut, Rafael; Aghion, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit higher activity than pristine copper during the carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR) and higher selectivity towards ethylene. The presence of residual subsurface oxygen in OD-Cu has been proposed to be responsible for such improvements, although...

  11. Transition paths towards CO2 emission reduction in the steel industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, Berend Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    Radiative forcing, better known as the Greenhouse Effect, is probably the major 21st century environmental problem. Its probable cause is the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, especially CO2. The Kyoto agreement enforces considerable reductions of the GHG emissions in 2010, with 6 to 8% of

  12. Shape-Dependent Electrocatalytic Reduction of CO2 to CO on Triangular Silver Nanoplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Subiao; Tao, Hongbiao; Zeng, Li; Liu, Qi; Xu, Zhenghe; Liu, Qingxia; Luo, Jing-Li

    2017-02-15

    Electrochemical reduction of CO 2 (CO 2 RR) provides great potential for intermittent renewable energy storage. This study demonstrates a predominant shape-dependent electrocatalytic reduction of CO 2 to CO on triangular silver nanoplates (Tri-Ag-NPs) in 0.1 M KHCO 3 . Compared with similarly sized Ag nanoparticles (SS-Ag-NPs) and bulk Ag, Tri-Ag-NPs exhibited an enhanced current density and significantly improved Faradaic efficiency (96.8%) and energy efficiency (61.7%), together with a considerable durability (7 days). Additionally, CO starts to be observed at an ultralow overpotential of 96 mV, further confirming the superiority of Tri-Ag-NPs as a catalyst for CO 2 RR toward CO formation. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and selectivity at lowered overpotential originate from the shape-controlled structure. This not only provides the optimum edge-to-corner ratio but also dominates at the facet of Ag(100) where it requires lower energy to initiate the rate-determining step. This study demonstrates a promising approach to tune electrocatalytic activity and selectivity of metal catalysts for CO 2 RR by creating optimal facet and edge site through shape-control synthesis.

  13. Assessment of Alternative Scenarios for CO2 Reduction Potential in the Residential Building Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The South Korean government announced its goals of reducing the country’s CO2 emissions by up to 30% below the business as usual (BAU projections by 2020 in 2009 and 37% below BAU projections by 2030 in 2015. This paper explores the potential energy savings and reduction in CO2 emissions offered by residential building energy efficiency policies and plans in South Korea. The current and future energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the residential building were estimated using an energy–environment model from 2010 to 2030. The business as usual scenario is based on the energy consumption characteristic of residential buildings using the trends related to socio-economic prospects and the number of dwellings. The alternative scenarios took into account energy efficiency for new residential buildings (scenario I, refurbishment of existing residential buildings (scenario II, use of highly efficient boilers (scenario III, and use of a solar thermal energy system (scenario IV. The results show that energy consumption in the residential building sector will increase by 33% between 2007 and 2030 in the BAU scenario. Maximum reduction in CO2 emissions in the residential building sector of South Korea was observed by 2030 in scenario I. In each alternative scenario analysis, CO2 emissions were 12.9% lower than in the business as usual scenario by the year 2030.

  14. Economic and game-theoretical analysis of CO2 reduction agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvonen, O.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of climate change and suggestions to stabilize CO 2 emissions have led to several different fields of research in resource and environmental economics. These include: 1. Studies on country specific and global greenhouse gas abatement costs. 2. Studies on global and country specific adaptation costs. 3. Game-theoretical analysis of greenhouse gas reduction agreements. 4. Studies on the relationship between CO 2 accumulation and natural resource utilization. 5. Models of climate change and intertemporal efficiency and equity. 6. Studies on emissions taxes and emissions permit markets for greenhouse gas abatement. The aim of this project is to contribute to the economic literature in fields 3, and 4

  15. The global warming game - simulations of a CO2 reduction agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, S.; Kverndokk, S.

    1992-06-01

    The paper analyses incentives for and the benefits of a possible international cooperation to reduce CO-2-emissions. The negotiations are modeled as a (static) reciprocal-externality-game in CO 2 -emissions between five world regions. CO 2 -emissions affect the players in two ways: First, each country's income depends (via energy inputs) on the amount of CO 2 emitted. On the other hand, emissions may cause future damage due to climate change. Without cooperation, each player maximizes its net benefits in setting marginal income equal to its marginal damage cost (Nash equilibrium). Under full cooperation marginal income equals the sum of the marginal damages (social optimum). The paper presents simulations of these two equilibria. Compared to the situation where no attention is paid to the greenhouse effect (the business as usual scenario), emission reductions under the Nash equilibrium can be interpreted as incentives for unilateral actions. According to the simulation results, this can only be expected from OECD countries. The results also imply that a socially optimal treaty, while clearly beneficial for the world in its entirety, may only be achieved if side payments are offered to at least China and the former Soviet Union, and probably the USA. The optimal global emission reductions in this study are on average lower than the reductions recommended by international conferences. 34 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Analyses on Cost Reduction and CO2 Mitigation by Penetration of Fuel Cells to Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Hirohisa; Yamamoto, Shigeo; Kondoh, Junji; Murata, Akinobu; Ishii, Itaru; Maeda, Tetsuhiko

    This paper presents analyses on the penetration of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) into a group of 10 residential houses and its effects of CO2 emission mitigation and consumers’ cost reduction in next 30 years. The price is considered to be reduced as the penetration progress which is expected to begin in near future. An experimental curve is assumed to express the decrease of the price. Installation of energy interchange systems which involve electricity, gas and hydrogen between a house which has a FC and contiguous houses is assumed to utilize both electricity and heat more efficiently, and to avoid start-stop operation of fuel processor (reformer) as much as possible. A multi-objective model which considers CO2 mitigation and consumers’ cost reduction is constructed and provided a Pareto optimum solution. A solution which simultaneously realizes both CO2 mitigation and consumers’ cost reduction appeared in the Pareto optimum solution. Strategies to reduce CO2 emission and consumers’ cost are suggested from the results of the analyses. The analyses also revealed that the energy interchange systems are effective especially in the early stage of the penetration.

  17. Low Overpotential and High Current CO2 Reduction with Surface Reconstructed Cu Foam Electrodess

    KAUST Repository

    Min, Shixiong

    2016-06-23

    While recent reports have demonstrated that oxide-derived Cu-based electrodes exhibit high selectivity for CO2 reduction at low overpotential, the low catalytic current density (<2 mA/cm2 at -0.45 V vs. RHE) still largely limits its applications for large-scale fuel synthesis. Here we report an extremely high current density for CO2 reduction at low overpotential using a Cu foam electrode prepared by air-oxidation and subsequent electroreduction. Apart from possessing three-dimensional (3D) open frameworks, the resulting Cu foam electrodes prepared at higher temperatures exhibit enhanced electrochemically active surface area and distinct surface structures. In particular, the Cu foam electrode prepared at 500 °C exhibits an extremely high geometric current density of ~9.4 mA/cm2 in CO2-satrurated 0.1 M KHCO3 aqueous solution and achieving ~39% CO and ~23% HCOOH Faradaic efficiencies at -0.45 V vs. RHE. The high activity and significant selectivity enhancement are attributable to the formation of abundant grain-boundary supported active sites and preferable (100) and (111) facets as a result of reconstruction of Cu surface facets. This work demonstrates that the structural integration of Cu foam with open 3D frameworks and the favorable surface structures is a promising strategy to develop an advanced Cu electrocatalyst that can operate at high current density and low overpotential for CO2 reduction.

  18. An Incentive-Based Solution of Sustainable Mobility for Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Herrador

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Incentivized Sustainable Mobility” is a conceptual business model which involves four stakeholders: citizens, municipalities, commerce and mobility services. A platform named “ISUMO” (Incentivized Sustainable Mobility provides technological support to this business model, integrating a set of metaservices that unifies the existing ICTs of transportation plus a unique patented QR-based (Quick Response low-cost charging device for electric vehicles. Essentially, the system tracks and registers citizens’ transportation activities (anonymously and voluntarily and evaluates each through a scoring system while their ecological footprint is calculated. Afterwards, citizens are able to exchange their accumulated points for discount QR coupons, to be redeemed in the associated commerce in order to purchase their products or services. The breakthrough of this business model is that it enhances awareness of sustainable mobility practices, increasing their attractiveness as perceived by the stakeholders with diverse benefits; citizens (and indirectly, the municipalities initiate a new consumption pattern of “coupons culture” linked to sustainable mobility, the urban economy is stimulated, and the use of mobility services grows, providing a new business opportunity regarding electric vehicles. It is expected that continuous exploration of the model and implementation will contribute to sustainable social and economic development aiming at CO2 emissions reduction, headline targets of the Europe 2020 strategy.

  19. Performance analysis of photocatalytic CO2 reduction in optical fiber monolith reactor with multiple inverse lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Kai; Yang, Lijun; Du, Xiaoze; Yang, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new optical fiber monolith reactor model for CO 2 reduction was developed. • Methanol concentration versus fiber location and operation parameters was obtained. • Reaction efficiency increases by 31.1% due to the four fibers and inverse layout. • With increasing space of fiber and channel center, methanol concentration increases. • Methanol concentration increases as the vapor ratio and light intensity increase. - Abstract: Photocatalytic CO 2 reduction seems potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and produce renewable energy. A new model of photocatalytic CO 2 reduction in optical fiber monolith reactor with multiple inverse lights was developed in this study to improve the conversion of CO 2 to CH 3 OH. The new light distribution equation was derived, by which the light distribution was modeled and analyzed. The variations of CH 3 OH concentration with the fiber location and operation parameters were obtained by means of numerical simulation. The results show that the outlet CH 3 OH concentration is 31.1% higher than the previous model, which is attributed to the four fibers and inverse layout. With the increase of the distance between the fiber and the monolith center, the average CH 3 OH concentration increases. The average CH 3 OH concentration also rises as the light input and water vapor percentage increase, but declines with increasing the inlet velocity. The maximum conversion rate and quantum efficiency in the model are 0.235 μmol g −1 h −1 and 0.0177% respectively, both higher than previous internally illuminated monolith reactor (0.16 μmol g −1 h −1 and 0.012%). The optical fiber monolith reactor layout with multiple inverse lights is recommended in the design of photocatalytic reactor of CO 2 reduction

  20. Modelling the aqueous and nonaqueous interfaces for CO2 electro-reduction over Sn catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Tian; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2018-01-01

    In CO2 electroreduction, Sn catalysts with a high overpotential for hydrogen evolution reaction and a high selectivity towards formic acid formation are very attractive. Many efforts have been made for improving the catalytic performance and for understanding the mechanisms. In electrochemistry, the role of solvents for surface reactions was deserved to be investigated, in particular for some nonaqueous solvents. Here, we have modeled the aqueous (water) and nonaqueous (acetonitrile and dichloromethane) for investigation of CO2 electroreduction on Sn surface, by constrained ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic integrations, including a number of explicit solvent molecules in computational models. It was found that CO2 reduction is initiated from formate formation and solvents, in particular, water can effectively facilitate the reaction.

  1. Energy-related CO_2 emission in European Union agriculture: Driving forces and possibilities for reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tianxiang; Baležentis, Tomas; Makutėnienė, Daiva; Streimikiene, Dalia; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2016-01-01

    behind declines in CO_2 emission. According to the SBM, the lowest carbon shadow prices are observed in France, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and Belgium. These countries thus have the highest potential for reduction in CO_2 emission. The results imply that measures to increase energy efficiency are a more effective means to reduce CO_2 emissions than are changes in the fuel-mix.

  2. Identifying Activity Descriptors for CO2 Electro-Reduction to Methanol on Rutile (110) Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya; Hansen, Heine Anton; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    Electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to liquid fuels using energy from renewable sources has the potential to form the basis of a carbon neutral sustainable energy system, while integrating seamlessly in the established infrastructure1. Storing intermittent renewable energy in a chemical fuel...... towards electrocatalytic production of methanol. We would like to acknowledge the Lundbeck Foundation for financial support of this work. References: 1. Lewis, N. S. & Nocera, D. G. Powering the planet: chemical challenges in solar energy utilization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.103,15729–35 (2006......., Ali, I., Jansen, M. & Omanovic, S. Electrochemical reduction of CO 2 in an aqueous electrolyte employing an iridium/ruthenium-oxide electrode. Can. J. Chem. Eng. (2014). doi:10.1002/cjce.22110 6. Nørskov, J. K. et al. Origin of the Overpotential for Oxygen Reduction at a Fuel-Cell Cathode. J. Phys...

  3. Topotactic reduction of YBaCo2O5 and LaBaCo2O5: square-planar Co(I) in an extended oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, James; Suard, Emmanuelle; Hayward, Michael A

    2010-03-03

    The low-temperature reduction of YBaCo(2)O(5) and LaBaCo(2)O(5) with NaH to form YBaCo(2)O(4.5) and YBaCo(2)O(4.25), respectively, demonstrates that the structures of anion-deficient materials formed by such topotactic reductions can be directed by the ordering and identity of the A-site cations. YBaCo(2)O(4.5) adopts a structure consisting of a corner-shared network of square-based pyramidal CoO(5) and distorted tetrahedral CoO(4) units. The structure of LaBaCoO(4.25) is more complex, consisting of an array of square-based pyramidal CoO(5), distorted tetrahedral CoO(4), and square planar CoO(4) units. Magnetic susceptibility and variable-temperature neutron diffraction data reveal that YBaCo(2)O(4.5) adopts a G-type antiferromagnetically ordered structure below T(N) approximately 280 K. LaBaCo(2)O(4.25) also adopts antiferromagnetic order (T(N) approximately 325 K) with ordered moments consistent with the presence of square-planar, low-spin, s = 0, Co(I) centers. A detailed analysis reveals that the different anion vacancy ordered structures adopted by the two REBaCo(2)O(5-x) phases are directed by the relative sizes and ordering of the La(3+) and Y(3+) cations. This suggests that ordered arrangements of A-cations can be used to direct the anion vacancy order in topotactically reduced phases, allowing the preparation of novel metal-oxygen networks containing unusual transition metal coordination environments.

  4. CO2 Reduction Catalyzed by Nitrogenase: Pathways to Formate, Carbon Monoxide, and Methane

    OpenAIRE

    Khadka, Nimesh; Dean, Dennis R.; Smith, Dayle; Hoffman, Brian M.; Raugei, Simone; Seefeldt, Lance C.

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of N2 to NH3 by Mo-dependent nitrogenase at its active-site metal cluster FeMo-cofactor utilizes reductive elimination (re) of Fe-bound hydrides with obligatory loss of H2 to activate the enzyme for binding/reduction of N2. Earlier work showed that wild type nitrogenase and a nitrogenase having amino acid substitutions in the MoFe protein near FeMo-cofactor can catalytically reduce CO2 by 2 or 8 electrons/protons to carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) at low rates. Here, it i...

  5. What is a fair CO2 tax increase? On fair emission reductions in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, Henrik; Jagers, Sverker C.

    2007-01-01

    We examine how individual preferences for fair reductions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions affect the support for increases in the CO 2 tax on gasoline and diesel. We assume that people not only care about their own material welfare, but also have preferences for fairness in policy design, and we explore the implications using original data from a mail questionnaire sent to a representative sample of the Swedish population. The main result is that fairness in policy design does matter. Those respondents who adhere to a fairness principle tend to be relatively more positive to increases in the CO 2 tax. One possible explanation for this result is that there is a relatively high degree of reciprocity regarding the origin of emissions and the fairness regarding who should bear the burden of CO 2 reductions. Via a split sample analysis, we also find that the relative importance of fairness principles is dependent upon whether one uses a car often or not. This sheds light on the potential goal conflict between the importance of fairness principles and self-interest in the form of a need for private car transportation. (author)

  6. Scenario analysis on CO2 emissions reduction potential in China's iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wang Can; Lu Xuedu; Chen Jining

    2007-01-01

    The international climate community has begun to assess a range of possible options for strengthening the international climate change effort after 2012. Analysis of the potential for sector-based emissions reduction and relevant mitigation options will provide the necessary background information for the debate. In order to assess the CO 2 abatement potential of China's steel industry, a model was developed using LEAP software to generate 3 different CO 2 emission scenarios for the industry from 2000 to 2030. The abatement potentials of different scenarios were compared, and their respective feasibilities were assessed according to the cost information. High priority abatement measures were then identified. The results show that the average CO 2 abatement per year in the Recent Policy scenario and in the New Policy scenario, compared with the reference scenario, are 51 and 107 million tons, respectively. The corresponding total incremental costs are 9.34 and 80.95 billion dollars. It is concluded that there is great potential for CO 2 abatement in China's steel industry. Adjusting the structure of the industry and technological advancement will play an important role in emissions reduction. Successful implementation of current sustainable development policies and measures will result in CO 2 abatement at a low cost. However, to achieve higher levels of abatement, the cost will increase dramatically. In the near future, specific energy conservation technologies such as dry coke quenching, exhaust gas and heat recovery equipment will be of great significance. However, taking a long term perspective, emissions reduction will rely more on the adjustment of production processes and the application of more modern large scale plants. Advanced blast furnace technology will inevitably play an important role

  7. The public perspective of carbon capture and storage for CO2 emission reductions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Hongxia

    2010-01-01

    To explore public awareness of carbon capture and storage (CCS), attitudes towards the use of CCS and the determinants of CCS acceptance in China, a study was conducted in July 2009 based on face-to-face interviews with participants across the country. The result showed that the awareness of CCS was low among the surveyed public in China, compared to other clean energy technologies. Respondents indicated a slightly supportive attitude towards the use of CCS as an alternative technology to CO 2 emission reductions. The regression model revealed that in addition to CCS knowledge, respondents' understanding of the characteristics of CCS, such as the maturity of the technology, risks, capability of CO2 emission reductions, and CCS policy were all significant factors in predicting the acceptance of CCS. The findings suggest that integrating public education and communication into CCS development policy would be an effective strategy to overcome the barrier of low public acceptance.

  8. Nitrogen-based catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Claire E; Thorson, Michael R; Ma, Sichao; Gewirth, Andrew A; Kenis, Paul J A

    2012-12-05

    The synthesis and application of carbon-supported, nitrogen-based organometallic silver catalysts for the reduction of CO(2) is studied using an electrochemical flow reactor. Their performance toward the selective formation of CO is similar to the performance achieved when using Ag as the catalyst, but comparatively at much lower silver loading. Faradaic efficiencies of the organometallic catalyst are higher than 90%, which are comparable to those of Ag. Furthermore, with the addition of an amine ligand to Ag/C, the partial current density for CO increases significantly, suggesting a possible co-catalyst mechanism. Additional improvements in activity and selectivity may be achieved as greater insight is obtained on the mechanism of CO(2) reduction and on how these complexes assemble on the carbon support.

  9. NOx reduction using amine reclaimer wastes (ARW) generated in post combustion CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botheju, Deshai; Glarborg, Peter; Tokheim, Lars-Andre

    2012-01-01

    Amine reclaimer wastes (ARW) generated in CO2 capture processes demand suitable disposal means. Such wastes contain remaining amine, NH3 and other degradation compounds. This study investigated the potential of using ARW as a NOx reducing agent, under laboratory conditions in a flow reactor....../NO ratios (waste product, together with its demonstrated NOx reduction capability and its calorific value contribution, makes it attractive as an additive...

  10. Membraneless laminar flow cell for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction with liquid product separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroe, Morgan M; Lobaccaro, Peter; Lum, Yanwei; Ager, Joel W

    2017-01-01

    The production of liquid fuel products via electrochemical reduction of CO 2 is a potential path to produce sustainable fuels. However, to be practical, a separation strategy is required to isolate the fuel-containing electrolyte produced at the cathode from the anode and also prevent the oxidation products (i.e. O 2 ) from reaching the cathode. Ion-conducting membranes have been applied in CO 2 reduction reactors to achieve this separation, but they represent an efficiency loss and can be permeable to some product species. An alternative membraneless approach is developed here to maintain product separation through the use of a laminar flow cell. Computational modelling shows that near-unity separation efficiencies are possible at current densities achievable now with metal cathodes via optimization of the spacing between the electrodes and the electrolyte flow rate. Laminar flow reactor prototypes were fabricated with a range of channel widths by 3D printing. CO 2 reduction to formic acid on Sn electrodes was used as the liquid product forming reaction, and the separation efficiency for the dissolved product was evaluated with high performance liquid chromatography. Trends in product separation efficiency with channel width and flow rate were in qualitative agreement with the model, but the separation efficiency was lower, with a maximum value of 90% achieved. (paper)

  11. Storage of Renewable Energy by Reduction of CO2 with Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Mauron, Philippe; Kato, Shunsuke; Callini, Elsa; Holzer, Marco; Huang, Jianmei

    2015-01-01

    The main difference between the past energy economy during the industrialization period which was mainly based on mining of fossil fuels, e.g. coal, oil and methane and the future energy economy based on renewable energy is the requirement for storage of the energy fluxes. Renewable energy, except biomass, appears in time- and location-dependent energy fluxes as heat or electricity upon conversion. Storage and transport of energy requires a high energy density and has to be realized in a closed materials cycle. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines, is a closed cycle. However, the hydrogen density in a storage system is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which limits the energy density to about half of the energy density in fossil fuels. Introducing CO(2) into the cycle and storing hydrogen by the reduction of CO(2) to hydrocarbons allows renewable energy to be converted into synthetic fuels with the same energy density as fossil fuels. The resulting cycle is a closed cycle (CO(2) neutral) if CO(2) is extracted from the atmosphere. Today's technology allows CO(2) to be reduced either by the Sabatier reaction to methane, by the reversed water gas shift reaction to CO and further reduction of CO by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to hydrocarbons or over methanol to gasoline. The overall process can only be realized on a very large scale, because the large number of by-products of FTS requires the use of a refinery. Therefore, a well-controlled reaction to a specific product is required for the efficient conversion of renewable energy (electricity) into an easy to store liquid hydrocarbon (fuel). In order to realize a closed hydrocarbon cycle the two major challenges are to extract CO(2) from the atmosphere close to the thermodynamic limit and to reduce CO(2) with hydrogen in a controlled reaction to a specific hydrocarbon. Nanomaterials with

  12. Alternative photocatalysts to TiO2 for the photocatalytic reduction of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikokavoura, Aspasia; Trapalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    The increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, originating from the burning of fossil fuels in stationary and mobile sources, is referred as the "Anthropogenic Greenhouse Effect" and constitutes a major environmental concern. The scientific community is highly concerned about the resulting enhancement of the mean atmospheric temperature, so a vast diversity of methods has been applied. Thermochemical, electrochemical, photocatalytic, photoelectrochemical processes, as well as combination of solar electricity generation and water splitting processes have been performed in order to lower the CO2 atmospheric levels. Photocatalytic methods are environmental friendly and succeed in reducing the atmospheric CO2 concentration and producing fuels or/and useful organic compounds at the same time. The most common photocatalysts for the CO2 reduction are the inorganic, the carbon based semiconductors and the hybrids based on semiconductors, which combine stability, low cost and appropriate structure in order to accomplish redox reactions. In this review, inorganic semiconductors such as single-metal oxide, mixed-metal oxides, metal oxide composites, layered double hydroxides (LDHs), salt composites, carbon based semiconductors such as graphene based composites, CNT composites, g-C3N4 composites and hybrid organic-inorganic materials (ZIFs) were studied. TiO2 and Ti based photocatalysts are extensively studied and therefore in this review they are not mentioned.

  13. Effects of wind intermittency on reduction of CO2 emissions: The case of the Spanish power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Martín, F.; Da Silva-Álvarez, R.A.; Montoro-Pintado, P.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are believed to reduce drastically greenhouse gas emissions that would otherwise be generated from fossil fuels used to generate electricity. This implies that a unit of renewable energy will replace a unit of fossil-fuel, with its CO 2 emissions, on an equivalent basis – with no other effects on the grid. But, the fuel economy and emissions in the existing power systems are not proportional with the electricity production of intermittent sources due to cycling of the fossil-fuel plants that make up the balance of the grid (i.e. changing the power output makes thermal units to operate less efficiently). This study focuses in the interactions between wind generation and thermal plants cycling, by establishing the levels of extra fuel use caused by decreased efficiencies of fossil back-up for wind electricity in Spain. We analyze the production of all thermal plants in 2011, studying scenarios where wind penetration causes major deviations in programming and we define a procedure for quantifying CO 2 reductions using emission factors and efficiency curves from existing installations; the objective is to discuss the real contribution of renewable energy to the environmental targets: the results show that CO 2 reductions are still relevant at high wind penetration, whilst we also suggest alternatives to improve reliability of the power system. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive analysis of interactions of wind and fuel utilities in the power system. ► Fuel economy is not proportional with wind generation due to cycling of fossil plants. ► The results show that CO 2 reductions are still relevant even at high wind penetration. ► Alternatives to improve reliability of future power systems are also pointed out

  14. The application of CFD modelling to support the reduction of CO2 emissions in cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Fidaros, Dimitris K.; Priesching, Peter; Minić, Ivica; Tatschl, Reinhard; Duić, Neven; Stefanović, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the leading producers of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, of which CO 2 is the most significant. Recently, researchers have invested a considerable amount of time studying ways to improve energy consumption and pollutant formation in the overall cement manufacturing process. One idea involves dividing the calcination and clinkering processes into two separate furnaces. The calcination process is performed in a calciner while the clinkering process takes place in a rotary kiln. As this is new technology in the cement manufacturing process, calciners are still in the research and development phase. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of CFD to support the design and optimization of calciners, whose use appears to be essential in reduction of CO 2 emission during cement production. The mathematical model of the calcination process was developed, validated and implemented into a commercial CFD code, which was then used for the analysis. From the results obtained by these simulations, researchers will gain an in-depth understanding of all thermo-chemical reactions in a calciner. This understanding can be used to optimize the calciner's geometry, to make production more efficient, to lower pollutant formation and to subsequently reduce greenhouse gas emissions. -- Highlights: ► The potential of CO 2 emissions reduction, by using a cement calciner was presented. ► When a cement calciner is used, CO 2 emissions reduction of 3–4% can be achieved. ► The calcination model was developed, validated, and then used for the analysis. ► Shown method can be applied for investigation and optimization of cement calciners.

  15. Electron transport in solid targets and in the active mixture of a CO2 laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkowski, A.

    The paper examines the use of the NIKE code for the Monte Carlo computation of the deposited energy profile and other characteristics of the absorption process of an electron beam in a solid target and the spatial distribution of primary ionization in the active mixture of a CO2 laser amplifier. The problem is considered in connection with the generation of intense electron beams and the acceleration of thin metal foils, as well as in connection with the electric discharge pumping of a CO2 laser amplifier.

  16. Electrochemical CO2 and CO reduction on metal-functionalized porphyrin-like graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Vanin, Marco; Karamad, Mohammedreza

    2013-01-01

    Porphyrin-like metal-functionalized graphene structures have been investigated as possible catalysts for CO2 and CO reduction to methane or methanol. The late transition metals (Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, Co, Rh, Ir, Fe, Ru, Os) and some p (B, Al, Ga) and s (Mg) metals comprised the center of the po......Porphyrin-like metal-functionalized graphene structures have been investigated as possible catalysts for CO2 and CO reduction to methane or methanol. The late transition metals (Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, Co, Rh, Ir, Fe, Ru, Os) and some p (B, Al, Ga) and s (Mg) metals comprised the center...... instead of CO2. Volcano plots were constructed on the basis of scaling relations of reaction intermediates, and from these plots the reaction steps with the highest overpotentials were deduced. The Rh-porphyrin-like functionalized graphene was identified as the most active catalyst for producing methanol...... from CO, featuring an overpotential of 0.22 V. Additionally, we have also examined the hydrogen evolution and oxidation reaction, and in their case, too, Rh-porphyrin turned out to be the best catalyst with an overpotential of 0.15 V. © 2013 American Chemical Society....

  17. How to Achieve CO2 Emission Reduction Goals: What 'Jazz' and 'Symphony' Can Offer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving CO 2 emission reduction goals remains one of today's most challenging tasks. Global energy demand will grow for many decades to come. In many regions of the world cheap fossil fuels seem to be the way forward to meet ever growing energy demand. However, there are negative consequences to this, most notably increasing emission levels. Politicians and industry therefore must accept that make hard choices in this generation need to be made to bring about real changes for future generations and the planet to limit CO 2 emissions and climate change. In his presentation, prof. Rose will provide an insight into how CO 2 emission reduction goals can be set and achieved and how a balance between future energy needs and supply can be realised in the long run up to 2050 both globally and regionally. This will be done based on WEC's own leading analysis in this area, namely it recently launched World Energy Scenarios: composing energy futures to 2050 report and WEC's scenarios, Jazz and Symphony. WEC's full analysis, the complete report and supporting material is available online at: http://www.worldenergy.org/publications/2013/world-energy-scenarios-composing-energy-futures-to-2050.(author)

  18. Possibilities for the reduction of CO2- and CH4-emissions of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muessig, S.

    1994-01-01

    The use of fossil fuels increases the portion of greenhouse gases, especially CO 2 and CH 4 . In this paper firstly the specific emission rates of these greenhouse gases for the various fuels are compared. Secondly possibilities for the reduction of CO 2 and CH 4 for natural gas which are relatively small anyhow are discussed. Thirdly the use of renewable energy within the gas industry and the ocean and into depleted reservoirs are discussed. It is shown that the efficient use of energy of the fossil fuel natural gas is most successful in all branches of gas consumption to decrease emission. Combined-cycle processes, cogeneration as well as modern domestic heating systems are described. Fuel cells and the application of hydrogen is shortly discussed. (orig.)

  19. Heterogeneous electrochemical CO2 reduction using nonmetallic carbon-based catalysts: current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Fan, Qun; Tao, Hengcong; Han, Zishan; Jia, Mingwen; Gao, Yunnan; Ma, Wangjing; Sun, Zhenyu

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical CO2 reduction (ECR) offers an important pathway for renewable energy storage and fuels production. It still remains a challenge in designing highly selective, energy-efficient, robust, and cost-effective electrocatalysts to facilitate this kinetically slow process. Metal-free carbon-based materials have features of low cost, good electrical conductivity, renewability, diverse structure, and tunability in surface chemistry. In particular, surface functionalization of carbon materials, for example by doping with heteroatoms, enables access to unique active site architectures for CO2 adsorption and activation, leading to interesting catalytic performances in ECR. We aim to provide a comprehensive review of this category of metal-free catalysts for ECR, providing discussions and/or comparisons among different nonmetallic catalysts, and also possible origin of catalytic activity. Fundamentals and some future challenges are also described.

  20. The role of reticular chemistry in the design of CO2 reduction catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diercks, Christian S.; Liu, Yuzhong; Cordova, Kyle E.; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2018-02-01

    The problem with current state-of-the-art catalysts for CO2 photo- or electroreduction is rooted in the notion that no single system can independently control, and thus optimize, the interplay between activity, selectivity and efficiency. At its core, reticular chemistry is recognized for its ability to control, with atomic precision, the chemical and structural features (activity and selectivity) as well as the output optoelectronic properties (efficiency) of porous, crystalline materials. The molecular building blocks that are in a reticular chemist's toolbox are chosen in such a way that the structures are rationally designed, framework chemistry is performed to integrate catalytically active components, and the manner in which these building blocks are connected endows the material with the desired optoelectronic properties. The fact that these aspects can be fine-tuned independently lends credence to the prospect of reticular chemistry contributing to the design of next-generation CO2 reduction catalysts.

  1. Investigation of the charge-transfer in photo-excited nanoparticles for CO2 reduction in non-aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Nada M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoinduced charge separation in TiO2 and Cu2O semiconductor nanoparticles was examined using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy in order to get insight into the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 in nonaqueous media. For dissolution/grafting of CO2 we have used carboxy-PEG4-amine, and as a solvent poly(ethylene glycol 200. We have found that, in this system, reduction of CO2 starts at potential of -0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl, which is significantly more positive than the potential for electrochemical reduction of CO2 in most organic solvents and water (-2.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer from excited nanoparticles to CO2 is governed both by thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, namely by the redox potential of conduction band electrons and adsorption/binding of CO2 on the surface of nanoparticles.

  2. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of [11C]CO2 with gas target at low proton energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansaloni, Francesc; Lagares, Juan Ignacio; Llop, Jordi; Arce, Pedro; Díaz, Carlos; Pérez-Morales, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the demand and the installation of self-shielded low-energy cyclotrons is growing, allowing the use of 11 C in many more centers. The aim of this study was the design of a new target and the evaluation of the production of 11 C as [ 11 C]CO 2 at low proton energies. The target was coupled to an IBA Cyclone-18/9 and the energy was decreased to 4–16 MeV. The newly designed target allowed the production of [ 11 C]CO 2 at different proton energies, and the results suggest that the cyclotron energy of Cyclone-18/9 is slightly higher than the nominal 18 MeV

  4. More gas, less coal, and less CO2? Unilateral CO2 reduction policy with more than one carbon energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Henriet, Fanny; Schubert, Katheline

    -productive, ultimately increasing world emissions. Thus, we establish testable conditions as to whether a governmental emission-reduction commitment warrants the exploitation of gas, and whether such a strategy increases global emissions. We also characterize the extent to which this unilateral policy makes the rest...... of the world’s emission commitments more difficult to meet. Finally, we apply our results to the case of the US....

  5. Reduction of CO2 Emissions in Houses of Historic and Visual Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Dulski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the ‘Climate Programme’ the municipality of Amsterdam has the ambition to reduce the CO2 emissions within the city limits by 40% in the year 2025 compared to the year 1990. To realize this ambition substantial CO2 savings have to be realized at the 375,000 current houses in the city. A special challenge is formed by the houses of historic and visual importance, as the implementation of standard energy saving measures may conflict with the ambition to protect their cultural and historic values. Nyenrode Business University was asked to study the possibilities for a successful combination of ambitions in both fields. This article shows an overview of suggestions that focus on the combination of technical and process orientated innovations which can contribute to the acceleration of the reduction of CO2 emissions in houses of historic and visual importance. The article therefore addresses political and technical as well as financial and process related aspects in implementing energy saving measures in this category of buildings.

  6. Assessing the Potential of Utilization and Storage Strategies for Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Katy; Styring, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The emissions reduction potential of three carbon dioxide handling strategies for post-combustion capture is considered. These are carbon capture and sequestration/storage (CCS), enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (EHR), and carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) to produce synthetic oil. This is performed using common and comparable boundary conditions including net CO 2 sequestered based on equivalent boundary conditions. This is achieved using a “cradle to grave approach” where the final destination and fate of any product is considered. The input boundary is pure CO 2 that has been produced using a post-combustion capture process as this is common between all processes. The output boundary is the emissions resulting from any product produced with the assumption that the majority of the oil will go to combustion processes. We also consider the “cradle to gate” approach where the ultimate fate of the oil is not considered as this is a boundary condition often applied to EHR processes. Results show that while CCS can make an impact on CO 2 emissions, CDU will have a comparable effect whilst generating income while EHR will ultimately increase net emissions. The global capacity for CDU is also compared against CCS using data based on current and planned CCS projects. Analysis shows that current CDU represent a greater volume of capture than CCS processes and that this gap is likely to remain well beyond 2020 which is the limit of the CCS projects in the database.

  7. Steering levies on the purchase of new cars for the reduction of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, P. de; Mueller, M.; Peters, A.; Hauser, A.

    2007-12-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the background, mechanisms and prognoses for the reduction of CO 2 emissions of new cars. This report focuses on policy measures - specifically the collection of budget-neutral so-called 'feebates' - that aim to influence the behaviour of buyers of new cars as a means of enhancing energy efficiency and reducing CO 2 emissions. Both the European Union and Switzerland are pursuing a three-pillar strategy in which agreements with manufacturers and importers (pillar 1) are supplemented by the provision of more detailed information for customers in the form of energy labels for new vehicles as well as catalogues listing levels of fuel consumption (pillar 2). Pillar 3 concerns measures aimed at influencing car buying behaviour, generally based on the use of the energy label for new vehicles in order to realise the existing potentials for reducing CO 2 emissions. The report takes a look at Switzerland's car market, buying behaviour, information on efficient vehicles, acceptance factors and incentive schemes. The findings of the study are presented and commented on.

  8. Light-induced cation exchange for copper sulfide based CO2 reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Aurora; Simon, Thomas; Sonnleitner, Clemens; Döblinger, Markus; Wyrwich, Regina; Stern, Omar; Stolarczyk, Jacek K; Feldmann, Jochen

    2015-11-11

    Copper(I)-based catalysts, such as Cu2S, are considered to be very promising materials for photocatalytic CO2 reduction. A common synthesis route for Cu2S via cation exchange from CdS nanocrystals requires Cu(I) precursors, organic solvents, and neutral atmosphere, but these conditions are not compatible with in situ applications in photocatalysis. Here we propose a novel cation exchange reaction that takes advantage of the reducing potential of photoexcited electrons in the conduction band of CdS and proceeds with Cu(II) precursors in an aqueous environment and under aerobic conditions. We show that the synthesized Cu2S photocatalyst can be efficiently used for the reduction of CO2 to carbon monoxide and methane, achieving formation rates of 3.02 and 0.13 μmol h(-1) g(-1), respectively, and suppressing competing water reduction. The process opens new pathways for the preparation of new efficient photocatalysts from readily available nanostructured templates.

  9. Assessment of CO2 emission reduction and identification of CDM potential in a township

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.; Aseri, Tarun Kumar; Jamuwa, Doraj Karnal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India); Bansal, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Mahila Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India)

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents the theoretical investigation of CDM opportunity in a township at Jaipur, India. The purpose of study is to identify and analyze the various opportunities viz., installation of solar water heater, energy efficient lighting, energy efficient air conditioners, and energy efficient submersible water pumps in desert coolers and thus achieve a considerable (65.7 %) reduction in GHG emissions. Out of the various opportunities considered, the retrofitting with solar water heater can be recommended for CDM. Though, the retrofitting with energy efficient lighting, energy efficient air conditioners and energy efficient submersible water pumps in desert coolers claimed CO2 emission reduction of 104.84, 25.92, and 36.94 tons per annum, respectively, but the only opportunity which got through CDM was retrofitting with solar water heater claiming 115.70 tCO2 (100 %) emission reductions per annum which could result into net earnings of 115.70 CERs. The simple and discounted payback period for all four project activities are also calculated with and without CDM and tax benefits.

  10. Effects of Eco-Drive Education on the Reduction of Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Barić, Danijela; Zovak, Goran; Periša, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable mobility is the basic and long-term goal of the traffic policy. Eco-driving represents one of 40 measures that should by 2050 contribute to 60% of traffic-generated emission reduction. The paper presents the significance of educating the drivers about eco-driving as well as eco-drive training with the aim of reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emission. During research the drivers were tested in three cycles, prior to education, immediately following the education and eco-training a...

  11. CO2 reduction in the Danish transportation sector. Working paper 3: Tax differentiation and environmental tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    Tax differentiation for cars would mean a new structure of the buyer market as the decisive factor in new car price is its fuel efficiency and environmentally friendly low CO 2 emission. Reduction of fuel cost per kilometer can result in increased annual car use. On the other hand growing sales of cars in Denmark would give extra profit to the state as purchase taxation and weight-dependent tax are both extremely high. Environmental tagging can increase consumer awareness of fuel efficiency and emission control. (EG) Prepared for Trafikministeriet. 13 refs

  12. Efficient Electrocatalytic Reduction of CO2 by Nitrogen-Doped Nanoporous Carbon/Carbon Nanotube Membranes - A Step Towards the Electrochemical CO2 Refinery

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong; Jia, Jia; Song, Pengfei; Wang, Qiang; Li, Debao; Min, Shixiong; Qian, Chenxi; Wang, Lu; Li, Young Feng; Ma, Chun; Wu, Tao; Yuan, Jiayin; Antonietti, Markus; Ozin, Geoffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    The search for earth abundant, efficient and stable electrocatalysts that can enable the chemical reduction of CO2 to value-added chemicals and fuels at an industrially relevant scale, is a high priority for the development of a global network of renewable energy conversion and storage systems that can meaningfully impact greenhouse gas induced climate change. Here we introduce a straightforward, low cost, scalable and technologically relevant method to manufacture an all-carbon, electroactive, nitrogen-doped nanoporous carbon-carbon nanotube composite membrane. The membrane is demonstrated to function as a binder-free, high-performance electrode for the electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to formate. The Faradaic efficiency for the production of formate is 81%. Furthermore, the robust structural and electrochemical properties of the membrane endow it with excellent long-term stability.

  13. Efficient Electrocatalytic Reduction of CO2 by Nitrogen-Doped Nanoporous Carbon/Carbon Nanotube Membranes - A Step Towards the Electrochemical CO2 Refinery

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-05-12

    The search for earth abundant, efficient and stable electrocatalysts that can enable the chemical reduction of CO2 to value-added chemicals and fuels at an industrially relevant scale, is a high priority for the development of a global network of renewable energy conversion and storage systems that can meaningfully impact greenhouse gas induced climate change. Here we introduce a straightforward, low cost, scalable and technologically relevant method to manufacture an all-carbon, electroactive, nitrogen-doped nanoporous carbon-carbon nanotube composite membrane. The membrane is demonstrated to function as a binder-free, high-performance electrode for the electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to formate. The Faradaic efficiency for the production of formate is 81%. Furthermore, the robust structural and electrochemical properties of the membrane endow it with excellent long-term stability.

  14. Surface-reconstructed Cu Electrode via a Facile Electrochemical Anodization-Reduction Process for Low Overpotential CO 2 reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Min, Shixiong

    2017-03-21

    A high-surface-area Cu electrode, fabricated by a simple electrochemical anodization-reduction method, exhibits high activity and selectivity for CO2 reduction at low overpotential in 0.1 M KHCO3 solution. A faradaic efficiency of 37% for HCOOH and 27% for CO production was achieved with the current density of 1.5 mA cm-2 at −0.64 V vs. RHE, much higher than that of polycrystalline Cu. The enhanced catalytic performance is a result of the formation of the high electrochemical active surface area and high density of preferred low-index facets.

