Sample records for co2 recycling rate

  1. Panorama 2016 - Chemical recycling of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forti, Laurent; Fosse, Florian


    The ongoing rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is a major environmental and societal concern. Among the potential solutions for reducing carbon emissions in the energy sector, the chemical recycling of CO 2 has received considerable attention. Conversion of carbon dioxide into other recoverable substances offers the benefit of reducing the carbon footprint of newly developed products and of shifting away from the use of fossil resources. Various methods to create a wide range of products are currently being studied. (authors)

  2. Rate-based modelling of combined SO2 removal and NH3 recycling integrated with an aqueous NH3-based CO2 capture process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Qi, Guojie; Feron, Paul; Tade, Moses; Yu, Jingwen; Wang, Shujuan


    Highlights: • A rigorous, rate-based model for an NH 3 –CO 2 –SO 2 –H 2 O system was developed. • Model predictions are in good agreement with pilot plant results. • >99.9% of SO 2 was captured and >99.9% of slipped ammonia was reused. • The process is highly adaptable to the variations of SO 2 /NH 3 level, temperatures. - Abstract: To reduce the costs of controlling emissions from coal-fired power stations, we propose an advanced and effective process of combined SO 2 removal and NH 3 recycling, which can be integrated with the aqueous NH 3 -based CO 2 capture process to simultaneously achieve SO 2 and CO 2 removal, NH 3 recycling and flue gas cooling in one process. A rigorous, rate-based model for an NH 3 –CO 2 –SO 2 –H 2 O system was developed and used to simulate the proposed process. The model was thermodynamically and kinetically validated by experimental results from the open literature and pilot-plant trials, respectively. Under typical flue gas conditions, the proposed process has SO 2 removal and NH 3 reuse efficiencies of >99.9%. The process is strongly adaptable to different scenarios such as high SO 2 levels in flue gas, high NH 3 levels from the CO 2 absorber and high flue gas temperatures, and has a low energy requirement. Because the process simplifies flue gas desulphurisation and resolves the problems of NH 3 loss and SO 2 removal, it could significantly reduce the cost of CO 2 and SO 2 capture by aqueous NH 3

  3. Study on CO2 global recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Niwa, S.


    In order to assist in finding ways to mitigate CO 2 emission and to slow the depletion of fossil fuels we have established and evaluated a representative system, which consists of three technologies developed in our laboratory. These technologies were in CO 2 recovery, hydrogen production and methanol synthesis and in addition we established the necessary supporting systems. Analysis of outline designs of the large scale renewable energy power generation system and this system and energy input for building plant, energy input for running plant has been conducted based on a case using this system for a 1000-MW coal fired power plant, followed by an evaluation of the material balance and energy balance. The results are as follows. Energy efficiency is 34%, the CO 2 reduction rate is 41%, the balance ratio of the energy and CO 2 of the system is 2.2 and 1.8, respectively, on the assumption that the primary renewable energy is solar thermal power generation, the stationary CO 2 emission source is a coal-fired power plant and the generation efficiency of the methanol power plant is 60%. By adopting the system, 3.7 million tons of CO 2 can be recovered, approximately 2.7 million tons of methanol can be produced, and 15.4 billion kWh of electricity can be generated per year. Compared to generating all electrical power using only coal, approximately 2.6 million tons of coal per year can be saved and approximately 2.15 million tons of CO 2 emission can be reduced. Therefore, it is clearly revealed that this system would be effective to reduce CO 2 emissions and to utilize renewable energy

  4. Recycling CO 2 ? Computational Considerations of the Activation of CO 2 with Homogeneous Transition Metal Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Drees, Markus; Cokoja, Mirza; Kü hn, Fritz E.


    . A similar approach, storing energy from renewable sources in chemical bonds with CO 2 as starting material, may lead to partial recycling of CO 2 created by human industrial activities. Unfortunately, currently available routes for the transformation

  5. Recycling CO 2 ? Computational Considerations of the Activation of CO 2 with Homogeneous Transition Metal Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Drees, Markus


    Faced with depleting fossil carbon sources, the search for alternative energy carriers and energy storage possibilities has become an important issue. Nature utilizes carbon dioxide as starting material for storing sun energy in plant hydrocarbons. A similar approach, storing energy from renewable sources in chemical bonds with CO 2 as starting material, may lead to partial recycling of CO 2 created by human industrial activities. Unfortunately, currently available routes for the transformation of CO 2 involve high temperatures and are often not selective. With the development of more sophisticated methods and better software, theoretical studies have become both increasingly widespread and useful. This concept article summarizes theoretical investigations of the current state of the feasibility of CO 2 activation with molecular transition metal catalysts, highlighting the most promising reactions of CO 2 with olefins to industrially relevant acrylic acid/acrylates, and the insertion of CO 2 into metal-element bonds, particularly for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates and polymers. Rapidly improving computational power and methods help to increase the importance and accuracy of calculations continuously and make computational chemistry a useful tool helping to solve some of the most important questions for the future. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Process development of coke oven gas to methanol integrated with CO2 recycle for satisfactory techno-economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Qun; Gong, Min-Hui; Huang, Yi; Feng, Jie; Hao, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Ji-Long; Li, Wen-Ying


    A novel process designed for producing methanol from coke oven gas (COG) integrated with CO 2 recycle is proposed. In the new system, oxygen replacing air is blown to combustor for assisting combustion of COG and unreacted syngas from methanol synthesis process. The combustion process provides to the heat required in the coking process. The rest COG reacts with the recycled CO 2 separated from the exhaust gas to produce syngas for methanol synthesis. The unreacted syngas from methanol synthesis process with low grade energy level is recycled to the combustor. In the whole methanol production process, there is no additional process with respect to supplementary carbon, and the carbon resource only comes from the internal CO 2 recycle in the plant. With the aid of techno-economic analysis, the new system presents the energy or exergy saving by 5–10%, the CO 2 emission reduction by about 70% and the internal rate of return increase by 5–8%, respectively, in comparison with the traditional COG to methanol process. - Highlights: • A process for producing methanol from COG integrated with CO 2 recycle is first proposed. • CO 2 from the exhaust gas is recycled to supply carbon for producing syngas. • New integrated plant simplifies the production process with 5–8% IRR increase. • New system presents about 5–10% energy saving, about 70% CO 2 emission reduction.

  7. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas


    variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... routed to incineration. Emission factors ranged from 27 to 40kg CO2/GJ. The results appeared most sensitive towards variations in waste composition and water content. Recycling rates and lower heating values could not be used as simple indicators of the resulting emission factors for residual household...... different studies and when using the values for environmental assessment purposes....

  8. Coke oven gas to methanol process integrated with CO_2 recycle for high energy efficiency, economic benefits and low emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Min-hui; Yi, Qun; Huang, Yi; Wu, Guo-sheng; Hao, Yan-hong; Feng, Jie; Li, Wen-ying


    Highlights: • CO_2 recycle assistance with COG to CH_3OH with dry reforming is proposed. • New process with dry reforming improves H_2 utilization and energy saving. • Process with H_2 separation (CWHS) is more preferable to CH_3OH output. • CWHS shows an excellent performance in energy, economy and CO_2 emission reduction. - Abstract: A process of CO_2 recycle to supply carbon for assisting with coke oven gas to methanol process is proposed to realize clean and efficient coke oven gas utilization. Two CO_2 recycle schemes with respect to coke oven gas, namely with and without H_2 separation before reforming, are developed. It is revealed that the process with H_2 separation is more beneficial to element and energy efficiency improvement, and it also presents a better techno-economic performance in comparison with the conventional coke oven gas to methanol process. The exergy efficiency, direct CO_2 emission, and internal rate of return of the process with H_2 separation are 73.9%, 0.69 t/t-methanol, and 35.1%, respectively. This excellent performance implies that reforming technology selection, H_2 utilization efficiency, and CO_2 recycle ways have important influences on the performance of the coke oven gas to methanol process. The findings of this study represent significant progress for future improvements of the coke oven gas to methanol process, especially CO_2 conversion integrated with coke oven gas utilization in the coking industry.

  9. Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2O with renewable or nuclear energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Ebbesen, Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    ) and biofuels have received the most attention, similar hydrocarbons can be produced without using fossil fuels or biomass. Using renewable and/or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into liquid hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse...... of fuel combustion). Capture of CO2 from the atmosphere would enable a closed-loop carbon-neutral fuel cycle. This article critically reviews the many possible technological pathways for recycling CO2 into fuels using renewable or nuclear energy, considering three stages—CO2 capture, H2O and CO2...... by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is identified as one of the most promising, feasible routes. An analysis of the energy balance and economics of this CO2 recycling process is presented. We estimate that the full system can feasibly operate at 70% electricity-to-liquid fuel efficiency (higher heating value basis...

  10. Closing CO2 Loop in Biogas Production: Recycling Ammonia As Fertilizer. (United States)

    He, Qingyao; Yu, Ge; Tu, Te; Yan, Shuiping; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhao, Shuaifei


    We propose and demonstrate a novel system for simultaneous ammonia recovery, carbon capture, biogas upgrading, and fertilizer production in biogas production. Biogas slurry pretreatment (adjusting the solution pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand) plays an important role in the system as it significantly affects the performance of ammonia recovery. Vacuum membrane distillation is used to recover ammonia from biogas slurry at various conditions. The ammonia removal efficiency in vacuum membrane distillation is around 75% regardless of the ammonia concentration of the biogas slurry. The recovered ammonia is used for CO 2 absorption to realize simultaneous biogas upgrading and fertilizer generation. CO 2 absorption performance of the recovered ammonia (absorption capacity and rate) is compared with a conventional model absorbent. Theoretical results on biogas upgrading are also provided. After ammonia recovery, the treated biogas slurry has significantly reduced phytotoxicity, improving the applicability for agricultural irrigation. The novel concept demonstrated in this study shows great potential in closing the CO 2 loop in biogas production by recycling ammonia as an absorbent for CO 2 absorption associated with producing fertilizers.

  11. Crassulacean acid metabolism, CO2-recycling, and tissue desiccation in the Mexican epiphyte Tillandsia schiedeana Steud (Bromeliaceae). (United States)

    Martin, C E; Adams, W W


    After 23 days without water in a greenhouse, rates of nocturnal CO2 uptake in Tillandsia schiedeana decreased substantially and maximum rates occurred later in the dark period eventually coinciding with the onset of illumination. Nocturnal CO2 uptake accounted for less than half the total nighttime increase in acidity measured in well-watered plants. With increased tissue desiccation, only 11-12% of measured acid accumulation was attributable to atmospheric CO2 uptake. Plants desiccated for 30 days regained initial levels of nocturnal acid accumulation and CO2 uptake after rehydration for 10h. These results stress the importance of CO2 recycling via CAM in this epiphytic bromeliad, especially during droughts.

  12. Chemical absorption and CO2 biofixation via the cultivation of Spirulina in semicontinuous mode with nutrient recycle. (United States)

    da Rosa, Gabriel Martins; Moraes, Luiza; Cardias, Bruna Barcelos; de Souza, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmermann; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira


    The chemical absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a technique used for the mitigation of the greenhouse effect. However, this process consumes high amounts of energy to regenerate the absorbent and to separate the CO2. CO2 removal by microalgae can be obtained via the photosynthesis process. The objective of this study was to investigate the cultivation and the macromolecules production by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 with the addition of monoethanolamine (MEA) and CO2. In the cultivation with MEA, were obtained higher results of specific growth rate, biomass productivity, CO2 biofixation, CO2 use efficiency, and lower generation time. Besides this, the carbohydrate concentration obtained at the end of this assay was approximately 96.0% higher than the control assay. Therefore, Spirulina can be produced using medium recycle and the addition of MEA, thereby promoting the reduction of CO2 emissions and showing potential for areas that require higher concentrations of carbohydrates, such as in bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Techno-economic study of CO2 capture from an existing coal-fired power plant: MEA scrubbing vs. O2/CO2 recycle combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Croiset, E.; Douglas, P.L.; Douglas, M.A.


    The existing fleet of modern pulverised coal fired power plants represents an opportunity to achieve significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the coming years providing that efficient and economical CO 2 capture technologies are available for retrofit. One option is to separate CO 2 from the products of combustion using conventional approaches such as amine scrubbing. An emerging alternative, commonly known as O 2 /CO 2 recycle combustion, involves burning the coal with oxygen in an atmosphere of recycled flue gas. Both approaches can be retrofitted to existing units, however they consume significant amounts of energy to capture, purify and compress the CO 2 for subsequent sequestration. This paper presents a techno-economic comparison of the performance of the two approaches. The comparison was developed using the commercial process simulation packages, Hysys and Aspen Plus. The results show that both processes are expensive options to capture CO 2 from coal power plants, however O 2 /CO 2 appears to be a more attractive retrofit than MEA scrubbing. The CO 2 capture cost for the MEA case is USD 53/ton of CO 2 avoided, which translates into 3.3 cents/kW h. For the O 2 /CO 2 case the CO 2 capture cost is lower at USD 35/ton of CO 2 avoided, which translates into 2.4 cents/kW h. These capture costs represent an approximate increase of 20-30% in current electricity prices

  14. Estimating marginal CO2 emissions rates for national electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, A.D.


    The carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions reduction afforded by a demand-side intervention in the electricity system is typically assessed by means of an assumed grid emissions rate, which measures the CO 2 intensity of electricity not used as a result of the intervention. This emissions rate is called the 'marginal emissions factor' (MEF). Accurate estimation of MEFs is crucial for performance assessment because their application leads to decisions regarding the relative merits of CO 2 reduction strategies. This article contributes to formulating the principles by which MEFs are estimated, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses in existing approaches, and presenting an alternative based on the observed behaviour of power stations. The case of Great Britain is considered, demonstrating an MEF of 0.69 kgCO 2 /kW h for 2002-2009, with error bars at +/-10%. This value could reduce to 0.6 kgCO 2 /kW h over the next decade under planned changes to the underlying generation mix, and could further reduce to approximately 0.51 kgCO 2 /kW h before 2025 if all power stations commissioned pre-1970 are replaced by their modern counterparts. Given that these rates are higher than commonly applied system-average or assumed 'long term marginal' emissions rates, it is concluded that maintenance of an improved understanding of MEFs is valuable to better inform policy decisions.

  15. CO2 Problems and waste recycling. Research at the Institute of ferrous metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudenau, H. W.; Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Frohling, C.; Kweon, O. S.; Wang, S.; Wieting, T.


    In a short introduction tests and calculations about CO 2 -ice-blocs in the deep sea,use of CO 2 for underground-coal-gasifications and tertiary processes to increase oil-production by CO 2 -flooding are shown. New activities are presented e. g. CO 2 -injection into EAF combined with injection of coal, coke or direct reduction-fines. After research of injection of coals, fine ores or dust into blast furnaces and other shaft furnaces activities are compared with injection of hot reducing gas generated by coal or waste gasification or top gas recycling combined with injection of fine solid fuels. Results of injection of prepared plastics (Duales System Deutschland), shredder-light-fraction from car-recycling and unburned carbon of power-station-ashes are discussed. Beside production of direct-reduced-iron by H 2 fluidized reactor results of the reduction behaviour ore/coal or dust/coal pellets or briquettes for the use in rotary hearth or modern shaft furnaces are shown. (Author) 76 refs

  16. CO2 Recycling to Dimethyl Ether: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Catizzone


    Full Text Available This review reports recent achievements in dimethyl ether (DME synthesis via CO2 hydrogenation. This gas-phase process could be considered as a promising alternative for carbon dioxide recycling toward a (biofuel as DME. In this view, the production of DME from catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 appears as a technology able to face also the ever-increasing demand for alternative, environmentally-friendly fuels and energy carriers. Basic considerations on thermodynamic aspects controlling DME production from CO2 are presented along with a survey of the most innovative catalytic systems developed in this field. During the last years, special attention has been paid to the role of zeolite-based catalysts, either in the methanol-to-DME dehydration step or in the one-pot CO2-to-DME hydrogenation. Overall, the productivity of DME was shown to be dependent on several catalyst features, related not only to the metal-oxide phase—responsible for CO2 activation/hydrogenation—but also to specific properties of the zeolites (i.e., topology, porosity, specific surface area, acidity, interaction with active metals, distributions of metal particles, … influencing activity and stability of hybridized bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts. All these aspects are discussed in details, summarizing recent achievements in this research field.

  17. Rates of CO2 Mineralization in Geological Carbon Storage. (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; DePaolo, Donald J


    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) involves capture and purification of CO 2 at industrial emission sources, compression into a supercritical state, and subsequent injection into geologic formations. This process reverses the flow of carbon to the atmosphere with the intention of returning the carbon to long-term geologic storage. Models suggest that most of the injected CO 2 will be "trapped" in the subsurface by physical means, but the most risk-free and permanent form of carbon storage is as carbonate minerals (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO 3 . The transformation of CO 2 to carbonate minerals requires supply of the necessary divalent cations by dissolution of silicate minerals. Available data suggest that rates of transformation are highly uncertain and difficult to predict by standard approaches. Here we show that the chemical kinetic observations and experimental results, when they can be reduced to a single cation-release time scale that describes the fractional rate at which cations are released to solution by mineral dissolution, show sufficiently systematic behavior as a function of pH, fluid flow rate, and time that the rates of mineralization can be estimated with reasonable certainty. The rate of mineralization depends on both the abundance (determined by the reservoir rock mineralogy) and the rate at which cations are released from silicate minerals by dissolution into pore fluid that has been acidified with dissolved CO 2 . Laboratory-measured rates and field observations give values spanning 8 to 10 orders of magnitude, but when they are evaluated in the context of a reservoir-scale reactive transport simulation, this range becomes much smaller. The reservoir scale simulations provide limits on the applicable conditions under which silicate mineral dissolution and subsequent carbonate mineral precipitation are likely to occur (pH 4.5 to 6, fluid flow velocity less than 5 m/year, and 50-100 years or more after the start of injection). These constraints lead to estimates of

  18. CO2 Capture Rate Sensitivity Versus Purchase of CO2 Quotas. Optimizing Investment Choice for Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Paula


    Full Text Available Carbon capture technology (and associated storage, applied to power plants, reduces atmospheric CO2 emissions. This article demonstrates that, in the particular case of the deployment phase of CO2 capture technology during which CO2 quota price may be low, capturing less than 90% of total CO2 emissions from power plants can be economically attractive. Indeed, for an electric power company capture technology is interesting, only if the discounted marginal cost of capture is lower than the discounted marginal cost of purchased quotas. When CO2 price is low, it is interesting to have flexibility and reduce the overall capture rate of the site, by stopping the capture system of one of the combustion trains if the site has multiple ones, or by adopting less than 90% CO2 capture rate.

  19. Generation rate of carbon monoxide from CO2 arc welding. (United States)

    Ojima, Jun


    CO poisoning has been a serious industrial hazard in Japanese workplaces. Although incomplete combustion is the major cause of CO generation, there is a risk of CO poisoning during some welding operations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the generation rate of CO from CO2 arc welding under controlled laboratory conditions and estimate the ventilation requirements for the prevention of CO poisoning. Bead on plate welding was carried out with an automatic welding robot on a rolled steel base metal under several conditions. The concentration of emitted CO from the welding was measured by a real-time CO monitor in a well-ventilated laboratory that was free from ambient CO contamination. The generation rate of CO was obtained from the three measurements-the flow rate of the welding exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the arcing time. Then the ventilation requirement to prevent CO poisoning was calculated. The generation rate of CO was found to be 386-883 ml/min with a solid wire and 331-1,293 ml/min with a flux cored wire respectively. It was found that the CO concentration in a room would be maintained theoretically below the OSHA PEL (50 ppm) providing the ventilation rate in the room was 6.6-25.9 m3/min. The actual ventilation requirement was then estimated to be 6.6-259 m3/min considering incomplete mixing. In order to prevent CO poisoning, some countermeasures against gaseous emission as well as welding fumes should be taken eagerly.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Henry Copeland; Paul Pier; Samantha Whitehead; Paul Enlow; Richard Strickland; David Behel


    This Annual Technical Progress Report presents the principle results in enhanced growth of algae using coal combustion products as a catalyst to increase bicarbonate levels in solution. A co-current reactor is present that increases the gas phase to bicarbonate transfer rate by a factor of five to nine. The bicarbonate concentration at a given pH is approximately double that obtained using a control column of similar construction. Algae growth experiments were performed under laboratory conditions to obtain baseline production rates and to perfect experimental methods. The final product of this initial phase in algae production is presented. Algal growth can be limited by several factors, including the level of bicarbonate available for photosynthesis, the pH of the growth solution, nutrient levels, and the size of the cell population, which determines the available space for additional growth. In order to supply additional CO2 to increase photosynthesis and algal biomass production, fly ash reactor has been demonstrated to increase the available CO2 in solution above the limits that are achievable with dissolved gas alone. The amount of dissolved CO2 can be used to control pH for optimum growth. Periodic harvesting of algae can be used to maintain algae in the exponential, rapid growth phase. An 800 liter scale up demonstrated that larger scale production is possible. The larger experiment demonstrated that indirect addition of CO2 is feasible and produces significantly less stress on the algal system. With better harvesting methods, nutrient management, and carbon dioxide management, an annual biomass harvest of about 9,000 metric tons per square kilometer (36 MT per acre) appears to be feasible. To sequester carbon, the algal biomass needs to be placed in a permanent location. If drying is undesirable, the biomass will eventually begin to aerobically decompose. It was demonstrated that algal biomass is a suitable feed to an anaerobic digester to produce methane

  1. Carbon recycling by cyanobacteria: improving CO2 fixation through chemical production. (United States)

    Zhang, Angela; Carroll, Austin L; Atsumi, Shota


    Atmospheric CO2 levels have reached an alarming level due to industrialization and the burning of fossil fuels. In order to lower the level of atmospheric carbon, strategies to sequester excess carbon need to be implemented. The CO2-fixing mechanism in photosynthetic organisms enables integration of atmospheric CO2 into biomass. Additionally, through exogenous metabolic pathways in these photosynthetic organisms, fixed CO2 can be routed to produce various commodity chemicals that are currently produced from petroleum. This review will highlight studies and modifications to different components of cyanobacterial CO2-fixing systems, as well as the application of these systems toward CO2-derived chemical production. 2,3-Butanediol is given particular focus as one of the most thoroughly studied systems for conversion of CO2 to a bioproduct. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  2. Recycle flow rate control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, Susumu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Oka, Yoko.


    Purpose: To attain stable low hydraulic power operation with no abnormal changes in the reactor water level by smoothly varying the speed control for the recycling pump for regulating the reactor core flowrate in BWR type reactors. Constitution: In a recycling control system equipped with an internal pump having a response characteristic higher by ten and several times or more than that of prior pump, a previously programed recycling run-back signal is inputted to a speed regulator upon load interruption of the electric generator to thereby control the operation of the internal pump driving motor such that the speed is decreased rapidly at the initial state and smoothly thereafter. The run-back singal is passed through a primary delay circuit so that the interruption of the motor operation does not directly performed by the signal interruption upon failure. As the result, the amount of void produced is also made smooth and the reactor water level varies smoothly as well, whereby the reactor power can be reduced with a sufficient margin. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical phase carbon dioxide: Recycle rates (United States)

    Soti, Madhav

    With increasing oil prices and attention towards the reduction of anthropogenic CO2, the use of supercritical carbon dioxide for Fischer Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) is showing promise in fulfilling the demand of clean liquid fuels. The evidence of consumption of carbon dioxide means that it need not to be removed from the syngas feed to the Fischer Tropsch reactor after the gasification process. Over the last five years, research at SIUC have shown that FTS in supercritical CO2reduces the selectivities for methane, enhances conversion, reduces the net CO2produces in the coal to liquid fuels process and increase the life of the catalyst. The research has already evaluated the impact of various operating and feed conditions on the FTS for the once through process. We believe that the integration of unreacted feed recycle would enhance conversion, increase the yield and throughput of liquid fuels for the same reactor size. The proposed research aims at evaluating the impact of recycle of the unreacted feed gas along with associated product gases on the performance of supercritical CO2FTS. The previously identified conditions will be utilized and various recycle ratios will be evaluated in this research once the recycle pump and associated fittings have been integrated to the supercritical CO2FTS. In this research two different catalysts (Fe-Zn-K, Fe-Co-Zn-K) were analyzed under SC-FTS in different recycle rate at 350oC and 1200 psi. The use of recycle was found to improve conversion from 80% to close to 100% with both catalysts. The experiment recycle rate at 4.32 and 4.91 was clearly surpassing theoretical recycle curve. The steady state reaction rate constant was increased to 0.65 and 0.8 min-1 for recycle rate of 4.32 and 4.91 respectively. Carbon dioxide selectivity was decreased for both catalyst as it was converting to carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide consumption was increased from 0.014 to 0.034 mole fraction. This concluded that CO2is being used in the system and

  4. Reduce, reuse, recycle: Acceptance of CO_2-utilization for plastic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, Julia van; Arning, Katrin; Ziefle, Martina


    Global warming is a central threat for today's society caused by greenhouse gas emissions, mostly carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide capture and utilization (CCU) is a promising approach to reduce emissions and the use of expensive and limited fossil resources. Applying CCU, carbon dioxide (CO_2) can be incorporated as raw material during the manufacture of plastic products. While most of the studies address technical feasibilities, hardly any systematic research on public perception and acceptance of those specific products exists so far. This study empirically investigates the acceptance of CCU plastic products (mattress as example). First, interviews with experts and lay people revealed critical acceptance factors (CO_2 proportion, saving of fossil resources, disposal conditions, perceived health complaints). Their relative importance was detailed in two consecutive conjoint studies. Study 1 revealed disposal conditions and saving of fossil resources as essential for product selection, while the products’ CO_2 proportion was less important. In study 2, potential health complaints were integrated as well as individual levels of domain knowledge and risk perception, which significantly affected acceptance of CCU products. Recommendations concerning communication strategies for policy and industry were derived. - Highlights: • Study provides insights into the acceptance of specific CCU products. • Disposal conditions and savings of fossil resource are main drivers of acceptance. • Concerns about potential health effects act as major barrier especially for laypeople. • Perceived knowledge and risk perception affect CCU product acceptance. • Communication strategy recommendations for policy and industry are derived.

  5. Aviation and the environment, rating airlines on their co2 efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwan, F.M.; Dorland, N.; Ghijs, S.S.A.; Santema, S.C.; Curran, R.


    The aviation industry contributes about 2% to the total global manmade CO2 emissions, which is seen as the main (manmade) greenhouse gas inducing climate change. This paper focuses on the design of a CO2 rating system which makes it possible to make a fair comparison of the environmental performance

  6. The declining uptake rate of atmospheric CO2 by land and ocean sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Raupach


    Full Text Available Through 1959–2012, an airborne fraction (AF of 0.44 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions remained in the atmosphere, with the rest being taken up by land and ocean CO2 sinks. Understanding of this uptake is critical because it greatly alleviates the emissions reductions required for climate mitigation, and also reduces the risks and damages that adaptation has to embrace. An observable quantity that reflects sink properties more directly than the AF is the CO2 sink rate (kS, the combined land–ocean CO2 sink flux per unit excess atmospheric CO2 above preindustrial levels. Here we show from observations that kS declined over 1959–2012 by a factor of about 1 / 3, implying that CO2 sinks increased more slowly than excess CO2. Using a carbon–climate model, we attribute the decline in kS to four mechanisms: slower-than-exponential CO2 emissions growth (~ 35% of the trend, volcanic eruptions (~ 25%, sink responses to climate change (~ 20%, and nonlinear responses to increasing CO2, mainly oceanic (~ 20%. The first of these mechanisms is associated purely with the trajectory of extrinsic forcing, and the last two with intrinsic, feedback responses of sink processes to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2. Our results suggest that the effects of these intrinsic, nonlinear responses are already detectable in the global carbon cycle. Although continuing future decreases in kS will occur under all plausible CO2 emission scenarios, the rate of decline varies between scenarios in non-intuitive ways because extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms respond in opposite ways to changes in emissions: extrinsic mechanisms cause kS to decline more strongly with increasing mitigation, while intrinsic mechanisms cause kS to decline more strongly under high-emission, low-mitigation scenarios as the carbon–climate system is perturbed further from a near-linear regime.

  7. The declining uptake rate of atmospheric CO2 by land and ocean sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupach, M.R.; Gloor, M.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Gasser, T.


    Through 1959-2012, an airborne fraction (AF) of 0.44 of total anthropogenic CO 2 emissions remained in the atmosphere, with the rest being taken up by land and ocean CO 2 sinks. Understanding of this uptake is critical because it greatly alleviates the emissions reductions required for climate mitigation, and also reduces the risks and damages that adaptation has to embrace. An observable quantity that reflects sink properties more directly than the AF is the CO 2 sink rate (k S ), the combined land-ocean CO 2 sink flux per unit excess atmospheric CO 2 above pre industrial levels. Here we show from observations that k S declined over 1959-2012 by a factor of about 1/3, implying that CO 2 sinks increased more slowly than excess CO 2 . Using a carbon-climate model, we attribute the decline in k S to four mechanisms: slower-than-exponential CO 2 emissions growth (35% of the trend), volcanic eruptions (25 %), sink responses to climate change (20 %), and nonlinear responses to increasing CO 2 , mainly oceanic (20 %). The first of these mechanisms is associated purely with the trajectory of extrinsic forcing, and the last two with intrinsic, feedback responses of sink processes to changes in climate and atmospheric CO 2 . Our results suggest that the effects of these intrinsic, nonlinear responses are already detectable in the global carbon cycle. Although continuing future decreases in k S will occur under all plausible CO 2 emission scenarios, the rate of decline varies between scenarios in non intuitive ways because extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms respond in opposite ways to changes in emissions: extrinsic mechanisms cause k S to decline more strongly with increasing mitigation, while intrinsic mechanisms cause k S to decline more strongly under high-emission, low-mitigation scenarios as the carbon-climate system is perturbed further from a near-linear regime. (authors)

  8. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov


    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumyeast extract then for those growing on glucose, i.e. the effect of elevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. This indicates the increased activity of microorganisms, which leads to accelerated C turnover in soil under elevated CO2. Our results clearly showed that the functional characteristics of the soil microbial community (i.e. specific growth rates and enzymes activity) rather than total microbial biomass

  9. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates. (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M


    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  10. A numerical evaluation of prediction accuracy of CO2 absorber model for various reaction rate coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim S.M.


    Full Text Available The performance of the CO2 absorber column using mono-ethanolamine (MEA solution as chemical solvent are predicted by a One-Dimensional (1-D rate based model in the present study. 1-D Mass and heat balance equations of vapor and liquid phase are coupled with interfacial mass transfer model and vapor-liquid equilibrium model. The two-film theory is used to estimate the mass transfer between the vapor and liquid film. Chemical reactions in MEA-CO2-H2O system are considered to predict the equilibrium pressure of CO2 in the MEA solution. The mathematical and reaction kinetics models used in this work are calculated by using in-house code. The numerical results are validated in the comparison of simulation results with experimental and simulation data given in the literature. The performance of CO2 absorber column is evaluated by the 1-D rate based model using various reaction rate coefficients suggested by various researchers. When the rate of liquid to gas mass flow rate is about 8.3, 6.6, 4.5 and 3.1, the error of CO2 loading and the CO2 removal efficiency using the reaction rate coefficients of Aboudheir et al. is within about 4.9 % and 5.2 %, respectively. Therefore, the reaction rate coefficient suggested by Aboudheir et al. among the various reaction rate coefficients used in this study is appropriate to predict the performance of CO2 absorber column using MEA solution. [Acknowledgement. This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2011-0017220].

  11. The Effect of CO2 Injection on Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium Biomass Growth Rate and Carbohydrate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujizat Kawaroe


    Full Text Available There are many species of macroalga grow in marine ecosystem and potentially as raw material for bioethanol resource. Bioethanol is a conversion result of carbohydrate, one of macroalgae biomass content. The exploration of macroalgae require information about  growth rate ability to determine availability in the nature. This research analyze growth rate and carbohydrate content of marine macroalga Gelidium latifolium on cultivation using varied injection of carbon dioxide and aeration. The treatments were control (K, 2000 cc CO2 injection and aeration (P1, 3000 cc CO2 injection and aeration (P2, 2000 cc CO2 injection without aeration (P3, and 3000 cc CO2 injection without aeration (P4. Samples weight were 3 gram in early cultivation on laboratorium scale for 42 days observation. The results showed that the daily growth rate Gelidium latifolium during the study ranged from 0.02-1.06%. The highest daily growth rate was 1.06±0.14% (P2. Carbohydrate yield was 18.23% in early cultivation then 19.40% (K and P2, 20.40% (P1, 16.87% (K3, and 16.40% (P4 after cultivation. The high of carbohydrates value may not guarantee the sustainable Gelidium latifolium biomass utilization as raw material for bioethanol production because of the low growth rate, thus it is necessary to modified and encourage cultivation method effectively. Keywords: CO2 injection, growth rate, carbohydrate, macroalgae, Gelidium latifolium

  12. The effect of light level, CO2 flow rate, and anesthesia on the stress response of mice during CO2 euthanasia. (United States)

    Powell, Karin; Ethun, Kelly; Taylor, Douglas K


    Euthanasia protocols are designed to mitigate the stress experienced by animals, and an environment that induces minimal stress helps achieve that goal. A protocol that is efficient and practical in a typical animal research facility is also important. Light intensity, isoflurane, and CO2 flow rate were studied for their impact on the stress response of mice during CO2 euthanasia. Behavior was observed and scored during euthanasia and serum corticosterone was measured immediately after death. Unsurprisingly, animals euthanized with a high-flow rate of CO2 became unconscious in the least amount of time, while animals euthanized with a low-flow rate required the most time to reach unconsciousness. There was a significant increase in anxious behaviors in animals in the isoflurane group (F1,12 = 6.67, P = 0.024), the high-flow rate CO2 group (F1,12 = 10.24, P = 0.007), and bright chamber group (F1,12 = 7.27, P = 0.019). Serum corticosterone was highest in the isoflurane group (124.72 ± 83.98 ng/ml), however there was no significant difference in corticosterone levels observed for the other study variables of light and flow-rate. A darkened chamber and low CO2 flow rates help to decrease stress experienced during CO2 euthanasia, while the use of isoflurane was observed to increase the stress response during euthanasia.

  13. Prediction of rate of CO2 assimilation of leaf lettuce under low light irradiation during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, T.; Harada, F.; Hu, W.


    The rate of CO 2 assimilation of leaf lettuce changed with its respiration rate and gas constitution in a storage chamber. The optimum irradiance on the surface of leaf lettuce during storage using low light irradiation can be obtained by the prediction of the rate of CO 2 assimilation. For the above mentioned purpose the following equation were derived. -kd[C]/dt=0.5(1-f)I([C]-Γ/4.5[C]+10.5Γ)-ae -bt where, k: proportional constant (4.87×10 -3 mol⋅m -2 ) [C]: CO 2 concentration (ppm), t: time (h), f: fraction of light not absorbed by chloroplasts (0.23), I: irradiance (μmol⋅m-2⋅s -1 ), Γ: CO 2 compensation point without respiration (21.5ppm), a, b: parameters (0.308μmol⋅m -2 ⋅s -1 , 0.010h -1 ). Calculated values of rate of CO 2 assimilation by the equation agreed well with experimental ones at 3.4 and 6.5μmol⋅m -2 ⋅s -1 of irradiance, so it appeared that the assimilation rate could be sufficiently predicted

  14. Population-specific responses in physiological rates of Emiliania huxleyi to a broad CO2 range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang


    Full Text Available Although coccolithophore physiological responses to CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry have been widely studied in the past, there is limited knowledge on the variability of physiological responses between populations from different areas. In the present study, we investigated the specific responses of growth, particulate organic (POC and inorganic carbon (PIC production rates of three populations of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi from three regions in the North Atlantic Ocean (Azores: six strains, Canary Islands: five strains, and Norwegian coast near Bergen: six strains to a CO2 partial pressure (pCO2 range from 120 to 2630 µatm. Physiological rates of each population and individual strain increased with rising pCO2 levels, reached a maximum and declined thereafter. Optimal pCO2 for growth, POC production rates, and tolerance to low pH (i.e., high proton concentration was significantly higher in an E. huxleyi population isolated from the Norwegian coast than in those isolated near the Azores and Canary Islands. This may be due to the large environmental variability including large pCO2 and pH fluctuations in coastal waters off Bergen compared to the rather stable oceanic conditions at the other two sites. Maximum growth and POC production rates of the Azores and Bergen populations were similar and significantly higher than that of the Canary Islands population. This pattern could be driven by temperature–CO2 interactions where the chosen incubation temperature (16 °C was slightly below what strains isolated near the Canary Islands normally experience. Our results indicate adaptation of E. huxleyi to their local environmental conditions and the existence of distinct E. huxleyi populations. Within each population, different growth, POC, and PIC production rates at different pCO2 levels indicated strain-specific phenotypic plasticity. Accounting for this variability is important to understand how or whether E

  15. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon-Min Koo


    Full Text Available In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco

  16. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jang-Ho Jay; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Sungho


    In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC) specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers) possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco-friendly Hwangtoh concrete

  17. Linearity between temperature peak and bio-energy CO2 emission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bright, Ryan M.; Stromman, Anders H.; Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe


    Many future energy and emission scenarios envisage an increase of bio-energy in the global primary energy mix. In most climate impact assessment models and policies, bio-energy systems are assumed to be carbon neutral, thus ignoring the time lag between CO 2 emissions from biomass combustion and CO 2 uptake by vegetation. Here, we show that the temperature peak caused by CO 2 emissions from bio-energy is proportional to the maximum rate at which emissions occur and is almost insensitive to cumulative emissions. Whereas the carbon-climate response (CCR) to fossil fuel emissions is approximately constant, the CCR to bio-energy emissions depends on time, biomass turnover times, and emission scenarios. The linearity between temperature peak and bio-energy CO 2 emission rates resembles the characteristic of the temperature response to short-lived climate forcers. As for the latter, the timing of CO 2 emissions from bio-energy matters. Under the international agreement to limit global warming to 2 C by 2100, early emissions from bio-energy thus have smaller contributions on the targeted temperature than emissions postponed later into the future, especially when bio-energy is sourced from biomass with medium (50-60 years) or long turnover times (100 years). (authors)

  18. Does Size Matter? Atmospheric CO2 May Be a Stronger Driver of Stomatal Closing Rate Than Stomatal Size in Taxa That Diversified under Low CO2. (United States)

    Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; Haworth, Matthew; Yearsley, Jon M; Batke, Sven P; Lawson, Tracy; McElwain, Jennifer C


    One strategy for plants to optimize stomatal function is to open and close their stomata quickly in response to environmental signals. It is generally assumed that small stomata can alter aperture faster than large stomata. We tested the hypothesis that species with small stomata close faster than species with larger stomata in response to darkness by comparing rate of stomatal closure across an evolutionary range of species including ferns, cycads, conifers, and angiosperms under controlled ambient conditions (380 ppm CO2; 20.9% O2). The two species with fastest half-closure time and the two species with slowest half-closure time had large stomata while the remaining three species had small stomata, implying that closing rate was not correlated with stomatal size in these species. Neither was response time correlated with stomatal density, phylogeny, functional group, or life strategy. Our results suggest that past atmospheric CO2 concentration during time of taxa diversification may influence stomatal response time. We show that species which last diversified under low or declining atmospheric CO2 concentration close stomata faster than species that last diversified in a high CO2 world. Low atmospheric [CO2] during taxa diversification may have placed a selection pressure on plants to accelerate stomatal closing to maintain adequate internal CO2 and optimize water use efficiency.

  19. Experimental validation of a rate-based model for CO2 capture using an AMP solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jostein; Svendsen, H. F.; Michelsen, Michael Locht


    Detailed experimental data, including temperature profiles over the absorber, for a carbon dioxide (CO"2) absorber with structured packing in an integrated laboratory pilot plant using an aqueous 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) solution are presented. The experimental gas-liquid material balance...... was within an average of 3.5% for the experimental conditions presented. A predictive rate-based steady-state model for CO"2 absorption into an AMP solution, using an implicit expression for the enhancement factor, has been validated against the presented pilot plant data. Furthermore, a parameter...

  20. Biocompatible Au@Carbynoid/Pluronic-F127 nanocomposites synthesized by pulsed laser ablation assisted CO2 recycling (United States)

    Del Rosso, T.; Louro, S. R. W.; Deepak, F. L.; Romani, E. C.; Zaman, Q.; Tahir; Pandoli, O.; Cremona, M.; Freire Junior, F. L.; De Beule, P. A. A.; De St. Pierre, T.; Aucelio, R. Q.; Mariotto, G.; Gemini-Piperni, S.; Ribeiro, A. R.; Landi, S. M.; Magalhães, A.


    Ligand-free carbynoid-encapsulated gold nanocomposites (Au@Carbynoid NCs) with blue-shifted localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) have been synthesized by CO2 recycling induced by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of a solid gold target in aqueous solution with NaOH at pH 7.0. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images at not destructive acceleration voltage of 80 kV revealed carbynoid nanocrystals around the gold core, associated to the intense bond length alternation (BLA) Raman mode of the carbon atomic wires (CAWs), centered at 2124 cm-1, observed in the Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectra. It was verified that interlinking process with sp to sp2 conversion of the CAWs is induced both by high acceleration voltage in HRTEM and high irradiance of the excitation beam used in SERS measurements. Post synthesis mixing of Pluronic-F127 copolymer with pre-synthesized Au@Carbynoid NCs allows the formation of a fully biocompatible colloidal solution of Au@Carbynoid/Copolymer NCs. SERS investigation highlights that the Raman band of the BLA mode can be used as efficient Raman tag to monitor the functionalization of the NCs with the copolymer. The biocompatibility of the NCs was demonstrated performing a study of cytotoxicity using human skin fibroblasts. As proof of principle, it was demonstrated that the photodynamic activity of the bifunctional Au@Carbynoid/PF127 NCs in the presence of chlorin e6 (Ce6) drug can be enhanced inducing the aggregation state of the colloidal suspension. The stability of the colloidal dispersions of Au@Carbynoid NCs functionalized with Pluronic-F127 is verified after centrifugation in PBS (0.15 mol L-1 NaCl) solutions, confirming the possibility to use the green carbynoid based NCs as drug-carrier in biological applications.

  1. Simplified models of rates of CO2 mineralization in Geologic Carbon Storage (United States)

    DePaolo, D. J.; Zhang, S.


    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) reverses the flow of carbon to the atmosphere, returning the carbon to long-term geologic storage. Models suggest that most of the injected CO2 will be "trapped" in the subsurface by physical means, but the most risk-free and permanent form of carbon storage is as carbonate minerals (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO3. The transformation of CO2 to carbonate minerals requires supply of divalent cations by dissolution of silicate minerals. Available data suggest that rates of transformation are difficult to predict. We show that the chemical kinetic observations and experimental results, when reduced to a single timescale that describes the fractional rate at which cations are released to solution by mineral dissolution, show sufficiently systematic behavior that the rates of mineralization can be estimated with reasonable certainty. Rate of mineralization depends on both the abundance (determined by the reservoir rock mineralogy) and the rate at which cations are released by dissolution into pore fluid that has been acidified with dissolved CO2. Laboratory-measured rates and field observations give values spanning 8 to 10 orders of magnitude, but when evaluated in the context of reservoir-scale reactive transport simulations, this range becomes much smaller. Reservoir scale simulations indicate that silicate mineral dissolution and subsequent carbonate mineral precipitation occur at pH 4.5 to 6, fluid flow velocity less than 5m/yr, and 50-100 years or more after the start of injection. These constraints lead to estimates of 200 to 2000 years for conversion of 60-90% of injected CO2 when the reservoir rock has a sufficient volume fraction of divalent cation-bearing silicate minerals (ca. 20%), and confirms that when reservoir rock mineralogy is not favorable the fraction of CO2 converted to carbonate minerals is minimal over 104 years. A sufficient amount of reactive minerals represents the condition by which the available cations per volume of rock plus pore

  2. Ventilatory control of heart rate during inhalation of 5% CO2 and types of panic attacks. (United States)

    Ley, R


    Differences in the magnitude of increases in heart rate during prolonged inhalation of 5% CO2 range from a mean of 25 b/min for a group of eight panic-disorder patients who panicked (Woods, Charney, Goodman, & Heninger, 1988. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 43-52) to zero b/min for 16 patients, eight of whom panicked (Craske & Barlow, 1990. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 302-307). What accounts for this disparity? The present paper describes how heart rate can be increased by means of voluntary overbreathing during prolonged inhalation of 5% CO2 in air. This suggests that differences in the degree of overbreathing may explain differences in the magnitude of increases in heart rate during inhalation of 5% CO2. An explanation is also offered for the curious finding that some patients experience "panic attacks" with zero increase in heart rate. Evidence suggests that this is likely to happen in cognitively based panic attacks, in contrast to hyperventilatory attacks or anticipatory attacks.

  3. Hierarchical porous NiCo2O4 nanowires for high-rate supercapacitors. (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Ma, Jan; Li, Chunzhong


    We demonstrate a simple and scalable strategy for synthesizing hierarchical porous NiCo(2)O(4) nanowires which exhibit a high specific capacitance of 743 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) with excellent rate performance (78.6% capacity retention at 40 A g(-1)) and cycling stability (only 6.2% loss after 3000 cycles). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  4. Growth under elevated CO2 concentration affects the temperature response of photosynthetic rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holišová, Petra; Šigut, Ladislav; Klem, Karel; Urban, Otmar


    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2013), s. 43-52 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA ČR GA13-28093S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : CO2 assimilation rate * Fagus sylvatica * chlorophyll fluorescence * Picea abies * Rubisco Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  5. Summit CO2 emission rates by the CO2/SO2 ratio method at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, during a period of sustained inflation (United States)

    Hager, S.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; Wallace, P.J.


    The emission rate of carbon dioxide escaping from the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, proved highly variable, averaging 4900 ± 2000 metric tons per day (t/d) in June–July 2003 during a period of summit inflation. These results were obtained by combining over 90 measurements of COSPEC-derived SO2emission rates with synchronous CO2/SO2 ratios of the volcanic gas plume along the summit COSPEC traverse. The results are lower than the CO2 emission rate of 8500 ± 300 t/d measured by the same method in 1995–1999 during a period of long-term summit deflation [Gerlach, T.M., McGee, K.A., Elias, T., Sutton, A.J. and Doukas, M.P., 2002. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 107(B9): art. no.-2189.]. Analysis of the data indicates that the emission rates of the present study likely reflect changes in the magma supply rate and residence time in the summit reservoir. It is also likely that emission rates during the inflation period were heavily influenced by SO2 pulses emitted adjacent to the COSPEC traverse, which biased CO2/SO2 ratios towards low values that may be unrepresentative of the global summit gas plume. We conclude that the SO2 pulses are consequences of summit re-inflation under way since 2003 and that CO2 emission rates remain comparable to, but more variable than, those measured prior to re-inflation.

  6. Rates of volcanic CO2 degassing from airborne determinations of SO2 Emission rates and plume CO2SO2: test study at Pu′u ′O′o Cone, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Gerlach, Terrence M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Sutton, A. Jefferson; Elias, Tamar


    We present an airborne method that eliminates or minimizes several disadvantages of the customary plume cross-section sampling method for determining volcanic CO2 emission rates. A LI-COR CO2analyzer system (LICOR), a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer system (FTIR), and a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) were used to constrain the plume CO2/SO2 and the SO2 emission rate. The method yielded a CO2 emission rate of 300 td−1 (metric tons per day) for Pu′u ′O′o cone, Kilauea volcano, on 19 September 1995. The CO2/SO2 of 0.20 determined from airborne LICOR and FTIR plume measurements agreed with the CO2/SO2 of 204 ground-based samples collected from vents over a 14-year period since the Pu′u ′O′o eruption began in January 1983.

  7. Effect of Gas Recycling on the Performance of a Moving Bed Temperature-Swing (MBTSA Process for CO2 Capture in a Coal Fired Power Plant Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Mondino


    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a continuous moving-bed temperature-swing adsorption (MBTSA process for post-combustion CO2 capture in a coal-fired power plant context has been developed. Process simulations have been done using single component isotherms and measured gas diffusion parameters of an activated carbon adsorbent. While a simple process configuration with no gas re-circulation gives quite low capture rate and CO2 purity, 86% and 65%, respectively, more advanced process configurations where some of the captured gas is recirculated to the incoming flue gas drastically increase both the capture rate and CO2 purity, the best configuration reaching capture rate of 86% and CO2 purity of 98%. Further improvements can be achieved by using adsorbents with higher CO2/N2 selectivity and/or higher temperature of the regeneration section.

  8. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David


    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours to diffe...... to different air quality conditions. A re-analysis of the CO2 measurements obtained in two independent studies showed that human CO2 emission rates were affected by air quality (P......Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...

  9. Major, Trace, and Volatile (CO2, H2O, S, F, and Cl) Elements from 1000+ Hawaiian Olivine-hosted Melt Inclusions Reveal the Dynamics of Crustal Recycling (United States)

    Marske, J. P.; Hauri, E. H.; Trusdell, F.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.


    Global cycling of volatile elements (H2O, CO2, F, S, Cl) via subduction to deep mantle followed by entrainment and melting within ascending mantle plumes is an enigmatic process that controls key aspects of hot spot volcanism (i.e. melting rate, magma supply, degassing, eruptive style). Variations in radiogenic isotope ratios (e.g.187Os/188Os) at hot spots such as Hawaii reveal magmatic processes within deep-seated mantle plumes (e.g. mantle heterogeneity, lithology, and melt transport). Shield-stage lavas from Hawaii likely originate from a mixed plume source containing peridotite and recycled oceanic crust (pyroxenite) based on variations of radiogenic isotopes. Hawaiian lavas display correlations among isotopes, major and trace elements [1] that might be expected to have an expression in the volatile elements. To investigate this link, we present Os isotopic ratios (n=51), and major, trace, and volatile elements from 1003 olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) and their host minerals from tephra from Koolau, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kilauea, and Loihi volcanoes. The data show a strong correlation between MI volatile contents and incompatible trace element ratios (La/Yb) with Os isotopes of the same host olivines and reveal large-scale volatile heterogeneity and zonation exists within the Hawaiian plume. 'Loa' chain lavas, which are thought to originate from greater proportions of recycled oceanic crust/pyroxenite, have MIs with lower H2O, S, F, and Cl contents compared to 'Kea' chain lavas that were derived from more peridotite-rich sources. The depletion of volatile elements in the 'Loa' volcano MIs can be explained if they tapped an ancient dehydrated oceanic crust component within the Hawaiian plume. Higher extents of melting beneath 'Loa' volcanoes can also explain these depletions. The presence of dehydrated recycled mafic material in the plume source suggests that subduction effectively devolatilizes part of the oceanic crust. These results are similar to the

  10. Carbon Dioxide Impacts in the Deep-Sea: Is Maintaining a Metabolically Required CO2 Efflux Rate Challenging? (United States)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Hofmann, A. F.; Brewer, P. G.


    Increasing ocean acidification from fossil fuel CO2 invasion, from temperature driven changes in respiration, and from possible leakage from sub-seabed geologic CO2 disposal has aroused concern over the impacts of elevated CO2 concentrations on marine life. Here we describe the rate problem for animals who must export CO2 at about the same rate at which O2 is consumed. We analyze the basic properties controlling CO2 export within the diffusive boundary of marine animals in a changing ocean in order to compare the challenges posed by O2 uptake under stress with the equivalent problem of CO2 expulsion. The problem is more complex than that for a non-reactive gas since, as with gas exchange of CO2 at the air-sea interface, the influence of the ensemble of reactions within the CO2 - HCO3- - CO3= acid-base system needs to be considered. These reactions appear as an enhancement factor which significantly facilitates CO2 efflux compared to O2 intake at equal temperature, pressure and flow rate under typical oceanic concentrations. Possibly as an adaptation to this chemical advantage marine animals typically can respond to external CO2 stress simply by metabolic adjustment. This is energetically more favorable than having to resort to mechanically increasing flow over their surface to thin the boundary layer as is required to alleviate O2 stress. Regionally as with O2 the combination of T, P, and pH/pCO2 creates a zone of maximum CO2 stress at around 1000 m depth. But the net result is that the combination of an increase in T combined with declining O2 poses a greater respiratory challenge to marine life than does increasing CO2. The relationships developed here allow a more accurate prediction of the impacts on marine life from the combined effects of changing T, O2, and CO2 than can be estimated from single variable studies.

  11. High speed surface cleaning by a high repetition rated TEA-CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunemi, Akira; Hirai, Ryo; Hagiwara, Kouji; Nagasaka, Keigo; Tashiro, Hideo


    We demonstrated the feasibility of high speed cleaning of solid surfaces by the laser ablation technique using a TEA-CO 2 laser. The laser pulses with the repetition rate of 1 kHz were applied to paint, rust, moss and dirt attached on the surfaces. The attachments were effectively removed without the damage of bulk surfaces by the irradiation of line-focused sequential pulses with an energy of 300 mJ/pulse. A cleaning rate reached to 17 m 2 /hour for the case of paint removal from iron surfaces. (author)

  12. Measurement of air exchange rates in different indoor environments using continuous CO2 sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan YOU; Can Niu; Jian Zhou; Yating Liu; Zhipeng Bai; Jiefeng Zhang; Fei He; Nan Zhang


    A new air exchange rate (AER) monitoring method using continuous CO2 sensors was developed and validated through both laboratory experiments and field studies.Controlled laboratory simulation tests were conducted in a 1-m3 environmental chamber at different AERs (0.1-10.0 hr-1).AERs were determined using the decay method based on box model assumptions.Field tests were conducted in classrooms,dormitories,meeting rooms and apartments during 2-5 weekdays using CO2 sensors coupled with data loggers.Indoor temperature,relative humidity (RH),and CO2 concentrations were continuously monitored while outdoor parameters combined with on-site climate conditions were recorded.Statistical results indicated that good laboratory performance was achieved:duplicate precision was within 10%,and the measured AERs were 90%-120% of the real AERs.Average AERs were 1.22,1.37,1.10,1.91 and 0.73 hr-1 in dormitories,air-conditioned classrooms,classrooms with an air circulation cooling system,reading rooms,and meeting rooms,respectively.In an elderly particulate matter exposure study,all the homes had AER values ranging from 0.29 to 3.46 hr-1 in fall,and 0.12 to 1.39 hr-1 in winter with a median AER of 1.15.

  13. Measurement of air exchange rates in different indoor environments using continuous CO2 sensors. (United States)

    You, Yan; Niu, Can; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Yating; Bai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jiefeng; He, Fei; Zhang, Nan


    A new air exchange rate (AER) monitoring method using continuous CO2 sensors was developed and validated through both laboratory experiments and field studies. Controlled laboratory simulation tests were conducted in a 1-m3 environmental chamber at different AERs (0.1-10.0 hr(-1)). AERs were determined using the decay method based on box model assumptions. Field tests were conducted in classrooms, dormitories, meeting rooms and apartments during 2-5 weekdays using CO2 sensors coupled with data loggers. Indoor temperature, relative humidity (RH), and CO2 concentrations were continuously monitored while outdoor parameters combined with on-site climate conditions were recorded. Statistical results indicated that good laboratory performance was achieved: duplicate precision was within 10%, and the measured AERs were 90%-120% of the real AERs. Average AERs were 1.22, 1.37, 1.10, 1.91 and 0.73 hr(-1) in dormitories, air-conditioned classrooms, classrooms with an air circulation cooling system, reading rooms, and meeting rooms, respectively. In an elderly particulate matter exposure study, all the homes had AER values ranging from 0.29 to 3.46 hr(-1) in fall, and 0.12 to 1.39 hr(-1) in winter with a median AER of 1.15.

  14. Quantifying rate of deforestation and CO2 emission in Peninsular Malaysia using Palsar imageries (United States)

    Hamdan, O.; Abd Rahman, K.; Samsudin, M.


    Increasing human population and the rapid growth of Malaysia's economy are often associated with various environmental disturbances which have been contributing to depletion of natural resources and climate change. The need for more spaces for numerous land development activities has made the existing forests suffer deforestation. The study was carried out in Peninsular Malaysia, which currently has about 5.9 million ha of forests. Phased array type L-band SAR (Palsar) and Palsar-2 images over the years 2010 and 2015, respectively were used to identify forest cover and deforestation occurrences resulted from various conversion of forests to other land uses. Forests have been identified from horizontal-vertical (HV) polarization and then classified into three major categories, which are inland, peat swamp and mangrove. Pixel subtraction technique was used to determine areas that have been changing from forests to other land uses. Forest areas have been found declined from about 6.1 million ha in year 2010 to some 5.9 million ha in 2015 due to conversion of forests to other land uses. Causes of deforestation have been identified and the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that has been emitted due to the deforestation activity has been determined in this study. Oil palm and rubber plantations expansion has been found the most prominent factor that caused deforestation in Peninsular Malaysia, especially in the states of Pahang, Terengganu, Johor and Kelantan. The rate of deforestation in the period was at 0.66% yr-1, which amounted a total of about 200,225 ha over the five years. Carbon loss was estimated at about 30.2 million Mg C, which has resulted in CO2 emission accounted at about 110.6 million Mg CO2. The rate of CO2 emission that has been resulted from deforestation was estimated at 22.1 million Mg CO2 yr-1. The study found that the use of a series of Palsar and Palsar-2 images, with a consistent, cloud-free images, are the most appropriate sensors to be used for

  15. Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Catherine A


    Geochemical reactions in deep subsurface environments are complicated by the consolidated nature and mineralogical complexity of sedimentary rocks. Understanding the kinetics of these reactions is critical to our ability to make long-term predictions about subsurface processes such as pH buffering, alteration in rock structure, permeability changes, and formation of secondary precipitates. In this project, we used a combination of experiments and numerical simulation to bridge the gap between our knowledge of these reactions at the lab scale and rates that are meaningful for modeling reactive transport at core scales. The focus is on acid-driven mineral dissolution, which is specifically relevant in the context of CO2-water-rock interactions in geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The project led to major findings in three areas. First, we modeled reactive transport in pore-network systems to investigate scaling effects in geochemical reaction rates. We found significant scaling effects when CO2 concentrations are high and reaction rates are fast. These findings indicate that the increased acidity associated with geological sequestration can generate conditions for which proper scaling tools are yet to be developed. Second, we used mathematical modeling to investigate the extent to which SO2, if co-injected with CO2, would acidify formation brines. We found that there exist realistic conditions in which the impact on brine acidity will be limited due to diffusion rate-limited SO2 dissolution from the CO2 phase, and the subsequent pH shift may also be limited by the lack of availability of oxidants to produce sulfuric acid. Third, for three Viking sandstones (Alberta sedimentary basin, Canada), we employed backscattered electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to statistically characterize mineral contact with pore space. We determined that for reactive minerals in sedimentary consolidated rocks, abundance alone is not a good predictor of

  16. Environmental analysis of a construction and demolition waste recycling plant in Portugal--Part I: energy consumption and CO2 emissions. (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge


    This work is a part of a wider study involving the economic and environmental implications of managing construction and demolition waste (CDW), focused on the operation of a large scale CDW recycling plant. This plant, to be operated in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (including the Setúbal peninsula), is analysed for a 60 year period, using primary energy consumption and CO2eq emission impact factors as environmental impact performance indicators. Simplified estimation methods are used to calculate industrial equipment incorporated, and the operation and transport related impacts. Material recycling--sorted materials sent to other industries, to act as input--is taken into account by discounting the impacts related to industrial processes no longer needed. This first part focuses on calculating the selected impact factors for a base case scenario (with a 350 tonnes/h installed capacity), while a sensitivity analysis is provided in part two. Overall, a 60 year global primary energy consumption of 71.4 thousand toe (tonne of oil equivalent) and a total CO2eq emission of 135.4 thousand tonnes are expected. Under this operating regime, around 563 thousand toe and 1465 thousand tonnes CO2eq could be prevented by replacing raw materials in several construction materials industries (e.g.: ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics, paper and cardboard). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Partial reactive crystallization of variable CO2-bearing siliceous MORB-eclogite-derived melt in fertile peridotite and genesis of alkalic basalts with signatures of crustal recycling (United States)

    Mallik, A.; Dasgupta, R.


    The presence of heterogeneity in the form of recycled altered oceanic crust (MORB-eclogite) has been proposed in the source of HIMU ocean island basalts (OIBs) [1]. Partial melts of recycled oceanic crust, however, are siliceous and Mg-poor and thus do not resemble the major element compositions of alkalic OIBs that are silica-poor and Mg-rich. In an upwelling heterogenous mantle, MORB-eclogite undergoes melting deeper than volatile-free peridotite, hence, andesitic partial melt derived from eclogite will react with subsolidus peridotite. We have examined the effect of such a melt-rock reaction under volatile-free conditions at 1375 °C, 3 GPa by varying the melt-rock ratio from 8 to 50 wt.% [2]. We concluded that the reacted melts reproduce certain major element characteristics of oceanic basanites, but not nephelinites. Also, the melt-rock reaction produces olivine and garnet-bearing websteritic residue. Because presence of CO2 has been invoked in the source of many HIMU ocean islands, the effect of CO2 on such a melt-rock reaction needs to be evaluated. Accordingly, we performed reaction experiments on mixtures of 25% and 33% CO2-bearing andesitic partial melt and peridotite at 1375 °C, 3 GPa by varying the dissolved CO2 content of the reacting melts from 1 to 5 wt.% (bulk CO2 from 0.25 to 1.6 wt.%) [3, this study]. Owing to melt-rock reaction, with increasing CO2 in the bulk mixture, (a) modes of olivine and cpx decrease while melt, opx and garnet increase, (b) reacted melts evolve to greater degree of Si-undersaturation (from andesite through basanite to nephelinite), (c) enhanced crystallization of garnet take place with higher CO2 in the melt, reducing alumina content of the reacted melts, and (d) CaO and MgO content of the reacted melts increase, without affecting FeO* and Na2O contents (indicating greater propensity of Ca2+ and Mg2+ over Fe2+ and Na+ to enter silicate melt as carbonate). For a given melt-MgO, the CO2-bearing reacted melts are a better

  18. What do we know about metal recycling rates? (United States)

    Graedel, T.E.; Allwood, J.; Birat, J.-P.; Buchert, M.; Hageluken, C.; Reck, B.K.; Sibley, S.F.; Sonnemann, G.


    The recycling of metals is widely viewed as a fruitful sustainability strategy, but little information is available on the degree to which recycling is actually taking place. This article provides an overview on the current knowledge of recycling rates for 60 metals. We propose various recycling metrics, discuss relevant aspects of recycling processes, and present current estimates on global end-of-life recycling rates (EOL-RR; i.e., the percentage of a metal in discards that is actually recycled), recycled content (RC), and old scrap ratios (OSRs; i.e., the share of old scrap in the total scrap flow). Because of increases in metal use over time and long metal in-use lifetimes, many RC values are low and will remain so for the foreseeable future. Because of relatively low efficiencies in the collection and processing of most discarded products, inherent limitations in recycling processes, and the fact that primary material is often relatively abundant and low-cost (which thereby keeps down the price of scrap), many EOL-RRs are very low: Only for 18 metals (silver, aluminum, gold, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, niobium, nickel, lead, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, tin, titanium, and zinc) is the EOL-RR above 50% at present. Only for niobium, lead, and ruthenium is the RC above 50%, although 16 metals are in the 25% to 50% range. Thirteen metals have an OSR greater than 50%. These estimates may be used in considerations of whether recycling efficiencies can be improved; which metric could best encourage improved effectiveness in recycling; and an improved understanding of the dependence of recycling on economics, technology, and other factors. ?? 2011 by Yale University.

  19. Transmucosal gas-loss rates in middle ears initially filled with O2 or CO2. (United States)

    Kania, Romain E; Vérillaud, Benjamin; Ars, Bernard; Tran Ba Huy, Patrice; Herman, Philippe; Ar, Amos


    This study investigates the role of different gases in clearance of gas in the middle ear cavity (ME) by its mucosal blood flow. A rat model was used to measure gas volume changes in the ME cavity at constant pressure without ventilation. We disturbed the normal gas composition of the ME by filling it with O 2 or CO 2 , measured the consequent changes in gas volume over time and compared these results with previously obtained ones for air and N 2 . The first 5 min of the primary transient phase (phase I) for O 2 or CO 2 was characterized by a volume loss decrease of -0.49 ± 0.34 μL and -46.28 ± 8.49 μL, respectively, with volume loss increase for air and N 2 differing greatly, at +0.17 ± 0.17 and +2.31 ± 0.81, respectively. The CO 2 value of -46.28 μL showed that a volume of gas equivalent to that of the ME cleft volume was eliminated within the first 5 min. In the second phase (phase II), all gases showed a linear decrease in volume, which presumably represents a steady-state gas loss rate. However, the gas loss rate of -0.307 ± 0.170 μL min -1 for O 2 -filled MEs was significantly higher than the mean of -0.124 μL min -1 for all other gases. We used a previously established mathematical model to calculate the effective ME mucosal blood flow rate under steady-state (phase II) conditions. The blood flow results for O 2 -filled MEs differed greatly from those of the other gases (89.0 ± 49.28 vs. 26.5 μL min -1 , on average), which suggest that the model used to calculate blood flow should be modified if used with O 2 -filled MEs. Further work should involve a comparison of our method with different methods to verify ME blood flow rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of soil water content and elevated CO2 concentration on the monoterpene emission rate of Cryptomeria japonica. (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Amagai, Takashi; Tani, Akira


    Monoterpenes emitted from plants contribute to the formation of secondary pollution and affect the climate system. Monoterpene emission rates may be affected by environmental changes such as increasing CO 2 concentration caused by fossil fuel burning and drought stress induced by climate change. We measured monoterpene emissions from Cryptomeria japonica clone saplings grown under different CO 2 concentrations (control: ambient CO 2 level, elevated CO 2 : 1000μmolmol -1 ). The saplings were planted in the ground and we did not artificially control the SWC. The relationship between the monoterpene emissions and naturally varying SWC was investigated. The dominant monoterpene was α-pinene, followed by sabinene. The monoterpene emission rates were exponentially correlated with temperature for all measurements and normalized (35°C) for each measurement day. The daily normalized monoterpene emission rates (E s0.10 ) were positively and linearly correlated with SWC under both control and elevated CO 2 conditions (control: r 2 =0.55, elevated CO 2 : r 2 =0.89). The slope of the regression line of E s0.10 against SWC was significantly higher under elevated CO 2 than under control conditions (ANCOVA: P<0.01), indicating that the effect of CO 2 concentration on monoterpene emission rates differed by soil water status. The monoterpene emission rates estimated by considering temperature and SWC (Improved G93 algorithm) better agreed with the measured monoterpene emission rates, when compared with the emission rates estimated by considering temperature alone (G93 algorithm). Our results demonstrated that the combined effects of SWC and CO 2 concentration are important for controlling the monoterpene emissions from C. japonica clone saplings. If these relationships can be applied to the other coniferous tree species, our results may be useful to improve accuracy of monoterpene emission estimates from the coniferous forests as affected by climate change in the present and

  1. Lower responsiveness of canopy evapotranspiration rate than of leaf stomatal conductance to open-air CO2 elevation in rice. (United States)

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Okada, Masumi


    An elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) can reduce stomatal conductance of leaves for most plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, few studies have quantified seasonal changes in the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on canopy evapotranspiration, which integrates the response of stomatal conductance of individual leaves with other responses, such as leaf area expansion, changes in leaf surface temperature, and changes in developmental stages, in field conditions. We conducted a field experiment to measure seasonal changes in stomatal conductance of the uppermost leaves and in the evapotranspiration, transpiration, and evaporation rates using a lysimeter method. The study was conducted for flooded rice under open-air CO2 elevation. Stomatal conductance decreased by 27% under elevated [CO2 ], averaged throughout the growing season, and evapotranspiration decreased by an average of 5% during the same period. The decrease in daily evapotranspiration caused by elevated [CO2 ] was more significantly correlated with air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) rather than with other parameters of solar radiation, days after transplanting, vapor-pressure deficit and FAO reference evapotranspiration. This indicates that higher air temperatures, within the range from 16 to 27 °C, and a larger LAI, within the range from 0 to 4 m(2)  m(-2) , can increase the magnitude of the decrease in evapotranspiration rate caused by elevated [CO2 ]. The crop coefficient (i.e. the evapotranspiration rate divided by the FAO reference evapotranspiration rate) was 1.24 at ambient [CO2 ] and 1.17 at elevated [CO2 ]. This study provides the first direct measurement of the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on rice canopy evapotranspiration under open-air conditions using the lysimeter method, and the results will improve future predictions of water use in rice fields. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Recyclables Valorisation as the Best Strategy for Achieving Landfill CO2e Emissions Abatement from Domestic Waste: Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Taboada-González


    Full Text Available Various nations in the world have developed technologies and strategies for appropriate waste disposal, and to abate waste generation and greenhouse gasses. Alternatives like recovering materials can help, but they require reliable information to improve planning and management. This study quantifies the Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions produced by the lack of valorisation of materials in a Mexican city. Two waste characterisations in a lower-class neighbourhood were carried out. For the CO2 emission estimation, two scenarios were considered. DEFRA emission factors for waste treatment processes were used. Waste generation was 0.64 kg/capita/day in the first study, and 0.50 kg/capita/day in the second. The CO2eq emissions of collected waste in the neighbourhood were estimated at 1824 kg for 2013 (0.20 kg/capita/day and 1636 kg for 2015 (0.19 kg/capita/day. The behaviour of solid waste management in the city can be explained by the “prisoner’s dilemma” model, studied in game theory, which is ideally suited to analysing situations affected by multiple agents, but requires an accurate understanding of solid waste actors and social implications.

  3. Drivers of CO2 Emission Rates from Dead Wood Logs of 13 Tree Species in the Initial Decomposition Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemo Kahl


    Full Text Available Large dead wood is an important structural component of forest ecosystems and a main component of forest carbon cycles. CO2 emissions from dead wood can be used as a proxy for actual decomposition rates. The main drivers of CO2 emission rates for dead wood of temperate European tree species are largely unknown. We applied a novel, closed chamber measurement technique to 360 dead wood logs of 13 important tree species in three regions in Germany. We found that tree species identity was with 71% independent contribution to the model (R2 = 0.62 the most important driver of volume-based CO2 emission rates, with angiosperms having on average higher rates than conifers. Wood temperature and fungal species richness had a positive effect on CO2 emission rates, whereas wood density had a negative effect. This is the first time that positive fungal species richness—wood decomposition relationship in temperate forests was shown. Certain fungal species were associated with high or low CO2 emission rates. In addition, as indicated by separate models for each tree species, forest management intensity, study region, and the water content as well as C and N concentration of dead wood influenced CO2 emission rates.

  4. Effect of Feed Gas Flow Rate on CO2 Absorption through Super Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber membrane Contactor (United States)

    Kartohardjono, Sutrasno; Alexander, Kevin; Larasati, Annisa; Sihombing, Ivander Christian


    Carbon dioxide is pollutant in natural gas that could reduce the heating value of the natural gas and cause problem in transportation due to corrosive to the pipeline. This study aims to evaluate the effects of feed gas flow rate on CO2 absorption through super hydrophobic hollow fiber contactor. Polyethyleneglycol-300 (PEG-300) solution was used as absorbent in this study, whilst the feed gas used in the experiment was a mixture of 30% CO2 and 70% CH4. There are three super hydrophobic hollow fiber contactors sized 6 cm and 25 cm in diameter and length used in this study, which consists of 1000, 3000 and 5000 fibers, respectively. The super hydrophobic fiber membrane used is polypropylene-based with outer and inner diameter of about 525 and 235 μm, respectively. In the experiments, the feed gas was sent through the shell side of the membrane contactor, whilst the absorbent solution was pumped through the lumen fibers. The experimental results showed that the mass transfer coefficient, flux, absorption efficiency for CO2-N2 system and CO2 loading increased with the feed gas flow rate, but the absorption efficiency for CO2-N2 system decreased. The mass transfer coefficient and the flux, at the same feed gas flow rate, decreased with the number of fibers in the membrane contactor, but the CO2 absorption efficiency and the CO2 loading increased.

  5. Estimating photosynthesis and concurrent export rates in C3 and C4 species at ambient and elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinski, B.; Jiao, J.; Leonardos, E.D.


    The ability of 21 C3 and C4 monocot and dicot species to rapidly export newly fixed C in the light at both ambient and enriched CO2 levels was compared. Photosynthesis and concurrent export rates were estimated during isotopic equilibrium of the transport sugars using a steady-state 14CO2-labeling procedure. At ambient CO2 photosynthesis and export rates for C3 species were 5 to 15 and 1 to 10 micromole C m-2 s-1, respectively, and 20 to 30 and 15 to 22 micromole C m-2 s-1, respectively, for C4 species. A linear regression plot of export on photosynthesis rate of all species had a correlation coefficient of 0.87. When concurrent export was expressed as a percentage of photosynthesis, several C3 dicots that produced transport sugars other than Suc had high efflux rates relative to photosynthesis, comparable to those of C4 species. At high CO2 photosynthetic and export rates were only slightly altered in C4 species, and photosynthesis increased but export rates did not in all C3 species. The C3 species that had high efflux rates relative to photosynthesis at ambient CO2 exported at rates comparable to those of C4 species on both an absolute basis and as a percentage of photosynthesis. At ambient CO2 there were strong linear relationships between photosynthesis, sugar synthesis, and concurrent export. However, at high CO2 the relationships between photosynthesis and export rate and between sugar synthesis and export rate were not as strong because sugars and starch were accumulated

  6. A novel rate of the reaction between NaOH with CO2 at low temperature in spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Tavan


    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 is an influential greenhouse gas that has a significant impact on global warming partly. Nowadays, many techniques are available to control and remove CO2 in different chemical processes. Since the spray dryer has high removal efficiency rate, a laboratory-scale spray dryer is used to absorb carbon dioxide from air in aqueous solution of NaOH. In the present study, the impact of NaOH concentration, operating temperature and nozzle diameter on removal efficiency of CO2 is explored through experimental study. Moreover, the reaction kinetic of NaOH with CO2 is studied over the temperature range of 50–100 °C in a laboratory-scale spray dryer absorber. In the present contribution, a simple reaction rate equation is proposed that shows the lowest deviation from the experimental data with error less than 2%.

  7. Influence of recycling rate increase of aseptic carton for long-life milk on GWP reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia; Garcia, Eloisa E.C.; Vilela, Gustavo Braz; Von Zuben, Fernando


    Tetra Pak, through intensive cooperation with its supply chain, increased the post-consumer recycling rate of the aseptic packaging for long-life milk in the last 10 years. In continuation of a previous study that presented a superior overall performance in terms of reduction of the consumption of natural resources, air emissions and most of the water emissions, the objective of the present work was to apply life cycle assessment (LCA) to measure the global warming potential (GWP). The system was assessed using as functional unit 1000 liters of milk packaged in Tetra Pak Aseptic containers. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was calculated for recycling rates of 2%, 22%, 30%, 40% and 70% of the post-consumer residues in Scenarios I (only cardboard recycling) and II (total aseptic laminate recycling). Scenario I showed a 14% reduction in GWP, representing 26 kg of avoided CO 2 equiv. emitted due to the efforts of Tetra Pak to increase the recycling rate from 2% (2000) to 22% (2004). If it will be possible to increase the recycling rate to 70% of post-consumer packages in the future, a 48% reduction of GWP could be attained. Methane exhibited the greatest mass reduction among the greenhouse emissions, since it is emitted during the production of cardboard and also as a result of anaerobic degradation in landfills. The total reduction of the energy requirements of the system due to the increase of the recycling rate (from 2% to 22%) is 154 MJ/1000 liters, a saving of 7%. Scenario II (which considers additional polyethylene and aluminum recycling) has a smaller effect on GWP reduction than Scenario I, since PE/AL represent only 25% of the total mass of the container. The major benefit of the recycling of aseptic cartons is the reduction of the amounts of virgin materials required and the consequent reduction of air emissions. The results of this study can be used to encourage the collection of post-consumer milk cartons as part of environmental education

  8. CO2/H2O adsorption equilibrium and rates on metal-organic frameworks: HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC. (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Yu; Benin, Annabelle I; Jakubczak, Paulina; Willis, Richard R; LeVan, M Douglas


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently attracted intense research interest because of their permanent porous structures, huge surface areas, and potential applications as novel adsorbents and catalysts. In order to provide a basis for consideration of MOFs for removal of carbon dioxide from gases containing water vapor, such as flue gas, we have studied adsorption equilibrium of CO(2), H(2)O vapor, and their mixtures and also rates of CO(2) adsorption in two MOFs: HKUST-1 (CuBTC) and Ni/DOBDC (CPO-27-Ni or Ni/MOF-74). The MOFs were synthesized via solvothermal methods, and the as-synthesized products were solvent exchanged and regenerated before experiments. Pure component adsorption equilibria and CO(2)/H(2)O binary adsorption equilibria were studied using a volumetric system. The effects of H(2)O adsorption on CO(2) adsorption for both MOF samples were determined, and the results for 5A and NaX zeolites were included for comparison. The hydrothermal stabilities for the two MOFs over the course of repetitive measurements of H(2)O and CO(2)/H(2)O mixture equilibria were also studied. CO(2) adsorption rates from helium for the MOF samples were investigated by using a unique concentration-swing frequency response (CSFR) system. Mass transfer into the MOFs is rapid with the controlling resistance found to be macropore diffusion, and rate parameters were established for the mechanism.

  9. A new approach to model CW CO2 laser using rate equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 11, 2016 ... Abstract. Two popular methods to analyse the operation of CW CO2 lasers use the temperature model and ... Grouping of the vibration levels helped in restrict- ..... [10] D C Tyte, Carbon dioxide lasers, in: Advances in quan-.

  10. Recurrence rate and patient satisfaction of CO2 laser evaporation of lesions in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Riis; Dufour, Deirde Nathalie; Zarchi, Kian


    : To determine the recurrence rate, time to recurrence, and factors influencing disease recurrence in skin treated with CO2 laser evaporation, and healing by secondary intention; and patients' satisfaction with treatment. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients treated with CO2 laser evaporation were interviewed regarding...... recurrence and satisfaction after a mean of 25.7 months. RESULTS: Seventeen of 58 (29%) reported recurrence of HS lesions within the borders of the treated areas after a mean of 12.7 months. Obesity was a risk factor for recurrence with a hazard ratio of 4.53. Fifty-five patients (95%) reported some or great...... improvement, and 91% would recommend the CO2 laser surgery to other HS patients. CONCLUSION: This study supports the claim that CO2 laser treatment is an effective modality for recurrent HS lesions in a majority of patients. The authors identified obesity as a risk factor for recurrence. Self...

  11. Novel approach for evaluation of air change rate in naturally ventilated occupied spaces based on metabolic CO2 time variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Markov, Detelin G.


    IAQ in many residential buildings relies on non-organized natural ventilation. Accurate evaluation of air change rate (ACR) in this situation is difficult due to the nature of the phenomenon - intermittent infiltration-exfiltration periods of mass exchange between the room air and the outdoor air...... at low rate. This paper describes a new approach for ACR evaluation in naturally ventilated occupied spaces. Actual metabolic CO2 time variation record in an interval of time is compared with the computed variation of metabolic CO2 for the same time interval under reference conditions: sleeping occupants...

  12. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier


    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  13. Resistive Wall Growth Rate Measurements in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Burov, A. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab


    Impedance could represent a limitation of running high intensity beams in the Fermilab recycler. With high intensity upgrades foreseen, it is important to quantify the impedance. To do this,studies have been performed measuring the growth rate of presumably the resistive wall instability. The growth rates at varying intensities and chromaticities are shown. The measured growth rates are compared to ones calculated with the resistive wall impedance.

  14. Rates of consumption of atmospheric CO2 through the weathering of loess during the next 100 yr of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pollard


    Full Text Available Quantifying how C fluxes will change in the future is a complex task for models because of the coupling between climate, hydrology, and biogeochemical reactions. Here we investigate how pedogenesis of the Peoria loess, which has been weathering for the last 13 kyr, will respond over the next 100 yr of climate change. Using a cascade of numerical models for climate (ARPEGE, vegetation (CARAIB and weathering (WITCH, we explore the effect of an increase in CO2 of 315 ppmv (1950 to 700 ppmv (2100 projection. The increasing CO2 results in an increase in temperature along the entire transect. In contrast, drainage increases slightly for a focus pedon in the south but decreases strongly in the north. These two variables largely determine the behavior of weathering. In addition, although CO2 production rate increases in the soils in response to global warming, the rate of diffusion back to the atmosphere also increases, maintaining a roughly constant or even decreasing CO2 concentration in the soil gas phase. Our simulations predict that temperature increasing in the next 100 yr causes the weathering rates of the silicates to increase into the future. In contrast, the weathering rate of dolomite – which consumes most of the CO2 – decreases in both end members (south and north of the transect due to its retrograde solubility. We thus infer slower rates of advance of the dolomite reaction front into the subsurface, and faster rates of advance of the silicate reaction front. However, additional simulations for 9 pedons located along the north–south transect show that the dolomite weathering advance rate will increase in the central part of the Mississippi Valley, owing to a maximum in the response of vertical drainage to the ongoing climate change. The carbonate reaction front can be likened to a terrestrial lysocline because it represents a depth interval over which carbonate dissolution rates increase drastically. However, in contrast to the lower

  15. Recurrence rate and patient satisfaction of CO2 laser evaporation of lesions in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa: a retrospective study. (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Riis; Dufour, Deirde Nathalie; Zarchi, Kian; Jemec, Gregor B E


    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a debilitating disease and is difficult to treat. Validation of surgical techniques is therefore of great importance in the management of HS. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser evaporation has been shown effective, but larger-scale studies are scarce. To determine the recurrence rate, time to recurrence, and factors influencing disease recurrence in skin treated with CO2 laser evaporation, and healing by secondary intention; and patients' satisfaction with treatment. Fifty-eight patients treated with CO2 laser evaporation were interviewed regarding recurrence and satisfaction after a mean of 25.7 months. Seventeen of 58 (29%) reported recurrence of HS lesions within the borders of the treated areas after a mean of 12.7 months. Obesity was a risk factor for recurrence with a hazard ratio of 4.53. Fifty-five patients (95%) reported some or great improvement, and 91% would recommend the CO2 laser surgery to other HS patients. This study supports the claim that CO2 laser treatment is an effective modality for recurrent HS lesions in a majority of patients. The authors identified obesity as a risk factor for recurrence. Self-reported satisfaction is high, and only 3 of 58 report no change in the condition. None reported a worsening.

  16. Inversely estimating the vertical profile of the soil CO2 production rate in a deciduous broadleaf forest using a particle filtering method. (United States)

    Sakurai, Gen; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W; Murayama, Shohei; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Yokozawa, Masayuki


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface, which is a major source of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems, represents the total CO2 production at all soil depths. Although many studies have estimated the vertical profile of the CO2 production rate, one of the difficulties in estimating the vertical profile is measuring diffusion coefficients of CO2 at all soil depths in a nondestructive manner. In this study, we estimated the temporal variation in the vertical profile of the CO2 production rate using a data assimilation method, the particle filtering method, in which the diffusion coefficients of CO2 were simultaneously estimated. The CO2 concentrations at several soil depths and CO2 efflux from the soil surface (only during the snow-free period) were measured at two points in a broadleaf forest in Japan, and the data were assimilated into a simple model including a diffusion equation. We found that there were large variations in the pattern of the vertical profile of the CO2 production rate between experiment sites: the peak CO2 production rate was at soil depths around 10 cm during the snow-free period at one site, but the peak was at the soil surface at the other site. Using this method to estimate the CO2 production rate during snow-cover periods allowed us to estimate CO2 efflux during that period as well. We estimated that the CO2 efflux during the snow-cover period (about half the year) accounted for around 13% of the annual CO2 efflux at this site. Although the method proposed in this study does not ensure the validity of the estimated diffusion coefficients and CO2 production rates, the method enables us to more closely approach the "actual" values by decreasing the variance of the posterior distribution of the values.

  17. Variation in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux rates among species and canopy layers in a wet tropical forest. (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Bedoya-Arrieta, Ricardo; Ryan, Michael G


    As tropical forests respond to environmental change, autotrophic respiration may consume a greater proportion of carbon fixed in photosynthesis at the expense of growth, potentially turning the forests into a carbon source. Predicting such a response requires that we measure and place autotrophic respiration in a complete carbon budget, but extrapolating measurements of autotrophic respiration from chambers to ecosystem remains a challenge. High plant species diversity and complex canopy structure may cause respiration rates to vary and measurements that do not account for this complexity may introduce bias in extrapolation more detrimental than uncertainty. Using experimental plantations of four native tree species with two canopy layers, we examined whether species and canopy layers vary in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux and whether the variation relates to commonly used scalars of mass, nitrogen (N), photosynthetic capacity and wood size. Foliar respiration rate varied threefold between canopy layers, ∼0.74 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the overstory and ∼0.25 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the understory, but little among species. Leaf mass per area, N and photosynthetic capacity explained some of the variation, but height explained more. Chamber measurements of foliar respiration thus can be extrapolated to the canopy with rates and leaf area specific to each canopy layer or height class. If area-based rates are sampled across canopy layers, the area-based rate may be regressed against leaf mass per area to derive the slope (per mass rate) to extrapolate to the canopy using the total leaf mass. Wood CO2 efflux varied 1.0-1.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for overstory trees and 0.6-0.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for understory species. The variation in wood CO2 efflux rate was mostly related to wood size, and little to species, canopy layer or height. Mean wood CO2 efflux rate per surface area, derived by regressing CO2 efflux per mass against the ratio of surface

  18. Altitude Variation of the CO2 (V2)-O Quenching Rate Coefficient in Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (United States)

    Feofilovi, Artem; Kutepov, Alexander; She, Chiao-Yao; Smith, Anne K.; Pesnell, William Dean; Goldberg, Richard A.


    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (mlt), the quenching of CO2(N2) vibrational levels by collisions with oxygen atoms plays an important role. However, the k(CO2-O) values measured in the lab and retrieved from atmospheric measurements vary from 1.5 x 10(exp -12) cubic centimeters per second through 9.0 x 10(exp -12) cubic centimeters per second that requires further studying. In this work we used synergistic data from a ground based lidar and a satellite infrared radiometer to estimate K(CO2-O). We used the night- and daytime temperatures between 80 and 110 km measured by the colorado state university narrow-band sodium (Na) lidar located at fort collins, colorado (41N, 255E) as ground truth of the saber/timed nearly simultaneous (plus or minus 10 minutes) and common volume (within plus or minus 1 degree in latitude, plus or minus 2 degrees in longitude) observations. For each altitude in 80-110 km interval we estimate an "optimal" value of K(CO2-O) needed to minimize the discrepancy between the simulated 15 mm CO2 radiance and that measured by the saber/timed instrument. The K(CO2-O) obtained in this way varies in altitude from 3.5 x 10(exp -12) cubic centimeters per second at 80 km to 5.2 x 10(exp -12) cubic centimeters pers second for altitudes above 95 km. We discuss this variation of the rate constant and its impact on temperature retrievals from 15 mm radiance measurements and on the energy budget of mlt.

  19. On the calculation of leakage rates from vessels filled with high density gaseous CO2 using pressure drop data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.F.


    This paper considers calculation methods to estimate leakage rates from pressure drop data from vessels filled with high pressure (40 bar) low temperature (25 0 C) CO 2 . It is essential to consider the non-ideality of CO 2 under these conditions if accurate results are to be obtained. There are two main areas where this is relevant: the first is the use of temperature measurements to adjust the measured pressure readings so that the effect of temperature fluctuations is eliminated. The second is in the conversion of the pressure drop data to volumetric leak rate. An example test is described in which it is shown that the CO 2 based temperature correction method improves the accuracy of the pressure drop estimate by about a factor of ten over using a perfect gas assumption and a factor of about 25 over not attempting to adjust the pressure at all. Also the flow rate obtained from assuming the gas was perfect was almost a factor of two too low. A method for scaling leakage rates to other temperature pressures and gases is also given brief consideration in this report. It is observed that the results of scaling are strongly dependent on the flow regime assumed and it is not possible to determine the flow regime from the pressure drop data. Consequently only upper and lower bounds to the scaled estimate can be quoted. (U.K.)

  20. End-tidal CO2 Detection of an Audible Heart Rate During Neonatal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Following Asystole in Asphyxiated Piglets


    Chalak, Lina F.; Barber, Chad A.; Hynan, Linda; Garcia, Damian; Christie, Lucy; Wyckoff, Myra H.


    Even brief interruption of cardiac compressions significantly reduces critical coronary perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) monitoring may provide a continuous non-invasive method of assessing return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) without stopping to auscultate for heart rate (HR). However, the ETCO2 value that correlates with an audible HR is unknown. Our objective was to determine the threshold ETCO2 that is associated with ROSC following ...

  1. The effect of nonlinearity in CO2 heating rates on the attribution of stratospheric ozone and temperature changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Shepherd


    Full Text Available An analysis of the attribution of past and future changes in stratospheric ozone and temperature to anthropogenic forcings is presented. The analysis is an extension of the study of Shepherd and Jonsson (2008 who analyzed chemistry-climate simulations from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM and attributed both past and future changes to changes in the external forcings, i.e. the abundances of ozone-depleting substances (ODS and well-mixed greenhouse gases. The current study is based on a new CMAM dataset and includes two important changes. First, we account for the nonlinear radiative response to changes in CO2. It is shown that over centennial time scales the radiative response in the upper stratosphere to CO2 changes is significantly nonlinear and that failure to account for this effect leads to a significant error in the attribution. To our knowledge this nonlinearity has not been considered before in attribution analysis, including multiple linear regression studies. For the regression analysis presented here the nonlinearity was taken into account by using CO2 heating rate, rather than CO2 abundance, as the explanatory variable. This approach yields considerable corrections to the results of the previous study and can be recommended to other researchers. Second, an error in the way the CO2 forcing changes are implemented in the CMAM was corrected, which significantly affects the results for the recent past. As the radiation scheme, based on Fomichev et al. (1998, is used in several other models we provide some description of the problem and how it was fixed.

  2. A framework for predicting global silicate weathering and CO2 drawdown rates over geologic time-scales. (United States)

    Hilley, George E; Porder, Stephen


    Global silicate weathering drives long-time-scale fluctuations in atmospheric CO(2). While tectonics, climate, and rock-type influence silicate weathering, it is unclear how these factors combine to drive global rates. Here, we explore whether local erosion rates, GCM-derived dust fluxes, temperature, and water balance can capture global variation in silicate weathering. Our spatially explicit approach predicts 1.9-4.6 x 10(13) mols of Si weathered globally per year, within a factor of 4-10 of estimates of global silicate fluxes derived from riverine measurements. Similarly, our watershed-based estimates are within a factor of 4-18 (mean of 5.3) of the silica fluxes measured in the world's ten largest rivers. Eighty percent of total global silicate weathering product traveling as dissolved load occurs within a narrow range (0.01-0.5 mm/year) of erosion rates. Assuming each mol of Mg or Ca reacts with 1 mol of CO(2), 1.5-3.3 x 10(8) tons/year of CO(2) is consumed by silicate weathering, consistent with previously published estimates. Approximately 50% of this drawdown occurs in the world's active mountain belts, emphasizing the importance of tectonic regulation of global climate over geologic timescales.

  3. Bringing High-Rate, CO2-Based Microbial Electrosynthesis Closer to Practical Implementation through Improved Electrode Design and Operating Conditions. (United States)

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Freguia, Stefano; Flexer, Victoria; Keller, Jurg


    The enhancement of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) of acetate from CO2 to performance levels that could potentially support practical implementations of the technology must go through the optimization of key design and operating conditions. We report that higher proton availability drastically increases the acetate production rate, with pH 5.2 found to be optimal, which will likely suppress methanogenic activity without inhibitor addition. Applied cathode potential as low as -1.1 V versus SHE still achieved 99% of electron recovery in the form of acetate at a current density of around -200 A m(-2). These current densities are leading to an exceptional acetate production rate of up to 1330 g m(-2) day(-1) at pH 6.7. Using highly open macroporous reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes with macropore sizes of about 0.6 mm in diameter was found to be optimal for achieving a good balance between total surface area available for biofilm formation and effective mass transfer between the bulk liquid and the electrode and biofilm surface. Furthermore, we also successfully demonstrated the use of a synthetic biogas mixture as carbon dioxide source, yielding similarly high MES performance as pure CO2. This would allow this process to be used effectively for both biogas quality improvement and conversion of the available CO2 to acetate.

  4. Toward Aerogel Electrodes of Superior Rate Performance in Supercapacitors through Engineered Hollow Nanoparticles of NiCo2O4. (United States)

    Li, Jianjiang; Chen, Shuai; Zhu, Xiaoyi; She, Xilin; Liu, Tongchao; Zhang, Huawei; Komarneni, Sridhar; Yang, Dongjiang; Yao, Xiangdong


    A biomass-templated pathway is developed for scalable synthesis of NiCo 2 O 4 @carbon aerogel electrodes for supercapacitors, where NiCo 2 O 4 hollow nanoparticles with an average outer diameter of 30-40 nm are conjoined by graphitic carbon forming a 3D aerogel structure. This kind of NiCo 2 O 4 aerogel structure shows large specific surface area (167.8 m 2 g -1 ), high specific capacitance (903.2 F g -1 at a current density of 1 A g -1 ), outstanding rate performance (96.2% capacity retention from 1 to 10 A g -1 ), and excellent cycling stability (nearly without capacitance loss after 3000 cycles at 10 A g -1 ). The unique structure of the 3D hollow aerogel synergistically contributes to the high performance. For instance, the 3D interconnected porous structure of the aerogel is beneficial for electrolyte ion diffusion and for shortening the electron transport pathways, and thus can improve the rate performance. The conductive carbon joint greatly enhances the specific capacity, and the hollow structure prohibits the volume changes during the charge-discharge process to significantly improve the cycling stability. This work represents a giant step toward the preparation of high-performance commercial supercapacitors.

  5. Recycling flow rate control device in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Tadashi; Koda, Yasushi


    Purpose: To reduce the recycling pump speed if the pressure variation width and the variation ratio in the nuclear reactor exceed predetermined values, to thereby avoid the shutdown of the plant. Constitution: There has been proposed a method of monitoring the neutron flux increase thereby avoiding unnecessary plant shutdown, but it involves a problems of reactor scram depending on the state of the plant and the set values. In view of the above, in the plant using internal pumps put under the thyristor control and having high response to recycling flow rate, the reactor pressure is monitored and the speed of the internal pump is rapidly reduced when the pressure variation width and variation ratio exceed predetermined values to reduce the reactor power and avoid the plant shutdown. This can reduce the possibility of unnecessary power reduction due to neutron flux noises or the possibility of plant shutdown under low power conditions. Further, since the reactor operation can be continued without stopping the recycling pump, the operation upon recovery can be made rapid. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Sensitivity of CO2 storage performance to varying rates and dynamic injectivity in the Bunter Sandstone, UK (United States)

    Kolster, C.; Mac Dowell, N.; Krevor, S. C.; Agada, S.


    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is needed for meeting legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets in the UK (ECCC 2016). Energy systems models have been key to identifying the importance of CCS but they tend to impose few constraints on the availability and use of geologic CO2 storage reservoirs. Our aim is to develop simple models that use dynamic representations of limits on CO2 storage resources. This will allow for a first order representation of the storage reservoir for use in systems models with CCS. We use the ECLIPSE reservoir simulator and a model of the Southern North Sea Bunter Sandstone saline aquifer. We analyse reservoir performance sensitivities to scenarios of varying CO2 injection demand for a future UK low carbon energy market. With 12 injection sites, we compare the impact of injecting at a constant 2MtCO2/year per site and varying this rate by a factor of 1.8 and 0.2 cyclically every 5 and 2.5 years over 50 years of injection. The results show a maximum difference in average reservoir pressure of 3% amongst each case and a similar variation in plume migration extent. This suggests that simplified models can maintain accuracy by using average rates of injection over similar time periods. Meanwhile, by initiating injection at rates limited by pressurization at the wellhead we find that injectivity steadily increases. As a result, dynamic capacity increases. We find that instead of injecting into sites on a need basis, we can strategically inject the CO2 into 6 of the deepest sites increasing injectivity for the first 15 years by 13%. Our results show injectivity as highly dependent on reservoir heterogeneity near the injection site. Injecting 1MTCO2/year into a shallow, low permeability and porosity site instead of into a deep injection site with high permeability and porosity reduces injectivity in the first 5 years by 52%. ECCC. 2016. Future of Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK. UK Parliament House of Commons, Energy and Climate Change

  7. Gaseous elemental mercury emissions and CO2 respiration rates in terrestrial soils under controlled aerobic and anaerobic laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrist, Daniel; Fain, Xavier; Berger, Carsen


    Mercury (Hg) levels in terrestrial soils are linked to the presence of organic carbon (C). Carbon pools are highly dynamic and subject to mineralization processes, but little is known about the fate of Hg during decomposition. This study evaluated relationships between gaseous Hg emissions from soils and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) respiration under controlled laboratory conditions to assess potential losses of Hg to the atmosphere during C mineralization. Results showed a linear correlation (r 2 = 0.49) between Hg and CO 2 emissions in 41 soil samples, an effect unlikely to be caused by temperature, radiation, different Hg contents, or soil moisture. Stoichiometric comparisons of Hg/C ratios of emissions and underlying soil substrates suggest that 3% of soil Hg was subject to evasion. Even minute emissions of Hg upon mineralization, however, may be important on a global scale given the large Hg pools sequestered in terrestrial soils and C stocks. We induced changes in CO 2 respiration rates and observed Hg flux responses, including inducement of anaerobic conditions by changing chamber air supply from N 2 /O 2 (80% and 20%, respectively) to pure N 2 . Unexpectedly, Hg emissions almost quadrupled after O 2 deprivation while oxidative mineralization (i.e., CO 2 emissions) was greatly reduced. This Hg flux response to anaerobic conditions was lacking when repeated with sterilized soils, possibly due to involvement of microbial reduction of Hg 2+ by anaerobes or indirect abiotic effects such as alterations in soil redox conditions. This study provides experimental evidence that Hg volatilization, and possibly Hg 2+ reduction, is related to O 2 availability in soils from two Sierra Nevada forests. If this result is confirmed in soils from other areas, the implication is that Hg volatilization from terrestrial soils is partially controlled by soil aeration and that low soil O 2 levels and possibly low soil redox potentials lead to increased Hg volatilization from soils.

  8. Elevated tropospheric CO2 and O3 may not alter initial wood decomposition rate or wood-decaying fungal community composition of Northern hardwoods (United States)

    Emmanuel Ebanyenle; Andrew J. Burton; Andrew J. Storer; Dana L. Richter; Jessie A. Glaeser


    We examined the effects of elevated CO2 and/or O3 on the wood-decaying basidiomycete fungal community and wood decomposition rates at the Aspen Free-Air CO2 and O3 Enrichment (Aspen FACE) project. Mass loss rates were determined after one year of log decomposition on the soil...

  9. Review and Extension of CO2-Based Methods to Determine Ventilation Rates with Application to School Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Batterman


    Full Text Available The ventilation rate (VR is a key parameter affecting indoor environmental quality (IEQ and the energy consumption of buildings. This paper reviews the use of CO2 as a “natural” tracer gas for estimating VRs, focusing on applications in school classrooms. It provides details and guidance for the steady-state, build-up, decay and transient mass balance methods. An extension to the build-up method and an analysis of the post-exercise recovery period that can increase CO2 generation rates are presented. Measurements in four mechanically-ventilated school buildings demonstrate the methods and highlight issues affecting their applicability. VRs during the school day fell below recommended minimum levels, and VRs during evening and early morning were on the order of 0.1 h−1, reflecting shutdown of the ventilation systems. The transient mass balance method was the most flexible and advantageous method given the low air change rates and dynamic occupancy patterns observed in the classrooms. While the extension to the build-up method improved stability and consistency, the accuracy of this and the steady-state method may be limited. Decay-based methods did not reflect the VR during the school day due to heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC system shutdown. Since the number of occupants in classrooms changes over the day, the VR expressed on a per person basis (e.g., L·s−1·person−1 depends on the occupancy metric. If occupancy measurements can be obtained, then the transient mass balance method likely will provide the most consistent and accurate results among the CO2-based methods. Improved VR measurements can benefit many applications, including research examining the linkage between ventilation and health.

  10. Effect of CO2 Flow Rate on the Pinang Frond-Based Activated Carbon for Methylene Blue Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Herawan


    Full Text Available Activated carbons are regularly used the treatment of dye wastewater. They can be produced from various organics materials having high level of carbon content. In this study, a novel Pinang frond activated carbon (PFAC was produced at various CO2 flow rates in the range of 150–600 mL/min at activation temperature of 800°C for 3 hours. The optimum PFAC sample is found on CO2 flow rate of 300 mL/min which gives the highest BET surface area and pore volume of 958 m2/g and 0.5469 mL/g, respectively. This sample shows well-developed pore structure with high fixed carbon content of 79.74%. The removal of methylene blue (MB by 95.8% for initial MB concentration of 50 mg/L and 72.6% for 500 mg/L is achieved via this sample. The PFAC is thus identified to be a suitable adsorbent for removing MB from aqueous solution.

  11. Can we relate respiration rates of bark and wood with tissue nitrogen concentrations and branch-level CO2 fluxes across woody species? (United States)

    Eller, A. S.; Wright, I.; Cernusak, L. A.


    Respiration from above-ground woody tissue is generally responsible for 5-15% of ecosystem respiration (~ 30% of total above-ground respiration). The CO2 respired by branches comes from both the sapwood and the living layers within the bark, but because there is considerable movement of respired CO2 within woody tissues (e.g. in the transpiration stream), and because the bark can present a considerable barrier to CO2 diffusion, it can be difficult to interpret measured CO2 efflux from intact branches in relation to the respiration rates of the component tissues, and to relative mass allocation to each. In this study we investigated these issues in 15 evergreen tree and shrub species native to the Sydney area in eastern Australia. We measured CO2 efflux and light-dependent refixation of respired CO2 in photosynthetic bark from the exterior surfaces of branches (0.5-1.5 cm in diameter), and measured the tissue-specific respiration rates of the bark and wood from those same branches. We also measured the nitrogen content and tissue density of the wood and bark to determine: 1) Among species, what is the relationship between %N and tissue respiration? 2) How is photosynthetic refixation of CO2 related to respiration and %N in the bark and underlying wood? and 3) What is the relationship between branch CO2 efflux and the respiration rates of the underlying wood and bark that make up the branch? Across the 15 species %N was a better predictor of respiration in wood than in bark. CO2 efflux measured from the exterior of the stem in the dark was positively correlated with photosynthetic refixation and explained ~40% of the variation in rates of refixation. Refixation rates were not strongly related to bark or wood %N. Differences among species in CO2 efflux rates were not well explained by differences in bark or wood %N and there was a stronger relationship between bark respiration and CO2 efflux than between wood respiration and CO2 efflux. These results suggest that the

  12. The Role of Sub- and Supercritical CO2 as "Processing Solvent" for the Recycling and Sample Preparation of Lithium Ion Battery Electrolytes. (United States)

    Nowak, Sascha; Winter, Martin


    Quantitative electrolyte extraction from lithium ion batteries (LIB) is of great interest for recycling processes. Following the generally valid EU legal guidelines for the recycling of batteries, 50 wt % of a LIB cell has to be recovered, which cannot be achieved without the electrolyte; hence, the electrolyte represents a target component for the recycling of LIBs. Additionally, fluoride or fluorinated compounds, as inevitably present in LIB electrolytes, can hamper or even damage recycling processes in industry and have to be removed from the solid LIB parts, as well. Finally, extraction is a necessary tool for LIB electrolyte aging analysis as well as for post-mortem investigations in general, because a qualitative overview can already be achieved after a few minutes of extraction for well-aged, apparently "dry" LIB cells, where the electrolyte is deeply penetrated or even gellified in the solid battery materials.

  13. The Role of Sub- and Supercritical CO2 as “Processing Solvent” for the Recycling and Sample Preparation of Lithium Ion Battery Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Nowak


    Full Text Available Quantitative electrolyte extraction from lithium ion batteries (LIB is of great interest for recycling processes. Following the generally valid EU legal guidelines for the recycling of batteries, 50 wt % of a LIB cell has to be recovered, which cannot be achieved without the electrolyte; hence, the electrolyte represents a target component for the recycling of LIBs. Additionally, fluoride or fluorinated compounds, as inevitably present in LIB electrolytes, can hamper or even damage recycling processes in industry and have to be removed from the solid LIB parts, as well. Finally, extraction is a necessary tool for LIB electrolyte aging analysis as well as for post-mortem investigations in general, because a qualitative overview can already be achieved after a few minutes of extraction for well-aged, apparently “dry” LIB cells, where the electrolyte is deeply penetrated or even gellified in the solid battery materials.