  15. trans-(Cl)-[Ru(5,5'-diamide-2,2'-bipyridine)(CO)2 Cl2 ]: Synthesis, Structure, and Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Yusuke; Fukaya, Kyohei; Yoshida, Makoto; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2015-07-06

    A series of trans-(Cl)-[Ru(L)(CO)2 Cl2 ]-type complexes, in which the ligands L are 2,2'-bipyridyl derivatives with amide groups at the 5,5'-positions, are synthesized. The C-connected amide group bound to the bipyridyl ligand through the carbonyl carbon atom is twisted with respect to the bipyridyl plane, whereas the N-connected amide group is in the plane. DFT calculations reveal that the twisted structure of the C-connected amide group raises the level of the LUMO, which results in a negative shift of the first reduction potential (Ep ) of the ruthenium complex. The catalytic abilities for CO2 reduction are evaluated in photoreactions (λ>400 nm) with the ruthenium complexes (the catalyst), [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine; the photosensitizer), and 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (the electron donor) in CO2 -saturated N,N-dimethylacetamide/water. The logarithm of the turnover frequency increases by shifting Ep a negative value until it reaches the reduction potential of the photosensitizer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Copper-Based Metal-Organic Porous Materials for CO2 Electrocatalytic Reduction to Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo, Jonathan; Vallejo, Daniel; Beobide, Garikoitz; Castillo, Oscar; Castaño, Pedro; Irabien, Angel

    2017-03-22

    The electrocatalytic reduction of CO 2 has been investigated using four Cu-based metal-organic porous materials supported on gas diffusion electrodes, namely, (1) HKUST-1 metal-organic framework (MOF), [Cu 3 (μ 6 -C 9 H 3 O 6 ) 2 ] n ; (2) CuAdeAce MOF, [Cu 3 (μ 3 -C 5 H 4 N 5 ) 2 ] n ; (3) CuDTA mesoporous metal-organic aerogel (MOA), [Cu(μ-C 2 H 2 N 2 S 2 )] n ; and (4) CuZnDTA MOA, [Cu 0.6 Zn 0.4 (μ-C 2 H 2 N 2 S 2 )] n . The electrodes show relatively high surface areas, accessibilities, and exposure of the Cu catalytic centers as well as favorable electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction performance, that is, they have a high efficiency for the production of methanol and ethanol in the liquid phase. The maximum cumulative Faradaic efficiencies for CO 2 conversion at HKUST-1-, CuAdeAce-, CuDTA-, and CuZnDTA-based electrodes are 15.9, 1.2, 6, and 9.9 %, respectively, at a current density of 10 mA cm -2 , an electrolyte-flow/area ratio of 3 mL min cm -2 , and a gas-flow/area ratio of 20 mL min cm -2 . We can correlate these observations with the structural features of the electrodes. Furthermore, HKUST-1- and CuZnDTA-based electrodes show stable electrocatalytic performance for 17 and 12 h, respectively. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Impacts of potential CO2-reduction policies on air quality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, Marcus A; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P; Liu, Peng; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Hu, Yongtao; Rudokas, Jason R; Miller, Paul J; Nenes, Athanasios; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-04-21

    Impacts of emissions changes from four potential U.S. CO2 emission reduction policies on 2050 air quality are analyzed using the community multiscale air quality model (CMAQ). Future meteorology was downscaled from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE General Circulation Model (GCM) to the regional scale using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. We use emissions growth factors from the EPAUS9r MARKAL model to project emissions inventories for two climate tax scenarios, a combined transportation and energy scenario, a biomass energy scenario and a reference case. Implementation of a relatively aggressive carbon tax leads to improved PM2.5 air quality compared to the reference case as incentives increase for facilities to install flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. However, less capital is available to install NOX reduction technologies, resulting in an O3 increase. A policy aimed at reducing CO2 from the transportation sector and electricity production sectors leads to reduced emissions of mobile source NOX, thus reducing O3. Over most of the U.S., this scenario leads to reduced PM2.5 concentrations. However, increased primary PM2.5 emissions associated with fuel switching in the residential and industrial sectors leads to increased organic matter (OM) and PM2.5 in some cities.

  18. CO2 Reduction Assembly Prototype Using Microlith-Based Sabatier Reactor for Ground Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaedi, Christian; Hawley, Kyle; Walsh, Dennis; Roychoudhury, Subir; Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of CO2 to produce life support consumables, such as O2 and H2O, via the Sabatier reaction is an important aspect of NASA's cabin Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) architectures for both low-earth orbit and long-term manned space missions. Carbon dioxide can be reacted with H2, obtained from the electrolysis of water, via Sabatier reaction to produce methane and H2O. Methane can be stored and utilized as propellant while H2O can be either stored or electrolyzed to produce oxygen and regain the hydrogen atoms. Depending on the application, O2 can be used to replenish the atmosphere in human-crewed missions or as an oxidant for robotic and return missions. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI), with support from NASA, has previously developed an efficient and compact Sabatier reactor based on its Microlith® catalytic technology and demonstrated the capability to achieve high CO2 conversion and CH4 selectivity (i.e., =90% of the thermodynamic equilibrium values) at high space velocities and low operating temperatures. This was made possible through the use of high-heat-transfer and high-surface-area Microlith catalytic substrates. Using this Sabatier reactor, PCI designed, developed, and demonstrated a stand-alone CO2 Reduction Assembly (CRA) test system for ground demonstration and performance validation. The Sabatier reactor was integrated with the necessary balance-of-plant components and controls system, allowing an automated, single "push-button" start-up and shutdown. Additionally, the versatility of the test system prototype was demonstrated by operating it under H2-rich (H2/CO2 of >4), stoichiometric (ratio of 4), and CO2-rich conditions (ratio of <4) without affecting its performance and meeting the equilibrium-predicted water recovery rates. In this paper, the development of the CRA test system for ground demonstration will be discussed. Additionally, the performance results from testing the system at

  19. Simultaneous Reduction of CO 2 and Splitting of H 2 O by a Single Immobilized Cobalt Phthalocyanine Electrocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Morlanes, Natalia Sanchez; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Rodionov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated cobalt phthalocyanine (CoFPc) immobilized on carbon electrodes was found to electrocatalyze the reduction of CO2 selectively to CO in an aqueous solution. The conversion of CO2 became apparent at -0.5 V vs RHE, and the Faradaic

  20. Environmental benefits from CO2 reduction, due to modal replacement: Case study on light rail vehicle in Brasilia City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Costa, P.H. da; Alves Teixeira, L.M.; Cardoso Pinheiro, J.; Serra Arruda, F.; Mendonça Brasil, A.C.

    2016-07-01

    This work aims to measure the reduction of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions in atmosphere by replacing the modal urban bus by Light Rail Vehicle (VLT). In order to accomplish this objective, a case study in Brasilia, Federal District, in the stretch of VLT which passes on Via W-3 South was conducted. The Theory of Externalities that discusses the right to ownership of private and public goods and responsibilities about the positive and negative externalities caused by the agents and individuals of society was used to support the analyses. It was used the Top-Down method, which allowed the calculation the direct emissions of CO2. The values obtained on the reduction of CO2 emissions were converted into values of carbon credits as a way to economically measure such reductions. The results showed a significant reduction in CO2 emissions per year and consequent environmental benefit. (Author)

  1. Simultaneous Reduction of CO 2 and Splitting of H 2 O by a Single Immobilized Cobalt Phthalocyanine Electrocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Morlanés, Natalia

    2016-04-12

    Perfluorinated cobalt phthalocyanine (CoFPc) immobilized on carbon electrodes was found to electrocatalyze the reduction of CO2 selectively to CO in an aqueous solution. The conversion of CO2 became apparent at -0.5 V vs RHE, and the Faradaic efficiency for the CO production reached as high as 93% at -0.8 V vs RHE. Highly stable electrolysis of CO2/H2O into CO/O2 was achieved for 12 h by applying the same catalyst as the cathode for CO2 reduction and the anode for water oxidation. This result indicates the highly robust nature of the CoFPc at wide range of potentials from -0.9 V to +2.2 V vs RHE, demonstrating the potential bipolar electrolytic system for CO2/H2O electrolysis, using the single-site molecular CoFPc-based electrocatalyst, which is simple, inexpensive, robust, and efficient. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  2. Willingness to engage in energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction: An empirical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluwa, S. E.; Siong, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    Africa's response to climate change has largely been focused on adaptation rather than mitigation. The reason for this is based on the fact that the continent contributes very little to global CO2 emission. Again, mitigation policies like carbon tax as being practised in developed countries may be costly and difficult to implement in a continent where most economies are fragile. Using behavioural change as an adaptation approach, we examined the opinion of Ibadan city residents towards energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction. A total of 822 respondents were sampled across the three residential neighbourhoods of the city. Results from the study showed that female and male respondents differed in their opinion towards energy conservation. However, the female respondents tended to record higher mean scores on majority of the items used to capture energy conservation behaviour than their male counterparts. Also, those with higher level of education seemed to be more conscious of the environmental consequences arising from energy use at home than those with lower educational background. However, very slight variations were recorded in the mean value score across the different age groups, those respondents above 50 years scored a bit higher than other age groups.

  3. Scenarios in decision-making. An application to CO2 emission reduction strategies in passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Vleugel, J.M; Nijkamp, P. [Department of Social Economics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] Smokers, R.T.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    The usefulness of scenarios for decision-makers is analyzed. First, a theoretical introduction to the scenario methodology is presented. Next, four energy scenarios for West-European passenger transport are developed. To start with, the present transport system as a baseline case is described and analysed. For each scenario it is outlined how the passenger transport system may look like in terms of the use of various existing and future transport technologies and the corresponding modal split. Expected energy consumption features of the various transport modes are described, data on the present fuel supply and electricity generation system are presented, as well as estimations of the future energy system. The energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated with the future passenger transport systems are assessed and these impacts are compared with the current system. The conclusion is that these scenarios provide interesting policy options for decision-makers. A large-scale reduction of CO2 emissions is possible in several ways, but each way will cause many problems, since drastic policy measures will have to be introduced, which may affect economic growth and the lifestyles of individuals. 5 figs., 11 tabs., 24 refs.

  4. Willingness to engage in energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction: An empirical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eluwa, S E; Siong, H C

    2014-01-01

    Africa's response to climate change has largely been focused on adaptation rather than mitigation. The reason for this is based on the fact that the continent contributes very little to global CO 2 emission. Again, mitigation policies like carbon tax as being practised in developed countries may be costly and difficult to implement in a continent where most economies are fragile. Using behavioural change as an adaptation approach, we examined the opinion of Ibadan city residents towards energy conservation and CO 2 emissions reduction. A total of 822 respondents were sampled across the three residential neighbourhoods of the city. Results from the study showed that female and male respondents differed in their opinion towards energy conservation. However, the female respondents tended to record higher mean scores on majority of the items used to capture energy conservation behaviour than their male counterparts. Also, those with higher level of education seemed to be more conscious of the environmental consequences arising from energy use at home than those with lower educational background. However, very slight variations were recorded in the mean value score across the different age groups, those respondents above 50 years scored a bit higher than other age groups

  5. Potentials for energy saving and CO2 reduction in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.; Luenstroth, U.

    1993-01-01

    In order to protect the climate the Administration of the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg aims at cutting energy-related CO 2 -emissions by 30% by the year 2005. This study analyses the potentials of energy consumption and CO 2 -reduction in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg in the framework of an evaluation of literature. As special emphasis is put on technical steps such as an increase in efficiency with respect to the generation and consumption of energy as well as on the substitution of fossil energy sources by regenerative techniques of energy generation. In order to obtain considerable potentials of energy-saving a moderate increase in energy prices as well as several actions to reduce impediments are required . However, an achievement of those goals by the year 2005 is only partly possible, because of the time required. The evaluation of literature serves as a preparation of the comprehensive project Klimavertraegliche Energieversorgung in Baden-Wuerttemberg (greenhouse-gas-reduced energy supply in Baden-Wuerttemberg) of the Center of Technology Assessment in Baden-Wuerttemberg. (orig.) [de

  6. Feasibility study on energy saving and reduction of CO2 emissions at Pertamina's Cilacap Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  7. Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 on Compositionally Variant Au-Pt Bimetallic Thin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ming; Hansen, Heine Anton; Valenti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 on Au-Pt bimetallic catalysts with different compositions was evaluated, offering a platform for uncovering the correlation between the catalytic activity and the surface composition of bimetallic electrocatalysts. The Au-Pt alloy films were synthesized...... by a magnetron sputtering co-deposition technique with tunable composition. It was found that the syngas ratio (CO:H2) on the Au-Pt films is able to be tuned by systematically controlling the binary composition. This tunable catalytic selectivity is attributed to the variation of binding strength of COOH and CO...... intermediates, influenced by the surface electronic structure (d-band center energy) which is linked to the surface composition of the bimetallic films. Notably, a gradual shift of the d-band center away from the Fermi level was observed with increasing Au content, which correspondingly reduces the binding...

  8. Environment and mobility 2050: scenarios for a 75% reduction in CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Ruiz, H.G.

    2009-10-01

    In France an objective of dividing greenhouse gas emissions by four, from the 1990 level, by 2050 has been set. Are these ambitions out of our reach? What will the price to pay for this objective be? We have built a long-term back-casting transport demand model (TILT, Transport Issues in the Long Term) . This model is centered on defined behavior types - in which the speed-GDP elasticity plays a key role - in order to determine demand estimations. This model lets us understand past tendencies - the coupling between growth and personal and freight mobility and adapt behavioral hypothesis - linked to the evolution of public policies - in order to show how a 75% reduction objective can be attained. The main results are an estimation of CO 2 emissions for the transport sector taking into account technical progress and demand. These results are presented as three scenario families named: Pegasus, Chronos and Hestia. Each family corresponds to a growing degree of constraint on mobility. It is possible to divide greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector by four. Technical progress is able to lead to more than half of these reductions. The interest of these scenarios is to show that there exist different paths - through organizational change - to getting the other half of the reductions. (author)

  9. Twin defects engineered Pd cocatalyst on C3N4 nanosheets for enhanced photocatalytic performance in CO2 reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qingqing; Hu, Wenli; Zhou, Penghui; Huang, Tianlong; Zhong, Shuxian; Yang, Lining; Chen, Jianrong; Bai, Song

    2017-12-01

    Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to value-added chemicals, a potential route to addressing the depletion of fossil fuels and anthropogenic climate change, is greatly limited by the low-efficient semiconductor photocatalyst. The integration of cocatalyst with light-harvesting semiconductor is a promising approach to enhancing the photocatalytic performance in CO2 reduction reaction. The enhancement is greatly determined by the catalytic active sites on the surface of cocatalyst. Herein, we demonstrate that the photocatalytic performance in the CO2 reduction reaction is greatly promoted by twin defects engineered Pd cocatalyst. In this work, Pd nanoicosahedrons with twin defects were in situ grown on C3N4 nanosheets, which effectively improve the photocatalytic performance in reduction of CO2 to CO and CH4 in comparison with Pd nanotetrahedrons without twin defects. It is proposed that the twin boundary (TB) terminations on the surface of Pd cocatalysts are highly catalytic active sites for CO2 reduction reaction. Based on the proposed mechanism, the photocatalytic activity and selectivity in CO2 reduction were further advanced through reducing the size of Pd icosahedral cocatalyst resulted from the increased surface density of TB terminations. The defect engineering on the surface of cocatalyst represents a novel route in realizing high-performance photocatalytic applications.

  10. Reduction of lumichrome by the radical anions of CO2 and lipoamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Armstrong, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake of reducing equivalents of .CO 2 - by lumichrome in spectrophotometric titrations has been re-examined in the light of a recently reported extinction coefficient of 10 500 M -1 cm -1 at pH 6, which is in agreement with 10 270 +- 100 M -1 cm -1 determined here. The average uptake was 1.8 +- 0.1, independent of pH in the range 6.3-9.0. The major product appears to be a dihydro-alloxazine, which can be reoxidized quantitatively to lumichrome by .Br 2 - radicals or by O 2 . As in the case of dihydroflavins, oxidation by O 2 is biphasic. As in the case of flavins, a two electron reduction of lumichrome was also observed with the disulphide monoanion of lipoamide (LS. 2 - ), but that reduction does not go to 100 per cent yield. Contrary to our earlier conclusions, which were based on an erroneous extinction coefficient, the combination of lumichrome radicals (2.LcH→HLc-LcH) was of relatively little (< approx. 20 per cent) importance, and the behaviour of lumichrome on treatment with reducing species was rather similar to that of flavins. (author)

  11. CO2 laser pulse shortening by laser ablation of a metal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, T.; Mazoyer, M.; Lynch, A.; O'Sullivan, G.; O'Reilly, F.; Dunne, P.; Cummins, T.

    2012-01-01

    A repeatable and flexible technique for pulse shortening of laser pulses has been applied to transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO 2 laser pulses. The technique involves focusing the laser output onto a highly reflective metal target so that plasma is formed, which then operates as a shutter due to strong laser absorption and scattering. Precise control of the focused laser intensity allows for timing of the shutter so that different temporal portions of the pulse can be reflected from the target surface before plasma formation occurs. This type of shutter enables one to reduce the pulse duration down to ∼2 ns and to remove the low power, long duration tails that are present in TEA CO 2 pulses. The transmitted energy is reduced as the pulse duration is decreased but the reflected power is ∼10 MW for all pulse durations. A simple laser heating model verifies that the pulse shortening depends directly on the plasma formation time, which in turn is dependent on the applied laser intensity. It is envisaged that this plasma shutter will be used as a tool for pulse shaping in the search for laser pulse conditions to optimize conversion efficiency from laser energy to useable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation for EUV source development.

  12. Temporal and Spatial Variations in Provincial CO2 Emissions in China from 2005 to 2015 and Assessment of a Reduction Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuankai Deng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study calculated the provincial carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in China, analyzed the temporal and spatial variations in emissions, and determined the emission intensity from 2005 to 2015. The total emissions control was forecasted in 2015, and the reduction pressure of the 30 provinces in China was assessed based on historical emissions and the 12th five-year (2011–2015 reduction plan. Results indicate that CO2 emissions eventually increased and gradually decreased from east to west, whereas the emission intensity ultimately decreased and gradually increased from south to north. By the end of 2015, the total control of provincial emissions will increase significantly compared to the 2010 level, whereas the emission intensity will decrease. The provinces in the North, East, and South Coast regions will maintain the highest emission levels. The provinces in the Southwest and Northwest regions will experience a rapid growth rate of emissions. However, the national emission reduction target will nearly be achieved if all provinces can implement reduction targets as planned. Pressure indices show that the South Coast and Northwest regions are confronted with a greater reduction pressure of emission intensity. Finally, policy implications are provided for CO2 reductions in China.

  13. Structure and properties of optical-discharge plasma in CO2-laser beam near target surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danshchikov, Ye. V.; Dymshakov, V. A.; Lebedev, F. V.; Ryazanov, A. V.

    1986-05-01

    An experimental study of optical-discharge plasma in a CO2-laser beam at a target surface was made for the purpose of exploring the not yet understood role of this plasma in the laser-target interaction process. Such a plasma was produced by means of a quasi-continuous CO2-laser with an unstable resonator, its power being maintained constant for 1 ms periods. Its radiation was focused on the surfaces of thick and seeding thin Al, Ti, and Ta targets inclined at an approximately 70 deg. angle to the beam, inside a hermetic chamber containing air, argon, or helium under atmospheric pressure. The radiation intensity distribution over the focal plane and the nearest caustic surface in the laser beam was measured along with the plasma parameters, the latter by the methods of spectral analysis and photoelectric recording. The instrumentation for this purpose included an MDR-3 monochromator with an entrance slit, a double electron-optical converter, a memory oscillograph, and an SI-10-30 ribbon lamp as radiation reference standard. The results yielded integral diametral intensity distributions of the emission lines Ti-II (457.2 nm), Ti-I (464 nm), Ar-II (462 nm), radial and axial temperature profiles of optical discharge in metal vapor in surrounding gas, and the radial temperature profile of irradiated metal surface at successive instants of time. The results reveal marked differences between the structures and the properties of optical-discharge plasma in metal vapor and in surrounding gas, optical discharge in the former being characterized by localization within the laser beam and optical discharge in the latter being characterized by a drift away from the target.

  14. Influence of laser-target interaction on the polarization of a CO2-laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, K.; Herziger, G.; Loosen, P.; Seelig, W.

    1988-01-01

    Laser materials processing shows a special peculiarity compared to other customary techniques: the generally reflecting target introduces optical feedback into the system. This feedback changes the mode properties of the laser radiation according to the targets dynamics. The authors report on one of these aspects of laser-target interaction resulting in the change of the polarization of the incident light. Based of rate equations, a theoretical model is presented in this paper that allows the calculation of this change with respect of the target properties, yielding a simple relation for the two orthogonal planes of polarization of a laser mode. This relation turns out to be linearly dependent of a function ψ (t) which describes the optical feedback. The relation holds for target reflexions of up to 10% and four times larger than τ 2 x τ 2 /τ 1 - τ 2 (where τ 1 , τ 2 are the time constants of the passive resonator for the two orthogonal planes of polarization). The model offers a method for the modulation for the modulation of laser radiation without change of frequency or intensity. It might also be of interest for high-power CO 2 laser cutting and welding of metals

  15. Optical diagnostics of CO2 laser-fusion targets using backscattered light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casperson, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the f/2.4 focusing optics on one of the eight Helios CO 2 laser beam lines, direct backscattered light from a variety of glass microballoon targets has been observed. The quantities that have been measured include: (1) the total backscattered energy; (2) relative amplitudes of the backscattered fundamental and low harmonics (n = 1, 2, 3) of the 10.6 μm incident light; (3) the 3/2 harmonic emission from a double pulse backscatter experiment; (4) the temporally resolved 10.6 μm light using a fast pyroelectric detector and a Los Alamos 5-GHz oscilloscope; and (5) the time-integrated spectrally resolved fundamental using a 3/4 meter spectrometer and a high resolution pyroelectric detector array (resolution approx. 40 A at 10.6 μm). The suitability of these diagnostics for evaluating the CO 2 laser plasma in terms of stimulated scattering processes, plasma density gradients, velocity of the critical surface, etc., is discussed

  16. Reduction of CO2 emissions in houses of historic and visual importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van J.D.M. (Anke); Dulski, B.; Postel, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    According to the ‘Climate Programme’ the municipality of Amsterdam has the ambition to reduce the CO2 emissions within the city limits by 40% in the year 2025 compared to the year 1990. To realize this ambition substantial CO2 savings have to be realized at the 375,000 current houses in the city. A

  17. Reduction of CO2 Emissions in Houses of Historic and Visual Importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, A.; Dulski, B.; Postel, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    According to the ‘Climate Programme’ the municipality of Amsterdam has the ambition to reduce the CO2 emissions within the city limits by 40% in the year 2025 compared to the year 1990. To realize this ambition substantial CO2 savings have to be realized at the 375,000 current houses in the city. A

  18. Plasma for electrification of chemical industry : a case study on CO2 reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, G.J.; Akse, H.N.; Bongers, W.A.; Van De Sanden, M.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Significant growth of the share of (intermittent) renewable power in the chemical industry is imperative to meet increasingly stricter limits on CO2 exhaust that are being implemented within Europe. This paper aims to evaluate the potential of a plasma process that converts input CO2 into a pure

  19. Plasma for Electrification of Chemical Industry: a Case Study on CO2 Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, G. J.; Akse, H.; Bongers, W.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Significantly increasing the share of (intermittent) renewable power in the chemical industry is imperative to meet increasingly stricter limits on CO2 exhaust that are being implemented within Europe. This paper aims to evaluate the potential of a plasma process that converts input CO2 into a pure

  20. CO2 reduction potential of future coal gasification based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Van Veen, H.M.

    1992-03-01

    Assessment studies are carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with gas turbines (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) without and with CO 2 -removal. System elements include coal gasification, high-temperature gas-cleaning, molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines, CO shift, membrane separation, CO 2 recovery and a bottoming cycle. Various system configurations are evaluated on the basis of thermodynamic computations. The energy balances of the various system configurations clearly indicate that integrated coal gasification MCFC power plants (IGMCFC) with CO 2 removal have high efficiencies (42-47% LHV) compared to IGCC power plants with CO 2 -removal (33-38% LHV) and that the CO 2 -removal is simplified due to the specific properties of the molten carbonate fuel cells. IGMCFC is therefore an option with future prospective in the light of clean coal technologies for power generation with high energy efficiencies and low emissions. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  1. A highly selective copper-indium bimetallic electrocatalyst for the electrochemical reduction of aqueous CO2to CO

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid

    2014-12-23

    The challenge in the electrochemical reduction of aqueous carbon dioxide is in designing a highly selective, energy-efficient, and non-precious-metal electrocatalyst that minimizes the competitive reduction of proton to form hydrogen during aqueous CO2 conversion. A non-noble metal electrocatalyst based on a copper-indium (Cu-In) alloy that selectively converts CO2 to CO with a low overpotential is reported. The electrochemical deposition of In on rough Cu surfaces led to Cu-In alloy surfaces. DFT calculations showed that the In preferentially located on the edge sites rather than on the corner or flat sites and that the d-electron nature of Cu remained almost intact, but adsorption properties of neighboring Cu was perturbed by the presence of In. This preparation of non-noble metal alloy electrodes for the reduction of CO2 provides guidelines for further improving electrocatalysis.

  2. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation. Feasibility of enhanced natural weathering as a CO2 emission reduction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonates. Potential advantages of mineral CO2 sequestration compared to, e.g., geological CO2 storage include (1) the permanent and inherently safe sequestration of CO2, due to the thermodynamic stability of the carbonate product formed and (2) the vast potential sequestration capacity, because of the widespread and abundant occurrence of suitable feedstock. In addition, carbonation is an exothermic process, which potentially limits the overall energy consumption and costs of CO2 emission reduction. However, weathering processes are slow, with timescales at natural conditions of thousands to millions of years. For industrial implementation, a reduction of the reaction time to the order of minutes has to be achieved by developing alternative process routes. The aim of this thesis is an investigation of the technical, energetic, and economic feasibility of CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. In Chapter 1 the literature published on CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation is reviewed. Among the potentially suitable mineral feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration, Ca-silicates, more particularly wollastonite (CaSiO3), a mineral ore, and steel slag, an industrial alkaline solid residue, are selected for further research. Alkaline Ca-rich residues seem particularly promising, since these materials are inexpensive and available near large industrial point sources of CO2. In addition, residues tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their (geo)chemical instability. Various process routes have been proposed for mineral carbonation, which often include a pre-treatment of the solid feedstock (e.g., size reduction and

  3. Research on CO2 Emission Reduction Mechanism of China’s Iron and Steel Industry under Various Emission Reduction Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Duan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage dynamic game model of China’s iron and steel industry is constructed. Carbon tax levy, product subsidy, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS and other factors are included in the emission reduction mechanism. The effects of emissions reduction and the economic impact of China’s overall steel industry (and that of its six main regions are investigated for the first time under different scenarios. As new findings, we report the following: (1 Not all factors declined. The overall social welfare, consumer surplus, output and emissions decrease with a gradual increase in the reduction target, whereas the carbon tax value, unit value of product subsidies and total subsidies show a rising trend; (2 A combination of multiple emissions reduction policies is more effective than a single policy. With the implementation of a combined policy, regional output polarization has eased; (3 Steel output does not exceed 950 million tons, far below the current peak. These results will help the industry to formulate reasonable emissions reduction and output targets. In short, in effort to eliminate industry poverty and to alleviate overcapacity, the industry should not only adopt the various coordinated reduction policies, but also fully consider regional differences and reduction needs.

  4. Mesoscale Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential and Geological Suitability for Target Area Selection in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Diao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, south of the Yangtze River, there are a large number of carbon sources, while the Sichuan Basin is the largest sedimentary basin; it makes sense to select the targets for CO2 geological storage (CGUS early demonstration. For CO2 enhanced oil and gas, coal bed methane recovery (CO2-EOR, EGR, and ECBM, or storage in these depleted fields, the existing oil, gas fields, or coal seams could be the target areas in the mesoscale. This paper proposed a methodology of GIS superimposed multisource information assessment of geological suitability for CO2 enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR or only storage in deep saline aquifers. The potential per unit area of deep saline aquifers CO2 storage in Central Sichuan is generally greater than 50 × 104 t/km2 at P50 probability level, with Xujiahe group being the main reservoir. CO2 storage potential of depleted gas fields is 53.73 × 108 t, while it is 33.85 × 108 t by using CO2-EGR technology. This paper recommended that early implementation of CGUS could be carried out in the deep saline aquifers and depleted gas fields in the Sichuan Basin, especially that of the latter because of excellent traps, rich geological data, and well-run infrastructures.

  5. Reduction of CO2 emission by INCAM model in Malaysia biomass power plants during the year 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Talebian-Kiakalaieh, Amin

    2018-03-01

    As the world's second largest palm oil producer and exporter, Malaysia could capitalize on its oil palm biomass waste for power generation. The emission factors from this renewable energy source are far lower than that of fossil fuels. This study applies an integrated carbon accounting and mitigation (INCAM) model to calculate the amount of CO 2 emissions from two biomass thermal power plants. The CO 2 emissions released from biomass plants utilizing empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), as alternative fuels for powering steam and gas turbines, were determined using the INCAM model. Each section emitting CO 2 in the power plant, known as the carbon accounting center (CAC), was measured for its carbon profile (CP) and carbon index (CI). The carbon performance indicator (CPI) included electricity, fuel and water consumption, solid waste and waste-water generation. The carbon emission index (CEI) and carbon emission profile (CEP), based on the total monthly carbon production, were determined across the CPI. Various innovative strategies resulted in a 20%-90% reduction of CO 2 emissions. The implementation of reduction strategies significantly reduced the CO 2 emission levels. Based on the model, utilization of EFB and POME in the facilities could significantly reduce the CO 2 emissions and increase the potential for waste to energy initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Consideration on Service Business Model for Saving Energy and Reduction of CO2 Emissions Using Inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Michitaka; Yabutani, Takashi

    This paper considers the effectiveness of service business approach for reducing CO2 emission. “HDRIVE” is a service business using inverters to reduce energy consumption of motor drive. The business model of this service is changed for finding new opportunities of CO2 emission reduction by combining various factors such as financial service or long-term service contract. Risk analysis of this business model is very important for giving stable services to users for long term. HDRIVE business model is found to be suitable for this objective. This service can be applied to the industries such as chemical or steel industry effectively, where CO2 emission is very large, and has the possibility of creating new business considering CDM or trading CO2 emission right. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated through several examples in real business.

  7. Energy saving and CO2-reduction potential of micro-cogeneration in the Netherlands (2010-2030). Update 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gastel, M.; De Jong, A.; Schlatmann, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Jeeninga, H.; Boerakker, Y.; Seebregts, A.; Menkveld, M.; Van Wolferen, H.; Turkstra, J.W.; Dam, J.; Harmsen, R.; Rooijers, F.; Koot, M.

    2008-05-01

    Various parties have been asked to come to a joint point of view with regard to establishing the potential of micro CHP for energy saving and CO2 emission reduction in the Netherlands from 2010 to 2030, assuming that micro CHP will have a successful market introduction. The result of this memo is a method for determining the technical potential of micro CHP for the reduction of energy use and CO2 emissions. This report is an update of the 2006 report [mk] [nl

  8. Soot and NOx simultaneous reduction by use of CO2 mixed fuel; Ekika CO2 yokai nenryo ni yoru diesel kikan no susu, NOx no doji teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, J; Yokoyama, T; Ikeda, M; Fujimoto, H [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Ifuku, Y [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We propose the new fuel injection system by use of diesel fuel dissolved with CO2 to reduce both soot and NOx simultaneously. In this paper spray combustion characteristics of CO2 mixed fuel is reported. It is revealed that flame temperature and KL factor at the CO2 mixed fuel combustion are lower than at the only n-tridecane combustion due to separation or partly flashing of CO2component. And the result of exhaust gas measurement shows the capability that CO2 mixed fuel is able to reduce both soot and NOx simultaneously. 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Analysis of CO2, CO and HC emission reduction in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, K. N.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Reddy, Mannem Soma Harish; Aravinda Reddy, Gireddy; Sai Srinivas, Jammalamadaka K. M. K.; Vasan

    2017-05-01

    In the present scenario, the emission from automobiles is becoming a serious problem to the environment. Automobiles, thermal power stations and Industries majorly constitute to the emission of CO2, CO and HC. Though the CO2 available in the atmosphere will be captured by oceans, grasslands; they are not enough to control CO2 present in the atmosphere completely. Also advances in engine and vehicle technology continuously to reduce the emission from engine exhaust are not sufficient to reduce the HC and CO emission. This work concentrates on design, fabrication and analysis to reduce CO2, CO and HC emission from exhaust of automobiles by using molecular sieve 5A of 1.5mm. In this paper, the details of the fabrication, results and discussion about the process are discussed.

  10. Recent Advances in Transition-Metal-Mediated Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction: From Homogeneous to Heterogeneous Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Da-Ming; Zhu, Yun-Pei; Chen, Ping; Ma, Tian-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change and increasing demands for clean energy have brought intensive interest in the search for proper electrocatalysts in order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) to higher value carbon products such as hydrocarbons. Recently

  11. The development of the tertiary sector in the economy and the reduction in CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morvan, R.; Hubert, M.; Gregoire, P.; Lowezanin, Ch.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the tertiary sector appears to support sustainable development since it now accounts for almost two thirds of the national economy and is responsible for low CO 2 emission levels. Between 1980 and 1997, CO 2 emissions from the tertiary sector increased by 20 % compared with a 48 % rise in the sector value added. In terms of production, CO 2 levels in the tertiary sector are low, compared with 55 % for the secondary sector (industry). However, when trade between economic activities is taken into account, there is cause to qualify the assessment. This makes it possible to ascertain emissions from the point of view of satisfying final demand for products, and to identify direct and indirect emissions in each branch of activity. Thus, when emissions from certain industrial and agricultural activities are redistributed specifically to branches of activity in the tertiary sector, CO 2 emissions in this sector account for almost one-third of total emissions. (A.L.B.)

  12. Energy efficiency improvement and CO2 emission reduction opportunities in the cement industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    China's annual cement production (i.e., 1868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world's annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in China's cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using bottom–up CSC models, the cumulative cost-effective and technical electricity and fuel savings, as well as the CO 2 emission reduction potentials for the Chinese cement industry for 2010–2030 are estimated. By comparison, the total final energy saving achieved by the implementation of these 23 efficiency measures in the Chinese cement industry over 20 years (2010–2030) is equal to 30% of the total primary energy supply of Latin America or Middle East or around 71% of primary energy supply of Brazil in 2007. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate is conducted to assess its effect on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost. - Highlights: ► Estimation of energy saving potential in the entire Chinese cement industry. ► Development of the bottom–up technology-rich Conservation Supply Curve models. ► Discussion of different approaches for developing conservation supply curves. ► Primary energy saving over 20 years equal to 33% of primary energy of Latin America

  13. Hot Hole Collection and Photoelectrochemical CO2 Reduction with Plasmonic Au/p-GaN Photocathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuChene, Joseph S; Tagliabue, Giulia; Welch, Alex J; Cheng, Wen-Hui; Atwater, Harry A

    2018-04-11

    Harvesting nonequilibrium hot carriers from plasmonic-metal nanostructures offers unique opportunities for driving photochemical reactions at the nanoscale. Despite numerous examples of hot electron-driven processes, the realization of plasmonic systems capable of harvesting hot holes from metal nanostructures has eluded the nascent field of plasmonic photocatalysis. Here, we fabricate gold/p-type gallium nitride (Au/p-GaN) Schottky junctions tailored for photoelectrochemical studies of plasmon-induced hot-hole capture and conversion. Despite the presence of an interfacial Schottky barrier to hot-hole injection of more than 1 eV across the Au/p-GaN heterojunction, plasmonic Au/p-GaN photocathodes exhibit photoelectrochemical properties consistent with the injection of hot holes from Au nanoparticles into p-GaN upon plasmon excitation. The photocurrent action spectrum of the plasmonic photocathodes faithfully follows the surface plasmon resonance absorption spectrum of the Au nanoparticles and open-circuit voltage studies demonstrate a sustained photovoltage during plasmon excitation. Comparison with Ohmic Au/p-NiO heterojunctions confirms that the vast majority of hot holes generated via interband transitions in Au are sufficiently hot to inject above the 1.1 eV interfacial Schottky barrier at the Au/p-GaN heterojunction. We further investigated plasmon-driven photoelectrochemical CO 2 reduction with the Au/p-GaN photocathodes and observed improved selectivity for CO production over H 2 evolution in aqueous electrolytes. Taken together, our results offer experimental validation of photoexcited hot holes more than 1 eV below the Au Fermi level and demonstrate a photoelectrochemical platform for harvesting hot carriers to drive solar-to-fuel energy conversion.

  14. Densely Packed, Ultra Small SnO Nanoparticles for Enhanced Activity and Selectivity in Electrochemical CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun; Héroguel, Florent; Luterbacher, Jeremy; Hu, Xile

    2018-03-05

    Controlling the selectivity in electrochemical CO 2 reduction is an unsolved challenge. While tin (Sn) has emerged as a promising non-precious catalyst for CO 2 electroreduction, most Sn-based catalysts produce formate as the major product, which is less desirable than CO in terms of separation and further use. Tin monoxide (SnO) nanoparticles supported on carbon black were synthesized and assembled and their application in CO 2 reduction was studied. Remarkably high selectivity and partial current densities for CO formation were obtained using these SnO nanoparticles compared to other Sn catalysts. The high activity is attributed to the ultra-small size of the nanoparticles (2.6 nm), while the high selectivity is attributed to a local pH effect arising from the dense packing of nanoparticles in the conductive carbon black matrix. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Explosive vaporization induced by high-power CO2-laser target interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugenschmidt, M.; Vollrath, K.

    1976-01-01

    The interactions of high-power laser pulses with targets such as metals or dielectric materials causes a series of optical, thermal, and mechanical processes. Thereby, heating, melting, and vaporization can take place in a short time. At power densities of about 10 7 to several 10 8 W/cm 2 this can even be produced explosively. As compared to continuous ablation, this type of interaction can remove greater masses from the bulk of material. The investigations are performed by using an electron-beam preionized CO 2 -laser acting on different target materials. The energy of the laser pulses is about 30 J, the pulse-half-widths of the long-tail pulses 4 to 6 μs. Optical measurements yield some information on threshold values for these processes, for the formation and expansion of plasmas, and for the ejection of material in form of greater particles. High speed photographic techniques include a rotating mirror- and an image converter camera. Starting from shock-wave theory, gas dynamic equations (in unidimensional approximation) allow for a quantitative determination of the specific internal energies and pressures in the case of optical detonation. (orig.) [de

  16. Review of CO2 Reduction Technologies using Mineral Carbonation of Iron and Steel Making Slag in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhana Selamat, Siti; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Rashid, Muhammad Hanif Abdul; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Mohamad, Fariza; Ismail, Al Emran; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Zain, Mohd Zamzuri Mohd; Abu Bakar, Elmi; Seiji, Yokoyama

    2017-10-01

    Climate change, greenhouse gas effect, and global warming is envisioning to turn more awful and more terrible by year. Since the leading cause of global warming is uncontrolled CO2 in atmosphere. The amount of unused steel slag is expected to increment later on, steel industries is one of the mechanical industries that contribute the CO2 emission. That because this businesses deliver carbon in light of powers reductant and substantial volume of steel. The changes of atmosphere these day is truly developing concern and that make steel creator are confronted with test of discovering methods for bringing down CO2 emission. Malaysia is working decidedly in the diminishment of CO2 gas. There are a few techniques in decreasing the amount of CO2 in the air as underlined by the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC), an organization under the United Country however CCS is an extremely encouraging innovation to moderate CO2 emission in air. Mineral carbonation is another technique to store carbon dioxide permanently, long term stability and vast capacity.

  17. Carbon Supported Engineering NiCo2O4 Hybrid Nanofibers with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diab Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of cheap and efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR electrocatalysts is of a significant importance in sustainable and renewable energy technologies. Therefore, ORR catalysts with superb electrocatalytic activity and durability are becoming a necessity but still remain challenging. Herein, we report C/NiCo2O4 nanocomposite fibers fabricated by a straightforward electrospinning technique followed by a simple sintering process as a promising ORR electrocatalyst in alkaline condition. The mixed-valence oxide can offer numerous accessible active sites. In addition, the as-obtained C/NiCo2O4 hybrid reveals significantly remarkable electrocatalytic performance with a highly positive onset potential of 0.65 V, which is only 50 mV lower than that of commercially available Pt/C catalysts. The analyses indicate that C/NiCo2O4 catalyst can catalyze O2-molecules via direct four electron pathway in a similar behavior as commercial Pt/C catalysts dose. Compared to single NiCo2O4 and carbon free NiCo2O4, the C/NiCo2O4 hybrid displays higher ORR current and more positive half-wave potential. The incorporated carbon matrices are beneficial for fast electron transfer and can significantly impose an outstanding contribution to the electrocatalytic activity. Results indicate that the synthetic strategy hold a potential as efficient route to fabricate highly active nanostructures for practical use in energy technologies.

  18. Selective Reduction of CO2 to CH4 by Tandem Hydrosilylation with Mixed Al/B Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jiawei

    2016-04-04

    This contribution reports the first example of highly selective reduction of CO2 into CH4 via tandem hydrosilylation with mixed main-group organo-Lewis acid (LA) catalysts [Al(C6F5)3 + B(C6F5)3] {[Al] + [B]}. As shown by this comprehensive experimental and computational study, in this unique tandem catalytic process, [Al] effectively mediates the first step of the overall reduction cycle, namely the fixation of CO2 into HCOOSiEt3 (1) via the LA-mediated C=O activation, while [B] is incapable of promoting the same transformation. On the other hand, [B] is shown to be an excellent catalyst for the subsequent reduction steps 2–4, namely the hydrosilylation of the more basic intermediates [1 to H2C(OSiEt3)2 (2) to H3COSiEt3 (3) and finally to CH4] through the frustrated-Lewis-pair (FLP)-type Si–H activation. Hence, with the required combination of [Al] and [B], a highly selective hydrosilylative reduction of CO2 system has been developed, achieving high CH4 production yield up to 94%. The remarkably different catalytic behaviors between [Al] and [B] are attributed to the higher overall Lewis acidity of [Al] derived from two conflicting factors (electronic and steric effects), which renders the higher tendency of [Al] to form stable [Al]–substrate (intermediate) adducts with CO2 as well as subsequent intermediates 1, 2 and 3. Overall, the roles of [Al] and [B] are not only complementary but also synergistic in the total reduction of CO2, which render both [Al]-mediated first reduction step and [B]-mediated subsequent steps catalytic.

  19. Selective Reduction of CO2 to CH4 by Tandem Hydrosilylation with Mixed Al/B Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jiawei; Falivene, Laura; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene Y.-X.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution reports the first example of highly selective reduction of CO2 into CH4 via tandem hydrosilylation with mixed main-group organo-Lewis acid (LA) catalysts [Al(C6F5)3 + B(C6F5)3] {[Al] + [B]}. As shown by this comprehensive experimental and computational study, in this unique tandem catalytic process, [Al] effectively mediates the first step of the overall reduction cycle, namely the fixation of CO2 into HCOOSiEt3 (1) via the LA-mediated C=O activation, while [B] is incapable of promoting the same transformation. On the other hand, [B] is shown to be an excellent catalyst for the subsequent reduction steps 2–4, namely the hydrosilylation of the more basic intermediates [1 to H2C(OSiEt3)2 (2) to H3COSiEt3 (3) and finally to CH4] through the frustrated-Lewis-pair (FLP)-type Si–H activation. Hence, with the required combination of [Al] and [B], a highly selective hydrosilylative reduction of CO2 system has been developed, achieving high CH4 production yield up to 94%. The remarkably different catalytic behaviors between [Al] and [B] are attributed to the higher overall Lewis acidity of [Al] derived from two conflicting factors (electronic and steric effects), which renders the higher tendency of [Al] to form stable [Al]–substrate (intermediate) adducts with CO2 as well as subsequent intermediates 1, 2 and 3. Overall, the roles of [Al] and [B] are not only complementary but also synergistic in the total reduction of CO2, which render both [Al]-mediated first reduction step and [B]-mediated subsequent steps catalytic.

  20. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Johansson, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technologies for recovery and use of industrial excess heat were investigated. • Heat harvesting, heat storage, heat utilization, and heat conversion technologies. • Heat recovery potential for Gävleborg County in Sweden was calculated. • Effects on global CO 2 emissions were calculated for future energy market scenarios. - Abstract: Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO 2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO 2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO 2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO 2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO 2 emissions when the CO 2 emission charge is low

  1. Chinese Public’s Willingness to Pay for CO2 Emissions Reductions: A Case Study from Four Provinces/Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Hong-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Citation: Duan, H.-X., Lü, Y.-L., Li, Y., 2014. Chinese public’s willingness to pay for CO2 emissions reductions: A case study from four provinces/cities. Adv. Clim. Change Res. 5(2, doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1248.2014.100.