  14. The recycling rate of atmospheric moisture over the past two decades (1988-2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liming; Jiang Xun; Chahine, Moustafa T; Olsen, Edward T; Fetzer, Eric J; Chen, Luke; Yung, Yuk L


    Numerical models predict that the recycling rate of atmospheric moisture decreases with time at the global scale, in response to global warming. A recent observational study (Wentz et al 2007 Science 317 233-5) did not agree with the results from numerical models. Here, we examine the recycling rate by using the latest data sets for precipitation and water vapor, and suggest a consistent view of the global recycling rate of atmospheric moisture between numerical models and observations. Our analyses show that the recycling rate of atmospheric moisture has also decreased over the global oceans during the past two decades. In addition, we find different temporal variations of the recycling rate in different regions when exploring the spatial pattern of the recycling rate. In particular, the recycling rate has increased in the high-precipitation region around the equator (i.e., the intertropical convergence zone) and decreased in the low-precipitation region located either side of the equator over the past two decades. Further exploration suggests that the temporal variation of precipitation is stronger than that of water vapor, which results in the positive trend of the recycling rate in the high-precipitation region and the negative trend of the recycling rate in the low-precipitation region.

  15. Properties and Developments of Combustion and Gasification of Coal and Char in a CO2-Rich and Recycled Flue Gases Atmosphere by Rapid Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li


    Full Text Available Combustion and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char have been investigated experimentally under the conditions of high temperature gradient of order 200°C·s−1 by a CO2 gas laser beam and CO2-rich atmospheres with 5% and 10% O2. The laser heating makes a more ideal experimental condition compared with previous studies with a TG-DTA, because it is able to minimize effects of coal oxidation and combustion by rapid heating process like radiative heat transfer condition. The experimental results indicated that coal weight reduction ratio to gases followed the Arrhenius equation with increasing coal temperature; further which were increased around 5% with adding H2O in CO2-rich atmosphere. In addition, coal-water mixtures with different water/coal mass ratio were used in order to investigate roles of water vapor in the process of coal gasification and combustion. Furthermore, char-water mixtures with different water/char mass ratio were also measured in order to discuss the generation ratio of CO/CO2, and specified that the source of Hydrocarbons is volatile matter from coal. Moreover, it was confirmed that generations of CO and Hydrocarbons gases are mainly dependent on coal temperature and O2 concentration, and they are stimulated at temperature over 1000°C in the CO2-rich atmosphere.

  16. Bottle & Can Recycling in Denmark: addressing issues and optimizing the recycling rate


    Carnevale, Alessandro; Larsen, Lucas; Tetens, Simon W.


    The research is conducted in the landscape of environmental care and consumer behaviour. This paper explores the different dynamics revolving around the recycling of plastic bottles and aluminium cans in Denmark. The aim is to shed light on the possible impediments people might encounter when attempting to hand back their deposit marked bottle to the allocated facilities as well as illuminating what the main forces involved in encouraging or inhibiting people from recycling are. The ultimate ...

  17. Rising CO2 interacts with growth light and growth rate to alter photosystem II photoinactivation of the coastal diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available We studied the interactive effects of pCO(2 and growth light on the coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP 1335 growing under ambient and expected end-of-the-century pCO(2 (750 ppmv, and a range of growth light from 30 to 380 µmol photons·m(-2·s(-1. Elevated pCO(2 significantly stimulated the growth of T. pseudonana under sub-saturating growth light, but not under saturating to super-saturating growth light. Under ambient pCO(2 susceptibility to photoinactivation of photosystem II (σ(i increased with increasing growth rate, but cells growing under elevated pCO(2 showed no dependence between growth rate and σ(i, so under high growth light cells under elevated pCO(2 were less susceptible to photoinactivation of photosystem II, and thus incurred a lower running cost to maintain photosystem II function. Growth light altered the contents of RbcL (RUBISCO and PsaC (PSI protein subunits, and the ratios among the subunits, but there were only limited effects on these and other protein pools between cells grown under ambient and elevated pCO(2.

  18. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior (United States)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael


    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  19. Soil efflux and total emission rates of magmatic CO2 at the horseshoe lake tree kill, mammoth mountain, California, 1995-1999 (United States)

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.


    We report the results of eight soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed circulation chamber method at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK) - the largest tree kill on Mammoth Mountain. The surveys were undertaken from 1995 to 1999 to constrain total HLTK CO2 emissions and to evaluate occasional efflux surveys as a surveillance tool for the tree kills. HLTK effluxes range from 1 to > 10,000 g m -2 day -1 (grams CO2 per square meter per day); they are not normally distributed. Station efflux rates can vary by 7-35% during the course of the 8- to 16-h surveys. Disturbance of the upper 2 cm of ground surface causes effluxes to almost double. Semivariograms of efflux spatial covariance fit exponential or spherical models; they lack nugget effects. Efflux contour maps and total CO2 emission rates based on exponential, spherical, and linear kriging models of survey data are nearly identical; similar results are also obtained with triangulation models, suggesting that the kriging models are not seriously distorted by the lack of normal efflux distributions. In addition, model estimates of total CO2 emission rates are relatively insensitive to the measurement precision of the efflux rates and to the efflux value used to separate magmatic from forest soil sources of CO2. Surveys since 1997 indicate that, contrary to earlier speculations, a termination of elevated CO2 emissions at the HLTK is unlikely anytime soon. The HLTK CO2 efflux anomaly fluctuated greatly in size and intensity throughout the 1995-1999 surveys but maintained a N-S elongation, presumably reflecting fault control of CO2 transport from depth. Total CO2 emission rates also fluctuated greatly, ranging from 46 to 136 t day-1 (metric tons CO2 per day) and averaging 93 t day-1. The large inter-survey variations are caused primarily by external (meteorological) processes operating on time scales of hours to days. The externally caused variations can mask significant changes occurring at depth; a striking example is

  20. Factors influencing the recycling rate under the volume-based waste fee system in South Korea. (United States)

    Park, Seejeen


    Since the early 2000s, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) has maintained its top-rank status for its municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling rate among OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) member countries. The volume-based waste fee system (VWF) has been considered to be the major factor contributing to the high recycling performance, and extant research has verified the positive relationship between VWF adoption and the MSW recycling rate. Nevertheless, there exists a gap in the literature, as past research has focused more on testing the positive effects of VWF rather than on investigating the determinants of recycling rates after the adoption of VWF. The current study seeks to address this gap by investigating the various factors that affect recycling rates under the VWF system. More specifically, using data from 16 regions in South Korea over a period of 11 years, this study empirically tests the effects of VWF pricing, the citizen cost burden ratio for the VWF system, and pro-environmental behavior related to VWF on the recycling rate. The findings indicate that economic incentives such as cost savings on VWF plastic bag purchases and reduced burden from paying VWF expenses result in higher recycling rates. The findings also demonstrate that pro-environmental behavior in the VWF context positively affects the recycling rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the use of electrical resistivity imaging technique for improving CH4 and CO2 emission rate estimations in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgaki, I.; Soupios, P.; Sakkas, N.; Ververidis, F.; Trantas, E.; Vallianatos, F.; Manios, T.


    In order to improve the estimation of surface gas emissions in landfill, we evaluated a combination of geophysical and greenhouse gas measurement methodologies. Based on fifteen 2D electrical resistivity tomographies (ERTs), longitudinal cross section images of the buried waste layers were developed, identifying place and cross section size of organic waste (OW), organic waste saturated in leachates (SOW), low organic and non-organic waste. CH 4 and CO 2 emission measurements were then conducted using the static chamber technique at 5 surface points along two tomographies: (a) across a high-emitting area, ERT no. 2, where different amounts of relatively fresh OW and SOW were detected, and (b) across the oldest (at least eight years) cell in the landfill, ERT no. 6, with significant amounts of OW. Where the highest emission rates were recorded, they were strongly affected by the thickness of the OW and SOW fraction underneath each gas sampling point. The main reason for lower than expected values was the age of the layered buried waste. Lower than predicted emissions were also attributed to soil condition, which was the case at sampling points with surface ponding, i.e. surface accumulation of leachate (or precipitated water)

  2. End-tidal CO2 Detection of an Audible Heart Rate During Neonatal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Following Asystole in Asphyxiated Piglets (United States)

    Chalak, Lina F.; Barber, Chad A.; Hynan, Linda; Garcia, Damian; Christie, Lucy; Wyckoff, Myra H.


    Even brief interruption of cardiac compressions significantly reduces critical coronary perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) monitoring may provide a continuous non-invasive method of assessing return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) without stopping to auscultate for heart rate (HR). However, the ETCO2 value that correlates with an audible HR is unknown. Our objective was to determine the threshold ETCO2 that is associated with ROSC following asphyxia-induced asystole. Neonatal swine (n=46) were progressively asphyxiated until asystole occurred. Resuscitation followed current neonatal guidelines with initial ventilation with 100% O2 followed by cardiac compressions followed by epinephrine for continued asystole. HR was auscultated every 30 sec and ETCO2 was continuously recorded. A receiver operator curve was generated using the calculated sensitivity and specificity for various ETCO2 values where a positive test was defined as the presence of HR >60 bpm by auscultation. An ETCO2 cut off value of 14 mmHg is the most sensitive ETCO2 value with the least false positives. When using ETCO2 to guide uninterrupted CPR in this model of asphyxia-induced asystole, auscultative confirmation of return of an adequate HR should be performed when ETCO2 ≥14 mmHg is achieved. Correlation during human neonatal CPR needs further investigation. PMID:21283051

  3. Conversion of actual flue gas CO 2 via cycloaddition to propylene oxide catalyzed by a single-site, recyclable zirconium catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Michael J.


    A reusable zirconium-based catalyst for the cycloaddition of CO2 to propylene oxide (PO) was prepared by the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) methodology. Accordingly, well-defined amounts of the ZrCl4·(OEt2)2 precursor were grafted on the surface of silica dehydroxylated at 700°C (SiO2-700) and at 200°C (SiO2-200) in order to afford surface coordination compounds with different podality and chemical environment. The identity of the surface complexes was thoroughly investigated by FT-IR, elemental microanalysis and solid state NMR and applied as a recoverable and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the title reaction using pure CO2 and flue gas samples from a cement factory. The observed catalytic activity for the isolated zirconium complexes is rationalized by means of systematic DFT calculations.

  4. Conversion of actual flue gas CO 2 via cycloaddition to propylene oxide catalyzed by a single-site, recyclable zirconium catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Michael J.; Barthel, Alexander; Maheu, Clement; Sodpiban, Ounjit; Dega, Frank-Blondel; Vummaleti, Sai V.C.; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Pelletier, Jeremie; Cavallo, Luigi; D'Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie


    A reusable zirconium-based catalyst for the cycloaddition of CO2 to propylene oxide (PO) was prepared by the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) methodology. Accordingly, well-defined amounts of the ZrCl4·(OEt2)2 precursor were grafted on the surface of silica dehydroxylated at 700°C (SiO2-700) and at 200°C (SiO2-200) in order to afford surface coordination compounds with different podality and chemical environment. The identity of the surface complexes was thoroughly investigated by FT-IR, elemental microanalysis and solid state NMR and applied as a recoverable and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the title reaction using pure CO2 and flue gas samples from a cement factory. The observed catalytic activity for the isolated zirconium complexes is rationalized by means of systematic DFT calculations.

  5. Net CO2 exchange rates in three different successional stages of the 'Dark Taiga' of central Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeser, C.; Schulze, E.D.; Montagnani, L.


    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of successional stages of the Abies-dominated dark taiga was measured in central Siberia (61 deg N, 90 deg E) during the growing season of the year 2000 using the eddy covariance technique. Measurements started before snow melt and canopy activity in spring on day of year (DOY) 99 and lasted until a permanent snow cover had developed and respiration had ceased in autumn DOY 299. Three stands growing in close vicinity were investigated: 50 yr-old Betula pubescens ('Betula stand', an early successional stage after fire), 250 yr-old mixed boreal forest, representing the transition from Betula-dominated to Abies-dominated canopies, and 200-yr-old Abies sibirica ('Abies stand', representing a late successional stage following the mixed boreal forest). The mixed boreal forest had a multi-layered canopy with dense under story and trees of variable height and age below the main canopy, which was dominated by Abies sibirica, Picea obovata and few old Betula pubescens and Populus tremula trees. The Abies stand had a uniform canopy dominated by Abies sibirica. This stand appears to have established not after fire but after wind break or insect damage in a later successional stage. The stands differed with respect to the number of days with net CO 2 uptake (Betula stand 89 days, mixed boreal forest 109 days, and Abies stand 135 days), maximum measured LAI (Betula 2.6 m 2 /m 2 , mixed boreal forest 3.5 m 2 /m 2 and Abies stand 4.1 m 2 /m 2 ) and basal area (Betula stand 30.2 m 2 /ha, mixed boreal forest 35.7 m 2 /ha, and Abies stand 46.5 m 2 /ha). In the mixed boreal forest, many days with net daytime CO 2 release were observed in summer. Both other sites were almost permanent sinks in summer. Mean daytime CO 2 exchange rates in July were 8.45 mol/m 2 /s in the Betula stand, 4.65 mol/m 2 /s in the mixed boreal forest and 6.31 mol/m 2 /s in the Abies stand. Measured uptake for the growing season was 247.2 g C/m 2 in the Betula stand, 99.7 g C/m 2

  6. The numerical simulation on swelling factor and extraction rate of a tight crude oil and SC-CO2 system (United States)

    Zou, Hongjun; Gong, Houjian; Li, Yajun; Dong, Mingzhe


    A method was established to study swelling and extraction between CO2 and crude oil, and the influences of pressure, temperature and molecular weight were investigated. Firstly, laboratory analysis was conducted to determine the pseudo-component and other parameters of the crude oil. Then swelling and extraction of the crude oil and SC-CO2 system were calculated by computer simulation. The results show that the pressure and temperature have little influence on the swelling and extraction between CO2 and crude oil when the mole fraction of CO2 is lower. A higher pressure and temperature is more beneficial to the interaction of CO2 and crude oil, while the swelling and extraction will not be obvious when the system is miscible. And the smaller the molecular weight of the oil is, the larger the maximum value of the swelling factor of CO2 and crude oil changes. The study of swelling and extraction plays an important role in the oilfield stimulation.

  7. Control device for the recycling flow rate in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Naoshi; Shida, Toichi.


    Purpose: To prevent the cavitation in a recycling pump even under the conditions where a recycling pump run-back is inhibited, thereby secure the safety of equipments. Constitution: An AND circuit is disposed to a recycling flow rate control system in a BWR type nuclear power plant that issues an output on the condition that a run-back signal is present together with a contact signal of a scoop pipe locking relay or a contact signal of a scoop pipe locking relay. Then, if a demand for the run-back operation of a nuclear reactor recycling pump is issued, the reactor recycling pump is forcedly tripped. Since the pump can always be tripped upon requirement of run-back even if there are some or other inhibitive factors, generation of the cavitation in recycling system equipments can be prevented thereby prevent the damages in the equipments. (Moriyama, K.)

  8. Compact fluorescent lights and the impact of convenience and knowledge on household recycling rates. (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P


    Increased energy costs, social marketing campaigns, public subsidies, and reduced retail prices have dramatically increased the number of compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) installed worldwide. CFLs provide many benefits, but they contain a very small amount of mercury. Given the billions of CFLs in use worldwide, they represent a significant source of mercury unless CFLs are recycled and the mercury recovered in an environmentally sound manner. In the state of Maine (northeast United States), despite mandated recycling of CFLs and availability of free CFL recycling, the household CFL recycling rate is very low. A study was undertaken to identify the primary factors responsible for low recycling. The first step was to survey householders who use CFLs. The 520 survey responses indicated that insufficient knowledge regarding recycling and inconvenience of the collection system are the two primary factors for the low recycling rate. To validate these findings, the second step was an examination of the current collection system to assess (a) the knowledge requirements necessary for recycling and (b) the convenience of the collection system. The results of this examination validated that knowledge requirements were excessively difficult to fulfill and the collection system is not sufficiently convenient. Based on these results, waste managers should focus on increasing convenience and simplifying access to information when designing or improving household collection and recycling of CFLs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.


    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  10. Effects of ocean acidification driven by elevated CO2 on larval shell growth and abnormal rates of the venerid clam, Mactra veneriformis (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Hoon; Yu, Ok Hwan; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Won; Choy, Eun Jung


    The venerid clam ( Mactra veneriformis Reeve 1854) is one of the main cultured bivalve species in intertidal and shallow subtidal ecosystems along the west coast of Korea. To understand the effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of Korean clams, we investigated shell growth and abnormality rates and types in the D-shaped, umbonate veliger, and pediveliger stages of the venerid clam M. veneriformis during exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. In particular, we examined abnormal types of larval shell morphology categorized as shell deformations, shell distortions, and shell fissures. Specimens were incubated in seawater equilibrated with bubbled CO2-enriched air at (400±25)×10-6 (ambient control), (800±25)×10-6 (high pCO2), or (1 200±28)×10-6 (extremely high pCO2), the atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted for the years 2014, 2084, and 2154 (70-year intervals; two human generations), respectively, in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. The mean shell lengths of larvae were significantly decreased in the high and extremely high pCO2 groups compared with the ambient control groups. Furthermore, under high and extremely high pCO2 conditions, the cultures exhibited significantly increased abundances of abnormal larvae and increased severity of abnormalities compared with the ambient control. In the umbonate veliger stage of the experimental larvae, the most common abnormalities were shell deformations, distortions, and fissures; on the other hand, convex hinges and mantle protuberances were absent. These results suggest that elevated CO2 exerts an additional burden on the health of M. veneriformis larvae by impairing early development.

  11. Damage rates in neutron irradiated FeCo and FeCo2V ordered and disordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, J.P.; Dinhut, J.F.


    Ordered and disordered samples of FeCo and FeCo2V alloys have been irradiated at liquid hydrogen temperature with fission neutrons up to an integrated dose of about 7.2 x 10 17 n/cm 2 (E > 1 MeV). During the irradiation, the resistivity increases continuously due to point defect production. (author)

  12. Design and simulation of rate-based CO2 capture processes using carbonic anhydrase (CA) applied to biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gaspar, Jozsef; Jacobsen, Bjartur


    Today the mix of the energy sector is changing from reduction of CO2 emission from fossil fueled power industry into a general focus on renewable industry which is emitting less greenhouse gases. Renewable fuels like biomass for electricity production or biogas for bio-methane production have a p...

  13. High air-sea CO 2 uptake rates in nearshore and shelf areas of Southern Greenland: Temporal and spatial variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Mortensen, J.; Juul-Pedersen, T.


    significant correlation between average annual gross primary production and annual air-sea flux during 2005-2010, which suggests that regulation of pCO 2 in the fjord is more complex. Despite three confined periods with supersaturated pCO 2 conditions in surface waters during 2005-2010, Godthåbsfjord can......The present study is based on hourly samplings of wind speed, monthly sampling sessions of temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, nutrients, primary productivity and vertical export in the outer sill region (station GF3) of a sub-arctic SW Greenland fjord (Godthåbsfjord......) through 2005-2010. Air-sea CO 2 fluxes varied at GF3 from c. -20gCm -2month -1 (uptake from the atmosphere) to 25gCm -2month -1 (release to the atmosphere) during 2005-10. The average annual air-sea CO 2 flux of -83 to -108gCm -2yr -1 was within the range of the local gross annual primary productivity...

  14. Taxa de emissão de CO2 de um latossolo fertirrigado com ácido fosfórico por gotejamento CO2 emission rate from a fertigated bare soil with phosphoric acid by dripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Zanini


    Full Text Available A aplicação de fertilizantes fosfatados por meio de fertirrigação com sistemas de irrigação localizada pode causar obstrução de emissores. Para evitar esse problema, pode ser utilizado o ácido fosfórico como fonte de fósforo às plantas. Porém, têm sido pouco investigados os efeitos da irrigação relacionados às perdas de CO2 do solo para a atmosfera, em conseqüência da decomposição do carbono orgânico e da infiltração de água no solo. Neste trabalho, investigou-se, no período de um mês, o efeito da fertirrigação com ácido fosfórico nas taxas de emissão de CO2 de um latossolo desprovido de vegetação, na Área Experimental de Irrigação da UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal - SP. Utilizou-se de um sistema de irrigação por gotejamento, com delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, constando de cinco repetições e cinco tratamentos (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1de P2O5, aplicados via fertirrigação com ácido fosfórico. Verificou-se que as taxas de emissão de CO2 aumentaram significativamente após as fertirrigações, porém não houve efeito da dose do ácido fosfórico sobre as taxas. A umidade do solo mostrou-se um fator importante na relação entre as variações das taxas de emissão e a temperatura do solo ao longo do período estudado.The application of phosphoric fertilizers through fertigation, with localized irrigation systems, can cause emitters obstruction. In order to avoid this problem, the phosphoric acid can be used as phosphorus source to the plants. However, it has been little investigations on the effects of the irrigation practices, related to the CO2 transference to the atmosphere, due to organic matter decomposition in the soil and its water infiltration. At this work, the rates of emissions of CO2 from a bare soil without vegetation, and fertigated along one month were investigated. The experiment was conducted with randomized blocks design in São Paulo State University - UNESP

  15. Calcification rates of the Caribbean reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea adversely affected by both seawater warming and CO2-induced ocean acidification (United States)

    Horvath, K. M.; Connolly, B. D.; Westfield, I. T.; Chow, E.; Castillo, K. D.; Ries, J. B.


    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that atmospheric pCO2 will increase to ca. 550-950 ppm by the end of the century, primarily due to the anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, and cement production. This is predicted to cause SST to increase by 1-3 °C and seawater pH to decrease by 0.1-0.3 units. Laboratory studies have shown that warming depresses calcification rates of scleractinian corals and that acidification yields mixed effects on coral calcification. With both warming and ocean acidification predicted for the next century, we must constrain the interactive effects of these two CO2-induced stressors on scleractinian coral calcification. Here, we present the results of experiments designed to assess the response of the scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea to both ocean warming and acidification. Coral fragments (12/tank) were reared for 60 days under three temperatures (25.1± 0.02 °C, 28.0± 0.02 °C, 31.8± 0.02 °C) at near modern pCO2 (436 ± 7) and near the highest IPCC estimate for atmospheric pCO2 for the year 2100 AD (883 ± 16). Each temperature and pCO2 treatment was executed in triplicate and contained similarly sized S. Siderea fragments obtained from the same suite of coral colonies equitably distributed amongst the nearshore, backreef, and forereef zones of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System off the coast of southern Belize. Individual coral fragments were hand fed Artemia sp. to satiation twice weekly. Weekly seawater samples (250 ml) were collected and analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon via coulometry and total alkalinity via closed-cell potentiometric titration. Seawater pCO2, pH, carbonate ion concentration, bicarbonate ion concentration, aqueous CO2, and aragonite saturation state (ΩA) were calculated with the program CO2SYS. Under near-modern atmospheric pCO2 of ca. 436 ± 7 ppm, seawater warming from 25 to 28 to 32°C caused coral calcification rates (estimated from change in

  16. Nanocrystallization in Al85Ce8Ni5Co2 amorphous alloy obtained by different strain rate during high pressure torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henits, P.; Kovacs, Zs.; Schafler, E.; Varga, L.K.; Labar, J.L.; Revesz, A.


    In order to elucidate the role of total strain and strain rate during high pressure torsion of Al 85 Ce 8 Ni 5 Co 2 metallic glass, different deformation conditions were applied to devitrify the as-quenched alloy. The disk-shaped specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and thermal analysis.

  17. CO2 cycle (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.


    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  18. Transgenic tobacco plants with improved cyanobacterial Rubisco expression but no extra assembly factors grow at near wild-type rates if provided with elevated CO2. (United States)

    Occhialini, Alessandro; Lin, Myat T; Andralojc, P John; Hanson, Maureen R; Parry, Martin A J


    Introducing a carbon-concentrating mechanism and a faster Rubisco enzyme from cyanobacteria into higher plant chloroplasts may improve photosynthetic performance by increasing the rate of CO2 fixation while decreasing losses caused by photorespiration. We previously demonstrated that tobacco plants grow photoautotrophically using Rubisco from Synechococcus elongatus, although the plants exhibited considerably slower growth than wild-type and required supplementary CO2 . Because of concerns that vascular plant assembly factors may not be adequate for assembly of a cyanobacterial Rubisco, prior transgenic plants included the cyanobacterial chaperone RbcX or the carboxysomal protein CcmM35. Here we show that neither RbcX nor CcmM35 is needed for assembly of active cyanobacterial Rubisco. Furthermore, by altering the gene regulatory sequences on the Rubisco transgenes, cyanobacterial Rubisco expression was enhanced and the transgenic plants grew at near wild-type growth rates, although still requiring elevated CO2 . We performed detailed kinetic characterization of the enzymes produced with and without the RbcX and CcmM35 cyanobacterial proteins. These transgenic plants exhibit photosynthetic characteristics that confirm the predicted benefits of introduction of non-native forms of Rubisco with higher carboxylation rate constants in vascular plants and the potential nitrogen-use efficiency that may be achieved provided that adequate CO2 is available near the enzyme. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Study on Effects of Different Replacement Rate on Bending Behavior of Big Recycled Aggregate Self Compacting Concrete (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Tiantian; Gao, Shuai; Jiang, Lin; Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Yalin


    Big recycled aggregate self compacting concrete is a new type of recycled concrete, which has the advantages of low hydration heat and green environmental protection, but its bending behavior can be affected by different replacement rate. Therefor, in this paper, the research status of big Recycled aggregate self compacting concrete was systematically introduced, and the effect of different replacement rate of big recycled aggregate on failure mode, crack distribution and bending strength of the beam were studied through the bending behavior test of 4 big recycled aggregate self compacting concrete beams. The results show that: The crack distribution of the beam can be affected by the replacement rate; The failure modes of big recycled aggregate beams are the same as those of ordinary concrete; The plane section assumption is applicable to the big recycled aggregate self compacting concrete beam; The higher the replacement rate, the lower the bending strength of big recycled aggregate self compacting concrete beams.

  20. A Year in the Life: Annual Patterns of CO2 and CH4 from a Northern Finland Peatland, Including Anaerobic Methane Oxidation and Summer Ebullition Rates (United States)

    Miller, K.; Lipson, D.; Biasi, C.; Dorodnikov, M.; Männistö, M.; Lai, C. T.


    The major ecological controls on methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in northern wetland systems are well known, yet estimates of source/sink magnitudes are often incongruous with measured rates. This mismatch persists because holistic flux datasets are rare, preventing 'whole picture' determinations of flux controls. To combat this, we measured net CO2 and CH4 fluxes from September 2012-2013 within a peatland in northern Lapland, Finland. In addition, we performed in situ manipulations and in vitro soil incubations to quantify anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenic rates as they related to alternative electron acceptor availability. Average annual fluxes varied substantially between different depressions within the wetland, a pattern that persisted through all seasons. Season was a strong predictor of both CO2 and CH4 flux rates, yet CH4 rates were not related to melt-season 10cm or 30cm soil temperatures, and only poorly predicted with air temperatures. We found evidence for both autumnal and spring thaw CH4 bursts, collectively accounting for 26% of annual CH4 flux, although the autumnal burst was more than 5 fold larger than the spring burst. CH4 ebullition measured throughout the growing season augmented the CH4 source load by a factor of 1.5, and was linked with fine-scale spatial heterogeneity within the wetland. Surprisingly, CH4 flux rates were insensitive to Fe(III) and humic acid soil amendments, both of which amplified CO2 fluxes. Using in vitro incubations, we determined anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenesis rates. Measured anaerobic oxidation rates showed potential consumption of between 6-39% of the methane produced, contributing approximately 1% of total carbon dioxide flux. Treatments of nitrate, sulfate and ferric iron showed that nitrate suppressed methanogenesis, but were not associated with anaerobic oxidation rates.

  1. The rise of the photosynthetic rate when light intensity increases is delayed in ndh gene-defective tobacco at high but not at low CO2 concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes eMartin


    Full Text Available The 11 plastid ndh genes have hovered frequently on the edge of dispensability, being absent in the plastid DNA of many algae and certain higher plants. We have compared the photosynthetic activity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv. Petit Havana with five transgenic lines (ndhF, pr-ndhF, T181D, T181A and ndhF FC and found that photosynthetic performance is impaired in transgenic ndhF-defective tobacco plants at rapidly fluctuating light intensities and higher than ambient CO2 concentrations. In contrast to wild type and ndhF FC, which reach the maximum photosynthetic rate in less than one min when light intensity suddenly increases, ndh defective plants (ndhF and T181A show up to a 5 min delay in reaching the maximum photosynthetic rate at CO2 concentrations higher than the ambient 360 ppm. Net photosynthesis was determined at different CO2 concentrations when sequences of 130, 870, 61, 870 and 130 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR sudden light changes were applied to leaves and photosynthetic efficiency and entropy production were determined as indicators of photosynthesis performance. The two ndh-defective plants, ndhF and T181A, had lower photosynthetic efficiency and higher entropy production than wt, ndhF FC and T181D tobacco plants, containing full functional ndh genes, at CO2 concentrations above 400 ppm. We propose that the Ndh complex improves cyclic electron transport by adjusting the redox level of transporters during the low light intensity stage. In ndhF-defective strains, the supply of electrons through the Ndh complex fails, transporters remain over-oxidized (specially at high CO2 concentrations and the rate of cyclic electron transport is low, impairing the ATP level required to rapidly reach high CO2 fixation rates in the following high light phase. Hence, ndh genes could be dispensable at low but not at high atmospheric concentrations of CO2.

  2. Co2(nu2)-o Quenching Rate Coefficient Derived from Coincidental SABER-TIMED and Fort Collins Lidar Observations of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (United States)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; She, C.-Y.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.


    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(nu2) vibrational levels by collisions with O atoms plays an important role. However, there is a factor of 3-4 discrepancy between the laboratory measurements of the CO2-O quenching rate coefficient, k(sub VT),and its value estimated from the atmospheric observations. In this study, we retrieve k(sub VT) in the altitude region85-105 km from the coincident SABER/TIMED and Fort Collins sodium lidar observations by minimizing the difference between measured and simulated broadband limb 15 micron radiation. The averaged k(sub VT) value obtained in this work is 6.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s that is close to other estimates of this coefficient from the atmospheric observations.However, the retrieved k(sub VT) also shows altitude dependence and varies from 5.5 1 +/-1 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s at 90 km to 7.9 +/- 1.2 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s at 105 km. Obtained results demonstrate the deficiency in current non-LTE modeling of the atmospheric 15 micron radiation, based on the application of the CO2-O quenching and excitation rates, which are linked by the detailed balance relation. We discuss the possible model improvements, among them accounting for the interaction of the non-thermal oxygen atoms with CO2 molecules.

  3. LASERS: Parameters of a trigatron-driven low-pulse-repetition-rate TEA CO2 laser preionised by a surface corona discharge (United States)

    Aram, M.; Behjat, A.; Shabanzadeh, M.; Mansori, F.


    The design of a TEA CO2 laser with UV preionisation by a surface corona discharge is described and the dependences of its average output energy on the gas-flow rate, discharge voltage and pulse repetition rate are presented. The scheme of the electric circuit and the geometry of the pre-ionisation system are considered. The electric circuit is designed to produce only impulse voltage difference between the laser electrodes. The triggering system of the trigatron is used to prevent the appearance of the arc. The dependences of the current, voltage and average output energy on the gas-mixture composition and applied voltages at a low pulse repetition rate are presented. The central output wavelength of the laser was measured with an IR spectrometer. Lasing at two adjacent vibrational-rotational transitions of the CO2 molecule was observed, which demonstrates the possibility of simultaneous lasing at several lines.

  4. Parameters of a trigatron-driven low-pulse-repetition-rate TEA CO2 laser preionised by a surface corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aram, M; Shabanzadeh, M; Mansori, F; Behjat, A


    The design of a TEA CO 2 laser with UV preionisation by a surface corona discharge is described and the dependences of its average output energy on the gas-flow rate, discharge voltage and pulse repetition rate are presented. The scheme of the electric circuit and the geometry of the pre-ionisation system are considered. The electric circuit is designed to produce only impulse voltage difference between the laser electrodes. The triggering system of the trigatron is used to prevent the appearance of the arc. The dependences of the current, voltage and average output energy on the gas-mixture composition and applied voltages at a low pulse repetition rate are presented. The central output wavelength of the laser was measured with an IR spectrometer. Lasing at two adjacent vibrational-rotational transitions of the CO 2 molecule was observed, which demonstrates the possibility of simultaneous lasing at several lines. (lasers)

  5. A refined protocol for calculating air flow rate of naturally-ventilated broiler barns based on co2 mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Barreto-Mendes


    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó para evaluar protocolos relativamente simples para el monitoreo de la tasa de ventilación (TV en instalaciones pecuarias con ventilación natural (ENV. Los protocolos de ensayo se aplicaron primero a una instalación de pollos de engorde mecánicamente ventilada (EMV, donde TV se estimó con mayor precisión y luego se utilizaron para calcular la TV en la ENV. Las concentraciones de CO2 se midieron con dos esquemas de muestreo diferentes: (S1 la media de las mediciones al interior y a lo largo de la longitud de la instalación a dos alturas de 0,5 m y 1,5 m del suelo; y (S2 igual que la anterior pero con las mediciones de concentración fueron realizadas únicamente a 0,5 m del suelo. La tasa de producción de CO2 metabólico dinámico de las aves se predijo con dos algoritmos diferentes: (A1 el mantenimiento constante durante los periodos de luz y oscuridad, y (A2 que varía con la actividad de los animales sobre una base horaria. Los resultados demostraron que la combinación de S2 con A1 o A2 presentó la mejor estimación de TV en el ENV.

  6. Effect of ST36 Acupuncture on Hyperventilation-Induced CO2 Reactivity of the Basilar and Middle Cerebral Arteries and Heart Rate Variability in Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ho Hyun


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to verify the effect of acupuncture on cerebral haemodynamics to provide evidence for the use of acupuncture treatment as a complementary therapy for the high-risk stroke population. The effect of ST36 acupuncture treatment on the hyperventilation-induced CO2 reactivity of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries was studied in 10 healthy male volunteers (mean age, 25.2 ± 1.5 years using a transcranial Doppler sonography with an interval of 1 week between measurements, and a portable ECG monitoring system was used to obtain ECG data simultaneously. The CO2 reactivity of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries increased significantly after ST36 acupuncture treatment, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate did not change significantly. The high-frequency power significantly increased after ST36 acupuncture treatment, and the percentage increase of high-frequency power correlated significantly with the percentage increase in the CO2 reactivity of the contralateral middle cerebral artery. These data suggest that ST36 acupuncture treatment increases CO2 reactivity, indicating improvement of vasodilatory potential of the cerebral vasculature to compensate for fluctuations caused by changes in external conditions. The increase in parasympathetic tone by ST36 acupuncture treatment is responsible for this therapeutic effect.

  7. Cell-specific CO2 fixation rates of two distinct groups of plastidic protists in the Atlantic Ocean remain unchanged after nutrient addition. (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Jardillier, Ludwig; Hartmann, Manuela; Ostrowski, Martin; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, David J


    To assess the role of open-ocean ecosystems in global CO2 fixation, we investigated how picophytoplankton, which dominate primary production, responded to episodic increases in nutrient availability. Previous experiments have shown nitrogen alone, or in combination with phosphorus or iron, to be the proximate limiting nutrient(s) for total phytoplankton grown over several days. Much less is known about how nutrient upshift affects picophytoplankton CO2 fixation over the duration of the light period. To address this issue, we performed a series of small volume (8-60 ml) - short term (10-11 h) nutrient addition experiments in different regions of the Atlantic Ocean using NH4 Cl, FeCl3 , K medium, dust and nutrient-rich water from 300 m depth. We found no significant nutrient stimulation of group-specific CO2 fixation rates of two taxonomically and size-distinct groups of plastidic protists. The above was true regardless of the region sampled or nutrient added, suggesting that this is a generic phenomenon. Our findings show that at least in the short term (i.e. daylight period), nutrient availability does not limit CO2 fixation by the smallest plastidic protists, while their taxonomic composition does not determine their response to nutrient addition. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparison Extraction Rates by Supercritical CO2 Decontamination According to Elapsed Time after Heavy Metal Ions were Adsorbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ken; Park, Kwang Heon


    Due to the increasing price of oil and coal and the tightening of regulations on greenhouse gases, nuclear power plants will become a more important source of electricity. Therefore, the number of nuclear power plants will constantly increase over the world. However, nuclear power plants have a disadvantage: they generate radioactive waste. Among radioactive waste, heavy metals in soil have a special feature: they change the form of contamination depending on the types and sizes of the soil. Therefore, diverse methods have to be used for decontamination. The current methods used for decontaminating heavy metals in soil are the electrokinetic method, the biodegradation method, and soil washing. Since soil washing in particular creates many secondary wastes, the cost of decontaminating soil has increased. In this case supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) was used to reduce the secondary waste, and is expected to lower the cost as well

  9. Using eddy covariance to measure the dependence of air-sea CO2 exchange rate on friction velocity (United States)

    Landwehr, Sebastian; Miller, Scott D.; Smith, Murray J.; Bell, Thomas G.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Ward, Brian


    Parameterisation of the air-sea gas transfer velocity of CO2 and other trace gases under open-ocean conditions has been a focus of air-sea interaction research and is required for accurately determining ocean carbon uptake. Ships are the most widely used platform for air-sea flux measurements but the quality of the data can be compromised by airflow distortion and sensor cross-sensitivity effects. Recent improvements in the understanding of these effects have led to enhanced corrections to the shipboard eddy covariance (EC) measurements.Here, we present a revised analysis of eddy covariance measurements of air-sea CO2 and momentum fluxes from the Southern Ocean Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) study. We show that it is possible to significantly reduce the scatter in the EC data and achieve consistency between measurements taken on station and with the ship underway. The gas transfer velocities from the EC measurements correlate better with the EC friction velocity (u*) than with mean wind speeds derived from shipboard measurements corrected with an airflow distortion model. For the observed range of wind speeds (u10 N = 3-23 m s-1), the transfer velocities can be parameterised with a linear fit to u*. The SOAP data are compared to previous gas transfer parameterisations using u10 N computed from the EC friction velocity with the drag coefficient from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) model version 3.5. The SOAP results are consistent with previous gas transfer studies, but at high wind speeds they do not support the sharp increase in gas transfer associated with bubble-mediated transfer predicted by physically based models.

  10. Control in the Rate-Determining Step Provides a Promising Strategy To Develop New Catalysts for CO2 Hydrogenation: A Local Pair Natural Orbital Coupled Cluster Theory Study. (United States)

    Mondal, Bhaskar; Neese, Frank; Ye, Shengfa


    The development of efficient catalysts with base metals for CO2 hydrogenation has always been a major thrust of interest. A series of experimental and theoretical work has revealed that the catalytic cycle typically involves two key steps, namely, base-promoted heterolytic H2 splitting and hydride transfer to CO2, either of which can be the rate-determining step (RDS) of the entire reaction. To explore the determining factor for the nature of RDS, we present herein a comparative mechanistic investigation on CO2 hydrogenation mediated by [M(H)(η(2)-H2)(PP3(Ph))](n+) (M = Fe(II), Ru(II), and Co(III); PP3(Ph) = tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)phosphine) type complexes. In order to construct reliable free energy profiles, we used highly correlated wave function based ab initio methods of the coupled cluster type alongside the standard density functional theory. Our calculations demonstrate that the hydricity of the metal-hydride intermediate generated by H2 splitting dictates the nature of the RDS for the Fe(II) and Co(III) systems, while the RDS for the Ru(II) catalyst appears to be ambiguous. CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by the Fe(II) complex that possesses moderate hydricity traverses an H2-splitting RDS, whereas the RDS for the high-hydricity Co(III) species is found to be the hydride transfer. Thus, our findings suggest that hydricity can be used as a practical guide in future catalyst design. Enhancing the electron-accepting ability of low-hydricity catalysts is likely to improve their catalytic performance, while increasing the electron-donating ability of high-hydricity complexes may speed up CO2 conversion. Moreover, we also established the active roles of base NEt3 in directing the heterolytic H2 splitting and assisting product release through the formation of an acid-base complex.

  11. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase: Minimized escape of CO2 from solution may prolong linearity of the reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soute, B.A.; Bude, R.; Buitenhuis, H.; Vermeer, C.


    Escape of 14 CO 2 from the reaction mixture into the gas phase may seriously affect the accuracy of in vitro measurement of vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity (and probably that of other carboxylases as well). In this paper we describe the effect of (a) the volume of the test tubes in which the reaction is performed, (b) the addition of an excess of NaH 12 CO 3 in parallel with standard amounts of NaH 14 CO 3 , and (c) the incubation temperature. In this way optimal conditions are defined and used for the carboxylation of various peptide and protein substrates. It is shown that both a prosequence and an internal recognition site contribute to the effective recognition of a substrate by carboxylase. The maximal efficiency of carboxylation was 1-2% with substrates lacking both signals and 20-50% if only one was present. This indicates the need for developing peptide substrates containing both recognition signals for vitamin K-dependent carboxylase

  12. HLW disposal by fission reactors; calculation of trans-mutation rate and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Transmutation of MA (Minor actinide) and LLFPS (long-lived fission products) into stable nuclide or short-lived isotopes by fission reactors seem to become an alternative technology for HLW disposal. in this study, transmutation rate and recycle calculation were developed in order to evaluate transmutation characteristics of MA and LLFPs in the fission reactors. inventory of MA and LLFPs in the transmutation reactors were determined by solving of criticality equation with 1-D cylindrical geometry of multigroup diffusion equations at the beginning of cycle (BOC). transmutation rate and burn-up was determined by solving of depletion equation. inventory of MA and LLFPs was calculated for 40 years recycle. From this study, it was concluded that characteristics of MA and LLFPs in the transmutation reactors can be evaluated by recycle calculation. by calculation of transmutation rate, performance of fission reactor for transmutation of MA or LLFPs can be discussed

  13. Association between minor loading vein architecture and light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes from different latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Cohu


    Full Text Available Through microscopic analysis of veins and assessment of light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, we investigated the relationship between minor loading vein anatomy and photosynthesis of mature leaves in three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under four different combinations of temperature and photon flux density (PFD. All three ecotypes exhibited greater numbers and cross-sectional area of phloem cells as well as higher photosynthesis rates in response to higher PFD and especially lower temperature. The Swedish ecotype exhibited the strongest response to these conditions, the Italian ecotype the weakest response, and the Col-0 ecotype exhibited an intermediate response. Among all three ecotypes, strong linear relationships were found between light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution and the number and area of either sieve elements or of companion and phloem parenchyma cells in foliar minor loading veins, with the Swedish ecotype showing the highest number of cells in minor loading veins (and largest minor veins coupled with unprecedented high rates of photosynthesis. Linear, albeit less significant, relationships were also observed between number and cross-sectional area of tracheids per minor loading vein versus light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. We suggest that sugar distribution infrastructure in the phloem is co-regulated with other features that set the upper limit for photosynthesis. The apparent genetic differences among Arabidopsis ecotypes should allow for future identification of the gene(s involved in augmenting sugar-loading and -transporting phloem cells and maximal rates of photosynthesis.

  14. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  15. Can hydrographic data provide evidence that the rate of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is increasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carlisle Thacker

    Full Text Available Predictions of the rate of accumulation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the Pacific Ocean near 32°S and 150°W based on the P16 surveys of 1991 and 2005 and on the P06 surveys of 1992 and 2003 underestimate the amount found in the P06 survey of 2009-2010, suggesting an increasing uptake rate. Assuming the accumulation rate to be constant over the two decades, analyses using all five surveys lead to upward revision of the rates based only on the first four. On the other hand, accumulation rates estimated for 2003-2010 are significantly greater than those for 1991-2003, again suggesting an increasing uptake rate. In addressing this question it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the repeat hydrography and consequent uncertainties of estimated accumulation rates.

  16. CO2 blood test (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  17. Amino acid synthesis in photosynthesizing spinach cells: effects of ammonia on pool sizes and rates of labeling from 14CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, P.O.; Cornwell, K.L.; Gee, S.L.; Bassham, J.A.


    Isolated cells from leaves of Spinacia oleracea have been maintained in a state capable of high rates of photosynthetic CO 2 fixation for more than 60 hours. The incorporation of 14 CO 2 under saturating CO 2 conditions into carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids, and the effect of ammonia on this incorporation have been studied. Total incorporation, specific radioactivity, and pool size have been determined as a function of time for most of the protein amino acids and for γ-aminobutyric acid. The measurements of specific radio-activities and of the approaches to 14 C saturation of some amino acids indicate the presence and relative sizes of metabolically active and passive pools of these amino acids. Added ammonia decreased carbon fixation into carbohydrates and increased fixation into carboxylic acids and amino acids. The results indicate that added ammonia stimulates the reactions mediated by pyruvate kinase and phosphenoenolpyruvate carboxylase, as seen with other plant systems. The data on the effects of added ammonia on total labeling, pool sizes, and specific radioactivities of several amino acids provides a number of indications about the intracellular sites of principal synthesis from carbon skeletons of these amino acids and the selective nature of effects of increased intracellular ammonia concentration on-such synthesis

  18. Diurnal dynamics of the CO2 concentration in water of the coastal zone of lake Baikal in the ice period (testing of the DIEL - CO2 method for assessment of lake metabolic rate) (United States)

    Panchenko, M. V.; Domysheva, V. M.; Pestunov, D. A.; Sakirko, M. V.; Ivanov, V. G.; Shamrin, A. M.


    Results of three long cycles of 24-hour measurements of the carbon dioxide content in the surface and bottom water in the ice period of 2014-2016 in the Baikal coastal zone are analyzed. The diurnal dynamics of the CO2 concentration in the subglacial water, in which photosynthesis plays the leading role, is described. It is found that, in comparison with the surface subglacial water (that is, directly adjacent to the ice bottom), the more pronounced diurnal rhythm of CO2 is observed in the bottom layer in all realizations. This rhythm is well correlated with pyranometer readings. The data on the diurnal dynamics of CO2 are used to estimate the gross primary production in the bottom water with the DIEL method based on the analysis of temporal variability of the carbon dioxide concentration in water in situ.

  19. CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Jammes, L.; Guyot, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Le Thiez, P.


    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO 2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO 2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO 2 ; CO 2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO 2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  20. Carbonation and CO2 uptake of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Seo, Eun-A; Tae, Sung-Ho


    This study developed a reliable procedure to assess the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake of concrete by carbonation during the service life of a structure and by the recycling of concrete after demolition. To generalize the amount of absorbable CO 2 per unit volume of concrete, the molar concentration of carbonatable constituents in hardened cement paste was simplified as a function of the unit content of cement, and the degree of hydration of the cement paste was formulated as a function of the water-to-cement ratio. The contribution of the relative humidity, type of finishing material for the concrete surface, and the substitution level of supplementary cementitious materials to the CO 2 diffusion coefficient in concrete was reflected using various correction factors. The following parameters varying with the recycling scenario were also considered: the carbonatable surface area of concrete crusher-runs and underground phenomena of the decreased CO 2 diffusion coefficient and increased CO 2 concentration. Based on the developed procedure, a case study was conducted for an apartment building with a principal wall system and an office building with a Rahmen system, with the aim of examining the CO 2 uptake of each structural element under different exposure environments during the service life and recycling of the building. As input data necessary for the case study, data collected from actual surveys conducted in 2012 in South Korea were used, which included data on the surrounding environments, lifecycle inventory database, life expectancy of structures, and recycling activity scenario. Ultimately, the CO 2 uptake of concrete during a 100-year lifecycle (life expectancy of 40 years and recycling span of 60 years) was estimated to be 15.5%–17% of the CO 2 emissions from concrete production, which roughly corresponds to 18%–21% of the CO 2 emissions from the production of ordinary Portland cement. - Highlights: • CO 2 uptake assessment approach owing to the

  1. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers. (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L


    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  2. Entry rates and recycling of glucose in buffalo calves fed on urea molasses liquid diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, A; Singh, U B; Verma, D N; Ranjhan, S K [Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Izatnagar. Div. of Animal Nutrition


    Entry rates of glucose have been measured in buffalo calves by using a dual-isotope dilution method based on continuous infusion of (U-/sup 14/C)D-glucose and (6-/sup 3/H)D-glucose into the blood at a precise controlled rate for 540 min. After 5 h a plateau was obtained in the specific radioactivity of the plasma glucose from which glucose synthesis and entry rates were calculated. The average entry rates of glucose were 112 and 145 mg/min measured by /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H labelled glucose respectively. About 23 percent of the glucose carbon was recycled in the pool. The average recycling rate was 33 mg/min.

  3. Entry rates and recycling of glucose in buffalo calves fed on urea molasses liquid diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Arun; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Ranjhan, S.K.


    Entry rates of glucose have been measured in buffalo calves by using a dual-isotope dilution method based on continuous infusion of (U- 14 C)D-glucose and (6- 3 H)D-glucose into the blood at a precise controlled rate for 540 min. After 5 h a plateau was obtained in the specific radioactivity of the plasma glucose from which glucose synthesis and entry rates were calculated. The average entry rates of glucose were 112 and 145 mg/min measured by 14 C and 3 H labelled glucose respectively. About 23 percent of the glucose carbon was recycled in the pool. The average recycling rate was 33 mg/min. (author)

  4. The effect of temperature and effluent recycle rate on hydrogen production by undefined bacterial granules. (United States)

    Ngoma, L; Masilela, P; Obazu, F; Gray, V M


    Biohydrogen production in an anaerobic fluidized granular bed bioreactor was strongly dependent on temperature and effluent recycle rates. At 45 °C as the effluent recycle rate was increased from 1.3 to 3.5 L/min, the total H₂ output for the bioreactor increased from 10.6 to 43.2 L/h. Volumetric H(2) productivity also increased from 2.1 to 8.7 L H₂/L/h. At 70°C as the effluent recycle was increased from 1.3 to 3.5 L/min, the total H₂ output for the bioreactor increased from 13.8 to 73.8L/h. At 70 °C volumetric H(2) productivities increased from 2.8 to 14.8L H₂/L/h as the effluent recycle rate was increased from 1.3 to 3.5 L/min. At 45 °C % H₂ was 45% and reached 67% at 70 °C. Maximum hydrogen yields at 45 °C were 1.24 and 2.2 mol H₂/mol glucose at 70 °C. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A model for evaluating the flow rate of an extruder for plastic recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oke, S.A.; Popoola, I.O.


    For several years, Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) from packaging, newspapers, batteries, furniture, metals, clothing's, bottles, and food scraps have contributed negatively to the increased deterioration of our environments particularly in developing countries. It has resulted in activities that threaten lives (such as disease outbreaks and severe health hazards). As a result, governments and other stakeholders in environment have considered both theoretical and practical approaches to waste control. Recycling, which has enormous benefits of reducing manufacturing cost of new products and providing employment for the populace has been chosen as a viable option. Despite the multi-disciplinary efforts involved recycling models, guidelines applicable in the design of flow rates of extruders for plastic recycling processes are missing. This gap is addressed in the current paper. This paper conceptualizes the flow rates as an input-output system in a continuous dynamic state. With a focus on the melting activity (operation section), the analysis of flow in the metering zone involves an estimation of the quantity of recycled materials that could be produced per time. The work hopefully stimulates research in an area where quantitative methodologies are sparse. (author)

  6. 3-dimensional porous NiCo2O4 nanocomposite as a high-rate capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yudi; Ru, Qiang; Song, Xiong; Hu, Shejun; Guo, Lingyun; Chen, Xiaoqiu


    Highlights: • D-glucose molecules as organic carbon source, have a crucial effect on the morphology and pore distribution of the synthetic products. • Facile synthesis: solvothermal method. • High rate capacity: 625 mAh g −1 at 4.4 C. • Improved long-term cycling stability: 1389 mAh g −1 after 180 cycles at 0.55 C. - Abstract: In this work, organic carbon modified NiCo 2 O 4 (NCO@C) nanocomposite with porous 3-dimensional (3D) structure was successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in D-glucose-mediated processes. A detailed research reveals that D-glucose molecules play an important role in the formation of the porous 3D structure and also provide a conductive carbon network within the NCO@C nanocomposite materials. Such a porous 3D interconnected carbonaceous nanostructure applied as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) shows that its reversible capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability are significantly enhanced in comparison with those of pure NiCo 2 O 4 (NCO) electrode. The as-prepared NCO@C composite electrode with porous 3D nanostructure displays a higher discharge specific capacity of 1389 mAh g −1 even after 180 cycles at a current rate of 0.55 C. Furthermore, this composite material also presents a high rate capacity, when the current rate gradually increases to 0.55 C, 1.1 C, 2.2 C, and 4.4 C, the reversible capacity can still render about 1082, 1029, 850, and 625 mAh g −1 , respectively. The enhanced electrochemical performance indicated that the NCO@C nanocomposite might be a very promising candidate to replace conventional graphite-based anode materials for LIBs

  7. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios


    Highlights: • This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution. • Fixed effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis model with panel data are employed. • The case study is a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during 2009–2012. • The findings support that a negative relationship between air pollution and recycling. - Abstract: This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009–2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM 2.5 ) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000–$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality

  8. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios, E-mail:


    Highlights: • This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution. • Fixed effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis model with panel data are employed. • The case study is a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during 2009–2012. • The findings support that a negative relationship between air pollution and recycling. - Abstract: This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009–2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM{sub 2.5}) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000–$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality.

  9. Transfer Rates of Enteric Microorganisms in Recycled Water during Machine Clothes Washing▿ (United States)

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin


    Approximately 15% of overall Australian household water usage is in the laundry; hence, a significant reduction in household drinking water demand could be achieved if potable-quality water used for clothes washing is replaced with recycled water. To investigate the microbiological safety of using recycled water in washing machines, bacteriophages MS-2 and PRD-1, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were used in a series of experiments to investigate the transfer efficiency of enteric microorganisms from washing machine water to objects including hands, environmental surfaces, air, and fabric swatches. By determining the transference efficiency, it is possible to estimate the numbers of microorganisms that the user will be exposed to if recycled water with various levels of residual microorganisms is used in washing machines. Results, expressed as transfer rates to a given surface area per object, showed that the mean transfer efficiency of E. coli, bacteriophages MS-2 and PRD-1, and C. parvum oocysts from seeded water to fabric swatches ranged from 0.001% to 0.090%. Greatest exposure to microorganisms occurred through direct contact of hands with seeded water and via hand contact with contaminated fabric swatches. No microorganisms were detected in the air samples during the washing machine spin cycle, and transfer rates of bacteriophages from water to environmental surfaces were 100-fold less than from water directly to hands. Findings from this study provide relevant information that can be used to refine regulations governing recycled water and to allay public concerns about the use of recycled water. PMID:19124592

  10. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina N. Burns


    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA and community (70 dBA noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001. A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01 even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  11. Review of recycling performance indicators: A study on collection rate in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Lihchyi; Lin Chunhsu; Lee, Soo-cheol


    The Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) launched a national Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) system after integrating eight private recycling organizations in 1998. After that, the environmental performance of the EPR system brought a lot of attention to policy makers. Many studies show positive environmental effects of the EPR system in Taiwan. However, there are controversial questions remained, such as whether the performance indicators used are the right choice to estimate the environmental effects of the recycling policy? Can those estimated results really reflect the performance of the system? This paper would therefore like to more accurately evaluate the performance indicators of the EPR system based on data observed over the past decade in Taiwan. In the process of evaluating the performance indicators, we have found that the collection rates for durable goods are often ignored in countries that pursue a zero waste policy. This may affect the actual recycling outcome and resource direction targeted by producers. However, in order for the collection rate to be adopted as a policy indicator, how to estimate the amounts of retired or waste products during a period is critical. In this paper, we estimate the collection rate for electrical and electronic waste by using the survival analysis and ownership data analysis approaches. We also provide a comparison of both approaches and put forward suggestions for directions in the future in solid waste management.

  12. Review of recycling performance indicators: a study on collection rate in Taiwan. (United States)

    Wen, Lihchyi; Lin, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Soo-Cheol


    The Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) launched a national Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) system after integrating eight private recycling organizations in 1998. After that, the environmental performance of the EPR system brought a lot of attention to policy makers. Many studies show positive environmental effects of the EPR system in Taiwan. However, there are controversial questions remained, such as whether the performance indicators used are the right choice to estimate the environmental effects of the recycling policy? Can those estimated results really reflect the performance of the system? This paper would therefore like to more accurately evaluate the performance indicators of the EPR system based on data observed over the past decade in Taiwan. In the process of evaluating the performance indicators, we have found that the collection rates for durable goods are often ignored in countries that pursue a zero waste policy. This may affect the actual recycling outcome and resource direction targeted by producers. However, in order for the collection rate to be adopted as a policy indicator, how to estimate the amounts of retired or waste products during a period is critical. In this paper, we estimate the collection rate for electrical and electronic waste by using the survival analysis and ownership data analysis approaches. We also provide a comparison of both approaches and put forward suggestions for directions in the future in solid waste management.

  13. CO2NNIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin


    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based......% of the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  14. Aeration to degas CO2, increase pH, and increase iron oxidation rates for efficient treatment of net alkaline mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, C.S.; Dennis, A.; Kahler, A.


    Passive treatment systems for mine drainage use no energy other than gravity, but they require greater area than active treatment systems. Researchers are considering 'hybrid' systems that have passive and active components for increased efficiency, especially where space limitations render passive-only technology ineffective. Flow-through reactor field experiments were conducted at two large net-alkaline anthracite mine discharges in central Pennsylvania. Assuming an Fe removal rate of 20 g m -2 day -1 and Fe loading from field data, 3.6 x 10 3 and 3.0 x 10 4 m 2 oxidation ponds would be required for the passive treatment of Site 21 and Packer 5 discharges, respectively. However, only a small area is available at each site. This paper demonstrates aeration to drive off CO 2 , increase pH, and increase Fe(II) oxidation rates, enabling treatment within a small area compared to passive treatment methods, and introduces a geochemical model to accurately predict these rates as well as semi-passive treatment system sizing parameters. Both net-alkaline discharges were suboxic with a pH of ∼5.7, Fe(II) concentration of ∼16 mg L -1 , and low Mn and Al concentrations. Flow rates were ∼4000 L min -1 at Site 21 and 15,000 L min -1 at Packer 5. Three-h aeration experiments with flow rates scaled to a 14-L reactor resulted in pH increases from 5.7 to greater than 7, temperature increases from 12 to 22 deg. C, dissolved O 2 increases to saturation with respect to the atmosphere, and Fe(II) concentration decreases from 16 to -1 . A 17,000-L pilot-scale reactor at Site 21 produced similar results although aeration was not as complete as in the smaller reactor. Two non-aerated experiments at Site 21 with 13 and 25-h run times resulted in pH changes of ≤0.2 and Fe(II) concentration decreases of less than 3 mg L -1 . An Fe(II) oxidation model written in a differential equation solver matched the field experiments very well using field-measured pH, temperature, dissolved O 2

  15. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts. (United States)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios


    This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009-2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM2.5) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000-$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of the technology for rationalization of energy utilization and for CO2 fixation using recycled paper; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika koshi nado yuko riyo nisanka tanso koteika gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In this R and D, the recycled paper, etc. composed mainly of cellulose are degraded (saccharified) up to saccharides in a biological method. The saccharides and CO2 obtained are converted into useful substances such as organic acid using the bacterium function. The aim of the R and D is to develop this conversion (bioconversion) technology and to establish the technology to make an effective use of the recycled paper, etc. as useful chemical raw materials/substances and energy. In FY 2000, study was made mostly of the saccharification and bioconversion. As to the saccharification, conducted were the collection of the bacteria for cellulose degrading enzyme production which have been found so far and the evaluation of degradation of the recycled paper. And, as to the bioconversion, conducted were the survey and isolation of enzyme proteins and genes which are concerned in it in the process toward the formation to organic acid from saccharides and CO2, and the analysis of part of them. In this report, introductory remarks were described in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, the results were summarized of the study on saccharification of the recycled paper. In Chapter 3, the results were outlined of the study on the bioconversion technology. This technology development was aimed at establishing new high efficiency bio-processes. (NEDO)

  17. Using combined measurements for comparison of light induction of stomatal conductance, electron transport rate and CO2 fixation in woody and fern species adapted to different light regimes. (United States)

    Wong, Shau-Lian; Chen, Chung-Wei; Huang, Hsien-Wen; Weng, Jen-Hsien


    We aimed to understand the relation of photosynthetic rate (A) with g(s) and electron transport rate (ETR) in species of great taxonomic range and light adaptation capability during photosynthetic light induction. We studied three woody species (Alnus formosana, Ardisia crenata and Ardisia cornudentata) and four fern species (Pyrrosia lingus, Asplenium antiquum, Diplazium donianum and Archangiopteris somai) with different light adaptation capabilities. Pot-grown materials received 100 and/or 10% sunlight according to their light adaptation capabilities. At least 4 months after light acclimation, CO(2) and H(2)O exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured simultaneously by equipment in the laboratory. In plants adapted or acclimated to low light, dark-adapted leaves exposed to 500 or 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) for 30 min showed low gross photosynthetic rate (P(g)) and short time required to reach 90% of maximum P(g) (). At the initiation of illumination, two broad-leaved understory shrubs and the four ferns, especially ferns adapted to heavy shade, showed higher stomatal conductance (g(s)) than pioneer tree species; materials with higher g(s) had short at both 500 and 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) PPF. With 500 or 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) PPF, the g(s) for the three woody species increased from 2 to 30 min after the start of illumination, but little change in the g(s) of the four ferns. Thus, P(g) and g(s) were not correlated for all material measured at the same PPF and induction time. However, P(g) was positively correlated with ETR, even though CO(2) assimilation may be influenced by stomatal, biochemical and photoinhibitory limitations. In addition, was closely related to time required to reach 90% maximal ETR for all materials and with two levels of PPF combined. Thus, ETR is a good indicator for estimating the light induction of photosynthetic rate of species, across a wide taxonomic range and light adaptation and acclimation

  18. Mass-balance modeling of mineral weathering rates and CO2 consumption in the forested, metabasaltic Hauver Branch watershed, Catoctin Mountain, Maryland, USA (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Price, Jason R.; Szymanski, David W.


    Mineral weathering rates and a forest macronutrient uptake stoichiometry were determined for the forested, metabasaltic Hauver Branch watershed in north-central Maryland, USA. Previous studies of Hauver Branch have had an insufficient number of analytes to permit determination of rates of all the minerals involved in chemical weathering, including biomass. More equations in the mass-balance matrix were added using existing mineralogic information. The stoichiometry of a deciduous biomass term was determined using multi-year weekly to biweekly stream-water chemistry for a nearby watershed, which drains relatively unreactive quartzite bedrock.At Hauver Branch, calcite hosts ~38 mol% of the calcium ion (Ca2+) contained in weathering minerals, but its weathering provides ~90% of the stream water Ca2+. This occurs in a landscape with a regolith residence time of more than several Ka (kiloannum). Previous studies indicate that such old regolith does not typically contain dissolving calcite that affects stream Ca2+/Na+ ratios. The relatively high calcite dissolution rate likely reflects dissolution of calcite in fractures of the deep critical zone.Of the carbon dioxide (CO2) consumed by mineral weathering, calcite is responsible for approximately 27%, with the silicate weathering consumption rate far exceeding that of the global average. The chemical weathering of mafic terrains in decaying orogens thus may be capable of influencing global geochemical cycles, and therefore, climate, on geological timescales. Based on carbon-balance calculations, atmospheric-derived sulfuric acid is responsible for approximately 22% of the mineral weathering occurring in the watershed. Our results suggest that rising air temperatures, driven by global warming and resulting in higher precipitation, will cause the rate of chemical weathering in the Hauver Branch watershed to increase until a threshold temperature is reached. Beyond the threshold temperature, increased recharge would

  19. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on litter quality, litter decomposability and nitrogen turnover rate of two oak species in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fayez Raiesi Gahrooee,


    Elevated CO2 may affect litter quality of plants, and subsequently C and N cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, but changes in litter quality associated with elevated CO2 are poorly known. Abscised leaf litter of two oak species (Quercus cerris L., and Q. pubescens Willd.) exposed to long-term

  20. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.


    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  1. Experimental study of the aqueous CO2-NH3 rate of reaction for temperatures from 15 °C to 35 °C, NH3 concentrations from 5% to 15% and CO2 loadings from 0.2 to 0.6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillia, Stefano; Bonalumi, Davide; Fosbøl, Philip L.


    , and lastly CO2 loadings from 0.2 to 0.6. The resulting overall mass transfer coefficient of absorption measured follows the trends described by the modelling of the reactor and the equations used to describe the rate of the absorption reactions. Moreover, the overall mass transfer coefficient of absorption...... loading conditions. The kinetic model intercept the values found in literature in every range of concentration. Consequently, the model is valid in every conditions and the rate of the reaction between NH3 and CO2 in liquid phase is described with an Arrhenius constant with a pre-exponential factor of 1......The absorption reaction between aqueous NH3 and CO2 was studied using the Wetted Wall Column. A total of 27 different cases are investigated in the region defined by temperatures from 15 °C to 35 °C, NH3 concentrations from 5% to 15%, which are the typical solvent conditions in absorption columns...

  2. Characterization of a New Fully Recycled Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Subjected to High Strain Rate Tension (United States)

    Meftah, H.; Tamboura, S.; Fitoussi, J.; BenDaly, H.; Tcharkhtchi, A.


    The aim of this study is the complete physicochemical characterization and strain rate effect multi-scale analysis of a new fully recycled carbon fiber reinforced composites for automotive crash application. Two composites made of 20% wt short recycled carbon fibers (CF) are obtained by injection molding. The morphology and the degree of dispersion of CF in the matrixes were examined using a new ultrasonic method and SEM. High strain tensile behavior up to 100 s-1 is investigated. In order to avoid perturbation due to inertial effect and wave propagation, the specimen geometry was optimized. The elastic properties appear to be insensitive to the strain rate. However, a high strain rate effect on the local visco-plasticity of the matrix and fiber/matrix interface visco-damageable behavior is emphasized. The predominant damage mechanisms evolve from generalized matrix local ductility at low strain rate regime to fiber/matrix interface debonding and fibers pull-out at high strain rate regime.

  3. Influence of the surfactant and annealing rate on the morphology, magnetic and structural characteristics of Co2FeAl nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezeshki-Nejad, Zahra; Ramazani, Abdolali; Alikhanzadeh-Arani, Sima; Almasi-Kashi, Mohammad; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud


    This research focuses on the synthesis and characterization of the attractive magnetic alloys, full-Heusler Co 2 FeAl nanoparticles. A modified co-precipitation method has been developed in a template of chitosan biopolymer. XRD pattern of the product confirmed the high crystalline quality of the L2 1 ‒ordered nanoparticles, refined by Rietveld analysis. It was found that using different annealing rates can be surprisingly effective to achieve different morphologies from granular microstructure to fibrous-shaped nanostructure. Based on the obtained results of the high resolution TEM image, the presence of both populations of large single crystal grains and polycrystalline clusters containing several small particles (about 10 nm) can be found in the sample annealed up to 700 °C with 5 °C/min. This particle size distribution led to the co-existence of high and low coercive-field phases in the related FORC diagram. Major hysteresis loops showed that the using of chitosan biopolymer resulted in a smaller magnetic saturation compared to that of the control sample, probably due to presence of the oxide shell around the surface of nanoparticles when exposed to air. - Highlights: • First Order Reversal Curves (FORCs) analysis was used to study precisely. • A simple chemical process of co- precipitation rout was used for synthesizing the nanoparticles. • Well known chitosan biopolymer was used as polymer template for coating the nanoparticles. • Effects of the temperature and heating rate in the annealing process were investigated.

  4. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.


    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  5. Estimating the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers: The case of Bantar Gebang in Indonesia. (United States)

    Sasaki, Shunsuke; Araki, Tetsuya


    This article presents informal recycling contributions made by scavengers in the surrounding area of Bantar Gebang final disposal site for municipal solid waste generated in Jakarta. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted through daily conversations with scavengers to identify recycling actors at the site, and then quantitative field surveys were conducted twice. The first survey (n = 504 households) covered 33% of all households in the area, and the second survey (n = 69 households) was conducted to quantify transactions of recyclables among scavengers. Mathematical equations were formulated with assumptions made to estimate the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers. Slightly over 60% of all respondents were involved in informal recycling and over 80% of heads of households were waste pickers, normally referred to as live-in waste pickers and live-out waste pickers at the site. The largest percentage of their spouses were family workers, followed by waste pickers and housewives. Over 95% of all households of respondents had at least one waste picker or one small boss who has a coequal status of a waste picker. Average weight of recyclables collected by waste pickers at the site was estimated to be approximately 100 kg day(-1) per household on the net weight basis. The recycling rate of solid wastes collected by all scavengers at the site was estimated to be in the range of 2.8-7.5% of all solid wastes transported to the site. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. The effect of feed rate and recycle rate variable on leaching process of Na2Zro3 with HCl in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) series (United States)

    Palupi, Bekti; Supranto, Sediawan, Wahyudi Budi; Setyadji, Moch.


    This time, the natural resources of zircon sand is processed into several zirconium products which is utilized for various industries, such as ceramics, glass industry, metal industry and nuclear industry. The process of zircon sand into zirconium products through several stages, one of them is leaching process of Na2ZrO3 with HCl. In this research, several variations of recycle-rate/feed-rate had been done to determine the effect on leaching process. The leaching was processed at temperature of 90°C, ratio of Na2ZrO3:HCl = 1g:30mL, and 142 rotary per minute of stirring speed for 30 minutes with variation of recycle-rate/feed-rate such as 0.478, 0.299, 0.218, 0.171 and 0.141. The diameter size of Na2ZrO3 powder that used are 0.088 to 0.149 mm. This process was carried out in Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) series with recycle. Based on this research, the greater of the recycle-rate/feed-rate variable, the obtained Zr recovery decreased. The correlation between recycle-rate/feed-rate and Zr recovery is shown by the equation y = -146.91x + 103.51, where y is the Zr recovery and x is the recycle-rate/feed-rate. The highest Zr recovery was 90.52% obtained at recycle-rate/feed-rate 0.141. The mathematical modeling involving the probability model P(r) = 2β2r2 exp(-βr2) can be applied to this leaching process with Sum of Squared Errors (SSE) values in the range of 6×10-7 - 7×10-6.

  7. Development of surface stabilized candesartan cilexetil nanocrystals with enhanced dissolution rate, permeation rate across CaCo-2, and oral bioavailability. (United States)

    Jain, Sanyog; Reddy, Venkata Appa; Arora, Sumit; Patel, Kamlesh


    Candesartan cilexetil (CC), an ester prodrug of candesartan, is BCS class II drug with extremely low aqueous solubility limiting its oral bioavailability. The present research aimed to develop a nanocrystalline formulation of CC with improved saturation solubility in gastrointestinal fluids and thereby, exhibiting enhanced oral bioavailability. CC nanocrystals were prepared using a low energy antisolvent precipitation methodology. A combination of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Pluronic® F 127 (50:50 w/w) was found to be optimum for the preparation of CC nanocrystals. The particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential of optimized formulation was found to be 159 ± 8.1 nm, 0.177 ± 0.043, and -23.7 ± 1.02 mV, respectively. Optimized formulation was found to possess irregular, plate-like morphology as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and crystalline as evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). A significant increase in saturation solubility and dissolution rate of the optimized nanosuspension was observed at all the tested pH conditions. Optimized CC nanocrystals exhibited a storage stability of more than 3 months when stored under cold and room temperature conditions. In vitro Caco-2 permeability further revealed that CC nanocrystals exhibited nearly 4-fold increase in permeation rate compared to the free CC. In vivo oral bioavailability studies of optimized CC nanocrystals in murine model revealed 3.8-fold increase in the oral bioavailability and twice the C max as compared with the free CC when administered orally. In conclusion, this study has established a crystalline nanosuspension formulation of CC with improved oral bioavailability in murine model. Graphical Abstract Antisolvent precipitation methodology for the preparation of Candesartan Cilexetil nanocrystals for enhanced solubility and oral bioavailability.

  8. Effects of tillage practice and atmospheric CO2 level on soil CO2 efflux (United States)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affects both the quantity and quality of plant tissues, which impacts the cycling and storage of carbon (C) within plant/soil systems and thus the rate of CO2 release back to the atmosphere. Research to accurately quantify the effects of elevated CO2 and as...

  9. CO2 chemical valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlero De Rosbo, Guillaume; Rakotojaona, Loic; Bucy, Jacques de; Clodic, Denis; Roger, Anne-Cecile; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Thybaud, Nathalie; Oeser, Christian; Forti, Laurent; Gimenez, Michel; Savary, David; Amouroux, Jacques


    Facing global warming, different technological solutions exist to tackle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Some inevitable short term emissions can be captured so as to avoid direct emissions into the atmosphere. This CO 2 must then be managed and geological storage seems to currently be the only way of dealing with the large volumes involved. However, this solution faces major economic profitability and societal acceptance challenges. In this context, alternative pathways consisting in using CO 2 instead of storing it do exist and are generating growing interest. This study ordered by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), aims at taking stock of the different technologies used for the chemical conversion of CO 2 in order to have a better understanding of their development potential by 2030, of the conditions in which they could be competitive and of the main actions to be implemented in France to foster their emergence. To do this, the study was broken down into two main areas of focus: The review and characterization of the main CO 2 chemical conversion routes for the synthesis of basic chemical products, energy products and inert materials. This review includes a presentation of the main principles underpinning the studied routes, a preliminary assessment of their performances, advantages and drawbacks, a list of the main R and D projects underway, a focus on emblematic projects as well as a brief analysis of the markets for the main products produced. Based on these elements, 3 routes were selected from among the most promising by 2030 for an in-depth modelling and assessment of their energy, environmental and economic performances. The study shows that the processes modelled do have favorable CO 2 balances (from 1 to 4 t-CO 2 /t-product) and effectively constitute solutions to reduce CO 2 emissions, despite limited volumes of CO 2 in question. Moreover, the profitability of certain solutions will remain difficult to reach, even with an

  10. Birth to death analysis of the energy payback ratio and CO2 gas emission rates from coal, fission, wind, and DT-fusion electrical power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Scott W.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.


    The amount of electrical energy produced over the lifetime of coal, LWR fission, UP fusion, and wind power plants is compared to the total amount of energy required to procure the fuel, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The energy payback ratio varies from a low of 11 for coal plants to a high of 27 for DT-fusion plants. The magnitude of the energy investment and the source of the various energy inputs determine the CO 2 emission factor. This number varies from a low of 9 to a high of 974 tonnes of CO 2 per GW e h for DT-fusion and coal plants, respectively

  11. CO2-strategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard


    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...

  12. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks (United States)

    Graham, Laura; Risk, David


    Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil-snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days) timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model-measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil-snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection) responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack) reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux measurement systems.

  13. A dynamic soil chamber system coupled with a tunable diode laser for online measurements of delta-13C, delta-18O, and efflux rate of soil respired CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Heath H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdowell, Nate [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hanson, David [UNM; Hunt, John [LANDCARE RESEARCH


    High frequency observations of the stable isotopic composition of CO(2) effluxes from soil have been sparse due in part to measurement challenges. We have developed an open-system method that utilizes a flow-through chamber coupled to a tunable diode laser (TDL) to quantify the rate of soil CO(2) efflux and its delta(13)C and delta(18)O values (delta(13)C(R) and delta(18)O(R), respectively). We tested the method first in the laboratory using an artificial soil test column and then in a semi-arid woodland. We found that the CO(2) efflux rates of 1.2 to 7.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1) measured by the chamber-TDL system were similar to measurements made using the chamber and an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) (R(2) = 0.99) and compared well with efflux rates generated from the soil test column (R(2) = 0.94). Measured delta(13)C and delta(18)O values of CO(2) efflux using the chamber-TDL system at 2 min intervals were not significantly different from source air values across all efflux rates after accounting for diffusive enrichment. Field measurements during drought demonstrated a strong dependency of CO(2) efflux and isotopic composition on soil water content. Addition of water to the soil beneath the chamber resulted in average changes of +6.9 micromol m(-2) s(-1), -5.0 per thousand, and -55.0 per thousand for soil CO(2) efflux, delta(13)C(R) and delta(18)O(R), respectively. All three variables initiated responses within 2 min of water addition, with peak responses observed within 10 min for isotopes and 20 min for efflux. The observed delta(18)O(R) was more enriched than predicted from temperature-dependent H(2)O-CO(2) equilibration theory, similar to other recent observations of delta(18)O(R) from dry soils (Wingate L, Seibt U, Maseyk K, Ogee J, Almeida P, Yakir D, Pereira JS, Mencuccini M. Global Change Biol. 2008; 14: 2178). The soil chamber coupled with the TDL was found to be an effective method for capturing soil CO(2) efflux and its stable isotope composition at high

  14. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites. (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark


    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs.

  15. CO2 flowrate calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carossi, Jean-Claude


    A CO 2 flowrate calculator has been designed for measuring and recording the gas flow in the loops of Pegase reactor. The analog calculator applies, at every moment, Bernoulli's formula to the values that characterize the carbon dioxide flow through a nozzle. The calculator electronics is described (it includes a sampling calculator and a two-variable function generator), with its amplifiers, triggers, interpolator, multiplier, etc. Calculator operation and setting are presented

  16. Recycling of nuclear matters. Myths and realities. Calculation of recycling rate of the plutonium and uranium produced by the French channel of spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeytaux, X.; Schneider, M.


    The recycling rate of plutonium and uranium are: from the whole of the plutonium separated from the spent fuel ( inferior to 1% of the nuclear matter content) attributed to France is under 50% (under 42 tons on 84 tons); from the whole of plutonium produced in the French reactors is less than 20% (42 tons on 224 tons); from the whole of the uranium separated from spent fuels attributed to France is about 10 % (1600 tons on 16000 tons); from the whole of the uranium contained in the spent fuel is slightly over 5%. (N.C.)

  17. Extratropical Influence of Sea Surface Temperature and Wind on Water Recycling Rate Over Oceans and Coastal Lands (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy


    Water vapor and precipitation are two important parameters confining the hydrological cycle in the atmosphere and over the ocean surface. In the extratropical areas, due to variations of midlatitude storm tracks and subtropical jetstreams, water vapor and precipitation have large variability. Recently, a concept of water recycling rate defined previously by Chahine et al. (GEWEX NEWS, August, 1997) has drawn increasing attention. The recycling rate of moisture is calculated as the ratio of precipitation to total precipitable water (its inverse is the water residence time). In this paper, using multi-sensor spacebased measurements we will study the role of sea surface temperature and ocean surface wind in determining the water recycling rate over oceans and coastal lands. Response of water recycling rate in midlatitudes to the El Nino event will also be discussed. Sea surface temperature data are derived from satellite observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) blended with in situ measurements, available for the period 1982-1998. Global sea surface wind observations are obtained from spaceborne scatterometers aboard on the European Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS1 and 2), available for the period 1991-1998. Global total precipitable water provided by the NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP) is available for the period 1988-1995. Global monthly mean precipitation provided by the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is available for the period 1987-1998.

  18. Global metabolic rewiring for improved CO2 fixation and chemical production in cyanobacteria (United States)

    Kanno, Masahiro; Carroll, Austin L.; Atsumi, Shota


    Cyanobacteria have attracted much attention as hosts to recycle CO2 into valuable chemicals. Although cyanobacteria have been engineered to produce various compounds, production efficiencies are too low for commercialization. Here we engineer the carbon metabolism of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to improve glucose utilization, enhance CO2 fixation and increase chemical production. We introduce modifications in glycolytic pathways and the Calvin Benson cycle to increase carbon flux and redirect it towards carbon fixation. The engineered strain efficiently uses both CO2 and glucose, and produces 12.6 g l-1 of 2,3-butanediol with a rate of 1.1 g l-1 d-1 under continuous light conditions. Removal of native regulation enables carbon fixation and 2,3-butanediol production in the absence of light. This represents a significant step towards industrial viability and an excellent example of carbon metabolism plasticity.

  19. Phosphogypsum recycling in the building materials industry: assessment of the radon exhalation rate. (United States)

    Campos, M P; Costa, L J P; Nisti, M B; Mazzilli, B P


    Phosphogypsum can be classified as a Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) residue of the phosphate fertilizer industry. One of the main environmental concerns of its use as building material is the radon exhalation. The aim of this study is to measure the radon exhalation rate from plates and bricks manufactured with phosphogypsum from three installations of the main Brazilian producer, Vale Fertilizantes, in order to evaluate the additional health risk to dwellers. A simple and reliable accumulator method involving a PVC pipe sealed with a PVC pipe cover commercially available with CR-39 radon detector into a diffusion chamber was used for measuring radon exhalation rate from phosphogypsum made plates and bricks. The radon exhalation rate from plates varied from 0.19 ± 0.06 Bq m -2 h -1 , for phosphogypsum from Bunge Fertilizers, from 1.3 ± 0.3 Bq m -2 h -1 , for phosphogypsum from Ultrafertil. As for the bricks, the results ranged from 0.11 ± 0.01 Bq m -2 h -1 , for phosphogypsum from Bunge Fertilizers, to 1.2 ± 0.3 Bq m -2 h -1 , for phosphogypsum from Ultrafertil. The results obtained in this study for the radon exhalation rate from phosphogypsum plates and bricks are of the same order of magnitude than those from ordinary building materials. So, it can be concluded that the recycling of phosphogypsum as building material is a safe practice, since no additional health risk is expected from the radiological point of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CO2 laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The research and development programs on high-energy, short-pulse CO 2 lasers were begun at LASL in 1969. Three large systems are now either operating or are being installed. The Single-Beam System (SBS), a four-stage prototype, was designed in 1971 and has been in operation since 1973 with an output energy of 250 J in a 1-ns pulse with an on-target intensity of 3.5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The Dual-Beam System (DBS), now in the final stages of electrical and optical checkout, will provide about ten times more power for two-beam target irradiation experiments. Four such dual-beam modules are being installed in the Laser-Fusion Laboratory to provide an Eight-Beam System (EBS) scheduled for operation at the 5- to 10-TW level in 1977. A fourth system, a 100- to 200-TW CO 2 laser, is being designed for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) program

  1. Atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux with 13CO2 constraint (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.


    Observations of 13CO2 at 73 sites compiled in the GLOBALVIEW database are used for an additional constraint in a global atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux using CO2 observations at 210 sites for the 2002-2004 period for 39 land regions and 11 ocean regions. This constraint is implemented using the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio modeled with a terrestrial ecosystem model and an ocean model. These models simulate 13CO2 discrimination rates of terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration and ocean-atmosphere diffusion processes. In both models, the 13CO2 disequilibrium between fluxes to and from the atmosphere is considered due to the historical change in atmospheric 13CO2 concentration. For the 2002-2004 period, the 13CO2 constraint on the inversion increases the total land carbon sink from 3.40 to 3.70 Pg C yr-1 and decreases the total oceanic carbon sink from 1.48 to 1.12 Pg C yr-1. The largest changes occur in tropical areas: a considerable decrease in the carbon source in the Amazon forest, and this decrease is mostly compensated by increases in the ocean region immediately west of the Amazon and the southeast Asian land region. Our further investigation through different treatments of the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio used in the inversion suggests that variable spatial distributions of the 13CO2 isotopic discrimination rate simulated by the models over land and ocean have considerable impacts on the spatial distribution of the inverted CO2 flux over land and the inversion results are not sensitive to errors in the estimated disequilibria over land and ocean.

  2. How much CO2 is trapped in carbonate minerals of a natural CO2 occurrence? (United States)

    Király, Csilla; Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Szamosfalvi, Ágnes; Cseresznyés, Dóra; Király, Edit; Szabó, Csaba; Falus, György


    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a transitional technology to decrease CO2 emissions from human fossil fuel usage and, therefore, to mitigate climate change. The most important criteria of a CO2 geological storage reservoir is that it must hold the injected CO2 for geological time scales without its significant seepage. The injected CO2 undergoes physical and chemical reactions in the reservoir rocks such as structural-stratigraphic, residual, dissolution or mineral trapping mechanisms. Among these, the safest is the mineral trapping, when carbonate minerals such as calcite, ankerite, siderite, dolomite and dawsonite build the CO2 into their crystal structures. The study of natural CO2 occurrences may help to understand the processes in CO2 reservoirs on geological time scales. This is the reason why the selected, the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 occurrence as our research area, which is able to provide particular and highly significant information for the future of CO2 storage. The area is one of the best known CO2 fields in Central Europe. The main aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the mineral phase at Mihályi-Répcelak CO2 reservoirs. For gaining the suitable data, we apply petrographic, major and trace element (microprobe and LA-ICP-MS) and stable isotope analysis (mass spectrometry) and thermodynamic and kinetic geochemical models coded in PHREEQC. Rock and pore water compositions of the same formation, representing the pre-CO2 flooding stages of the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 reservoirs are used in the models. Kinetic rate parameters are derived from the USGS report of Palandri and Kharaka (2004). The results of petrographic analysis show that a significant amount of dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH)2, max. 16 m/m%) precipitated in the rock due to its reactions with CO2 which flooded the reservoir. This carbonate mineral alone traps about 10-30 kg/m3 of the reservoir rock from the CO2 at Mihályi-Répcelak area, which is an

  3. CO2 Laser Market (United States)

    Simonsson, Samuel


    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  4. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.


    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  5. CO2 content of electricity losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daví-Arderius, Daniel; Sanin, María-Eugenia; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa


    Countries are implementing policies to develop greener energy markets worldwide. In Europe, the ¨2030 Energy and Climate Package¨ asks for further reductions of green house gases, renewable sources integration, and energy efficiency targets. But the polluting intensity of electricity may be different in average than when considering market inefficiencies, in particular losses, and therefore the implemented policy must take those differences into account. Precisely, herein we study the importance in terms of CO2 emissions the extra amount of energy necessary to cover losses. With this purpose we use Spanish market and system data with hourly frequency from 2011 to 2013. Our results show that indeed electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions, with a higher CO2 emissions rate when covering losses than the average rate of the system. Additionally, we find that the market closing technologies used to cover losses have a positive and significant impact on CO2 emissions: when polluting technologies (coal or combined cycle) close the market, the impact of losses on CO2 emissions is high compared to the rest of technologies (combined heat and power, renewables or hydropower). To the light of these results we make some policy recommendations to reduce the impact of losses on CO2 emissions. - Highlights: • Electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions. • Policies aimed to reducing losses have a positive impact on CO2 emissions. • The market closing technology used to cover losses have impacts on CO2 emissions. • Pollutant technologies that close the market should be replaced by renewables.

  6. CO2 Biofixation and Growth Kinetics of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis gaditana. (United States)

    Adamczyk, Michał; Lasek, Janusz; Skawińska, Agnieszka


    CO2 biofixation was investigated using tubular bioreactors (15 and 1.5 l) either in the presence of green algae Chlorella vulgaris or Nannochloropsis gaditana. The cultivation was carried out in the following conditions: temperature of 25 °C, inlet-CO2 of 4 and 8 vol%, and artificial light enhancing photosynthesis. Higher biofixation were observed in 8 vol% CO2 concentration for both microalgae cultures than in 4 vol%. Characteristic process parameters such as productivity, CO2 fixation, and kinetic rate coefficient were determined and discussed. Simplified and advanced methods for determination of CO2 fixation were compared. In a simplified method, it is assumed that 1 kg of produced biomass equals 1.88 kg recycled CO2. Advance method is based on empirical results of the present study (formula with carbon content in biomass). It was observed that application of the simplified method can generate large errors, especially if the biomass contains a relatively low amount of carbon. N. gaditana is the recommended species for CO2 removal due to a high biofixation rate-more than 1.7 g/l/day. On day 10 of cultivation, the cell concentration was more than 1.7 × 10(7) cells/ml. In the case of C. vulgaris, the maximal biofixation rate and cell concentration did not exceed 1.4 g/l/day and 1.3 × 10(7) cells/ml, respectively.

  7. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.


    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  8. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.


    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) real-time forecast is now available as part of the preoperational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO 2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO 2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO 2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO 2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO 2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO 2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO 2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO 2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO 2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO 2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO 2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO 2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO 2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO 2 products retrieved from satellite

  9. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.


    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  10. Effect of reprocessing and recycling on the geologic repository dose rate : status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E. E.; Nutt, W. M.; Wigeland, R. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division


    Two simplified repository performance assessment models are used to assess the impact of modeling changes in on conclusions regarding the impact of various reprocessing and recycling strategies. Waste streams from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a preliminary design for an advanced burner test reactor (ABTR) are used for this study of the effects on the estimated dose rate resulting from the release of radionuclides from a geologic repository. Calculations for the PWR make use of radionuclide discharge vectors for an assumed burnup of 51 GWd/MTIHM[1]. The repository is assumed to be filled with 70,000 MT of the spent fuel or with a glass waste form containing the radionuclides from 70,000 MT of spent PWR fuel. For the ABTR, the radionuclide inventory discharged at the end of an equilibrium cycle[2] is processed into a glass waste form for repository disposal, assuming actinide recovery efficiencies ranging from 90% to 99.99%. The recovered actinides are returned to the reactor. To compare with the PWR results, the repository is assumed to be filled with ABTR waste from fuel that has generated the same amount of thermal energy as 70,000 MT of the PWR fuel. The two repository performance assessment models, the first a simplified model[3] (SSR) based on the site recommendation model used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP)[4], and the second an updated simplified model (US) based on more recent modeling developments by the YMP are implemented in the computer simulation code GoldSim[5]. The updated model is based on a simplified model used to conduct a sensitivity analysis to evaluate factors that potentially influence performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain over the period of peak dose[6]. Factors that have either a minor or no effect on the peak dose either were not included in that simplified model or were included in a bounding representation. In the US model, enhancements were made to include some factors that have an effect on the dose occurring

  11. Econometric Model for Measuring the Impact of the Education Level of the Population on the Recycling Rate in a Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Pelău


    Full Text Available Due to the positive effect it has on the environment, while also creating social and economic value, recycling represents a key factor in the realization of a circular economy and of sustainable development. For the implementation of efficient programs, the recycling rate has become a relevant subject to public institutions, but also for the academia, companies and non-profit associations. The objective of this article is to determine the influence of the population’s level of education on the recycling rate of waste. The article has a contribution to the scientific literature, by analyzing the correlation between education and the recycling rate in Europe, with living conditions and internet access as control variables. Results of a panel data analysis show that a high percentage of the population with only primary or lower secondary education, influence negatively the recycling rate of waste in an economy, while tertiary education has a positive influence on the level of recycled waste. Therefore, different policies which aim to increase the education level of the population will have an effect on the recycling rate.

  12. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server


    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  13. Dynamics of soil CO2 efflux under varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations reveal dominance of slow processes. (United States)

    Kim, Dohyoung; Oren, Ram; Clark, James S; Palmroth, Sari; Oishi, A Christopher; McCarthy, Heather R; Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt


    We evaluated the effect on soil CO 2 efflux (F CO 2 ) of sudden changes in photosynthetic rates by altering CO 2 concentration in plots subjected to +200 ppmv for 15 years. Five-day intervals of exposure to elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) ranging 1.0-1.8 times ambient did not affect F CO 2 . F CO 2 did not decrease until 4 months after termination of the long-term eCO 2 treatment, longer than the 10 days observed for decrease of F CO 2 after experimental blocking of C flow to belowground, but shorter than the ~13 months it took for increase of F CO 2 following the initiation of eCO 2 . The reduction of F CO 2 upon termination of enrichment (~35%) cannot be explained by the reduction of leaf area (~15%) and associated carbohydrate production and allocation, suggesting a disproportionate contraction of the belowground ecosystem components; this was consistent with the reductions in base respiration and F CO 2 -temperature sensitivity. These asymmetric responses pose a tractable challenge to process-based models attempting to isolate the effect of individual processes on F CO2 . © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils.We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days.Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  15. Soil CO2 flux in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization: patterns and methods (United States)

    James M. Vose; Katherine J. Elliott; D.W. Johnson


    The evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils is due to the metabolic activity of roots, mycorrhizae, and soil micro- and macro-organisms. Although precise estimates of carbon (C) recycled to the atmosphere from belowground sources are unavailable, Musselman and Fox (1991) propose that the belowground contribution exceeds 100 Pg y-1...

  16. Sea urchins in a high-CO2 world: partitioned effects of body size, ocean warming and acidification on metabolic rate. (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Harianto, Januar; Byrne, Maria


    Body size and temperature are the major factors explaining metabolic rate, and the additional factor of pH is a major driver at the biochemical level. These three factors have frequently been found to interact, complicating the formulation of broad models predicting metabolic rates and hence ecological functioning. In this first study of the effects of warming and ocean acidification, and their potential interaction, on metabolic rate across a broad range in body size (two to three orders of magnitude difference in body mass), we addressed the impact of climate change on the sea urchin ITALIC! Heliocidaris erythrogrammain context with climate projections for southeast Australia, an ocean warming hotspot. Urchins were gradually introduced to two temperatures (18 and 23°C) and two pH levels (7.5 and 8.0), at which they were maintained for 2 months. Identical experimental trials separated by several weeks validated the fact that a new physiological steady state had been reached, otherwise known as acclimation. The relationship between body size, temperature and acidification on the metabolic rate of ITALIC! H. erythrogrammawas strikingly stable. Both stressors caused increases in metabolic rate: 20% for temperature and 19% for pH. Combined effects were additive: a 44% increase in metabolism. Body size had a highly stable relationship with metabolic rate regardless of temperature or pH. None of these diverse drivers of metabolism interacted or modulated the effects of the others, highlighting the partitioned nature of how each influences metabolic rate, and the importance of achieving a full acclimation state. Despite these increases in energetic demand there was very limited capacity for compensatory modulating of feeding rate; food consumption increased only in the very smallest specimens, and only in response to temperature, and not pH. Our data show that warming, acidification and body size all substantially affect metabolism and are highly consistent and

  17. A Multi-scale Approach for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Middleton, R. S.; Pan, F.; Ampomah, W.; Yang, C.; Jia, W.; Lee, S. Y.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.; Grigg, R.; White, M. D.


    Using carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce carbon sequestration costs in the absence of greenhouse gas emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multi-scale approach to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis for understanding CO2 storage potential within an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil-water flow and transport in the Marrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2 injection rate, CO2 first breakthrough time, CO2 production rate, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil and CH4 production, and water injection and production rates. A global sensitivity analysis indicates that reservoir permeability, porosity, and thickness are the major intrinsic reservoir parameters that control net CO2 injection/storage and oil/CH4 recovery rates. The well spacing (the distance between the injection and production wells) and the sequence of alternating CO2 and water injection are the major operational parameters for designing an effective five-spot CO2-EOR pattern. The response surface analysis shows that net CO2 injection rate increases with the increasing reservoir thickness, permeability, and porosity. The oil/CH4 production rates are positively correlated to reservoir permeability, porosity and thickness, but negatively correlated to the initial water saturation. The mean and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying the uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. The results from this study provide useful insights for understanding the CO2 storage potential and the corresponding risks of commercial-scale CO2-EOR fields.

  18. The sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thiez, P.


    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO 2 , represents a major technological and societal challenge in the fight against climate change. Among the measures likely to reduce anthropic CO 2 emissions, capture and geological storage holds out promise for the future. (author)

  19. CO2 Sequestration short course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  20. Quantitative analysis of an engineered CO2-fixing Escherichia coli reveals great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation. (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Liu, Guoxia; Zhai, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Jie; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin


    Production of fuels from the abundant and wasteful CO2 is a promising approach to reduce carbon emission and consumption of fossil fuels. Autotrophic microbes naturally assimilate CO2 using energy from light, hydrogen, and/or sulfur. However, their slow growth rates call for investigation of the possibility of heterotrophic CO2 fixation. Although preliminary research has suggested that CO2 fixation in heterotrophic microbes is feasible after incorporation of a CO2-fixing bypass into the central carbon metabolic pathway, it remains unclear how much and how efficient that CO2 can be fixed by a heterotrophic microbe. A simple metabolic flux index was developed to indicate the relative strength of the CO2-fixation flux. When two sequential enzymes of the cyanobacterial Calvin cycle were incorporated into an E. coli strain, the flux of the CO2-fixing bypass pathway accounts for 13 % of that of the central carbon metabolic pathway. The value was increased to 17 % when the carbonic anhydrase involved in the cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanism was introduced, indicating that low intracellular CO2 concentration is one limiting factor for CO2 fixation in E. coli. The engineered CO2-fixing E. coli with carbonic anhydrase was able to fix CO2 at a rate of 19.6 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rate of 22.5 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1). This CO2-fixation rate is comparable with the reported rates of 14 autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae (10.5-147.0 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rates of 3.5-23.7 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1)). The ability of CO2 fixation was created and improved in E. coli by incorporating partial cyanobacterial Calvin cycle and carbon concentrating mechanism, respectively. Quantitative analysis revealed that the CO2-fixation rate of this strain is comparable with that of the autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae, demonstrating great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation.

  1. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux. (United States)

    Oishi, A Christopher; Palmroth, Sari; Johnsen, Kurt H; McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram


    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity, but the long-term effects of these factors on Fsoil are less clear. Expanding on previous studies at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, we quantified the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil using daily measurements from automated chambers over 10 years. Consistent with previous results, compared to ambient unfertilized plots, annual Fsoil increased under elevated [CO2] (ca. 17%) and decreased with N (ca. 21%). N fertilization under elevated [CO2] reduced Fsoil to values similar to untreated plots. Over the study period, base respiration rates increased with leaf productivity, but declined after productivity saturated. Despite treatment-induced differences in aboveground biomass, soil temperature and water content were similar among treatments. Interannually, low soil water content decreased annual Fsoil from potential values - estimated based on temperature alone assuming nonlimiting soil water content - by ca. 0.7% per 1.0% reduction in relative extractable water. This effect was only slightly ameliorated by elevated [CO2]. Variability in soil N availability among plots accounted for the spatial variability in Fsoil , showing a decrease of ca. 114 g C m(-2) yr(-1) per 1 g m(-2) increase in soil N availability, with consistently higher Fsoil in elevated [CO2] plots ca. 127 g C per 100 ppm [CO2] over the +200 ppm enrichment. Altogether, reflecting increased belowground carbon partitioning in response to greater plant nutritional needs, the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil in this stand are sustained beyond the early stages of stand development and

  2. Simulation and experiment for oxygen-enriched combustion engine using liquid oxygen to solidify CO2 (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Jia, Xiaoshe; Pei, Pucheng; Lu, Yong; Yi, Li; Shi, Yan


    For capturing and recycling of CO2 in the internal combustion engine, Rankle cycle engine can reduce the exhaust pollutants effectively under the condition of ensuring the engine thermal efficiency by using the techniques of spraying water in the cylinder and optimizing the ignition advance angle. However, due to the water spray nozzle need to be installed on the cylinder, which increases the cylinder head design difficulty and makes the combustion conditions become more complicated. In this paper, a new method is presented to carry out the closing inlet and exhaust system for internal combustion engines. The proposed new method uses liquid oxygen to solidify part of cooled CO2 from exhaust system into dry ice and the liquid oxygen turns into gas oxygen which is sent to inlet system. The other part of CO2 is sent to inlet system and mixed with oxygen, which can reduce the oxygen-enriched combustion detonation tendency and make combustion stable. Computing grid of the IP52FMI single-cylinder four-stroke gasoline-engine is established according to the actual shape of the combustion chamber using KIVA-3V program. The effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate are analyzed on the temperatures, the pressures and the instantaneous heat release rates when the EGR rate is more than 8%. The possibility of enclosing intake and exhaust system for engine is verified. The carbon dioxide trapping device is designed and the IP52FMI engine is transformed and the CO2 capture experiment is carried out. The experimental results show that when the EGR rate is 36% for the optimum EGR rate. When the liquid oxygen of 35.80-437.40 g is imported into the device and last 1-20 min, respectively, 21.50-701.30 g dry ice is obtained. This research proposes a new design method which can capture CO2 for vehicular internal combustion engine.

  3. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller


    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  4. Study of the effect of political measures on the citizen participation rate in recycling and on the environmental load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Masaru; Ohsako, Masahiro


    Obtaining the cooperation of citizens to participate in separate waste collection is essential to create a recycling-oriented society. In this research, the degree of change in the citizen participation rate, which occurs when the contents of political measures such as the raising of awareness, provision of information, and the conditions of collection services were changed, was estimated together with the effect on the reduction in environmental load. A questionnaire survey was conducted, targeted at residents of Itabashi Ward, while logistic regression analyses were also conducted to create predictive models for recycling behavior, and sensitivity analyses of the models were carried out to estimate the increase in citizen participation rate achievable through the implementation of various political measures. It was found that the effect of 'thorough perception of information' was the largest, followed by 'minimization of evaluation of trouble' and 'thorough perception of efficacy of measures.' The effect of the improvement in the citizen participation rate on the reduction in environmental load was also evaluated quantitatively by life cycle inventory analyses. It was indicated that 'maximization of perception of information' had the greatest effect. However, the reduction effect with 'paper packs' and 'PET bottles' was relatively small compared with that of 'bottles/cans.'

  5. Tire Recycling (United States)


    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  6. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.


    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  7. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lac


    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI with stronger urban–rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m, leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A

  8. Dynamics of soil CO 2 efflux under varying atmospheric CO 2 concentrations reveal dominance of slow processes (United States)

    Dohyoung Kim; Ram Oren; James S. Clark; Sari Palmroth; A. Christopher Oishi; Heather R. McCarthy; Chris A. Maier; Kurt Johnsen


    We evaluated the effect on soil CO2 efflux (FCO2) of sudden changes in photosynthetic rates by altering CO2 concentration in plots subjected to +200 ppmv for 15 years. Five-day intervals of exposure to elevated CO2 (eCO2) ranging 1.0–1.8 times ambient did not affect FCO2. FCO2 did not decrease until 4 months after termination of the long-term eCO2 treatment, longer...

  9. CO2: a worldwide myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerondeau, Ch.


    In this book, the author demonstrates the paradox that reducing CO 2 emissions leads to no CO 2 abatement at all. This assertion is based on an obvious statement. Everybody knows that oil resources are going to be exhausted in few decades. The oil that industrialized countries will not use will be consumed by emerging countries and the CO 2 emissions will remain the same. Who would believe that the oil, gas or coal still available will remain unused? The Kyoto protocol, the national policies, the European agreements of emissions abatement, the carbon taxes, the emissions abatement requests sent to the rest of the world, all these actions cost a lot and are useless. CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere will inescapably double during the 21. century but, according to the author, without any catastrophic consequence for the Earth. (J.S.)

  10. Connecting CO2. Feasibility study CO2 network Southwest Netherlands; Connecting CO2. Haalbaarheidsstudie CO2-netwerk Zuidwest-Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, M.


    An overview is given of supply and demand of CO2 in the region Southwest Netherlands and the regions Antwerp and Gent in Belgium. Also attention is paid to possible connections between these regions [Dutch] Een inventarisatie wordt gegeven van vraag en aanbod van CO2 in de regio Zuidwest- Nederland en de regios Antwerpen en Gent in Belgie. Ook worden mogelijke koppelingen tussen de regios besproken.

  11. Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem. (United States)

    Doney, Scott C; Fabry, Victoria J; Feely, Richard A; Kleypas, Joan A


    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), primarily from human fossil fuel combustion, reduces ocean pH and causes wholesale shifts in seawater carbonate chemistry. The process of ocean acidification is well documented in field data, and the rate will accelerate over this century unless future CO2 emissions are curbed dramatically. Acidification alters seawater chemical speciation and biogeochemical cycles of many elements and compounds. One well-known effect is the lowering of calcium carbonate saturation states, which impacts shell-forming marine organisms from plankton to benthic molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. Many calcifying species exhibit reduced calcification and growth rates in laboratory experiments under high-CO2 conditions. Ocean acidification also causes an increase in carbon fixation rates in some photosynthetic organisms (both calcifying and noncalcifying). The potential for marine organisms to adapt to increasing CO2 and broader implications for ocean ecosystems are not well known; both are high priorities for future research. Although ocean pH has varied in the geological past, paleo-events may be only imperfect analogs to current conditions.