  2. Problem shifting in transport systems. Analysing and balancing unintended consequences of CO2 emission reduction in Dutch transport.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebler, Malte

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transport systems face significant input- and output-related challenges in the upcoming decades. To tackle climate change – the major output challenge - an 80% CO2 reduction has to be achieved by 2050 (base year 1990). This requires a sustainabi

  3. Coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG): A solution to China’s energy security and CO2 reduction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yanjun; Han, Weijian; Chai, Qinhu; Yang, Shuhong; Shen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Considering natural gas (NG) to be the most promising low-carbon option for the energy industry, large state owned companies in China have established numerous coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) projects. The objective of this paper is to use a system approach to evaluate coal-derived SNG in terms of life-cycle energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions. This project examined main applications of the SNG and developed a model that can be used for evaluating energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions of various fuel pathway systems. The model development started with the GREET model, and added the SNG module and an end-use equipment module. The database was constructed with Chinese data. The analyses show when the SNG are used for cooking, power generation, steam production for heating and industry, life-cycle energies are 20–108% higher than all competitive pathways, with a similar rate of increase in life-cycle CO 2 emissions. When a compressed natural gas (CNG) car uses the SNG, life-cycle CO 2 emission will increase by 150–190% compared to the baseline gasoline car and by 140–210% compared to an electric car powered by electricity from coal-fired power plants. The life-cycle CO 2 emission of SNG-powered city bus will be 220–270% higher than that of traditional diesel city bus. The gap between SNG-powered buses and new hybrid diesel buses will be even larger—life-cycle CO 2 emission of the former being around 4 times of that of the latter. It is concluded that the SNG will not accomplish the tasks of both energy conservation and CO 2 reduction. - Highlights: ► We evaluated life-cycle energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions of coal-derived SNG. ► We used GREET model and added a coal-based SNG and an end-use modules. ► The database was constructed with Chinese domestic data. ► Life-cycle energies and CO 2 emissions of coal-based SNG are 20–100% higher. ► Coal-based SNG is not a solution to both energy conservation and CO 2 reduction

  4. CO2 emission reduction strategy and roles of nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Osamu; Shimoda, Makoto; Takematsu, Kenji; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro

    1999-03-01

    An analysis was made on the potential and cost of reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from Japan's long-term energy systems by using the MARKAL model, developed in the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) of International Energy Agency (IEA). Assuming future growths of GDP, the demand for energy services was estimated for the analytical time horizon 1990-2050. Assumptions were made also on prices and availability of fossil fuels, and on availability of nuclear and renewable energy. CO 2 emissions and system costs were compared between energy demand and supply scenarios defined with different assumptions on nuclear energy, a CO 2 disposal option, and natural gas imports. Main results were as follows. Without nuclear energy, the CO 2 emissions will hardly be reduced because of the increases of coal utilization. CO 2 disposal will be effective in reducing the emissions, however at much higher costs than the case with nuclear energy. The expansion of natural gas imports alone will not reduce the emissions at enough low levels. (author)

  5. Uncertain long-run emissions targets, CO2 price and global energy transition. A general equilibrium approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand-Lasserve, Olivier; Smeers, Yves; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO 2 emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO 2 price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO 2 policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO 2 emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a hard cap or a soft cap. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories - with two branches after 2020 - for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO 2 emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO 2 emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios. (author)

  6. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon solar fuels over g-C3N4-Pt nanocomposite photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Wang, Ke; Xiao, Wei; Cheng, Bei

    2014-06-21

    Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuels is an alternative way to develop reproducible energy, which is also a promising way to solve the problem of the greenhouse effect. In this work, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was synthesized by directly heating thiourea at 550 °C and then a certain amount of Pt was deposited on it to form g-C3N4-Pt nanocomposites used as catalysts for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 under simulated solar irradiation. The main products of photocatalysis were CH4, CH3OH and HCHO. The deposited Pt acted as an effective cocatalyst, which not only influenced the selectivity of the product generation, but also affected the activity of the reaction. The yield of CH4 first increased upon increasing the amount of Pt deposited on the g-C3N4 from 0 to 1 wt%, then decreased at 2 wt% Pt loading. The production rates of CH3OH and HCHO also increased with the content of Pt increasing from 0 to 0.75 wt% and the maximum yield was observed at 0.75 wt%. The Pt nanoparticles (NPs) could facilitate the transfer and enrichment of photogenerated electrons from g-C3N4 to its surface for photocatalytic reduction of CO2. At the same time, Pt was also used a catalyst to promote the oxidation of products. The transient photocurrent response further confirmed the proposed photocatalytic reduction mechanism of CO2. This work indicates that the deposition of Pt is a good strategy to improve the photoactivity and selectivity of g-C3N4 for CO2 reduction.

  7. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-03

    India’s cement industry is the second largest in the world behind China with annual cement production of 168 Mt in 2010 which accounted for slightly greater than six percent of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. To produce that amount of cement, the industry consumed roughly 700 PJ of fuel and 14.7 TWh of electricity. We identified and analyzed 22 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the Indian cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model and compared to an electricity price forecast the cumulative cost-effective plant-level electricity savings potential for the Indian cement industry for 2010- 2030 is estimated to be 83 TWh, and the cumulative plant-level technical electricity saving potential is 89 TWh during the same period. The grid-level CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 82 Mt CO2 and the electric grid-level CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 88 Mt CO2. Compared to a fuel price forecast, an estimated cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 1,029 PJ with associated CO2 emission reduction of 97 Mt CO2 during 2010-2030 is possible. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Indian cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost over the next twenty years.

  8. The contribution of energy efficiency and renewability to the reduction of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, J.A.; Mateo, I.

    1995-01-01

    The European Commission has proposed a series of measures, among which the imposition of a tax on the consumption of energy and CO 2 emissions. Different organizations, among them Eurelectric, have opposed this tax, arguing that there exist alternative solutions, such as the adoption of voluntary commitments between companies/national governments, to reduce CO 2 emissions and which at the same time have a much lower cost/benefit ratio: the effects of the increased use of natural gas in electricity generation, improvements in energy efficiency and the promotion and development of cogeneration and renewable energies on CO 2 emissions on a national level (Spain), as well as applications of the same principles within a particular company (Union Fenosa). 3 tabs

  9. Formulation of a Network and the Study of Reaction Paths for the Sustainable Reduction of CO2 Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Kongpanna, Pichayapan; Roh, Kosan

    and commercial processes. Within these there are high-purity emissions and low-purity emissions. Rather than sending these to the atmosphere, it is possible to collect them and use them for other purposes. Targeting some of the largest contributors: power generation, manufacturing, chemical industry...... amounts of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and creating more energy efficient processes....

  10. Liberalised electricity markets, new bioenergy technologies, and GHG emission reductions: interactions and CO2 mitigation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Madlener, R.

    1999-01-01

    We contrast recent developments in power and heat production with bioenergy, and natural-gas-fired condensing plants with and without decarbonisation, in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Our main focus is on CO 2 mitigation costs and carbon tax sensitivity of production costs. We find that CO 2 mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems using IGCC technology than for natural gas system using decarbonisation. However, based on current fuel prices natural-gas fired co-generation plants have the lowest production costs. Hence energy policy measures will be needed to promote biomass technologies and decarbonisation options on a liberalised market. (author)

  11. A Robust Pyridyl-NHC-Ligated Rhenium Photocatalyst for CO2 Reduction in the Presence of Water and Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey A. Carpenter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Re(pyNHC-PhCF3(CO3Br is a highly active photocatalyst for CO2 reduction. The PhCF3 derivative was previously empirically shown to be a robust catalyst. Here, the role of the PhCF3 group is probed computationally and the robust nature of this catalyst is analyzed with regard to the presence of water and oxygen introduced in controlled amounts during the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO with visible light. This complex was found to work well from 0–1% water concentration reproducibly; however, trace amounts of water were required for benchmark Re(bpy(CO3Cl to give reproducible reactivity. When ambient air is added to the reaction mixture, the NHC complex was found to retain substantial performance (~50% of optimized reactivity at up to 40% ambient atmosphere and 60% CO2 while the Re(bpy(CO3Cl complex was found to give a dramatically reduced CO2 reduction reactivity upon introduction of ambient atmosphere. Through the use of time-correlated single photon counting studies and prior electrochemical results, we reasoned that this enhanced catalyst resilience is due to a mechanistic difference between the NHC- and bpy-based catalysts. These results highlight an important feature of this NHC-ligated catalyst: substantially enhanced stability toward common reaction contaminates.

  12. Efficiency potentials of heat pumps with combined heat and power. For maximum reduction of CO2 emissions and for electricity generation from fossil fuels with CO2 reduction in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognon, F.

    2005-06-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how the efficiency potential of heat pumps together with combined heat and power systems can help provide a maximum reduction of CO 2 emissions and provide electricity generation from fossil fuel in Switzerland together with reductions in CO 2 emissions. In Switzerland, approximately 80% of the low-temperature heat required for space-heating and for the heating-up of hot water is produced by burning combustibles. Around a million gas and oil boilers were in use in Switzerland in 2000, and these accounted for approximately half the country's 41.1 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions. The authors state that there is a more efficient solution with lower CO 2 emissions: the heat pump. With the enormous potential of our environment it would be possible to replace half the total number of boilers in use today with heat pumps. This would be equivalent to 90 PJ p.a. of useful heat, or 500,000 systems. The power source for heat pumps should come from the substitution of electric heating systems (electric resistor-based systems) and from the replacement of boilers. This should be done by using combined heat and power systems with full heat utilisation. This means, according to the authors, that the entire required power source can be provided without the need to construct new electricity production plants. The paper examines and discusses the theoretical, technical, market and realisable potentials

  13. How clean are Europe's cars? An analysis of carmaker progress towards EU CO2 targets in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dings, J. (ed.)

    2010-11-15

    This report is the fifth T and E has published on the annual progress Europe's major car manufacturers have made in reducing CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of new cars. The main purpose of these reports is to assess the progress that major car manufacturers in Europe are making towards cutting the average CO2 emissions of their products. We also assess how each carmaker is positioned to hit the mandatory CO2 standards that the European Union has set for 2015. In this year's report, we add an analysis showing to what extent the CO2 reductions achieved can be attributed to the financial crisis i.e. sales of cheaper, smaller cars, and to what extent to technological improvements.

  14. Technology priorities for transport in Asia: assessment of economy-wide CO2 emissions reduction for Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, Subash; Marpaung, Charles O. P.

    2015-01-01

    mitigations actions (NAMA) given their strong contribution for development and therefore a methodology based on in-put out-put decomposition analysis is proposed for analysing economy wide CO2 emissions reductions. The methodology has been applied for the transport sector of Lebanon where alternative fuels...... of technologies and availability of technology characteristics. Non-motorized transport, mass transit and technologies that improve vehicle energy efficiency emerged as the three most preferred technology choices for the countries. These technology choices can be appropriate candidates for nationally appropriate......,improvement to cars (private and taxis) and buses for public transport were prioritized by stakeholders. The economy-wide CO2 emission reduce by 2,269 thousand tons by 2020 if the prioritized technologies are implemented in Lebanon. Fuel mix effect and structural effect would reduce CO2 emission by 2,611 thousand...

  15. Accelerating CO2-Emission Reductions via Corporate Programmes; Analysis of an Existing Corporate Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manser, J.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.; Schubert, R.; Gsottbauer, E.; Cornielje, M.; Lede, E.

    2013-01-01

    This working paper analyzes and assesses the COYou2 Program of the company Swiss Re. This corporate program allows employees to claim subsidies for the realization of various activities reducing their energy consumption and CO2-emissions at home. Examples of such activities are the purchase of a

  16. Acoustic waves in transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser discharges: effect on performance and reduction techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    von Bergmann, HM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the influence of acoustic waves on the performance of high-repetition-rate TEA CO2 lasers. It is shown that acoustic waves generated inside the laser cavity lead to nonuniform discharges, resulting in a deterioration...

  17. Influence of Operational Parameters on the Photocatalytic Activity of Powdered TiO2 for the Reduction of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman Zuas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the results from a study on the influence of operational parameters on TiO2 photocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction under an ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis illumination are presented. The results indicated that the TiO2 was found to be active for CO2 reduction with CH3OH as the major products, while other minor products (CO, CH4, and C2H4 were also detected. In addition, the formation of such reduction products was obviously influenced by the operational parameters. Under this study, the optimum operational parameters for CO2 reduction at 298 °K were determined to be: NaOH concentration 0.2 M, TiO2 dosage 2 g/L, volume of the reaction media 75 mL, the pressure of system 800 kPa. It was also found that the increase in UV-vis illumination time have increased the yield of product formation. A possible reaction pathway for the formation of the reduction products is also discussed.

  18. Efficient extreme ultraviolet plasma source generated by a CO2 laser and a liquid xenon microjet target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Ariga, Tatsuya; Soumagne, George; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pogorelsky, Igor; Pavlishin, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2007-05-01

    We demonstrated efficacy of a CO2-laser-produced xenon plasma in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region at 13.5nm at variable laser pulse widths between 200ps and 25ns. The plasma target was a 30μm liquid xenon microjet. To ensure the optimum coupling of CO2 laser energy with the plasma, they applied a prepulse yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The authors measured the conversion efficiency (CE) of the 13.5nm EUV emission for different pulse widths of the CO2 laser. A maximum CE of 0.6% was obtained for a CO2 laser pulse width of 25ns at an intensity of 5×1010W/cm2.

  19. Efficient extreme ultraviolet plasma source generated by a CO2 laser and a liquid xenon microjet target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Ariga, Tatsuya; Soumagne, George; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pogorelsky, Igor; Pavlishin, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrated efficacy of a CO 2 -laser-produced xenon plasma in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region at 13.5 nm at variable laser pulse widths between 200 ps and 25 ns. The plasma target was a 30 μm liquid xenon microjet. To ensure the optimum coupling of CO 2 laser energy with the plasma, they applied a prepulse yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The authors measured the conversion efficiency (CE) of the 13.5 nm EUV emission for different pulse widths of the CO 2 laser. A maximum CE of 0.6% was obtained for a CO 2 laser pulse width of 25 ns at an intensity of 5x10 10 W/cm 2

  20. CO2-free hydrogen as a substitute to fossil fuels: What are the targets? Prospective assessment of the hydrogen market attractiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Avril, S.; Imbach, J.; Le Duigou, A.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is usually presented as a promising energy carrier that has a major role to play in low carbon mobility, through the use of fuel cells. However, such a market is not expected in the short term. In the meantime, hydrogen may also contribute to reduce carbon emissions in diverse sectors: oil refining, low carbon mobility through the industrial deployment of advanced bio-fuels, natural gas consumption, and methanol production. According to the targeted market, objective costs are rather different; and so is the reachable mitigated CO 2 amount. This paper assesses the dynamics of these markets' attractiveness, in order to provide target costs for CO 2 -free hydrogen production. The potential of the markets of hydrogen as a fuel and hydrogen for the biomass-to-liquid production is highlighted, as they could represent significant volumes by 2050, as well as interesting perspectives for CO 2 emission reduction. However the targets are very sensitive to the CO 2 price, thus highlighting the requirement for economic instruments in order to facilitate the penetration of such technologies. Hydrogen is then highlighted as a key player of the energy system in the years to come, as the connection of the energy and mobility sectors. (authors)

  1. National environmental targets and international emission reduction instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    According to the agreed burden sharing within the European Union the overall EU emission reduction target as agreed by in the Kyoto protocol is converted into national greenhouse gas reduction-targets for each of the member states. In parallel with national emission reduction initiatives common EU policies for emission reductions are considered. Currently discussed is the introduction of a market for tradable permits for CO 2 -emissions to achieve emission reductions within the power industry and other energy intensive industries. In parallel with this markets for green certificates to deploy renewable energy technologies seem to be appearing in a number of countries, among these Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Belgium (Flanders), England and Australia. Although these national initiatives for a green certificate market are fairly different, they could be a starting point for establishing a common EU certificate market. But interactions between national targets for greenhouse gas emissions and these international instruments for emission reduction are not a trivial matter, especially not seen in relation to the possible contributions of these instruments in achieving national GHG-reduction targets. The paper is split into three parts all taking a liberalised power market as starting point: The first part discusses the consequences of a general deployment of renewable energy technologies, using planning initiatives or national promotion schemes (feed-in tariffs). In the second part an international green certificate market is introduced into the liberalised power market context, substituting other national promotion schemes. Finally, in the third part a combination of an international green certificate market (TGC) and an international emission-trading scheme for CO 2 is analysed within the liberalised international power market set-up. The main conclusion is that neither the use of national renewable support schemes nor the introduction of a TGC-market into a liberalised

  2. Highly efficient visible light photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbon fuels by Cu-nanoparticle decorated graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shown, Indrajit; Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Chung; Lin, Chang-Hui; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Ganguly, Abhijit; Wang, Chen-Hao; Chang, Jan-Kai; Wu, Chih-I; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2014-11-12

    The production of renewable solar fuel through CO2 photoreduction, namely artificial photosynthesis, has gained tremendous attention in recent times due to the limited availability of fossil-fuel resources and global climate change caused by rising anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) decorated with copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), hereafter referred to as Cu/GO, has been used to enhance photocatalytic CO2 reduction under visible-light. A rapid one-pot microwave process was used to prepare the Cu/GO hybrids with various Cu contents. The attributes of metallic copper nanoparticles (∼4-5 nm in size) in the GO hybrid are shown to significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of GO, primarily through the suppression of electron-hole pair recombination, further reduction of GO's bandgap, and modification of its work function. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies indicate a charge transfer from GO to Cu. A strong interaction is observed between the metal content of the Cu/GO hybrids and the rates of formation and selectivity of the products. A factor of greater than 60 times enhancement in CO2 to fuel catalytic efficiency has been demonstrated using Cu/GO-2 (10 wt % Cu) compared with that using pristine GO.

  3. A CsPbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dot/Graphene Oxide Composite for Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang-Fan; Yang, Mu-Zi; Chen, Bai-Xue; Wang, Xu-Dong; Chen, Hong-Yan; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2017-04-26

    Halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs), primarily regarded as optoelectronic materials for LED and photovoltaic devices, have not been applied for photochemical conversion (e.g., water splitting or CO 2 reduction) applications because of their insufficient stability in the presence of moisture or polar solvents. Herein, we report the use of CsPbBr 3 QDs as novel photocatalysts to convert CO 2 into solar fuels in nonaqueous media. Under AM 1.5G simulated illumination, the CsPbBr 3 QDs steadily generated and injected electrons into CO 2 , catalyzing CO 2 reduction at a rate of 23.7 μmol/g h with a selectivity over 99.3%. Additionally, through the construction of a CsPbBr 3 QD/graphene oxide (CsPbBr 3 QD/GO) composite, the rate of electron consumption increased 25.5% because of improved electron extraction and transport. This study is anticipated to provide new opportunities to utilize halide perovskite QD materials in photocatalytic applications.

  4. Plasma for electrification of chemical industry: a case study on CO2 reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, G. J.; Akse, H. N.; Bongers, W. A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Significant growth of the share of (intermittent) renewable power in the chemical industry is imperative to meet increasingly stricter limits on CO2 exhaust that are being implemented within Europe. This paper aims to evaluate the potential of a plasma process that converts input CO2 into a pure stream of CO to aid in renewable energy penetration in this sector. A realistic process design is constructed to serve as a basis for an economical analysis. The manufacturing cost price of CO is estimated at 1.2 kUS ton-1 CO. A sensitivity analysis shows that separation is the dominant cost factor, so that improving conversion is currently more effective to lower the price than e.g. energy efficiency.

  5. Charcoal injection in blast furnaces (Bio-PCI: CO2 reduction potential and economic prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Feliciano-Bruzual

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is under pressure to reduce its CO2 emissions, which arise from the use of coal. In the long-term, the injection of pulverized particles of charcoal from biomass through blast furnace tuyeres, in this case called Bio-PCI, is an attractive method from both an environmental and metallurgical viewpoint. The potential of Bio-PCI has been assessed in terms of its CO2 abatement potential and economic viewpoint. A cost objective function has been used to measure the impact of biochar substitution in highly fuel-efficient BF among the top nine hot metal producers; estimations are based on the relevant cost determinants of ironmaking. This contribution aims to shed light on two strategic questions: Under what conditions is the implementation of Bio-PCI economically attractive? Additionally, where is such a techno-economic innovation likely to be taken up the earliest? The results indicate the potential for an 18–40% mitigation of CO2. Findings from the economic assessment show that biochar cannot compete with fossil coal on price alone; therefore, a lower cost of biochar or the introduction of carbon taxes will be necessary to increase the competitiveness of Bio-PCI. Based on the current prices of raw materials, electricity and carbon taxes, biochar should be between 130.1 and 236.4 USD/t and carbon taxes should be between 47.1 and 198.7 USD/t CO2 to facilitate the substitution of Bio-PCI in the examined countries. In regard to implementation, Brazil, followed by India, China and the USA appeared to be in a better position to deploy Bio-PCI.

  6. Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2 to Methane on Pt/TiO2 Nanosheet Porous Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiu-ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase TiO2 nanosheet porous films were prepared by calcination of the orthorhombic titanic acid films at 400°C. They showed an excellent photocatalytic activity for CO2 photoreduction to methane, which should be related to their special porous structure and large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area. In order to further improve the photocatalytic activity, Pt nanoparticles were loaded uniformly with the average size of 3-4 nm on TiO2 porous films by the photoreduction method. It was found that the loading of Pt expanded the light absorption ability of the porous film and improved the transformation efficiency of CO2 to methane. The conversion yield of CO2 to methane on Pt/TiO2 film reached 20.51 ppm/h·cm2. The Pt/TiO2 nanosheet porous film was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and ultraviolet-visible light diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS. Moreover, the transient photocurrent-time curves showed that the Pt/TiO2 nanosheet porous film exhibited higher photocurrent, indicating that the higher separation efficiency of the photogenerated charge carriers was achieved.

  7. Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets: The role of land processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Donat, M.; Pitman, A.; Knutti, R.; Wilby, R.; Vogel, M.; Orth, R.

    2016-12-01

    Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted "2° and 1.5° targets", may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing CO2 emissions because they are disconnected from their implications. The translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets is more powerful because such targets are more directly aligned with individual national interests. A recent publication (Seneviratne et al. 2016, Nature) reveals that regional changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. They thus allow a better communication of implied regional impacts associated with global targets for CO2 emissions. However, the regional responses are very varied and display strong differences in regional temperature and hydrological sensitivity. Process-based based analyses explain these divergences and highlight avenues for reducing uncertainties in regional projections of extremes, in particular related to the role of land-atmosphere feedbacks. These results have important implications for the design of regional mitigation and climate adaptation policies, for instance related to land use changes. Reference: Seneviratne, S.I., M.G. Donat, A.J. Pitman, R. Knutti, and R. Wilby, 2016, Nature, 529, 477-483, doi:10.1038/nature16542

  8. Marginal CO2 reduction cost in ENERGY 2000 development. A socio-economic evaluation of the marginal cost for the alternative reduction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, H.

    1995-01-01

    The official Danish environmental plan involves a reduction of CO 2 within the next 30-50 years. This report describes the analysis of socio-economic cost/consequences of marginal CO 2 reduction by means of various technical solution models. Calculations by means of the special program subroutine SAMFOKO are based on energy balance in annual, monthly, daily and hourly scale. Heat and power savings as well as the development of decentralized power plants are considered in the supply model. Socio-economic consequences in form of charges and cost are discussed. (EG)

  9. Synthesis and photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance of Cu2O/Coal-based carbon nanoparticle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedong, Zhang; Maimaiti, Halidan; Awati, Abuduheiremu; Yisilamu, Gunisakezi; Fengchang, Sun; Ming, Wei

    2018-05-01

    The photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into hydrocarbons provides a promising approach to overcome the challenges of environmental crisis and energy shortage. Here we fabricated a cuprous oxide (Cu2O) based composite photocatalyst consisting of Cu2O/carbon nanoparticles (CNPs). To prepare the CNPs, coal samples from Wucaiwan, Xinjiang, China, were first treated with HNO3, followed by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation to strip nanocrystalline carbon from coal. After linking with oxygen-containing group such as hydroxyl, coal-based CNPs with sp2 carbon structure and multilayer graphene lattice structure were synthesized. Subsequently, the CNPs were loaded onto the surface of Cu2O nanoparticles prepared by in-situ reduction of copper chloride (CuCl2·2H2O). The physical properties and chemical structure of the Cu2O/CNPs as well as photocatalytic activity of CO2/H2O reduction into CH3OH were measured. The results demonstrate that the Cu2O/CNPs are composed of spherical particles with diameter of 50 nm and mesoporous structure, which are suitable for CO2 adsorption. Under illumination of visible light, electron-hole pairs are generated in Cu2O. Thanks to the CNPs, the fast recombination of electron-hole pairs is suppressed. The energy gradient formed on the surface of Cu2O/CNPs facilitates the efficient separation of electron-hole pairs for CO2 reduction and H2O oxidation, leading to enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  10. Potential vehicle fleet CO2 reductions and cost implications for various vehicle technology deployment scenarios in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaoglu, Guzay; Honselaar, Michel; Thiel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The continuous rise in demand for road transportation has a significant effect on Europe's oil dependency and emissions of greenhouse gases. Alternative fuels and vehicle technology can mitigate these effects. This study analyses power-train deployment scenarios for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in EU-27 until 2050. It considers European policy developments on vehicle CO 2 emissions, bio-energy mandates and reductions in the CO 2 footprint of the European energy mix and translates these into comprehensive scenarios for the road transport sector. It quantifies and assesses the potential impact of these scenarios on well-to-wheel (WtW) CO 2 emission reductions primary energy demand evolution, and cost aspects for the prospective vehicle owners. The study reveals that, under the deployed scenarios, the use of bio-fuel blends, technological learning and the deployment of hybrids, battery electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell vehicles can decrease WtW CO 2 emissions in EU-27 passenger road transport by 35–57% (compared to 2010 levels) and primary energy demand by 29–51 Mtoe as they would benefit from a future assumed decarbonised electricity and hydrogen mix in Europe. Learning effects can lead to acceptable payback periods for vehicle owners of electric drive vehicles. - Highlights: ► Power-train penetration scenarios for 2010–2050 passenger road transport in Europe. ► A dedicated tool is developed to analyse H 2 production and distribution mix till 2050. ► Alternative vehicles can drastically reduce CO 2 emissions and energy demand. ► Electric vehicles could become cost competitive to conventional vehicles by 2030. ► Policies needed to create adequate momentum and guarantee decarbonised transport.

  11. Identifying Different Types of Catalysts for CO2 Reduction by Ethane through Dry Reforming and Oxidative Dehydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porosoff, Marc D; Myint, Myat Noe Zin; Kattel, Shyam; Xie, Zhenhua; Gomez, Elaine; Liu, Ping; Chen, Jingguang G

    2015-12-14

    The recent shale gas boom combined with the requirement to reduce atmospheric CO2 have created an opportunity for using both raw materials (shale gas and CO2 ) in a single process. Shale gas is primarily made up of methane, but ethane comprises about 10 % and reserves are underutilized. Two routes have been investigated by combining ethane decomposition with CO2 reduction to produce products of higher value. The first reaction is ethane dry reforming which produces synthesis gas (CO+H2 ). The second route is oxidative dehydrogenation which produces ethylene using CO2 as a soft oxidant. The results of this study indicate that the Pt/CeO2 catalyst shows promise for the production of synthesis gas, while Mo2 C-based materials preserve the CC bond of ethane to produce ethylene. These findings are supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) characterization of the catalysts under in situ reaction conditions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 on IrxRu(1–x)O2(110) Surfaces 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya; Hansen, Heine Anton; Vegge, Tejs

    2017-01-01

    with oxygen-coordinated intermediates that can circumvent the limitations imposed by the scaling relations on metal catalysts. Here, we introduce an innovative concept of ligand effects in oxide catalysts. Both IrO2 and RuO2 binds OH* and other intermediates from the electrochemical reduction of CO2 (CO2RR......High overpotentials and low faradic efficiencies plague metal catalysts for direct conversion of CO2 to methanol and other liquid fuels. RuO2-based electrocatalysts have been observed to evolve methanol at low overpotentials, which has been attributed to an alternative reaction mechanism......) strongly, but the stable and miscible system IrxRu(1-x)O2 exhibits anomalous weaker binding energy in the presence of CO* spectators, because of Ru–Ir ligand effects. The weakened adsorbate binding leads to a very low CO2RR onset potential (methanol evolution at −0.2 V RHE). An Ir atom at the bridge site...

  13. Cofactor and CO2 donor regulation involved in reductive routes for polymalic acid production by Aureobasidium pullulans CCTCC M2012223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Tu, Guangwei; Zan, Zhanquan

    2014-10-01

    Polymalic acid (PMA) is a water-soluble polyester with many attractive properties for biomedical application. Its monomer L-malic acid is widely used in the food industry and also a potential C4 platform chemical. Cofactor and CO2 donor involved in the reductive routes were investigated for PMA production by Aureobasidium pullulans. Biotin as the key cofactor of pyruvate carboxylase was favor for the PMA biosynthesis. Na2CO3 as CO2 donor can obviously improved PMA titer when compared with no CO2 supplier NaOH, and also exhibit more advantages than the other donor CaCO3 because of its water-soluble characteristic. A combinational process with addition of biotin 70 mg/L and Na2CO3 as the CO2 donor was scaled-up in 50 L fermentor, achieving the high product 34.3 g/L of PMA and productivity of 0.41 g/L h. This process provides an efficient and economical way for PMA and malic acid production, and is promising for industrial application.

  14. Condensing gas boilers for energy efficiency and reduction of CO2 and NOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewardson, E.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the study are: 1) to demonstrate the effectiveness of condensing gas boiler hot water system in reducing energy costs and pollution; 2) to illustrate the importance of marketing this technology to uninformed end users. The development of condensing boilers in the European Community, the materials used, product designs, key performance measures, and the types of applications suited to these products are outlined. Using calculations from a body of work produced by the Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers in Britain, it is demonstrated how seasonal efficiency differs from combustion efficiency, and how the added capital cost for these boilers may be recovered within an acceptable commercial pay back period from fuel cost savings. Applying current NO x and CO 2 information from a body of the CE Technical Committees, the author show how these products can reduce pollution levels both from CO 2 and NO x . An example of marketing these products to a largely uninformed end user customer market is cited. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs. (orig.)

  15. CO2 emissions reduction using energy conservation measures: EPA Region IV's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berish, C.; Day, R.; Sibold, K.; Tiller, J.

    1994-01-01

    EPA Region 4 concluded in a recent comparative environmental risk evaluation that global climate change could substantially impact the Southeast. To address this risk, Region 4 developed an action plan to promote cost-effective pollution prevention and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, The regional plan contains programs that aye specific to Region 4 as well as geographic components of the national Climate Change Action Plan. Sources of carbon dioxide emissions were targeted for pollution prevention based on an energy model that allows the user to create energy efficiency scenarios in four sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Activities were selected using the modeled information on sector reduction potentials and resource and cost-effectiveness criteria. Given the high level of uncertainty associated with climate change projections, the programs developed are all cost effective, prevent pollution and/or result in sound adaptation policies. Currently, policy makers at national, regional, and local levels are deciding on what types of energy efficiency programs to implement. The region's action plan is composed of several programs and approaches. The authors have developed implemented, and/or participated in the following: energy scenario model. EARTHWALK (residential energy conservation); energy conservation in affordable homes (new residences); Cool Communities Program (strategic tree planting and light colored surfaces); EPA's Green Lights Program; WAVE (water conservation), the Plant Protection Center; QUEST TO SAVE THE EARTH (outreach tools); energy and water use planning for the 1996 Olympic Games, and planning for sea-level rise. Reviewing the practices of the above programs will be the focus of this paper

  16. Influences on target irradiation symmetry in CO2 laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The existence of very steep density profiles and high upper shelf densities imply that the CO 2 laser deposits its energy spatially quite close to the ablation surface where calculations indicate that a high degree of symmetry must exist in order to achieve the necessary high compression ratios. Thus, energy transport provides only limited improvement in the ablative symmetry over that achieved in the irradiation symmetry. Current data suggests that a balance between radiation pressure and hydrodynamic pressure underestimates the density to which the CO 2 laser light penetrates for early times

  17. The roles of energy and material efficiency in meeting steel industry CO2 targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, Rachel L; Pauliuk, Stefan; Allwood, Julian M; Müller, Daniel B

    2013-04-02

    Identifying strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from steel production requires a comprehensive model of the sector but previous work has either failed to consider the whole supply chain or considered only a subset of possible abatement options. In this work, a global mass flow analysis is combined with process emissions intensities to allow forecasts of future steel sector emissions under all abatement options. Scenario analysis shows that global capacity for primary steel production is already near to a peak and that if sectoral emissions are to be reduced by 50% by 2050, the last required blast furnace will be built by 2020. Emissions reduction targets cannot be met by energy and emissions efficiency alone, but deploying material efficiency provides sufficient extra abatement potential.

  18. Reduction of energy cost and CO2 emission for the furnace using energy recovered from waste tail-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, Chih-Ju G.; Wu, Chung-Rung; Lee, Chien-Li

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the waste tail gas emitted from petrochemical processes, e.g. catalytic reforming unit, catalytic cracking unit and residue desulfurization unit, was recovered and reused as a replacement of natural gas (NG). On-site experimental results show that both the flame length and orange-yellowish brightness decrease with more proportion of waste gas fuel added to the natural gas, and that the adiabatic temperature of the mixed fuel is greater than 1800 o C. A complete replacement of natural gas by the recovered waste gas fuel will save 5.8 x 10 6 m 3 of natural gas consumption, and 3.5 x 10 4 tons of CO 2 emission annually. In addition, the reduction of residual O 2 concentration in flue gases from 4% to 3% will save 1.1 x 10 6 m 3 of natural gas consumption, reduce 43.0% of NO x emission, and 1.3 x 10 3 tons of CO 2 emission annually. Thus, from the viewpoint of the overall economics and sustainable energy policy, recovering the waste tail gas energy as an independent fuel source to replace natural gas is of great importance for saving energy, reducing CO 2 emission reduction, and lowering environmental impact.

  19. CO-2 reduction in the Danish transportation sector. Working paper 4: Cargo transport - road pricing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    In this paper other financial control measures than fuel prices are considered for the transportation sector. The main effect discussed is that of the road pricing system. From the point of view of the CO 2 emission there could be introduced a registration tax for trucks over 4 tons as the higher transport expenditure would tend to reduce road transport demand. EU infrastructure tax directive however recommends taxes for trucks exceeding 12 tons. Road pricing will grow within the categories of lighter trucks but it is only a minor fraction of the total truck expenditure, taking into account fuel tax, weight tax and registration tax. Insurance cost is not included in these consideration. (EG) Prepared for Trafikministeriet. 22 refs

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to methanol by ZnO nanoparticles deposited on ZnSe nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangfang; Yin, Xiaohong; Zheng, Yinan

    2018-02-01

    In this work ZnO/ZnSe composites were successfully synthesized via solvothermal method and characterized by a series of experiments for investigating into their compositions, morphologies, microstructures and the activities of photocatalytic reduction of CO2. The methanol rates of bare ZnO and ZnSe respectively were 763.9 μmol/gcat/h and 503.88 μmol/gcat/h. However, the sample of 3 wt% ZnO/ZnSe performed better photocatalytic activity up 1581.82 μmol/gcat/h compared to bare ZnO and ZnSe. In the as-prepared photocatalyst the nanosheet of ZnSe benefited the light harvest; suitable deposition of ZnO on the ZnSe nanosheet constructed a type II heterojunction for transferring the photo-generated electron to reduce CO2.

  1. Reduction of CO2 emissions from road transport in cities impact of dynamic route guidance system on greenhouse gas emission

    CERN Document Server

    Markiewicz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Michal Markiewicz presents the outcomes of his research regarding the influence of dynamic route guidance system on overall emission of carbon dioxide from road transport in rural areas. Sustainable transportation in smart cities is a big challenge of our time, but before electric vehicles replace vehicles that burn fossil fuels we have to think about traffic optimization methods that reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Contents Comparison of Travel Time Measurements Using Floating Car Data and Intelligent Infrastructure Integration of Cellular Automata Traffic Simulator with CO2 Emission Model Impact of Dynamic Route Guidance System on CO2 Emission Naxos Vehicular Traffic Simulator Target Groups Lecturers and students of computer science, transportation and logistics Traffic engineers The Author Dr. Michal Markiewicz defended his PhD thesis in computer science at the University of Bremen,TZI Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Germany. Currently, he is working on commercializat...

  2. Simultaneous studies on solar energy storage by CO2 reduction to HCOOH with Brilliant Green dye removal photoelectrochemically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.K. Yadav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous study on photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction with Brilliant Green (BG dye removal was studied in the present work. Experimental studies were done in aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium based electrolytes using a cathode [Zinc (Zn and Tin (Sn] and a common cobalt oxide (Co3O4 anode electrocatalyst. The influence of reaction with electrolyte concentration for the both catalysts was shown clearly with respect to time. The selected electrocatalysts were able to reduce CO2 to formic acid (HCOOH along with high BG dye removal. With Sn as cathode, the maximum BG dye removal was obtained to be KHCO3–[95.9% (10 min–0.2 M], NaHCO3–[98.6% (15 min–0.6 M]. Similarly for Zn, KHCO3–[99.8% (10 min–0.4 M], NaHCO3–[99.9% (20 min–0.8 M] were observed respectively. Finally, the results have proven that higher efficiencies for BG dye removal were obtained along with HCOOH formation, which might be a better alternate for water purification and to decrease the atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction to CH4 over separated dual co-catalysts Au and RuO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunyang; Hu, Songchang; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2018-04-01

    A spatially separated, dual co-catalyst photocatalytic system was constructed by the stepwise introduction of RuO2 and Au nanoparticles (NPs) at the internal and external surfaces of a three dimensional, hierarchically ordered TiO2-SiO2 (HTSO) framework (the final photocatalyst was denoted as Au/HRTSO). Characterization by HR-TEM, EDS-mapping, XRD and XPS confirmed the existence and spatially separated locations of Au and RuO2. In CO2 photocatalytic reduction (CO2PR), Au/HRTSO (0.8%) shows the optimal performance in both the activity and selectivity towards CH4; the CH4 yield is almost twice that of the singular Au/HTSO or HRTSO (0.8%, weight percentage of RuO2) counterparts. Generally, Au NPs at the external surface act as electron trapping agents and RuO2 NPs at the inner surface act as hole collectors. This advanced spatial configuration could promote charge separation and transfer efficiency, leading to enhanced CO2PR performance in both the yield and selectivity toward CH4 under simulated solar light irradiation.

  4. Organometallic Pt precursor on graphite substrate: deposition from SC CO2, reduction and morphology transformation as revealed by SFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmanovich, Igor V.; Naumkin, Alexander V.; Gallyamov, Marat O.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2012-01-01

    Organometallic Pt precursor was deposited on model highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate from solutions in supercritical carbon dioxide. Morphology transformations during reduction process including real-time observations were studied by scanning force microscopy (SFM). We confirmed that SC CO 2 is a promising mediator in deposition process even for rather hydrophobic supports. SFM data show that thermal decomposition of the PtMe 2 (COD) precursor with subsequent hydrogen post-treatment allows one to obtain rather pure and well-defined Pt nanoparticles with average height above a substrate level of 4.5 ± 0.6 nm.

  5. Reduction of electricity use in Swedish industry and its impact on national power supply and European CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Dag; Trygg, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Decreased energy use is crucial for achieving sustainable energy solutions. This paper presents current and possible future electricity use in Swedish industry. Non-heavy lines of business (e.g. food, vehicles) that use one-third of the electricity in Swedish industry are analysed in detail. Most electricity is used in the support processes pumping and ventilation, and manufacturing by decomposition. Energy conservation can take place through e.g. more efficient light fittings and switching off ventilation during night and weekends. By energy-carrier switching, electricity used for heat production is replaced by e.g. fuel. Taking technically possible demand-side measures in the whole lines of business, according to energy audits in a set of factories, means a 35% demand reduction. A systems analysis of power production, trade, demand and conservation was made using the MODEST energy system optimisation model, which uses linear programming and considers the time-dependent impact on demand for days, weeks and seasons. Electricity that is replaced by district heating from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant has a dual impact on the electricity system through reduced demand and increased electricity generation. Reduced electricity consumption and enhanced cogeneration in Sweden enables increased electricity export, which displaces coal-fired condensing plants in the European electricity market and helps to reduce European CO 2 emissions. Within the European emission trading system, those electricity conservation measures should be taken that are more cost-efficient than other ways of reducing CO 2 emissions. The demand-side measures turn net electricity imports into net export and reduce annual operation costs and net CO 2 emissions due to covering Swedish electricity demand by 200 million euros and 6 Mtonne, respectively. With estimated electricity conservation in the whole of Swedish industry, net electricity exports would be larger and net CO 2 emissions would be

  6. Direct reduction process using fines and with reduced CO2 emission

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Morrison, A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available , of which there is an abundant supply in South Africa. The rotary hearth process is one and two such units are currently in operation in Japan: one at Nippon Steel and another at Kobe Steel.3 Direct reduction for ferroalloy production offers...

  7. Kinetic Study of Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2 over TiO2.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočí, K.; Obalová, L.; Šolcová, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2010), s. 395-407 ISSN 0208-6425 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : titania * photocatalytic reduction * methane Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2010

  8. Optimization of Electricity Generation Schemes in the Java-Bali Grid System with Co2 Reduction Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farizal Farizal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research considers the problem of reducing CO2 emissions from the Java-Bali power grid system that consists of a variety of power-generating plants: coal-fired, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy (PV, geothermal, hydroelectric, wind, and landfill gas. The problem is formulated as linear programming and solved using LINGO 10. The model was developed for a nation to meet a specified CO2 emission target. Two carbon dioxide mitigation options are considered in this study, i.e. fuel balancing and fuel switching. In order to reduce the CO2 emissions by 26% in 2021, State Electric Supply Company (PLN has to generate up to 30% of electricity from renewable energy (RE, and the cost of electricity (COE is expected to increase to 617.77 IDR per kWh for a fuel balancing option, while for fuel switching option, PLN has to generate 29% of electricity from RE, and the COE is expected to increase to 535.85 IDR per kWh.

  9. A First Look at Target Mode Retrievals of CO2 from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natraj, V.; Taylor, T.; Smyth, M.; Fisher, B.; O'Dell, C.; Pollock, H. R.; Crisp, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is NASA's first dedicated Earth remote sensing satellite to study atmospheric carbon dioxide from space, and was launched successfully on July 2, 2014. OCO-2 is designed to quantify the sources and sinks of CO2by making highly precise measurements of its column abundance. OCO-2 has three science observation modes - nadir, glint and target. In the nadir mode, the satellite points the instrument to the local nadir, so that data can be collected along the ground track just below the spacecraft. In the glint mode, the spacecraft points the instrument toward the bright "glint" spot, where solar radiation is specularly reflected from the surface. In the target mode, the Observatory will lock its view onto a specific surface location, and will scan back and forth over that target while flying overhead. A target track pass can last for up to 9 minutes. Over that time period, the Observatory can acquire as many as 12,960 samples at local zenith angles that vary between 0° and 85°. Here, we analyze target track measurements over several of the OCO-2 validation sites where ground-based solar-looking Fourier Transform Spectrometers are located. The target scan serves two purposes. The first is to collect a large number of measurements over surface calibration and validation targets to assess the precision and accuracy of the retrieved column averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2). The second is to look for spatial variations in column averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2) in the vicinity of the target that could compromise the value of the measurements for calibration or validation. To meet both requirements, we compare XCO2 retrievals as a function of both observation angle and scan location, and investigate whether those variations are coming from instrument calibration, algorithmic deficiencies, aerosols/clouds or real CO2variations. Further, simulated retrievals indicate that target observations can show large sensitivity

  10. Effect of a target on the stimulated emission of microsecond CO2-laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. Iu.; Dolgov, V. A.; Maliuta, D. D.; Mezhevov, V. S.; Semak, V. V.