  12. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter D.; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.


    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  13. Foraminiferal calcification and CO2 (United States)

    Nooijer, L. D.; Toyofuku, T.; Reichart, G. J.


    Ongoing burning of fossil fuels increases atmospheric CO2, elevates marine dissolved CO2 and decreases pH and the saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate. Intuitively this should decrease the ability of CaCO3-producing organisms to build their skeletons and shells. Whereas on geological time scales weathering and carbonate deposition removes carbon from the geo-biosphere, on time scales up to thousands of years, carbonate precipitation increases pCO2 because of the associated shift in seawater carbon speciation. Hence reduced calcification provides a potentially important negative feedback on increased pCO2 levels. Here we show that foraminifera form their calcium carbonate by active proton pumping. This elevates the internal pH and acidifies the direct foraminiferal surrounding. This also creates a strong pCO2 gradient and facilitates the uptake of DIC in the form of carbon dioxide. This finding uncouples saturation state from calcification and predicts that the added carbon due to ocean acidification will promote calcification by these organisms. This unknown effect could add substantially to atmospheric pCO2 levels, and might need to be accounted for in future mitigation strategies.

  14. Weeks Island gravity stable CO2 pilot: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.R.; Perry, G.E.


    The Weeks Island ''S'' sand Reservoir B (''S'' RB) gravity-stable CO2 field test was completed during February 1988. Injection started in October 1978 and production began in January 1981 in this high-permeability, steeply-dipping sandstone reservoir. About 264,000 barrels of oil or 65 percent of the starting volume has been recovered. A 24-percent pore-volume slug of CO2 mixed with about six mole percent of natural gas (mostly methane) was injected at the start of the pilot. Since 1983, produced CO2 plus hydrocarbon gases have been recycled. CO2 usage statistics are 9.34 MCF/BO with recycle and 3.24 MCF/BO based on purchased CO2. Previous annual reports document the pilot design, implementation, and early results for the 1977 to June 1981 time period. This report is a review of early pilot history and a more detailed account of the post June 1981 results and overall interpretation. A reservoir-simulation history match of pilot performance plus core and log data from a 1983 swept-zone evaluation well are described in this report. A brief description of the production facility and an account of the corrosion control program are also included. 11 refs., 34 figs.

  15. Economics show CO2 EOR potential in central Kansas (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Pancake, R.E.; Willhite, G.P.; Schoeling, L.G.


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that CO2 EOR should provide an internal rate of return (IRR) greater than 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for \\$20/bbl, CO2 costs \\$1/Mcf, and gross utilization is 10 Mcf of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 cost is reduced to \\$0.75/Mcf, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling indicates that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost. A project requires a minimum recovery of 1,500 net bbl/acre (about 1 million net bbl/1-mile section) under a best-case scenario. Less important variables to the economics are capital costs and non-CO2 related lease operating expenses.

  16. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage; Analogos Naturales del Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L; Pelayo, M; Recreo, F


    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  17. CO2 Capture and Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambimuthu, K.; Gupta, M.; Davison, J.


    CO2 capture and storage including its utilization or reuse presents an opportunity to achieve deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy use. The development and deployment of this option could significantly assist in meeting a future goal of achieving stabilization of the presently rising atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. CO2 capture from process streams is an established concept that has achieved industrial practice. Examples of current applications include the use of primarily, solvent based capture technologies for the recovery of pure CO2 streams for chemical synthesis, for utilization as a food additive, for use as a miscible agent in enhanced oil recovery operations and removal of CO2 as an undesired contaminant from gaseous process streams for the production of fuel gases such as hydrogen and methane. In these applications, the technologies deployed for CO2 capture have focused on gas separation from high purity, high pressure streams and in reducing (or oxygen deficient) environments, where the energy penalties and cost for capture are moderately low. However, application of the same capture technologies for large scale abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use poses significant challenges in achieving (at comparably low energy penalty and cost) gas separation in large volume, dilute concentration and/or low pressure flue gas streams. This paper will focus on a review of existing commercial methods of CO2 capture and the technology stretch, process integration and energy system pathways needed for their large scale deployment in fossil fueled processes. The assessment of potential capture technologies for the latter purpose will also be based on published literature data that are both 'transparent' and 'systematic' in their evaluation of the overall cost and energy penalties of CO2 capture. In view of the of the fact that many of the existing commercial processes for CO2 capture have seen applications in

  18. The importance of recycling - Responsible recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Joens Petter


    7 times the total emissions from Sweden are saved each year by the recycling industry. It reduces CO 2 emissions and saves the environment. In fact it annually reduces global CO 2 emissions by 500 million tons, which is more than what is being emitted by the world wide aviation industry. Recycling of iron and steel saves 74% energy and reduces water and air pollution by respectively 76% and 86%, compared to primary production. It provides new raw materials and contributes to save energy. There's no sense in producing goods in a permanent material like plastics, that's supposed to be used only once. It's a huge waste of resources. Today the recycling industry provides half of the world's raw materials and this figure is set to increase. It's about environmentally sound management of resources. It's about plain common sense. There has to be a political willingness to facilitate recycling in every way. And from a corporate perspective social responsibility is becoming an increasingly important competitive edge. This is also a communication issue, it has to be a fact that is well known to the market when a company is doing valuable environmental work. We also need a well functioning global market with easy to understand regulations to facilitate global trade. The global demand for recycled materials should influence their collection and use. Fraud and theft has also to be kept at bay which calls for a close collaboration between organizations such as The International Chamber of Commerce, The International Trade Council and the International Maritime Bureau of the commercial crime services. Increasing recycling is the only way to go if we want to minimize our effect on the environment. We have to remember that recycling is essential for the environment. An increase would be a tremendous help to reduce the green house effect. Increasing recycling is not rocket science. We know how to do it, we just have to decide to go through with it

  19. Light-Triggered CO2 Breathing Foam via Nonsurfactant High Internal Phase Emulsion. (United States)

    Zhang, Shiming; Wang, Dingguan; Pan, Qianhao; Gui, Qinyuan; Liao, Shenglong; Wang, Yapei


    Solid materials for CO 2 capture and storage have attracted enormous attention for gaseous separation, environmental protection, and climate governance. However, their preparation and recovery meet the problems of high energy and financial cost. Herein, a controllable CO 2 capture and storage process is accomplished in an emulsion-templated polymer foam, in which CO 2 is breathed-in under dark and breathed-out under light illumination. Such a process is likely to become a relay of natural CO 2 capture by plants that on the contrary breathe out CO 2 at night. Recyclable CO 2 capture at room temperature and release under light irradiation guarantee its convenient and cost-effective regeneration in industry. Furthermore, CO 2 mixed with CH 4 is successfully separated through this reversible breathing in and out system, which offers great promise for CO 2 enrichment and practical methane purification.

  20. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for calculating recycling rate of automotive products; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Jidosha seihin no recycle ritsu no santei hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With international standardization as a target, research has been performed for three years since fiscal 1998 on a method for calculating the recycling rate of automotive products. This paper summarizes the achievements thereof. In fiscal 1998, studies were conducted on major automobile materials, state of recycling in Japan and Europe, and trial monitoring on recycling execution rate in the dismantling and shredding stages. Despite uncertainties that remain in recycling, the importance of standardization has been affirmed. Beginning in fiscal 1999, discussions have been given on requirements for establishing the recycling possibility by means of dismantling automobiles. In the requirements for establishing thermal recycling, discussions were given, taking into account the state of legal regulations in Germany and the trial execution of the container and packaging recycling law in Japan. As a result, the standard draft for the method for calculating the recycling rate was established for automotive products, including the method for calculating the recycling possibility rate, and the requirements for establishing thermal recycling. For international standardization of the method for calculating the recycling possibility rate, discussions have begun at ISO/TC22/WG10. (NEDO)

  1. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of dioxins over palladium nanoparticles in supercritical CO2 swollen microcellular polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ben-Zen; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Wang, Joanna S.; Tan, Chung-Sung; Wai, Chien M.; Liao, Weisheng; Chiu, KongHwa


    Highlights: ► Pd nanoparticles are embedded in microcellular high density polyethylene (Pd/m-HDPE). ► Pd/m-HDPE is used as heterogeneous catalysts in supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO 2 ). ► Dioxins are remedied via hydrodechlorination and hydrogenation over Pd/m-HDPE in sc-CO 2 . ► The final products are dechlorinated and benzene-ring-saturated dioxins. ► Pd/m-HDPE can be recyclable and reusable without complicated cleaning procedures. - Abstract: In this study, palladium nanoparticles embedded in monolithic microcellular high density polyethylene supports are synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts for remediation of 1,6-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,8-dichlorodibenzofuran in 200 atm of supercritical carbon dioxide containing 10 atm of hydrogen gas and at 50–90 °C. Stepwise removal of chlorine atoms takes place first, followed by saturation of two benzene rings with slower reaction rates. The pseudo first order rate constant of initial hydrodechlorination for 2,8-dichlorodibenzofuran is 4.3 times greater than that for 1,6-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin at 78 °C. The catalysts are easily separated from products and can be recyclable and reusable without complicated recovery and cleaning procedures.

  2. Implications of overestimated anthropogenic CO2 emissions on East Asian and global land CO2 flux inversion (United States)

    Saeki, Tazu; Patra, Prabir K.


    Measurement and modelling of regional or country-level carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are becoming critical for verification of the greenhouse gases emission control. One of the commonly adopted approaches is inverse modelling, where CO2 fluxes (emission: positive flux, sink: negative flux) from the terrestrial ecosystems are estimated by combining atmospheric CO2 measurements with atmospheric transport models. The inverse models assume anthropogenic emissions are known, and thus the uncertainties in the emissions introduce systematic bias in estimation of the terrestrial (residual) fluxes by inverse modelling. Here we show that the CO2 sink increase, estimated by the inverse model, over East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia), by about 0.26 PgC year-1 (1 Pg = 1012 g) during 2001-2010, is likely to be an artifact of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions increasing too quickly in China by 1.41 PgC year-1. Independent results from methane (CH4) inversion suggested about 41% lower rate of East Asian CH4 emission increase during 2002-2012. We apply a scaling factor of 0.59, based on CH4 inversion, to the rate of anthropogenic CO2 emission increase since the anthropogenic emissions of both CO2 and CH4 increase linearly in the emission inventory. We find no systematic increase in land CO2 uptake over East Asia during 1993-2010 or 2000-2009 when scaled anthropogenic CO2 emissions are used, and that there is a need of higher emission increase rate for 2010-2012 compared to those calculated by the inventory methods. High bias in anthropogenic CO2 emissions leads to stronger land sinks in global land-ocean flux partitioning in our inverse model. The corrected anthropogenic CO2 emissions also produce measurable reductions in the rate of global land CO2 sink increase post-2002, leading to a better agreement with the terrestrial biospheric model simulations that include CO2-fertilization and climate effects.

  3. Experimental Studies of CO2 Capturing from the Flue Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Rahmandoost


    Full Text Available CO2 emissions from combustion flue gases have turned into a major factor in global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture (PCC from industrial utility flue gases by reactive absorption can substantially reduce the emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2. To test a new solvent (AIT600 for this purpose, a small pilot plant was used. This paper presents the results of studies on chemical methods of absorbing CO2 from flue gases with the new solvent, and evaluates the effects of operating conditions on CO2 absorption efficiency. CO2 removal rate of the AIT600 solvent was higher in comparison to the conventional monoethanolamine (MEA solvent. The optimized temperature of the absorber column was 60 °C for CO2 absorption in this pilot plant. The overall absorption rate (Φ and the volumetric overall mass transfer coefficient (KGaV were also investigated.

  4. Binding CO2 from Air by a Bulky Organometallic Cation Containing Primary Amines. (United States)

    Luo, Yang-Hui; Chen, Chen; Hong, Dan-Li; He, Xiao-Tong; Wang, Jing-Wen; Ding, Ting; Wang, Bo-Jun; Sun, Bai-Wang


    The organometallic cation 1 (Fe(bipy-NH 2 ) 3 2+ , bipy-NH 2 = 4,4'-diamino-2,2'-bipyridine), which was constructed in situ in solution, can bind CO 2 from air effectively with a stoichiometric ratio of 1:4 (1/CO 2 ), through the formation of "H-bonded CO 2 " species: [CO 2 -OH-CO 2 ] - and [CO 2 -CO 2 -OH] - . These two species, along with the captured individual CO 2 molecules, connected 1 into a novel 3D (three-dimensional) architecture, that was crystal 1·2(OH - )·4(CO 2 ). The adsorption isotherms, recycling investigations, and the heat capacity of 1 have been investigated; the results revealed that the organometallic cation 1 can be recycled at least 10 times for the real-world CO 2 capture applications. The strategies presented here may provide new hints for the development of new alkanolamine-related absorbents or technologies for CO 2 capture and sequestration.

  5. State of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Abul K.; Nashreen, S.W.; Sultana, J.


    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one of the most important gases in the atmosphere, and is necessary for sustaining life on Earth. It is also considered to be a major greenhouse gas contributing to global warming and climate change. In this article, energy consumption in Bangladesh is analyzed and estimates are made of CO 2 emission from combustion of fossil fuel (coal, gas, petroleum products) for the period 1977 to 1995. International Panel for Climate Change guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories were used in estimating CO 2 emission. An analysis of energy data shows that the consumption of fossil fuels in Bangladesh is growing by more than 5% per year. The proportion of natural gas in total energy consumption is increasing, while that of petroleum products and coal is decreasing. The estimated total CO 2 release from all primary fossil fuels used in Bangladesh amounted to 5,072 Gg in 1977, and 14,423 Gg in 1995. The total amounts of CO 2 released from petroleum products, natural gas, and coal in the period 1977-1995 were 83,026 Gg (50% of CO 2 emission), 72,541 Gg (44% of CO 2 emission), and 9,545 Gg (6% CO 2 emission), respectively. A trend in CO 2 emission with projections to 2070 is generated. In 2070, total estimated CO 2 emission will be 293,260 Gg with a current growth rate of 6.34%/y. CO 2 emission from fossil fuels is increasing. Petroleum products contribute the majority of CO 2 emission load, and although the use of natural gas is increasing rapidly, its contribution to CO 2 emission is less than that of petroleum products. The use of coal as well as CO 2 emission from coal is expected to gradually decrease

  6. Biofiksasi CO2 Oleh Mikroalga Chlamydomonas sp dalam Photobioreaktor Tubular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto


    Full Text Available Mikroalga memiliki potensi dalam membiofiksasi CO2 dan dapat dimanfaatkan untuk mengurangi kadar CO2 dalam gas pencemar. Pertumbuhan mikroalga sangat dipengaruhi oleh konsentrasi gas CO2 di dalam gas pencemar. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeetahui kemampuan mikroalga Chlamydomonas sp yang dikultivasi dalam photobioreaktor tubular dalam penyerapan gas CO2 serta untuk mengetahui konsentrasi maksimum gas CO2 dalam umpan untuk memproduksi biomasa mikroalga yang optimal. Percobaan dilakukan dnegan memvariasi laju alir dari 0.03 -0.071 L/menit dan konsentrasi CO2 dalam umpan 10-30%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa biomasa mikroalga dapat diproduksi dengan maksimal dengan konsentrasi gas CO2 20% dengan laju alir 0.07 L/min. Semakin tinggi laju alir maka produksi biomasa alga semakin besar. Kecepatan pertumbuhan alga maksimum terjadi pada 0.31 /hari. Pada konsentrasi gas CO2 30%, terjadi substrate inhibition yang disebabkan carbon dalam bentuk ion bicarbonate tidak dapat dikonsumsi lagi di dalam kultur alga. Kata kunci : Mikroalga, chlamydomonas sp, biofiksasi CO2, biogas Abstract Microalgae have a potential for CO2 biofixation and therefore can be used to reduce the CO2 concentration in the gas pollutants. Moreover, microalgae growth is strongly affected by the concentration of CO2 in the exhaust gas pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate the ability of microalgae Chlamydomonas sp which was cultivated in a tubular photobioreactor for CO2 absorption as well as to determine the maximum concentration of CO2 in the feed gas to obtain optimum microalgae biomass. The experiments were performed by varying the gas flow rate of 0.03 -0.071 L / min and the concentration of CO2 in the feed of 10-30%. The results showed that the maximum biomass of microalgae can be produced with CO2 concentration of 20% vol with a flow rate of 0.07 L / min. The result also showed that increasing the gas flow rate, the greater of the production of

  7. The CO2nnect activities (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu


    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face today. A first step is the understanding the problem, more exactly what is the challenge and the differences people can make. Pupils need a wide competencies to meet the challenges of sustainable development - including climate change. The CO2nnect activities are designed to support learning which can provide pupils the abilities, skills, attitudes and awareness as well as knowledge and understanding of the issues. The project "Together for a clean and healthy world" is part of "The Global Educational Campaign CO2nnect- CO2 on the way to school" and it was held in our school in the period between February and October 2009. It contained a variety of curricular and extra-curricular activities, adapted to students aged from 11 to 15. These activities aimed to develop in students the necessary skills to understanding man's active role in improving the quality of the environment, putting an end to its degrading process and to reducing the effects of climate changes caused by the human intervention in nature, including transport- a source of CO2 pollution. The activity which I propose can be easily adapted to a wide range of age groups and linked to the curricula of many subjects: - Investigate CO2 emissions from travel to school -Share the findings using an international database -Compare and discuss CO2 emissions -Submit questions to a climate- and transport expert -Partner with other schools -Meet with people in your community to discuss emissions from transport Intended learning outcomes for pupils who participate in the CO2nnect campaign are: Understanding of the interconnected mobility- and climate change issue climate change, its causes and consequences greenhouse-gas emissions from transport and mobility the interlinking of social, environmental, cultural and economic aspects of the local transport system how individual choices and participation can contribute to creating a more sustainable development

  8. CO2 storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Andersson, Annika; Kling, Aasa; Bernstone, Christian; Carlsson, Anders; Liljemark, Stefan; Wall, Caroline; Erstedt, Thomas; Lindroth, Maria; Tengborg, Per; Edstroem, Mikael


    This study considers options, that could be feasible for Sweden, to transport and geologically store CO 2 , providing that technology for electricity production with CO 2 capture will be available in the future and also acceptable from cost- and reliability point of view. As a starting point, it is assumed that a new 600-1000 MW power plant, fired with coal or natural gas, will be constructed with CO 2 capture and localised to the Stockholm, Malmoe or Goeteborg areas. Of vital importance for storage of carbon dioxide in a reservoir is the possibility to monitor its distribution, i.e. its migration within the reservoir. It has been shown in the SACS-project that the distribution of carbon dioxide within the reservoir can be monitored successfully, mainly by seismic methods. Suitable geologic conditions and a large storage potential seems to exist mainly in South West Scania, where additional knowledge on geology/hydrogeology has been obtained since the year 2000 in connection to geothermal energy projects, and in the Eastern part of Denmark, bordering on South West Scania. Storage of carbon dioxide from the Stockholm area should not be excluded, but more studies are needed to clarify the storage options within this area. The possibilities to use CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery, EOR, in i.a. the North Sea should be investigated, in order to receive incomes from the CO 2 and shared costs for infrastructure, and by this also make the CO 2 regarded as a trading commodity, and thereby achieving a more favourable position concerning acceptance, legal issues and regulations. The dimensions of CO 2 -pipelines should be similar to those for natural natural gas, although regarding some aspects they have different design and construction prerequisites. To obtain cost efficiency, the transport distances should be kept short, and possibilities for co-ordinated networks with short distribution pipelines connected to common main pipelines, should be searched for. Also, synergies

  9. Managing CO2 emissions in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obioh, I.B.; Oluwole, A.F.; Akeredolu, F.A.


    The energy resources in Nigeria are nearly equally divided between fossil fuels and biofuels. The increasing pressure on them, following expected increased population growth, may lead to substantial emissions of carbon into the atmosphere. Additionally agricultural and forestry management practices in vogue are those related to savannah burning and rotational bush fallow systems, which have been clearly implicated as important sources of CO 2 and trace gases. An integrated model for the prediction of future CO 2 emissions based on fossil fuels and biomass fuels requirements, rates of deforestation and other land-use indices is presented. This is further based on trends in population and economic growth up to the year 2025, with a base year in 1988. A coupled carbon cycle-climate model based on the contribution of CO 2 and other trace gases is established from the proportions of integrated global warming effects for a 20-year averaging time using the product of global warming potential (GWP) and total emissions. An energy-technology inventory approach to optimal resources management is used as a tool for establishing the future scope of reducing the CO 2 emissions through improved fossil fuel energy efficiencies. Scenarios for reduction based on gradual to swift shifts from biomass to fossil and renewable fuels are presented together with expected policy options required to effect them

  10. CO2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissel, Steffen; Mayer-Spohn, Oliver; Fahl, Ulrich; Blesl, Markus; Voss, Alfred


    A survey of LCA studies on nuclear electricity generation revealed life cycle CO 2 emissions ranging between 3 g/kWhe to 60 g/kWhe and above. Firstly, this paper points out the discrepancies in studies by estimating the CO 2 emissions of nuclear power generation. Secondly, the paper sets out to provide critical review of future developments of the fuel cycle for light water reactors and illustrates the impact of uncertainties on the specific CO 2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation. Each step in the fuel cycle will be considered and with regard to the CO 2 emissions analysed. Thereby different assumptions and uncertainty levels are determined for the nuclear fuel cycle. With the impacts of low uranium ore grades for mining and milling as well as higher burn-up rates future fuel characteristics are considered. Sensitivity analyses are performed for all fuel processing steps, for different technical specifications of light water reactors as well as for further external frame conditions. (authors)

  11. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy. (United States)

    Kauffman, Douglas R; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao


    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8-1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) during a multiday (36 h total hours) CO2 electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 10(6) and 4 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient

  12. Substantial rate enhancements of the esterification reaction of phthalic anhydride with methanol at high pressure and using supercritical CO2 as a co-solvent in a glass microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benito-Lopez, F.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Salblut, K.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Reinhoudt, David; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Verboom, Willem


    The esterification reaction of phthalic anhydride with methanol was performed at different temperatures in a continuous flow glass microreactor at pressures up to 110 bar and using supercritical CO2 as a co-solvent. The design is such that supercritical CO2 can be generated inside the microreactor.

  13. On a CO2 ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.


    In 2 years all the large energy companies in the European Union will have a CO2 ration, including a system to trade a shortage or surplus of emission rights. A cost effective system to reduce emission, provided that the government does not auction the emission rights [nl

  14. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.


    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  15. Poly(ionic liquid)/Ionic Liquid Ion-Gels with High "Free" Ionic Liquid Content: Platform Membrane Materials for CO2/Light Gas Separations. (United States)

    Cowan, Matthew G; Gin, Douglas L; Noble, Richard D


    The recycling or sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the waste gas of fossil-fuel power plants is widely acknowledged as one of the most realistic strategies for delaying or avoiding the severest environmental, economic, political, and social consequences that will result from global climate change and ocean acidification. For context, in 2013 coal and natural gas power plants accounted for roughly 31% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. Recycling or sequestering this CO2 would reduce U.S. emissions by ca. 1800 million metric tons-easily meeting the U.S.'s currently stated CO2 reduction targets of ca. 17% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. This situation is similar for many developed and developing nations, many of which officially target a 20% reduction relative to 1990 baseline levels by 2020. To make CO2 recycling or sequestration processes technologically and economically viable, the CO2 must first be separated from the rest of the waste gas mixture-which is comprised mostly of nitrogen gas and water (ca. 85%). Of the many potential separation technologies available, membrane technology is particularly attractive due to its low energy operating cost, low maintenance, smaller equipment footprint, and relatively facile retrofit integration with existing power plant designs. From a techno-economic standpoint, the separation of CO2 from flue gas requires membranes that can process extremely high amounts of CO2 over a short time period, a property defined as the membrane "permeance". In contrast, the membrane's CO2/N2 selectivity has only a minor effect on the overall cost of some separation processes once a threshold permeability selectivity of ca. 20 is reached. Given the above criteria, the critical properties when developing membrane materials for postcombustion CO2 separation are CO2 permeability (i.e., the rate of CO2 transport normalized to the material thickness), a reasonable CO2/N2 selectivity (≥20), and the ability to be processed into defect-free thin

  16. Impact of CO2 leakage from sub-seabed carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs on benthic virus-prokaryote interactions and functions. (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Amaro, Teresa; Queirós, Ana M; Widdicombe, Stephen; Danovaro, Roberto


    Atmospheric CO2 emissions are a global concern due to their predicted impact on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning, and human life. Among the proposed mitigation strategies, CO2 capture and storage, primarily the injection of CO2 into marine deep geological formations has been suggested as a technically practical option for reducing emissions. However, concerns have been raised that possible leakage from such storage sites, and the associated elevated levels of pCO2 could locally impact the biodiversity and biogeochemical processes in the sediments above these reservoirs. Whilst a number of impact assessment studies have been conducted, no information is available on the specific responses of viruses and virus-host interactions. In the present study, we tested the impact of a simulated CO2 leakage on the benthic microbial assemblages, with specific focus on microbial activity and virus-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM). We found that exposure to levels of CO2 in the overlying seawater from 1,000 to 20,000 ppm for a period up to 140 days, resulted in a marked decrease in heterotrophic carbon production and organic matter degradation rates in the sediments, associated with lower rates of VIPM, and a progressive accumulation of sedimentary organic matter with increasing CO2 concentrations. These results suggest that the increase in seawater pCO2 levels that may result from CO2 leakage, can severely reduce the rates of microbial-mediated recycling of the sedimentary organic matter and viral infections, with major consequences on C cycling and nutrient regeneration, and hence on the functioning of benthic ecosystems.

  17. Imaging volcanic CO2 and SO2 (United States)

    Gabrieli, A.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Porter, J. N.


    Detecting and quantifying volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions is of relevance to volcanologists. Changes in the amount and composition of gases that volcanoes emit are related to subsurface magma movements and the probability of eruptions. Volcanic gases and related acidic aerosols are also an important atmospheric pollution source that create environmental health hazards for people, animals, plants, and infrastructures. For these reasons, it is important to measure emissions from volcanic plumes during both day and night. We present image measurements of the volcanic plume at Kīlauea volcano, HI, and flux derivation, using a newly developed 8-14 um hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, the Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI). THI is capable of acquiring images of the scene it views from which spectra can be derived from each pixel. Each spectrum contains 50 wavelength samples between 8 and 14 um where CO2 and SO2 volcanic gases have diagnostic absorption/emission features respectively at 8.6 and 14 um. Plume radiance measurements were carried out both during the day and the night by using both the lava lake in the Halema'uma'u crater as a hot source and the sky as a cold background to detect respectively the spectral signatures of volcanic CO2 and SO2 gases. CO2 and SO2 path-concentrations were then obtained from the spectral radiance measurements using a new Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR)-based inversion algorithm, which was developed as part of this project. Volcanic emission fluxes were determined by combining the path measurements with wind observations, derived directly from the images. Several hours long time-series of volcanic emission fluxes will be presented and the SO2 conversion rates into aerosols will be discussed. The new imaging and inversion technique, discussed here, are novel allowing for continuous CO2 and SO2 plume mapping during both day and night.

  18. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of a method to calculate recycling rates of automobile products; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Jidosha seihin no recycle ritsu no santei hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the purpose not only of solving the environmental problem but also of making effective use of resources and contributing to the appropriate treatment in the stage of the used resource, study was conducted of the standardization of a method to calculate recycle rates of automobile products. The FY 1999 results were summarized. In this fiscal year, to give definition of the recycle potentiality and thermal recycle, the following were proceeded with: trial evaluation of recycle potentiality, survey of the actual state of recycling of rubber/plastic parts, study of the requirements to realize the recycle potentiality, study of the requirements to realize the thermal recycle, and approaches to the international standardization. As to the trial evaluation of the recycle potentiality, tests to dismantle automobiles were made to assess the dismantlement, separation and recognition. The requirements to realize the recycle potentiality were studied. It was found out that few non-metallic materials are not recycled in the present situation. The paper studied what the requirements to realize the recycle potentiality and thermal recycle should be like basically since there is no recognition internationally unified. (NEDO)

  19. Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongjie; Wang Zhe; Sun Jining; Zhang Lili; Li Zheng


    Highlights: ► We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO 2 pipeline for CCS application. ► We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ► We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ► We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ► We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO 2 mitigation and an optimized CO 2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO 2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO 2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO 2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO 2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO 2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO 2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO 2 /year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO 2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO 2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO 2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

  20. Gain measurements in CO2 CW low pressure lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, N.A.S.; Chanes Junior, J.B.; Jayaram, K.


    A series of gain measurements in low pressure CO 2 CW laser were performed in order to study the behaviour of a CO 2 laser ampliflier as a function of pressure and discharge current. A theoretical model, based on rate equations is also presented to describe the laser behaviour and the experimental procedure adopted. (C.L.B.) [pt

  1. Predictions of the impurities in the CO2 stream of an oxy-coal combustion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao; Shao, Yingjuan


    Whilst all three main carbon capture technologies (post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxy-fuel combustion) can produce a CO 2 dominant stream, other impurities are expected to be present in the CO 2 stream. The impurities in the CO 2 stream can adversely affect other processes of the carbon capture and storage (CCS) chain including the purification, compression, transportation and storage of the CO 2 stream. Both the nature and the concentrations of potential impurities expected to be present in the CO 2 stream of a CCS-integrated power plant depend on not only the type of the power plant but also the carbon capture method used. The present paper focuses on the predictions of impurities expected to be present in the CO 2 stream of an oxy-coal combustion plant. The main gaseous impurities of the CO 2 stream of oxy-coal combustion are N 2 /Ar, O 2 and H 2 O. Even the air ingress to the boiler and its auxiliaries is small enough to be neglected, the N 2 /Ar concentration of the CO 2 stream can vary between ca. 1% and 6%, mainly depending on the O 2 purity of the air separation unit, and the O 2 concentration can vary between ca. 3% and 5%, mainly depending on the combustion stoichiometry of the boiler. The H 2 O concentration of the CO 2 stream can vary from ca. 10% to over 40%, mainly depending on the fuel moisture and the partitioning of recycling flue gas (RFG) between wet-RFG and dry-RFG. NO x and SO 2 are the two main polluting impurities of the CO 2 stream of an oxy-coal combustion plant and their concentrations are expected to be well above those found in the flue gas of an air-coal combustion plant. The concentration of NO x in the flue gas of an oxy-coal combustion plant can be up to ca. two times to that of an equivalent air-coal combustion plant. The amount of NO x emitted by the oxy-coal combustion plant, however, is expected to be much smaller than that of the air-coal combustion plant. The reductions of the recirculated NO x within the combustion

  2. Soil CO2 concentration does not affect growth or root respiration in bean or citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Lynch, J.P.


    Contrasting effects of soil CO2 concentration on root respiration rates during short-term CO2 exposure, and on plant growth during long-term CO2 exposure, have been reported, Here we examine the effects of both short-and long-term exposure to soil CO2 on the root respiration of intact plants and on

  3. Global energy / CO2 projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyak, Y.


    Section headings are: (1) Social and economic problems of the 21 st century and the role of energy supply systems (2) Energy-environment interactions as a central point of energy research activities (3) New ways of technological progress and its impacts on energy demand and supply (4) Long-term global energy projections (5) Comparative analysis of global long-term energy / CO 2 studies (6) Conclusions. The author shows that, in order to alleviate the negative impacts of energy systems on the climate, it will be necessary to undertake tremendous efforts to improve the energy use efficiency, to drastically change the primary energy mix, and, at the same time, to take action to reduce greenhouse emissions from other sources and increase the CO 2 sink through enhanced reforestation. (Quittner)

  4. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus


    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  5. Fang CO2 med Aminosyrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai


    Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer.......Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer....

  6. Measurement of broiler litter production rates and nutrient content using recycled litter. (United States)

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B


    It is important for broiler producers to know litter production rates and litter nutrient content when developing nutrient management plans. Estimation of broiler litter production varies widely in the literature due to factors such as geographical region, type of housing, size of broiler produced, and number of flocks reared on the same litter. Published data for N, P, and K content are also highly variable. In addition, few data are available regarding the rate of production, characteristics, and nutrient content of caked litter (cake). In this study, 18 consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on the same litter in experimental pens under simulated commercial conditions. The mass of litter and cake produced was measured after each flock. Samples of all litter materials were analyzed for pH, moisture, N, P, and K. Average litter and cake moisture content were 26.4 and 46.9%, respectively. Significant variation in litter and cake nutrient content was observed and can largely be attributed to ambient temperature differences. Average litter, cake, and total litter (litter plus cake) production rates were 153.3, 74.8, and 228.2 g of dry litter material per kg of live broiler weight (g/kg) per flock, respectively. Significant variation in litter production rates among flocks was also observed. Cumulative litter, cake, and total litter production rates after 18 flocks were 170.3, 78.7, and 249.0 g/kg, respectively. The data produced from this research can be used by broiler producers to estimate broiler litter and cake production and the nutrient content of these materials.

  7. CO2 reduction by dematerialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Current policy for the reduction of greenhouse gases is mainly concerned with a number of types of solutions: energy saving, shifting to the use of low-carbon fuels and the implementation of sustainable energy technologies. Recent research has shown that a strategy directed at a more efficient use of materials could make a considerable contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, the costs to society as a whole of such a measure appear to be very low.

  8. Outsourcing CO2 within China. (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus


    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country's borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world's largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China's emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low-value-added but high-carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China.

  9. Holiday CO2: Inference from the Salt Lake City data (United States)

    Ryoo, J.; Fung, I. Y.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Stephens, B. B.


    A network of high-frequency CO2 sensors has been established in Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah (, and the annual/monthly pattern of CO2 variability is consistent with a priori estimates of CO2 fluxes (McKain et al., 2012). Here we ask if short-term changes in anthropogenic sources can be detected, and present a case study of Thanksgiving holiday, when traffic and energy use patterns are expected to be different from that during the rest of the month. CO2 mole fraction is much higher during the Thanksgiving holidays than the other days in November 2008 for all 5 sites in SLC, and a similar pattern is found in other years. Taking into account that the wind speed is relatively low in downtown SLC compared to the other SLC sites, the downtown site is further investigated to minimize the meteorological influence on CO2. In order to understand the relative contributions to the high level of CO2 during the Thanksgiving holidays, we carried out a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis of the rate of CO2 change against various sources. Mobile CO2 sources are assumed to be proportional to local traffic data and residential CO2 sources are assumed to depend exponentially on temperature. Vulcan data were used to specify the other anthropogenic sources (commercial, industrial, nonroad, electricity, aircraft, and cement). The MLR analysis shows that during the Thanksgiving holidays CO2 contributions from residential and commercial CO2 are larger than that during the rest of November, and mobile sources represent only a relatively small contribution. The study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting changes in urban source contributions using high-frequency measurements in combination with daily PBL height and local traffic volume data.

  10. Possible impacts of CO2 storage on the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poremski, H.J.


    This study examined the potential impacts of deep-sea carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration on the marine environment. The upper layers of oceans are currently saturated with CO 2 , while deeper ocean waters remain undersaturated. Arctic and Antarctic waters have higher uptake rates of CO 2 due to their lower temperatures. CO 2 deposited in Arctic and Antarctic waters sinks to the bottom of the ocean, and is then transported to equatorial latitudes, where stored amounts of CO 2 that are not fixed by biochemical processes will be released and enter the atmosphere again after a period of approximately 1000 years. Nearly 50 per cent of CO 2 fixation occurs as a result of phytoplankton growth, which is dependent on the availability of a range of nutrients, essential trace metals, and optimal physical conditions. Fertilization-induced CO 2 fixation in the sediments of southern oceans will result in nutrient depletion of bottom layers, which will in turn result in lower primary production levels at equatorial latitudes. Current modelling approaches to CO 2 injection assume that the injected CO 2 will dissolve in a plume extending 100 m around a riser. Retention times of several hundred years are anticipated. However, further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of CO 2 deep ocean storage technologies. Increased CO 2 uptake can also increase the formation of bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) acidification, decrease pH values, and inhibit the formation of biomass in addition to impacting on the calcification of many organisms. It was concluded that ocean storage by injection or deep storage is an untenable option at present due to the fact that the effects of excessive CO 2 in marine environments are not fully understood. 22 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Including dynamic CO2 intensity with demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, Pia; Brandt, Nils; Nordström, Lars


    Hourly demand response tariffs with the intention of reducing or shifting loads during peak demand hours are being intensively discussed among policy-makers, researchers and executives of future electricity systems. Demand response rates have still low customer acceptance, apparently because the consumption habits requires stronger incentive to change than any proposed financial incentive. An hourly CO 2 intensity signal could give customers an extra environmental motivation to shift or reduce loads during peak hours, as it would enable co-optimisation of electricity consumption costs and carbon emissions reductions. In this study, we calculated the hourly dynamic CO 2 signal and applied the calculation to hourly electricity market data in Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. This provided a novel understanding of the relationships between hourly electricity generation mix composition, electricity price and electricity mix CO 2 intensity. Load shifts from high-price hours resulted in carbon emission reductions for electricity generation mixes where price and CO 2 intensity were positively correlated. The reduction can be further improved if the shift is optimised using both price and CO 2 intensity. The analysis also indicated that an hourly CO 2 intensity signal can help avoid carbon emissions increases for mixes with a negative correlation between electricity price and CO 2 intensity. - Highlights: • We present a formula for calculating hybrid dynamic CO 2 intensity of electricity generation mixes. • We apply the dynamic CO 2 Intensity on hourly electricity market prices and generation units for Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. • We calculate the spearman correlation between hourly electricity market price and dynamic CO 2 intensity for Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. • We calculate carbon footprint of shifting 1 kWh load daily from on-peak hours to off-peak hours using the dynamic CO 2 intensity. • We conclude that using dynamic CO 2 intensity for

  12. Recycling rate of bile acids in the enterohepatic recirculation as a major determinant of whole body 75SeHCAT retention. (United States)

    Peters, A Michael; Walters, Julian R F


    Measurement of the whole body retention of orally administered (75)SeHCAT is used to investigate patients with unexplained diarrhoea. Retention values of recycling rate of bile acids. Increased recycling has been largely ignored as a cause of BAD, but, as shown in this study, can readily result in excess bile acids reaching the colon even when ileal absorption efficiency is normal (i.e. 95-97 %). There needs to be a re-evaluation of the causes of BAD in patients without a history of previous intestinal resection or evidence of ileal pathology, such as Crohn's disease.

  13. Amine–mixed oxide hybrid materials for carbon dioxide adsorption from CO2/H2 mixture (United States)

    Ravi, Navin; Aishah Anuar, Siti; Yusuf, Nur Yusra Mt; Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam Wan; Shahbudin Masdar, Mohd


    Bio-hydrogen mainly contains hydrogen and high level of carbon dioxide (CO2). High concentration of CO2 lead to a limitation especially in fuel cell application. In this study, the amine-mixed oxide hybrid materials for CO2 separation from bio-hydrogen model (50% CO2:50% H2) have been studied. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations showed that the amine–mixed oxide hybrid materials successfully adsorbed CO2 physically with no chemical adsorption evidence. The dry gas of CO2/H2 mixture adsorbed physically on amine–CuO–MgO hybrid material. No carbonates were detected after several times of adsorption, which indicated the good recyclability of adsorbents. The adsorbent system of diethanolamine (DEA)/15% CuO–75% MgO showed the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 21.2 wt% due to the presence of polar substance on MgO surface, which can adsorb CO2 at ambient condition. The alcohol group of DEA can enhance the CO2 solubility on the adsorbent surface. In the 20% CuO–50% MgO adsorbent system, DEA as amine type showed a high CO2 adsorption of 19.4 wt%. The 10% amine loading system showed that the DEA adsorption system provided high CO2 adsorption. The BET analysis confirmed that a high amine loading contributed to the decrease in CO2 adsorption due to the low surface area of the adsorbent system.

  14. A joint global carbon inversion system using both CO2 and 13CO2 atmospheric concentration data (United States)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Deng, Feng


    Observations of 13CO2 at 73 sites compiled in the GLOBALVIEW database are used for an additional constraint in a global atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux using CO2 observations at 210 sites (62 collocated with 13CO2 sites) for the 2002-2004 period for 39 land regions and 11 ocean regions. This constraint is implemented using prior CO2 fluxes estimated with a terrestrial ecosystem model and an ocean model. These models simulate 13CO2 discrimination rates of terrestrial photosynthesis and ocean-atmosphere diffusion processes. In both models, the 13CO2 disequilibrium between fluxes to and from the atmosphere is considered due to the historical change in atmospheric 13CO2 concentration. This joint inversion system using both13CO2 and CO2 observations is effectively a double deconvolution system with consideration of the spatial variations of isotopic discrimination and disequilibrium. Compared to the CO2-only inversion, this 13CO2 constraint on the inversion considerably reduces the total land carbon sink from 3.40 ± 0.84 to 2.53 ± 0.93 Pg C year-1 but increases the total oceanic carbon sink from 1.48 ± 0.40 to 2.36 ± 0.49 Pg C year-1. This constraint also changes the spatial distribution of the carbon sink. The largest sink increase occurs in the Amazon, while the largest source increases are in southern Africa, and Asia, where CO2 data are sparse. Through a case study, in which the spatial distribution of the annual 13CO2 discrimination rate over land is ignored by treating it as a constant at the global average of -14. 1 ‰, the spatial distribution of the inverted CO2 flux over land was found to be significantly modified (up to 15 % for some regions). The uncertainties in our disequilibrium flux estimation are 8.0 and 12.7 Pg C year-1 ‰ for land and ocean, respectively. These uncertainties induced the unpredictability of 0.47 and 0.54 Pg C year-1 in the inverted CO2 fluxes for land and ocean, respectively. Our joint inversion system is therefore

  15. Capture, transport and storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, B.


    The emission of greenhouse gas CO2 in industrial processes and electricity production can be reduced on a large scale. Available techniques include post-combustion, pre-combustion, the oxy-fuel process, CO2 fixation in industrial processes and CO2 mineralization. In the Netherlands, plans for CO2 capture are not developing rapidly (CCS - carbon capture and storage). [mk] [nl

  16. Reconsideration of atmospheric CO2 lifetime: potential mechanism for explaining CO2 missing sink (United States)

    Kikuchi, R.; Gorbacheva, T.; Gerardo, R.


    Carbon cycle data (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1996) indicate that fossil fuel use accounts for emissions to the atmosphere of 5.5±0.5 GtC (Gigatons of carbon) annually. Other important processes in the global CO2 budget are tropical deforestation, estimated to generate about 1.6±1.0 GtC/yr; absorption by the oceans, removing about 2.0±0.8 GtC/yr; and regrowth of northern forests, taking up about 0.5±0.5 GtC/yr. However, accurate measurements of CO2 show that the atmosphere is accumulating only about 3.3±0.2 GtC/yr. The imbalance of about 1.3±1.5 GtC/yr, termed the "missing sink", represents the difference between the estimated sources and the estimated sinks of CO2; that is, we do not know where all of the anthropogenic CO2 is going. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain this missing carbon, such as CO2 fertilization, climate change, nitrogen deposition, land use change, forest regrowth et al. Considering the complexity of ecosystem, most of ecosystem model cannot handle all the potential mechanisms to reproduce the real world. It has been believed that the dominant sink mechanism is the fertilizing effects of increased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and the addition to soils of fixed nitrogen from fossil-fuel burning and agricultural fertilizers. However, a recent analysis of long-term observations of the change in biomass and growth rates suggests that such fertilization effects are much too small to explain more than a small fraction of the observed sink. In addition, long-term experiments in which small forest patches and other land ecosystems have been exposed to elevated CO2 levels for extended periods show a rapid decrease of the fertilization effect after an initial enhancement. We will explore this question of the missing sink in atmospheric CO2 residence time. Radioactive and stable carbon isotopes (13-C/12-C) show the real CO2 lifetime is about 5 years; i.e. CO2 is quickly taken out of the atmospheric

  17. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO(2). (United States)

    van Meerten, S G J; Tayler, M C D; Kentgens, A P M; van Bentum, P J M


    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for (1)H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in (1)H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of longitudinally excited CO2 laser (United States)

    Masroon, N. S.; Tanaka, M.; Tei, M.; Uno, K.; Tsuyama, M.; Nakano, H.


    Simple, compact, and affordable discharged-pumped CO2 laser controlled by a fast high voltage solid state switch has been developed. In this study, longitudinal excitation scheme has been adapted for simple configuration. In the longitudinal excitation scheme, the discharge is produced along the direction of the laser axis, and the electrodes are well separated with a small discharge cross-section. Triggered spark gap switch is usually used to switch out the high voltage because of simple and low cost. However, the triggered spark gap operates in the arc mode and suffer from recovery problem causing a short life time and low efficiency for high repetition rate operation. As a result, there is now considerable interest in replacing triggered spark gap switch with solid state switches. Solid state switches have significant advantages compared to triggered spark gap switch which include longer service lifetime, low cost and stable high trigger pulse. We have developed simple and low cost fast high voltage solid state switch that consists of series connected-MOSFETs. It has been installed to the longitudinally excited CO2 laser to realize the gap switch less operation. Characteristics of laser oscillation by varying the discharge length, charging voltage, capacitance and gas pressure have been evaluated. Longer discharge length produce high power of laser oscillation. Optimum charging voltage and gas pressure were existed for longitudinally excited CO2 laser.

  19. CO2: EDF's competitiveness is due to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The CO 2 emissions of EDF group (EDF-France + EDF-energy (UK) + Hidrocantabrico (Spain) + EnBW (Germany)) soared by 53% in 2002 which is due to the purchase of british and spanish electricity sub-companies using fossil energies. Despite this sharp increase EDF remains one of the most competitive electricity companies in Europe concerning greenhouse gas emissions. EDF group is the first electricity company in Europe, it generates 22% of the electricity produced in E.U and contributes to CO 2 emissions with a rate of 101 Kg CO 2 /MWh which 3 times less than the average rate of 20 other European companies (358 Kg CO 2 /MWh). This result is due to the large part of nuclear power in the French energy mix. The best electricity companies as far as CO 2 emissions are concerned are Statkraft (Norway) with 0 Kg CO 2 /MWh (100% hydrology) and British-energy (U.K) with 75 Kg CO 2 /MWh (75% nuclear power). At the other end we have the DEI company (Greece) with 863 Kg CO 2 /MWh (100% lignite). (A.C.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia LUBAŃSKA

    Full Text Available Z pojęciem ochrony środowiska wiąże się bardzo szeroko w ostatnim czasie omawiane zagadnienie dotyczące ograniczenia emisji CO2. Konsekwencją globalnych zmian klimatu wywołanego przez ludzi jest wzrost stężenia atmosferycznego gazów cieplarnianych, które powodują nasilający się efekt cieplarniany. Wzrasta na świecie liczba ludności, a co za tym idzie wzrasta konsumpcja na jednego mieszkańca, szczególnie w krajach szeroko rozwiniętych gospodarczo. Protokół z Kioto ściśle określa działania jakie należy podjąć w celu zmniejszenia stężenia dwutlenku węgla w atmosferze. Pomimo maksymalnej optymalizacji procesu spalania paliw kopalnianych wykorzystywanych do produkcji energii, zastosowania odnawialnych źródeł energii zmiana klimatu jest nieunikniona i konsekwentnie będzie postępować przez kolejne dekady. Prognozuje się, że duże znaczenie odegra nowoczesna technologia, która ma za zadanie wychwycenie CO2 a następnie składowanie go w odpowiednio wybranych formacjach geologicznych (CCS- Carbon Capture and Storage. Eksperci są zgodni, że ta technologia w niedalekiej przyszłości stanie się rozwiązaniem pozwalającym ograniczyć ogromną ilość emisji CO2 pochodzącą z procesów wytwarzania energii z paliw kopalnych. Z analiz Raportu IPCC wynika, iż technologia CSS może się przyczynić do ok. 20% redukcji emisji dwutlenku węgla przewidzianej do 2050 roku [3]. Zastosowanie jej napotyka na wiele barier, nie tylko technologicznych i ekonomicznych, ale także społecznych. Inną metodą dającą ujemne źródło emisji CO2 jest możliwość wykorzystania obszarów leśnych o odpowiedniej strukturze drzewostanu. Środkiem do tego celu, oprócz ograniczenia zużycia emisjogennych paliw kopalnych (przy zachowaniu zasad zrównoważonego rozwoju może być intensyfikacja zalesień. Zwiększanie lesistości i prawidłowa gospodarka leśna należy do najbardziej efektywnych sposobów kompensowania

  1. Dolomite decomposition under CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfa, F.; Bensouici, F.; Barama, S.E.; Harabi, A.; Achour, S.


    Full text.Dolomite (MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 is one of the most abundant mineral species on the surface of the planet, it occurs in sedimentary rocks. MgO, CaO and Doloma (Phase mixture of MgO and CaO, obtained from the mineral dolomite) based materials are attractive steel-making refractories because of their potential cost effectiveness and world wide abundance more recently, MgO is also used as protective layers in plasma screen manufacture ceel. The crystal structure of dolomite was determined as rhombohedral carbonates, they are layers of Mg +2 and layers of Ca +2 ions. It dissociates depending on the temperature variations according to the following reactions: MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + CaO + 2CO 2 .....MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + Ca + CaCO 3 + CO 2 .....This latter reaction may be considered as a first step for MgO production. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) are used to control dolomite decomposition and the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was used to elucidate thermal decomposition of dolomite according to the reaction. That required samples were heated to specific temperature and holding times. The average particle size of used dolomite powders is 0.3 mm, as where, the heating temperature was 700 degree celsius, using various holding times (90 and 120 minutes). Under CO 2 dolomite decomposed directly to CaCO 3 accompanied by the formation of MgO, no evidence was offered for the MgO formation of either CaO or MgCO 3 , under air, simultaneous formation of CaCO 3 , CaO and accompanied dolomite decomposition

  2. Outsourcing CO2 within China (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus


    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country’s borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world’s largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China’s emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low–value-added but high–carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China. PMID:23754377

  3. Study on energy-saving performance of a transcritical CO2 heat pump for food thermal process applications (United States)

    Liu, Yefeng; Meng, Deren; Chen, Shen


    In food processing, there are significant simultaneous demands of cooling, warm water and hot water. Most of the heated water is used only once rather than recycled. Current heating and cooling systems consume much energy and emit lots of greenhouse gases. In order to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission, a transcritical CO2 heat pump system is proposed that can supply not only cooling, but also warm water and hot water simultaneously to meet the thermal demands of food processing. Because the inlet water temperature from environment varies through a year, the energy-saving performance for different seasons is simulated. The results showed that the potential primary energy saving rate of the proposed CO2 heat pump is 50% to 60% during a year.

  4. Leakage and Seepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.


    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO 2 may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO 2 leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO 2 overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO 2 bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s -1 at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s -1 . Liquid CO 2 bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO 2 bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO 2 and CH 4 at three different seepage rates reveals that

  5. Potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) as a source of energy in Sao Paulo: its impact on CO2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, A.L.; Ing Hwie Tan


    Energy generation is needed in Sao Paulo and MSW represents a promising alternative, although it is more expensive than hydroelectric power. About 14 900 t/day of MSW is generated, of which 8433 t/day is domestic and commercial MSW. From this amount, 1800 t will be destined to generate 30 MW of power. The eco-balance of CO 2 has been considered for incineration and recycling. The recycling program of plastics, metals, paper and glass would represent a significant reduction in energy and CO 2 emission. The total CO 2 released is 3.34 x 10 5 t/yr without recycling, and is 1.25 x 10 5 t/yr with a recycling program. Most of the CO 2 comes from plastics and paper production. Economic aspects could probably favor incineration with energy production as the best option. (author)

  6. Assessing the Impact of Recycled Water Quality and Clogging on Infiltration Rates at A Pioneering Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) Site in Alice Springs, Northern Territory (NT), Australia


    Karen E. Barry; Joanne L. Vanderzalm; Konrad Miotlinski; Peter J. Dillon


    Infiltration techniques for managed aquifer recharge (MAR), such as soil aquifer treatment (SAT) can facilitate low-cost water recycling and supplement groundwater resources. However there are still challenges in sustaining adequate infiltration rates in the presence of lower permeability sediments, especially when wastewater containing suspended solids and nutrients is used to recharge the aquifer. To gain a better insight into reductions in infiltration rates during MAR, a field investigati...

  7. Trading CO2 emission; Verhandelbaarheid van CO2-emissies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, J.F.; Looijenga, A.; Moor, R.; Wissema, E.W.J. [Afdeling Energie, Ministerie van VROM, The Hague (Netherlands)


    Systems for CO2-emission trading can take many shapes as developments in Europe show. European developments for emission trading tend to comprehend cap and-trade systems for large emission sources. In the Netherlands a different policy is in preparation. A trading system for sheltered sectors with an option to buy reductions from exposed sectors will be further developed by a Commission, appointed by the minister of environment. Exposed sectors are committed to belong to the top of the world on the area of energy-efficiency. The authors point out that a cap on the distribution of energy carriers natural gas, electricity and fuel seems to be an interesting option to shape the trade scheme. A cap on the distribution of electricity is desirable, but not easy to implement. The possible success of the system depends partly on an experiment with emission reductions. 10 refs.

  8. Geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.


    The industrial storage of CO 2 is comprised of three steps: - capture of CO 2 where it is produced (power plants, cement plants, etc.); - transport (pipe lines or boats); - storage, mainly underground, called geological sequestration... Three types of reservoirs are considered: - salted deep aquifers - they offer the biggest storage capacity; - exhausted oil and gas fields; - non-exploited deep coal mine streams. The two latter storage types may allow the recovery of sellable products, which partially or totally offsets the storage costs. This process is largely used in the petroleum industry to improve the productivity of an oil field, and is called FOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery). A similar process is applied in the coal mining industry to recover the imprisoned gas, and is called ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed methane). Two storage operations have been initiated in Norway and in Canada, as well as research programmes in Europe, North America, Australia and Japan. International organisations to stimulate this technology have been created such as the 'Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum' and 'the Intergovernmental Group for Climate Change'. This technology will be taken into account in the instruments provided by the Tokyo Protocol. (author)

  9. Modeling of CO2 absorber using an AMP solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jostein; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    Abstract: An explicit model for carbon dioxide (CO2) solubility in an aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) has been proposed and an expression for the heat of absorption of CO2 has been developed as a function of loading and temperature. A rate-based steady-state model for CO2...... to absorption of CO2 into an AMP solution in a packed tower and validated against pilot-plant data from the literature. (c) 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers....... absorption into an AMP solution has been proposed, using both the proposed expression for the CO2 solubility and the expression for the heat of absorption along with an expression for the enhancement factor and physicochemical data from the literature. The proposed model has successfully been applied...

  10. 367 cases of CO2 laser therapy on facial acne (United States)

    Gao, Yunqing; Liu, Songhao; Zhang, You; Liu, T. C.


    Since 1989, we have cured 367 persons of facial acne of different course by using direct irradiation of high-power CO2 laser combing with operative therapy of low-power CO2 laser. The cure rate is 100 percent. In this paper, we stated the therapeutic approach. It was shown that this therapeutic approach is simple and effective, and its recurrence rate is zero. There are no cicatrices after healing. It is easy to accept it, and is worthy of extension.

  11. Characteristics of CO2 release from forest soil in the mountains near Beijing. (United States)

    Sun, Xiang Yang; Gao, Cheng Da; Zhang, Lin; Li, Su Yan; Qiao, Yong


    CO2 release from forest soil is a key driver of carbon cycling between the soil and atmosphere ecosystem. The rate of CO2 released from soil was measured in three forest stands (in the mountainous region near Beijing, China) by the alkaline absorption method from 2004 to 2006. The rate of CO2 released did not differ among the three stands. The CO2 release rate ranged from - 341 to 1,193 mg m(-2) h(-1), and the mean value over all three forests and sampling times was 286 mg m(-2) h(-1). CO2 release was positively correlated with soil water content and the soil temperature. Diurnally, CO2 release was higher in the day than at night. Seasonally, CO2 release was highest in early autumn and lowest in winter; in winter, negative values of CO2 release suggested that CO2 was absorbed by soil.

  12. Fabrication of free-standing NiCo2O4 nanoarrays via a facile modified hydrothermal synthesis method and their applications for lithium ion batteries and high-rate alkaline batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Qingyun; Zhang, Xiangyang; Shen, Youming


    Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal-synthesized NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflake arrays exhibit porous structure and high capacity as well as good cycling life for lithium ion batteries and alkaline batteries. - Highlights: • Self-supported NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflake arrays are prepared by a hydrothermal method. • NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflake arrays show high capacity and good cycling life. • Porous nanoflake arrays structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. - Abstract: Self-supported NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflake arrays on nickel foam are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflakes with thicknesses of ∼25 nm grow vertically to the nickel foam substrate and form an interconnected porous network with pore diameters of 50–500 nm. As anode material of LIBs, the NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflake arrays show a high initial coulombic efficiency of 76%, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity of 880 mAh g −1 at 0.5 A g −1 , and 523 mAh g −1 at 1.5 A g −1 after 50 cycles. As the cathode of alkaline batteries, a high capacity of 95 mAh g −1 is achieved at 2 A g −1 and 94% retention is maintained after 10,000 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique nanoflake arrays structure with large surface area and shorter diffusion length for mass and charge transport

  13. Alberta industrial synergy CO2 programs initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.


    The various industrial sectors within Alberta produce about 350,000 tonnes of CO 2 per day. This presentation was concerned with how this large volume and high concentration of CO 2 can be used in industrial and agricultural applications, because every tonne of CO 2 used for such purposes is a tonne that does not end up in the atmosphere. There is a good potential for an industrial synergy between the producers and users of CO 2 . The Alberta Industrial Synergy CO 2 Programs Initiative was established to ultimately achieve a balance between the producers of CO 2 and the users of CO 2 by creating ways to use the massive quantities of CO 2 produced by Alberta's hydrocarbon-based economy. The Alberta CO 2 Research Steering Committee was created to initiate and support CO 2 programs such as: (1) CO 2 use in enhanced oil recovery, (2) creation of a CO 2 production inventory, (3) survey of CO 2 users and potential users, (4) investigation of process issues such as power generation, oil sands and cement manufacturing, and (5) biofixation by plants, (6) other disposal options (e.g. in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, in aquifers, in tailings ponds, in coal beds). The single most important challenge was identified as 'rationalizing the formation of the necessary infrastructure'. Failing to do that will greatly impede efforts directed towards CO 2 utilization

  14. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.


    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  15. Framing Climate Goals in Terms of Cumulative CO2-Forcing-Equivalent Emissions (United States)

    Jenkins, S.; Millar, R. J.; Leach, N.; Allen, M. R.


    The relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and CO2-induced warming is determined by the Transient Climate Response to Emissions (TCRE), but total anthropogenic warming also depends on non-CO2 forcing, complicating the interpretation of emissions budgets based on CO2 alone. An alternative is to frame emissions budgets in terms of CO2-forcing-equivalent (CO2-fe) emissions—the CO2 emissions that would yield a given total anthropogenic radiative forcing pathway. Unlike conventional "CO2-equivalent" emissions, these are directly related to warming by the TCRE and need to fall to zero to stabilize warming: hence, CO2-fe emissions generalize the concept of a cumulative carbon budget to multigas scenarios. Cumulative CO2-fe emissions from 1870 to 2015 inclusive are found to be 2,900 ± 600 GtCO2-fe, increasing at a rate of 67 ± 9.5 GtCO2-fe/yr. A TCRE range of 0.8-2.5°C per 1,000 GtC implies a total budget for 0.6°C of additional warming above the present decade of 880-2,750 GtCO2-fe, with 1,290 GtCO2-fe implied by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 median response, corresponding to 19 years' CO2-fe emissions at the current rate.

  16. Technical insight on the requirements for CO2-saturated growth of microalgae in photobioreactors. (United States)

    Yuvraj; Padmanabhan, Padmini


    Microalgal cultures are usually sparged with CO 2 -enriched air to preclude CO 2 limitation during photoautotrophic growth. However, the CO 2 vol% specifically required at operating conditions to meet the carbon requirement of algal cells in photobioreactor is never determined and 1-10% v/v CO 2 -enriched air is arbitrarily used. A scheme is proposed and experimentally validated for Chlorella vulgaris that allows computing CO 2 -saturated growth feasible at given CO 2 vol% and volumetric O 2 mass-transfer coefficient (k L a) O . CO 2 sufficiency in an experiment can be theoretically established to adjust conditions for CO 2 -saturated growth. The methodology completely eliminates the requirement of CO 2 electrode for online estimation of dissolved CO 2 to determine critical CO 2 concentration (C crit ), specific CO 2 uptake rate (SCUR), and volumetric CO 2 mass-transfer coefficient (k L a) C required for the governing CO 2 mass-transfer equation. C crit was estimated from specific O 2 production rate (SOPR) measurements at different dissolved CO 2 concentrations. SCUR was calculated from SOPR and photosynthetic quotient (PQ) determined from the balanced stoichiometric equation of growth. Effect of light attenuation and nutrient depletion on biomass estimate is also discussed. Furthermore, a simple design of photosynthetic activity measurement system was used, which minimizes light attenuation by hanging a low depth (ca. 10 mm) culture over the light source.

  17. Seasonal and temporal CO2 dynamics in three tropical mangrove creeks - A revision of global mangrove CO2 emissions (United States)

    Rosentreter, Judith A.; Maher, D. T.; Erler, D. V.; Murray, R.; Eyre, B. D.


    Continuous high-resolution surface water pCO2 and δ13C-CO2 and 222Rn (dry season only) were measured over two tidal cycles in the wet and dry season in three tropical tidal mangrove creeks on the north-eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. Mangrove surface water pCO2 followed a clear tidal pattern (ranging from 387 to 13,031 μatm) with higher pCO2-values in the wet season than in the dry season. The δ13C-CO2 in the mangrove waters ranged from -21.7 to -8.8‰ and was rather indicative of a mixed source than a distinct mangrove signature. Surface water CO2 was likely driven by a combination of mangrove and external carbon sources, e.g. exchange with groundwater/pore water enriched in 13C, or terrestrial carbon inputs with a significant contribution of C4-vegetation (sugar cane) source. The kinetic and equilibrium fractionation during the gas exchange at the water-atmosphere interface may have further caused a 13C-enrichment of the CO2 pool in the mangrove surface waters. Average CO2 evasion rates (58.7-277.6 mmol m-2 d-1) were calculated using different empirical gas transfer velocity models. Using our high-resolution time series data and previously published data, the average CO2 flux rate in mangrove ecosystems was estimated to be 56.5 ± 8.9 mmol m-2 d-1, which corresponds to a revised global mangrove CO2 emission of 34.1 ± 5.4 Tg C per year.

  18. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.


    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO 2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO 2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO 2 , representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  19. Absorber Model for CO2 Capture by Monoethanolamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faramarzi, Leila; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht


    The rate-based steady-state model proposed by Gabrielsen et al. (Gabrielsen, J.; Michelsen, M. L.; Kontogeorgis, G. M.; Stenby, E. H. AIChE J. 2006, 52, 10, 3443-3451) for the design of the CO2-2-amino-2-methylpropanol absorbers is adopted and improved for the design of the CO2-monoethanolamine......, and their impact on the model's prediction is compared. The model has been successfully applied to CO2 absorber packed columns and validated against pilot plant data with good agreement....

  20. Overview of CO2 valorization pathways. Final document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tridant Bel, Jean-Philippe; Pairin, Cecile; Darcet, Cecile; Thybaud, Nathalie; Lebain, David; David, Marc; Morin, Dominique; Bigeon, Philippe; Mansilla, Christine; Amouroux, Jacques; De Witte, Marc; Ungerer, Philippe; Jarrin, Jacques; Blancheton, Jean-Paul; Rene, Francois; Farret, Regis; Gimenez, Michel; Sassi, William; Clin, Francois; Clodic, Denis; Desnost, Carole; Gresser, Robert; Yacono, Charles


    Reducing the emissions of the main anthropogenic greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, is one of the major challenges of this century. The growth in energy demand does not allow, at the present time, the use of fossil fuels to be avoided. As a consequence, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a solution with great potential and is the subject of many pilot projects. In this field, France is now well positioned, despite a strongly de-carbonated electricity. As a complement to these actions, it is also possible to reuse the CO 2 molecule, considering it as a raw material, as a source of carbon. CO 2 recovery in order to produce chemical compounds is then similar to recycling and would involve an environmental benefit and an economic opportunity at the same time. In this context, the French Agency for Energy and Environment (ADEME) and the French public authorities (MEEDDM, MSR, etc.) asked ALCIMED to better understand the different pathways of CO 2 recycling and to identify the main development opportunities of such technologies in France. The results of the study also relied on the knowledge and experience of a steering committee composed of key figures from the institutional and industrial sectors. A cross-sectional analysis of the literature and telephone interviews with experts (industrial and institutional) conducted to the identification of 12 pathways of carbon dioxide recycling, that have been divided into three segments: the use of CO 2 without processing, chemical processing and biological processing. The technological, economic and environmental factors have been evaluated for each pathway, and key stakeholders and related projects have been complemented. A first analysis has been then conducted in order to compare the different pathways to each other. In addition, ALCIMED and the members of the steering committee of this study have led a first discussion on the position of France in regard to carbon dioxide recycling, putting in light industrial and

  1. Modeling Silicate Weathering for Elevated CO2 and Temperature (United States)

    Bolton, E. W.


    A reactive transport model (RTM) is used to assess CO2 drawdown by silicate weathering over a wide range of temperature, pCO2, and infiltration rates for basalts and granites. Although RTM's have been used extensively to model weathering of basalts and granites for present-day conditions, we extend such modeling to higher CO2 that could have existed during the Archean and Proterozoic. We also consider a wide range of surface temperatures and infiltration rates. We consider several model basalt and granite compositions. We normally impose CO2 in equilibrium with the various atmospheric ranges modeled and CO2 is delivered to the weathering zone by aqueous transport. We also consider models with fixed CO2 (aq) throughout the weathering zone as could occur in soils with partial water saturation or with plant respiration, which can strongly influence pH and mineral dissolution rates. For the modeling, we use Kinflow: a model developed at Yale that includes mineral dissolution and precipitation under kinetic control, aqueous speciation, surface erosion, dynamic porosity, permeability, and mineral surface areas via sub-grid-scale grain models, and exchange of volatiles at the surface. Most of the modeling is done in 1D, but some comparisons to 2D domains with heterogeneous permeability are made. We find that when CO2 is fixed only at the surface, the pH tends toward higher values for basalts than granites, in large part due to the presence of more divalent than monovalent cations in the primary minerals, tending to decrease rates of mineral dissolution. Weathering rates increase (as expected) with increasing CO2 and temperature. This modeling is done with the support of the Virtual Planetary Laboratory.

  2. ISLSCP II Globalview: Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GlobalView Carbon Dioxide (CO2) data product contains synchronized and smoothed time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected sites that were created...

  3. Development of a hybrid photo-bioreactor and nanoparticle adsorbent system for the removal of CO2, and selected organic and metal co-pollutants. (United States)

    Rocha, Andrea A; Wilde, Christian; Hu, Zhenzhong; Nepotchatykh, Oleg; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Ariya, Parisa A


    Fossil fuel combustion and many industrial processes generate gaseous emissions that contain a number of toxic organic pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) which contribute to climate change and atmospheric pollution. There is a need for green and sustainable solutions to remove air pollutants, as opposed to conventional techniques which can be expensive, consume additional energy and generate further waste. We developed a novel integrated bioreactor combined with recyclable iron oxide nano/micro-particle adsorption interfaces, to remove CO 2, and undesired organic air pollutants using natural particles, while generating oxygen. This semi-continuous bench-scale photo-bioreactor was shown to successfully clean up simulated emission streams of up to 45% CO 2 with a conversion rate of approximately 4% CO 2 per hour, generating a steady supply of oxygen (6mmol/hr), while nanoparticles effectively remove several undesired organic by-products. We also showed algal waste of the bioreactor can be used for mercury remediation. We estimated the potential CO 2 emissions that could be captured from our new method for three industrial cases in which, coal, oil and natural gas were used. With a 30% carbon capture system, the reduction of CO 2 was estimated to decrease by about 420,000, 320,000 and 240,000 metric tonnes, respectively for a typical 500MW power plant. The cost analysis we conducted showed potential to scale-up, and the entire system is recyclable and sustainable. We further discuss the implications of usage of this complete system, or as individual units, that could provide a hybrid option to existing industrial setups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. CO2 condensation and the climate of early Mars. (United States)

    Kasting, J F


    A one-dimensional, radiative-convective climate model was used to reexamine the question of whether early Mars could have been kept warm by the greenhouse effect of a dense, CO2 atmosphere. The new model differs from previous models by considering the influence of CO2 clouds on the convective lapse rate and on the the planetary radiation budget. Condensation of CO2 decreases the lapse rate and, hence, reduces the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. This phenomenon becomes increasingly important at low solar luminosities and may preclude warm (0 degree C), globally averaged surface temperatures prior to approximately 2 billion years ago unless other greenhouse gases were present in addition to CO2 and H2O. Alternative mechanisms for warming early Mars and explaining channel formation are discussed.

  5. Towards CO2 sequestration and applications of CO2 hydrates: the effects of tetrahydrofuran on the phase equilibria of CO2 hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalik, M.S.; Peters, C.J.


    The increasing quantity of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere has caused widespread global concerns. Capturing CO 2 from its sources and stored it in the form of gas hydrates and application of CO 2 hydrates are among the proposed methods to overcome this problem. In order to make hydrate-based process more attractive, the use of cyclic ethers as promoters is suggested to reduce the required hydrate formation pressure and enhancing the corresponding kinetic rate. In the present work, tetrahydrofuran (THF) is chosen as a hydrate promoter, participating in forming hydrates and produces mixed hydrate together with CO 2 . The pressure and temperature ranges of hydrate stability region are carefully determined through phase equilibrium measurement of the ternary CO 2 , tetrahydrofuran (THF) and water systems. From the experimental results, it is confirmed that the presence of THF in CO 2 + water systems will extend the hydrate formation region to higher temperature at a constant pressure. The extension of the hydrate stability region is depended on the overall concentration of the ternary system. Moreover, four-phase equilibrium of H-Lw-Lv-V is observed in the system, which may be due to a liquid phase split. In the region where the four-phase equilibrium exists, the ternary system loses its concentration dependency of the hydrate equilibrium conditions. (Author)

  6. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, V.; Barbier, C.; Riedacker, A.


    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO 2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO 2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  7. Bioelectrochemical conversion of CO2 to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Pant, Deepak


    The recent concept of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) has evolved as an electricity-driven production technology for chemicals from low-value carbon dioxide (CO2) using micro-organisms as biocatalysts. MES from CO2 comprises bioelectrochemical reduction of CO2 to multi-carbon organic compounds

  8. Nuclear recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.


    This paper discusses two aspects of the economics of recycling nuclear fuel: the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved; and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium. The authors review the relevant physical and chemical processes involved in the recycling process. Recovery of uranium and plutonium is discussed. Fuel recycling in LWRs is examined and a table presents the costs of reprocessing and not reprocessing. The subject of plutonium in fast reactors is addressed. Safeguards and weapons proliferation are discussed

  9. Macro economic analysis of CO2 emission limits for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.X.; Folmer, H.; Van Beek, P.


    Using a newly developed time-recursive dynamic CGE model for energy and environmental policy analysis of the Chinese economy, a business-as-usual scenario is first developed assuming no specific policy intervention to limit the growth rate of CO2 emissions. Counter factual policy simulation is then carried out to compute the macroeconomic implications of a carbon tax to limit the Chinese energy-related CO2 emissions. 2 tabs., 5 refs

  10. CO2 Conversion: The Potential of Porous–Organic Polymers (POPs) for the cycloaddition of CO2 and epoxides

    KAUST Repository

    Alkordi, Mohamed Helmi


    Novel porous organic polymers (POPs) have been synthesized using functionalized Cr and Co-salen complexes as molecular building blocks. The integration of metalosalen catalysts into the porous polymers backbone permits the successful utilization of the materials as solid-state catalysts for CO2-epoxide cycloadditions reactions with excellent catalytic performance under mild conditions of temperature and pressure. The catalyst proved to be fully recyclable and robust thus showing the potential of POPs as smart functional materials for the heterogenization of key catalytic elements.

  11. Tropical epiphytes in a CO 2-rich atmosphere (United States)

    Monteiro, José Alberto Fernandez; Zotz, Gerhard; Körner, Christian


    We tested the effect on epiphyte growth of a doubling of pre-industrial CO 2 concentration (280 vs. 560 ppm) combined with two light (three fold) and two nutrition (ten fold) treatments under close to natural humid conditions in daylight growth cabinets over 6 months. Across co-treatments and six species, elevated CO 2 increased relative growth rates by only 6% ( p = 0.03). Although the three C3 species, on average, grew 60% faster than the three CAM species, the two groups did not significantly differ in their CO 2 response. The two Orchidaceae, Bulbophyllum (CAM) and Oncidium (C3) showed no CO 2 response, and three out of four Bromeliaceae showed a positive one: Aechmea (CAM, +32% p = 0.08), Catopsis (C3, +11% p = 0.01) and Vriesea (C3, +4% p = 0.02). In contrast, the representative of the species-rich genus Tillandsia (CAM), which grew very well under experimental conditions, showed no stimulation. On average, high light increased growth by 21% and high nutrients by 10%. Interactions between CO 2, light and nutrient treatments (low vs. high) were inconsistent across species. CO 2 responsive taxa such as Catopsis, could accelerate tropical forest dynamics and increase branch breakage, but overall, the responses to doubling CO 2 of these epiphytes was relatively small and the responses were taxa specific.

  12. Catholyte-Free Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction to Formate. (United States)

    Lee, Wonhee; Kim, Young Eun; Youn, Min Hye; Jeong, Soon Kwan; Park, Ki Tae


    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into value-added chemicals is a promising strategy to reduce CO 2 emission and mitigate climate change. One of the most serious problems in electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction (CO 2 R) is the low solubility of CO 2 in an aqueous electrolyte, which significantly limits the cathodic reaction rate. This paper proposes a facile method of catholyte-free electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction to avoid the solubility limitation using commercial tin nanoparticles as a cathode catalyst. Interestingly, as the reaction temperature rises from 303 K to 363 K, the partial current density (PCD) of formate improves more than two times with 52.9 mA cm -2 , despite the decrease in CO 2 solubility. Furthermore, a significantly high formate concentration of 41.5 g L -1 is obtained as a one-path product at 343 K with high PCD (51.7 mA cm -2 ) and high Faradaic efficiency (93.3 %) via continuous operation in a full flow cell at a low cell voltage of 2.2 V. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Simulated effect of calcification feedback on atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Cao, Long


    Ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 reduces pH and saturation state of calcium carbonate materials of seawater, which could reduce the calcification rate of some marine organisms, triggering a negative feedback on the growth of atmospheric CO2. We quantify the effect of this CO2-calcification feedback by conducting a series of Earth system model simulations that incorporate different parameterization schemes describing the dependence of calcification rate on saturation state of CaCO3. In a scenario with SRES A2 CO2 emission until 2100 and zero emission afterwards, by year 3500, in the simulation without CO2-calcification feedback, model projects an accumulated ocean CO2 uptake of 1462 PgC, atmospheric CO2 of 612 ppm, and surface pH of 7.9. Inclusion of CO2-calcification feedback increases ocean CO2 uptake by 9 to 285 PgC, reduces atmospheric CO2 by 4 to 70 ppm, and mitigates the reduction in surface pH by 0.003 to 0.06, depending on the form of parameterization scheme used. It is also found that the effect of CO2-calcification feedback on ocean carbon uptake is comparable and could be much larger than the effect from CO2-induced warming. Our results highlight the potentially important role CO2-calcification feedback plays in ocean carbon cycle and projections of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. PMID:26838480

  14. Forest succession at elevated CO2; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.


    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response

  15. Managing geological uncertainty in CO2-EOR reservoir assessments (United States)

    Welkenhuysen, Kris; Piessens, Kris


    Recently the European Parliament has agreed that an atlas for the storage potential of CO2 is of high importance to have a successful commercial introduction of CCS (CO2 capture and geological storage) technology in Europe. CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is often proposed as a promising business case for CCS, and likely has a high potential in the North Sea region. Traditional economic assessments for CO2-EOR largely neglect the geological reality of reservoir uncertainties because these are difficult to introduce realistically in such calculations. There is indeed a gap between the outcome of a reservoir simulation and the input values for e.g. cost-benefit evaluations, especially where it concerns uncertainty. The approach outlined here is to turn the procedure around, and to start from which geological data is typically (or minimally) requested for an economic assessment. Thereafter it is evaluated how this data can realistically be provided by geologists and reservoir engineers. For the storage of CO2 these parameters are total and yearly CO2 injection capacity, and containment or potential on leakage. Specifically for the EOR operation, two additional parameters can be defined: the EOR ratio, or the ratio of recovered oil over injected CO2, and the CO2 recycling ratio of CO2 that is reproduced after breakthrough at the production well. A critical but typically estimated parameter for CO2-EOR projects is the EOR ratio, taken in this brief outline as an example. The EOR ratio depends mainly on local geology (e.g. injection per well), field design (e.g. number of wells), and time. Costs related to engineering can be estimated fairly good, given some uncertainty range. The problem is usually to reliably estimate the geological parameters that define the EOR ratio. Reliable data is only available from (onshore) CO2-EOR projects in the US. Published studies for the North Sea generally refer to these data in a simplified form, without uncertainty ranges, and are

  16. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone. (United States)

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J


    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers.

  17. CO2 clearance by membrane lungs. (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Kaesler, Andreas; Fernando, Piyumindri; Thompson, Alex J; Toomasian, John M; Bartlett, Robert H


    Commercial membrane lungs are designed to transfer a specific amount of oxygen per unit of venous blood flow. Membrane lungs are much more efficient at removing CO 2 than adding oxygen, but the range of CO 2 transfer is rarely reported. Commercial membrane lungs were studied with the goal of evaluating CO 2 removal capacity. CO 2 removal was measured in 4 commercial membrane lungs under standardized conditions. CO 2 clearance can be greater than 4 times that of oxygen at a given blood flow when the gas to blood flow ratio is elevated to 4:1 or 8:1. The CO 2 clearance was less dependent on surface area and configuration than oxygen transfer. Any ECMO system can be used for selective CO 2 removal.

  18. Does Elevated CO2 Alter Silica Uptake in Trees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson W. Fulweiler


    Full Text Available Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C and N (N cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global carbon dioxide fertilization, long-term free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine, and five hardwood species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica (BSi concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20% and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.

  19. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasquel


    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  20. Integrative CO2 Capture and Hydrogenation to Methanol with Reusable Catalyst and Amine: Toward a Carbon Neutral Methanol Economy. (United States)

    Kar, Sayan; Sen, Raktim; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya


    Herein we report an efficient and recyclable system for tandem CO 2 capture and hydrogenation to methanol. After capture in an aqueous amine solution, CO 2 is hydrogenated in high yield to CH 3 OH (>90%) in a biphasic 2-MTHF/water system, which also allows for easy separation and recycling of the amine and catalyst for multiple reaction cycles. Between cycles, the produced methanol can be conveniently removed in vacuo. Employing this strategy, catalyst Ru-MACHO-BH and polyamine PEHA were recycled three times with 87% of the methanol producibility of the first cycle retained, along with 95% of catalyst activity after four cycles. CO 2 from dilute sources such as air can also be converted to CH 3 OH using this route. We postulate that the CO 2 capture and hydrogenation to methanol system presented here could be an important step toward the implementation of the carbon neutral methanol economy concept.

  1. PEAT-CO2. Assessment of CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in SE Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooijer, A.; Silvius, M.; Woesten, H.; Page, S.


    Forested tropical peatlands in SE Asia store at least 42,000 Megatonnes of soil carbon. This carbon is increasingly released to the atmosphere due to drainage and fires associated with plantation development and logging. Peatlands make up 12% of the SE Asian land area but account for 25% of current deforestation. Out of 27 million hectares of peatland, 12 million hectares (45%) are currently deforested and mostly drained. One important crop in drained peatlands is palm oil, which is increasingly used as a biofuel in Europe. In the PEAT-CO2 project, present and future emissions from drained peatlands were quantified using the latest data on peat extent and depth, present and projected land use and water management practice, decomposition rates and fire emissions. It was found that current likely CO2 emissions caused by decomposition of drained peatlands amounts to 632 Mt/y (between 355 and 874 Mt/y). This emission will increase in coming decades unless land management practices and peatland development plans are changed, and will continue well beyond the 21st century. In addition, over 1997-2006 an estimated average of 1400 Mt/y in CO2 emissions was caused by peatland fires that are also associated with drainage and degradation. The current total peatland CO2 emission of 2000 Mt/y equals almost 8% of global emissions from fossil fuel burning. These emissions have been rapidly increasing since 1985 and will further increase unless action is taken. Over 90% of this emission originates from Indonesia, which puts the country in 3rd place (after the USA and China) in the global CO2 emission ranking. It is concluded that deforested and drained peatlands in SE Asia are a globally significant source of CO2 emissions and a major obstacle to meeting the aim of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions, as expressed by the international community. It is therefore recommended that international action is taken to help SE Asian countries, especially Indonesia, to better conserve

  2. Toward solar biodiesel production from CO2 using engineered cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Woo, Han Min; Lee, Hyun Jeong


    Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has received attention as a sustainable strategy to convert carbon dioxide to various biochemicals including fatty acid-derived biodiesel. Recently, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a model cyanobacterium, has been engineered to convert CO2 to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as biodiesel. Modular pathway has been constructed for FAEE production. Several metabolic engineering strategies were discussed to improve the production levels of FAEEs, including host engineering by improving CO2 fixation rate and photosynthetic efficiency. In addition, protein engineering of key enzyme in S. elongatus PCC 7942 was implemented to address issues on FAEE secretions toward sustainable FAEE production from CO2. Finally, advanced metabolic engineering will promote developing biosolar cell factories to convert CO2 to feasible amount of FAEEs toward solar biodiesel. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  3. Nuclear power and its role in limiting CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The objective of this study is to analyze the proper role of nuclear power in the long term energy planning by comparing different type of scenarios in terms of CO2 emission reduction, based on the Business-as-Usual (BAU) scenario. For this purpose, a MESSAGE (Model of Energy Supply Systems and their General Environmental impacts) was used to develop energy planning as well as CO2 emission projection. A sensitivity analysis for CO2 reduction rates of 2.%, 3%, 4% and 5% have been done. From this sensitivity analysis, it can be concluded that nuclear will be a part of optimum solution under CO2 limitation of at least 3% from BAU condition. The more the environmental standards are tightened and enforced the more and the earlier nuclear power becomes part of the optimum generation mix. (author)

  4. Computational study on oxynitride perovskites for CO_2 photoreduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, Ahmed M.; Zedan, Abdallah F.; AlQaradawi, Siham Y.; Salem, Noha M.; Allam, Nageh K.


    Highlights: • Oxynitride perovskites are investigated for photoelectrochemical CO_2 reduction. • They have small electron and hole effective masses, rendering higher mobility. • The effect of cation size on the band gap is investigated and discussed. • W-doping allowed the selection of specific CO_2 reduction products. - Abstract: The photocatalytic conversion of CO_2 into chemical fuels is an attractive route for recycling this greenhouse gas. However, the large scale application of such approach is limited by the low selectivity and activity of the currently used photocatalysts. Using first principles calculations, we report on the selection of optimum oxynitride perovskites as photocatalysts for photoelectrochemical CO_2 reduction. The results revealed six perovskites that perfectly straddle the carbon dioxide redox potential; namely, BaTaO_2N, SrTaO_2N, CaTaO_2N, LaTiO_2N, BaNbO_2N, and SrNbO_2N. The electronic structure and the effective mass of the selected candidates are discussed in details, the partial and total density of states illustrated the orbital hybridization and the contribution of each element in the valence and conduction band minima. The effect of cation size in the ABO_2N perovskites on the band gap is investigated and discussed. The optical properties of the selected perovskites are calculated to account for their photoactivity. Moreover, the effect of W doping on improving the selectivity of perovskites toward specific hydrocarbon product (methane) is discussed in details. This study reveals the promising optical and structural properties of oxynitride perovskite candidates for CO_2 photoreduction.

  5. Throwing new light on the reduction of CO2. (United States)

    Ozin, Geoffrey A


    While the chemical energy in fossil fuels has enabled the rapid rise of modern civilization, their utilization and accompanying anthropogenic CO2 emissions is occurring at a rate that is outpacing nature's carbon cycle. Its effect is now considered to be irreversible and this could lead to the demise of human society. This is a complex issue without a single solution, yet from the burgeoning global research activity and development in the field of CO2 capture and utilization, there is light at the end of the tunnel. In this article a couple of recent advances are illuminated. Attention is focused on the discovery of gas-phase, light-assisted heterogeneous catalytic materials and processes for CO2 photoreduction that operate at sufficiently high rates and conversion efficiencies, and under mild conditions, to open a new pathway for an energy transition from today's "fossil fuel economy" to a new and sustainable "CO2 economy". Whichever of the competing CO2 capture and utilization approaches proves to be the best way forward for the development of a future CO2-based solar fuels economy, hopefully this can occur in a period short enough to circumvent the predicted adverse consequences of greenhouse gas climate change. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Exergy and exergoeconomic analyses of a supercritical CO_2 cycle for a cogeneration application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xurong; Yang, Yi; Zheng, Ya; Dai, Yiping


    Detailed exergy and exergoeconomic analyses are performed for a combined cogeneration cycle in which the waste heat from a recompression supercritical CO_2 Brayton cycle (sCO_2) is recovered by a transcritical CO_2 cycle (tCO_2) for generating electricity. Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic models are developed on the basis of mass and energy conservations, exergy balance and exergy cost equations. Parametric investigations are then conducted to evaluate the influence of key decision variables on the sCO_2/tCO_2 performance. Finally, the combined cycle is optimized from the viewpoint of exergoeconomics. It is found that, combining the sCO_2 with a tCO_2 cycle not only enhances the energy and exergy efficiencies of the sCO_2, but also improves the cycle exergoeconomic performance. The results show that the most exergy destruction rate takes place in the reactor, and the components of the tCO_2 bottoming cycle have less exergy destruction. When the optimization is conducted based on the exergoeconomics, the overall exergoeconomic factor, the total cost rate and the exergy destruction cost rate are 53.52%, 11243.15 $/h and 5225.17 $/h, respectively. The optimization study reveals that an increase in reactor outlet temperature leads to a decrease in total cost rate and total exergy destruction cost rate of the system. - Highlights: • Exergy and exergoeconomic analyses of a combined sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle were performed. • Exergoeconomic optimization of the sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle was presented. • The reactor had the highest exergy loss among sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle components. • The overall exergoeconomic factor was up to 53.5% for the optimum case.

  7. Variability in soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux across riparian-hillslope transitions (United States)

    Vincent Jerald. Pacific


    The spatial and temporal controls on soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux have been identified as an outstanding gap in our understanding of carbon cycling. I investigated both the spatial and temporal variability of soil CO2 concentrations and surface CO2 efflux across eight topographically distinct riparian-hillslope transitions in the ~300 ha subalpine upper-...

  8. Unconventional recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K.M.


    Despite advances made in recycling technology and markets for materials over the past few years, recycling at convention centers, particularly on the show floor itself, can be a vexing problem. Part of the problem lies in the fact that recycling at convention centers has more to do with logistics than it does with these industry trends. However, given the varied nature of convention centers, and the shows they book, a rigid approach to recycling at convention centers is not always feasible. Like the numerous different curbside programs serving communities across the country, what works for one convention center--and one show--many not work for another. These difficulties notwithstanding, more convention centers are offering recycling programs today, and more groups booking conventions these days have begun requesting recycling services.

  9. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism. (United States)

    Queißer, M; Burton, M R; Arzilli, F; Chiarugi, A; Marliyani, G I; Anggara, F; Harijoko, A


    Studying the quantity and origin of CO 2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO 2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO 2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO 2 flux of 1.4 kg s -1 (117 t d -1 ) was determined, in line with the CO 2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO 2 flux of 3 kt d -1 , comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO 2 . After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO 2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO 2 , with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO 2 fluxes.

  10. Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savioli, Gabriela B; Santos, Juan E


    Storage of CO 2 in geological formations is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Saline aquifers are a good alternative as storage sites due to their large volume and their common occurrence in nature. The first commercial CO 2 injection project is that of the Sleipner field in the Utsira Sand aquifer (North Sea). Nevertheless, very little was known about the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration over very long periods of time. In this way, numerical modeling of CO 2 injection and seismic monitoring is an important tool to understand the behavior of CO 2 after injection and to make long term predictions in order to prevent CO 2 leaks from the storage into the atmosphere. The description of CO 2 injection into subsurface formations requires an accurate fluid-flow model. To simulate the simultaneous flow of brine and CO 2 we apply the Black-Oil formulation for two phase flow in porous media, which uses the PVT data as a simplified thermodynamic model. Seismic monitoring is modeled using Biot's equations of motion describing wave propagation in fluid-saturated poroviscoelastic solids. Numerical examples of CO 2 injection and time-lapse seismics using data of the Utsira formation show the capability of this methodology to monitor the migration and dispersal of CO 2 after injection.

  11. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  12. CO2 recovery system using solar energy; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita CO2 bunri kaishu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosho, F; Naito, H; Yugami, H; Arashi, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    As a part of studies on chemical absorption process with MEA (monoethanolamine) for CO2 recovery from boiler waste gas in thermal power plants, use of solar heat as MEA regenerating energy was studied. An integrated stationary evacuated concentrator (ISEC) effective as collector in a medium temperature range was used to realize a regenerating temperature range of 100-120degC. ISEC is featured by vacuum insulation, use of selective absorbing membranes for an absorber, a CPC (compound parabolic concentrator)-shaped reflection mirror, and high-efficiency. An MEA regenerator is composed of an ISEC and PG(propylene glycol)-MEA heat exchanger, and circulates PG as heat medium. Heat collection experiment was also made using water instead of MEA. Both batch and continuous systems could supply a heat quantity necessary for MEA regeneration. CO2 concentration in the top of the regenerator rapidly decreased with PG circulation regenerating MEA. As mol ratios of CO2/MEA were compared between before and after regeneration, a recovery rate was estimated to be 59.4% for the batch system. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Power stabilized CO2 gas transport laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.D.; Kirk, R.F.; Moreno, F.E.; Ahmed, S.A.


    The output power of a high power (1 kW or more) CO 2 gas transport laser is stabilized by flowing the gas mixture over copper plated baffles in the gas channel during operation of the laser. Several other metals may be used instead of copper, for example, nickel, manganese, palladium, platinum, silver and gold. The presence of copper in the laser gas circuit stabilizes output power by what is believed to be a compensation of the chemical changes in the gas due to the cracking action of the electrical discharge which has the effect of diminishing the capactiy of the carbon dioxide gas mixture to maintain the rated power output of the laser. (U.S.)

  14. Variables affecting energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, Sari; Tuomaala, Mari; Ahtila, Pekka


    Specific energy consumption (SEC) is an energy efficiency indicator widely used in industry for measuring the energy efficiency of different processes. In this paper, the development of energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions of steelmaking is studied by analysing the energy data from a case mill. First, the specific energy consumption figures were calculated using different system boundaries, such as the process level, mill level and mill site level. Then, an energy efficiency index was developed to evaluate the development of the energy efficiency at the mill site. The effects of different production conditions on specific energy consumption and specific CO 2 emissions were studied by PLS analysis. As theory expects, the production rate of crude steel and the utilisation of recycled steel were shown to affect the development of energy efficiency at the mill site. This study shows that clearly defined system boundaries help to clarify the role of on-site energy conversion and make a difference between the final energy consumption and primary energy consumption of an industrial plant with its own energy production.

  15. CO2 exsolution - challenges and opportunities in subsurface flow management (United States)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally


    for storage security. Falta et al. [2013] show that if carbonated brine migrates upwards and exsolution occurs, brine migration would be greatly reduced and limited by the presence of exsolved CO2 and the consequent low relatively permeability to brine. Similarly, if an exsolved CO2 phase were to evolve in seals, for example, after CO2 injection stops, the effect would be to reduce the permeability to brine and the CO2 would have very low mobility. This flow blocking effect is also studied with water/oil/CO2 [Zuo et al., 2013]. Experiments show that exsolved CO2 performs as a secondary residual phase in porous media that effectively blocks established water flow paths and deviates water to residual oil zones, thereby increasing recovery. Overall, our studies suggest that CO2 exsolution provides an opportunity for mobility control in subsurface processes. However, the lack of simulation capability that accounts for differences between gas injection and gas exsolution creates challenges for modeling and hence, designing studies to exploit the mobility reduction capabilities of CO2 exsolution. Using traditional drainage multiphase flow parameterization in simulations involving exsolution will lead to large errors in transport rates. Development of process dependent parameterizations of multiphase flow properties will be a key next step and will help to unlock the benefits from gas exsolution. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is funded by the Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP) at Stanford University. This work was also supported by U.S. EPA, Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Program, Grant #: 834383, 2010-2012. REFERENCES Falta, R., L. Zuo and S.M. Benson (2013). Migration of exsolved CO2 following depressurization of saturated brines. Journal of Greenhouse Gas Science and Technology, 3(6), 503-515. Zuo, L., S.C.M. Krevor, R.W. Falta, and S.M. Benson (2012). An experimental study of CO2 exsolution and relative permeability measurements during CO2 saturated water

  16. Acclimation of the summer annual species, lolium temulentum, to CO(2) enrichment (United States)

    Lewis; Peratoner; Cairns; Causton; Foyer


    Lolium temulentum L. Ba 3081 was grown hydroponically in air (350 &mgr;mol mol(-1) CO(2)) and elevated CO(2) (700 &mgr;mol mol(-1) CO(2)) at two irradiances (150 and 500 &mgr;mol m(-2) s(-1)) for 35 days at which point the plants were harvested. Elevated CO(2) did not modify relative growth rate or biomass at either irradiance. Foliar carbon-to-nitrogen ratios were decreased at elevated CO(2) and plants had a greater number of shorter tillers, particularly at the lower growth irradiance. Both light-limited and light-saturated rates of photosynthesis were stimulated. The amount of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) protein was increased at elevated CO(2), but maximum extractable Rubisco activities were not significantly increased. A pronounced decrease in the Rubisco activation state was found with CO(2) enrichment, particularly at the higher growth irradiance. Elevated-CO(2)-induced changes in leaf carbohydrate composition were small in comparison to those caused by changes in irradiance. No CO(2)-dependent effects on fructan biosynthesis were observed. Leaf respiration rates were increased by 68% in plants grown with CO(2) enrichment and low light. We conclude that high CO(2) will only result in increased biomass if total light input favourably increases the photosynthesis-to-respiration ratio. At low irradiances, biomass is more limited by increased rates of respiration than by CO(2)-induced enhancement of photosynthesis.

  17. Specific radioactivity of glycolate and photorespiration during 14CO2 assimilation at four different CO2 concentrations by sunflower and bean leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fock, H.; Klug, K.; Krampitz, M.J.


    Using an open gas-exchange system, the rates of apparent CO 2 uptake (APS), true CO 2 uptake (TIPS), CO 2 evolution in light (PR), and the relative specific radioactivity of photorespiration (RSA) by sunflower and bean leaves were measured at four different CO 2 concentrations. At the end of the 14 CO 2 assimilation period the leaves were killed and extract for the analysis of glycolic acid. The rate of PR was CO 2 independent at low and normal CO 2 concentrations but inreased at CO 2 concentrations above normal. The ratio of PR/TPS which declined with an increase in CO 2 was compatible with the ratio of vo/2vo of the RuBP-Carboxylase/Oxygenase reaction. At low and normal concentrations of CO 2 the concentration as well as the specific radioactivity of glycolic acid increased with an increase in CO 2 and the relative specific activity (RSA) of glycolic acid resembled the RSA of photorespiration. It was concluded that these results support the concept of RuBP-carboxylase/oxygenase regulating the fluxes of carbon via the photosynthetic carbon reduction and the glycolate pathway. (orig.) [de

  18. The optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration for the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). (United States)

    Xu, Ming


    This study examined the optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration of the CO2 fertilization effect on the growth of winter wheat with growth chambers where the CO2 concentration was controlled at 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 ppm respectively. I found that initial increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration dramatically enhanced winter wheat growth through the CO2 fertilization effect. However, this CO2 fertilization effect was substantially compromised with further increase in CO2 concentration, demonstrating an optimal CO2 concentration of 889.6, 909.4, and 894.2 ppm for aboveground, belowground, and total biomass, respectively, and 967.8 ppm for leaf photosynthesis. Also, high CO2 concentrations exceeding the optima not only reduced leaf stomatal density, length and conductance, but also changed the spatial distribution pattern of stomata on leaves. In addition, high CO2 concentration also decreased the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) of leaf photosynthesis. However, the high CO2 concentration had little effect on leaf length and plant height. The optimal CO2 fertilization effect found in this study can be used as an indicator in selecting and breeding new wheat strains in adapting to future high atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Metal-Organic Framework-Stabilized CO2/Water Interfacial Route for Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion. (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Zhang, Jianling; Li, Wei; He, Zhenhong; Sun, Xiaofu; Shi, Jinbiao; Shao, Dan; Zhang, Bingxing; Tan, Xiuniang; Han, Buxing


    Here, we propose a CO 2 /water interfacial route for photocatalytic CO 2 conversion by utilizing a metal-organic framework (MOF) as both an emulsifier and a catalyst. The CO 2 reduction occurring at the CO 2 /water interface produces formate with remarkably enhanced efficiency as compared with that in conventional solvent. The route is efficient, facile, adjustable, and environmentally benign, which is applicable for the CO 2 transformation photocatalyzed by different kinds of MOFs.

  20. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator to measure recycling performance. Due to a large variation among waste fractions in municipal solid waste (MSW, the recycling rate cannot reflect the actual recycling performance. The ceiling of recycling rate for each waste fraction estimated from the diffusion models is incorporated into a model to calculate recycling performance. The results show that (1 the diffusion effect exists significantly for the recycling of most recyclables but no evidence is found to support the diffusion effect for the recycling of food waste and bulk waste; (2 the recycling performance of waste metal products ranks the top, compared to waste paper, waste glass and other waste fractions; (3 furthermore, an importance-performance analysis (IPA is employed to analyze the priority of recycling programs and thus this paper suggests that the recycling of food waste should be seen as the most priority item to recycle.

  1. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup


    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  2. Geoelectric Monitoring of geological CO2 storage at Ketzin, Germany (CO2SINK project): Downhole and Surface-Downhole measurements (United States)

    Kiessling, D.; Schuett, H.; Schoebel, B.; Krueger, K.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Schilling, F.


    Numerical models of the CO2 storage experiment CO2SINK (CO2 Storage by Injection into a Natural Saline Aquifer at Ketzin), where CO2 is injected into a deep saline aquifer at roughly 650 m depth, yield a CO2 saturation of approximately 50% for large parts of the plume. Archie's equation predicts an increase of the resistivity by a factor of approximately 3 to 4 for the reservoir sandstone, and laboratory tests on Ketzin reservoir samples support this prediction. Modeling results show that tracking the CO2 plume may be doable with crosshole resistivity surveys under these conditions. One injection well and two observation wells were drilled in 2007 to a depth of about 800 m and were completed with "smart" casings, arranged L-shaped with distances of 50 m and 100 m. 45 permanent ring-shaped steel electrodes were attached to the electrically insulated casings of the three Ketzin wells at 590 m to 735 m depth with a spacing of about 10 m. It is to our knowledge the deepest permanent vertical electrical resistivity array (VERA) worldwide. The electrodes are connected to the current power supply and data registration units at the surface through custom-made cables. This deep electrode array allows for the registration of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data sets at basically any desired repetition rate and at very low cost, without interrupting the injection operations. The installation of all 45 electrodes succeeded. The electrodes are connected to the electrical cable, and the insulated casing stood undamaged. Even after 2-odd years under underground conditions only 6 electrodes are in a critical state now, caused by corrosion effects. In the framework of the COSMOS project (CO2-Storage, Monitoring and Safety Technology), supported by the German "Geotechnologien" program, the geoelectric monitoring has been performed. The 3D crosshole time-laps measurements are taken using dipole-dipole configurations. The data was inverted using AGI EarthImager 3D to obtain 3D

  3. CO2 Allowance and Electricity Price Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With the introduction of CO2 emission constraints on power generators in the European Union, climate policy is starting to have notable effects on energy markets. This paper sheds light on the links between CO2 prices, electricity prices, and electricity costs to industry. It is based on a series of interviews with industrial and electricity stakeholders, as well as a rich literature seeking to estimate the exact effect of CO2 prices on electricity prices.

  4. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.


    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  5. Economic effects on taxing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaparanta, P.; Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J.


    The CO 2 emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO 2 taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO 2 tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  6. Urchin-Like Ni1/3Co2/3(CO3)1/2(OH)·0.11H2O for Ultrahigh-Rate Electrochemical Supercapacitors: Structural Evolution from Solid to Hollow. (United States)

    Wei, Wutao; Cui, Shizhong; Ding, Luoyi; Mi, Liwei; Chen, Weihua; Hu, Xianluo


    Portable electronics and electric or hybrid electric vehicles are developing in the trend of fast charge and long electric mileage, which ask us to design a novel electrode with sufficient electronic and ionic transport channels at the same time. Herein, we fabricate a uniform hollow-urchin-like Ni 1/3 Co 2/3 (CO 3 ) 1/2 (OH)·0.11H 2 O electrode material through an easy self-generated and resacrificial template method. The one-dimensional chain-like crystal structure unit containing the metallic bonding and the intercalated OH - and H 2 O endow this electrode material with abundant electronic and ionic transport channels. The hollow-urchin-like structure built by nanorods contributes to the large electrode-electrolyte contact area ensuring the supply of ions at high current. CNTs are employed to transport electrons between electrode material and current collector. The as-assembled NC-CNT-2//AC supercapacitor device exhibits a high specific capacitance of 108.3 F g -1 at 20 A g -1 , a capacitance retention ratio of 96.2% from 0.2 to 20 A g -1 , and long cycle life. Comprehensive investigations unambiguously highlight that the unique hollow-urchin-like Ni 1/3 Co 2/3 (CO 3 ) 1/2 (OH)·0.11H 2 O electrode material would be the right candidate for advanced next-generation supercapacitors.

  7. AIRS retrieved CO2 and its association with climatic parameters over India during 2004–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K. Ravi; Revadekar, J.V.; Tiwari, Yogesh K.


    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrieved mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) have been used to study the variability and its association with the climatic parameters over India during 2004 to 2011. The study also aims in understanding transport of CO 2 from surface to mid-troposphere over India. The annual cycle of mid-tropospheric CO 2 shows gradual increase in concentration from January till the month of May at the rate ∼ 0.6 ppm/month. It decreases continuously in summer monsoon (JJAS) at the same rate during which strong westerlies persists over the region. A slight increase is seen during winter monsoon (DJF). Being a greenhouse gas, annual cycle of CO 2 show good resemblance with annual cycle of surface air temperature with correlation coefficient (CC) of + 0.8. Annual cycle of vertical velocity indicate inverse pattern compared to annual cycle of CO 2 . High values of mid-tropospheric CO 2 correspond to upward wind, while low values of mid-tropospheric CO 2 correspond to downward wind. In addition to vertical motion, zonal winds are also contributing towards the transport of CO 2 from surface to mid-troposphere. Vegetation as it absorbs CO 2 at surface level, show inverse annual cycle to that of annual cycle of CO 2 (CC-0.64). Seasonal variation of rainfall-CO 2 shows similarities with seasonal variation of NDVI-CO 2 . However, the use of long period data sets for CO 2 at the surface and at the mid-troposphere will be an advantage to confirm these results. - Highlights: • Association of AIRS CO 2 with climate parameters over India • CO 2 show positive correlation with surface temperature • Vertical/horizontal winds contribute towards CO 2 transport • Vegetation and monsoonal rainfall show inverse relationship with CO 2

  8. Ecological imperatives for aquatic CO2-concentrating mechanisms. (United States)

    Maberly, Stephen C; Gontero, Brigitte


    In aquatic environments, the concentration of inorganic carbon is spatially and temporally variable and CO2 can be substantially oversaturated or depleted. Depletion of CO2 plus low rates of diffusion cause inorganic carbon to be more limiting in aquatic than terrestrial environments, and the frequency of species with a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and their contribution to productivity, is correspondingly greater. Aquatic photoautotrophs may have biochemical or biophysical CCMs and exploit CO2 from the sediment or the atmosphere. Though partly constrained by phylogeny, CCM activity is related to environmental conditions. CCMs are absent or down-regulated when their increased energy costs, lower CO2 affinity, or altered mineral requirements outweigh their benefits. Aquatic CCMs are most widespread in environments with low CO2, high HCO3-, high pH, and high light. Freshwater species are generally less effective at inorganic carbon removal than marine species, but have a greater range of ability to remove carbon, matching the environmental variability in carbon availability. The diversity of CCMs in seagrasses and marine phytoplankton, and detailed mechanistic studies on larger aquatic photoautotrophs are understudied. Strengthening the links between ecology and CCMs will increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ecological success and will place mechanistic studies in a clearer ecological context. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  9. Taxing CO2 and subsidising biomass: Analysed in a macroeconomic and sectoral model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik


    This paper analyses the combination of taxes and subsidies as an instrument to enable a reduction in CO2 emission. The objective of the study is to compare recycling of a CO2 tax revenue as a subsidy for biomass use as opposed to traditional recycling such as reduced income or corporate taxation....... A model of Denmark's energy supply sector is used to analyse the e€ect of a CO2 tax combined with using the tax revenue for biomass subsidies. The energy supply model is linked to a macroeconomic model such that the macroeconomic consequences of tax policies can be analysed along with the consequences...... for speci®c sectors such as agriculture. Electricity and heat are produced at heat and power plants utilising fuels which minimise total fuel cost, while the authorities regulate capacity expansion technologies. The e€ect of fuel taxes and subsidies on fuels is very sensitive to the fuel substitution...