    1987-12-01

    The paper reports a change in the pulse shape of a TEA CO2 laser with an unstable cavity under the interaction between the laser radiation and a metal surface in the presence of a breakdown plasma. It is shown that a continuous change in the phase difference between the wave reflected in the cavity and the principal cavity wave gives rise to changes in the pulse shape and the appearance of power fluctuations. The possible effect of these phenomena on the laser treatment of materials is considered.

  11. 100-μsec pulsed CO2 laser resurfacing of lower eyelids: erythema and rhytides reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas; Harris, David M.; Schachter, Daniel; Burkart, John

    1997-05-01

    Lower eyelid skin is very thin with a low density of adnexal structures. Attempts to remove rhytides and improve surface appearance with chemical peels and dermabrasion have been disappointing. Laser resurfacing offers a new modality that may improve the outcome. We evaluated a very short duration (100 microsecond(s) ec) pulsed carbon-dioxide laser (Tru-PulseTM) in terms of healing time (duration of erythema) and efficacy (wrinkle reduction). Female patients aged 35 - 75 received laser resurfacing in a variety of cosmetic zones but only data from lower lids are reported here. Dosimetry varied from total fluences of 5 to 20 J/cm2 (9 mm2 spot, 250 - 500 mJ pulse, 1 to 4 passes). Patients followed a strict regime of post-op wound care. Pre-treatment and follow-up photographs were taken in a studio with constant photographic parameters. Projected 35 mm slides were evaluated side-by-side for clinical improvement and presence of erythema. Within the first 4 days post-op all (100%) lower eyelids exhibited erythema and swelling, at 7 days: 71%, 12 days: 60%, 3 weeks: 25%, and one (1) month or longer 7%. In our sample the longest duration of post-op lower lid erythema lasted 5 weeks. Most patients experienced 70 -80% wrinkle reduction with a range of 0 - 100%. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between percent wrinkle reduction and the treatment, demographic, and evaluation variables. There was a significant trend for wrinkles to improve over the 3 to 9 month evaluation period. Older patients improved slightly more than younger patients. There was no relationship between total energy density and wrinkle reduction.

  12. Ultrathin bismuth nanosheets from in situ topotactic transformation for selective electrocatalytic CO2 reduction to formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Wang, Yu; Yang, Hui; Deng, Jun; Wu, Jinghua; Li, Yafei; Li, Yanguang

    2018-04-03

    Electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction to formate is desirable but challenging. Current attention is mostly focused on tin-based materials, which, unfortunately, often suffer from limited Faradaic efficiency. The potential of bismuth in carbon dioxide reduction has been suggested but remained understudied. Here, we report that ultrathin bismuth nanosheets are prepared from the in situ topotactic transformation of bismuth oxyiodide nanosheets. They process single crystallinity and enlarged surface areas. Such an advantageous nanostructure affords the material with excellent electrocatalytic performance for carbon dioxide reduction to formate. High selectivity (~100%) and large current density are measured over a broad potential, as well as excellent durability for >10 h. Its selectivity for formate is also understood by density functional theory calculations. In addition, bismuth nanosheets were coupled with an iridium-based oxygen evolution electrocatalyst to achieve efficient full-cell electrolysis. When powered by two AA-size alkaline batteries, the full cell exhibits impressive Faradaic efficiency and electricity-to-formate conversion efficiency.

  13. The influence of biopreparations on the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in shallow and deep soil tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujokienė, Vilma; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Lekavičienė, Kristina; Adamavičienė, Aida; Buragienė, Sidona; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2018-06-01

    The application of innovation in agriculture technologies is very important for increasing the efficiency of agricultural production, ensuring the high productivity of plants, production quality, farm profitability, the positive balance of used energy, and the requirements of environmental protection. Therefore, it is a scientific problem that solid and soil surfaces covered with plant residue have a negative impact on the work, traction resistance, energy consumption, and environmental pollution of tillage machines. The objective of this work was to determine the dependence of the reduction of energy consumption and CO 2 gas emissions on different biopreparations. Experimental research was carried out in a control (SC1) and seven different biopreparations using scenarios (SC2-SC8) using bacterial and non-bacterial biopreparations in different consistencies (with essential and mineral oils, extracts of various grasses and sea algae, phosphorus, potassium, humic and gibberellic acids, copper, zinc, manganese, iron, and calcium), estimating discing and plowing as the energy consumption parameters of shallow and deep soil tillage machines, respectively. CO 2 emissions were determined by evaluating soil characteristics (such as hardness, total porosity and density). Meteorological conditions such average daily temperatures (2015-20.3 °C; 2016-16.90 °C) and precipitations (2015-6.9 mm; 2016-114.9 mm) during the month strongly influenced different results in 2015 and 2016. Substantial differences between the averages of energy consumption identified in approximately 62% of biological preparation combinations created usage scenarios. Experimental research established that crop field treatments with biological preparations at the beginning of vegetation could reduce the energy consumption of shallow tillage machines by up to approximately 23%, whereas the energy consumption of deep tillage could be reduced by up to approximately 19.2% compared with the control

  14. Consequences of Market-Based Measures CO2-emission Reduction Maritime Transport for the Netherlands; Gevolgen Market Based Measures CO2-emissiereductie zeevaart voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortelboer-van Donselaar, P.; Kansen, M.; Moorman, S. [Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid KiM, Den Haag (Netherlands); Faber, J.; Koopman, M.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    The introduction of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce the CO2 emissions of international sea shipping will have relatively limited economic effects for the Netherlands. Moreover, these effects are largely in line with those in other countries. For the Netherlands, however, the manner in which MBMS are organised and enforced is likely to be particularly important, given the importance of ports to the Dutch economy, the country's relatively large bunker sector, and the fact that Dutch shipowners operate relatively small vessels and on a relatively small scale. MBMs include pricing measures in the form of tax or trade systems, as well as other market-related proposals. In this research study, the consequences are analysed of four international MBM proposals for the Netherlands [Dutch] Om de CO2-uitstoot van de internationale zeevaartsector terug te dringen worden momenteel zogeheten Market Based Measures (MBMs), zoals bijvoorbeeld het veilen van emissierechten of het invoeren van een heffing, overwogen. De invoering van de MBMs zal voor Nederland relatief beperkte economische effecten hebben. Deze effecten wijken bovendien niet bijzonder af van die voor andere landen. De wijze waarop de MBMs worden georganiseerd en gehandhaafd, is voor Nederland mogelijk wel van onderscheidend belang. Dit gezien het belang van de havens voor de Nederlandse economie, de relatief grote bunkersector, en de relatief kleine schepen en kleinschaligheid van de Nederlandse reders.

  15. Unlocking the Electrocatalytic Activity of Antimony for CO2 Reduction by Two-Dimensional Engineering of the Bulk Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengwang; Xue, Mianqi; Li, Jiezhen; Ma, Xinlei; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Xueji; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Zhang, Jie

    2017-11-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are known to be useful in catalysis. Engineering 3D bulk materials into the 2D form can enhance the exposure of the active edge sites, which are believed to be the origin of the high catalytic activity. Reported herein is the production of 2D "few-layer" antimony (Sb) nanosheets by cathodic exfoliation. Application of this 2D engineering method turns Sb, an inactive material for CO 2 reduction in its bulk form, into an active 2D electrocatalyst for reduction of CO 2 to formate with high efficiency. The high activity is attributed to the exposure of a large number of catalytically active edge sites. Moreover, this cathodic exfoliation process can be coupled with the anodic exfoliation of graphite in a single-compartment cell for in situ production of a few-layer Sb nanosheets and graphene composite. The observed increased activity of this composite is attributed to the strong electronic interaction between graphene and Sb. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Metal-Organic-Framework-Mediated Nitrogen-Doped Carbon for CO2 Electrochemical Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Riming; Sun, Xiaohui; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Osadchii, Dmitrii; Bai, Fan; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    A nitrogen-doped carbon was synthesized through the pyrolysis of the well-known metal-organic framework ZIF-8, followed by a subsequent acid treatment, and has been applied as a catalyst in the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide. The resulting electrode shows Faradaic efficiencies to carbon monoxide as high as ∼78%, with hydrogen being the only byproduct. The pyrolysis temperature determines the amount and the accessibility of N species in the carbon electrode, in which pyridinic-N and quaternary-N species play key roles in the selective formation of carbon monoxide.

  17. Metal-Organic-Framework-Mediated Nitrogen-Doped Carbon for CO2 Electrochemical Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Riming

    2018-04-11

    A nitrogen-doped carbon was synthesized through the pyrolysis of the well-known metal-organic framework ZIF-8, followed by a subsequent acid treatment, and has been applied as a catalyst in the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide. The resulting electrode shows Faradaic efficiencies to carbon monoxide as high as ∼78%, with hydrogen being the only byproduct. The pyrolysis temperature determines the amount and the accessibility of N species in the carbon electrode, in which pyridinic-N and quaternary-N species play key roles in the selective formation of carbon monoxide.

  18. Wavelength Effect on Photocatalytic Reduction of CO(2) by Ag/TiO(2) Catalyst

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočí, K.; Zatloukalová, K.; Obalová, L.; Krejčíková, Simona; Lacný, Z.; Čapek, L.; Hospodková, Alice; Šolcová, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, 5/SI/ (2011), s. 812-815 ISSN 0253-9837. [6th International Conference on Environmental Catalysis (6th ICEC). Beijing, 12.09.2010-15.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : silver doping * titania * carbon dioxide reduction * photocatalysis * wavelength Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.171, year: 2011

  19. Detection of CO2•- in the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in N,N-Dimethylformamide by Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Tianhan; Zhou, Min; Duan, Zhiyao; Henkelman, Graeme A; Bard, Allen J

    2017-12-27

    The electrocatalytic reduction of CO 2 has been studied extensively and produces a number of products. The initial reaction in the CO 2 reduction is often taken to be the 1e formation of the radical anion, CO 2 •- . However, the electrochemical detection and characterization of CO 2 •- is challenging because of the short lifetime of CO 2 •- , which can dimerize and react with proton donors and even mild oxidants. Here, we report the generation and quantitative determination of CO 2 •- in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) with the tip generation/substrate collection (TG/SC) mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). CO 2 was reduced at a hemisphere-shaped Hg/Pt ultramicroelectrode (UME) or a Hg/Au film UME, which were utilized as the SECM tips. The CO 2 •- produced can either dimerize to form oxalate within the nanogap between SECM tip and substrate or collected at SECM substrate (e.g., an Au UME). The collection efficiency (CE) for CO 2 •- depends on the distance (d) between the tip and substrate. The dimerization rate (6.0 × 10 8 M -1 s -1 ) and half-life (10 ns) of CO 2 •- can be evaluated by fitting the collection efficiency vs distance curve. The dimerized species of CO 2 •- , oxalate, can also be determined quantitatively. Furthermore, the formal potential (E 0 ') and heterogeneous rate constant (k 0 ) for CO 2 reduction were determined with different quaternary ammonium electrolytes. The significant difference in k 0 is due to a tunneling effect caused by the adsorption of the electrolytes on the electrode surface at negative potentials.

  20. Cadmium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Microspheres for Photocatalytic CO2Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Saliba, Daniel

    2016-03-30

    We report the synthesis of cadmium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (CdAl LDH) using the reaction-diffusion framework. As the hydroxide anions diffuse into an agar gel matrix containing the mixture of aluminum and cadmium salts at a given ratio, they react to give the LDH. The LDH self-assembles inside the pores of the gel matrix into a unique spherical-porous shaped microstructure. The internal and external morphologies of the particles are studied by electron microscopy and tomography revealing interconnected channels and a high surface area. This material is shown to exhibit a promising performance in the photoreduction of carbon dioxide using solar light. Moreover, the palladium-decorated version shows a significant improvement in its reduction potential at room temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Cadmium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Microspheres for Photocatalytic CO2Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Saliba, Daniel; Ezzeddine, Alaa; Sougrat, Rachid; Khashab, Niveen M.; Hmadeh, Mohamad; Al-Ghoul, Mazen

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis of cadmium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (CdAl LDH) using the reaction-diffusion framework. As the hydroxide anions diffuse into an agar gel matrix containing the mixture of aluminum and cadmium salts at a given ratio, they react to give the LDH. The LDH self-assembles inside the pores of the gel matrix into a unique spherical-porous shaped microstructure. The internal and external morphologies of the particles are studied by electron microscopy and tomography revealing interconnected channels and a high surface area. This material is shown to exhibit a promising performance in the photoreduction of carbon dioxide using solar light. Moreover, the palladium-decorated version shows a significant improvement in its reduction potential at room temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Cadmium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Microspheres for Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Daniel; Ezzeddine, Alaa; Sougrat, Rachid; Khashab, Niveen M; Hmadeh, Mohamad; Al-Ghoul, Mazen

    2016-04-21

    We report the synthesis of cadmium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (CdAl LDH) using the reaction-diffusion framework. As the hydroxide anions diffuse into an agar gel matrix containing the mixture of aluminum and cadmium salts at a given ratio, they react to give the LDH. The LDH self-assembles inside the pores of the gel matrix into a unique spherical-porous shaped microstructure. The internal and external morphologies of the particles are studied by electron microscopy and tomography revealing interconnected channels and a high surface area. This material is shown to exhibit a promising performance in the photoreduction of carbon dioxide using solar light. Moreover, the palladium-decorated version shows a significant improvement in its reduction potential at room temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dominant superiority of nuclear power in the reduction of CO2 emissions. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    Soon after the oil crisis in 1973, then French president Giscard d'Estaing and his administration very strongly persuaded the French people to make the nation's electrical power consist mainly of nuclear power. As a result, by the beginning of 1990's, as high as 80% of electric power generated in France became nuclear (30% in Japan). Add the share 9% of hydroelectric power, 89% of electric power generated in France is now free of fossil fuel, and emission of green house gases per capita in France is now 42% less than in Japan. What Japan should do first of all in the coming future is to emulate the French experience. That should result in a 35% reduction in green house gas emission by 2030 at an acceptable cost. To put that in practice we first must overcome the now considerably weakened but still stubbornly remaining national sentiment against nuclear power. It will take a very strong top to bottom persuasion by the leading sector of the society. As to this matter the author stressed in a separate paper that mankind, like in the instinctive language capability, possesses a born instinctive way of life to believe in and live by the dominant spirit of the time. And unfortunately the current spirit of the time still is tainted with irrational dislike of nuclear power which can be weakened by strong and persistent persuasion. (author)

  4. Analyzing the driving forces behind CO2 emissions and reduction strategies for energy-intensive sectors in Taiwan, 1996–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Wu, Jung-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Between 1996 and 2006, CO 2 emissions in Taiwan increased by approximately 60%, with the industrial sector accounting for 50% of that increase. Among all industrial sectors, iron and steel, petrochemicals, electronics, textiles, pulp and paper and cement accounted for approximately three-quarters of the total industrial CO 2 emissions. Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO 2 emissions in these six sectors could be valuable for the development of effective environmental policy. This study used two-tier KLEM input–output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) to analyze the factors that lead to changes in CO 2 emissions. Empirical results obtained in Taiwan reveal that increased exports level and elevated domestic autonomous final demand level were the main reasons for increases in CO 2 emissions. Technological changes in materials and labor tended to decrease CO 2 emissions, while the power generation mix contributed significantly to the increase. Relevant strategies for reducing CO 2 emissions from energy-intensive sectors are also highlighted. - Highlights: • Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO 2 emissions is important. • This study uses two-tier KLEM I-O SDA to analyze the changes in CO 2 emissions. • Three issues are identified to achieve future CO 2 emissions reduction in Taiwan

  5. Carbon emission reduction targeting through process integration and fuel switching with mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiew, B.J.; Shuhaimi, M.; Hashim, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions reduction targeting for existing plant were categorized into three groups. ► Model for CO 2 emissions reduction targeting via combination approach was developed. ► Effect of combination approach onto HEN area efficiency was discussed. ► Proposed execution strategy can avoid HEN area efficiency deterioration. -- Abstract: Carbon emission reduction targeting is an important and effective effort for industry to contribute in controlling greenhouse gases concentration in atmosphere. Graphical approach has been proposed for CO 2 emissions reduction targeting via HEN retrofit and fuel switching. However, it involves potentially time consuming manual procedures and the quality of solutions produced greatly depends on designer’s experience and judgment. Besides, graphical approach hardly account for the cost factor during the design phase, thus potentially generate complex design. This paper introduces an MINLP model for simultaneous CO 2 emissions reduction targeting via fuel switching and HEN retrofit. A sequential model execution was proposed along with the proposed model. The application of the model on a crude preheat train case study has demonstrated its workability to generate optimal solution for targeted CO 2 emissions reduction at minimum payback period.

  6. Feasibility study on energy saving and reduction of CO2 emissions at Pertamina's Cilacap Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  7. Combining IPPC and emission trading: An assessment of energy efficiency and CO2 reduction potentials in the Austrian paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzer, Otto; Dworak, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of an innovative project partnership E.V.A. - the Austrian Energy Agency accompanied the Austrian paper industry for the last 2.5 years in developing a branch specific climate change strategy. Within the scope of this project an assessment of the energy efficiency status of the branch was carried out as well as an evaluation of still realisable energy savings and CO 2 reduction potentials. The paper presents the methodology applied, which combines a top down approach (benchmarking and best practice) with a bottom up approach (on-site interviews and energy audits), supported by a huge data collection process. Within the benchmarking process all Austrian paper industry installations affected by the EU emission trading directive were benchmarked against their respective IPPC/BAT values. Furthermore an extensive list of best practice examples derived from existing or ongoing studies was compared with the energy efficiency measures already carried out by the companies ('early actions'). These theory-oriented findings were complemented by several on-site interviews with the respective energy managers as well as by detailed energy audits carried out by a consulting company, covering in total more than 80% of the Austrian paper industry's CO 2 emissions. The paper concludes with the main results of the project, presenting the pros and cons of working with IPPC documents and BAT values in terms of energy efficiency assessments. Recommendations are presented on how to improve the allocation exercise for the next emission trading period from 2008 to 2012

  8. Implications of the recent reductions in natural gas prices for emissions of CO2 from the US power sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; Salovaara, Jackson; McElroy, Michael B

    2012-03-06

    CO(2) emissions from the US power sector decreased by 8.76% in 2009 relative to 2008 contributing to a decrease over this period of 6.59% in overall US emissions of greenhouse gases. An econometric model, tuned to data reported for regional generation of US electricity, is used to diagnose factors responsible for the 2009 decrease. More than half of the reduction is attributed to a shift from generation of power using coal to gas driven by a recent decrease in gas prices in response to the increase in production from shale. An important result of the model is that, when the cost differential for generation using gas rather than coal falls below 2-3 cents/kWh, less efficient coal fired plants are displaced by more efficient natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) generation alternatives. Costs for generation using NGCC decreased by close to 4 cents/kWh in 2009 relative to 2008 ensuring that generation of electricity using gas was competitive with coal in 2009 in contrast to the situation in 2008 when gas prices were much higher. A modest price on carbon could contribute to additional switching from coal to gas with further savings in CO(2) emissions.

  9. EU limits for CO2 emissions of passenger cars. Roads to the 95 g/km target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smokers, R.; Fraga, F.; Verbeek, M.; Bleuanus, S.; Sharpe, R.; Dekker, D.; Verbeek, R.; Willems, F.; Foster, D. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Hill, N.; Norris, J.; Brannigan, C. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom); Kampman, B.; Den Boer, E.; Van Essen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Schilling, S.; Gruhlke, A. [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik Oekopol, Hamburg (Netherlands); Breemersch, T.; De Ceuster, G.; Vanherle, K. [Transport and Mobility Leuven TML, Leuven (Belgium); Wrigley, S.; Owen, N.; Johnson, A. [Ricardo UK, Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex (United Kingdom); De Vleesschauwer, T.; Valla, V.; Anand, G. [IHS Global Insight, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The aim of this project is to support and advise the European Commission on options for lowering of the CO2 limit values of passenger cars and how they can be realised. The following main tasks were performed: (1) state-of-the-art vehicle emission reduction options for 2020; (2) evaluation of other utility parameters in addition to vehicle mass; (3) modalities for achieving 95 g/km; and (4) further aspects, including borrowing and banking of credits, life cycle aspects and rebound aspects.

  10. Interaction Of CO2 Laser Nanosecond Pulse Train With The Metallic Targets In Optical Breakdown Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.; Firsov, K. N.; Konov, V. I.; Nikitin, P. I.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Silenok, A. S.; Sorochenko, V. R.

    1986-11-01

    In the present paper the electric field and currents in the air-breakdown plasma, produced by the train of nanosecond pulses of TEA-002 - regenerative amplifier near the un-charged targets are studied. The breakdown thresholds and the efficiency of plasma-target heat transmission are also measured. The results of numerical calculations made for increasing of the pulse train contrast with respect to the background in a regenerative amplifier are advanced.

  11. Free energy landscape of electrocatalytic CO2 reduction to CO on aqueous FeN4 center embedded graphene studied by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Tian; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2017-11-01

    Experiments have found that the porphyrin-like FeN4 site in Fe-N-C materials is highly efficient for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 into CO. In this work, we investigated the reduction mechanisms on FeN4 embedded graphene layer catalyst with some explicit water molecules by combining the constrained ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic integrations. The reaction free energy and electron transfer in each elementary step were identified. The initial CO2 activation was identified to go through the first electron transfer to form adsorbed CO2- anion and the CO desorption was the rate limiting step in the overall catalytic cycle.

  12. Delay-induced rebounds in CO2 emissions and critical time-scales to meet global warming targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Katul, Gabriel G.; Marani, Marco

    2016-12-01

    While climate science debates are focused on the attainment of peak anthropogenic CO2 emissions and policy tools to reduce peak temperatures, the human-energy-climate system can hold "rebound" surprises beyond this peak. Following the second industrial revolution, global per capita CO2 emissions (cc) experienced a punctuated growth of about 100% every 60 years, mainly attributable to technological development and its global spread. A model of the human-energy-climate system capable of reproducing past punctuated dynamics shows that rebounds in global CO2 emissions emerge due to delays intrinsic to the diffusion of innovations. Such intrinsic delays in the adoption and spread of low-carbon emitting technologies, together with projected population growth, upset the warming target set by the Paris Agreement. To avoid rebounds and their negative climate effects, model calculations show that the diffusion of climate-friendly technologies must occur with lags one-order of magnitude shorter (i.e., ˜6 years) than the characteristic timescale of past punctuated growth in cc. Radically new strategies to globally implement the technological advances at unprecedented rates are needed if the current emission goals are to be achieved.

  13. Reduction of aerobic and lactic acid bacteria in dairy desludge using an integrated compressed CO2 and ultrasonic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Tim W; Lu, Tiejun; Bains, Narinder; Leeke, Gary A

    Current treatment routes are not suitable to reduce and stabilise bacterial content in some dairy process streams such as separator and bactofuge desludges which currently present a major emission problem faced by dairy producers. In this study, a novel method for the processing of desludge was developed. The new method, elevated pressure sonication (EPS), uses a combination of low frequency ultrasound (20 kHz) and elevated CO 2 pressure (50 to 100 bar). Process conditions (pressure, sonicator power, processing time) were optimised for batch and continuous EPS processes to reduce viable numbers of aerobic and lactic acid bacteria in bactofuge desludge by ≥3-log fold. Coagulation of proteins present in the desludge also occurred, causing separation of solid (curd) and liquid (whey) fractions. The proposed process offers a 10-fold reduction in energy compared to high temperature short time (HTST) treatment of milk.

  14. A DFT-based genetic algorithm search for AuCu nanoalloy electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Steen; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Hansen, Heine Anton

    2015-01-01

    Using a DFT-based genetic algorithm (GA) approach, we have determined the most stable structure and stoichiometry of a 309-atom icosahedral AuCu nanoalloy, for potential use as an electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction. The identified core–shell nano-particle consists of a copper core interspersed....... This shows that the mixed Cu135@Au174 core–shell nanoalloy has a similar adsorption energy, for the most favorable site, as a pure gold nano-particle. Cu, however, has the effect of stabilizing the icosahedral structure because Au particles are easily distorted when adding adsorbates....... that it is possible to use the LCAO mode to obtain a realistic estimate of the molecular chemisorption energy for systems where the computation in normal grid mode is not computationally feasible. These corrections are employed when calculating adsorption energies on the Cu, Au and most stable mixed particles...

  15. Origin of the Reductive Tricarboxylic Acid (rTCA Cycle-Type CO2 Fixation: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Kitadai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA cycle is among the most plausible candidates for the first autotrophic metabolism in the earliest life. Extant enzymes fixing CO2 in this cycle contain cofactors at the catalytic centers, but it is unlikely that the protein/cofactor system emerged at once in a prebiotic process. Here, we discuss the feasibility of non-enzymatic cofactor-assisted drive of the rTCA reactions in the primitive Earth environments, particularly focusing on the acetyl-CoA conversion to pyruvate. Based on the energetic and mechanistic aspects of this reaction, we propose that the deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments with active electricity generation in the presence of various sulfide catalysts are a promising setting for it to progress. Our view supports the theory of an autotrophic origin of life from primordial carbon assimilation within a sulfide-rich hydrothermal vent.

  16. On the Chinese Carbon Reduction Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michinori Uwasu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In November 2009, China pledged a 40–45% decrease in CO2 emissions per GDP by 2020, as compared with the 2005 level. Although carbon intensity (emission targets by nature are ambiguous, this study demonstrates that China’s pledge is consistent with the current Chinese domestic agenda that simultaneously pursues economic growth and energy security. The target numbers in the pledge seem reasonable, given the technological feasibility and measures, considered along with the assumption that moderate economic growth will occur. However, the study also argues that financial and institutional constraints exist as potential obstacles to achieving the target if the trend of the current economic tendencies continues.

  17. What determines urban households' willingness to pay for CO2 emission reductions in Turkey: A contingent valuation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaman, Fikret; Karali, Nihan; Kumbaroglu, Guerkan; Or, Ilhan; Ozkaynak, Beguem; Zenginobuz, Unal

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores Turkish urban households' willingness to pay (WTP) for CO 2 emission reductions expected to result from improvements in power production. A face-to-face questionnaire, with a Contingent valuation (CV) module prepared using the double-bounded dichotomous choice elicitation framework, was administered to 2422 respondents representative of urban Turkey-a developing country with low but rapidly increasing greenhouse gas emissions. The determinants of WTP were identified by considering not only the impact of standard socio-economic factors but also the effects of environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviour, the relevance of the identity of the collection agent (national versus international institutions) in terms of trust people have towards them, and the degree of perceived participation of others in the realization of the project. Our study confirms the existing literature in demonstrating that WTP figures reported by young and educated people that are active on environmental issues, and who also possess material security and environmental knowledge, are more likely to be high. However, their willingness to make contributions is hampered significantly by their belief that their fellow citizens will not contribute and the general lack of trust in institutions. Overall, this study may be taken as a call to eliminate governance-related uncertainties in climate change deals. - Research Highlights: → We explored the determinants of households' willingness to pay for CO 2 reductions. → We administered a contingent valuation survey to 2422 respondents in urban Turkey. → Young, educated, environmentally-knowledgeable and activist people contribute more. → Income is also found to be significant in increasing willingness to contribute. → Lack of trust in institutions and in other's participation hampers the contributions.

  18. Initial Reduction of CO2 on Pd-, Ru-, and Cu-Doped CeO2(111) Surfaces: Effects of Surface Modification on Catalytic Activity and Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chen; Wei, Shuxian; Zhou, Sainan; Zhang, Tian; Wang, Zhaojie; Ng, Siu-Pang; Lu, Xiaoqing; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence; Guo, Wenyue

    2017-08-09

    Surface modification by metal doping is an effective treatment technique for improving surface properties for CO 2 reduction. Herein, the effects of doped Pd, Ru, and Cu on the adsorption, activation, and reduction selectivity of CO 2 on CeO 2 (111) were investigated by periodic density functional theory. The doped metals distorted the configuration of a perfect CeO 2 (111) by weakening the adjacent Ce-O bond strength, and Pd doping was beneficial for generating a highly active O vacancy. The analyses of adsorption energy, charge density difference, and density of states confirmed that the doped metals were conducive for enhancing CO 2 adsorption, especially for Cu/CeO 2 (111). The initial reductive dissociation CO 2 → CO* + O* on metal-doped CeO 2 (111) followed the sequence of Cu- > perfect > Pd- > Ru-doped CeO 2 (111); the reductive hydrogenation CO 2 + H → COOH* followed the sequence of Cu- > perfect > Ru- > Pd-doped CeO 2 (111), in which the most competitive route on Cu/CeO 2 (111) was exothermic by 0.52 eV with an energy barrier of 0.16 eV; the reductive hydrogenation CO 2 + H → HCOO* followed the sequence of Ru- > perfect > Pd-doped CeO 2 (111). Energy barrier decomposition analyses were performed to identify the governing factors of bond activation and scission along the initial CO 2 reduction routes. Results of this study provided deep insights into the effect of surface modification on the initial reduction mechanisms of CO 2 on metal-doped CeO 2 (111) surfaces.

  19. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reductions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgaard, T.; Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Hermansen, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: → GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. → Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. → Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. → A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. → Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO 2 reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  20. Fiscal 1996 survey of potential international cooperation for a long-term scenario on CO2 reduction; 1996 nendo CO2 sakugen ni kakawaru choki shinario ni kansuru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of working out a CO2 reduction scenario and a CO2 policy introduction scenario, a survey was conducted of comparisons between ten and several models which are world-known and models of the New Earth 21, potential international cooperation to be carried out in the future, etc. The survey included organizations which are developing CO2 policy evaluation models, survey reports made in the past, details of literature for the analysis and arrangement. From the result, details of the questionnaire survey and organizations to be surveyed were decided on for the questionnaire survey. Objects for the survey were 7 countries and 22 organizations, and survey items were places for information exchange, sending/receiving of researchers, exchange of input data, comparative calculation based on the common database, joint research work, economy, the carbon tax, impact, renewable energy, how to handle and think of the carbon isolation, etc. As a result of the survey, proposed were a workshop on CO2 reduction, a comparative study of simulation models, etc. 25 refs., 50 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Suprathermal-electron generation, transport, and deposition in CO2-laser-irradiated targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauer, A.; Goldman, R.; Kristal, R.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments on both axial and lateral energy transport and deposition in spherical targets are described. A variety of diagnostics have been used to measure hot-electron transport and deposition including bremsstrahlung and inner-shell radiation and soft x-ray temperature measurements. Self-generated electric and magnetic fields play an important role in the transport and deposition of the hot electrons. In some cases distinct patterns of surface deposition consistent with magnetic-field configurations have been observed

  2. Enhanced electrocatalysis performance of amorphous electrolytic carbon from CO2 for oxygen reduction by surface modification in molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Gu, Yuxing; Du, Kaifa; Wang, Xu; Xiao, Wei; Mao, Xuhui; Wang, Dihua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The potential of electrolytic carbon as catalyst for oxygen reduction was evaluated. •A molten salt method for electrolytic-carbon modification was demonstrated. •The electrolytic carbon was activated for the ORR by the molten salt sulfidation. •Sulfur and cobalt dual modification further improved the ORR activity of the carbon. -- Abstract: The electrolytic carbon (E-carbon) derived from greenhouse gas CO 2 in molten carbonates at mild temperature possesses high electrical conductivity and suitable specific surface area. In this work, its potential as catalyst is investigated towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). It is revealed that the pristine E-carbon has no electrocatalytic activity for the ORR due to its high surface content of carboxyl group. The carbon was then treated in a Li 2 SO 4 containing Li 2 CO 3 -Na 2 CO 3 -K 2 CO 3 molten salt at 550 °C. Sulfur modified E-carbon was obtained in the melt via a galvanic sulfidation reaction, in which Li 2 SO 4 served as a nontoxic sulfur source and an oxidant. The sulfur modified E-carbon showed a significantly improved electrocatalytic activity. Subsequently, a sulfur/cobalt dual modified carbon with much higher catalysis activity was successfully prepared by treating an E-carbon/CoSO 4 composite in the same melt. The dual modified E-carbon showed excellent catalytic performance with activity close to the commercial Pt/C catalyst but a high tolerance towards methanol.

  3. Rhenium Complexes Based on 2-Pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole Ligands: A New Class of CO2 Reduction Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, H Y Vincent; Wang, Xia; He, Menglan; Perujo Holland, Noemi; Guillot, Régis; Slim, Cyrine; Griveau, Sophie; Bertrand, Hélène C; Policar, Clotilde; Bedioui, Fethi; Fontecave, Marc

    2017-03-06

    A series of [Re(N^N)(CO) 3 (X)] (N^N = diimine and X = halide) complexes based on 4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazole (pyta) and 1-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazole (tapy) diimine ligands have been prepared and electrochemically characterized. The first ligand-based reduction process is shown to be highly sensitive to the nature of the isomer as well as to the substituents on the pyridyl ring, with the peak potential changing by up to 700 mV. The abilities of this class of complexes to catalyze the electroreduction and photoreduction of CO 2 were assessed for the first time. It is found that only Re pyta complexes that have a first reduction wave with a peak potential at ca. -1.7 V vs SCE are active, producing CO as the major product, together with small amounts of H 2 and formic acid. The catalytic wave that is observed in the CVs is enhanced by the addition of water or trifluoroethanol as a proton source. Long-term controlled potential electrolysis experiments gave total Faradaic yield close to 100%. In particular, functionalization of the triazolyl ring with a 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl group provided the catalyst with a remarkable stability.

  4. Estimation of CO2 flux from targeted satellite observations: a Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We consider the estimation of carbon dioxide flux at the ocean–atmosphere interface, given weighted averages of the mixing ratio in a vertical atmospheric column. In particular we examine the dependence of the posterior covariance on the weighting function used in taking observations, motivated by the fact that this function is instrument-dependent, hence one needs the ability to compare different weights. The estimation problem is considered using a variational data assimilation method, which is shown to admit an equivalent infinite-dimensional Bayesian formulation. The main tool in our investigation is an explicit formula for the posterior covariance in terms of the prior covariance and observation operator. Using this formula, we compare weighting functions concentrated near the surface of the earth with those concentrated near the top of the atmosphere, in terms of the resulting covariance operators. We also consider the problem of observational targeting, and ask if it is possible to reduce the covariance in a prescribed direction through an appropriate choice of weighting function. We find that this is not the case—there exist directions in which one can never gain information, regardless of the choice of weight. (paper)

  5. New fuel consumption standards for Chinese passenger vehicles and their effects on reductions of oil use and CO2 emissions of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhao; Jin Yuefu; Wang Michael; Wei Wu

    2010-01-01

    A new fuel consumption standard for passenger vehicles in China, the so-called Phase 3 standard, was approved technically in 2009 and will take effect in 2012. This standard aims to introduce advanced energy-saving technologies into passenger vehicles and to reduce the average fuel consumption rate of Chinese new passenger vehicle fleet in 2015 to 7 L/100 km. The Phase 3 standard follows the evaluating system by specifying fuel consumption targets for sixteen individual mass-based classes. Different from compliance with the Phases 1 and 2 fuel consumption standards, compliance of the Phase 3 standard is based on corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) rates for individual automobile companies. A transition period from 2012 to 2014 is designed for manufacturers to gradually adjust their production plans and introduce fuel-efficient technologies. In this paper, we, the designers of the Phase 3 standard, present the design of the overall fuel consumption reduction target, technical feasibility, and policy implications of the Phase 3 standard. We also explore several enforcement approaches for the Phase 3 standard with financial penalties of non-compliance as a priority. Finally, we estimate the overall effect of the Phase 3 standard on oil savings and CO 2 emission reductions.

  6. Climate change and the CO2 myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, C.J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Further increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere has little effect on the greenhouse effect contrary to the effect of the increase of other greenhouse gases. However, politicians are using targets for the reduction of CO 2 emissions that are unrealistic, taking into account the scientific uncertainties of the applied models, the doubts about the feasibility of quantitative targets and the economic consequences of such drastic measures. Some recommendations are given for a more realistic CO 2 policy. Also attention is paid to the important role that coal will play in the future of the energy supply. 5 figs., 3 ills

  7. Potential reduction of CO2 emissions and low carbon scenario for the Brazilian industrial sector for 2030; Potencial de reducao de emissoes de Co2 e cenario de baixo carbono para o setor industrial brasileiro para 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques Junior, Mauricio F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], email: mauricio.henriques@int.gov.br; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], email: roberto@ppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This study discusses the potential for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy use by the Brazilian industrial sector in a low-carbon scenario over a horizon until 2030. It evaluates the main mitigation measures, the quantities of this gas avoided and the respective abatement costs. In relation to a benchmark scenario projected for 2030, the reduction of CO2 emissions estimated here can reach 40% by adopting energy efficiency measures, materials recycling, cogeneration, shifting from fossil fuels to renewable or less carbon content sources, and eliminating the use of biomass from deforestation. The set of measures studied here would bring cumulative emissions reductions of nearly 1.5 billion tCO2 over a period of 20 years (2010-2030). This would require huge investments, but the majority of them would have significant economic return and negative abatement costs. However, in the cases there would be low economic attractiveness and higher abatement costs, thus requiring more effective incentives and a collective effort, from both the public and private sectors. (author)

  8. Cobalt-Doped Carbon Gels as Electro-Catalysts for the Reduction of CO2 to Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Abdelwahab

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two original series of carbon gels doped with different cobalt loadings and well-developed mesoporosity, aerogels and xerogels, have been prepared, exhaustively characterized, and tested as cathodes for the electro-catalytic reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons at atmospheric pressure. Commercial cobalt and graphite sheets have also been tested as cathodes for comparison. All of the doped carbon gels catalyzed the formation of hydrocarbons, at least from type C1 to C4. The catalytic activity depends mainly on the metal loading, nevertheless, the adsorption of a part of the products in the porous structure of the carbon gel cannot be ruled out. Apparent faradaic efficiencies calculated with these developed materials were better that those obtained with a commercial cobalt sheet as a cathode, especially considering the much lower amount of cobalt contained in the Co-doped carbon gels. The cobalt-carbon phases formed in these types of doped carbon gels improve the selectivity to C3-C4 hydrocarbons formation, obtaining even more C3 hydrocarbons than CH4 in some cases.

  9. New business models of green energy supply on the energy market with the effects of reduction of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozdanic, I.; Pokrovac, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, new business models for renewables, which found their way to market competitiveness and which become more present on energy markets in EU will be shown. This transition, beside transition to ecological and, in the long-term, more sustainable production of energy , brought another change which has far more importance for society. New business models for investments in renewables which bring energy industry closer to citizens are being developed. Entrepreneurs, energy cooperatives and public grouped in various forms of associations in Germany own over 50 percent of renewables. Such investment models are important for society because of the development of more sustainable and just society in which citizens are included in production of electricity. Also, through these models, price of electricity is lower for end users. Besides direct collective fund investments from citizens, these types of projects are financially supported through financial instruments of the EU, but also through special bank types, such as environmental and ethical banks. These business models are long-term acceptable because of increasing involvement of renewables which results in reduction of CO2. In this paper, european models and possible models which could be used in Croatia are shown. (author).

  10. Forcings and feedbacks in the GeoMIP ensemble for a reduction in solar irradiance and increase in CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneeus, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Alterskjær, Kari; Cole, Jason N. S.; Curry, Charles L.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; Kravitz, Ben; Kristjánsson, Jón Egill; Moore, John C.; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Rasch, Phil; Robock, Alan; Singh, Balwinder; Schmidt, Hauke; Schulz, Michael; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The effective radiative forcings (including rapid adjustments) and feedbacks associated with an instantaneous quadrupling of the preindustrial CO2 concentration and a counterbalancing reduction of the solar constant are investigated in the context of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The forcing and feedback parameters of the net energy flux, as well as its different components at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface, were examined in 10 Earth System Models to better understand the impact of solar radiation management on the energy budget. In spite of their very different nature, the feedback parameter and its components at the TOA and surface are almost identical for the two forcing mechanisms, not only in the global mean but also in their geographical distributions. This conclusion holds for each of the individual models despite intermodel differences in how feedbacks affect the energy budget. This indicates that the climate sensitivity parameter is independent of the forcing (when measured as an effective radiative forcing). We also show the existence of a large contribution of the cloudy-sky component to the shortwave effective radiative forcing at the TOA suggesting rapid cloud adjustments to a change in solar irradiance. In addition, the models present significant diversity in the spatial distribution of the shortwave feedback parameter in cloudy regions, indicating persistent uncertainties in cloud feedback mechanisms.

  11. The empirical effects of a gasoline tax on CO2 emissions reductions from transportation sector in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Duk; Han, Hyun-Ok; Moon, Young-Seok

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of carbon tax is expected to mitigate GHG emissions cost-effectively. With this expectation identifying the impacts of carbon tax on energy demand and GHG emission reductions is an interesting issue. One of the basic methods of estimating these impacts is using the price elasticity. There are, however, some unanswered questions regarding the use of price elasticity. First, which elasticity estimates are appropriate to measure the impacts of carbon tax on energy demand? The existing estimates are estimated in the presence of a substitute. To assess the impact of carbon tax could we use these estimates? Second, how can we compromise the differences among the existing estimates depending on estimation methods and specifications? For example, how can we accommodate the difference in the estimates from the regional panel specification and the aggregate specification? This paper tries to answer these questions with the price elasticity of gasoline demand. With an appropriate price elasticity, we show how much gasoline consumption and GHG emissions are reduced by carbon tax for different scenarios of carbon tax rate. - Research highlights: →We offer an appropriate estimate for evaluating the effects of carbon tax. →We estimate the price elasticity of gasoline with instrument variables. →We measure the tax effects on CO 2 emissions from transportation sector.

  12. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma on particulate matter, ozone and CO2 correlation for diesel exhaust emission reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaie, Meisam; Davari, Pooya; Talebizadeh, Poyan

    2015-01-01

    This study is seeking to investigate the effect of non-thermal plasma technology in the abatement of particulate matter (PM) from the actual diesel exhaust. Ozone (O3) strongly promotes PM oxidation, the main product of which is carbon dioxide (CO2). PM oxidation into the less harmful product (CO2...

  13. Simulating the potential for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) reduction by the application of environmentally friendly transportation (case study: Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryati, Isra; Turmuzi Lubis, Muhammad; Mawaddah, Nurul

    2018-03-01

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is one of the greenhouse gases. One source of greenhouse gases comes from the use of fossil fuels from the transport sector. The transportation sector is one of the dominant sectors in contributing to the greenhouse effect. This study aims to calculate the amount of CO2 from transportation activities by using mobile six equations in Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City. A sampling of CO2 concentration was done using Carbon Dioxide Monitor with Non-Dispersive Infra Red (NDIR) Analyzer method. Also, a simulation of the reduction of the number of private vehicles to mass transportation such as BRT gas-fired. The results showed CO2 emissions calculations with mobile six ranged from 47.2 kg CO2 - 978.2 kg CO2. Meanwhile, measurements range from 3,004 ppm - 3,405 ppm. Implementation of the concept of environmentally friendly transportation such as BRT in Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City will be able to reduce the average emissions load CO2 by 42.75% -78.80%. Based on the calculation simulation in this study is estimated the number of BRT required approximately 71 units.

  14. National energy policies: Obstructing the reduction of global CO2 emissions? An analysis of Swedish energy policies for the district heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difs, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    The effect of national energy policies on a local Swedish district heating (DH) system has been studied, regarding the profitability of new investments and the potential for climate change mitigation. The DH system has been optimised regarding three investments: biomass-fuelled CHP (bio CHP), natural gas-fuelled combined cycle CHP (NGCC CHP) and biomass-fuelled heat-only boiler (bio HOB) in two scenarios (with or without national taxes and policy instruments). In both scenarios EU's tradable CO 2 emission permits are included. Results from the study show that when national policies are included, the most cost-effective investment option is the bio CHP technology. However, when national taxes and policy instruments are excluded, the DH system containing the NGCC CHP plant has 30% lower system cost than the bio CHP system. Regardless of the scenario and when coal condensing is considered as marginal electricity production, the NGCC CHP has the largest global CO 2 reduction potential, about 300 ktonne CO 2 . However, the CO 2 reduction potential is highly dependent on the marginal electricity production. Demonstrated here is that national policies such as tradable green certificates can, when applied to DH systems, contribute to investments that will not fully utilise the DH systems' potential for global CO 2 emissions reductions. - Research highlights: →Swedish energy policies are promoting biomass fuelled electricity generating technologies over efficient fossil fuel electricity generating technologies. →An efficient fossil fuel technology like the natural gas combine cycle CHP technology with high power-to-heat ratio has potential to reduce the global CO 2 emissions more than a biomass fuelled electricity generating technology. →Swedish energy policies such as tradable green certificates for renewable electricity can, when applied to district heating systems, contribute to investments that will not fully utilise the district heating systems potential for

  15. Effects of composition of the micro porous layer and the substrate on performance in the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoungsu; Hillman, Febrian; Ariyoshi, Miho; Fujikawa, Shigenori; Kenis, Paul J. A.

    2016-04-01

    With the development of better catalysts, mass transport limitations are becoming a challenge to high throughput electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO. In contrast to optimization of electrodes for fuel cells, optimization of gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) - consisting of a carbon fiber substrate (CFS), a micro porous layer (MPL), and a catalyst layer (CL) - for CO2 reduction has not received a lot of attention. Here, we studied the effect of the MPL and CFS composition on cathode performance in electroreduction of CO2 to CO. In a flow reactor, optimized GDEs exhibited a higher partial current density for CO production than Sigracet 35BC, a commercially available GDE. By performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a CO2 flow reactor we determined that a loading of 20 wt% PTFE in the MPL resulted in the best performance. We also investigated the influence of the thickness and wet proof level of CFS with two different feeds, 100% CO2 and the mixture of 50% CO2 and N2, determining that thinner and lower wet proofing of the CFS yields better cathode performance than when using a thicker and higher wet proof level of CFS.

  16. The Catalytic Bias of 2-Oxoacid:ferredoxin Oxidoreductase in CO_2: evolution and reduction through a ferredoxin-mediated electrocatalytic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Elliott, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes from the 2-oxoacid: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (OFOR) family engage in both CO_2 evolution and reduction in nature, depending on their physiological roles. Two enzymes and their redox partner ferredoxins (Fds) from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus and Desulfovibrio africanus were examined to investigate the basis of the catalytic bias. The Fd1 from H. thermophilus demonstrated a potential of ∼ −485 mV at room temperature, the lowest for known single [4Fe-4S] cluster Fds. It suggests a low potential electron donor may be the key factor in overcoming the large thermodynamic barrier of CO_2 reduction. The Fd-mediated electrocatalytic experiments further demonstrated the impact of Fd’s potential on the direction of the OFOR reaction: as OFOR enzymes could essentially catalyze both CO_2 evolution and reduction in vitro, the difference in their physiological roles is associated with the reduction potential of the redox partner Fd. The electrocatalytic assay could study both CO_2 evolution and reduction in one setup and is a good tool to probe Fds’ reactivity that arise from their reduction potentials.

  17. Preparation of Cu2O modified TiO2 nanopowder and its application to the visible light photoelectrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CH3OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Niu, Wenchao; Cheng, Yongwei; Gu, Junjie; Ning, Ping; Guan, Qingqing

    2018-05-01

    Cu2O/TiO2 nanopowders were prepared and used as thin film electrode raw materials for CO2 photoelectroreduction. Characterization results from XRD, TEM, UV-Vis and BET show that Cu2O/TiO2 composites have regular morphology, narrow band gap, excellent textural properties, and exhibits marked response of visible light. The photoelectrocatalytic results show that CO2 can be reduced to formaldehyde (i.e., intermediate) and finally methanol (i.e., end product). In addition, the CO2 photoelectroreduction pathway and the mechanism of photoelectrocatalysis are discussed. In summary, the work reports a potential method of CO2 reduction by visible-light photocatalysis without an external bias.

  18. Modeling Effects of Bicarbonate Release on Carbonate Chemistry and pH of the North Sea: A Pilot Study for Atmospheric CO2 Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettmann, K.; Kirchner, J.; Schnetger, B.; Wolff, J. O.; Brumsack, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Rising CO2-emissions accompanying the industrial revolution are the main drivers for climate change and ocean acidification. Several methods have been developed to capture CO2 from effluents and reduce emission. Here, we consider a promising approach that mimics natural limestone weathering: CO2 in effluent gas streams reacts with calcium carbonate in a limestone suspension. The resulting bicarbonate-rich solution can be released into natural systems. In comparison to classical carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods this artificial limestone weathering is cheaper and does not involve using toxic chemical compounds. Additionally there is no need for the controversially discussed storage of CO2 underground. The reduction of CO2-emissions becomes more important for European industries as the EU introduced a system that limits the amount of allowable CO2-emissions. Therefore, large CO2 emitters are forced to find cheap methods for emission reduction, as they often cannot circumvent CO2-production. The method mentioned above is especially of interest for power plants located close to the coast that are already using seawater for cooling purposes. Thus, it is important to estimate the environmental effects if several coastal power plants will release high amounts of bicarbonate-rich waters into coastal waters, e.g. the North Sea. In a first pilot study, the unstructured-grid finite-volume community ocean model (FVCOM) was combined with a chemical submodul (mocsy 2.0) to model the hydrodynamic circulation and mixing of bicarbonate-rich effluents from a gas power plant located at the German North Sea coast. Here, we present the first preliminary results of this project, which include modelled changes of the North Sea carbonate system and changes in pH value after the introduction of these bicarbonate-rich waters on short time scales up to one year.

  19. Potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for reduction of CO2 emission and role of non-fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, R.; Okano, K.; Yamamoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    A method to analyze the demand of electricity and the reduction of CO 2 emission and oil consumption by PHEV is established. Using the performance of PHEV optimized by EPRI and an estimation on the pattern of driving and charging in Japan, the following results are obtained. The electric demand for PHEV60(which has 60mile EV range) and PHEV20(which has 20mile EV range) is evaluated at 79.3 billion kWh and 41.2 billion kWh, respectively, in case that all vehicles in Japan (80 million cars) would be replaced by PHEV. The load leveling effect on the Japanese grid, which is hypothetically considered as one electric grid system, is evaluated at about 30 million kW, in case that all vehicles in Japan are replaced by PHEV60 and charged in the midnight. However, when the charge of PHEVs starts in the evening, that effect is not obtained. The reduction of CO 2 emission results in 64 million ton by the averaged CO 2 emissions intensity (emissions per unit of user end electricity) in Japan, and 98 million ton by electricity from the non-fossil power plant such as nuclear energy or renewable one. Those values are equivalent to 25% and 38% of CO 2 emission from the transport sector in Japan in 2003. Hence, non-fossil power plant enhances the reduction of CO 2 emission by the PHEV introduction. (author)

  20. Geothermal energy of Slovakia - CO2 emissions reduction contribution potential (background study for conservative and non-conservative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Fričovský

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total geothermal energy potential is estimated for 209 714 TJ per year or 6 650 MWth. Natural conditions define a use of thermalwaters for heat generation only. Accepting proportion of real achievable output of geothermal projects in the non-conservative scenarioat a rate of 1 861 MWth or 13 440 TJ per year, yearly carbon dioxide savings are up to reach 0,357 MtCO2.yr-1 or 12,5 of cumulativeMtCO2 in 35 years. By a contrast, introduction of conservative approach points to increase in a geothermal heat production from 145 to243 TJ per period or 6 944 TJ of cumulative 35 years production, with a real outcome of 0,45 MtCO2 cumulative carbon dioxidesavings, corresponding to yearly real savings from 9,4 .10-3 to 15,8 .10-3 MtCO2.

  1. CO2 emission reduction policies in the greek residential sector: a methodological framework for their economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Balaras, C.; Gaglia, A.; Lalas, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodological framework for the economic evaluation of CO 2 emissions abatement policies and measures in the residential sector, taking into consideration both economic and social costs/benefits. The approach includes two stages: first, the measures under consideration are evaluated on the basis of a cost effectiveness analysis, which takes into account only the related net financial costs, thus highlighting win-win actions (i.e. measures presenting an economic benefit for end users without the provision of any economic subsidies or other similar policies); and second, the measures are re-evaluated using an integrated cost benefit analysis (where both the private and external costs/benefits are taken into account). The economic performance of the measures examined incorporates the effects of a variety of parameters, such as the region's climate, size and age of buildings, etc., which significantly affect the resulting ranking. The implementation of this framework in the Greek residential sector identified and prioritized a significant emissions reduction potential, which could be achieved with win-win measures and/or interventions that present a net social benefit. Measures with negative economic cost but positive net social benefit for the majority of the buildings examined include: (i) regular inspection of central heating boilers, (ii) use of thermostats in central heating boilers, (iii) sealing of openings, (iv) installation of solar collectors for hot water etc. The monetization of environmental benefits is shown to provide a powerful tool for highlighting priority actions in the context of a climate change mitigation policy

  2. CO2 bubbling-based 'Nanobomb' System for Targetedly Suppressing Panc-1 Pancreatic Tumor via Low Intensity Ultrasound-activated Inertial Cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Huixiong; Chen, Hangrong; Jia, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Shuguang; Cai, Xiaojun; Wang, Ronghui; Mou, Juan; Zheng, Yuanyi; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive and targeted physical treatment is still desirable especially for those cancerous patients. Herein, we develop a new physical treatment protocol by employing CO2 bubbling-based 'nanobomb' system consisting of low-intensity ultrasound (1.0 W/cm(2)) and a well-constructed pH/temperature dual-responsive CO2 release system. Depending on the temperature elevation caused by exogenous low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound irradiation and the low pH caused by the endogenous acidic-environment around/within tumor, dual-responsive CO2 release system can quickly release CO2 bubbles, and afterwards, the generated CO2 bubbles waves will timely explode before dissolution due to triggering by therapeutic ultrasound waves. Related bio-effects (e.g., cavitation, mechanical, shock waves, etc) caused by CO2 bubbles' explosion effectively induce instant necrosis of panc-1 cells and blood vessel destruction within panc-1 tumor, and consequently inhibit the growth of panc-1 solid tumor, simultaneously minimizing the side effects to normal organs. This new physiotherapy employing CO2 bubbling-based 'nanobomb' system promises significant potentials in targetedly suppressing tumors, especially for those highly deadly cancers.

  3. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO over copper decorated g-C3N4 nanosheets with enhanced yield and selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guodong; Yang, Lin; Liu, Zhuowen; Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Jianqing; Yu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to fuel has attracted considerable attention due to the consumption of fossil fuels and serious environmental problems. Although there are many photocatalysts reported for CO2 reduction, the improvement of activity and selectivity is still in great need of. In this work, a series of Cu nanoparticle decorated g-C3N4 nanosheets with different Cu loadings were fabricated by a facile secondary calcination and subsequent microwave hydrothermal method. The designed catalysts shown good photocatalytic activity and selectivity for CO2 reduction to CO. The optimal sample exhibited a 3-fold augmentation of the CO yield in comparison with pristine g-C3N4 under visible light. It is revealed that with the loading of Cu nanoparticles, the resulting photocatalyst possessed an improved charge carrier transfer and separation efficiency as well as increased surface reactive sites, resulting in a significant enhancement of CO yield. It is anticipated that the designed Cu/C3N4 photocatalyst may provide new insights for two dimensional layer materials and non-noble particles applied to CO2 reduction.

  4. Role of the adsorbed oxygen species in the selective electrochemical reduction of CO_2 to alcohols and carbonyls on copper electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, Cecile S.; Lawrence, Matthew J.; Rodriguez, Paramaconi

    2017-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of CO_2 into fuels has gained significant attention recently as source of renewable carbon-based fuels. The unique high selectivity of copper in the electrochemical reduction of CO_2 to hydrocarbons has called much interest in discovering its mechanism. In order to provide significant information about the role of oxygen in the electrochemical reduction of CO_2 on Cu electrodes, the conditions of the surface structure and the composition of the Cu single crystal electrodes were controlled over time. This was achieved using pulsed voltammetry, since the pulse sequence can be programmed to guarantee reproducible initial conditions for the reaction at every fraction of time and at a given frequency. In contrast to the selectivity of CO_2 reduction using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods, a large selection of oxygenated hydrocarbons was found under alternating voltage conditions. Product selectivity towards the formation of oxygenated hydrocarbon was associated to the coverage of oxygen species, which is surface-structure- and potential-dependent. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. The effect of CO2, H2O and SO2 on the kinetics of NO reduction by CH4 over La2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toops, Todd J.; Walters, Arden B.; Vannice, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of CO 2 , H 2 O and SO 2 on the kinetics of NO reduction by CH 4 over unsupported La 2 O 3 has been examined between 773 and 973K in the presence of O 2 in the feed. La 2 O 3 can maintain a stable, high specific activity (mol/(sm 2 )) for NO reduction with high concentrations of CO 2 and H 2 O in the feed; however, either of these two products reversibly inhibits the activity by about one-half in the presence of excess O 2 . The catalyst is poisoned by SO 2 at these temperatures and an oxysulfate phase is formed, but partial regeneration can be achieved at 1023K. CO 2 in the feed causes the formation of lanthanum oxycarbonate, which reverts to La 2 O 3 when CO 2 is removed, but no bulk La oxyhydroxide is detected after quenching with H 2 O in the feed. The influence of CO 2 and H 2 O on kinetic behavior can be described by assuming they compete with reactants for adsorption on surface sites, including them in the site balance equation, and using the rate expression proposed previously for NO reduction by CH 4 in excess O 2 . With O 2 in the feed, integral conversions of CH 4 and O 2 frequently occurred due to the direct combustion of CH 4 by O 2 , although NO conversions remained differential; thus, an integral reactor model was chosen to analyze the data which utilized a recently determined rate equation for CH 4 combustion on La 2 O 3 in conjunction with a previously proposed model for NO reduction by CH 4 . The following rate expression described the rate of N 2 formation: N 2 T = ' NO P NO P CH 4 P O 2 0.5 / 1 + K NO P NO + K CH 4 P CH 4 + K O 2 0.5 P O 2 0.5 + K CO 2 P CO 2 + K H 2 O P H 2 O 2 . It gave a good fit to the experimental rate data for NO reduction, as well as providing enthalpies and entropies of adsorption obtained from the fitting parameters that demonstrated thermodynamic consistency and were similar to previous values. The heats of adsorption were altered somewhat when either CO 2 or H 2 O was added to the feed, and the following

  6. [Double-ambient CO2 concentration affects the growth, development and sucking behavior of non-target brown plant hopper Nilaparvata lugens fed on transgenic Bt rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong Qing; Dai, Yang; Yu, Xiu Ying; Yu, Fu-Lan; Jiang, Shou Lin; Zhou, Zong Yuan; Chen, Fa Jun

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, the two issues of climate change including elevated CO 2 etc., and resistance of transgenic Bt crops against non-target insect pests have received widespread attention. Elevated CO 2 can affect the herbivorous insects. To date, there is no consensus about the effect of elevated CO 2 on the suck-feeding insect pests (non-target insect pests of transgenic Bt crops). Its effects on the suck-feeding behavior have rarely been reported. In this study, CO 2 levels were set up in artificial climate chamber to examined the effects of ambient (400 μL·L -1 ) and double-ambient (800 μL·L -1 ) CO 2 levels on the suck-feeding behavior, growth, development, and reproduction of the non-target insect pest of transgenic Bt rice, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. The results showed that CO 2 level significantly affected the egg and nymph duration, longevity and body mass of adults, and feeding behavior of the 4th and 5th instar nymphs, while had no effect on the fecundity of N. lugens. The duration of eggs and nymphs, and the longevity of female adults were significantly shortened by 4.0%, 4.2% and 6.6% respectively, the proportion of the macropterous adults was significantly increased by 11.6%, and the body mass of newly hatched female adults was significantly decreased by 2.2% by elevated CO 2 . In addition, elevated CO 2 significantly enhanced the stylet puncturing efficiency of the 4th and 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens. The duration ofphloem ingestion of the N4b waveform was significantly prolonged by 60.0% and 50.1%, and the frequency significantly was increased by 230.0% and 155.9% for the 4th and 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens by elevated CO 2 , respectively. It was concluded that double-ambient CO 2 could promote the growth and development of N. lugens through enhancing its suck-feeding, shorten the generation life-span and increase the macropertous adults' proportion of N. lugens. Thus, it could result in the occurrence of non-target rice

  7. Long term energy and materials strategies for reduction of industrial CO2 emissions. A case study for the iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions emerged in the last decade as a key environmental problem on the political agenda. The most important greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). This gas results from the combustion of fossil fuels (natural gas, oil and coal). As a consequence, greenhouse gas emission reduction is closely related to energy policies. Even a stabilization of the atmospheric CO 2 concentrations at a level of 750 ppm (parts per million), more than twice the current level, implies a reduction of global emissions by 50% in the next century. The world population will simultaneously double and the capita energy consumption will increase. As a consequence, the Western industrialized countries will have to reduce their per capita emissions by more than a factor four. Such a policy goal will significantly affect the future industrial production structure. Approximately 4% of the global CO 2 emissions can be attributed to the production of iron and steel. This sector is the most important industrial source of CO 2 . The case study for the iron and steel industry will be discussed in this paper in order to illustrate the impact of significant CO 2 emission mitigation on the industry. The goal is to show the consequences of CO 2 policies for R and D planning and investment decisions. The notion that the iron and steel industry will be affected by CO 2 policies is not new; a number of studies have addressed this issue before. These studies have compared steel production technologies and emission reduction options within the iron and steel production sector. In this paper, the emission reduction in the iron and steel industry is analyzed within the framework of the changing (inter-)national energy and materials system configuration. This includes all production, conversion and consumption processes. The impact of CO 2 policies on the optimal choice of steel production technologies and on the competitiveness of steel compared to other materials will be discussed. This paper

  8. H2-assisted CO2 thermochemical reduction on La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ membranes: a kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xiao-Yu; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2017-01-01

    Kinetics data for CO2 thermochemical reduction in an isothermal membrane reactor is required to identify the rate-limiting steps. Here, we report a detailed reaction kinetics study on this process supported by an La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ (LCF-91) membrane. The dependence of CO2 reduction rate on various operating conditions is examined such as CO2 concentration on the feed side, fuel concentrations on the sweep side and temperatures. CO2 reduction rate is proportional to the oxygen flux across the membrane, and the measured maximum fluxes are 0.191 and 0.164 μmol cm-2 s-1 with 9.5% H2 and 11.6% CO on the sweep side at 990oC, respectively. Fuel is used to maintain the chemical potential gradient across the membrane and CO is used by construction to derive the surface reaction kinetics. This membrane also exhibits stable performances for 106 hours. A resistance-network model is developed to describe the oxygen transport process and the kinetics data are parameterized using the experimental values. The model shows a transition of the rate limiting step between the surface reactions on the feed side and the sweep side depending on the operating conditions.

  9. H2-assisted CO2 thermochemical reduction on La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ membranes: a kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xiao-Yu

    2017-11-04

    Kinetics data for CO2 thermochemical reduction in an isothermal membrane reactor is required to identify the rate-limiting steps. Here, we report a detailed reaction kinetics study on this process supported by an La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ (LCF-91) membrane. The dependence of CO2 reduction rate on various operating conditions is examined such as CO2 concentration on the feed side, fuel concentrations on the sweep side and temperatures. CO2 reduction rate is proportional to the oxygen flux across the membrane, and the measured maximum fluxes are 0.191 and 0.164 μmol cm-2 s-1 with 9.5% H2 and 11.6% CO on the sweep side at 990oC, respectively. Fuel is used to maintain the chemical potential gradient across the membrane and CO is used by construction to derive the surface reaction kinetics. This membrane also exhibits stable performances for 106 hours. A resistance-network model is developed to describe the oxygen transport process and the kinetics data are parameterized using the experimental values. The model shows a transition of the rate limiting step between the surface reactions on the feed side and the sweep side depending on the operating conditions.

  10. Achieving 80% greenhouse gas reduction target in Saudi Arabia under low and medium oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshammari, Yousef M.; Sarathy, S. Mani

    2017-01-01

    COP 21 led to a global agreement to limit the earth's rising temperature to less than 2 °C. This will require countries to act upon climate change and achieve a significant reduction in their greenhouse gas emissions which will play a pivotal role in shaping future energy systems. Saudi Arabia is the World's largest exporter of crude oil, and the 11th largest CO_2 emitter. Understanding the Kingdom's role in global greenhouse gas reduction is critical in shaping the future of fossil fuels. Hence, this work presents an optimisation study to understand how Saudi Arabia can meet the CO_2 reduction targets to achieve the 80% reduction in the power generation sector. It is found that the implementation of energy efficiency measures is necessary to enable meeting the 80% target, and it would also lower costs of transition to low carbon energy system while maintaining cleaner use of hydrocarbons with CCS. Setting very deep GHG reduction targets may be economically uncompetitive in consideration of the energy supply requirements. In addition, we determine the breakeven price of crude oil needed to make CCS economically viable. Results show important dimension for pricing CO_2 and the role of CCS compared with alternative sources of energy. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency measures are needed to achieve 80% reduction. • Nuclear appears as an important option to achieve deep cuts in CO_2 by 2050. • Technology improvement can enable using heavy fuel oil with CCS until 2050. • IGCC requires lower net CO_2 footprint in order to be competitive. • Nuclear power causes a sharp increase in the CO_2 avoidance costs.

  11. Non-sensitized selective photochemical reduction of CO2 to CO under visible light with an iron molecular catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Heng; Bonin, Julien; Robert, Marc

    2017-03-02

    A substituted tetraphenyl iron porphyrin, bearing positively charged trimethylammonio groups at the para position of each phenyl ring, demonstrates its ability as a homogeneous molecular catalyst to selectively reduce CO 2 to CO under visible light irradiation in organic media without the assistance of a sensitizer and no competitive hydrogen evolution for several days.

  12. Localized innovation, localized diffusion and the environment : an analysis of reductions of CO(2) emissions by passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, B.; Verspagen, B.

    We investigate technological change with regard to CO(2) emissions by passenger cars, using a Free Disposal Hull methodology to estimate technological frontiers. We have a sample of cars available in the UK market in the period 2000-2007. Our results show that the rates of technological change

  13. Market penetration speed and effects on CO2 reduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, Kuniaki; Shinoda, Yukio; Seki, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Abstarct: In order to reduce CO 2 emissions in the passenger vehicle sector, mass introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is required despite their high battery costs. This paper forecasts the rate at which EV/PHEV will penetrate into the market in the future and the effects of that spread on CO 2 reduction by using a learning curve for lithium-ion batteries, distribution of daily travel distance for each vehicle, and an optimal power generation planning model for charging vehicles. Taking into consideration each driver's economical viewpoint, the speed at which the EV/PHEV share of the new passenger vehicle market grows is fairly slow. The optimum calculation in our base case shows that the share of EV/PHEV is only a quarter even in 2050. However, the initial price and progress rate of batteries have a great effect on this share. Therefore, long-term economic support from the government and significant R and D innovation are required to reduce CO 2 drastically through cutting down battery price. The results also show how much the CO 2 emission intensity of power generation affects the CO 2 reduction rate by introducing EV/PHEV. - Highlights: ► Authors minimized the total cost of vehicle and power supply sectors until 2050. ► Simulation results show the penetration speed of PHEVs/EVs is not so fast. ► To accelerate it and reduce CO 2 , subsidies and innovations are required. ► The introduction of PHEVs/EVs is still reasonable even after the nuclear accident.

  14. CO2-induced pH reduction increases physiological toxicity of nano-TiO2 in the mussel Mytilus coruscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Menghong; Lin, Daohui; Shang, Yueyong; Hu, Yi; Lu, Weiqun; Huang, Xizhi; Ning, Ke; Chen, Yimin; Wang, Youji

    2017-01-01

    The increasing usage of nanoparticles has caused their considerable release into the aquatic environment. Meanwhile, anthropogenic CO2 emissions have caused a reduction of seawater pH. However, their combined effects on marine species have not been experimentally evaluated. This study estimated the physiological toxicity of nano-TiO2 in the mussel Mytilus coruscus under high pCO2 (2500-2600 μatm). We found that respiration rate (RR), food absorption efficiency (AE), clearance rate (CR), scope for growth (SFG) and O:N ratio were significantly reduced by nano-TiO2, whereas faecal organic weight rate and ammonia excretion rate (ER) were increased under nano-TiO2 conditions. High pCO2 exerted lower effects on CR, RR, ER and O:N ratio than nano-TiO2. Despite this, significant interactions of CO2-induced pH change and nano-TiO2 were found in RR, ER and O:N ratio. PCA showed close relationships among most test parameters, i.e., RR, CR, AE, SFG and O:N ratio. The normal physiological responses were strongly correlated to a positive SFG with normal pH and no/low nano-TiO2 conditions. Our results indicate that physiological functions of M. coruscus are more severely impaired by the combination of nano-TiO2 and high pCO2.

  15. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Survey on energy saving and CO2 emission reduction in Cilacap Refinery; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Cilacap seiyusho ni okeru shoene CO2 sakugen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  16. Localized Innovation, Localized Diffusion and the Environment: An Analysis of CO2 Emission Reductions by Passenger Cars, 2000-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Los, Bart; Verspagen, Bart

    2008-01-01

    We investigate technological change with regard to CO2 emissions by passenger cars, using a Free Disposal Hull methodology to estimate technological frontiers. We have a sample of cars available in the UK market in the period 2000 – 2007. Our results show that the rates of technological change (frontier movement) and diffusion (distance to frontier at the car brand level) differ substantial between segments of the car market. We conclude that successful policies should be aimed at diffusion o...

  17. Ni-Nanocluster Modified Black TiO2 with Dual Active Sites for Selective Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billo, Tadesse; Fu, Fang-Yu; Raghunath, Putikam; Shown, Indrajit; Chen, Wei-Fu; Lien, Hsiang-Ting; Shen, Tzu-Hsien; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Chan, Ting-Shan; Huang, Kuo-You; Wu, Chih-I; Lin, M C; Hwang, Jih-Shang; Lee, Chih-Hao; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2018-01-01

    One of the key challenges in artificial photosynthesis is to design a photocatalyst that can bind and activate the CO 2 molecule with the smallest possible activation energy and produce selective hydrocarbon products. In this contribution, a combined experimental and computational study on Ni-nanocluster loaded black TiO 2 (Ni/TiO 2[Vo] ) with built-in dual active sites for selective photocatalytic CO 2 conversion is reported. The findings reveal that the synergistic effects of deliberately induced Ni nanoclusters and oxygen vacancies provide (1) energetically stable CO 2 binding sites with the lowest activation energy (0.08 eV), (2) highly reactive sites, (3) a fast electron transfer pathway, and (4) enhanced light harvesting by lowering the bandgap. The Ni/TiO 2[Vo] photocatalyst has demonstrated highly selective and enhanced photocatalytic activity of more than 18 times higher solar fuel production than the commercial TiO 2 (P-25). An insight into the mechanisms of interfacial charge transfer and product formation is explored. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. NHC-Ag/Pd-Catalyzed Reductive Carboxylation of Terminal Alkynes with CO2 and H2 : A Combined Experimental and Computational Study for Fine-Tuned Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingyi; Zhou, Feng; Lim, Diane S W; Su, Haibin; Zhang, Yugen

    2017-03-09

    Reductive carboxylation of terminal alkynes utilizing CO 2 and H 2 as reactants is an interesting and challenging transformation. Theoretical calculations indicated it would be kinetically possible to obtain cinnamic acid, the reductive carboxylation product, from phenylacetylene in a CO 2 /H 2 system with an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-supported Ag/Pd bimetallic catalysts through competitive carboxylation/hydrogenation cascade reactions in one step. These calculations were verified experimentally with a poly-NHC-supported Ag/Pd catalyst. By tuning the catalyst composition and reaction temperature, phenylacetylene was selectively converted to cinnamic acid, hydrocinnamic acid, or phenylpropiolic acid in excellent yields. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Sectoral CO2 emissions in the Netherlands up to 2010. Update of the Reference Projection for Policy-making on Indicative Targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp PGM; Daniels BW; Dril AWN van; Kroon P; Ybema JR; Wijngaart RA van den; ECN; KMD

    2004-01-01

    The Dutch government intends to formulate indicative targets for maximum sectoral CO2- emission levels in the year 2010. To this end the expected future emission levels have been determined for four sectors: Build Environment, Agriculture, Transportation and Industry/ Energy. The study relies

  20. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Influence of a target on operation of a pulsed CO2 laser emitting microsecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. Yu; Dolgov, V. A.; Malyuta, D. D.; Mezhevov, V. S.; Semak, V. V.

    1987-12-01

    The profile of pulses emitted by a TEA CO2 laser with an unstable resonator changed as a result of interaction of laser radiation with the surface of a metal in the presence of a breakdown plasma. This influence of a target on laser operation and its possible applications in laser processing of materials are analyzed.

  1. CO2 reduction in the Danish transportation sector. Working paper 10: Energy efficiency of the private cars - a package of control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    Average requirements to automotive fuel efficiency in new cars and differentiation of registration and weight taxes according to fuel consumption by a car result in fewer new cars due to very high registration tax and lower driving costs per km, which is against the CO 2 reduction measure. More efficient car manufacturing would eventually lead to a lower registration tax. Higher tax on fuels is another solution to the problem. (EG)

  2. A Hierarchical Z-Scheme α-Fe2 O3 /g-C3 N4 Hybrid for Enhanced Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhifeng; Wan, Weiming; Li, Huaming; Yuan, Shouqi; Zhao, Huijun; Wong, Po Keung

    2018-03-01

    The challenge in the artificial photosynthesis of fossil resources from CO 2 by utilizing solar energy is to achieve stable photocatalysts with effective CO 2 adsorption capacity and high charge-separation efficiency. A hierarchical direct Z-scheme system consisting of urchin-like hematite and carbon nitride provides an enhanced photocatalytic activity of reduction of CO 2 to CO, yielding a CO evolution rate of 27.2 µmol g -1 h -1 without cocatalyst and sacrifice reagent, which is >2.2 times higher than that produced by g-C 3 N 4 alone (10.3 µmol g -1 h -1 ). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Z-scheme hybrid material can be ascribed to its unique characteristics to accelerate the reduction process, including: (i) 3D hierarchical structure of urchin-like hematite and preferable basic sites which promotes the CO 2 adsorption, and (ii) the unique Z-scheme feature efficiently promotes the separation of the electron-hole pairs and enhances the reducibility of electrons in the conduction band of the g-C 3 N 4 . The origin of such an obvious advantage of the hierarchical Z-scheme is not only explained based on the experimental data but also investigated by modeling CO 2 adsorption and CO adsorption on the three different atomic-scale surfaces via density functional theory calculation. The study creates new opportunities for hierarchical hematite and other metal-oxide-based Z-scheme system for solar fuel generation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A Co3O4-CDots-C3N4 three component electrocatalyst design concept for efficient and tunable CO2 reduction to syngas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sijie; Zhao, Siqi; Wu, Xiuqin; Li, Hao; Zhou, Yunjie; Zhu, Cheng; Yang, Nianjun; Jiang, Xin; Gao, Jin; Bai, Liang; Liu, Yang; Lifshitz, Yeshayahu; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhenhui

    2017-11-28

    Syngas, a CO and H 2 mixture mostly generated from non-renewable fossil fuels, is an essential feedstock for production of liquid fuels. Electrochemical reduction of CO 2 and H + /H 2 O is an alternative renewable route to produce syngas. Here we introduce the concept of coupling a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalyst with a CDots/C 3 N 4 composite (a CO 2 reduction catalyst) to achieve a cheap, stable, selective and efficient route for tunable syngas production. Co 3 O 4 , MoS 2 , Au and Pt serve as the HER component. The Co 3 O 4 -CDots-C 3 N 4 electrocatalyst is found to be the most efficient among the combinations studied. The H 2 /CO ratio of the produced syngas is tunable from 0.07:1 to 4:1 by controlling the potential. This catalyst is highly stable for syngas generation (over 100 h) with no other products besides CO and H 2 . Insight into the mechanisms balancing between CO 2 reduction and H 2 evolution when applying the HER-CDots-C 3 N 4 catalyst concept is provided.

  4. Self-assembled hierarchical direct Z-scheme g-C3N4/ZnO microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ning; Zhang, Liuyang; Fu, Junwei; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2018-05-01

    Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon fuels has been regarded as a promising approach to ease the greenhouse effect and the energy shortage. Herein, an electrostatic self-assembly method was exploited to prepare g-C3N4/ZnO composite microsphere. This method simply utilized the opposite surface charge of each component, achieving a hierarchical structure with intimate contact between them. A much improved photocatalytic CO2 reduction activity was attained. The CH3OH production rate was 1.32 μmol h-1 g-1, which was 2.1 and 4.1 times more than that of the pristine ZnO and g-C3N4, respectively. This facile design bestowed the g-C3N4/ZnO composite an extended light adsorption caused by multi-light scattering effect. It also guaranteed the uniform distribution of g-C3N4 nanosheets on the surface of ZnO microspheres, maximizing their advantage and synergistic effect. Most importantly, the preeminent performance was proposed and validated based on the direct Z-scheme. The recombination rate was considerably suppressed. This work features the meliority of constructing hierarchical direct Z-scheme structures in photocatalytic CO2 reduction reactions.

  5. Climate Change and employment. Impact on employment in the European Union-25 of climate change and CO2 emission reduction measures by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupressoir, S.; Belen Sanchez, A.; Bobe, P.; Hoefele, V. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    This study was intended provide an analysis of the potential costs and benefits for employment of the policies and measures against climate change as well as of the manifestations of the consequences of climate change in Europe. This report comprises two divisions. The first, entitled 'Impact of climate change', attempts to determine the potential impact on employment in Europe of the consequences of climate change (Part 1). The second, entitled 'Impact of CO2 emission reduction measures', analyses the potential implications for employment of climate-change prevention policies in the EU with time-horizons of 2012 and 2030 (Parts 2 to 4). The conclusions and recommendations of the study appear in four parts : Part 1 analyses the potential consequences for employment of climatic warming in Europe; Part 2 presents the objectives, the hypotheses and the methodology of the 'impact of CO2 emission reduction measures' division; Part 3 analyses the foreseeable effects of CO2 emission reduction measures on employment in Europe; Part 4 offers general (or sector-wide) recommendations for measures and policies to promote positive effects and prevent negative effects. The concluding part discusses the uncertainties and identifies the questions deserving further investigation.

  6. Specific anion effects on copper surface through electrochemical treatment: Enhanced photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction activity of derived nanostructures induced by chaotropic anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee, Aso; Salimi, Abdollah

    2018-05-01

    Copper derivatives are the most prominent CO2 reduction electrocatalyst. Herein, the metallic copper has been electrochemically treated with some of common ionic salts such as N3bar, HPO2bar, S2bar, Fbar, Clbar, Brbar and Ibar based on the dissolution of a metallic working electrode in an aqueous solution to derive the surface roughness incorporated with nanostructures. Diverse surface morphology can be obtained when the ionic radii of anions are changed. Surface study reveals various roughness shapes based on the size and polarity of the anions, where the ions with higher ionic radii have higher impact on the Cu surface. In comparison, polyatomic oxyanion such as HPO2bar even with large ionic radii do not have enough strength to create the surface roughness than that of oxygen-free anions with large ionic radii. The photoelectrochemical behavior of the modified surfaces toward CO2 reduction is studied at a wide potential window in bicarbonate aqueous solution. Based on our investigations, treated surfaces by Ibar, Clbar and S2bargive a more surface roughness, while Ibar and N3bar offer higher catalytic activity toward CO2 reduction due to possible complexing ability of these anions with Cu cations, followed by formation of the co-catalyst semiconductor and facilitate electron transfer. This methodology can be applied to investigate the effect of ions on transition metals along with obtaining different surface morphologies tailored to different applications.

  7. Actions conducted in Switzerland for energy conservation and CO2 emission reduction, particularly in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattin, J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of Switzerland is to stabilize the CO 2 emissions by year 2000 and to reduce them from 20 pc by 2005 and from 50 pc by 2025. In order to attain these objectives, several measures should be taken: in the residential sector, the heating appliances (space heating and hot water production) should be efficiency-enhanced and an individual counting system should be used; energy audits should be enforced in industry; in the transportation sector, railway transportation should be enhanced and a pollution tax on automobile fuel should be applied

  8. A highly selective copper-indium bimetallic electrocatalyst for the electrochemical reduction of aqueous CO2to CO

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Jedidi, Abdesslem; Minenkov, Yury; Cavallo, Luigi; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in the electrochemical reduction of aqueous carbon dioxide is in designing a highly selective, energy-efficient, and non-precious-metal electrocatalyst that minimizes the competitive reduction of proton to form hydrogen during aqueous

  9. Extra training in greenhouse effect? Identification of starting points for intervention strategies aimed at CO2 reduction in school buildings; Bijscholen in broeikaseffect? Identificatie van aangrijpingspunten voor interventiestrategieen gericht op CO2-reductie in schoolgebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaauw, K.; Groot, M.

    2003-07-01

    A survey was held among 550 Dutch institutes for primary, secondary, vocational and adult education to determine and analyze the decisive factors for energy conservation and CO2 reduction in school buildings in the Netherlands. [Dutch] In opdracht van Novem heeft CE een studie verricht naar aangrijpingspunten voor interventiestrategieen gericht op energiebesparing in schoolgebouwen. Aan de hand van een literatuurstudie, verschillende kwalitatieve interviews is als eerste getracht inzicht te verkrijgen in de kwaliteit van het gebouwenvoorraad en het energieverbruik in gebouwen. Het blijkt dat ruim 50% van de voorraad in de PO en VO sector voor 1975 is gebouwd, waarbij weinig besparende bouwmaatregelen zijn getroffen en binnen circa 5 a 15 jaar wordt vervangen door nieuwbouw of grootschalig gerenoveerd wordt. In de BVE sector is op korte termijn veel nieuwbouw te verwachten. Vervolgens is aan de hand van een schriftelijke enquete onder 550 instellingen in het primair, voortgezet en beroeps- en volwassenenonderwijs bepaald wat de determinanten zijn van CO2 reductie door gebouw en procesmaatregelen. Op basis van 236 geretourneerde enquetes zijn de volgende conclusies te trekken: De grote variatie binnen de VO sector in professionaliteit, wijze van besluitvorming en de rollen van de verschillende actoren maakt het moeilijk eenduidige aangrijpingspunten te identificeren. De scholen zelf geven subsidieregelingen als verreweg de belangrijkste mogelijkheid om energiebesparing op scholen te stimuleren. Dat is niet verwonderlijk gezien het beperkte budget van scholen in het algemeen en met name voor dergelijke activiteiten. Het energiebedrijf wordt door de meeste scholen het belangrijkst gevonden voor informatie over energiebesparing gevolgd door externe adviseurs bij met name grotere scholen. De scholen gaven verder een grote voorkeur aan voor persoonlijke advisering boven andere vormen van informatievoorziening.

  10. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Plant Chemistry, Growth, Yield of Resistant Soybean, and Feeding of a Target Lepidoptera Pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifei, Zhang; Yang, Dai; Guijun, Wan; Bin, Liu; Guangnan, Xing; Fajun, Chen

    2018-04-25

    Atmospheric CO2 level arising is an indisputable fact in the future climate change, as predicted, it could influence crops and their herbivorous insect pests. The growth and development, reproduction, and consumption of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on resistant (cv. Lamar) and susceptible (cv. JLNMH) soybean grown under elevated (732.1 ± 9.99 μl/liter) and ambient (373.6 ± 9.21 μl/liter) CO2 were examined in open-top chambers from 2013 to 2015. Elevated CO2 promoted the above- and belowground-biomass accumulation and increased the root/shoot ratio of two soybean cultivars, and increased the seeds' yield for Lamar. Moreover, elevated CO2 significantly reduced the larval and pupal weight, prolonged the larval and pupal life span, and increased the feeding amount and excretion amount of two soybean cultivars. Significantly lower foliar nitrogen content and higher foliar sugar content and C/N ratio were observed in the sampled foliage of resistant and susceptible soybean cultivars grown under elevated CO2, which brought negative effects on the growth of S. litura, with the increment of foliar sugar content and C/N ratio were greater in the resistant soybean in contrast to the susceptible soybean. Furthermore, the increment of larval consumption was less than 50%, and the larval life span was prolonged more obvious of the larvae fed on resistant soybean compared with susceptible soybean under elevated CO2. It speculated that the future climatic change of atmospheric CO2 level arising would likely cause the increase of the soybean yield and the intake of S. litura, but the resistant soybean would improve the resistance of the target Lepidoptera pest, S. litura.

  11. Amorphizing of Cu Nanoparticles toward Highly Efficient and Robust Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction to Liquid Fuels with High Faradaic Efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yan-Xin; Meng, Fan-Lu; Liu, Kai-Hua; Yi, Sha-Sha; Li, Si-Jia; Yan, Jun-Min; Jiang, Qing

    2018-04-01

    Conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into valuable chemicals, especially liquid fuels, through electrochemical reduction driven by sustainable energy sources, is a promising way to get rid of dependence on fossil fuels, wherein developing of highly efficient catalyst is still of paramount importance. In this study, as a proof-of-concept experiment, first a facile while very effective protocol is proposed to synthesize amorphous Cu NPs. Unexpectedly, superior electrochemical performances, including high catalytic activity and selectivity of CO 2 reduction to liquid fuels are achieved, that is, a total Faradaic efficiency of liquid fuels can sum up to the maximum value of 59% at -1.4 V, with formic acid (HCOOH) and ethanol (C 2 H 6 O) account for 37% and 22%, respectively, as well as a desirable long-term stability even up to 12 h. More importantly, this work opens a new avenue for improved electroreduction of CO 2 based on amorphous metal catalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Enhanced Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2 to CO through TiO2 Passivation of InP in Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangtong; Qiu, Jing; Hou, Bingya; Shi, Haotian; Lin, Yongjing; Hettick, Mark; Javey, Ali; Cronin, Stephen B

    2015-09-21

    A robust and reliable method for improving the photocatalytic performance of InP, which is one of the best known materials for solar photoconversion (i.e., solar cells). In this article, we report substantial improvements (up to 18×) in the photocatalytic yields for CO2 reduction to CO through the surface passivation of InP with TiO2 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here, the main mechanisms of enhancement are the introduction of catalytically active sites and the formation of a pn-junction. Photoelectrochemical reactions were carried out in a nonaqueous solution consisting of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([EMIM]BF4), dissolved in acetonitrile, which enables CO2 reduction with a Faradaic efficiency of 99% at an underpotential of +0.78 V. While the photocatalytic yield increases with the addition of the TiO2 layer, a corresponding drop in the photoluminescence intensity indicates the presence of catalytically active sites, which cause an increase in the electron-hole pair recombination rate. NMR spectra show that the [EMIM](+) ions in solution form an intermediate complex with CO2(-), thus lowering the energy barrier of this reaction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Photoelectrocatalytic reduction of CO2 into chemicals using Pt-modified reduced graphene oxide combined with Pt-modified TiO2 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Meng; Wu, Gai; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-06-17

    The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) reduction of CO2 into high-value chemicals is beneficial in alleviating global warming and advancing a low-carbon economy. In this work, Pt-modified reduced graphene oxide (Pt-RGO) and Pt-modified TiO2 nanotubes (Pt-TNT) were combined as cathode and photoanode catalysts, respectively, to form a PEC reactor for converting CO2 into valuable chemicals. XRD, XPS, TEM, AFM, and SEM were employed to characterize the microstructures of the Pt-RGO and Pt-TNT catalysts. Reduction products, such as C2H5OH and CH3COOH, were obtained from CO2 under band gap illumination and biased voltage. A combined liquid product generation rate (CH3OH, C2H5OH, HCOOH, and CH3COOH) of approximately 600 nmol/(h·cm(2)) was observed. Carbon atom conversion rate reached 1,130 nmol/(h·cm(2)), which were much higher than those achieved using Pt-modified carbon nanotubes and platinum carbon as cathode catalysts.