  10. The clinical application of inferior vena caval CO2-DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinhe; Teng Gaojun; Zhu Guangyu; Li Guozhao; Fang Wen; He Shicheng; Deng Tang


    Objective: To explore the feasibility and safety of inferior vena caval CO 2 -DSA and evaluate the results of inferior vena cavography using CO 2 -DSA or iodinated contrast media. Methods: 25 patients diagnosed as deep venous thrombosis of lower limb were prepared to conceive the implantation of inferior vena caval filter. The inferior vena cava and right renal vein CO 2 -DSA and iodinated contrast media DSA were carried out through jugular or femoral vein approach in all patients. Results: The inferior vena caval angiography with CO 2 -DSA or iodinated contrast media were carried out successfully in all patients. The quality of the inferior vena caval angiogram showed: with CO 2 as contrast media, 14 cases obtained excellent images and 11 cases had good images; with iodinated contrast media the images of 18 cases were excellent and 7 cases were good. No thrombus and variation of inferior vena cava were found by the two kinds of angiography. The diameter of inferior vena cava showed: (20.01 ± 0.83) mm with CO 2 contrast media and (20.15 ± 0.92) mm with iodinated contrast media, (P=0.006); having statistical significance between them. The safety of angiography with CO 2 presented only 1 case with transient slight decrease of O 2 saturation. No abnormal changes were found in blood pressure, heart rate and so on. Conclusions: Inferior vena caval CO 2 -DSA is feasible and safe, with statistical significance in the measurement of inferior vena caval diameter comparing with iodinated contrast material but with no influence on the implantation of filter. (authors)

  11. Isotopic versus micrometeorologic ocean CO2 fluxes: A serious conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Ledwell, J.R.; Takahashi, T.; Weiss, R.; Merlivat, L.; Memery, L.; Tsung-Hung Peng; Jahne, B.; Otto Munnich, K.


    Eddy correlation measurements over the ocean give CO 2 fluxes an order of magnitude or more larger than expected from mass balance or more larger than expected from mass balance measurements using radiocarbon and radon 222. In particular, Smith and Jones (1985) reported large upward and downward fluxes in a surf zone at supersaturations of 15% and attributed them to the equilibration of bubbles at elevated pressures. They argue that even on the open ocean such bubble injection may create steady state CO 2 supersaturations and that inferences of fluxes based on air-sea pCO 2 differences and radon exchange velocities must be made with caution. We defend the global average CO 2 exchange rate determined by three independent radioisotopic means: prebomb radiocarbon inventories; global surveys of mixed layer radon deficits; and oceanic uptake of bomb-produced radiocarbon. We argue that laboratory and lake data do not lead one to expect fluxes as large as reported from the eddy correlation technique; that the radon method of determining exchange velocities is indeed useful for estimating CO 2 fluxes; that supersaturations of CO 2 due to bubble injection on the open ocean are negligible; that the hypothesis that Smith and Jones advance cannot account for the fluxes that they report; and that the pCO 2 values reported by Smith and Jones are likely to be systematically much too high. The CO 2 fluxes for the ocean measured to data by the micrometeorological method can be reconciled with neither the observed concentrations of radioisotopes of radon and carbon in the oceans nor the tracer experiments carried out in lakes and in wind/wave tunnels

  12. Possible use of Fe/CO2 fuel cells for CO2 mitigation plus H2 and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, Greg H.


    The continuous oxidation of scrap iron in the presence of a constant CO 2 -rich waste gas stream and water is evaluated as a means of sequestering anthropogenic CO 2 as well as generating hydrogen gas and electricity. The stoichiometry of the net reaction, Fe 0 + CO 2 + H 2 O → FeCO 3 + H 2 , and assumptions about reaction rates, reactant and product prices/values and overhead costs suggest that CO 2 might be mitigated at a net profit in excess of $30/tonne CO 2 . The principle profit center of the process would be hydrogen production, alone providing a gross income of >$160/tonne CO 2 reacted. However, the realization of such fuel cell economics depends on a number of parameters including: (1) the rate at which the reaction can be sustained, (2) the areal and volumetric density with which H 2 and electricity can be produced, (3) the purity of the H 2 produced, (4) the transportation costs of the reactants (Fe, CO 2 and H 2 O) and products (FeCO 3 or Fe(HCO 3 ) 2 ) to/from the cells and (5) the cost/benefit trade-offs of optimizing the preceding variables in a given market and regulatory environment. Because of the carbon intensity of conventional iron metal production, a net carbon sequestration benefit for the process can be realized only when waste (rather than new) iron and steel are used as electrodes and/or when Fe(HCO 3 ) 2 is the end product. The used electrolyte could also provide a free source of Fe 2+ ions for enhancing iron-limited marine photosynthesis and, thus, greatly increasing the CO 2 sequestration potential of the process. Alternatively, the reaction of naturally occurring iron oxides (iron ore) with CO 2 can be considered for FeCO 3 formation and sequestration, but this foregoes the benefits of hydrogen and electricity production. Use of Fe/CO 2 fuel cells would appear to be particularly relevant for fossil fuel gasification/steam reforming systems given the highly concentrated CO 2 they generate and given the existing infrastructure they

  13. Isolation and determination of cultural characteristics of a new highly CO2 tolerant fresh water microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Lihong; Chen Weigong


    Fresh water microalgae, which has high CO 2 tolerance, were isolated and its cultural characteristics were investigated. The ZY-1 strain was identified as genus Chlorella. It showed maximum growth at 10% (v/v) CO 2 enriched air flowing condition, and a good growth rate in a broad range of physically controllable conditions, including CO 2 concentration up to 70% (v/v), CO 2 enriched air flow rate, temperature and pH value. The results indicated the feasibility of the ZY-1 strain for fixing CO 2 from stack gases

  14. Degradation kinetics of monoethanolamine during CO2 and H2 S absorption from biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha Kasikamphaiboon


    Full Text Available The rate of degradation of MEA during CO2 and H2 S absorption in the biogas upgrading process was examined in four degradation systems, i.e., MEA-CO2 , MEA-CO2 -O2 , MEA-CO2 -H2 S and MEA-CO2 -O2 -H2 S. Degradation experiments were performed in a 800-ml stainless steel autoclave reactor, using MEA concentrations of 3 and 5 mol/L, CO2 loadings of 0.4 and 0.5 mol CO2 /mol MEA, O2 pressure of 200 kPa, and H2 S concentrations of 84 and 87 mg/L at temperatures of 120 and 140C. The results showed that, for the MEA-CO2 system, an increase in temperature or MEA concentration resulted in a higher rate of MEA degradation. In contrast, an increase in CO2 loading in the MEA-CO2 -O2 system led to a reduction of MEA degradation. The degradation rate of the system with O2 was with 8.3 times as high as that of the system without O2 . The presence of H2 S did not appear to affect the rate of degradation in the MEA-CO2 -H2 S system. However, for the system in which both H2 S and O2 were present, the MEA degradation was additionally induced by H2 S, thus, resulting in higher degradation rates than those of the system with O2 only. The extent of degradation under the same period of time increased in the order MEA-CO2 , MEA-CO2 -H2 S < MEA-CO2 -O2 < MEA-CO2 -O2 -H2 S.

  15. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter


    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  16. Experimental Ion Mobility measurements in Ne-CO$_2$ and CO$_2$-N$_2$ mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.; Santos, F.P.; Trindade, A.M.F.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.


    In this paper we present the experimental results for the mobility, K0, of ions in neon-carbon dioxide (Ne-CO2) and carbon dioxide-nitrogen (CO2-N2) gaseous mixtures for total pressures ranging from 8–12 Torr, reduced electric fields in the 10–25 Td range, at room temperature. Regarding the Ne-CO2 mixture only one peak was observed for CO2 concentrations above 25%, which has been identified as an ion originated in CO2, while below 25% of CO2 a second-small peak appears at the left side of the main peak, which has been attributed to impurities. The mobility values for the main peak range between 3.51 ± 0.05 and 1.07 ± 0.01 cm2V−1s−1 in the 10%-99% interval of CO2, and from 4.61 ± 0.19 to 3.00 ± 0.09 cm2V−1s−1 for the second peak observed (10%–25% of CO2). For the CO2-N2, the time-of-arrival spectra displayed only one peak for CO2 concentrations above 10%, which was attributed to ions originated in CO2, namely CO2+(CO2), with a second peak appearing for CO2 concentrations below 10%. This secon...

  17. Supercritical CO2 uptake by nonswelling phyllosilicates. (United States)

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Ashby, Paul D; Kim, Yongman; Voltolini, Marco; Gilbert, Benjamin; DePaolo, Donald J


    Interactions between supercritical (sc) CO 2 and minerals are important when CO 2 is injected into geologic formations for storage and as working fluids for enhanced oil recovery, hydraulic fracturing, and geothermal energy extraction. It has previously been shown that at the elevated pressures and temperatures of the deep subsurface, scCO 2 alters smectites (typical swelling phyllosilicates). However, less is known about the effects of scCO 2 on nonswelling phyllosilicates (illite and muscovite), despite the fact that the latter are the dominant clay minerals in deep subsurface shales and mudstones. Our studies conducted by using single crystals, combining reaction (incubation with scCO 2 ), visualization [atomic force microscopy (AFM)], and quantifications (AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and off-gassing measurements) revealed unexpectedly high CO 2 uptake that far exceeded its macroscopic surface area. Results from different methods collectively suggest that CO 2 partially entered the muscovite interlayers, although the pathways remain to be determined. We hypothesize that preferential dissolution at weaker surface defects and frayed edges allows CO 2 to enter the interlayers under elevated pressure and temperature, rather than by diffusing solely from edges deeply into interlayers. This unexpected uptake of CO 2 , can increase CO 2 storage capacity by up to ∼30% relative to the capacity associated with residual trapping in a 0.2-porosity sandstone reservoir containing up to 18 mass % of illite/muscovite. This excess CO 2 uptake constitutes a previously unrecognized potential trapping mechanism. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Enhancement of farmland greenhouse gas emissions from leakage of stored CO2: simulation of leaked CO2 from CCS. (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Ma, Xin; Wu, Yang; Li, Yue


    The effects of leaked CO2 on plant and soil constitute a key objective of carbon capture and storage (CCS) safety. The effects of leaked CO2 on trace soil gas (e.g., methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in farmlands are not well-understood. This study simulated the effects of elevated soil CO2 on CH4 and N2O through pot experiments. The results revealed that significant increases of CH4 and N2O emissions were induced by the simulated CO2 leakages; the emission rates of CH4 and N2O were substantial, reaching about 222 and 48 times than that of the control, respectively. The absolute global warming potentials (GWPs) of the additional CH4 and N2O are considerable, but the cumulative GWPs of the additional CH4 and N2O only accounted for 0.03% and 0.06%, respectively, of the cumulative amount of leaked CO2 under high leakage conditions. The results demonstrate that leakage from CCS projects may lead to additional greenhouse gas emissions from soil; however, in general, the amount of additional CH4 and N2O emissions is negligible when compared with the amount of leaked CO2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of CO2 Mineralization and Dynamic Rock Properties at the Kemper Pilot CO2 Injection Site (United States)

    Qin, F.; Kirkland, B. L.; Beckingham, L. E.


    CO2-brine-mineral reactions following CO2 injection may impact rock properties including porosity, permeability, and pore connectivity. The rate and extent of alteration largely depends on the nature and evolution of reactive mineral interfaces. In this work, the potential for geochemical reactions and the nature of the reactive mineral interface and corresponding hydrologic properties are evaluated for samples from the Lower Tuscaloosa, Washita-Fredericksburg, and Paluxy formations. These formations have been identified as future regionally extensive and attractive CO2 storage reservoirs at the CO2 Storage Complex in Kemper County, Mississippi, USA (Project ECO2S). Samples from these formations were obtained from the Geological Survey of Alabama and evaluated using a suite of complementary analyses. The mineral composition of these samples will be determined using petrography and powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Using these compositions, continuum-scale reactive transport simulations will be developed and the potential CO2-brine-mineral interactions will be examined. Simulations will focus on identifying potential reactive minerals as well as the corresponding rate and extent of reactions. The spatial distribution and accessibility of minerals to reactive fluids is critical to understanding mineral reaction rates and corresponding changes in the pore structure, including pore connectivity, porosity and permeability. The nature of the pore-mineral interface, and distribution of reactive minerals, will be determined through imaging analysis. Multiple 2D scanning electron microscopy (SEM) backscattered electron (BSE) images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) images will be used to create spatial maps of mineral distributions. These maps will be processed to evaluate the accessibility of reactive minerals and the potential for flow-path modifications following CO2 injection. The "Establishing an Early CO2 Storage Complex in Kemper, MS" project is funded by

  20. Temporal and spatial variations of oceanic pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux in th Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, Shin-Ichiro; Aoki, Shuji; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki


    In order to elucidate the seasonal and inter annual variations of oceanic CO 2 uptake in the Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea, the partial pressure of CO 2 in the surface ocean (pCO 2 sea ) was measured in all seasons between 1992 and 2001. We derived monthly varying relationships between pCO 2 sea and sea surface temperature (SST) and combined them with the SST data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to determine pCO 2 sea and air-sea CO 2 flux in these seas. The pCO 2 sea values were normalized to the year 1995 by assuming that pCO 2 sea increased at the same growth rate (1.5 μatm/yr) of the pCO 2 in the air (pCO 2 air ) between 1992 and 2001. In 1995, the annual net air-sea CO 2 fluxes were evaluated to be 52 ± 20 gC/m 2 /yr in the Greenland Sea and 46 ± 18 gC/m 2 /yr in the Barents Sea. The CO 2 flux into the ocean reached its maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The wind speed and (delta)pCO 2 (=pCO 2 air -pCO 2 sea ) exerted a greater influence on the seasonal variation than the sea ice coverage. The annual CO 2 uptake examined in this study (70-80 deg N, 20 deg W-40 deg E) was estimated to be 0.050 ± 0.020 GtC/yr in 1995. The inter annual variation in the annual CO 2 uptake was found to be positively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) via wind strength but negatively correlated with (delta)pCO 2 and the sea ice coverage. The present results indicate that the variability in wind speed and sea ice coverage play a major role, while that in (delta)pCO 2 plays a minor role, in determining the interannual variation of CO 2 uptake in this area

  1. CO2 Urban Synthesis and Analysis ("CO2-USA") Network (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Hutyra, L.; Loughner, C.; Stein, A. F.; Lusk, K.; Mitchell, L.; Gately, C.; Wofsy, S. C.


    Emissions of carbon associated with cities comprise a large component of the anthropogenic source. A number of cities have announced plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but the scientific knowledge to quantitatively track emissions and assess the efficacy of mitigation is lacking. As the global population increasingly resides in urban regions, scientific knowledge about how much, where, and why a particular city emits carbon becomes increasingly important. To address this gap, researchers have initiated studies of carbon emissions and cycling in several U.S. cities, making it timely to develop a collaborative network to exchange information on community standards and common measurements, facilitate data sharing, and create analysis frameworks and cross-city syntheses to catalyze a new generation of researchers and enable new collaborations tackling important objectives that are difficult to address in isolation. We describe initial results from an incipient network focusing initially on cities in the U.S. with low barriers of entry that entrains a cross-section of U.S. urban centers with varying characteristics: size, population density, vegetation, urban form, infrastructure, development rates, climate, and meteorological patterns. Results will be reported that emerge from an initial workshop covering data harmonization & integration, inventory comparison, stakeholder outreach, network design, inverse modeling, and collaboration.

  2. 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most important greenhouse gases. It is essential for the study of global warming to accurately measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and continuously record its variation. A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed in NASA Langley Research Center. This laser system is capable of making a vertical profiling of CO2 from ground and column measurement of CO2 from air and space-borne platform. The transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. A Ho:YLF laser operating in the range of 2.05 micrometers can be tuned over several characteristic lines of CO2 absorption. Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of CO2 with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ. For coherent detection, high repetition rate is required for speckle averaging to obtain highly precise measurements. However, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser can not operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. A Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can operate in high repetition rate. A theoretical model has been established to simulate the performance of Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF lasers. For continuous wave (CW) operation, high pump intensity with small beam

  3. Corn residue removal and CO2 emissions (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) are the primary greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from the soil due to agricultural activities. In the short-term, increases in CO2 emissions indicate increased soil microbial activity. Soil micro-organisms decompose crop residues and release...

  4. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, K.; Kovscek, A.R.; Orr, F.M. Jr.


    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage. [Author

  5. NIST Photoionization of CO2 (ARPES) Database (United States)

    SRD 119 NIST Photoionization of CO2 (ARPES) Database (Web, free access)   CO2 is studied using dispersed synchrotron radiation in the 650 Å to 850 Å spectral region. The vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are analyzed to generate relative vibrational transition amplitudes and the angular asymmetry parameters describing the various transitions observed.

  6. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry


    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  7. Eindhoven Airport : towards zero CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge Simoes Pedro, Joana


    Eindhoven airport is growing and it is strongly committed to take this opportunity to invest in innovative solutions for a sustainable development. Therefore, this document proposes a strategic plan for reaching Zero CO2 emissions at Eindhoven airport. This document proposes to reduce the CO2

  8. Thermodynamic modeling of CO2 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in several industrial processes such as enhanced oil recovery, carbon capture and storage, and supercritical extractions, where CO2 is used as a solvent. Despite this importance...

  9. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, Kristian; Kovscek, Anthony R.; Orr, Franklin M.


    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage

  10. CO2 emission calculations and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.


    Evidence that the atmospheric CO 2 concentration has risen during the past several decades is irrefutable. Most of the observed increase in atmospheric CO 2 is believed to result from CO 2 releases from fossil-fuel burning. The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, reflects global concern over the increasing CO 2 concentration and its potential impact on climate. One of the convention's stated objectives was the ''stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. '' Specifically, the FCCC asked all 154 signing countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions, and it set nonbinding targets for some countries to control emissions by stabilizing them at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Given the importance of CO 2 as a greenhouse gas, the relationship between CO 2 emissions and increases in atmospheric CO 2 levels, and the potential impacts of a greenhouse gas-induced climate change; it is important that comprehensive CO 2 emissions records be compiled, maintained, updated, and documented

  11. Recent development of capture of CO2

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez, Rosa Hilda


    "Recent Technologies in the capture of CO2" provides a comprehensive summary on the latest technologies available to minimize the emission of CO2 from large point sources like fossil-fuel power plants or industrial facilities. This ebook also covers various techniques that could be developed to reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. The contents of this book include chapters on oxy-fuel combustion in fluidized beds, gas separation membrane used in post-combustion capture, minimizing energy consumption in CO2 capture processes through process integration, characterization and application of structured packing for CO2 capture, calcium looping technology for CO2 capture and many more. Recent Technologies in capture of CO2 is a valuable resource for graduate students, process engineers and administrative staff looking for real-case analysis of pilot plants. This eBook brings together the research results and professional experiences of the most renowned work groups in the CO2 capture field...

  12. Flow assurance studies for CO2 transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltin, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.


    In order to compensate for the relative lack of experience of the CCTS community, Flow Assurance studies of new CO2 pipelines and networks are a very important step toward reliable operation. This report details a typical approach for Flow Assurance study of CO2 transport pipeline. Considerations to

  13. Continuous CO2 capture and MSWI fly ash stabilization, utilizing novel dynamic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jianguo; Du Xuejuan; Chen Maozhe; Zhang Chang


    Novel dynamic equipment with gas in and out continuously was developed to study the capture capacity of CO 2 . Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash has a high capture rate of CO 2 in CO 2 -rich gas. Fly ash can sequester pure CO 2 rapidly, and its capacity is 16.3 g CO 2 /100 g fly ash with no water added and 21.4 g CO 2 /100 g fly ash with 20% water added. For simulated incineration gas containing 12% CO 2 , the capture rate decreased and the capacity was 13.2 g CO 2 /100 g fly ash with no water added and 18.5 g CO 2 /100 g fly ash with 20% water added. After accelerated carbonation, the C and O contents increased, indicating CO 2 capture in the fly ash; CO 2 combines with Ca(OH) 2 to form CaCO 3 , which increased the CaCO 3 content from 12.5 to 54.3%. The leaching of Pb markedly decreased from 24.48 to 0.111 mg/L. - Novel dynamic equipment designed to capture CO 2 by fly ash is more suitable for engineering application.

  14. Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Supercritical CO2 during Reservoir Depressurization. (United States)

    Li, Rong; Jiang, Peixue; He, Di; Chen, Xue; Xu, Ruina


    CO 2 sequestration in saline aquifers is a promising way to address climate change. However, the pressure of the sequestration reservoir may decrease in practice, which induces CO 2 exsolution and expansion in the reservoir. In this study, we conducted a core-scale experimental investigation on the depressurization of CO 2 -containing sandstone using NMR equipment. Three different series of experiments were designed to investigate the influence of the depressurization rate and the initial CO2 states on the dynamics of different trapping mechanisms. The pressure range of the depressurization was from 10.5 to 4.0 MPa, which covered the supercritical and gaseous states of the CO 2 (named as CO 2 (sc) and CO 2 (g), respectively). It was found that when the aqueous phase saturated initially, the exsolution behavior strongly depended on the depressurization rate. When the CO 2 and aqueous phase coexisting initially, the expansion of the CO 2 (sc/g) contributed to the incremental CO 2 saturation in the core only when the CO 2 occurred as residually trapped. It indicates that the reservoir depressurization has the possibility to convert the solubility trapping to the residual trapping phase, and/or convert the residual trapping to mobile CO 2 .

  15. Basic study of CO2 fixation using a combination of seaweed and shells; Kaiso to kairui wo kumiawaseta CO2 koteika kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, H. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    CO2 fixed in organic matters return to the atmosphere after putrefication and decomposition, but it is also known that CO2 fixed in inorganic shells stays there permanently. A study is made in this report about the fixation of CO2 in organic matters by use of the ulva and anchored diatom known to be high in CO2 trapping capability, and the study also covers the raising of shells aiming at the fixation of CO2 in inorganic matters. The ulva is raised in a cylindrical raceway type culture water tank, and the anchored diatom in a cylindrical culture unit, and breeding conditions under which they multiply at the highest rate are determined. Their CO2 fixation rates are, respectively, 92.76mg/liter/day and 25.45mg/liter/day, which may be converted, respectively, into 147.1 ton and 5.8 ton of CO2 per hectare per year. Fixed CO2 amounts are tentatively calculated using the above-said figures combined with the raising of shells, and it is found that CO2 may be effectively fixed when the ulva is raised in a 1-hectare area and the shells in a 3.63-hectare area. In this case, the annual CO2 fixation amounts are estimated at 74.1 ton in inorganic matters and 3.9 ton in organic matters. 6 figs.

  16. CO_2 emission trends of China's primary aluminum industry: A scenario analysis using system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Huiquan; He, Peng


    China announced its promise on CO_2 emission peak. When and what level of CO_2 emission peak China's primary aluminum industry will reach is in suspense. In this paper, a system dynamic model is established, with five subsystems of economy development, primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, CO_2 emission intensity and policies making involved. The model is applied to examine potential CO_2 emission trends of China's primary aluminum industry in next fifteen years with three scenarios of “no new policies”, “13th five-year plan” and “additional policies”. Simulation results imply that: merely relying on rapid expansion of domestic scarps recycling and reuse could not mitigate CO_2 emission continuously. Combination of energy-saving technology application and electrolytic technology innovation, as well as promoting hydropower utilization in primary aluminum industry are necessary for long term low-carbon development. From a global prospective, enhancing international cooperation on new primary aluminum capacity construction in other countries, especially with rich low-carbon energy, could bring about essential CO_2 emission for both China's and global primary aluminum industry. - Highlights: • A system dynamic model is established for future CO_2 emission trend of China's primary aluminum industry. • Three potential policy scenarios are simulated. • The impacts of potential policies implication on the CO_2 emission trend are discussed.

  17. Atmospheric CO2 capture for the artificial photosynthetic system (United States)

    Nogalska, Adrianna; Zukowska, Adrianna; Garcia-Valls, Ricard


    The scope of these studies is to evaluate the ambient CO2 capture abilities of the membrane contactor system in the same conditions as leaves works during photosynthesis, such as ambient temperature, pressure and low CO2 concentration, where the only driving force is the concentration gradient. The polysulfone membrane was made by phase inversion process and characterized by ESEM micrographs which were used to determine the thickness, asymmetry and pore size. Besides, the porosity of the membrane was measured from the membrane and polysulfone density correlation and hydrophobicity was analyzed by contact angle measurements. Moreover, the compatibility of the membrane and absorbent solution was evaluated, in order to exclude wetting issues. The prepared membranes were introduced in a cross flow module and used as contactor between the CO2 and the potassium hydroxide solution, as absorbing media. The influence of the membrane thickness, absorbent stirring rate and absorption time, on CO2 capture were evaluated. The results show that the efficiency of our CO2 capture system is similar to stomatal carbon dioxide assimilation rate.

  18. Nuclear reactor recyclation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, Yukio; Chuma, Kazuto


    Purpose: To prevent the unevenness for the coolant flow rate even when abnormality occurs to one of recycling pumps. Constitution: A plurality of jet pumps disposed at an interval around the reactor core are divided circumferentially into two sets, and a pipeway is disposed to the outside of each pair including recycling pumps corresponding to each of the sets. The pipeway is connected to the recycling inlet of the jet pump by way of a manifold. The discharge portion of the recycling pumps of the loop pipeway are connected with each other by way of communication pipes, and a normally closed valve is disposed to the communication pipe and the normally closed valve of the communication pipe is opened upon detecting abnormality for one of the recycling pumps. Thus, if either one of the pair of recycling pumps shows abnormal state, coolants flows from the other of pipeway to the outside of the loop pipeway and coolants are supplied from all the jet pumps to the reactor core portion and, accordingly, the not-uniform flow rate can be prevented to eliminate undesired effect on the reactor core. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Silvering substrates after CO2 snow cleaning (United States)

    Zito, Richard R.


    There have been some questions in the astronomical community concerning the quality of silver coatings deposited on substrates that have been cleaned with carbon dioxide snow. These questions center around the possible existence of carbonate ions left behind on the substrate by CO2. Such carbonate ions could react with deposited silver to produce insoluble silver carbonate, thereby reducing film adhesion and reflectivity. Carbonate ions could be produced from CO2 via the following mechanism. First, during CO2 snow cleaning, a small amount of moisture can condense on a surface. This is especially true if the jet of CO2 is allowed to dwell on one spot. CO2 gas can dissolve in this moisture, producing carbonic acid, which can undergo two acid dissociations to form carbonate ions. In reality, it is highly unlikely that charged carbonate ions will remain stable on a substrate for very long. As condensed water evaporates, Le Chatelier's principle will shift the equilibrium of the chain of reactions that produced carbonate back to CO2 gas. Furthermore, the hydration of CO2 reaction of CO2 with H20) is an extremely slow process, and the total dehydrogenation of carbonic acid is not favored. Living tissues that must carry out the equilibration of carbonic acid and CO2 use the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to speed up the reaction by a factor of one million. But no such enzymatic action is present on a clean mirror substrate. In short, the worst case analysis presented below shows that the ratio of silver atoms to carbonate radicals must be at least 500 million to one. The results of chemical tests presented here support this view. Furthermore, film lift-off tests, also presented in this report, show that silver film adhesion to fused silica substrates is actually enhanced by CO2 snow cleaning.

  20. The ins and outs of CO2 (United States)

    Raven, John A.; Beardall, John


    It is difficult to distinguish influx and efflux of inorganic C in photosynthesizing tissues; this article examines what is known and where there are gaps in knowledge. Irreversible decarboxylases produce CO2, and CO2 is the substrate/product of enzymes that act as carboxylases and decarboxylases. Some irreversible carboxylases use CO2; others use HCO3 –. The relative role of permeation through the lipid bilayer versus movement through CO2-selective membrane proteins in the downhill, non-energized, movement of CO2 is not clear. Passive permeation explains most CO2 entry, including terrestrial and aquatic organisms with C3 physiology and biochemistry, terrestrial C4 plants and all crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, as well as being part of some mechanisms of HCO3 – use in CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) function, although further work is needed to test the mechanism in some cases. However, there is some evidence of active CO2 influx at the plasmalemma of algae. HCO3 – active influx at the plasmalemma underlies all cyanobacterial and some algal CCMs. HCO3 – can also enter some algal chloroplasts, probably as part of a CCM. The high intracellular CO2 and HCO3 – pools consequent upon CCMs result in leakage involving CO2, and occasionally HCO3 –. Leakage from cyanobacterial and microalgal CCMs involves up to half, but sometimes more, of the gross inorganic C entering in the CCM; leakage from terrestrial C4 plants is lower in most environments. Little is known of leakage from other organisms with CCMs, though given the leakage better-examined organisms, leakage occurs and increases the energetic cost of net carbon assimilation. PMID:26466660

  1. Nonphotosynthetic CO2 fixation by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots and nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.P.; Heichel, G.H.; Vance, C.P.


    The dependence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root and nodule nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation on the supply of currently produced photosynthate and nodule nitrogenase activity was examined a various times after phloem-girdling and exposure of nodules to Ar:O 2 . Phloem-girdling was effected 20 hours and exposure to Ar:O 2 was effected 2 to 3 hours before initiation of experiments. Nodule and root CO 2 fixation rates of phloem-girdled plants were reduced to 38 and 50%, respectively, of those of control plants. Exposure to Ar:O 2 decreased nodule CO 2 fixation rates to 45%, respiration rates to 55%, and nitrogenase activities to 51% of those of the controls. The products of nodule CO 2 fixation were exported through the xylem to the shoot mainly as amino acids within 30 to 60 minutes after exposure to 14 CO 2 . In contrast to nodules, roots exported very little radioactivity, and most of the 14 C was exported as organic acids. The nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation rate of roots and nodules averaged 26% of the gross respiration rate, i.e. the sum of net respiration and nonphotosynthetic CO 2 assimilation. Nodules fixed CO 2 at a rate 5.6 times that of roots, but since nodules comprised a small portion of root system mass, roots accounted for 76% of the nodulated roots system CO 2 fixation. The results indicate that nodule CO 2 fixation in alfalfa is associated with N assimilation

  2. Starch and sucrose synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris as affected by light, CO2, and abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkey, T.D.; Berry, J.A.; Raschke, K.


    Phaseolus vulgaris L. leaves were subjected to various light, CO 2 , and O 2 levels and abscisic acid, then given a 10 minute pulse of 14 CO 2 followed by a 5 minute chase with unlabeled CO 2 . After the chase period, very little label remained in the ionic fractions except at low CO 2 partial pressure. Most label was found in the neutral, alcohol soluble fraction or in the insoluble fraction digestable by amyloglucosidase. Sucrose formation was linearly related to assimilation rate. Starch formation increased linearly with assimilation rate, but did not occur if the assimilation rate was below 4 micromoles per square meter per second. Neither abscisic acid, nor high CO 2 in combination with low O 2 caused significant perturbations of the sucrose/starch formation ratio. These studies indicate that the pathways for starch and sucrose synthesis both are controlled by the rate of net CO 2 assimilation, with sucrose the preferred product at very low assimilation rates

  3. Advanced turbine/CO2 pellet accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.; Fisher, P.W.


    An advanced turbine/CO 2 pellet accelerator is being evaluated as a depaint technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program, sponsored by Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, has developed a robot-compatible apparatus that efficiently accelerates pellets of dry ice with a high-speed rotating wheel. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air sandblast pellet accelerators, the turbine system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as efficient. A preliminary study of the apparatus as a depaint technology has been undertaken. Depaint rates of military epoxy/urethane paint systems on 2024 and 7075 aluminum panels as a function of pellet speed and throughput have been measured. In addition, methods of enhancing the strip rate by combining infra-red heat lamps with pellet blasting have also been studied. The design and operation of the apparatus will be discussed along with data obtained from the depaint studies. Applications include removal of epoxy-based points from aircraft and the cleaning of surfaces contaminated with toxic, hazardous, or radioactive substances. The lack of a secondary contaminated waste stream is of great benefit

  4. A centrifuge CO2 pellet cleaning system (United States)

    Foster, C. A.; Fisher, P. W.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.


    An advanced turbine/CO2 pellet accelerator is being evaluated as a depaint technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program, sponsored by Warner Robins Air Logistics Center (ALC), Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, has developed a robot-compatible apparatus that efficiently accelerates pellets of dry ice with a high-speed rotating wheel. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air 'sandblast' pellet accelerators, the turbine system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as efficient. A preliminary study of the apparatus as a depaint technology has been undertaken. Depaint rates of military epoxy/urethane paint systems on 2024 and 7075 aluminum panels as a function of pellet speed and throughput have been measured. In addition, methods of enhancing the strip rate by combining infra-red heat lamps with pellet blasting and by combining the use of environmentally benign solvents with the pellet blasting have also been studied. The design and operation of the apparatus will be discussed along with data obtained from the depaint studies.

  5. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2 (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.


    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  6. Potential and economics of CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ciais, Ph.; Orr, J.


    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO 2 . Some techniques could be used to reduced CO 2 emission and stabilize atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including i) energy savings and energy efficiency, ii) switch to lower carbon content fuels (natural gas) and use energy sources with zero CO 2 emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, iii) capture and store CO 2 from fossil fuels combustion, and enhance the natural sinks for CO 2 (forests, soils, ocean...). The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO 2 and to review the various options for CO 2 sequestration by enhancing natural carbon sinks. Some of the factors which will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are discussed. Capturing CO 2 and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology, however, substantial R and D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO 2 emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to about 30% of the global anthropic CO 2 emission, it represents a valuable tool in the baffle against global warming. About 50% of the anthropic CO 2 is being naturally absorbed by the biosphere and the ocean. The 'natural assistance' provided by these two large carbon reservoirs to the mitigation of climate change is substantial. The existing natural sinks could be enhanced by deliberate action. Given the known and likely environmental consequences, which could be very damaging indeed, enhancing ocean sinks does not appears as a satisfactory option. In contrast, the promotion of land sinks through demonstrated carbon-storing approach to agriculture, forests and land management could

  7. Elevated CO2 causes changes in the photosynthetic apparatus of a toxic cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. (United States)

    Pierangelini, Mattia; Stojkovic, Slobodanka; Orr, Philip T; Beardall, John


    We studied the physiological acclimation of growth, photosynthesis and CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii exposed to low (present day; L-CO2) and high (1300ppm; H-CO2) pCO2. Results showed that under H-CO2 the cell specific division rate (μc) was higher and the CO2- and light-saturated photosynthetic rates (Vmax and Pmax) doubled. The cells' photosynthetic affinity for CO2 (K0.5CO2) was halved compared to L-CO2 cultures. However, no significant differences were found in dark respiration rates (Rd), pigment composition and light harvesting efficiency (α). In H-CO2 cells, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), associated with state transitions of the electron transport chain (ETC), was negligible. Simultaneously, a reorganisation of PSII features including antenna connectivity (JconPSIIα), heterogeneity (PSIIα/β) and effective absorption cross sectional area (σPSIIα/β) was observed. In relation to different activities of the CCM, our findings suggest that for cells grown under H-CO2: (1) there is down-regulation of CCM activity; (2) the ability of cells to use the harvested light energy is altered; (3) the occurrence of state transitions is likely to be associated with changes of electron flow (cyclic vs linear) through the ETC; (4) changes in PSII characteristics are important in regulating state transitions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Landscape structure control on soil CO2 efflux variability in complex terrain: Scaling from point observations to watershed scale fluxes (United States)

    Diego A. Riveros-Iregui; Brian L. McGlynn


    We investigated the spatial and temporal variability of soil CO2 efflux across 62 sites of a 393-ha complex watershed of the northern Rocky Mountains. Growing season (83 day) cumulative soil CO2 efflux varied from ~300 to ~2000 g CO2 m-2, depending upon landscape position, with a median of 879.8 g CO2 m-2. Our findings revealed that highest soil CO2 efflux rates were...

  9. A human development framework for CO2 reductions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Costa

    Full Text Available Although developing countries are called to participate in CO(2 emission reduction efforts to avoid dangerous climate change, the implications of proposed reduction schemes in human development standards of developing countries remain a matter of debate. We show the existence of a positive and time-dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI and per capita CO(2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Employing this empirical relation, extrapolating the HDI, and using three population scenarios, the cumulative CO(2 emissions necessary for developing countries to achieve particular HDI thresholds are assessed following a Development As Usual approach (DAU. If current demographic and development trends are maintained, we estimate that by 2050 around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8. In particular, 300 Gt of cumulative CO(2 emissions between 2000 and 2050 are estimated to be necessary for the development of 104 developing countries in the year 2000. This value represents between 20 % to 30 % of previously calculated CO(2 budgets limiting global warming to 2 °C. These constraints and results are incorporated into a CO(2 reduction framework involving four domains of climate action for individual countries. The framework reserves a fair emission path for developing countries to proceed with their development by indexing country-dependent reduction rates proportional to the HDI in order to preserve the 2 °C target after a particular development threshold is reached. For example, in each time step of five years, countries with an HDI of 0.85 would need to reduce their per capita emissions by approx. 17% and countries with an HDI of 0.9 by 33 %. Under this approach, global cumulative emissions by 2050 are estimated to range from 850 up to 1100 Gt of CO(2. These values are within the uncertainty range of emissions to limit global temperatures to 2 °C.

  10. A human development framework for CO2 reductions. (United States)

    Costa, Luís; Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P


    Although developing countries are called to participate in CO(2) emission reduction efforts to avoid dangerous climate change, the implications of proposed reduction schemes in human development standards of developing countries remain a matter of debate. We show the existence of a positive and time-dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI) and per capita CO(2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Employing this empirical relation, extrapolating the HDI, and using three population scenarios, the cumulative CO(2) emissions necessary for developing countries to achieve particular HDI thresholds are assessed following a Development As Usual approach (DAU). If current demographic and development trends are maintained, we estimate that by 2050 around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8). In particular, 300 Gt of cumulative CO(2) emissions between 2000 and 2050 are estimated to be necessary for the development of 104 developing countries in the year 2000. This value represents between 20 % to 30 % of previously calculated CO(2) budgets limiting global warming to 2 °C. These constraints and results are incorporated into a CO(2) reduction framework involving four domains of climate action for individual countries. The framework reserves a fair emission path for developing countries to proceed with their development by indexing country-dependent reduction rates proportional to the HDI in order to preserve the 2 °C target after a particular development threshold is reached. For example, in each time step of five years, countries with an HDI of 0.85 would need to reduce their per capita emissions by approx. 17% and countries with an HDI of 0.9 by 33 %. Under this approach, global cumulative emissions by 2050 are estimated to range from 850 up to 1100 Gt of CO(2). These values are within the uncertainty range of emissions to limit global temperatures to 2 °C. © 2011 Costa et al.

  11. Calcification by juvenile corals under heterotrophy and elevated CO2 (United States)

    Drenkard, E. J.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; de Putron, S. J.; Starczak, V. R.; Zicht, A. E.


    Ocean acidification (OA) threatens the existence of coral reefs by slowing the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production of framework-building corals thus reducing the amount of CaCO3 the reef can produce to counteract natural dissolution. Some evidence exists to suggest that elevated levels of dissolved inorganic nutrients can reduce the impact of OA on coral calcification. Here, we investigated the potential for enhanced energetic status of juvenile corals, achieved via heterotrophic feeding, to modulate the negative impact of OA on calcification. Larvae of the common Atlantic golf ball coral, Favia fragum, were collected and reared for 3 weeks under ambient (421 μatm) or significantly elevated (1,311 μatm) CO2 conditions. The metamorphosed, zooxanthellate spat were either fed brine shrimp (i.e., received nutrition from photosynthesis plus heterotrophy) or not fed (i.e., primarily autotrophic). Regardless of CO2 condition, the skeletons of fed corals exhibited accelerated development of septal cycles and were larger than those of unfed corals. At each CO2 level, fed corals accreted more CaCO3 than unfed corals, and fed corals reared under 1,311 μatm CO2 accreted as much CaCO3 as unfed corals reared under ambient CO2. However, feeding did not alter the sensitivity of calcification to increased CO2; ∆ calcification/∆Ω was comparable for fed and unfed corals. Our results suggest that calcification rates of nutritionally replete juvenile corals will decline as OA intensifies over the course of this century. Critically, however, such corals could maintain higher rates of skeletal growth and CaCO3 production under OA than those in nutritionally limited environments.

  12. Comparison of multiple rebond shear strengths of debonded brackets after preparation with sandblasting and CO2 laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Kachoei


    Full Text Available Background. Failure of orthodontic bracket bonds is a common occurrence during orthodontic treatment. Different techniques have been suggested in the literature to remove resin residues from the bracket bases and enamel surfaces to prepare the surfaces again after debonding. This study attempted to compare multiple rebond shear strengths (SBS of debonded brackets following preparation with sandblasting and CO2 laser. Methods. The brackets were bonded on 30 human and bovine maxillary central incisors using self-curing composite resin. SBS was measured using Hounsfield testing machine. The brackets were rebonded for two other times after composite resin residues on their surfaces were removed, either with air abrasion or CO2 laser. The debonded brackets and enamel surfaces were also evaluated after each debonding procedure under a stereomicroscope in order to determine adhesive remnant index (ARI. SBS of debonded brackets after each step were compared between sandblast and CO2 laser groups. Results. We observed significant differences in SBS values between pre-recycling and first (P = 0.04, second (P = 0.007 and third recycling (P = 0.007 with laser. Recycling with sandblasting resulted in a decrease in SBS after the first and second recycling procedure; however, the SBS increased after the third recycling procedure, with no significant differences. Conclusion. SBS of brackets after recycling with sandblasting and laser beams was not significantly different, and both were at a favorable level. However, repeating the recycling procedure with sandblasting resulted in more favorable SBS compared to laser.

  13. Electrocatalytic Alloys for CO2 Reduction. (United States)

    He, Jingfu; Johnson, Noah J J; Huang, Aoxue; Berlinguette, Curtis P


    Electrochemically reducing CO 2 using renewable energy is a contemporary global challenge that will only be met with electrocatalysts capable of efficiently converting CO 2 into fuels and chemicals with high selectivity. Although many different metals and morphologies have been tested for CO 2 electrocatalysis over the last several decades, relatively limited attention has been committed to the study of alloys for this application. Alloying is a promising method to tailor the geometric and electric environments of active sites. The parameter space for discovering new alloys for CO 2 electrocatalysis is particularly large because of the myriad products that can be formed during CO 2 reduction. In this Minireview, mixed-metal electrocatalyst compositions that have been evaluated for CO 2 reduction are summarized. A distillation of the structure-property relationships gleaned from this survey are intended to help in the construction of guidelines for discovering new classes of alloys for the CO 2 reduction reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Study of nuclear heat application systems for arresting CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Hishida, Makoto; Ogata, Kan; Yamada, Seiya.


    The objective of the paper is to investigate the systems for arresting CO 2 emission and for the effective utilization of fossil fuel. We studied the fossil fuel reforming systems to decrease the CO 2 emission rate per unit amount of heat generation by fossil fuel. Feed materials for reforming system were natural gas, crude oil, oil sand, oil shale and coal. Products by reforming were hydrogen, methane, methanol and gasoline. We examined CO 2 emission ratio of ten systems with different feed material and product. The CO 2 emission ratio was the ratio of CO 2 emission rate per unit amount of heat generation between the products and the feed materials, and was the important index. As the results, the CO 2 emission ratio for the coal to methane reforming system using steam gasifier had the lowest value of 51%. It means that the CO 2 emission rate of the product from the coal to methane reforming system was 51% of the emission rate of the feed material, that is, the system is very effective to arrest the CO 2 emission. The CO 2 emission ratio increases in the following order: the reforming systems from coal to methanol, heavy oil to hydrogen and natural gas to hydrogen. It was clarified that the system of coal to methane reforming was very effective for arresting CO 2 emission compared to the other systems, moreover the nuclear heat using rate and thermal efficiency of the plant of the system were the highest. (author)

  15. Integration of indirect CO2 emissions from the full energy chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, S.; Tadokoro, Y.; Sato, O.; Yamaguchi, M.


    The methodologies of life-cycle analysis are discussed. The system boundaries have to be adequately defined, which is illustrated with the example of coal-fired electricity generation. The input/output method of LCA is discussed, including the incorporation of material recycling in the analysis. Also discussed is the linkage of engineering and economic approaches together with the necessary improvements of MARKAL in order to integrate the indirect processes. Finally examples are given of the analysis of the direct and indirect CO 2 emission from a pressurized-water reactor and its fuel cycle. The analysis shows that the life-cycle CO 2 emission coefficient is 25.7 g CO 2 /kW.h in case of gas-diffusion enrichment, whereas in case of centrifuge enrichment this emission coefficient amounts to 7.9 g CO 2 /kW.h only. (author). 9 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO2 Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin


    Estimating potential of CO 2 emission reduction of non-capture CO 2 utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO 2 emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO 2 of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO 2 reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO 2 emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO 3 (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO 3 ). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO 2 reduction through the CO 2 carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO 2 reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO 2 emission technology.

  17. CO2 efflux from subterranean nests of ant communities in a seasonal tropical forest, Thailand. (United States)

    Hasin, Sasitorn; Ohashi, Mizue; Yamada, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Tasen, Wattanachai; Kume, Tomonori; Yamane, Seiki


    Many ant species construct subterranean nests. The presence of their nests may explain soil respiration "hot spots", an important factor in the high CO2 efflux from tropical forests. However, no studies have directly measured CO2 efflux from ant nests. We established 61 experimental plots containing 13 subterranean ant species to evaluate the CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests in a tropical seasonal forest, Thailand. We examined differences in nest CO2 efflux among ant species. We determined the effects of environmental factors on nest CO2 efflux and calculated an index of nest structure. The mean CO2 efflux from nests was significantly higher than those from the surrounding soil in the wet and dry seasons. The CO2 efflux was species-specific, showing significant differences among the 13 ant species. The soil moisture content significantly affected nest CO2 efflux, but there was no clear relationship between nest CO2 efflux and nest soil temperature. The diameter of the nest entrance hole affected CO2 efflux. However, there was no significant difference in CO2 efflux rates between single-hole and multiple-hole nests. Our results suggest that in a tropical forest ecosystem the increase in CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests is caused by species-specific activity of ants, the nest soil environment, and nest structure.

  18. Vikings and virtues: A decade of CO2 taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.


    A survey of existing literature finds 20 ex-post studies of CO2 taxes. Evaluations are complicated by frequent changes in tax rates, widespread exemptions and the ‘too many variables’ problem. Attempts have been made to deal with these problems by using a variety of approaches and research techni...... techniques, some more advanced than others....

  19. A stimulation of an alternative photorespiratory CO2 pathway by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vacuum infiltration of inorganic nitrogen ions affected the photosynthetic rate and CO2 compensation point of Themeda triandra and Zea mays in a similar way. However these two plants differed markedly in their photorespiratory mechanisms in response to inorganic nitrogen. Increased nitrogen levels in the in vitro reaction ...

  20. A stimulation of an alternative photorespiratory CO2 pathway by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... these responses to nitrogen, suggesting that the observed responses of T. triandra to nitrogen could in part account for its sensitivity to nitrogen inhibition of growth. Keywords: botany; co2; infiltration; inhibition; inhibitors; inorganic nitrogen; leaves; nitrogen; nitrogen levels; photosynthetic rate; plant physiology; productivity; ...

  1. Soil CO2 evolution: Response from arginine additions (United States)

    Short-term response of soil C mineralization following drying/rewetting has been proposed as an indicator of soil microbial activity. Houston Black clay was amended with four rates of arginine to vary microbial response and keep other soil properties constant. The evolution of CO2 during one and thr...

  2. Influence of acoustic waves on TEA CO2 laser performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Bergmann, H


    Full Text Available In this paper the author’s present results on the influence of acoustic waves on the output laser beam from high repetition rate TEA CO2 lasers. The authors show that acoustic waves generated inside the cavity lead to deterioration in beam quality...

  3. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng


    In contrast with recent advances on the dynamics of the flow at a forest edge, few studies have considered its role on scalar transport and, in particular, on CO2 transfer. The present study addresses the influence of the abrupt roughness change on forest atmosphere CO2 exchange and contrasts...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...

  4. CO2, the promises of geological sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouat, S.


    Trapping part of the world CO 2 effluents in the deep underground is a profitable and ecological way to limit the global warming. This digest paper presents the different ways of CO 2 sequestration (depleted oil and gas fields, unexploited coal seams, saline aquifers), the other possible solutions for CO 2 abatement (injection in the bottom of the ocean, conversion into carbonates by injection into basic rocks, fixation by photosynthesis thanks to micro-algae cultivation), and takes stock of the experiments in progress (Snoehvit field in Norway, European project Castor). (J.S.)

  5. Climate change and the CO2 myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, C.J.F.


    Further increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere has little effect on the greenhouse effect contrary to the effect of the increase of other greenhouse gases. However, politicians are using targets for the reduction of CO 2 emissions that are unrealistic, taking into account the scientific uncertainties of the applied models, the doubts about the feasibility of quantitative targets and the economic consequences of such drastic measures. Some recommendations are given for a more realistic CO 2 policy. Also attention is paid to the important role that coal will play in the future of the energy supply. 5 figs., 3 ills

  6. Ventilation in Sewers Quantified by Measurements of CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning


    Understanding and quantifying ventilation in sewer systems is a prerequisite to predict transport of odorous and corrosive gasses within the system as well as their interaction with the urban atmosphere. This paper studies ventilation in sewer systems quantified by measurements of the natural...... occurring compound CO2. Most often Danish wastewater is supersaturated with CO2 and hence a potential for stripping is present. A novel model was built based on the kinetics behind the stripping process. It was applied to simulate ventilation rates from field measurements of wastewater temperature, p...

  7. Study of the synthesis and self-assembly of CO2-philic copolymers with complexing groups: application to decontamination in supercritical CO2 medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribaut, T.