  14. Potential for energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emissions in the Brazilian cement industry through 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, J.B.; Tolmasquim, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The cement industry is characterized by intensive energy consumption throughout its production stages which, together with the calcination of its raw materials, accounts for significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In 1996, the Brazilian cement industry consumed 4.3% of the energy required by the industrial sector, contributing over 22 Mtons (Million of tons) of CO 2 . The prospects for growth in this sector in Brazil indicate rising demands for fossil fuels, with a consequent upsurge in emissions. The purpose of this article is to present the prospects for energy conservation in the Brazilian cement industry through to 2015, taking into account the introduction of new production technologies in this sector, the use of waste and low-grade fuels, cogeneration, the use of additives, and other measures, based on a technical and economic energy demand simulation model

  15. Reduction of CO2 emission from transportation activities in the area of Pasar Besar in Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, K. E.; Sulistyo, D. E.; Utomo, D. M.

    2017-06-01

    The number of vehicles increases every year. Where vehicles are the largest contributor to air pollution up to 70%-80%, while 20%-30% caused by industrial activities. The increasing number of vehicles which perform movements will result in more emissions of vehicles in the free air of the city. Traffic is also influenced by the presence of land use. One of the types of land use that have considerable influence against the movement of traffic is trade. Along with the development of transport activities in the area of Pasar Besar Malang city (the Biggest Traditional Market in Malang), it will cause problems such as traffic jam and air pollution. Therefore, the need for proper handling of the problem of traffic jam and air pollution in the area of Pasar Besar that is to identify the performance of road traffic around area of Pasar Besar and calculate the quantity of CO2 emissions based on the footprint of transport on the area of Pasar Besar. Where is produced that level of service roads on its way around area of Pasar Besar have an average value between LOS A and B, while the quantity of CO2 emissions is based on the footprint of transport on area of Pasar Besar that is amounting to 4,551.42 tons/year. The magnitude of the emissions have exceeded the standard of composition in the air so that the need for recommendations. Recommendations in this research is in the form of simulated users of private vehicle redirects to public transportation based on the level of willingness to switch by the users of private vehicles. The selected simulation that is the second of four simulations with the output of emissions amounting to 3,952.91 tons/year in which can reduce emissions amounting to 598.51 tons/year or approximately 13.15%.

  16. Report of fiscal 1999 basic survey for joint implementation, etc. Feasibility study on energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emission at Omsk Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper explains fiscal 1999 survey on energy conservation and reduction of CO2 at Omsk Refinery in the Russian Federation for the purpose of making the project tied to the COP3 joint implementation. This refinery is the largest class refinery in Russia having a capacity of 600,000 BPSD. The atmospheric distillation unit AVT-10, which emits 470,000 t-CO2/year, was selected for the object of the survey. As the modification plans, optimization of process system, modification of waste heat boiler and installation of new furnaces were considered. The plans 1, 2 are possible due to their low investment costs. The plan 3 to install new furnaces is able to reduce the large volume of CO2 emission though its investment cost is higher. For each modification plan, estimation was made for the investment cost, the benefit by energy saving and the volume of reduction of CO2 emission. The results for each of the plans 1, 2 and 3 were 907x10{sup 3}, 3,377x10{sup 3}, 50,400x10{sup 3} in US$; 535x10{sup 3}, 928x10{sup 3}, 1,407x10{sup 3} in US$; and 36.1x10{sup 3}, 68.2x10{sup 3}, 86.6x10{sup 3} tons/year. The Russian side showed their satisfaction of the results and keen interest in the energy saving effect. For the purpose of realizing this plan, financial assistance and technological cooperation are essential. Russia shows their great expectations for the Japanese government. (NEDO)

  17. Achieving 80% greenhouse gas reduction target in Saudi Arabia under low and medium oil prices

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Yousef Mohammad

    2016-11-10

    COP 21 led to a global agreement to limit the earth\\'s rising temperature to less than 2 °C. This will require countries to act upon climate change and achieve a significant reduction in their greenhouse gas emissions which will play a pivotal role in shaping future energy systems. Saudi Arabia is the World\\'s largest exporter of crude oil, and the 11th largest CO2 emitter. Understanding the Kingdom\\'s role in global greenhouse gas reduction is critical in shaping the future of fossil fuels. Hence, this work presents an optimisation study to understand how Saudi Arabia can meet the CO2 reduction targets to achieve the 80% reduction in the power generation sector. It is found that the implementation of energy efficiency measures is necessary to enable meeting the 80% target, and it would also lower costs of transition to low carbon energy system while maintaining cleaner use of hydrocarbons with CCS. Setting very deep GHG reduction targets may be economically uncompetitive in consideration of the energy supply requirements. In addition, we determine the breakeven price of crude oil needed to make CCS economically viable. Results show important dimension for pricing CO2 and the role of CCS compared with alternative sources of energy.

  18. Temporal Evolution Study of the Plasma Induced by CO2 Pulsed Laser on Targets of Titanium Oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diaz, L.; Camacho, J.J.; Sanz, M.; Hernández, M.; Jandová, Věra; Castillejo, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 86, AUG 1 (2013), s. 88-93 ISSN 0584-8547 Grant - others:DGICYT(ES) CTQ2008-05393/BQU; DGICYT(ES) CTQ2010-15680/BQU; CAM(ES) Geomateriales S2009/ Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : laser induced breakdown spectroscopy * time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy * high-power IR CO2 pulsed laser Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2013

  19. Estimation of CO2 reduction by parallel hard-type power hybridization for gasoline and diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yunjung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Jong Tae; Seo, Jigu; Park, Sungwook

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible improvements in ICEVs by implementing fuzzy logic-based parallel hard-type power hybrid systems. Two types of conventional ICEVs (gasoline and diesel) and two types of HEVs (gasoline-electric, diesel electric) were generated using vehicle and powertrain simulation tools and a Matlab-Simulink application programming interface. For gasoline and gasoline-electric HEV vehicles, the prediction accuracy for four types of LDV models was validated by conducting comparative analysis with the chassis dynamometer and OBD test data. The predicted results show strong correlation with the test data. The operating points of internal combustion engines and electric motors are well controlled in the high efficiency region and battery SOC was well controlled within ±1.6%. However, for diesel vehicles, we generated virtual diesel-electric HEV vehicle because there is no available vehicles with similar engine and vehicle specifications with ICE vehicle. Using a fuzzy logic-based parallel hybrid system in conventional ICEVs demonstrated that HEVs showed superior performance in terms of fuel consumption and CO 2 emission in most driving modes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The cost of CO2 reduction. An application of the Global 2100 Model to Germany and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an application of the global 2100 model to Germany and France. The model is a five region world model which allows to simulate economic growth scenarios under different restrictions regarding the output of CO 2 . The basic production factors are capital plus labour and energy. Energy consists of electric and non-electric energy production. Electric energy is described in terms of different production technics whereas non-electric energy is described in terms of different resources. Energy and capital plus labour are substitutes as within each factor are capital and labour and electric and non-electric energy. Decision on the allocation of factors of production is made on the basis of prices: - endogeneous prices determined within the model and within a region, - exogeneous prices which are set by the user of the model and, - prices that are exogeneous to a region but internationally endogeneous. Exogeneous prices are set for coal and coal based technologies, renewable energies and advanced technologies of electricity production. The price of oil is internationally endogeneous in a certain way: by trial and error the international oil price has to be set in such a way that oil trade between exporting and importing countries will be balanced. Within the time horizon of the model a technological shift between fossil and non-fossil energy resources is possible. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Topotactic reductive synthesis of A-site cation-ordered perovskite YBaCo2O x (x = 4.5-5.5) epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Tsukasa; Chikamatsu, Akira; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    A-site cation-ordered perovskite YBaCo2O x epitaxial films were synthesized by combining pulsed-laser deposition and topotactic reduction using CaH2. The oxygen contents (x) of the films could be controlled in a range of 4.5-5.5 by adjusting the reaction temperature. The c-axis length of the YBaCo2O x films decreased with decreasing x when x ≥ 5.3 but drastically increased when x ˜ 4.5. In contrast, the in-plane lattice constants remained locked-in by the substrate after the reaction. The metal insulator transition observed in bulk YBaCo2O5.5 was substantially suppressed in the present film, likely because of the epitaxial strain effect. The resistivity of the films was significantly enhanced by changing the x value from ˜5.5 to ˜4.5, reflecting the distortion of the CoO x layers.

  2. How light-harvesting semiconductors can alter the bias of reversible electrocatalysts in favor of H2 production and CO2 reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmeier, Andreas; Wang, Vincent C C; Woolerton, Thomas W; Bell, Sophie; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C; Can, Mehmet; Ragsdale, Stephen W; Chaudhary, Yatendra S; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2013-10-09

    The most efficient catalysts for solar fuel production should operate close to reversible potentials, yet possess a bias for the fuel-forming direction. Protein film electrochemical studies of Ni-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and [NiFeSe]-hydrogenase, each a reversible electrocatalyst, show that the electronic state of the electrode strongly biases the direction of electrocatalysis of CO2/CO and H(+)/H2 interconversions. Attached to graphite electrodes, these enzymes show high activities for both oxidation and reduction, but there is a marked shift in bias, in favor of CO2 or H(+) reduction, when the respective enzymes are attached instead to n-type semiconductor electrodes constructed from CdS and TiO2 nanoparticles. This catalytic rectification effect can arise for a reversible electrocatalyst attached to a semiconductor electrode if the electrode transforms between semiconductor- and metallic-like behavior across the same narrow potential range (<0.25 V) that the electrocatalytic current switches between oxidation and reduction.

  3. CO2 content of electricity losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daví-Arderius, Daniel; Sanin, María-Eugenia; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Countries are implementing policies to develop greener energy markets worldwide. In Europe, the ¨2030 Energy and Climate Package¨ asks for further reductions of green house gases, renewable sources integration, and energy efficiency targets. But the polluting intensity of electricity may be different in average than when considering market inefficiencies, in particular losses, and therefore the implemented policy must take those differences into account. Precisely, herein we study the importance in terms of CO2 emissions the extra amount of energy necessary to cover losses. With this purpose we use Spanish market and system data with hourly frequency from 2011 to 2013. Our results show that indeed electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions, with a higher CO2 emissions rate when covering losses than the average rate of the system. Additionally, we find that the market closing technologies used to cover losses have a positive and significant impact on CO2 emissions: when polluting technologies (coal or combined cycle) close the market, the impact of losses on CO2 emissions is high compared to the rest of technologies (combined heat and power, renewables or hydropower). To the light of these results we make some policy recommendations to reduce the impact of losses on CO2 emissions. - Highlights: • Electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions. • Policies aimed to reducing losses have a positive impact on CO2 emissions. • The market closing technology used to cover losses have impacts on CO2 emissions. • Pollutant technologies that close the market should be replaced by renewables.

  4. Systematic Bandgap Engineering of Graphene Quantum Dots and Applications for Photocatalytic Water Splitting and CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yibo; Chen, Jie; Li, Nan; Tian, Jingqi; Li, Kaixin; Jiang, Jizhou; Liu, Jiyang; Tian, Qinghua; Chen, Peng

    2018-04-24

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs), which is the latest addition to the nanocarbon material family, promise a wide spectrum of applications. Herein, we demonstrate two different functionalization strategies to systematically tailor the bandgap structures of GQDs whereby making them snugly suitable for particular applications. Furthermore, the functionalized GQDs with a narrow bandgap and intramolecular Z-scheme structure are employed as the efficient photocatalysts for water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction under visible light. The underlying mechanisms of our observations are studied and discussed.

  5. Feasibility study on energy saving and the reduction of CO2 emission at Petrochemical Corporation of Singapore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A feasibility study has been executed on energy conservation and greenhouse gas emission reduction, taking up as the objects the first-period crackers and their utility related facilities at Petrochemical Corporation of Singapore (PCS). In the study, discussions were given on restructuring of the overall energy balance by using the pinch technology, adoption of the advanced recovery system (ARS) made by S and W, and a cogeneration system using gas turbine generators. As a result of the discussions for the case of using the pinch technology, ARS, and 45-MW gas turbines, the annual reduction in the fuel consumption was found to correspond to crude oil of 5.1, 3.1 and 39.0 kt, respectively. Furthermore, the annual greenhouse gas emission reduction would be 15.8, 9.7 and 120.6 kt. The total required fund for modification construction of the naphtha crackers for energy conservation would be 460 million yen, 3,700 million yen, and 5,460 million yen respectively for the pinch technology, ARS and 45-MW gas turbines. The internal profitability of the total investment would be 19% for the pinch technology, and 27% for the 45-MW gas turbines. (NEDO)

  6. The challenge of meeting Canada's greenhouse gas reduction targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry; Chaudhry, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Government of Canada announced its medium- and long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction plan entitled Turning the Corner, proposed emission cuts of 20% below 2006 levels by 2020 and 60-70% below 2006 levels by 2050. A report from a Canadian government advisory organization, the National Round Table on Environment and Economy (NRTEE), Achieving 2050: A carbon pricing policy for Canada, recommended 'fast and deep' energy pathways to emissions reduction through large-scale electrification of Canada's economy by relying on a major expansion of hydroelectricity, adoption of carbon capture and storage for coal and natural gas, and increasing the use of nuclear. This paper examines the likelihood of the pathways being met by considering the report's proposed energy systems, their associated energy sources, and the magnitude of the changes. It shows that the pathways assume some combination of technological advances, access to secure energy supplies, or rapid installation in order to meet both the 2020 and 2050 targets. This analysis suggests that NRTEE's projections are optimistic and unlikely to be achieved. The analysis described in this paper can be applied to other countries to better understand and develop strategies that can help reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. - Research highlights: → An analysis of a Canadian government advisory organization's GHG reduction plans. → Hydroelectricity and wind development is overly optimistic. → Declining coal and natural gas supplies and lack of CO 2 storage may hamper CCS. → Changing precipitation patterns may limit nuclear and hydroelectricity. → Bioenergy and energy reduction policies largely ignored despite their promise.

  7. Interferometric investigation of shock waves induced by a TEA-CO2 laser produced plasma in air in front of a solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, D.; Apostol, I.; Cojocaru, E.; Draganescu, V.; Mihailescu, N.I.; Morjan, I.; Konov, I.V.

    1979-06-01

    The shock waves induced in the surrounding atmosphere by an air plasma were investigated by laser interferometry. The air breakdown plasma was produced by a TEA-CO 2 laser in front of a solid target. The results were compared to the predictions of theory of intense explosions in gases and a good agreement was inferred. It was also determined that the symmetry of the expansion of the initial shock wave is determined by the plasma source shape and, accordingly, depends on the laser power density incident on the target surface. However, for further stages all the shock waves expand spherically. (author)

  8. INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Increase in the amplitude of hf currents during exposure of a neutral target to microsecond CO2 laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, A. A.; Losev, Leonid L.; Meshalkin, E. A.

    1988-09-01

    High-frequency electric currents were generated by irradiation of a metal target with CO2 laser pulses. It was found that the region where the ambient gas was photoionized had a decisive influence on the hf current amplitude. A method for increasing the amplitude of the current by creating an auxiliary laser jet on the target was proposed and used. An hf current of up to 1 A amplitude was observed at a frequency of 75 MHz and this current lasted for 1.5 μs.

  9. Impact of Overlapping Fe/TiO2 Prepared by Sol-Gel and Dip-Coating Process on CO2 Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Nishimura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe/TiO2 film photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating process to extend its photoresponsivity to the visible spectrum. To promote the CO2 reduction performance with the photocatalyst, some types of base materials used for coating Fe/TiO2, which were netlike glass fiber and Cu disc, were investigated. The characterization of prepared Fe/TiO2 film coated on netlike glass fiber and Cu disc was analyzed by SEM and EPMA. In addition, the CO2 reduction performance of Fe/TiO2 film coated on netlike glass disc, Cu disc, and their overlap was tested under a Xe lamp with or without ultraviolet (UV light, respectively. The results show that the concentration of produced CO increases by Fe doping irrespective of base material used under the illumination condition with UV light as well as that without UV light. Since the electron transfer between two overlapped photocatalysts is promoted, the peak concentration of CO for the Fe/TiO2 double overlapping is approximately 1.5 times as large as the Fe/TiO2 single overlapping under the illumination condition with UV light, while the promotion ratio is approximately 1.1 times under that without UV light.

  10. Solution Synthesis, Structure, and CO2 Reduction Reactivity of a Scandium(II) Complex, {Sc[N(SiMe3 )2 ]3 }.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woen, David H; Chen, Guo P; Ziller, Joseph W; Boyle, Timothy J; Furche, Filipp; Evans, William J

    2017-02-13

    The first crystallographically characterizable complex of Sc 2+ , [Sc(NR 2 ) 3 ] - (R=SiMe 3 ), has been obtained by LnA 3 /M reactions (Ln=rare earth metal; A=anionic ligand; M=alkali metal) involving reduction of Sc(NR 2 ) 3 with K in the presence of 2.2.2-cryptand (crypt) and 18-crown-6 (18-c-6) and with Cs in the presence of crypt. Dark maroon [K(crypt)] + , [K(18-c-6)] + , and [Cs(crypt)] + salts of the [Sc(NR 2 ) 3 ] - anion are formed, respectively. The formation of this oxidation state of Sc is also indicated by the eight-line EPR spectra arising from the I=7/2 45 Sc nucleus. The Sc(NR 2 ) 3 reduction differs from Ln(NR 2 ) 3 reactions (Ln=Y and lanthanides) in that it occurs under N 2 without formation of isolable reduced dinitrogen species. [K(18-c-6)][Sc(NR 2 ) 3 ] reacts with CO 2 to produce an oxalate complex, {K 2 (18-c-6) 3 }{[(R 2 N) 3 Sc] 2 (μ-C 2 O 4 -κ 1 O:κ 1 O'')}, and a CO 2 - radical anion complex, [(R 2 N) 3 Sc(μ-OCO-κ 1 O:κ 1 O')K(18-c-6)] n . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Feasibility of biodiesel production and CO2 emission reduction by Monoraphidium dybowskii LB50 under semi-continuous culture with open raceway ponds in the desert area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haijian; He, Qiaoning; Hu, Chunxiang

    2018-01-01

    Compared with other general energy crops, microalgae are more compatible with desert conditions. In addition, microalgae cultivated in desert regions can be used to develop biodiesel. Therefore, screening oil-rich microalgae, and researching the algae growth, CO 2 fixation and oil yield in desert areas not only effectively utilize the idle desertification lands and other resources, but also reduce CO 2 emission. Monoraphidium dybowskii LB50 can be efficiently cultured in the desert area using light resources, and lipid yield can be effectively improved using two-stage induction and semi-continuous culture modes in open raceway ponds (ORPs). Lipid content (LC) and lipid productivity (LP) were increased by 20% under two-stage industrial salt induction, whereas biomass productivity (BP) increased by 80% to enhance LP under semi-continuous mode in 5 m 2 ORPs. After 3 years of operation, M. dybowskii LB50 was successfully and stably cultivated under semi-continuous mode for a month during five cycles of repeated culture in a 200 m 2 ORP in the desert area. This culture mode reduced the supply of the original species. The BP and CO 2 fixation rate were maintained at 18 and 33 g m -2  day -1 , respectively. Moreover, LC decreased only during the fifth cycle of repeated culture. Evaporation occurred at 0.9-1.8 L m -2  day -1 , which corresponded to 6.5-13% of evaporation loss rate. Semi-continuous and two-stage salt induction culture modes can reduce energy consumption and increase energy balance through the energy consumption analysis of life cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining biodiesel production and CO 2 fixation using microalgae grown as feedstock under culture modes with ORPs by using the resources in the desert area. The understanding of evaporation loss and the sustainability of semi-continuous culture render this approach practically viable. The novel strategy may be a promising alternative to existing technology for CO 2 emission

  12. The sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thiez, P.

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO 2 , represents a major technological and societal challenge in the fight against climate change. Among the measures likely to reduce anthropic CO 2 emissions, capture and geological storage holds out promise for the future. (author)

  13. Multigas reduction strategy under climate stabilization target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, A. [Inst. of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Global warming can be mitigated through the abatement of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). This study argued that multiple gas reduction flexibility should be assessed when considering effective greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies. Emissions of non-CO{sub 2} GHGs were calculated endogenously using an integrated assessment model. Multigas reduction potential was measured in relation to long-term atmospheric temperature targets, and the effects on gas life as well as abatement timing uncertainty were considered in terms of cost and technological availability. The model consisted of 5 nodules which considered issues related to energy, climate, land use, macroeconomics, and environmental impacts. The time horizon of the model was 2000 to 2100. An economic utility maximization technology was used to consider global trade balances. Emissions of non-CO{sub 2} gases from specific sources was calculated by multiplying the emission factor and the endogenous parameters within the model. Results were presented for GHG emissions and concentrations in 2 simulation cases: (1) a no climate policy case (NCP); and (2) a transient temperature stabilization (TTS) case. Actions to reduce non-CO{sub 2} GHGs included activity level changes in production and consumption, and additional reductions in abatement costs without sector activity changes. Results of the study showed that reducing global dependency on fossil fuels was an effective way to reduce GHG effects from CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Additional abatements to reduce N{sub 2}O emissions are required in the agricultural sector. Economic incentives and public outreach programs are needed to offset the high transaction costs of GHG mitigation strategies. It was concluded that both short-term and long-term policies are required to reduce GHG in all sectors. Multigas mitigation is needed to

  14. Electricity market deregulation and CO2 emissions reduction : dancing at different tunes across Canada and U.S. border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.T.; Clavet, F.; Ondo, J.C.

    2003-07-01

    Industrial producers are concerned that Canada's decision to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will have a negative impact on competitiveness programs with its main trading partner, the United States, which has not ratified the Protocol. This paper discusses the concerns expressed by Canadian industrial producers regarding the negative impact of Canada's proposed policy actions to lower carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 100 Mt, of which 55 Mt are to be realized by large industrial emitters such as oil and gas production, electricity generation from fossil fuels, and a few heterogeneous industries. The power generators' share is approximately 20 Mt. In response to these concerns, the Government of Canada has proposed a ceiling on the price of emissions permits paid by industrial users. It has proposed that no measure that costs more than $15 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent should be undertaken by industries. In addition, Canadian industries will not be required to make carbon dioxide equivalent emissions reductions that exceed 15 per cent of their emissions associated with the business as usual scenario in 2010. This study evaluated how such a scheme would affect electricity production and trade between Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, New England and New York. It was shown that the scheme has nearly no influence on electricity production and trade flows. As such, it is very effective in protecting the competitive position of electricity products, but it does little to reduce greenhouse gases. 4 refs., 14 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Rapid thermal reduced graphene oxide/Pt–TiO2 nanotube arrays for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic reduction of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Lan Ching; Leong, Kah Hon; Saravanan, Pichiah; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Enhanced visible light character of TNTs was imparted by RGO/Pt via facile route. • Pt NPs contribute exemplary visible light harvesting nature through plasmon effect. • Engulfed RGO promoted enhanced charge-carriers separation. • Synergistic effect of RGO, Pt photoreduced CO 2 to CH 4 with max. of 10.96 μmol m −2 . - Abstract: In this study, a complicate natural photosynthesis process was prototyped through a photocatalysis process by reducing CO 2 to light hydrocarbon, CH 4 . The composite photocatalyst employed for this study utilized Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) and rapid thermal reduced graphene oxide (RGO) deposited over the surface of the TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNTs). The existence and contribution of both Pt NPs and RGO in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, Raman, FTIR, XPS, UV-DRS and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The TNTs in the composite exhibited pure anatase phase. The absorption bands at around 450 nm obtained from UV-DRS spectrum supported the existence of LSPR phenomenon of Pt NPs. The promising lower work function of RGO promoted the electrons transfer from TNTs to RGO efficiently. The successful depositions of Pt and RGO onto the surface of TNTs contributed for the improved photocatalytic activity (total CH 4 yield of 10.96 μmol m −2 ) in the reduction of CO 2 over TNTs and Pt–TNTs. Both of RGO and Pt NPs are equally important to exert a significant impact on the improvement of CH 4 production rates.

  16. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO2 reduction – A case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas can be upgraded to create biomethane, a substitute to natural gas. • Biogas upgrading was applied to landfills and anaerobic digestors in 3 countries. • Up to 0.6% of a country’s consumption of natural gas could be replaced by biomethane. • Italy could save 46% of the national CO 2 emissions attributed to the waste sector. • Scenarios were created to increase biomethane production. - Abstract: Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO 2 reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy

  17. How to Achieve CO2 Emission Reduction Goals by 2050. Abstracts of the 22nd Forum: Energy Day in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This years' annual Forum is held twenty-two years in a row. Analysing the energy development to 2050 takes into consideration the nature and complexity of the energy development, a long period of preparing plants and facilities, a long service life of plants, dimensions of technological development and continuous growth of energy demand. New reasons for a long-term observation of the energy development, at least by 2050, are climate change and radical reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases according to the EU Energy Policy to 2050. The impact of permitted level of carbon dioxide emissions on the energy production and consumption is drastic and fundamentally changes the structure of energy production and consumption. The new legal and economical approach as well as the new technological development and and political determination are required for the implementation of energy policy which should lead to radical reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. The time is also an important factor because postponement of defining the new approach of energy policy decreases the possibility of its realisation. An additional argument for a new technological development is the mobilization of the science and industry for achieving that new step in technological development. This development is required in order to develop the energy industry without or with minimal greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, it is very important for renewable energy, at the carbon dioxide capture and storage, at the energy efficiency in the whole range of activities, from the production, transmission and distribution to the consumption of devices and equipment used by consumers, at smart grids, at the energy storage and vehicles. Reducing the energy consumption in buildings is energy, economical, architectual and organizational project which has to include every commercial and residential building. It is important to eliminate all disadvantages that incurred in the period when

  18. Future CO2 removal from pulp mills - Process integration consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hektor, Erik; Berntsson, Thore

    2007-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that capturing the CO 2 from flue gases in the recovery boiler at a pulp mill can be a cost-effective way of reducing mill CO 2 emissions. However, the CO 2 capture cost is very dependent on the fuel price. In this paper, the potential for reducing the need for external fuel and thereby the possibility to reduce the cost for capturing the CO 2 are investigated. The reduction is achieved by using thermal process integration. In alternative 1, the mill processes are integrated and a steam surplus made available for CO 2 capture, but still there is a need for external fuel. In alternative 2, the integration is taken one step further, the reboiler is fed with MP steam, and the heat of absorption from the absorption unit is used for generation of LP steam needed at the mill. The avoidance costs are in both cases lower than before the process integration. The avoidance cost in alternative 1 varies between 25.4 and 30.7 EUR/tonne CO 2 depending on the energy market parameters. For alternative 2, the cost varies between 22.5 and 27.2 EUR/tonne CO 2 . With tough CO 2 reduction targets and correspondingly high CO 2 emission costs, the annual earnings can be substantial, 18.6 MEUR with alternative 1 and 21.2 MEUR with alternative 2

  19. Synthesis of hierarchical ZnV2O6 nanosheets with enhanced activity and stability for visible light driven CO2 reduction to solar fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafaqeer, Abdullah; Tahir, Muhammad; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina

    2018-03-01

    Hierarchical nanostructures have lately garnered enormous attention because of their remarkable performances in energy storage and catalysis applications. In this study, novel hierarchical ZnV2O6 nanosheets, formulated by one-step solvothermal method, for enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction with H2O to solar fuels has been investigated. The structure and properties of the catalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, BET, UV-vis, Raman and PL spectroscopy. The hierarchical ZnV2O6 nanosheets show excellent performance towards photoreduction of CO2 with H2O to CH3OH, CH3COOH and HCOOH under visible light. The main product yield, CH3OH of 3253.84 μmol g-cat-1 was obtained over ZnV2O6, 3.4 times the amount of CH3OH produced over the ZnO/V2O5 composite (945.28 μmol g-cat-1). In addition, CH3OH selectivity of 39.96% achieved over ZnO/V2O5, increased to 48.78% in ZnV2O6 nanosheets. This significant improvement in photo-activity over ZnV2O6 structure was due to hierarchical structure with enhanced charge separation by V2O5. The obtained ZnV2O6 hierarchical nanosheets exhibited excellent photocatalytic stability for selective CH3OH production.

  20. Enhanced selective photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CH4 over plasmonic Au modified g-C3N4 photocatalyst under UV-vis light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Gao, Yan; Xiong, Zhuo; Liao, Chen; Shih, Kaimin

    2018-05-01

    A series of Au-g-C3N4 (Au-CN) catalysts were prepared through a NaBH4-reduction method using g-C3N4 (CN) from pyrolysis of urea as precursor. The catalysts' surface area, crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical state, functional group composition and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectra, fourier transform infrared, photoluminescence and transient photocurrent analysis. The carbon dioxide (CO2) photoreduction activities under ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) light irradiation were significantly enhanced when gold (Au) was loaded on the surface of CN. 2Au-CN catalyst with Au to CN mole ratio of 2% showed the best catalytic activity. After 2 h UV-vis light irradiation, the methane (CH4) yield over the 2Au-CN catalyst was 9.1 times higher than that over the pure CN. The CH4 selectivity also greatly improved for the 2Au-CN compared to the CN. The deposited Au nanoparticles facilitated the separation of electron-hole pairs on the CN surface. Moreover, the surface plasmon resonance effect of Au further promoted the generation of hot electrons and visible light absorption. Therefore, Au loading significantly improved CO2 photoreduction performance of CN under UV-vis light irradiation.

  1. Metal-Carbon-CNF Composites Obtained by Catalytic Pyrolysis of Urban Plastic Residues as Electro-Catalysts for the Reduction of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Castelo-Quibén

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal–carbon–carbon nanofibers composites obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of urban plastic residues have been prepared using Fe, Co or Ni as pyrolitic catalysts. The composite materials have been fully characterized from a textural and chemical point of view. The proportion of carbon nanofibers and the final content of carbon phases depend on the used pyrolitic metal with Ni being the most active pyrolitic catalysts. The composites show the electro-catalyst activity in the CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons, favoring all the formation of C1 to C4 hydrocarbons. The tendency of this activity is in accordance with the apparent faradaic efficiencies and the linear sweep voltammetries. The cobalt-based composite shows high selectivity to C3 hydrocarbons within this group of compounds.

  2. Short-rotation forestry of birch, maple, poplar and willow in Flanders (Belgium) II. Energy production and CO2 emission reduction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walle, Inge van de; Camp, Nancy van; Casteele, Liesbet van de; Verheyen, Kris; Lemeur, Raoul

    2007-01-01

    Belgium, being an EU country, has committed itself to a 7.5% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Within this framework, the Flemish government aims at reaching a share of 6% of renewable electricity in the total electricity production by 2010. In this work, the biomass production of birch, maple, poplar and willow in a short-rotation forestry (SRF) plantation after a 4-year growth period served as the base to calculate the amount of (electrical) energy that could be produced by this type of bioenergy crop in Flanders. The maximum amount of electricity that could be provided by SRF biomass was estimated at 72.9 GWh e year -1 , which only accounts for 0.16% of the total electricity production in this region. Although the energy output was rather low, the bioenergy production process under consideration appeared to be more energy efficient than energy production processes based on fossil fuels. The high efficiency of birch compared to the other species was mainly due to the high calorific value of the birch wood. The maximum CO 2 emission reduction potential of SRF plantations in Flanders was estimated at only 0.09% of the total annual CO 2 emission. The most interesting application of SRF in Flanders seemed to be the establishment of small-scale plantations, linked to a local combined heat and power plant. These plantations could be established on marginal arable soils or on polluted sites, and they could be of importance in the densely populated area of Flanders because of other environmental benefits, among which their function as (temporary) habitat for many species

  3. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO2 reduction--a case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO2 reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Report on basic survey project for promoting joint implementation in 1999. Feasibility study on energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emission at Balikpapan Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective of implementation as the clean development mechanism (CDM), a survey was performed on energy conservation and CO2 reduction at Balikpapan Refinery in Indonesia with respect to reducing emission of greenhouse effect gases. A crude oil atmospheric distillation unit with a capacity of 200,000 BPSD, and a vacuum distillation unit with a capacity of 81,000 BPSD are in operation, which emit carbon dioxide of about 470,000 tons annually from fuels burned and consumed by these units. The result of the survey revealed that there is a room for improvement in heat recovery, and that these units are separated into two groups located far away with each other in distance, resulting in low thermal efficiency and wastes in fuel. Increase in heat recovery should be achieved, and fuel consumption in the heating furnace should be reduced. Energy saving technologies owned by JGC were applied to establish a modification plan. The plan calls for maximum annual reduction of carbon dioxide of about 61,000 tons at a reduction rate of 13%, and maximum annual fuel conservation of 190 times 10{sup 9} kcal at a saving rate of 13%. PERTAMINA also desires the realization thereof if technical and financial assistance is made available. The project has a significance that it would give a great impetus to the entire regions and industries. (NEDO)

  5. Temperature-programmed reaction of CO2 reduction in the presence of hydrogen over Fe/Al2O3, Re/Al2O3 and Cr-Mn-O/Al2O3 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzabekova, S.R.; Mamedov, A.B.; Krylov, O.V.

    1996-01-01

    Regularities in CO 2 reduction have been studied using the systems Fe/Al 2 O 3 , Re/Al 2 O 3 and Cr-Mn-O/Al 2 O 3 under conditions of thermally programmed reaction by way of example. A sharp increase in the reduction rate in the course of CO 2 interaction with reduced Fe/Al 2 O 3 and Re/Al 2 O 3 , as well as with carbon fragments with addition in CO 2 flow of 1-2%H 2 , has been revealed. The assumption is made on intermediate formation of a formate in the process and on initiating effect of hydrogen on CO 2 reduction by the catalyst. Refs. 26, figs. 10

  6. Land-Based Mitigation Strategies under the Mid-Term Carbon Reduction Targets in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Hasegawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the key mitigation options for achieving the mid-term target for carbon emission reduction in Indonesia. A computable general equilibrium model coupled with a land-based mitigation technology model was used to evaluate specific mitigation options within the whole economic framework. The results revealed three primary findings: (1 If no climate policy were implemented, Indonesia’s total greenhouse gas emissions would reach 3.0 GtCO2eq by 2030; (2 To reduce carbon emissions to meet the latest Intended Nationally-Determined Contributions (INDC target, ~58% of total reductions should come from the agriculture, forestry and other land use sectors by implementing forest protection, afforestation and plantation efforts; (3 A higher carbon price in 2020 suggests that meeting the 2020 target would be economically challenging, whereas the INDC target for 2030 would be more economically realistic in Indonesia.

  7. CO2 loss by permafrost thawing implies additional emissions reductions to limit warming to 1.5 or 2 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eleanor J.; Chadburn, Sarah E.; Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Chris D.

    2018-02-01

    Large amounts of carbon are stored in the permafrost of the northern high latitude land. As permafrost degrades under a warming climate, some of this carbon will decompose and be released to the atmosphere. This positive climate-carbon feedback will reduce the natural carbon sinks and thus lower anthropogenic CO2 emissions compatible with the goals of the Paris Agreement. Simulations using an ensemble of the JULES-IMOGEN intermediate complexity climate model (including climate response and process uncertainty) and a stabilization target of 2 °C, show that including the permafrost carbon pool in the model increases the land carbon emissions at stabilization by between 0.09 and 0.19 Gt C year-1 (10th to 90th percentile). These emissions are only slightly reduced to between 0.08 and 0.16 Gt C year-1 (10th to 90th percentile) when considering 1.5 °C stabilization targets. This suggests that uncertainties caused by the differences in stabilization target are small compared with those associated with model parameterisation uncertainty. Inertia means that permafrost carbon loss may continue for many years after anthropogenic emissions have stabilized. Simulations suggest that between 225 and 345 Gt C (10th to 90th percentile) are in thawed permafrost and may eventually be released to the atmosphere for stabilization target of 2 °C. This value is 60-100 Gt C less for a 1.5 °C target. The inclusion of permafrost carbon will add to the demands on negative emission technologies which are already present in most low emissions scenarios.

  8. Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets: Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Rajbhandari, Salony

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO 2 and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO 2 emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO 2 emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case.

  9. Environmental and economic effects of the Copenhagen pledges and more ambitious emission reduction targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Everett B.; Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    A multi-region, multi-sector dynamic computable general equilibrium model is applied to explore the economic and welfare effects of the pledges submitted by developed countries (Annex I countries) and major developing (non-Annex I) countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord. In addition to analyzing scenarios reflecting the upper and lower bounds of the Copenhagen Pledges, one additional policy scenario where Annex I countries as a group reduce CO 2 -emissions by 30% in 2020 compared to 1990 levels, and where major non-Annex I countries reduce CO 2 emissions 15% below baseline, is also analyzed. Economic effects are measured as changes in GDP compared to baseline and welfare effects are measured via the equivalent variation. Assuming that countries with emission targets may trade certificates, average reductions in GDP for countries with targets range between 0.1% and 0.7% in 2020 for the policy scenarios. While the GDP losses are larger for major non-Annex I countries with emission targets compared to Annex I countries, this is not the case for the changes in welfare. With the exception of Mexico, the welfare losses for the major non-Annex I regions, as a percentage of projected GDP in 2020, are lower than for the large Annex I countries. - Highlights: → Copenhagen pledges are not ambitious in terms of global CO 2 -emission reductions. → Copenhagen pledges are not costly in terms of global GDP or welfare losses. → Reductions in GDP and welfare in 2020 are not evenly distributed across regions.→ Major non-Annex I countries face relatively larger reductions in GDP compared with Annex I countries.→ Copenhagen pledges do not result in large amounts of carbon leakage.

  10. Heterologous Expression of the Clostridium carboxidivorans CO Dehydrogenase Alone or Together with the Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthase Enables both Reduction of CO2 and Oxidation of CO by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ellinor D; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2017-08-15

    With recent advances in synthetic biology, CO 2 could be utilized as a carbon feedstock by native or engineered organisms, assuming the availability of electrons. Two key enzymes used in autotrophic CO 2 fixation are the CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthase (ACS), which form a bifunctional heterotetrameric complex. The CODH/ACS complex can reversibly catalyze CO 2 to CO, effectively enabling a biological water-gas shift reaction at ambient temperatures and pressures. The CODH/ACS complex is part of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) used by acetogens to fix CO 2 , and it has been well characterized in native hosts. So far, only a few recombinant CODH/ACS complexes have been expressed in heterologous hosts, none of which demonstrated in vivo CO 2 reduction. Here, functional expression of the Clostridium carboxidivorans CODH/ACS complex is demonstrated in the solventogen Clostridium acetobutylicum , which was engineered to express CODH alone or together with the ACS. Both strains exhibited CO 2 reduction and CO oxidation activities. The CODH reactions were interrogated using isotopic labeling, thus verifying that CO was a direct product of CO 2 reduction, and vice versa. CODH apparently uses a native C. acetobutylicum ferredoxin as an electron carrier for CO 2 reduction. Heterologous CODH activity depended on actively growing cells and required the addition of nickel, which is inserted into CODH without the need to express the native Ni insertase protein. Increasing CO concentrations in the gas phase inhibited CODH activity and altered the metabolite profile of the CODH-expressing cells. This work provides the foundation for engineering a complete and functional WLP in nonnative host organisms. IMPORTANCE Functional expression of CO dehydrogenase (CODH) from Clostridium carboxidivorans was demonstrated in C. acetobutylicum , which is natively incapable of CO 2 fixation. The expression of CODH, alone or together with the C. carboxidivorans

  11. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  12. Swedish contribution to the greenhouse effect and required reductions to meet the 550 ppmv target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Lina; Nilsson, Kristina

    2002-11-01

    According to the Swedish Parliament, the Swedish international climate strategy should focus on a stabilisation of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. An equilibrium concentration lower than 550 ppmv CO 2 -equivalents should be achieved by the end of this century. As an interim target, the yearly emissions should not exceed 4.5 tonnes CO 2 -equivalents per capita by 2050. In this study an inventory of Swedish emissions from 1834 until 2000, for the six greenhouse gases regulated by the Kyoto Protocol, is carried out. Future emission scenarios for carbon dioxide during the time period 2000-2050 are also defined. This data is used for estimating the contribution to the greenhouse effect both today and in the future. Further it is investigated if the 2050-target is sufficient for not exceeding an atmospheric concentration of 550 ppmv. The required reduction for 2100 to reach an equilibrium concentration below this level is also estimated. The Swedish contribution to the greenhouse effect today is about 30 % larger than it should be according to the fairness factor used in this study. The Swedish emission target set for 2050 is sufficient for not exceeding 550 ppmv by that year. However, to reach a stabilisation of the concentration below this level the emissions have to be reduced to 1.0-1.5 tonnes CO 2 -equivalents per capita by 2100

  13. CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Jammes, L.; Guyot, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Le Thiez, P.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO 2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO 2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO 2 ; CO 2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO 2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  14. CO2 laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The research and development programs on high-energy, short-pulse CO 2 lasers were begun at LASL in 1969. Three large systems are now either operating or are being installed. The Single-Beam System (SBS), a four-stage prototype, was designed in 1971 and has been in operation since 1973 with an output energy of 250 J in a 1-ns pulse with an on-target intensity of 3.5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The Dual-Beam System (DBS), now in the final stages of electrical and optical checkout, will provide about ten times more power for two-beam target irradiation experiments. Four such dual-beam modules are being installed in the Laser-Fusion Laboratory to provide an Eight-Beam System (EBS) scheduled for operation at the 5- to 10-TW level in 1977. A fourth system, a 100- to 200-TW CO 2 laser, is being designed for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) program

  15. The Reduction of CO2 Emissions by Application of High-Strength Reinforcing Bars to Three Different Structural Systems in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Cho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC industry consume approximately 23% of the national energy annually, and are considered among the highest energy consuming industries. Recently, several studies have focused on establishing strategies to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide in the AEC industry by utilisation of low-carbon materials, material reuse, recycling and minimal usage; selection of an optimal structural system and structural optimisation; and optimisation of construction operations. While several studies examined material selection and replacement in concrete, there is a paucity of studies investigating the replacement and implementation of high-strength re-bars to lower the carbon dioxide emissions in buildings. To fill this research gap, the purpose of this study involves calculating the emissions of carbon dioxide by applying high-strength reinforcement bars in three different types of buildings. The input–output analysis method was adopted to compute the emissions of carbon dioxide by using the yield strength and size. This study showed that the application of the high-strength re-bars is beneficial in reducing the input amount of materials, although the quantity of reinforcing bars on the development and splice increased. Furthermore, the application of high-strength deformed bars is also advantageous as a means of carbon dioxide reduction in the studied structural systems. In this study, the CO2 emissions of three different structural systems indicated that implementing SD500 re-bars is the most effective method to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  16. Feasibility study on energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emissions using RDF (refused derived fuel) at a Chinese cement plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a project in China for energy saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction by introducing the energy-saving and alternative energy technologies in cement plants. The cement plant selected for the feasibility study is Shanghai Plant of Shanghai Allied Cement Co., Ltd. (SAC), for RDF receive and supply facility, chlorine bypass facility, exhaust heat power generation facility and RDF production facility. The study results indicate that the exhaust power generation can save energy of 4,700 tons/y as crude, or energy saving rate of 25.5%, and that replacing part of coal by RDF and exhaust power generation can reduce CO2 emissions by 25,500 and 18,500 tons/y, respectively. For the investment recovery, it is estimated that the investment can be recovered in 9 years, and the project value is 81.399 million Yuan with the initial investment and project profit in each year discounted to the present value. These results fail to satisfy the SAC's investment standards. (NEDO)

  17. Feasibility study on energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emissions using RDF (refused derived fuel) at a Chinese cement plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a project in China for energy saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction by introducing the energy-saving and alternative energy technologies in cement plants. The cement plant selected for the feasibility study is Shanghai Plant of Shanghai Allied Cement Co., Ltd. (SAC), for RDF receive and supply facility, chlorine bypass facility, exhaust heat power generation facility and RDF production facility. The study results indicate that the exhaust power generation can save energy of 4,700 tons/y as crude, or energy saving rate of 25.5%, and that replacing part of coal by RDF and exhaust power generation can reduce CO2 emissions by 25,500 and 18,500 tons/y, respectively. For the investment recovery, it is estimated that the investment can be recovered in 9 years, and the project value is 81.399 million Yuan with the initial investment and project profit in each year discounted to the present value. These results fail to satisfy the SAC's investment standards. (NEDO)

  18. Bioelectrochemical conversion of CO2 to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Pant, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    The recent concept of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) has evolved as an electricity-driven production technology for chemicals from low-value carbon dioxide (CO2) using micro-organisms as biocatalysts. MES from CO2 comprises bioelectrochemical reduction of CO2 to multi-carbon organic compounds

  19. Reduced-order modeling with sparse polynomial chaos expansion and dimension reduction for evaluating the impact of CO2 and brine leakage on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Zheng, L.; Pau, G. S. H.

    2016-12-01

    A careful assessment of the risk associated with geologic CO2 storage is critical to the deployment of large-scale storage projects. While numerical modeling is an indispensable tool for risk assessment, there has been increasing need in considering and addressing uncertainties in the numerical models. However, uncertainty analyses have been significantly hindered by the computational complexity of the model. As a remedy, reduced-order models (ROM), which serve as computationally efficient surrogates for high-fidelity models (HFM), have been employed. The ROM is constructed at the expense of an initial set of HFM simulations, and afterwards can be relied upon to predict the model output values at minimal cost. The ROM presented here is part of National Risk Assessment Program (NRAP) and intends to predict the water quality change in groundwater in response to hypothetical CO2 and brine leakage. The HFM based on which the ROM is derived is a multiphase flow and reactive transport model, with 3-D heterogeneous flow field and complex chemical reactions including aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption via surface complexation and cation exchange. Reduced-order modeling techniques based on polynomial basis expansion, such as polynomial chaos expansion (PCE), are widely used in the literature. However, the accuracy of such ROMs can be affected by the sparse structure of the coefficients of the expansion. Failing to identify vanishing polynomial coefficients introduces unnecessary sampling errors, the accumulation of which deteriorates the accuracy of the ROMs. To address this issue, we treat the PCE as a sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) problem, and the sparsity is obtained by detecting and including only the non-zero PCE coefficients one at a time by iteratively selecting the most contributing coefficients. The computational complexity due to predicting the entire 3-D concentration fields is further mitigated by a dimension

  20. [The spectra of a laser-produced plasma source with CO2, O2 and CF4 liquid aerosol spray target].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qi-Liang; Chen, Bo

    2008-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma (LPP) source with liquid aerosol spray target and nanosecond laser was developed, based on both soft X-ray radiation metrology and extreme ultraviolet projection lithography (EUVL). The LPP source is composed of a stainless steel solenoid valve whose temperature can be continuously controlled, a Nd : YAG laser with pulse width, working wavelength and pulse energy being 7 ns, 1.064 microm and 1J respectively, and a pulse generator which can synchronously control the valve and the laser. A standard General Valve Corporation series 99 stainless steel solenoid valve with copper gasket seals and a Kel-F poppet are used in order to minimize leakage and poppet deformation during high-pressure cryogenic operation. A close fitting copper cooling jacket surrounds the valve body. The jacket clamps a copper coolant carrying tube 3 mm in diameter, which is fed by an automatically pressurized liquid nitrogen-filled dewar. The valve temperature can be controlled between 77 and 473 K. For sufficiently high backing pressure and low temperature, the valve reservoir gas can undergo a gas-to-liquid phase transition. Upon valve pulsing, the liquid is ejected into a vacuum and breaks up into droplets, which is called liquid aerosol spray target. For the above-mentioned LPP source, firstly, by the use of Cowan program on the basis of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the authors computed the radiative transition wavelengths and probabilities in soft X-ray region for O4+, O5+, O6+, O7+, F5+, F6+ and F7+ ions which were correspondingly produced from the interaction of the 10(11)-10(12) W x cm(-2) power laser with liquid O2, CO2 and CF4 aerosol spray targets. Secondly, the authors measured the spectra of liquid O2, CO2 and CF4 aerosol spray target LPP sources in the 6-20 nm band for the 8 x 10(11) W x cm(-2) laser irradiance. The measured results were compared with the Cowan calculated results ones, and the radiative transition wavelength and probability for the

  1. Metal-Organic Framework-Stabilized CO2/Water Interfacial Route for Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Zhang, Jianling; Li, Wei; He, Zhenhong; Sun, Xiaofu; Shi, Jinbiao; Shao, Dan; Zhang, Bingxing; Tan, Xiuniang; Han, Buxing

    2017-11-29

    Here, we propose a CO 2 /water interfacial route for photocatalytic CO 2 conversion by utilizing a metal-organic framework (MOF) as both an emulsifier and a catalyst. The CO 2 reduction occurring at the CO 2 /water interface produces formate with remarkably enhanced efficiency as compared with that in conventional solvent. The route is efficient, facile, adjustable, and environmentally benign, which is applicable for the CO 2 transformation photocatalyzed by different kinds of MOFs.

  2. Incorporating the Impacts of Small Scale Rock Heterogeneity into Models of Flow and Trapping in Target UK CO2 Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S. J.; Reynolds, C.; Krevor, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Predictions of the flow behaviour and storage capacity of CO2 in subsurface reservoirs are dependent on accurate modelling of multiphase flow and trapping. A number of studies have shown that small scale rock heterogeneities have a significant impact on CO2flow propagating to larger scales. The need to simulate flow in heterogeneous reservoir systems has led to the development of numerical upscaling techniques which are widely used in industry. Less well understood, however, is the best approach for incorporating laboratory characterisations of small scale heterogeneities into models. At small scales, heterogeneity in the capillary pressure characteristic function becomes significant. We present a digital rock workflow that combines core flood experiments with numerical simulations to characterise sub-core scale capillary pressure heterogeneities within rock cores from several target UK storage reservoirs - the Bunter, Captain and Ormskirk sandstone formations. Measured intrinsic properties (permeability, capillary pressure, relative permeability) and 3D saturations maps from steady-state core flood experiments were the primary inputs to construct a 3D digital rock model in CMG IMEX. We used vertical end-point scaling to iteratively update the voxel by voxel capillary pressure curves from the average MICP curve; with each iteration more closely predicting the experimental saturations and pressure drops. Once characterised, the digital rock cores were used to predict equivalent flow functions, such as relative permeability and residual trapping, across the range of flow conditions estimated to prevail in the CO2 storage reservoirs. In the case of the Captain sandstone, rock cores were characterised across an entire 100m vertical transect of the reservoir. This allowed analysis of the upscaled impact of small scale heterogeneity on flow and trapping. Figure 1 shows the varying degree to which heterogeneity impacted flow depending on the capillary number in the

  3. Development of a management protocol for the reduction of fuel consumption and decreasing of the emanations of CO2 as contaminant of environment in air service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Maroto, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A management protocol is developed for air services companies to improve the eco-efficiency of its processes. The application of operational procedures have allowed the reduction of fuel consumption and decreased the emanations of CO 2 into the environment. The methodology of the research has consisted in quantitative and qualitative analysis of the variables and processes that have influenced significantly in the operation of airline fleet. An integral analysis is realized of the procedures of management and use of resources in the cockpits of the aircraft (Cockpit Resource Management) and navigation based in performance (NBP). The results of analysis are used to elaborate a protocol to minimize the fuel consumption and energy through the application of practices and operational procedures more efficient and safe. The environmental burdens associated with the services that are provided in the airline industry are minimized. The application of methods of improvement and procedures that are updated continuously have achieved the sustainability of the protocol. The operational procedures are applied to decrease the fuel consumption. Sensitization programs are developed for the utilization of more efficient operational practices and friendly with the environment. An incentive program is implemented to optimize the fuel consumption safely by pilots. A new procedure of flight scheduling is modified based on performance of the pilots and fleet degradation factors, assigning the pilots who have had higher consumption to airplanes with lower degradation, and the pilots who have had lower consumption, to airplanes with higher degradation. A self-liquidating incentive plan is developed based on the savings achieved in the operation in high-performance, could reinforce the change of attitude necessary for the group of pilots can support the implementation of the protocol [es

  4. One-Pot Soft-Template Synthesis of Nanostructured Copper-Supported Mesoporous Carbon FDU-15 Electrocatalysts for Efficient CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Nihat Ege; Comminges, Clément; Le Valant, Anthony; Kiener, Julien; Parmentier, Julien; Napporn, Teko W; Melinte, Georgian; Ersen, Ovidiu; Kokoh, Kouakou B

    2018-03-14

    Copper-supported mesoporous carbon nanocatalysts (Cu/FDU-15) were synthesized using an easy and convenient one-pot soft-template method for low-overvoltage CO 2 electroreduction. TEM imaging revealed the presence of large Cu nanoparticles (diameter 140 nm) with Cu 2 O nanoparticles (16 nm) as an additional phase. From the electron tomography observations, we found that the copper particles were placed inside and on the exterior surface of the porous FDU-15 support, providing an accessible surface for electrocatalytic reactions. CO 2 electrolyses showed that the mesostructured Cu/FDU-15-350 cathode materials were active towards CO 2 conversion to formic acid with 22 % Faradaic efficiency at a remarkably low overpotential of 290 mV, hydrogen being the only side-product. The catalyst's activity correlates to the calculated metallic surface area, as determined from a geometrical model, confirming that the mesoporous channels act as a diffusion path for the CO 2 molecule, and that the whole Cu surface is accessible to CO 2 , even if particles are entrapped in the carbon matrix. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Capture and Geological Storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.; Brockett, S.; Hegan, L.; Barbucci, P.; Tullius, K.; Scott, J.; Otter, N.; Cook, P.; Hill, G.; Dino, R.; Aimard, N.; Giese, R.; Christensen, N.P.; Munier, G.; Paelinck, Ph.; Rayna, L.; Stromberg, L.; Birat, J.P.; Audigane, P.; Loizzo, M.; Arts, R.; Fabriol, H.; Radgen, P.; Hartwell, J.; Wartmann, S.; Drosin, E.; Willnow, K.; Moisan, F.

    2009-01-01

    To build on the growing success of the first two international symposia on emission reduction and CO 2 capture and geological storage, held in Paris in 2005 and again in 2007, IFP, ADEME and BRGM organised a third event on the same topic the 5-6 November 2009. This time, the focus was on the urgency of industrial deployment. Indeed, the IPCC 4. assessment report indicates that the world must achieve a 50 to 85% reduction in CO 2 emissions by 2050 compared to 2000, in order to limit the global temperature increase to around 2 deg. C. Moreover, IPCC stresses that a 'business as usual' scenario could lead to a temperature increase of between 4 deg. C to 7 deg. C across the planet. The symposium was organized in 4 sessions: Session I - Regulatory framework and strategies for enabling CCS deployment: - CCS: international status of political, regulatory and financing issues (Tom Kerr, IEA); - EC regulatory framework (Scott Brockett, European Commission, DG ENV); - Canada's investments towards implementation of CCS in Canada (Larry Hegan, Office of Energy Research and Development - Government of Canada); - A power company perspective (Pietro Barbucci, ENEL); - EC CCS demonstration network (Kai Tullius, European Commission, DG TREN); - Strategies and policies for accelerating global CCS deployment (Jesse Scott, E3G); - The global CCS Institute, a major initiative to facilitate the rapid deployment of CCS (Nick Otter, GCCSI); Session II - From pilot to demonstration projects: - Otway project, Australia (David Hilditch, CO2 CRC); - US regional partnerships (Gerald Hill, Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - SECARB); - CCS activities in Brazil (Rodolfo Dino, Petrobras); - Lessons learnt from Ketzin CO2Sink project in Germany (Ruediger Giese, GFZ); - CO 2 storage - from laboratory to reality (Niels-Peter Christensen, Vattenfall); - Valuation and storage of CO 2 : A global project for carbon management in South-East France (Gilles Munier, Geogreen); Session III

  6. Bio-inspired CO2 reduction by a rhenium tricarbonyl bipyridine-based catalyst appended to amino acids and peptidic platforms: incorporating proton relays and hydrogen-bonding functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabolla, S A; Machan, C W; Yin, J; Dellamary, E A; Sahu, S; Gianneschi, N C; Gilson, M K; Tezcan, F A; Kubiak, C P

    2017-06-02

    Herein, we report a new approach to bio-inspired catalyst design. The molecular catalyst employed in these studies is based on the robust and selective Re(bpy)(CO) 3 Cl-type (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) homogeneous catalysts, which have been extensively studied for their ability to reduce CO 2 electrochemically or photochemically in the presence of a photosensitizer. These catalysts can be highly active photocatalysts in their own right. In this work, the bipyridine ligand was modified with amino acids and synthetic peptides. These results build on earlier findings wherein the bipyridine ligand was functionalized with amide groups to promote dimer formation and CO 2 reduction by an alternate bimolecular mechanism at lower overpotential (ca. 250 mV) than the more commonly observed unimolecular process. The bio-inspired catalysts were designed to allow for the incorporation of proton relays to support reduction of CO 2 to CO and H 2 O. The coupling of amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine led to the formation of two structurally similar Re catalyst/peptide catalysts for comparison of proton transport during catalysis. This article reports the synthesis and characterization of novel catalyst/peptide hybrids by molecular dynamics (MD simulations of structural dynamics), NMR studies of solution phase structures, and electrochemical studies to measure the activities of new bio-inspired catalysts in the reduction of CO 2.

  7. CO2NNIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based......% of the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  8. CO2 reduction in the Danish transportation sector. Working paper 5: Technological improvement of energy efficiency. Average requirements to energy efficiency of the new vehicles. Subsidies to research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The road traffic is expected to be responsible for 9/10 of the total CO 2 emission from transportation sector in 2005. Especially private cars contribute more than half of the total CO 2 emission. Cars are not produced in Denmark, so energy efficiency of the new models depends entirely on the foreign manufacturers. Measurements of energy efficiency on test facilities show usually slightly better efficiency than on-the-road results. Efficiency estimates are based on test results. Within 10-15 years the whole car park will show essential efficiency improvement due to exchanging to newer models. Shadow price of CO 2 emission reduction is defined. (EG) Prepared for Trafikministeriet. 27 refs

  9. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  10. Reduction of the greenhouse effect by geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO2 in basic rocks: bibliographic synthesis and possibilities in France. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, J.C.; Lachassagne, P.

    2004-01-01

    The report constitutes a first bibliographic study defining the environments the most adapted to the geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO 2 . For each environment the lithology and the rocks permeability and porosity are analyzed. Thus the possible rocks and deposits in France are presented. (A.L.B.)

  11. Influence of trade on national CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, Jesper; Pade, Lise-Lotte; Minx, Jan; Lenzen, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    International trade has an impact on national CO 2 emissions and consequently on the ability to fulfil national CO 2 reduction targets. Through goods and services traded in a globally interdependent world, the consumption in each country is linked to greenhouse gas emissions in other countries. It has been argued that in order to achieve equitable reduction targets, international trade has to be taken into account when assessing nations' responsibility for abating climate change. Especially for open economies such as Denmark, greenhouse gases embodied in internationally traded commodities can have a considerable influence on the national 'greenhouse gas responsibility'. By using input-output modelling, we analyse the influence from international trade on national CO 2 emissions. The aim is to show that trade is the key to define CO 2 responsibility on a macroeconomic level and that imports should be founded in a multi-region model approach. Finally, the paper concludes on the need to consider the impact from foreign trade when negotiating reduction targets and base line scenarios. (Author)

  12. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  13. CO2 Capture and Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambimuthu, K.; Gupta, M.; Davison, J.

    2003-01-01

    CO2 capture and storage including its utilization or reuse presents an opportunity to achieve deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy use. The development and deployment of this option could significantly assist in meeting a future goal of achieving stabilization of the presently rising atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. CO2 capture from process streams is an established concept that has achieved industrial practice. Examples of current applications include the use of primarily, solvent based capture technologies for the recovery of pure CO2 streams for chemical synthesis, for utilization as a food additive, for use as a miscible agent in enhanced oil recovery operations and removal of CO2 as an undesired contaminant from gaseous process streams for the production of fuel gases such as hydrogen and methane. In these applications, the technologies deployed for CO2 capture have focused on gas separation from high purity, high pressure streams and in reducing (or oxygen deficient) environments, where the energy penalties and cost for capture are moderately low. However, application of the same capture technologies for large scale abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use poses significant challenges in achieving (at comparably low energy penalty and cost) gas separation in large volume, dilute concentration and/or low pressure flue gas streams. This paper will focus on a review of existing commercial methods of CO2 capture and the technology stretch, process integration and energy system pathways needed for their large scale deployment in fossil fueled processes. The assessment of potential capture technologies for the latter purpose will also be based on published literature data that are both 'transparent' and 'systematic' in their evaluation of the overall cost and energy penalties of CO2 capture. In view of the of the fact that many of the existing commercial processes for CO2 capture have seen applications in

  14. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO2 Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Molnar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH, and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2 targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs content (by Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO2. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO2 extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO2 extracts of S. officinalis, R. graveolens, A. archangelica, and L. officinalis. EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO2 extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO2 extracts were the most potent (95.7%. EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g from H. italicum in comparison to hexane or SC-CO2 extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  15. Heterogeneous Single-Atom Catalyst for Visible-Light-Driven High-Turnover CO2 Reduction: The Role of Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Chen, Shuangming; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jiawen; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Song, Li; Zhang, Wenkai; Xiong, Yujie

    2018-03-01

    Visible-light-driven conversion of CO 2 into chemical fuels is an intriguing approach to address the energy and environmental challenges. In principle, light harvesting and catalytic reactions can be both optimized by combining the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysts; however, the efficiency of charge transfer between light absorbers and catalytic sites is often too low to limit the overall photocatalytic performance. In this communication, it is reported that the single-atom Co sites coordinated on the partially oxidized graphene nanosheets can serve as a highly active and durable heterogeneous catalyst for CO 2 conversion, wherein the graphene bridges homogeneous light absorbers with single-atom catalytic sites for the efficient transfer of photoexcited electrons. As a result, the turnover number for CO production reaches a high value of 678 with an unprecedented turnover frequency of 3.77 min -1 , superior to those obtained with the state-of-the-art heterogeneous photocatalysts. This work provides fresh insights into the design of catalytic sites toward photocatalytic CO 2 conversion from the angle of single-atom catalysis and highlights the role of charge kinetics in bridging the gap between heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthesis and Design of a Sustainable CO2 Utilization Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    In response to increasing regulations and concern about the impact of greenhouse gases on the environment, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are targeted for reduction. One method is the conversion of CO2 to useful compounds via chemical reactions. However, conversion is still in its infancy...... and requires work for implementation at an industrial level. One aspect of this is the development of a methodology for the formulation and optimization of sustainable conversion processes. This methodology follows three stages for the process synthesis, design and more sustainable design. Using...

  17. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  18. Norwegian gas sales and the impacts on European CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, E.; Boug, P.; Kverndokk, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper has studied the impacts on Western European CO 2 emissions of a reduction in Norwegian gas sales. Such impacts are due to changes in energy demand, energy supply, and environmental and political regulations. The gas supply model DYNOPOLY was used to analyse the effects on Russian and Algerian gas exports of a reduction in Norwegian gas supply. The effects on the demand side and the effects of committing to CO 2 targets were analysed using the energy demand model SEEM. If Western European countries commit to their announced CO 2 emissions targets, reduced Norwegian gas sales will have no impact on emissions. The consumption of oil and coal will increase slightly, while the total energy consumption will go down. Also, a reduction in Norwegian gas sales will have only minor impacts on the CO 2 emissions from Western Europe when no emissions regulations are considered

  19. Fiscal 1999 basic survey report for promotion of joint implementation. Study on energy saving and CO2 reduction at Balikpapan refinery; 1999 nendo Balikpapan seiyusho ni okeru shoene CO{sub 2} sakugen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Concerning the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the embodiment of clean development mechanisms (CDMs) in Indonesia, a survey is conducted about energy saving and CO2 reduction at its Balikpapan refinery. At the refinery, a crude-oil atmospheric distillation unit operates at 200,000 BPSD (barrels per stream day) and a vacuum distillation unit at 81,000 BPSD, with the fuel consumed by the two units discharging approximately 470,000 tons/year of CO2. The result of the survey discloses that there is need for some improvement in relation with heat recovery and that the great distance between the two distillation units presents a problem in relation with heat efficiency. To settle the problems, heat recovery will be enhanced and the fuel to be burned in the heating furnace will be reduced. A plan to modify the heat exchanger system is worked out using JGC Corporation's energy-saving technology, and a rough design is drafted for the modification. When the modification is carried out, there will be a CO2 reduction of 18,636-61,597 tons/year. The Pertamina also wants the plan to be realized, wishing that technical and financial aids will be available. The plan when realized will serve as a stimulus to the local community and to the industry as a whole. (NEDO)

  20. CO2 chemical valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlero De Rosbo, Guillaume; Rakotojaona, Loic; Bucy, Jacques de; Clodic, Denis; Roger, Anne-Cecile; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Thybaud, Nathalie; Oeser, Christian; Forti, Laurent; Gimenez, Michel; Savary, David; Amouroux, Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Facing global warming, different technological solutions exist to tackle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Some inevitable short term emissions can be captured so as to avoid direct emissions into the atmosphere. This CO 2 must then be managed and geological storage seems to currently be the only way of dealing with the large volumes involved. However, this solution faces major economic profitability and societal acceptance challenges. In this context, alternative pathways consisting in using CO 2 instead of storing it do exist and are generating growing interest. This study ordered by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), aims at taking stock of the different technologies used for the chemical conversion of CO 2 in order to have a better understanding of their development potential by 2030, of the conditions in which they could be competitive and of the main actions to be implemented in France to foster their emergence. To do this, the study was broken down into two main areas of focus: The review and characterization of the main CO 2 chemical conversion routes for the synthesis of basic chemical products, energy products and inert materials. This review includes a presentation of the main principles underpinning the studied routes, a preliminary assessment of their performances, advantages and drawbacks, a list of the main R and D projects underway, a focus on emblematic projects as well as a brief analysis of the markets for the main products produced. Based on these elements, 3 routes were selected from among the most promising by 2030 for an in-depth modelling and assessment of their energy, environmental and economic performances. The study shows that the processes modelled do have favorable CO 2 balances (from 1 to 4 t-CO 2 /t-product) and effectively constitute solutions to reduce CO 2 emissions, despite limited volumes of CO 2 in question. Moreover, the profitability of certain solutions will remain difficult to reach, even with an

  1. Reduction of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Domestic Water Heating by Means of Direct Expansion Solar Assisted Heat Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleta, J.; Curko, T.; Cutic, T.; Pasanec, J.; Soldo, V.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic water heating in households sector is usually performed by either fossil fuel fired or electric boilers. Both the combustion process of the former and large electricity consumption of the latter strongly influence overall greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, very high specific heat of water requires large quantity of energy for water heating making a significant impact on the overall energy consumption in the households sector whose total consumption of 80,81 PJ equals to 19,6% of total primary energy supply in Croatia in 2010. Considering the mentioned impact on energy consumption and CO 2 emissions as well as goals set by European Commission (so called 20-20-20), new technologies based on renewable energy sources are more than welcome in the field of domestic water heating. Direct expansion solar assisted heat pump is presented in this paper. Its working principle is based on single-stage vapour-compression cycle. Representing a gradual step to commercial application with a water tank of 300 l, the developed mobile unit is designed as a test rig enabling all necessary measurements to evaluate potential of solar irradiation for domestic water heating on various locations. Besides the unit description, trial testing results are presented and analyzed as well as a basic comparison of CO 2 emissions between solar assisted heat pump and conventionally used water heating systems. Taking into account both the decentralized water heating and favourable climatic conditions (especially along the Croatian Adriatic coast) as well as rising fossil fuel prices, it is expected that solar assisted heat pumps will be commercialized in the near future.(author)

  2. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century.

  3. Decomposition analysis and mitigation strategies of CO2 emissions from energy consumption in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ilyoung; Wehrmeyer, Walter; Mulugetta, Yacob

    2010-01-01

    Energy-related CO 2 emissions in South Korea have increased substantially, outpacing those of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries since 1990. To mitigate CO 2 emissions in South Korea, we need to understand the main contributing factors to rising CO 2 levels as part of the effort toward developing targeted policies. This paper aims to analyze the specific trends and influencing factors that have caused changes in emissions patterns in South Korea over a 15-year period. To this end, we employed the Log Mean Divisia index method with five energy consumption sectors and seven sub-sectors in terms of fuel mix (FM), energy intensity (EI), structural change (SC) and economic growth (EG). The results showed that EG was a dominant explanation for the increase in CO 2 emissions in all of the sectors. The results also demonstrated that FM causes CO 2 reduction across the array of sectors with the exception of the energy supply sector. CO 2 reduction as a function of SC was also observed in manufacturing, services and residential sectors. Furthermore, EI was an important driver of CO 2 reduction in most sectors except for several manufacturing sub-sectors. Based on these findings, it appears that South Korea should implement climate change policies that consider the specific influential factors associated with increasing CO 2 emissions in each sector.

  4. CO2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  5. Outsourcing CO2 within China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-07-09

    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country's borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world's largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China's emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low-value-added but high-carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China.

  6. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industrial technology. Trend survey of global environment related studies (researches on measureds for reduction of environmental load of CO2); Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. Chikyu kankyo kanren kenkyu doko no chosa (nisanka tanso no kankyo fuka teigensaku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The paper studies the measures for reduction of environmental load of CO2 from the standpoint of chemical technology. As for methanol synthesis from CO2, accelerating of the reaction using Cu base compound catalyst is reported. Also, CO2 is methanated at high speed by low temperature waste heat using Ni-La2O3-Ru catalyst. Discussions are given on the subject for development of catalyst reaction relating to hydrogen production technology by methane reforming reaction using steam or CO2. Synthesis of polymetric materials by use of CO2 is also described. The paper mentions that it is indispensable to design high-function electrode and elucidate the reaction mechanism of electrochemical CO2 reduction for electrochemical and photochemical CO2 reduction measures. Moreover, in case of using solar energy, it is required to study photovoltaic excitation process in semiconductor electrode/ electrolyte solution interface. For production of hydrogen from CO2 by photosynthetic organisms and solar energy, the problem is control of inhibiting effect of oxygen combinedly produced. Described are production of polyhydroxy butyric acid and biodegradable polymer from CO2 and hydrogen by bacteria, and CO2 fixation imitating the enzyme reaction. 267 refs., 79 figs., 32 tabs.

  7. Energy Efficiency instead of CO2 levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetz, R.

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at ways of avoiding a future, planned Swiss CO 2 levy by improving the efficiency of energy use. The political situation concerning the reduction of CO 2 emissions in Switzerland is reviewed and the likeliness of the introduction of a CO 2 levy is discussed. Strategies for the reduction of fossil fuel consumption and therefore of CO 2 emissions are looked at, including process optimisation. Recommendations are made on how to approach this work systematically - data collection, assessment of the potential for reduction and the planning of measures to be taken are looked at. The high economic efficiency of immediate action is stressed and typical middle and long-term measures are listed

  8. Capture and geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Capture and geological storage of CO 2 could be a contribution to reduce CO 2 emissions, and also a way to meet the factor 4 objective of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This publication briefly presents the capture and storage definitions and principles, and comments some key data related to CO 2 emissions, and their natural trapping by oceans, soils and forests. It discusses strengths (a massive and perennial reduction of CO 2 emissions, a well defined regulatory framework) and weaknesses (high costs and uncertain cost reduction perspectives, a technology which still consumes a lot of energy, geological storage capacities still to be determined, health environmental impacts and risks to be controlled, a necessary consultation of population for planned projects) of this option. Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed

  9. CO2-strategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...

  10. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  11. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Experimental study of the energy balance in the interaction of a pulsed CO2 laser with metal and insulating targets in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, N. A.; Vas'kovskiĭ, Yu M.; Rovinskiĭ, R. E.; Ryabinkina, V. A.

    1991-09-01

    Measurements were made of components of the energy balance in the interaction of pulsed CO2 laser radiation with Dural, glass, quartz, ebonite, and Plexiglas in air at atmospheric pressure. At laser energy densities between 1 and 20 J/cm2 and in the spectral range 0.2-7 μm, the re-emission of radiation by the laser plasma was found to be less than 1 %. At energy densities exceeding 10 J/cm2, up to 90% of the laser energy failed to reach the irradiated surface.

  12. Evaluation Analysis of the CO2 Emission and Absorption Life Cycle for Precast Concrete in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyoung Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To comply with recent international trends and initiatives, and in order to help achieve sustainable development, Korea has established a greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction target of 37% (851 million tons of the business as usual (BAU rate by 2030. Regarding environmentally-oriented standards such as the IGCC (International Green Construction Code, there are also rising demands for the assessment on CO2 emissions during the life cycle in accordance with ISO (International Standardization Organization’s Standard 14040. At present, precast concrete (PC engineering-related studies primarily cover structural and construction aspects, including improvement of structural performance in the joint, introduction of pre-stressed concrete and development of half PC. In the manufacture of PC, steam curing is mostly used for the early-strength development of concrete. In steam curing, a large amount of CO2 is produced, causing an environmental problem. Therefore, this study proposes a method to assess CO2 emissions (including absorption throughout the PC life cycle by using a life cycle assessment (LCA method. Using the proposed assessment method, CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a precast concrete girder (PCG were assessed. In addition, CO2 absorption was assessed against a PCG using conventional carbonation and CO2 absorption-related models. As a result, the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1365.6 (kg-CO2/1 PCG. The CO2 emissions during the production of raw materials among the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1390 (kg-CO2/1 PCG, accounting for a high portion to total CO2 emissions (nearly 90%. In contrast, the transportation and manufacture stages were 1% and 10%, respectively, having little effect on total CO2 emissions. Among the use of the PCG, CO2 absorption was mostly decided by the CO2 diffusion coefficient and the amount of CO2 absorption by cement paste. The CO2 absorption by carbonation

  13. Increased importance of methane reduction for a 1.5 degree target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William J.; Webber, Christopher P.; Cox, Peter M.; Huntingford, Chris; Lowe, Jason; Sitch, Stephen; Chadburn, Sarah E.; Comyn-Platt, Edward; Harper, Anna B.; Hayman, Garry; Powell, Tom

    2018-04-01

    To understand the importance of methane on the levels of carbon emission reductions required to achieve temperature goals, a processed-based approach is necessary rather than reliance on the transient climate response to emissions. We show that plausible levels of methane (CH4) mitigation can make a substantial difference to the feasibility of achieving the Paris climate targets through increasing the allowable carbon emissions. This benefit is enhanced by the indirect effects of CH4 on ozone (O3). Here the differing effects of CH4 and CO2 on land carbon storage, including the effects of surface O3, lead to an additional increase in the allowable carbon emissions with CH4 mitigation. We find a simple robust relationship between the change in the 2100 CH4 concentration and the extra allowable cumulative carbon emissions between now and 2100 (0.27 ± 0.05 GtC per ppb CH4). This relationship is independent of modelled climate sensitivity and precise temperature target, although later mitigation of CH4 reduces its value and thus methane reduction effectiveness. Up to 12% of this increase in allowable emissions is due to the effect of surface ozone. We conclude early mitigation of CH4 emissions would significantly increase the feasibility of stabilising global warming below 1.5 °C, alongside having co-benefits for human and ecosystem health.

  14. Simulating ocean acidification and CO2 leakages from carbon capture and storage to assess the effects of pH reduction on cladoceran Moina mongolica Daday and its progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaosheng; Wang, Youshao; Yan, Changzhou

    2016-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of pH reduction in seawater as a result of increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, laboratory-scale experiments simulating the scenarios of ocean acidification (OA) and CO2 leakages of carbon capture and storage (CCS) were performed using the model organism Moina mongolica Daday. The LpH50s calculated in cladoceran toxicity tests showed that M. mongolica exhibited intermediate sensitivity to OA, which varied among species and with ontogeny, when compared with different phyla or classes of marine biota. Survival, reproduction and fecundity of parthenogenetic females were evaluated after 21-day exposures. Results showed that increased acidity significantly reduced the rate of reproduction of M. mongolica resulting in a decreased intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) across the gradients of pH reduction. The analysis of macromolecule contents in neonates suggested that nutritional status in progeny from all broods were significantly reduced as seawater pH decreased, with increasing magnitude in latter broods, except the contents of protein from two former broods and lipids from the first brood. Our findings clearly showed that for this ecologically and economically important fish species, the negative effects of pH reduction on both "quantity" and "quality" of progeny may have far-reaching implications, providing direct evidence that OA could influence the energetic transfer of marine food web and ecosystem functions in acidified oceans in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction of an all-solid-state artificial Z-scheme system consisting of Bi2WO6/Au/CdS nanostructure for photocatalytic CO2 reduction into renewable hydrocarbon fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Han, Qiutong; Li, Liang; Tang, Lanqin; Li, Haijin; Zhou, Yong; Zou, Zhigang

    2017-07-01

    An all-solid-state Bi2WO6/Au/CdS Z-scheme system was constructed for the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into methane in the presence of water vapor. This Z-scheme consists of ultrathin Bi2WO6 nanoplates and CdS nanoparticles as photocatalysts, and a Au nanoparticle as a solid electron mediator offering a high speed charge transfer channel and leading to more efficient spatial separation of electron-hole pairs. The photo-generated electrons from the conduction band (CB) of Bi2WO6 transfer to the Au, and then release to the valence band (VB) of CdS to recombine with the holes of CdS. It allows the electrons remaining in the CB of CdS and holes in the VB of Bi2WO6 to possess strong reduction and oxidation powers, respectively, leading the Bi2WO6/Au/CdS to exhibit high photocatalytic reduction of CO2, relative to bare Bi2WO6, Bi2WO6/Au, and Bi2WO6/CdS. The depressed hole density on CdS also enhances the stability of the CdS against photocorrosion.

  16. Statistical analysis of thermal efficiency in industrial furnaces in Japan and determination of CO2 reduction amount realized by improving the efficiency; Nippon no kogyoro ni okeru netsukoritsu no tokeiteki kaiseki to sono kaizen ni yoru CO2 sakugenryo no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabayashi, T.; Matsuhashi, T.; Ishitani, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanabe, K. [The Energy Conservation Center Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, R. [The Japan Industrial Furnace Manufacturers Association, Tokyo (Japan); Takashima, T.

    1997-01-30

    Analyses and evaluations were given on heating furnaces and heat treatment furnaces used in the Japanese steel and iron industry to calculate amounts of energy and CO2 that could be reduced by introducing a new furnace. The analyses have derived factors affecting thermal efficiency of the heating furnaces by using regression analysis. Discussions were given on a high-temperature air combustion system and a stored heat combustion system as new furnace technologies. As a result, it was disclosed that the current fuel consumption could be reduced to about 40% to 80% only by performing air pre-heating ideally and suppressing heat loss from furnace walls. This concept is sufficiently payable in terms of economy. It was also revealed that fuel consumption could be reduced to about 12% to 36% and CO2 discharge could be reduced in proportion with reduction in the fuel consumption, if ideal preheating can be carried out on materials to be heated. Furthermore, a result was obtained that the present thermal efficiency of 26.86% in nonferrous industries such as for copper and aluminum could be increased up to 53.37%. 10 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon-Min Koo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco

  18. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jang-Ho Jay; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Sungho

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC) specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers) possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco-friendly Hwangtoh concrete

  19. Trading CO2 emission; Verhandelbaarheid van CO2-emissies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, J.F.; Looijenga, A.; Moor, R.; Wissema, E.W.J. [Afdeling Energie, Ministerie van VROM, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2000-06-01

    Systems for CO2-emission trading can take many shapes as developments in Europe show. European developments for emission trading tend to comprehend cap and-trade systems for large emission sources. In the Netherlands a different policy is in preparation. A trading system for sheltered sectors with an option to buy reductions from exposed sectors will be further developed by a Commission, appointed by the minister of environment. Exposed sectors are committed to belong to the top of the world on the area of energy-efficiency. The authors point out that a cap on the distribution of energy carriers natural gas, electricity and fuel seems to be an interesting option to shape the trade scheme. A cap on the distribution of electricity is desirable, but not easy to implement. The possible success of the system depends partly on an experiment with emission reductions. 10 refs.

  20. CO2 flowrate calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carossi, Jean-Claude

    1969-02-01

    A CO 2 flowrate calculator has been designed for measuring and recording the gas flow in the loops of Pegase reactor. The analog calculator applies, at every moment, Bernoulli's formula to the values that characterize the carbon dioxide flow through a nozzle. The calculator electronics is described (it includes a sampling calculator and a two-variable function generator), with its amplifiers, triggers, interpolator, multiplier, etc. Calculator operation and setting are presented

  1. CO2 emission reduction potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in power generation from fossil fuels in China, India, Brazil, Indonesia and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Boehme, Benn J.; Krey, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    We quantify the theoretical potential for energy-efficiency CDM projects using best available technology in coal, natural gas or oil fuelled power generation in China, India, Brazil, Indonesia and South Africa, looking at new power plants or retrofit measures. We then discuss the likelihood of the potential emission reductions materialising under CDM. Our results are very sensitive to choices of baseline and project efficiencies and the level of electricity generation from potential emission ...

  2. CO2 reduction in the Danish transportation sector. Working paper 9: Traffic planning. Payment and parking restrictions. Traffic control. Driving education. Infrastructure for bike traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    Paid access to the city of Copenhagen and stringent parking restrictions are proposed in order to enforce the use of collective transport and thus contribute to emission reduction. Training of drivers in energy-efficient driving and better information on highways and access roads concerning queues and parking possibilities would result in improved air quality. Bicycle path infrastructure results in use of fuel-free transport. (EG) Prepared for Trafikministeriet. 16 refs

  3. The energy and CO2 emissions impact of renewable energy development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Tianyu; Zhang, Xiliang; Karplus, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    China has adopted targets for developing renewable electricity that would require expansion on an unprecedented scale. During the period from 2010 to 2020, we find that current renewable electricity targets result in significant additional renewable energy installation and a reduction in cumulative CO 2 emissions of 1.8% relative to a No Policy baseline. After 2020, the role of renewables is sensitive to both economic growth and technology cost assumptions. Importantly, we find that the CO 2 emissions reductions due to increased renewables are offset in each year by emissions increases in non-covered sectors through 2050. We consider sensitivity to renewable electricity cost after 2020 and find that if cost falls due to policy or other reasons, renewable electricity share increases and results in slightly higher economic growth through 2050. However, regardless of the cost assumption, projected CO 2 emissions reductions are very modest under a policy that only targets the supply side in the electricity sector. A policy approach that covers all sectors and allows flexibility to reduce CO 2 at lowest cost – such as an emissions trading system – will prevent this emissions leakage and ensure targeted reductions in CO 2 emissions are achieved over the long term. - Highlights: • The 2020 targets and subsidies make renewable electricity economically viable in the short term. • Cumulative CO 2 emissions (2010-2020) are reduced by 1.8% in the Current Policy scenario. • Displacing fossil fuels from electricity leads to increases in other sectors, offsetting emissions reductions. • The expansion of renewables after 2020 depends on cost reductions achieved

  4. Greenhouse effect gases sources and sinks (CO2, CH4, N2O) in grasslands and reduction strategies. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. Final report of the second part of the project. April 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussana, J.F.

    2004-04-01

    The project 'GES-Prairies' (Greenhouse Gases - Grasslands) had two main objectives: 1. To measure more accurately the fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O of French grasslands and determine the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of these areas. 2. To calculate the net GHG emissions of cattle production farms and finally to propose and evaluate some management scenarios leading to a reduction of GHG emissions. This project deals with three different spatial scales: the field scale, the farm scale and finally, the regional scale. At the field scale, during two years, fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O were measured in a mid-mountain permanent grassland, previously managed intensively by cutting and grazing (Laqueuille, Auvergne, France). Results from the first complete year of measurements show that the extensification process (reduction of the stocking rate and stopping N fertilization) allows to stock more carbon in the ecosystem. At the farm scale, We developed a model (FARMSIM, coupled to PASIM) able to simulate the GHG balance of a livestock farm. FARMSIM has been tested with data obtained from a mixed livestock farm in Lorraine (dairy and meat production, annual average stocking rate = 1.3 LU ha -1 ) of 100 ha (including 76 ha of grasslands and 21 of annual crops). The results indicate a net emission of 175 t equivalent C-CO 2 for this farm. If expressed per unit of product, it represents 1.34 t equivalent C-CO 2 per LU and per year or 0.54 kg CO 2 per kg of milk and per year. At the regional scale/. The PASIM model has been used to simulate the European grasslands with a spatial resolution of 1' (about 200 * 200 km). For each grid cell, a sensibility analysis allowed to determine the N application which correspond to 30% of the N application that would maximize the annual yield of the pasture. Simulation runs on mixed systems (combining grazing and cutting) show that almost one half of the grassland area is, on average, used for cutting. These simulations predict N 2 O

  5. Fiscal 1999 basic survey for promotion of joint implementation. Overall study report on energy saving and CO2 reduction at Indocement Company; 1999 nendo Indo cement ni okeru shoene CO{sub 2} sakugen sogo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A study is made about the feasibility of energy saving and CO2 reduction at the Citeureup Plant of the Indocement Company, Indonesia. Future embodiment of a clean development mechanism (CDM) is also discussed. Points examined for improvement involve air quenching clinker cooler (AQC) efficiency (mixing of raw materials, use of combustion control technology, and modification into a new type AQC); the finishing process (installation of a preliminary clinker crusher and a high-efficiency classifier); and waste heat cogeneration using AQC exhaust. The amount of energy to be saved will be 61,866 tons/year in oil, promising a 10.9% energy saving and CO2 reduction. The project requires a fund of 5,988,025,000 yen in total. The financial internal rate of return (FIRR) based on the environmental special yen credit is a little low, but the payout period of 11 years is reasonable. A similar result is obtained when export financing by the ex-Exim Bank is studied. A general loan is not proper in view of overall profitability. With precedents showing that it is near impossible for such a project to enjoy environmental special yen credit, it is necessary for the Japanese Government to build a CDM-oriented system under which environmental special yen credit will be offered to private sectors. (NEDO)

  6. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  7. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, K.; Kovscek, A.R.; Orr, F.M. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage. [Author

  8. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, Kristian; Kovscek, Anthony R.; Orr, Franklin M.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage

  9. CO2 emission calculations and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence that the atmospheric CO 2 concentration has risen during the past several decades is irrefutable. Most of the observed increase in atmospheric CO 2 is believed to result from CO 2 releases from fossil-fuel burning. The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, reflects global concern over the increasing CO 2 concentration and its potential impact on climate. One of the convention's stated objectives was the ''stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. '' Specifically, the FCCC asked all 154 signing countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions, and it set nonbinding targets for some countries to control emissions by stabilizing them at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Given the importance of CO 2 as a greenhouse gas, the relationship between CO 2 emissions and increases in atmospheric CO 2 levels, and the potential impacts of a greenhouse gas-induced climate change; it is important that comprehensive CO 2 emissions records be compiled, maintained, updated, and documented

  10. Dynamics of soil CO2 efflux under varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations reveal dominance of slow processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyoung; Oren, Ram; Clark, James S; Palmroth, Sari; Oishi, A Christopher; McCarthy, Heather R; Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the effect on soil CO 2 efflux (F CO 2 ) of sudden changes in photosynthetic rates by altering CO 2 concentration in plots subjected to +200 ppmv for 15 years. Five-day intervals of exposure to elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) ranging 1.0-1.8 times ambient did not affect F CO 2 . F CO 2 did not decrease until 4 months after termination of the long-term eCO 2 treatment, longer than the 10 days observed for decrease of F CO 2 after experimental blocking of C flow to belowground, but shorter than the ~13 months it took for increase of F CO 2 following the initiation of eCO 2 . The reduction of F CO 2 upon termination of enrichment (~35%) cannot be explained by the reduction of leaf area (~15%) and associated carbohydrate production and allocation, suggesting a disproportionate contraction of the belowground ecosystem components; this was consistent with the reductions in base respiration and F CO 2 -temperature sensitivity. These asymmetric responses pose a tractable challenge to process-based models attempting to isolate the effect of individual processes on F CO2 . © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Outsourcing CO2 within China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country’s borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world’s largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China’s emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low–value-added but high–carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China. PMID:23754377

  12. Use of California biomass in the production of transportation-fuel oxygenates: Estimates for reduction in CO2 emissions and greenhouse gas potential on a life cycle basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadam, K. L.; Camobreco, V. J.; Glazebrook, B. E.