    In the frame of sustainable development, a priority is to decrease the volume of nuclear wastes. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) could allow to solve this problem. The aim of this study is to extract an ionic or particle cobalt contamination deposited on textile lab coats. The strategy uses CO 2 -philic/CO 2 -phobic copolymers soluble in scCO 2 and containing complexing groups. This approach combines the use of amphiphilic copolymers for steric stabilization of particles, of surfactants able to self-assemble to promote extraction and of ligands. Controlled radical polymerization is used to synthesize fluorinated gradient or block copolymers. Cloud point curves of the copolymers are determined experimentally in scCO 2 . Prediction of polymer/scCO 2 phase diagrams was assessed by Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) modeling. Gradient copolymers appear more advantageous than block copolymers due to their solubility in much milder conditions of pressure and temperature. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) allowed us to evidence the pressure-induced aggregation of the gradient copolymers in scCO 2 . Their interface properties were demonstrated: they allow to form water-in-CO 2 microemulsions and to stabilize cobalt hydroxide dispersions in scCO 2 . Lastly, in presence of a very low quantity of water, Co 2+ ions were removed with a rate of 37 % from a cotton/polyester matrix by a gradient copolymer. (author)

  8. Effects of CO2 enrichment on photosynthesis, growth, and nitrogen metabolism of the seagrass Zostera noltii (United States)

    Alexandre, Ana; Silva, João; Buapet, Pimchanok; Björk, Mats; Santos, Rui


    Seagrass ecosystems are expected to benefit from the global increase in CO2 in the ocean because the photosynthetic rate of these plants may be Ci-limited at the current CO2 level. As well, it is expected that lower external pH will facilitate the nitrate uptake of seagrasses if nitrate is cotransported with H+ across the membrane as in terrestrial plants. Here, we investigate the effects of CO2 enrichment on both carbon and nitrogen metabolism of the seagrass Zostera noltii in a mesocosm experiment where plants were exposed for 5 months to two experimental CO2 concentrations (360 and 700 ppm). Both the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pm) and photosynthetic efficiency (α) were higher (1.3- and 4.1-fold, respectively) in plants exposed to CO2-enriched conditions. On the other hand, no significant effects of CO2 enrichment on leaf growth rates were observed, probably due to nitrogen limitation as revealed by the low nitrogen content of leaves. The leaf ammonium uptake rate and glutamine synthetase activity were not significantly affected by increased CO2 concentrations. On the other hand, the leaf nitrate uptake rate of plants exposed to CO2-enriched conditions was fourfold lower than the uptake of plants exposed to current CO2 level, suggesting that in the seagrass Z. noltii nitrate is not cotransported with H+ as in terrestrial plants. In contrast, the activity of nitrate reductase was threefold higher in plant leaves grown at high-CO2 concentrations. Our results suggest that the global effects of CO2 on seagrass production may be spatially heterogeneous and depend on the specific nitrogen availability of each system. Under a CO2 increase scenario, the natural levels of nutrients will probably become limiting for Z. noltii. This potential limitation becomes more relevant because the expected positive effect of CO2 increase on nitrate uptake rate was not confirmed. PMID:23145346

  9. Effects of CO(2) enrichment on photosynthesis, growth, and nitrogen metabolism of the seagrass Zostera noltii. (United States)

    Alexandre, Ana; Silva, João; Buapet, Pimchanok; Björk, Mats; Santos, Rui


    Seagrass ecosystems are expected to benefit from the global increase in CO(2) in the ocean because the photosynthetic rate of these plants may be C(i)-limited at the current CO(2) level. As well, it is expected that lower external pH will facilitate the nitrate uptake of seagrasses if nitrate is cotransported with H(+) across the membrane as in terrestrial plants. Here, we investigate the effects of CO(2) enrichment on both carbon and nitrogen metabolism of the seagrass Zostera noltii in a mesocosm experiment where plants were exposed for 5 months to two experimental CO(2) concentrations (360 and 700 ppm). Both the maximum photosynthetic rate (P(m)) and photosynthetic efficiency (α) were higher (1.3- and 4.1-fold, respectively) in plants exposed to CO(2)-enriched conditions. On the other hand, no significant effects of CO(2) enrichment on leaf growth rates were observed, probably due to nitrogen limitation as revealed by the low nitrogen content of leaves. The leaf ammonium uptake rate and glutamine synthetase activity were not significantly affected by increased CO(2) concentrations. On the other hand, the leaf nitrate uptake rate of plants exposed to CO(2)-enriched conditions was fourfold lower than the uptake of plants exposed to current CO(2) level, suggesting that in the seagrass Z. noltii nitrate is not cotransported with H(+) as in terrestrial plants. In contrast, the activity of nitrate reductase was threefold higher in plant leaves grown at high-CO(2) concentrations. Our results suggest that the global effects of CO(2) on seagrass production may be spatially heterogeneous and depend on the specific nitrogen availability of each system. Under a CO(2) increase scenario, the natural levels of nutrients will probably become limiting for Z. noltii. This potential limitation becomes more relevant because the expected positive effect of CO(2) increase on nitrate uptake rate was not confirmed.

  10. Advances in Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction with Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsun Nahar


    Full Text Available In recent years, the increasing level of CO2 in the atmosphere has not only contributed to global warming but has also triggered considerable interest in photocatalytic reduction of CO2. The reduction of CO2 with H2O using sunlight is an innovative way to solve the current growing environmental challenges. This paper reviews the basic principles of photocatalysis and photocatalytic CO2 reduction, discusses the measures of the photocatalytic efficiency and summarizes current advances in the exploration of this technology using different types of semiconductor photocatalysts, such as TiO2 and modified TiO2, layered-perovskite Ag/ALa4Ti4O15 (A = Ca, Ba, Sr, ferroelectric LiNbO3, and plasmonic photocatalysts. Visible light harvesting, novel plasmonic photocatalysts offer potential solutions for some of the main drawbacks in this reduction process. Effective plasmonic photocatalysts that have shown reduction activities towards CO2 with H2O are highlighted here. Although this technology is still at an embryonic stage, further studies with standard theoretical and comprehensive format are suggested to develop photocatalysts with high production rates and selectivity. Based on the collected results, the immense prospects and opportunities that exist in this technique are also reviewed here.

  11. Formation of Co2P in the combustion regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchaik, S.V.; Dubrov, A.N.; Lynchak, K.A.


    Combustion of the system Co-P produces the compounds Co 2 P, CoP and CoP 3 , the first two being producible in the combustion regime, while for synthesis of stoichiometric Co 2 P at normal argon pressure, an original mixture with a certain excess of phosphorus is required. The present experiments were performed with electrolytic cobalt powder and red phosphorus. As the Co-P mixture is diluted by the final product (Co 2 P) there is a decrease in combustion temperature and rate, unaccompanied by any of the anomalies seen with dilution by cobalt. It can be suggested that although the combustion in the Co-P system and, possibly, i-- other phosphide systems, is not gasless in its kinetic aspects the combustion mechanism is similar to that in gasless systems. It is shown that formation of the phosphide Co=3''P and specimens wyth composition Co-Co 2 P in the combustion regime occurs with participation of a lIqui] phase of eutectic composition. Combustion occurs in a self-oscillating regime. The temperature for Co 2 P formation is close to its melting point, and the process activation energy comprises 205 kJ/mole

  12. CO2-induced seawater acidification affects physiological performance of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Riebesell


    Full Text Available CO2/pH perturbation experiments were carried out under two different pCO2 levels (39.3 and 101.3 Pa to evaluate effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification on the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. After acclimation (>20 generations to ambient and elevated CO2 conditions (with corresponding pH values of 8.15 and 7.80, respectively, growth and photosynthetic carbon fixation rates of high CO2 grown cells were enhanced by 5% and 12%, respectively, and dark respiration stimulated by 34% compared to cells grown at ambient CO2. The half saturation constant (Km for carbon fixation (dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC increased by 20% under the low pH and high CO2 condition, reflecting a decreased affinity for HCO3– or/and CO2 and down-regulated carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM. In the high CO2 grown cells, the electron transport rate from photosystem II (PSII was photoinhibited to a greater extent at high levels of photosynthetically active radiation, while non-photochemical quenching was reduced compared to low CO2 grown cells. This was probably due to the down-regulation of CCM, which serves as a sink for excessive energy. The balance between these positive and negative effects on diatom productivity will be a key factor in determining the net effect of rising atmospheric CO2 on ocean primary production.

  13. Estimation of CO2 Transport Costs in South Korea Using a Techno-Economic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangu Kang


    Full Text Available In this study, a techno–economic model was used to calculate the costs of CO2 transport and specify the major equipment required for transport in order to demonstrate and implement CO2 sequestration in the offshore sediments of South Korea. First, three different carbon capture and storage demonstration scenarios were set up involving the use of three CO2 capture plants and one offshore storage site. Each transport scenario considered both the pipeline transport and ship transport options. The temperature and pressure conditions of CO2 in each transport stage were determined from engineering and economic viewpoints, and the corresponding specifications and equipment costs were calculated. The transport costs for a 1 MtCO2/year transport rate were estimated to be US$33/tCO2 and US$28/tCO2 for a pipeline transport of ~530 km and ship transport of ~724 km, respectively. Through the economies of scale effect, the pipeline and ship transport costs for a transport rate of 3 MtCO2/year were reduced to approximately US$21/tCO2 and US$23/tCO2, respectively. A CO2 hub terminal did not significantly reduce the cost because of the short distance from the hub to the storage site and the small number of captured sources.

  14. Equilibration of metabolic CO2 with preformed CO2 and bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hems, R.; Saez, G.T.


    Entry of metabolic 14 CO 2 into urea is shown to occur more readily than it equilibrates with the general pool of cellular plus extracellular bicarbonate plus CO 2 . Since the sites of CO 2 production (pyruvate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and of fixation (carbamoylphosphate synthetase) are intramitochondrial, it is likely that the fixation of CO 2 is also more rapid than its equilibration with the cytoplasmic pool of bicarbonate plus CO 2 . This observation may point to a more general problem concerning the interpretation of isotope data, with compartmentation or proximity of sites of production and utilisation of metabolites may result in the isotope following a preferred pathway. (Auth.)

  15. A Review of CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery with a Simulated Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandadige Samintha Anne Perera


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a comprehensive study of the CO2-EOR (Enhanced oil recovery process, a detailed literature review and a numerical modelling study. According to past studies, CO2 injection can recover additional oil from reservoirs by reservoir pressure increment, oil swelling, the reduction of oil viscosity and density and the vaporization of oil hydrocarbons. Therefore, CO2-EOR can be used to enhance the two major oil recovery mechanisms in the field: miscible and immiscible oil recovery, which can be further increased by increasing the amount of CO2 injected, applying innovative flood design and well placement, improving the mobility ratio, extending miscibility, and controlling reservoir depth and temperature. A 3-D numerical model was developed using the CO2-Prophet simulator to examine the effective factors in the CO2-EOR process. According to that, in pure CO2 injection, oil production generally exhibits increasing trends with increasing CO2 injection rate and volume (in HCPV (Hydrocarbon pore volume and reservoir temperature. In the WAG (Water alternating gas process, oil production generally increases with increasing CO2 and water injection rates, the total amount of flood injected in HCPV and the distance between the injection wells, and reduces with WAG flood ratio and initial reservoir pressure. Compared to other factors, the water injection rate creates the minimum influence on oil production, and the CO2 injection rate, flood volume and distance between the flood wells have almost equally important influence on oil production.

  16. Root Damage by Insects Reverses the Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Eucalypt Seedlings


    Johnson, Scott N.; Riegler, Markus


    Predicted increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are widely anticipated to increase biomass accumulation by accelerating rates of photosynthesis in many plant taxa. Little, however, is known about how soil-borne plant antagonists might modify the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2), with root-feeding insects being particularly understudied. Root damage by insects often reduces rates of photosynthesis by disrupting root function and imposing water deficits. These insects therefore have consi...

  17. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll


    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  18. Energy Efficiency instead of CO2 levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetz, R.


    This article takes a look at ways of avoiding a future, planned Swiss CO 2 levy by improving the efficiency of energy use. The political situation concerning the reduction of CO 2 emissions in Switzerland is reviewed and the likeliness of the introduction of a CO 2 levy is discussed. Strategies for the reduction of fossil fuel consumption and therefore of CO 2 emissions are looked at, including process optimisation. Recommendations are made on how to approach this work systematically - data collection, assessment of the potential for reduction and the planning of measures to be taken are looked at. The high economic efficiency of immediate action is stressed and typical middle and long-term measures are listed

  19. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration


    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  20. Capture and geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Capture and geological storage of CO 2 could be a contribution to reduce CO 2 emissions, and also a way to meet the factor 4 objective of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This publication briefly presents the capture and storage definitions and principles, and comments some key data related to CO 2 emissions, and their natural trapping by oceans, soils and forests. It discusses strengths (a massive and perennial reduction of CO 2 emissions, a well defined regulatory framework) and weaknesses (high costs and uncertain cost reduction perspectives, a technology which still consumes a lot of energy, geological storage capacities still to be determined, health environmental impacts and risks to be controlled, a necessary consultation of population for planned projects) of this option. Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed

  1. CO2 Washout Capability with Breathing Manikin (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as...

  2. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO2 laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.


    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO 2 laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO 2 lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO 2 lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. The authors discuss applications of TWps-CO 2 lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for γ-γ (or γ-lepton) colliders, for a possible table-top source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams

  3. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang


    to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs

  4. Upscaling of enzyme enhanced CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne Berthold

    Fossil fuels are the backbone of the energy generation in the coming decades for USA, China, India and Europe, hence high greenhouse gas emissions are expected in future. Carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) is the only technology that can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel...... the mass transfer of CO2 with slow-capturing but energetically favorable solvents can open up a variety of new process options for this technology. The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which enhances the mass transfer of CO2 in the lungs by catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2, is one very...... enhanced CO2 capture technology by identifying the potentials and limitations in lab and in pilot scale and benchmarking the process against proven technologies. The main goal was to derive a realistic process model for technical size absorbers with a wide range of validity incorporating a mechanistic...

  5. Castration of piglets under CO2-gas anaesthesia. (United States)

    Gerritzen, M A; Kluivers-Poodt, M; Reimert, H G M; Hindle, V; Lambooij, E


    It has become common practice in pig fattening production systems to castrate young boar piglets without the use of anaesthesia. In this study, we examined whether or not CO2 gas is capable of inducing an acceptable anaesthetic state during which castration can be performed. The first step was to identify the most promising CO2/O2 mixture. Based on the results from this first experiment, a mixture of 70% CO2 + 30% O2 was chosen for further investigation as a potential anaesthetic during the castration of young piglets. Thereby, it was established whether the duration and depth of anaesthesia were acceptable for castration where the animal has to be insensible and unconscious. Physiological effects were assessed based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, blood gas values and behavioural responses. During the induction phase, the only typical behaviour the piglets exhibited when exposed to the 70/30 gas mixture was heavy breathing. All piglets (n = 25) lost consciousness after approximately 30 s according to the EEG. Heart rate decreased slowly during the induction phase, a serious drop occurred when piglets lost their posture. Immediately after this drop, the heart rate neared zero or showed a very irregular pattern. Shortly after loss of posture, most animals showed a few convulsions. None of the animals showed any reaction to castration in behaviour and/or on the EEG and ECG. On average, the piglets recovered within 59 s, i.e. EEG returned to its pre-induction pattern and piglets were able to regain a standing position. After 120 s, heart rate returned to pre-induction levels. In order to explore the usage range of CO2 concentration, 24 piglets were exposed to 60% CO2 + 20% O2 + 20% N2 for up to 30 s after loss of consciousness (as registered on EEG), and castrated after removal from the chamber. Sixteen of the 24 animals showed a reaction to the castration on the EEG. To establish the maximum time piglets survive in 70% CO2 + 30

  6. Technical and Energy Performance of an Advanced, Aqueous Ammonia-Based CO2 Capture Technology for a 500 MW Coal-Fired Power Station. (United States)

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Feron, Paul; Tade, Moses; Wardhaugh, Leigh


    Using a rate-based model, we assessed the technical feasibility and energy performance of an advanced aqueous-ammonia-based postcombustion capture process integrated with a coal-fired power station. The capture process consists of three identical process trains in parallel, each containing a CO2 capture unit, an NH3 recycling unit, a water separation unit, and a CO2 compressor. A sensitivity study of important parameters, such as NH3 concentration, lean CO2 loading, and stripper pressure, was performed to minimize the energy consumption involved in the CO2 capture process. Process modifications of the rich-split process and the interheating process were investigated to further reduce the solvent regeneration energy. The integrated capture system was then evaluated in terms of the mass balance and the energy consumption of each unit. The results show that our advanced ammonia process is technically feasible and energy-competitive, with a low net power-plant efficiency penalty of 7.7%.

  7. CO2 emissions of nuclear power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissel, S.; Mayer-Spohn, O.; Fahl, U.; Voss, A.


    Increasingly, supported by the recent reports of the IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change), political, social and scientific institutions call for the use of atomic energy for reducing CO2 emissions. In Germany, the discussion is highly controversial. A life-cycle balance of nuclear power shows that its CO2 emissions are much lower than those of other technologies, even if changes in the nuclear fuel cycle are taken into account. (orig.)

  8. Photoacoustic CO2-Sensor for Automotive Applications


    Huber, J.; Weber, C.; Eberhardt, A.; Wöllenstein, J.


    We present a field-tested miniaturized spectroscopic CO2 sensor which is based on the photoacoustic effect. The sensor is developed for automotive applications and considers the requirements for the usage in vehicles. The sensor measures two measurement ranges simultaneously: The monitoring of the indoor air quality and the detection of possible leakages of the coolant in CO2 air-conditioning systems. The sensor consists of a miniaturized innovative photoacoustic sensor unit with integrated e...

  9. Estimates of CO2 traffic emissions from mobile concentration measurements (United States)

    Maness, H. L.; Thurlow, M. E.; McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.


    We present data from a new mobile system intended to aid in the design of upcoming urban CO2-monitoring networks. Our collected data include GPS probe data, video-derived traffic density, and accurate CO2 concentration measurements. The method described here is economical, scalable, and self-contained, allowing for potential future deployment in locations without existing traffic infrastructure or vehicle fleet information. Using a test data set collected on California Highway 24 over a 2 week period, we observe that on-road CO2 concentrations are elevated by a factor of 2 in congestion compared to free-flow conditions. This result is found to be consistent with a model including vehicle-induced turbulence and standard engine physics. In contrast to surface concentrations, surface emissions are found to be relatively insensitive to congestion. We next use our model for CO2 concentration together with our data to independently derive vehicle emission rate parameters. Parameters scaling the leading four emission rate terms are found to be within 25% of those expected for a typical passenger car fleet, enabling us to derive instantaneous emission rates directly from our data that compare generally favorably to predictive models presented in the literature. The present results highlight the importance of high spatial and temporal resolution traffic data for interpreting on- and near-road concentration measurements. Future work will focus on transport and the integration of mobile platforms into existing stationary network designs.

  10. Anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Peng


    Full Text Available The focus of this review article is on the anthropogenic CO2 taken up by the ocean. There are several methods of identifying the anthropogenic CO2 signal and quantifying its inventory in the ocean. The ?C* method is most frequently used to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean. Results based on analysis of the dataset obtained from the comprehensive surveys of inorganic carbon distribution in the world oceans in the 1990s are given. These surveys were jointly conducted during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS. This data set consists of 9618 hydrographic stations from a total of 95 cruises, which represents the most accurate and comprehensive view of the distribution of inorganic carbon in the global ocean available today. The increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean during the past few decades is also evaluated using direct comparison of results from repeat surveys and using statistical method of Multi-parameter Linear Regression (MLR. The impact of increasing oceanic anthropogenic CO2 on the calcium carbonate system in the ocean is reviewed briefly as well. Extensive studies of CaCO3 dissolution as a result of increasing anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean have revealed several distinct oceanic regions where the CaCO3 undersaturation zone has expanded.

  11. Recent developments in CO2 lasers (United States)

    Du, Keming


    CO2 lasers have been used in industry mainly for such things as cutting, welding, and surface processing. To conduct a broad spectrum of high-speed and high-quality applications, most of the developments in industrial CO2 lasers at the ILT are aimed at increasing the output power, optimizing the beam quality, and reducing the production costs. Most of the commercial CO2 lasers above 5 kW are transverse-flow systems using dc excitation. The applications of these lasers are limited due to the lower beam quality, the poor point stability, and the lower modulation frequency. To overcome the problems we developed a fast axial- flow CO2 laser using rf excitation with an output of 13 kW. In section 2 some of the results are discussed concerning the gas flow, the discharge, the resonator design, optical effects of active medium, the aerodynamic window, and the modulation of the output power. The first CO2 lasers ever built are diffusion-cooled systems with conventional dc excited cylindrical discharge tubes surrounded by cooling jackets. The output power per unit length is limited to 50 W/m by those lasers with cylindrical tubes. In the past few years considerable increases in the output power were achieved, using new mechanical geometries, excitation- techniques, and resonator designs. This progress in diffusion-cooled CO2 lasers is presented in section 3.

  12. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs (United States)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart


    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  13. Forest productivity under elevated CO2 and O3: positive feedbacks to soil N cycling sustain decade-long net primary productivity enhancement by CO2 (United States)

    Donald R. Zak; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Mark E. Kubiske; Andrew J. Burton


    The accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere, and hence the rate of climate warming, is sensitive to stimulation of plant growth by higher concentrations of atmospheric CO2. Here, we synthesise data from a field experiment in which three developing northern forest communities have been exposed to...

  14. Simulated 21st century's increase in oceanic suboxia by CO2-enhanced biotic carbon export (United States)

    Oschlies, Andreas; Schulz, Kai G.; Riebesell, Ulf; Schmittner, Andreas


    The primary impacts of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on marine biogeochemical cycles predicted so far include ocean acidification, global warming induced shifts in biogeographical provinces, and a possible negative feedback on atmospheric CO2 levels by CO2-fertilized biological production. Here we report a new potentially significant impact on the oxygen-minimum zones of the tropical oceans. Using a model of global climate, ocean circulation, and biogeochemical cycling, we extrapolate mesocosm-derived experimental findings of a pCO2-sensitive increase in biotic carbon-to-nitrogen drawdown to the global ocean. For a simulation run from the onset of the industrial revolution until A.D. 2100 under a "business-as-usual" scenario for anthropogenic CO2 emissions, our model predicts a negative feedback on atmospheric CO2 levels, which amounts to 34 Gt C by the end of this century. While this represents a small alteration of the anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle, the model results reveal a dramatic 50% increase in the suboxic water volume by the end of this century in response to the respiration of excess organic carbon formed at higher CO2 levels. This is a significant expansion of the marine "dead zones" with severe implications not only for all higher life forms but also for oxygen-sensitive nutrient recycling and, hence, for oceanic nutrient inventories.

  15. Progress and Perspective of Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction for Renewable Carbonaceous Fuels and Chemicals. (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Hu, Yi; Ma, Lianbo; Zhu, Guoyin; Wang, Yanrong; Xue, Xiaolan; Chen, Renpeng; Yang, Songyuan; Jin, Zhong


    The worldwide unrestrained emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has caused serious environmental pollution and climate change issues. For the sustainable development of human civilization, it is very desirable to convert CO 2 to renewable fuels through clean and economical chemical processes. Recently, electrocatalytic CO 2 conversion is regarded as a prospective pathway for the recycling of carbon resource and the generation of sustainable fuels. In this review, recent research advances in electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction are summarized from both experimental and theoretical aspects. The referred electrocatalysts are divided into different classes, including metal-organic complexes, metals, metal alloys, inorganic metal compounds and carbon-based metal-free nanomaterials. Moreover, the selective formation processes of different reductive products, such as formic acid/formate (HCOOH/HCOO - ), monoxide carbon (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), methane (CH 4 ), ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), methanol (CH 3 OH), ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH), etc. are introduced in detail, respectively. Owing to the limited energy efficiency, unmanageable selectivity, low stability, and indeterminate mechanisms of electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction, there are still many tough challenges need to be addressed. In view of this, the current research trends to overcome these obstacles in CO 2 electroreduction field are summarized. We expect that this review will provide new insights into the further technique development and practical applications of CO 2 electroreduction.

  16. Measurement of the Rheology of Crude Oil in Equilibrium with CO2 at Reservoir Conditions. (United States)

    Hu, Ruien; Crawshaw, John


    A rheometer system to measure the rheology of crude oil in equilibrium with carbon dioxide (CO2) at high temperatures and pressures is described. The system comprises a high-pressure rheometer which is connected to a circulation loop. The rheometer has a rotational flow-through measurement cell with two alternative geometries: coaxial cylinder and double gap. The circulation loop contains a mixer, to bring the crude oil sample into equilibrium with CO2, and a gear pump that transports the mixture from the mixer to the rheometer and recycles it back to the mixer. The CO2 and crude oil are brought to equilibrium by stirring and circulation and the rheology of the saturated mixture is measured by the rheometer. The system is used to measure the rheological properties of Zuata crude oil (and its toluene dilution) in equilibrium with CO2 at elevated pressures up to 220 bar and a temperature of 50 °C. The results show that CO2 addition changes the oil rheology significantly, initially reducing the viscosity as the CO2 pressure is increased and then increasing the viscosity above a threshold pressure. The non-Newtonian response of the crude is also seen to change with the addition of CO2.

  17. Efficient capture of CO2 over ordered micro-mesoporous hybrid carbon nanosphere (United States)

    Chen, Changwei; Yu, Yanke; He, Chi; Wang, Li; Huang, Huang; Albilali, Reem; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zhengping


    Four kinds of carbon-based adsorbents (micro-mesoporous hybrid carbon nanosphere and N-doped hollow carbon sphere with single-, double- or ruga-shell morphology) with different structural and textural properties were prepared and systematically studied in CO2 capture. All synthesized samples possess high specific surface area (828-910 m2 g-1), large pore volume (0.71-1.81 cm3 g-1), and different micropore contents varied from 2.1% to 46.4%. Amongst, the ordered micro-mesoporous carbon nanosphere (OM-CNS) exhibits the best adsorption performance with CO2 uptake as high as 3.01 mmol g-1 under conditions of 298 K and 1.0 bar, better than most of the reported CO2 adsorbents. The excellent CO2 adsorption capacity of OM-CNS can be reasonably attributed to the synergistic effect of ordered mesopore channels and abundant structural micropores which are beneficial for the diffusion and trapping of CO2 adsorbate. Moreover, the OM-CNS shows excellent CO2 trapping selectivity and superior stability and recyclability, which endow the OM-CNS as a promising and environmental-friendly adsorbent for CO2 capture and separation under practical conditions.

  18. Hollow Co2P nanoflowers organized by nanorods for ultralong cycle-life supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming


    Hollow Co2P nanoflowers (Co2P HNF) are successfully prepared via a one-step, template-free method. Microstructure analysis reveals that Co2P HNF is assembled by nanorods, possesses abundant mesopores and a amorphous carbon shell. Density functional theory calculation and electrochemical measurements demonstrate the high electrical conductivity of Co2P. Benefiting from the unique nanostructures, when employed as electrode material for supercapacitors, Co2P HNF exhibits a high specific capacitance, an outstanding rate capability, and an ultralong cycle stability. Furthermore,. the constructed Co2P HNF//AC ASC yields a high energy density of 30.5 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 850 W kg-1, along with an superior cycling performance (108.0% specific capacitance retained after 10000 cycles at 5 A g-1). These impressive results make Co2P HNF a promising candidate for supercapacitor applications.

  19. Hollow Co2P nanoflowers assembled from nanorods for ultralong cycle-life supercapacitors. (United States)

    Cheng, Ming; Fan, Hongsheng; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Rongming; Zhang, Xixiang


    Hollow Co 2 P nanoflowers (Co 2 P HNFs) were successfully prepared via a one-step, template-free method. Microstructure analysis reveals that Co 2 P HNFs are assembled from nanorods and possess abundant mesopores and an amorphous carbon shell. Density functional theory calculations and electrochemical measurements demonstrate the high electrical conductivity of Co 2 P. Benefiting from the unique nanostructures, when employed as an electrode material for supercapacitors, Co 2 P HNFs exhibit a high specific capacitance, an outstanding rate capability, and an ultralong cycling stability. Furthermore, the constructed Co 2 P HNF//AC ASC exhibits a high energy density of 30.5 W h kg -1 at a power density of 850 W kg -1 , along with a superior cycling performance (108.0% specific capacitance retained after 10 000 cycles at 5 A g -1 ). These impressive results make Co 2 P HNFs a promising candidate for supercapacitor applications.

  20. Testing the early Mars H2-CO2 greenhouse hypothesis with a 1-D photochemical model (United States)

    Batalha, Natasha; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James F.


    A recent study by Ramirez et al. (Ramirez, R.M. et al. [2014]. Nat. Geosci. 7(1), 59-63. (accessed 16.09.14)) demonstrated that an atmosphere with 1.3-4 bar of CO2 and H2O, in addition to 5-20% H2, could have raised the mean annual and global surface temperature of early Mars above the freezing point of water. Such warm temperatures appear necessary to generate the rainfall (or snowfall) amounts required to carve the ancient martian valleys. Here, we use our best estimates for early martian outgassing rates, along with a 1-D photochemical model, to assess the conversion efficiency of CO, CH4, and H2S to CO2, SO2, and H2. Our outgassing estimates assume that Mars was actively recycling volatiles between its crust and interior, as Earth does today. H2 production from serpentinization and deposition of banded iron-formations is also considered. Under these assumptions, maintaining an H2 concentration of ˜1-2% by volume is achievable, but reaching 5% H2 requires additional H2 sources or a slowing of the hydrogen escape rate below the diffusion limit. If the early martian atmosphere was indeed H2-rich, we might be able to see evidence of this in the rock record. The hypothesis proposed here is consistent with new data from the Curiosity Rover, which show evidence for a long-lived lake in Gale Crater near Mt. Sharp. It is also consistent with measured oxygen fugacities of martian meteorites, which show evidence for progressive mantle oxidation over time.

  1. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko


    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  2. Metabolic evidence that serosal sodium does not recycle through the active transepithelial transport pathway of toad bladder. (United States)

    Canessa, M; Labarca, P; Leaf, A


    The possibility that sodium from the serosal bathing medium "back diffuses" into the active sodium transport pool within the mucosal epithelial cell of the isolated toad bladder was examined by determining the effect on the metabolism of the tissue of removing sodium from the serosal medium. It was expected that if recycling of serosal sodium did occur through the active transepithelial transport pathway of the isolated toad bladder, removal of sodium from the serosal medium would reduce the rate of CO2 production by the tissue and enhance of stoichiometric ratio of sodium ions transported across the bladder per molecula of sodium transport dependent CO2 produced simultaneously by the bladder (JNa/JCO2). The data revealed no significant change in this ratio (17.19 with serosal sodium and 16.13 after replacing serosal sodium with choline). Further, when transepithelial sodium transport was inhibited (a) by adding amiloride to the mucosal medium, or (b) by removing sodium from the mucosal medium, subsequent removal of sodium from the serosal medium, or (c) addition of ouabain failed to depress the basal rate of CO2 production by the bladder [(a)rate of basal, nontransport related, CO2 production (JbCO2) equals 1.54 +/- 0.52 with serosal sodium and 1.54 +/- 0.37 without serosal sodium; (b) Jb CO2 equals 2.18 +/- 0.21 with serosal sodium and 2.09 +/- 0.21 without serosal sodium; (c) 1.14 +/- 0.26 without ouabain and 1.13 +/- 0.25 with ouabain; unite of JbCO2 are nmoles mg d.w.-1 min-1]. The results support the hypothesis that little, if any, recycling of serosal sodium occurs in the total bladder.

  3. Annual variability in the radiocarbon age and source of dissolved CO2 in a peatland stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Mark H.; Dinsmore, Kerry J.; Billett, Michael F.


    Radiocarbon dating has the capacity to significantly improve our understanding of the aquatic carbon cycle. In this study we used a new passive sampler to measure the radiocarbon ( 14 C) and stable carbon (δ 13 C) isotopic composition of dissolved CO 2 for the first time in a peatland stream throughout a complete year (May 2010–June 2011). The in-stream sampling system collected time-integrated samples of CO 2 continuously over approximately 1 month periods. The rate of CO 2 trapping was proportional to independently measured streamwater CO 2 concentrations, demonstrating that passive samplers can be used to estimate the time-averaged dissolved CO 2 concentration of streamwater. While there was little variation and no clear trend in δ 13 CO 2 values (suggesting a consistent CO 2 source), we found a clear temporal pattern in the 14 C concentration of dissolved CO 2 . The 14 C age of CO 2 varied from 707 ± 35 to 1210 ± 39 years BP, with the youngest CO 2 in the autumn and oldest in spring/early summer. Mean stream discharge and 14 C content of dissolved CO 2 were positively correlated. We suggest that the observed pattern in the 14 C content of dissolved CO 2 reflects changes in its origin, with older carbon derived from deeper parts of the peat profile contributing proportionally more gaseous carbon during periods of low stream flow. - Highlights: ► Dissolved CO 2 was sampled from a peatland stream and radiocarbon dated. ► Samples collected using new passive sampler are suitable for integrated monthly samples. ► Age of CO 2 ranged from 707 to 1210 years old and seasonal pattern is observed. ► Age correlated with discharge and reflected source of dissolved CO 2 . ► Study highlights the value of 14 C analysis and potential of new method.

  4. Modeling the transformation of atmospheric CO2 into microalgal biomass. (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammed Fahad; Vogt, Frank


    Marine phytoplankton acts as a considerable sink of atmospheric CO 2 as it sequesters large quantities of this greenhouse gas for biomass production. To assess microalgae's counterbalancing of global warming, the quantities of CO 2 they fix need to be determined. For this task, it is mandatory to understand which environmental and physiological parameters govern this transformation from atmospheric CO 2 to microalgal biomass. However, experimental analyses are challenging as it has been found that the chemical environment has a major impact on the physiological properties of the microalgae cells (diameter typ. 5-20 μm). Moreover, the cells can only chemically interact with their immediate vicinity and thus compound sequestration needs to be studied on a microscopic spatial scale. Due to these reasons, computer simulations are a more promising approach than the experimental studies. Modeling software has been developed that describes the dissolution of atmospheric CO 2 into oceans followed by the formation of HCO 3 - which is then transported to individual microalgae cells. The second portion of this model describes the competition of different cell species for this HCO 3 - , a nutrient, as well as its uptake and utilization for cell production. Two microalgae species, i.e. Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata, were cultured individually and in a competition situation under different atmospheric CO 2 conditions. It is shown that this novel model's predictions of biomass production are in very good agreement with the experimental flow cytometry results. After model validation, it has been applied to long-term prediction of phytoplankton generation. These investigations were motivated by the question whether or not cell production slows down as cultures grow. This is of relevance as a reduced cell production rate means that the increase in a culture's CO 2 -sinking capacity slows down as well. One implication resulting from this is that an increase in

  5. Waste water treatment of CO2+O2 in-situ leaching uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Liu Naizhong; Du Zhiming; Wang Hongying


    An in-situ leaching uranium mine located in Northern China uses CO 2 +O 2 leaching process to leach uranium. The consumption of industrial reagent and water, and generation and discharge of waste water are minimized by comprehensive waste water treatment technology with process water recycle, reverse osmosis and natural evaporation. The process water of the mine that can be recycled and reused includes barren fluid, solution washing loaded resin, precipitating mother solution and filtered liquor of yellow cake. Solution regenerating barren resin is treated by reverse osmosis. Concentrated water from reverse osmosis and solution washing barren resin are naturally evaporated. (authors)

  6. Does Silicate Weathering of Loess Affect Atmospheric CO2? (United States)

    Anderson, S. P.


    Weathering of glacial loess may be a significant, yet unrecognized, component of the carbon cycle. Glaciers produce fine-grained sediment, exposing vast amounts of mineral surface area to weathering processes, yet silicate mineral weathering rates at glacier beds and of glacial till are not high. Thus, despite the tremendous potential for glaciers to influence global weathering rates and atmospheric CO2 levels, this effect has not been demonstrated. Loess, comprised of silt-clay sizes, may be the key glacial deposit in which silicate weathering rates are high. Loess is transported by wind off braid plains of rivers, and deposited broadly (order 100 km from the source) in vegetated areas. Both the fine grain size, and hence large mineral surface area, and presence of vegetation should render loess deposits highly susceptible to silicate weathering. These deposits effectively extend the geochemical impact of glaciation in time and space, and bring rock flour into conditions conducive to chemical weathering. A simple 1-d model of silicate weathering fluxes from a soil profile demonstrates the potential of loess deposition to enhance CO2 consumption. At each time step, computed mineral dissolution (using anorthite and field-based rate constants) modifies the size of mineral grains within the soil. In the case of a stable soil surface, this results in a gradual decline in weathering fluxes and CO2 consumption through time, as finer grain sizes dissolve away. Computed weathering fluxes for a typical loess, with an initial mean grain size of 25 μm, are an order of magnitude greater than fluxes from a non-loess soil that differs only in having a mean grain size of 320 μm. High weathering fluxes are maintained through time if loess is continually deposited. Deposition rates as low as 0.01 mm/yr (one loess grain thickness per year) can lead to a doubling of CO2 consumption rates within 5 ka. These results suggest that even modest loess deposition rates can significantly

  7. Studies on CO2 removal and reduction. CO2 taisaku kenkyu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper summarizes study trends mainly in CO2 fixing processes. Underground CO2 storage is a most promising method because it can fix a huge amount of CO2 and has low effects on ecological systems. Storing CO2 in ocean includes such methods as storing it in deep oceans; storing it in deep ocean beds; dissolving it into sea water; neutralizing it with calcium carbonates; and precipitating it as dry ice. Japan, disposing CO2 in these ways, may create international problems. Separation of CO2 may use a chemical absorption process as a superior method. Other processes discussed include a physical adsorption method and a membrane separation method. A useful method for CO2 fixation using marine organisms is fixation using coral reefs. This process will require an overall study including circulation of phosphorus and nitrogen. Marine organisms may include planktons and algae. CO2 fixation using land plants may be able to fix one trillion and 8 hundred billion tons of CO2 as converted to carbon. This process would require forest protection, prevention of desertification, and tree planting. Discussions are being given also on improving power generation cycles, recovering CO2 from automotive exhausts, and backfilling carbons into ground by means of photosynthesis. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Fingerprinting captured CO2 using natural tracers: Determining CO2 fate and proving ownership (United States)

    Flude, Stephanie; Gilfillan, Stuart; Johnston, Gareth; Stuart, Finlay; Haszeldine, Stuart


    In the long term, captured CO2 will most likely be stored in large saline formations and it is highly likely that CO2 from multiple operators will be injected into a single saline formation. Understanding CO2 behavior within the reservoir is vital for making operational decisions and often uses geochemical techniques. Furthermore, in the event of a CO2 leak, being able to identify the owner of the CO2 is of vital importance in terms of liability and remediation. Addition of geochemical tracers to the CO2 stream is an effective way of tagging the CO2 from different power stations, but may become prohibitively expensive at large scale storage sites. Here we present results from a project assessing whether the natural isotopic composition (C, O and noble gas isotopes) of captured CO2 is sufficient to distinguish CO2 captured using different technologies and from different fuel sources, from likely baseline conditions. Results include analytical measurements of CO2 captured from a number of different CO2 capture plants and a comprehensive literature review of the known and hypothetical isotopic compositions of captured CO2 and baseline conditions. Key findings from the literature review suggest that the carbon isotope composition will be most strongly controlled by that of the feedstock, but significant fractionation is possible during the capture process; oxygen isotopes are likely to be controlled by the isotopic composition of any water used in either the industrial process or the capture technology; and noble gases concentrations will likely be controlled by the capture technique employed. Preliminary analytical results are in agreement with these predictions. Comparison with summaries of likely storage reservoir baseline and shallow or surface leakage reservoir baseline data suggests that C-isotopes are likely to be valuable tracers of CO2 in the storage reservoir, while noble gases may be particularly valuable as tracers of potential leakage.

  9. Long-term CO2 injection and its impact on near-surface soil microbiology. (United States)

    Gwosdz, Simone; West, Julia M; Jones, David; Rakoczy, Jana; Green, Kay; Barlow, Tom; Blöthe, Marco; Smith, Karon; Steven, Michael; Krüger, Martin


    Impacts of long-term CO 2 exposure on environmental processes and microbial populations of near-surface soils are poorly understood. This near-surface long-term CO 2 injection study demonstrated that soil microbiology and geochemistry is influenced more by seasonal parameters than elevated CO 2 Soil samples were taken during a 3-year field experiment including sampling campaigns before, during and after 24 months of continuous CO 2 injection. CO 2 concentrations within CO 2 -injected plots increased up to 23% during the injection period. No CO 2 impacts on geochemistry were detected over time. In addition, CO 2 -exposed samples did not show significant changes in microbial CO 2 and CH 4 turnover rates compared to reference samples. Likewise, no significant CO 2 -induced variations were detected for the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea (16S rDNA) and gene copy numbers of the mcrA gene, Crenarchaeota and amoA gene. The majority (75%-95%) of the bacterial sequences were assigned to five phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes The majority of the archaeal sequences (85%-100%) were assigned to the thaumarchaeotal cluster I.1b (soil group). Univariate and multivariate statistical as well as principal component analyses showed no significant CO 2 -induced variation. Instead, seasonal impacts especially temperature and precipitation were detected. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  10. Diffuse CO2 degassing at Vesuvio, Italy (United States)

    Frondini, Francesco; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Cardellini, Carlo; Granieri, Domenico; Ventura, Guido


    At Vesuvio, a significant fraction of the rising hydrothermal-volcanic fluids is subjected to a condensation and separation process producing a CO2-rich gas phase, mainly expulsed through soil diffuse degassing from well defined areas called diffuse degassing structures (DDS), and a liquid phase that flows towards the outer part of the volcanic cone. A large amount of thermal energy is associated with the steam condensation process and subsequent cooling of the liquid phase. The total amount of volcanic-hydrothermal CO2 discharged through diffuse degassing has been computed through a sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) approach based on several hundred accumulation chamber measurements and, at the time of the survey, amounted to 151 t d-1. The steam associated with the CO2 output, computed assuming that the original H2O/CO2 ratio of hydrothermal fluids is preserved in fumarolic effluents, is 553 t d-1, and the energy produced by the steam condensation and cooling of the liquid phase is 1.47×1012 J d-1 (17 MW). The location of the CO2 and temperature anomalies show that most of the gas is discharged from the inner part of the crater and suggests that crater morphology and local stratigraphy exert strong control on CO2 degassing and subsurface steam condensation. The amounts of gas and energy released by Vesuvio are comparable to those released by other volcanic degassing areas of the world and their estimates, through periodic surveys of soil CO2 flux, can constitute a useful tool to monitor volcanic activity.

  11. Development of a Next-Generation Membrane-Integrated Adsorption Processor for CO2 Removal and Compression for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems (United States)

    Mulloth, Lila; LeVan, Douglas


    The current CO2 removal technology of NASA is very energy intensive and contains many non-optimized subsystems. This paper discusses the concept of a next-generation, membrane integrated, adsorption processor for CO2 removal nd compression in closed-loop air revitalization systems. This processor will use many times less power than NASA's current CO2 removal technology and will be capable of maintaining a lower CO2 concentration in the cabin than that can be achieved by the existing CO2 removal systems. The compact, consolidated, configuration of gas dryer, CO2 separator, and CO2 compressor will allow continuous recycling of humid air in the cabin and supply of compressed CO2 to the reduction unit for oxygen recovery. The device has potential application to the International Space Station and future, long duration, transit, and planetary missions.

  12. Re-evaluating the 1940s CO2 plateau (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Ciais, Philippe; Barichivich, Jonathan; Bopp, Laurent; Brovkin, Victor; Gasser, Thomas; Peng, Shushi; Pongratz, Julia; Viovy, Nicolas; Trudinger, Cathy M.


    The high-resolution CO2 record from Law Dome ice core reveals that atmospheric CO2 concentration stalled during the 1940s (so-called CO2 plateau). Since the fossil-fuel emissions did not decrease during the period, this stalling implies the persistence of a strong sink, perhaps sustained for as long as a decade or more. Double-deconvolution analyses have attributed this sink to the ocean, conceivably as a response to the very strong El Niño event in 1940-1942. However, this explanation is questionable, as recent ocean CO2 data indicate that the range of variability in the ocean sink has been rather modest in recent decades, and El Niño events have generally led to higher growth rates of atmospheric CO2 due to the offsetting terrestrial response. Here, we use the most up-to-date information on the different terms of the carbon budget: fossil-fuel emissions, four estimates of land-use change (LUC) emissions, ocean uptake from two different reconstructions, and the terrestrial sink modelled by the TRENDY project to identify the most likely causes of the 1940s plateau. We find that they greatly overestimate atmospheric CO2 growth rate during the plateau period, as well as in the 1960s, in spite of giving a plausible explanation for most of the 20th century carbon budget, especially from 1970 onwards. The mismatch between reconstructions and observations during the CO2 plateau epoch of 1940-1950 ranges between 0.9 and 2.0 Pg C yr-1, depending on the LUC dataset considered. This mismatch may be explained by (i) decadal variability in the ocean carbon sink not accounted for in the reconstructions we used, (ii) a further terrestrial sink currently missing in the estimates by land-surface models, or (iii) LUC processes not included in the current datasets. Ocean carbon models from CMIP5 indicate that natural variability in the ocean carbon sink could explain an additional 0.5 Pg C yr-1 uptake, but it is unlikely to be higher. The impact of the 1940-1942 El Niño on the

  13. Mineral CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.


    Mineral CO2 sequestration, i.e., carbonation of alkaline silicate Ca/Mg minerals, analogous to natural weathering processes, is a possible technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline Ca-rich industrial residues are presented as a possible feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration. These materials are cheap, available near large point sources of CO2, and tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their chemical instability. Ground steel slag was carbonated in aqueous suspensions to study its reaction mechanisms. Process variables, such as particle size, temperature, carbon dioxide pressure, and reaction time, were systematically varied, and their influence on the carbonation rate was investigated. The maximum carbonation degree reached was 74% of the Ca content in 30 min at 19 bar pressure, 100C, and a particle size of <38 μm. The two must important factors determining the reaction rare are particle size (<2 mm to <38 μm) and reaction temperature (25-225C). The carbonation reaction was found to occur in two steps: (1) leaching of calcium from the steel slag particles into the solution; (2) precipitation of calcite on the surface of these particles. The first step and, more in particular, the diffusion of calcium through the solid matrix toward the surface appeared to be the rate-determining reaction step, The Ca diffusion was found to be hindered by the formation of a CaCO3-coating and a Ca-depleted silicate zona during the carbonation process. Research on further enhancement of the reaction rate, which would contribute to the development of a cost-effective CO2-sequestration process, should focus particularly on this mechanism

  14. Why is Dawsonite Absent in CO2 Charged Reservoirs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellevang, H.; Declercq, J.; Aagaard, P.


    Growth of the sodium-aluminium-hydroxy carbonate dawsonite (NaAl(OH) 2 CO 3 ) after charging saline aquifers with CO 2 has been assumed in a plethora of numerical simulations at different mineralogies, aqueous solutions, pressures and temperatures. It appears however that dawsonite is less abundant than expected in natural CO 2 storage analogues if we take into account the thermodynamic stability alone. We have mapped the thermodynamic stability of dawsonite relative to mineral phases like albite, kaolinite and analcime from 37 to 200 C and performed closed-system batch kinetic simulations using a new kinetic expression including a nucleation term based on classical nucleation theory, and a growth term that was based on BCF growth theory. Using this rate equation, we have performed a sensitivity study on dawsonite growth on mineralogy, temperature, CO 2 pressure, nucleation rate and its dependencies on temperature and affinity, and on the dawsonite precipitation rate coefficient. Simulations with dawsonite growth disabled showed that the maximum over-saturation reached for dawsonite for seawater-like solutions never exceeded 3-4 times over-saturation. The positive effect on dawsonite growth of increasing the CO 2 pressure was mostly neutralized by higher acidity. Decreasing the precipitation rate coefficient by 5 orders of magnitude had a limited effect on the onset of significant growth, but the amount of dawsonite formed at the end of the 1 000 years simulated time was only 37% below the high-rate case. Reducing the nucleation rates had similar effects leading to postponed dawsonite growth. Finally, based on thermodynamic considerations and numerical simulations, we suggest that the potential of dawsonite growth is limited to a medium-temperature window framed by a high thermodynamic stability relative to competing mineral phases at low temperatures, but with rapidly diminishing nucleation and growth rates at lower temperatures constrained by energy barriers

  15. CO2-Water-Rock Wettability: Variability, Influencing Factors, and Implications for CO2 Geostorage. (United States)

    Iglauer, Stefan


    Carbon geosequestration (CGS) has been identified as a key technology to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and thus significantly mitigate climate change. In CGS, CO 2 is captured from large point-source emitters (e.g., coal fired power stations), purified, and injected deep underground into geological formations for disposal. However, the CO 2 has a lower density than the resident formation brine and thus migrates upward due to buoyancy forces. To prevent the CO 2 from leaking back to the surface, four trapping mechanisms are used: (1) structural trapping (where a tight caprock acts as a seal barrier through which the CO 2 cannot percolate), (2) residual trapping (where the CO 2 plume is split into many micrometer-sized bubbles, which are immobilized by capillary forces in the pore network of the rock), (3) dissolution trapping (where CO 2 dissolves in the formation brine and sinks deep into the reservoir due to a slight increase in brine density), and (4) mineral trapping (where the CO 2 introduced into the subsurface chemically reacts with the formation brine or reservoir rock or both to form solid precipitates). The efficiency of these trapping mechanisms and the movement of CO 2 through the rock are strongly influenced by the CO 2 -brine-rock wettability (mainly due to the small capillary-like pores in the rock which form a complex network), and it is thus of key importance to rigorously understand CO 2 -wettability. In this context, a substantial number of experiments have been conducted from which several conclusions can be drawn: of prime importance is the rock surface chemistry, and hydrophilic surfaces are water-wet while hydrophobic surfaces are CO 2 -wet. Note that CO 2 -wet surfaces dramatically reduce CO 2 storage capacities. Furthermore, increasing pressure, salinity, or dissolved ion valency increases CO 2 -wettability, while the effect of temperature is not well understood. Indeed theoretical understanding of CO 2 -wettability and the

  16. Long-term effects of ozone on CO2 exchange in peatland microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapala, JK; Mörsky, SK; Rinnan, Riikka


    Effects of elevated tropospheric ozone concentration on the CO2 exchange of peatland microcosms and the photosynthetic capacity of the dominating sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum, were studied in a four-year open-field experiment. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange and the dark respiration rate of the mic......Effects of elevated tropospheric ozone concentration on the CO2 exchange of peatland microcosms and the photosynthetic capacity of the dominating sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum, were studied in a four-year open-field experiment. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange and the dark respiration rate...... exchange of the peatland microcosms....

  17. Evaluation of hydrogen production from CO2 corrosion of steel drums in SFR, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugstad, A.; Videm, K.


    An experimental program has been carried out for the investigation of the hydrogen formation due to corrosion of steel by water containing CO 2 produced by microbiologic decomposition of paper in waste drums. The hydrogen production will be limited by a limited rate of CO 2 production, as CO 2 is consumed by corrosive reactions producing carbonate containing corrosion products. Experiments indicated that also iron oxide and hydroxides were formed together with FeCO 3 at low CO 2 partial pressures but at a rate which leads to a rather slow increase in hydrogen production. Hydrogen evaluation has been overestimated in previous reports on this subject. (authors)

  18. Numerical studies of CO2 and brine leakage into a shallow aquifer through an open wellbore (United States)

    Wang, Jingrui; Hu, Litang; Pan, Lehua; Zhang, Keni


    Industrial-scale geological storage of CO2 in saline aquifers may cause CO2 and brine leakage from abandoned wells into shallow fresh aquifers. This leakage problem involves the flow dynamics in both the wellbore and the storage reservoir. T2Well/ECO2N, a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator, was used to analyze CO2 and brine leakage under different conditions with a hypothetical simulation model in water-CO2-brine systems. Parametric studies on CO2 and brine leakage, including the salinity, excess pore pressure (EPP) and initially dissolved CO2 mass fraction, are conducted to understand the mechanism of CO2 migration. The results show that brine leakage rates increase proportionally with EPP and inversely with the salinity when EPP varies from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa; however, there is no CO2 leakage into the shallow freshwater aquifer if EPP is less than 0.5 MPa. The dissolved CO2 mass fraction shows an important influence on the CO2 plume, as part of the dissolved CO2 becomes a free phase. Scenario simulation shows that the gas lifting effect will significantly increase the brine leakage rate into the shallow freshwater aquifer under the scenario of 3.89% dissolved CO2 mass fraction. The equivalent porous media (EPM) approach used to model the wellbore flow has been evaluated and results show that the EPM approach could either under- or over-estimate brine leakage rates under most scenarios. The discrepancies become more significant if a free CO2 phase evolves. Therefore, a model that can correctly describe the complex flow dynamics in the wellbore is necessary for investigating the leakage problems.