    1999-01-01

    A set of environmental flows associated with two disposal options for thee types of California biomass - forest biomass, rice straw, chaparral - over their life cycles were studied, the emphasis being on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The two options studied were: producing ethyl-tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) from biomass and biomass burning, and producing methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from natural gas. Results showed a lower (by 40 to 50 per cent) greenhouse effect impact, lower net values for carbon dioxide and fossil fuel energy consumption, and higher net values for renewable energy consumption for the ETBE option. Based on these results, the deployment of the biomass-to-ethanol ETBE option is recommended as the one that contributes most to the reduction of GHG emissions. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  13. Role of energy efficiency standards in reducing CO2 emissions in Germany: An assessment with TIMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blesl, Markus; Das, Anjana; Fahl, Ulrich; Remme, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Energy efficiency is widely viewed as an important element of energy and environmental policy. Applying the TIMES model, this paper examines the impacts of additional efficiency improvement measures (as prescribed by the ACROPOLIS project) over the baseline, at the level of individual sectors level as well as in a combined implementation, on the German energy system in terms of energy savings, technological development, emissions and costs. Implementing efficiency measures in all sectors together, CO 2 reduction is possible through substitution of conventional gas or oil boilers by condensing gas boilers especially in single family houses, shifting from petrol to diesel vehicles in private transport, increased use of electric vehicles, gas combined cycle power plants and CHP (combined heat and power production) etc. At a sectoral level, the residential sector offers double benefits of CO 2 reduction and cost savings. In the transport sector, on the other hand, CO 2 reduction is the most expensive, using bio-fuels and methanol to achieve the efficiency targets. An additional case is examined which assumes the CO 2 emissions in the combined efficiency measures case as the target. This case concludes that, with different options, the same amount of CO 2 reduction is possible together with cost reductions over the baseline, confirming that the specific sectoral efficiency targets prescribed by ACROPOLIS may not be the optimal one to mitigate CO 2 . It applies the same efficiency improvement targets in the residential and industrial sectors but scales down the target in the service sector and avoids any further efficiency improvement in the transport sector. It replaces electricity with heating fuel in final energy consumption, while further increasing the use of gas for power generation in 2030. In 2050, part of the electricity demand is met through the import of electricity from renewable sources

  14. Reduction of environmental pollution from fuel and target manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, H.A.

    1976-10-01

    Nuclear fuel and target manufacturing processes in the 300 Area generate potential environmental pollutants. Efforts to eliminate or reduce their harmful effects have been pursued for many years by the Raw Materials and Raw Materials Technology departments with assistance from other groups, primarily the Project and Health Physics departments. This report documents: methods adopted to reduce pollution; cost of these methods; amount of pollution reduction achieved; and other benefits in cost savings or quality improvement for January 1968 through December 1975. Capital funds totaling $915,000 were spent on these programs. Annual cost savings of $65,000 were realized, and incidental but significant improvements in product quality were obtained. In no case was product quality degraded. Reductions in releases of pollutants are summarized for water pollution, air pollution, and land pollution. In addition to these reductions, intangible benefits were realized including reduced corrosion of structures and equipment; improved working conditions for personnel; energy savings, both on and offplant; improved utilization of natural resources; and reduced impact to environment, both on and offplant

  15. Biogenic Hydrogen Conversion of De-Oiled Jatropha Waste via Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor Operation: Process Performance, Microbial Insights, and CO2 Reduction Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the semicontinuous, direct (anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operation hydrogen fermentation of de-oiled jatropha waste (DJW. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT was studied and results show that the stable and peak hydrogen production rate of 1.48 L/L*d and hydrogen yield of 8.7 mL H2/g volatile solid added were attained when the reactor was operated at HRT 2 days (d with a DJW concentration of 200 g/L, temperature 55°C, and pH 6.5. Reduced HRT enhanced the production performance until 1.75 d. Further reduction has lowered the process efficiency in terms of biogas production and hydrogen gas content. The effluent from hydrogen fermentor was utilized for methane fermentation in batch reactors using pig slurry and cow dung as seed sources. The results revealed that pig slurry was a feasible seed source for methane generation. Peak methane production rate of 0.43 L CH4/L*d and methane yield of 20.5 mL CH4/g COD were observed at substrate concentration of 10 g COD/L, temperature 30°C, and pH 7.0. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that combination of celluloytic and fermentative bacteria were present in the hydrogen producing ASBR.

  16. The effectiveness of Light Rail transit in achieving regional CO2 emissions targets is linked to building energy use: insights from system dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cities worldwide face the challenges of accommodating a growing population, while reducing emissions to meet climate mitigation targets. Public transit investments are often proposed as a way to curb emissions while maintaining healthy urban economies. However, cities face a syst...

  17. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Backscatter and Earth Surface Targets By Use of An Airborne Focused Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Over Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Airborne lidar systems are used to determine wind velocity and to measure aerosol or cloud backscatter variability. Atmospheric aerosols, being affected by local and regional sources, show tremendous variability. Continuous wave (cw) lidar can obtain detailed aerosol loading with unprecedented high resolution (3 sec) and sensitivity (1 mg/cubic meter) as was done during the 1995 NASA Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission over western North America and the Pacific Ocean. Backscatter variability was measured at a 9.1 micron wavelength cw focused CO2 Doppler lidar for approximately 52 flight hours, covering an equivalent horizontal distance of approximately 30,000 km in the troposphere. Some quasi-vertical backscatter profiles were also obtained during various ascents and descents at altitudes that ranged from approximately 0.1 to 12 km. Similarities and differences for aerosol loading over land and ocean were observed. Mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode was approximately 6 x 10(exp -11)/ms/r, consistent with previous lidar datasets. While these atmospheric measurements were made, the lidar also retrieved a distinct backscatter signal from the Earth's surface from the unfocused part of the focused cw lidar beam during aircraft rolls. Atmospheric backscatter can be highly variable both spatially and temporally, whereas, Earth-surface backscatter is relatively much less variant and can be quite predictable. Therefore, routine atmospheric backscatter measurements by an airborne lidar also give Earth surface backscatter which can allow for investigating the Earth terrain. In the case where the Earth's surface backscatter is coming from a well-known and fairly uniform region, then it can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities during flight. These Earth surface measurements over varying Californian terrain during the mission were compared with laboratory backscatter measurements using the same lidar of various

  18. Adjusting the CO2 cap to subsidised RES generation: Can CO2 prices be decoupled from renewable policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richstein, Jörn C.; Chappin, Émile J.L.; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Strong renewable policy can cause price drops in an emission trading system (ETS). • Cap reduction based on exceedance of original policy goals could prevent price drops. • Dynamic cap reduction makes renewable policy climate effective in an ETS. • Dynamic cap reduction is not useful for reaching carbon price or volatility goals. • Dynamic cap reduction could undo the “green promotes the dirtiest” effect. - Abstract: The low prices in the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) have triggered discussions of various possible reforms. One option is to decouple the CO 2 prices from renewable energy policy by adjusting the emission cap to renewable energy investment overshoots. We introduce two ways of reducing the CO 2 cap in response to overshoots of renewable policy investment over previously announced targets. We investigate these options with the agent-based model EMLab-generation. We find that both policy implementations are successful in restoring prices. They also ensure that making public investments that exceed policy targets contribute to carbon emission reduction, and that renewable policy does not benefit the most emission-intensive power plants. However, neither policy is suitable for achieving specifc levels of prices or price volatility

  19. Redução da emissão de CO2, CH4 e H2S através da compostagem de dejetos suínos Reduction emissions of CO2, CH4 and H2S through composting of swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana G. Sardá

    2010-09-01

    . The results have showed that composting reduces 7 times the CH4 emission comparing to deep pit, and emission of CO2 represented 78.5% of total mineralized carbon. Considering that the emission of H2S was significant only in the management of waste in liquid form, then management of waste in solid form can reduce the environmental impacts, which tends to be beneficial in terms of mitigation of greenhouse effect and may contribute to the reduction of odors.

  20. Targeted reduction of advanced glycation improves renal function in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harcourt, Brooke E; Sourris, Karly C; Coughlan, Melinda T

    2011-01-01

    -lowering pharmaceutical, alagebrium, and mice in which the receptor for AGE (RAGE) was deleted. Obesity, resulting from a diet high in both fat and AGE, caused renal impairment; however, treatment of the RAGE knockout mice with alagebrium improved urinary albumin excretion, creatinine clearance, the inflammatory profile...... if treatments that lower tissue AGE burden in patients and mice would improve obesity-related renal dysfunction. Overweight and obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 26-39¿kg/m(2)) were recruited to a randomized, crossover clinical trial involving 2 weeks each on a low- and a high-AGE-containing diet. Renal......, and renal oxidative stress. Alagebrium treatment, however, resulted in decreased weight gain and improved glycemic control compared with wild-type mice on a high-fat Western diet. Thus, targeted reduction of the advanced glycation pathway improved renal function in obesity....

  1. CO2 Laser Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Samuel

    1989-03-01

    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  2. Evasion of CO2 injected into the ocean in the context of CO2 stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheshgi, Haroon S.

    2004-01-01

    The eventual evasion of injected CO 2 to the atmosphere is one consideration when assessing deep-sea disposal of CO 2 as a potential response option to climate change concerns. Evasion estimated using an ocean carbon cycle model is compared to long-term trajectories for future CO 2 emissions, including illustrative cases leading to stabilization of CO 2 concentration at various levels. Modeled residence time for CO 2 injected into the deep ocean exceeds the 100-year time-scale usually considered in scenarios for future emissions, and the potential impacts of climate change. Illustrative cases leading monotonically to constant CO 2 concentration have been highlighted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to give guidance on possible timing of emission reductions that may be required to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at various levels. For stabilization cases considered, significant modeled evasion does not occur until long after CO 2 emissions have reached a maximum and begun to decline. Illustrative cases can also lead to a maximum in CO 2 concentration followed by a decline to slowly decreasing concentrations. In such cases, future injection of emissions into the deep ocean leads to lower maximum CO 2 concentration, with less effect on concentration later on in time

  3. TIC and energy: Digital technologies and the environment; Understanding the energy challenges for technologies of information and communication; Data Centres; Energy savings and reduction of CO_2 emissions, objectives and action plan of the Orange Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, Patrice; Gossart, Cedric; Garello, Rene; Richard, Philippe; Hauet, Jean-Pierre; Bourgoint, Jean-Claude; Zeddam, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of four articles which give an overview of the present situation of technologies of information and communication (TICs) in terms of energy consumption, and of their perspectives of evolution. More precisely, the authors propose an overview of negative and positive impacts of TICs on the environment (Digital technologies and the environment), discuss an analysis of energy consumption by the different components of the Internet (Understanding the energy challenges for technologies of information and communication), comment efforts which have been already achieved to reduce the energy consumed by data centre equipment (Data Centres), and present action developed and implemented by the Orange Group to manage its energy consumption in its networks and in its information system (Energy savings and reduction of CO_2 emissions, objectives and action plan of the Orange Group)

  4. Optimizing geologic CO2 sequestration by injection in deep saline formations below oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Weon Shik; McPherson, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present a best-case paradigm for geologic CO 2 storage: CO 2 injection and sequestration in saline formations below oil reservoirs. This includes the saline-only section below the oil-water contact (OWC) in oil reservoirs, a storage target neglected in many current storage capacity assessments. This also includes saline aquifers (high porosity and permeability formations) immediately below oil-bearing formations. While this is a very specific injection target, we contend that most, if not all, oil-bearing basins in the US contain a great volume of such strata, and represent a rather large CO 2 storage capacity option. We hypothesize that these are the best storage targets in those basins. The purpose of this research is to evaluate this hypothesis. We quantitatively compared CO 2 behavior in oil reservoirs and brine formations by examining the thermophysical properties of CO 2 , CO 2 -brine, and CO 2 -oil in various pressure, temperature, and salinity conditions. In addition, we compared the distribution of gravity number (N), which characterizes a tendency towards buoyancy-driven CO 2 migration, and mobility ratio (M), which characterizes the impeded CO 2 migration, in oil reservoirs and brine formations. Our research suggests competing advantages and disadvantages of CO 2 injection in oil reservoirs vs. brine formations: (1) CO 2 solubility in oil is significantly greater than in brine (over 30 times); (2) the tendency of buoyancy-driven CO 2 migration is smaller in oil reservoirs because density contrast between oil and CO 2 is smaller than it between brine and oil (the approximate density contrast between CO 2 and crude oil is ∼100 kg/m 3 and between CO 2 and brine is ∼350 kg/m 3 ); (3) the increased density of oil and brine due to the CO 2 dissolution is not significant (about 7-15 kg/m 3 ); (4) the viscosity reduction of oil due to CO 2 dissolution is significant (from 5790 to 98 mPa s). We compared these competing

  5. Fiscal 1999 research report. Basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs (Survey of energy saving and CO2 reduction at Omsk Refinery); 1999 nendo Omsk seiyusho ni okeru shoene CO{sub 2} sakugen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The results of basic research conducted for scouting out projects which will attain the goals set forth in the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) protocol are compiled into a report. The atmospheric distillation unit for crude of the Omsk Refinery sited at Omsk City, Russian Federation, is the object of the research. A feasibility study is made about energy saving and reduction in CO2 emissions using various data acquired by an on-site survey, and seven modification plans are presented. In the preparation of the modification plans, 'the optimization of process systems,' 'the modification of the waste heat boiler,' and 'the installation of a new heating furnace' are taken into consideration. In relation to 'the optimization of process systems,' installation of a new heat exchanger and move to a different location of the existing heat exchanger are suggested in Modification Plan 1 and Modification Plan 2. Ultimately, seven modification plans are reviewed, which are combinations of Modification Plan 1, Modification Plan 2, 'the modification of the waste heat boiler,' and 'the installation of a new heating furnace.' Modification Plan 1 and Modification Plan 2 are attractive because they are high in performance for the small funds they require. Modification Plan 3 which includes 'the installation of a new heating furnace' demands a larger initial investment, but it achieves a greater reduction in CO2 emissions. (NEDO)

  6. Policy options to reduce passenger car CO2 emissions after 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The EU has set emission targets for new cars up to 2020 and is now preparing the post 2020 legislation. The present study aims to give insight in the design of policies to further reduce passenger car emissions after 2020. Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles are now expected to enable deeper and less costly CO2 emission reductions than envisioned until recently. However, even advanced ICE vehicles will not enable to meet the very stringent long term emission reduction targets for passenger cars. Therefore transport policies need not only to reduce emissions of ICE vehicles, but also ensure that electric and hydrogen vehicles are phased in timely, along with low-CO2 electricity and hydrogen. Current legislation to regulate tank-to-wheel vehicle emissions is based on CO2-limits, expressed in g CO2/km. On the short term it is important to maximize the efficiency of conventional vehicles. At the same time it is essential to foster the market introduction of electric and hydrogen vehicles, given their potential to reach eventually much deeper overall CO2-reductions. When the market share of electric and hydrogen vehicles grows it becomes increasingly important to maximize their efficiency and to minimize their upstream CO2 emissions. Maximizing both efficiency and overall CO2-performance of all vehicle types - ICE, electric, and hydrogen - will be complicated to achieve with a single CO2-based standard. At this point an efficiency-based standard is more effective, and may offer some additional benefits too. The current report provides basic directions of how such legislation could be shaped.

  7. EFFECT OF THE REDUCTION TEMPERATURE INTO CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF Ni SUPPORTED BY TiO2, AL2O2 AND TiO2/AL2O3 FOR CONVERSION CO2 INTO METHANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Haerudin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel catalysts, containing 6% (w/w of nickel, have been prepared using TiO2, Al2O3 and mixture of TiO2-Al2O3 (1:9. The catalysts were used for CO2 conversion into methane. The characteristics of catalysts were studied by determination of its specific surface area, temperature programmed reaction technique and X-ray diffraction. The specific surface area were varied slightly by different temperature of reduction, namely after reduction at 300°C it was 39, 120 and 113 m2/g and after reduction at 400°C it was 42, 135  and 120 m2/g for 6% nickel catalysts supported on TiO2, Al2O3 and mixture of TiO2-Al2O3 (1:9 respectively. Temperature program reaction studies (TPO and TPR showed that NiTiOx species were possibly formed during the pretreatments which has shown by the shift of its peak to the lower temperature on Ni catalyst, that supported on mixture of TiO2-Al2O3 compared with catalysts supported on individual TiO2 or Al2O3. The nickel species on reduced Ni catalysts supported on TiO2 and on mixture of TiO2-Al2O3 could be detected by X-ray diffraction. The catalyst's activities toward CH4 formation were affected by the reduction temperature. Activity for CH4 formation was decreased in the following order: Ni/ TiO2 > Ni/ TiO2: Al2O3 > Ni/ Al2O3 and Ni/ TiO2: Al2O3 > Ni/ TiO2> Ni/ Al2O3, when catalysts were reduced at 300°C or 400°C respectively. The CO2 conversion was decreased in the following order: Ni/ Al2O3 > Ni/ TiO2: Al2O3 > Ni/ TiO2 when catalysts were reduced at 300°C or 400°C respectively.   Keywords: nickel catalyst, carbondioxide, methane

  8. Assessment of pathways to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger car fleets: Case study in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md. Saniul; Hyde, Bernard; Duffy, Paul; McNabola, Aonghus

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of models provides a robust estimation of tailpipe CO 2 emissions. • Taxation impact of vehicle fleet dieselisation was modelled. • A scenario development approach was proposed for policy analysis. • EV provided the largest cost saving option than that of the other fuel technologies. - Abstract: This study modelled the Passenger (PC) fleet and other categories of road transport in Ireland from 2015 to 2035 to assess the impact of current and potential greenhouse gas mitigation policies on CO 2 emissions. Scenarios included the shift of purchasing towards diesel PCs over gasoline PCs. Scrappage rates were also calculated and applied to the fleet to predict future sales of PCs. Seven future policy scenarios were examined using different penetrations of PC sales for different vehicle technologies under current and alternative bio-fuel obligations. Tank to Wheel (T2W) tailpipe and Well to Wheel (W2W) CO 2 emissions, and energy demand were modelled using COPERT 4v11.3 and a recently published W2W CO 2 emissions model. A percentage reduction of conventional diesel and petrol vehicles, in different scenarios compared to a baseline scenario in the W2W model was applied to estimate the likely changes in T2W emissions at the tailpipe up to 2035. The results revealed that the biofuel policy scenario was insufficient in achieving a significant reduction of CO 2 emissions. However, without a fixed reduction target for CO 2 from the road transport sector, the success of policy scenarios in the long run is difficult to compare. The current Electric vehicle (EV) policy in Ireland is required to be implemented to reduce CO 2 emissions by a significant level. Results also show that a similar achievement of CO 2 emission reduction could be possible by using alternative vehicle technologies with higher abatement cost. However, as EV based policies have not been successful so far, Ireland may need to search for alternative pathways.

  9. Reducing CO2 Emissions through Lightweight Design and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Mark A.; Allwood, Julian M.; Milford, Rachel L.

    2011-05-01

    To meet targeted 50% reductions in industrial CO2 emissions by 2050, demand for steel and aluminium must be cut. Many steel and aluminium products include redundant material, and the manufacturing routes to produce them use more material than is necessary. Lightweight design and optimized manufacturing processes offer a means of demand reduction, whilst creating products to perform the same service as existing ones. This paper examines two strategies for demand reduction: lightweight product design; and minimizing yield losses through the product supply chain. Possible mass savings are estimated for specific case-studies on metal-intensive products, such as I-beams and food cans. These estimates are then extrapolated to other sectors to produce a global estimate for possible demand reductions. Results show that lightweight product design may offer potential mass savings of up to 30% for some products, whilst yield in the production of others could be improved by over 20%. If these two strategies could be combined for all products, global demand for steel and aluminium would be reduced by nearly 50%. The impact of demand reduction on CO2 emissions is presented, and barriers to the adoption of new, lightweight technologies are discussed.

  10. Study on CO2 global recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Niwa, S.

    2001-01-01

    In order to assist in finding ways to mitigate CO 2 emission and to slow the depletion of fossil fuels we have established and evaluated a representative system, which consists of three technologies developed in our laboratory. These technologies were in CO 2 recovery, hydrogen production and methanol synthesis and in addition we established the necessary supporting systems. Analysis of outline designs of the large scale renewable energy power generation system and this system and energy input for building plant, energy input for running plant has been conducted based on a case using this system for a 1000-MW coal fired power plant, followed by an evaluation of the material balance and energy balance. The results are as follows. Energy efficiency is 34%, the CO 2 reduction rate is 41%, the balance ratio of the energy and CO 2 of the system is 2.2 and 1.8, respectively, on the assumption that the primary renewable energy is solar thermal power generation, the stationary CO 2 emission source is a coal-fired power plant and the generation efficiency of the methanol power plant is 60%. By adopting the system, 3.7 million tons of CO 2 can be recovered, approximately 2.7 million tons of methanol can be produced, and 15.4 billion kWh of electricity can be generated per year. Compared to generating all electrical power using only coal, approximately 2.6 million tons of coal per year can be saved and approximately 2.15 million tons of CO 2 emission can be reduced. Therefore, it is clearly revealed that this system would be effective to reduce CO 2 emissions and to utilize renewable energy

  11. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.

    2014-01-01

    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) real-time forecast is now available as part of the preoperational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO 2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO 2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO 2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO 2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO 2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO 2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO 2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO 2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO 2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO 2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO 2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO 2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO 2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO 2 products retrieved from satellite

  12. Rechargeable Al-CO2 Batteries for Reversible Utilization of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenqing; Liu, Xizheng; Li, Chao; Yin, Huiming; Xi, Wei; Liu, Ruirui; He, Guang; Zhao, Xian; Luo, Jun; Ding, Yi

    2018-05-21

    The excessive emission of CO 2 and the energy crisis are two major issues facing humanity. Thus, the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 and its utilization in metal-CO 2 batteries have attracted wide attention because the batteries can simultaneously accelerate CO 2 fixation/utilization and energy storage/release. Here, rechargeable Al-CO 2 batteries are proposed and realized, which use chemically stable Al as the anode. The batteries display small discharge/charge voltage gaps down to 0.091 V and high energy efficiencies up to 87.7%, indicating an efficient battery performance. Their chemical reaction mechanism to produce the performance is revealed to be 4Al + 9CO 2 ↔ 2Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 + 3C, by which CO 2 is reversibly utilized. These batteries are envisaged to effectively and safely serve as a potential CO 2 fixation/utilization strategy with stable Al. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Well technologies for CO2 geological storage: CO2-resistant cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlet-Gouedard, V.; Rimmele, G.; Porcherie, O.; Goffe, B.

    2007-01-01

    Storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) underground is considered the most effective way for long-term safe and low-cost CO 2 sequestration. This recent application requires long-term well-bore integrity. A CO 2 leakage through the annulus may occur much more rapidly than geologic leakage through the formation rock, leading to economic loss, reduction of CO 2 storage efficiency, and potential compromise of the field for storage. The possibility of such leaks raises considerable concern about the long-term well-bore isolation and the durability of hydrated cement that is used to isolate the annulus across the producing/injection intervals in CO 2 -storage wells. We propose a new experimental procedure and methodology to study reactivity of CO 2 -Water-Cement systems in simulating the interaction of the set cement with injected supercritical CO 2 under downhole conditions. The conditions of experiments are 90 deg. C under 280 bars. The evolution of mechanical, physical and chemical properties of Portland cement with time is studied up to 6 months. The results are compared to equivalent studies on a new CO 2 -resistant material; the comparison shows significant promise for this new material. (authors)

  14. A cost effective CO2 strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , a scenario-part and a cost-benefit part. Air and sea modes are not analyzed. The model adopts a bottom-up approach to allow a detailed assessment of transport policy measures. Four generic areas of intervention were identified and the likely effect on CO2 emissions, socioeconomic efficiency and other...... are evaluated according to CO2 reduction potential and according to the ‘shadow price’ on a reduction of one ton CO2. The shadow price reflects the costs (and benefits) of the different measures. Comparing the measures it is possible to identify cost effective measures, but these measures are not necessarily...... by the Ministry of Transport, with the Technical University of Denmark as one of the main contributors. The CO2-strategy was to be based on the principle of cost-effectiveness. A model was set up to assist in the assessment. The model consists of a projection of CO2-emissions from road and rail modes from 2020...

  15. Report on basic survey project for promoting joint implementation in 1999. Feasibility studies on reduction of CO2 emission by introduction of energy saving equipment in 3 major Philippine pulp and paper mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility studies were carried out on major Philippine pulp and paper mills to introduce energy saving technologies possessed by Japan and reduce emission of greenhouse effect gases. The studies are intended to be linked to the clean development mechanism (CDM) in the future. The factories chosen as the object of the studies are TIPCO, UPPC and CCP. The energy saving facilities to be introduced are the energy saving type screen, speed variable motors, power regenerative braking of winder roll-out section, installation of a dryer roll spoiler bar, and waste heat recovering devices. Therefore, it is necessary that Japan accept sharing the fund in return that this project is performed as a CDM, and credit on reduction of CO2 emission is transferred. Because of indistinctness in the CDM framework at the present as to the specific ratio of fund sharing, and of the value of the reduction quantity credit, further discussions will be required after these situations have been made clear. Since the Philippine government is not favorably disposed toward the CDM, agreement on this project as a CDM appears difficult. (NEDO)

  16. The impact of CO2 taxation on the configuration of new refineries: An application to Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Gabriel Lourenco; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates the impact of pricing CO 2 emissions over the configuration of new refinery complexes in their conceptual phase. Two refineries' schemes were simulated through a linear programming optimization model in order to compare the optimum configuration obtained before and after the input of different CO 2 prices. The cases analyzed represent refining projects to be located in Brazil, a growing market for fuels and petrochemical feedstocks, as well as an oil producing country with rising crude exports. After 2012, emerging countries, such as Brazil, may adopt carbon emission reduction targets. Therefore, it is worth analyzing the impact of pricing CO 2 emissions in these countries, where the majority of new refining projects will be located. Our findings indicate that the initial refinery configurations proposed are quite rigid technologically for CO 2 prices up to US$ 100/t CO 2 . For CO 2 prices higher than US$ 100/t CO 2 , refineries reduced their emissions by increasing the consumption of natural gas used to produce hydrogen, and through changes in the original configurations towards less-energy consuming process units. Promising technological advances, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), can also diminish the rigidity of the model and facilitate actions to curb carbon emissions.

  17. H2 production by reforming route in reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphaelle Imbault

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays the most common way to produce hydrogen is the Steam Methane Reforming route from natural gas. With the pressure of new environmental rules, reducing CO 2 emissions becomes a key issue. The European project Ulcos (Ultra Low CO 2 Steelmaking) has targeted to reduce of at least 50% the CO 2 emissions in steelmaking. The H 2 route (and in particular the reforming process) is one of the solutions which have been explored. The results of this study have shown that the two main ways (which can be combined) of limiting CO 2 emissions in H 2 production are to improve the energetic efficiency of the plant or to capture CO 2 . With the first way, a reduction of 20% of emissions compared to conventional plant can be reached. The second one enables to achieve a decrease of 90%. However the CO 2 capture is much more expensive and this kind of solution can be economically competitive only if high CO 2 taxes are implemented (≥40 Euros/ton). (author)

  18. HyGenSys: a Flexible Process for Hydrogen and Power Production with Reduction of CO2 Emission HyGenSys : un procédé flexible de production d’hydrogène et d’électricité avec réduction des émissions de CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giroudière F.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the latest development of HyGenSys, a new sustainable process and technology for the conversion of natural gas to hydrogen and power. The concept combines a specific steam reforming reactor-exchanger with a gas turbine. The heat necessary for the steam reforming reaction comes from hot pressurized flue gases produced in a gas turbine instead of a conventional furnace. Thanks to this high level of heat integration, the overall efficiency is improved and the natural gas consumption is reduced which represents an advantage with regard to economics and CO2 emission reduction. In addition to the efficient HyGenSys process scheme itself, the technology of the reactorexchanger also offers a high level of heat integration for even more energy saving. Two main alternatives are examined in order to meet two different requirements. The first one, named HyGenSys-0, focuses on the hydrogen production for the refining and petrochemical application. The second one named HyGenSys-1, concerns the centralized power production with pre-combustion CO2capture. In that case, the produced hydrogen is fully used to fuel a power gas turbine. HyGenSys-1 has been developed and optimised in CACHET, a European Community funded project. The CACHET electrical power objective was 400 MW at the minimum. HyGenSys-0 and HyGenSys-1 are described in detail with challenges and advantages compared to existing technologies. For both alternatives, the heart of the technology is the reactor-exchanger. The reactor-exchanger design relies on an innovative arrangement of bayonet tubes that allows, at large scale, multiple heat exchanges between hot pressurized flue gas, natural gas feed and hydrogen rich stream produced. Cet article présente les développements récents d’HyGenSys, nouvel éco-procédé de conversion du gaz naturel en hydrogène et électricité. Le concept combine un réacteur-échangeur spécifique de reformage à la vapeur avec une turbine à gaz

  19. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  20. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, A Christopher; Palmroth, Sari; Johnsen, Kurt H; McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram

    2014-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity, but the long-term effects of these factors on Fsoil are less clear. Expanding on previous studies at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, we quantified the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil using daily measurements from automated chambers over 10 years. Consistent with previous results, compared to ambient unfertilized plots, annual Fsoil increased under elevated [CO2] (ca. 17%) and decreased with N (ca. 21%). N fertilization under elevated [CO2] reduced Fsoil to values similar to untreated plots. Over the study period, base respiration rates increased with leaf productivity, but declined after productivity saturated. Despite treatment-induced differences in aboveground biomass, soil temperature and water content were similar among treatments. Interannually, low soil water content decreased annual Fsoil from potential values - estimated based on temperature alone assuming nonlimiting soil water content - by ca. 0.7% per 1.0% reduction in relative extractable water. This effect was only slightly ameliorated by elevated [CO2]. Variability in soil N availability among plots accounted for the spatial variability in Fsoil , showing a decrease of ca. 114 g C m(-2) yr(-1) per 1 g m(-2) increase in soil N availability, with consistently higher Fsoil in elevated [CO2] plots ca. 127 g C per 100 ppm [CO2] over the +200 ppm enrichment. Altogether, reflecting increased belowground carbon partitioning in response to greater plant nutritional needs, the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil in this stand are sustained beyond the early stages of stand development and

  1. Modelling Energy Systems and International Trade in CO2 Emission Quotas - The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tobias A.

    2002-01-01

    A transformation of the energy system in the 21st century is required if the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be stabilized at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The industrialized countries have emitted most of the anthropogenic CO 2 released to the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial era and still account for roughly two thirds of global fossil fuel related CO 2 emissions. Industrial country CO 2 emissions on a per capita basis are roughly five to ten times higher than those of developing countries. However, a global atmospheric CO 2 concentration target of 450 ppm, if adopted would require that global average per capita CO 2 emissions by the end of this century have to be comparable to those of developing countries today. The industrialized countries would have to reduce their emissions substantially and the emissions in developing countries could not follow a business-as-usual scenario. The transformation of the energy system and abatement of CO 2 emissions would need to occur in industrialized and developing countries. Energy-economy models have been developed to analyze of international trading in CO 2 emission permits. The thesis consists of three papers. The cost of meeting the Kyoto Protocol is estimated in the first paper. The Kyoto Protocol, which defines quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments for industrialized countries over the period 2008-2012, is the first international agreement setting quantitative goals for abatement of CO 2 emissions from energy systems. The Protocol allows the creation of systems for trade in emission permits whereby countries exceeding their target levels can remain in compliance by purchasing surplus permits from other developed countries. However, a huge carbon surplus, which has been christened hot air, has been created in Russia and Ukraine since 1990 primarily because of the contraction of their economies. The current Unites States

  2. CO2 Orbital Trends in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Feaga, Lori; Bodewits, Dennis; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane

    2014-12-01

    Spacecraft missions to comets return a treasure trove of details of their targets, e.g., the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Deep Impact experiment at comet 9P/Tempel 1, or even the flyby of C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) at Mars. Yet, missions are rare, the diversity of comets is large, few comets are easily accessible, and comet flybys essentially return snapshots of their target nuclei. Thus, telescopic observations are necessary to place the mission data within the context of each comet's long-term behavior, and to further connect mission results to the comet population as a whole. We propose a large Cycle 11 project to study the long-term activity of past and potential future mission targets, and select bright Oort cloud comets to infer comet nucleus properties, which would otherwise require flyby missions. In the classical comet model, cometary mass loss is driven by the sublimation of water ice. However, recent discoveries suggest that the more volatile CO and CO2 ices are the likely drivers of some comet active regions. Surprisingly, CO2 drove most of the activity of comet Hartley 2 at only 1 AU from the Sun where vigorous water ice sublimation would be expected to dominate. Currently, little is known about the role of CO2 in comet activity because telluric absorptions prohibit monitoring from the ground. In our Cycle 11 project, we will study the CO2 activity of our targets through IRAC photometry. In conjunction with prior observations of CO2 and CO, as well as future data sets (JWST) and ongoing Earth-based projects led by members of our team, we will investigate both long-term activity trends in our target comets, with a particular goal to ascertain the connections between each comet's coma and nucleus.

  3. CO2 utilization: Developments in conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdogan Alper

    2017-03-01

    The potential utilization of CO2, captured at power plants, should also been taken into consideration for sustainability. This CO2 source, which is potentially a raw material for the chemical industry, will be available at sufficient quality and at gigantic quantity upon realization of on-going tangible capture projects. Products resulting from carboxylation reactions are obvious conversions. In addition, provided that enough supply of energy from non-fossil resources, such as solar [1], is ensured, CO2 reduction reactions can produce several valuable commodity chemicals including multi-carbon compounds, such as ethylene and acrylic acid, in addition to C1 chemicals and polymers. Presently, there are only few developing technologies which can find industrial applications. Therefore, there is a need for concerted research in order to assess the viability of these promising exploratory technologies rationally.

  4. Waste cleaning using CO2-acid microemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwangheon; Sung, Jinhyun; Koh, Moonsung; Ju, Minsu

    2011-01-01

    Frequently we need to decontaminate radioactive wastes for volume reduction purposes. Metallic contaminants in wastes can be removed by dissolution to acid; however, this process produces a large amount of liquid acid waste. To reduce this 2ndary liquid waste, we suggest CO 2 -acid emulsion in removing metallic contaminants. Micro- and macro-emulsion of acid in liquid/supercritical CO 2 were successfully made. The formation region of microemulsion (water or acid in CO 2 ) was measured, and stability of the microemulsion was analyzed with respect to surfactant types. We applied micro- and macro-emulsion containing acid to the decontamination of radioactive metallic parts contaminated on the surface. The cleaning methods of micro- and macro-emulsion seemed better compared to the conventional acid cleaning. Moreover, these methods produce very small amount of secondary wastes. (author)

  5. Direct electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winea, Gauthier; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Gangeri, Miriam; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    A lot of methods exist to directly reduce carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons: the photoelectrochemical process is certainly the most interesting, essentially due to the similarities with photosynthesis. As the human activities produce a great quantity of CO 2 , this one can then be considered as an infinite source of carbon. The products of this reaction are identical to those obtained during a Fischer-Tropsch reaction, that is to say hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. These works deal with the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 in standard conditions of temperature and pressure. The photochemical part has been replaced by a current generator as electrons source and a KHCO 3 aqueous solution as protons source. The first catalytic results clearly show that it is possible to reduce CO 2 into light hydrocarbons, typically from C1 to C9. (O.M.)

  6. Full Characterization of CO2-Oil Properties On-Chip: Solubility, Diffusivity, Extraction Pressure, Miscibility, and Contact Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbatian, Atena; Abedini, Ali; Qi, ZhenBang; Sinton, David

    2018-02-20

    Carbon capture, storage, and utilization technologies target a reduction in net CO 2 emissions to mitigate greenhouse gas effects. The largest such projects worldwide involve storing CO 2 through enhanced oil recovery-a technologically and economically feasible approach that combines both storage and oil recovery. Successful implementation relies on detailed measurements of CO 2 -oil properties at relevant reservoir conditions (P = 2.0-13.0 MPa and T = 23 and 50 °C). In this paper, we demonstrate a microfluidic method to quantify the comprehensive suite of mutual properties of a CO 2 and crude oil mixture including solubility, diffusivity, extraction pressure, minimum miscibility pressure (MMP), and contact angle. The time-lapse oil swelling/extraction in response to CO 2 exposure under stepwise increasing pressure was quantified via fluorescence microscopy, using the inherent fluorescence property of the oil. The CO 2 solubilities and diffusion coefficients were determined from the swelling process with measurements in strong agreement with previous results. The CO 2 -oil MMP was determined from the subsequent oil extraction process with measurements within 5% of previous values. In addition, the oil-CO 2 -silicon contact angle was measured throughout the process, with contact angle increasing with pressure. In contrast with conventional methods, which require days and ∼500 mL of fluid sample, the approach here provides a comprehensive suite of measurements, 100-fold faster with less than 1 μL of sample, and an opportunity to better inform large-scale CO 2 projects.

  7. Calcium stanate (CaSnO_3) doped with Fe"3"+, Co"2"+ ou Cu"2"+ applied in the photodegradation of Remazol Golden Yellow and in the reduction of NO with CO or NH_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Guilherme Leocardio Lucena dos

    2017-01-01

    Calcium stannate, CaSnO_3, is orthorhombic perovskite-type that presents technological applications as catalysts and photocatalysts. In this work, undoped CaSnO_3 and doped with Fe"3"+, Co"2"+ or Cu"2"+ were obtained by the modified Pechini method and applied in photodegradation of the textile dye Remazol Golden Yellow and as catalysts in the reduction reaction of nitrogen monoxide (NO). Furthermore, these materials were deposited on the ZrO_2 support or Pd"2"+-doped or Pd impregnated and evaluated in the reduction of NO with CO and NO with NH_3. The catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy, analysis of the surface area by the BET method, scanning electron microscopy with field emission (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD patterns showed a small change in the long range-order for the doped samples due to partial substitution of cations. The Raman spectra indicated that the incorporation of Fe"3"+, Co"2"+ and Cu"2"+ in the CaSnO_3 lattice promoted a symmetry breaking, which was confirmed by the change of the band gap values of the samples. The photocatalytic tests of RNL dye were performed in the reactor using a UVC lamp (λ = 254 nm). The catalytic tests were carried out in a reactor containing a gaseous mixture with stoichiometric amounts of nitrogen monoxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) in helium in the temperature range of 300 °C to 700 °C or in a reactor containing a mixture of NO and ammonia (NH_3) in helium in the temperature range of 250 °C to 500 °C. The results of the photocatalytic evaluation showed that CaSnO_3 doping with transition metals increased the photocatalytic efficiency of the material, especially for the Cu"2"+ (76% of discoloration), which was related to the while the decrease in the intensity of the photoluminescence spectrum as a function of doping. The catalytic tests of NO

  8. Outline for the Rotterdam Climate Initiative. CO2 emissions up to 2030; Verkenning voor Rotterdam Climate Initiative. CO2-emissies tot 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, A.J.; Wetzels, W.; Seebregts, A.J.; Kroon, P [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The Rotterdam Climate Initiative (RCI) aims to reduce the CO2 emissions within the city and port of Rotterdam by 50% in 2025 as compared to 1990. This target translates into a total emission of 12 Mton of CO2. In this study, Rotterdam's CO2 emissions have been estimated for the future years 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030 based on autonomous developments combined with a policy framework that is assumed to be fixed. This study only explores the sectors Energy and Industry and Freight transport within Rotterdam. The results demonstrate that: (a) CO2 emissions resulting from the sector Energy and Industry increase from 26.5 Mton CO2 in 2011 to 33.8 Mton CO2 in 2020, and slightly decrease afterwards to 29.4 Mton CO2 in 2025 and 2030; and (b) CO2 emissions resulting from Freight transport increase from 1.0 Mton CO2 in 2011 to 1.4 Mton CO2 in 2025 and increase further to 1.6 Mton in 2030. This means that these sectors alone already exceed the emission target, and that substantial additional effort will be needed to attain the 50% CO2 reduction target. The estimated CO2 emissions are lower than those reported in the previous study that was published in 2010. Differences are mainly due to lower CO2 emissions from power plants as compared to the study in 2010. These are influenced by many different developments, such as high gas prices, low electricity prices and low CO2 prices. These estimates have been calculated bottom-up as much as possible and with the help of sector models. The realisation of Maasvlakte 2 has been taken into account in these results, which means more space for chemical plants and substantially more freight transfer and transport in Rotterdam [Dutch] Het Rotterdam Climate Initiative (RCI) heeft als doel om de CO2-emissie van de gemeente Rotterdam, inclusief de haven, in 2025 met 50% te reduceren ten opzichte van het basisjaar 1990. Deze doelstelling betekent een emissieniveau van 12 Mton CO2 in 2025 binnen de gemeente Rotterdam. In deze studie is de CO2

  9. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction by Cr-substituted Ba2 (In2-xCrx)O5·(H2O)δ (0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.60)

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Songhak; Gaul, Michael; Sharma, Sitansh; Son, Kwanghyo; Hagemann, Hans; Ziegenbalg, Dirk; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Widenmeyer, Marc; Weidenkaff, Anke

    2018-01-01

    Cr-substituted polycrystalline Ba2(In2-xCrx)O5·(H2O)δ powders (0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.60) were synthesized by solid state reaction to investigate the relation of crystal structure, thermochemical, magnetic, and optical properties. The Cr-substitution results in an unit cell expansion and formation of the higher-symmetric tetragonal phase together with increased oxygen and hydrogen contents. Magnetic property measurements reveal that the diamagnetic pristine Ba2In2O5·(H2O)δ becomes magnetically ordered upon Cr-substitution. By UV–vis spectroscopy a gradual shift of the absorption-edge energy to lower values was observed. Numerical calculations showed that the observed bandgap narrowing was ascribed to the Cr induced states near the Fermi level. The correlation between the changes of crystal chemistry, magnetic, and optical properties of Cr-substituted Ba2(In2-xCrx)O5·(H2O)δ can be explained by the replacement of In by Cr. Consequently, an enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction activity was observed with increasing Cr substitution, compatible with the state-of-the-art high surface area TiO2 photocatalyst (P-25).

  10. 1998 investi