WorldWideScience

Sample records for co2 laser pulses

  1. Laser Ablation of Biological Tissue Using Pulsed CO2 Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashishin, Yuichi; Sano, Shu; Nakayama, Takeyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Laser scalpels are currently used as a form of laser treatment. However, their ablation mechanism has not been clarified because laser excision of biological tissue occurs over a short time scale. Biological tissue ablation generates sound (laser-induced sound). This study seeks to clarify the ablation mechanism. The state of the gelatin ablation was determined using a high-speed video camera and the power reduction of a He-Ne laser beam. The aim of this study was to clarify the laser ablation mechanism by observing laser excision using the high-speed video camera and monitoring the power reduction of the He-Ne laser beam. We simulated laser excision of a biological tissue by irradiating gelatin (10 wt%) with radiation from a pulsed CO 2 laser (wavelength: 10.6 μm; pulse width: 80 ns). In addition, a microphone was used to measure the laser-induced sound. The first pulse caused ablation particles to be emitted in all directions; these particles were subsequently damped so that they formed a mushroom cloud. Furthermore, water was initially evaporated by laser irradiation and then tissue was ejected.

  2. Development of high power pulsed CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao; Matoba, Masafumi; Fujita, Hisanori; Daido, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Mitsuo

    1982-01-01

    The inertial nuclear fusion research using pellet implosion has rapidly progressed accompanying laser technique improvement and output increase. As the high output lasers for this purpose, Nd glass lasers or CO 2 lasers are used. The CO 2 lasers possess the characteristics required as reactor lasers, i.e., high efficiency, high frequency repetition, possibility of scale-up and economy. So, the technical development of high power CO 2 lasers assuming also as reactor drivers has been performed at a quick pace together with the research on the improvement of efficiency of pellet implosion by 10 μm laser beam. The Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, stated to build a laser system LEKKO No. 8 of 8 beams and 10 kJ based on the experiences in laser systems LEKKO No. 1 and LEKKO No. 2, and the system LEKKO No. 8 was completed in March, 1981. The operation tests for one year since then has indicated as the laser characteristics that the system performance was as designed initially. This paper reviews the structure, problems and present status of the large scale CO 2 lasers. In other words, the construction of laser system, CO 2 laser proper, oscillator, booster amplifier, prevention of parasitic oscillation, non-linear pulse propagation and fairing of output pulse form, system control and beam alignment, and high power problems are described. The results obtained are to be reported in subsequent issues. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. Possible applications of powerful pulsed CO2-Lasers in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastoyashchii, A.F.; Morozov, I.N.; Hassanein, A.

    1998-01-01

    Applications of powerful pulsed CO 2 -lasers for injection of fuel tablets or creation of a protective screen from the vapor of light elements to protect against the destruction of plasma-facing components are discussed, and the corresponding laser parameters are determined. The possibility of using CO 2 -lasers in modelling the phenomena of powerful and energetic plasma fluxes interaction with a wall, as in the case of a plasma disruption, is considered. (author)

  4. CO2 laser pulse shortening by laser ablation of a metal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, T.; Mazoyer, M.; Lynch, A.; O'Sullivan, G.; O'Reilly, F.; Dunne, P.; Cummins, T.

    2012-01-01

    A repeatable and flexible technique for pulse shortening of laser pulses has been applied to transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO 2 laser pulses. The technique involves focusing the laser output onto a highly reflective metal target so that plasma is formed, which then operates as a shutter due to strong laser absorption and scattering. Precise control of the focused laser intensity allows for timing of the shutter so that different temporal portions of the pulse can be reflected from the target surface before plasma formation occurs. This type of shutter enables one to reduce the pulse duration down to ∼2 ns and to remove the low power, long duration tails that are present in TEA CO 2 pulses. The transmitted energy is reduced as the pulse duration is decreased but the reflected power is ∼10 MW for all pulse durations. A simple laser heating model verifies that the pulse shortening depends directly on the plasma formation time, which in turn is dependent on the applied laser intensity. It is envisaged that this plasma shutter will be used as a tool for pulse shaping in the search for laser pulse conditions to optimize conversion efficiency from laser energy to useable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation for EUV source development.

  5. Control of laser pulse waveform in longitudinally excited CO2 laser by adjustment of excitation circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2018-05-01

    In a longitudinally excited CO2 laser that had a 45 cm-long discharge tube with a 1:1:2 mixture of CO2/N2/He gas at a pressure of 3.0 kPa, we realized the generation of a short laser pulse with a spike pulse width of about 200 ns and a pulse tail length of several tens of microseconds, control of the energy ratio of the spike pulse part to the pulse tail part in the short laser pulse, the generation of a long laser pulse with a pulse width of several tens of microseconds, and control of the pulse width in the long laser pulse, by using four types of excitation circuits in which the capacitance was adjusted. In the short laser pulse, the energy ratio was in the range 1:14-1:112. In the long laser pulse, the pulse width was in the range 25.7-82.7 μs.

  6. Predicting gas decomposition in an industrialized pulsed CO2 laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available to be stable at O2 levels in excess of 2%, whereas previously reported values suggest stable operation at values of less than 1%. This is thought to be related to the unusually high starting CO2 concentration of the gas mix, and the short time pulse...

  7. Pulsed CH3OH terahertz laser radiation pumped by 9P(36) CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiu Zhixian; Zuo Duluo; Miao Liang; Cheng Zuhai

    2011-01-01

    An efficient pulsed CH 3 OH terahertz (THz) laser pumped by a TEA CO 2 laser was investigated experimentally. A simple terahertz cavity and a TEA CO 2 laser for the optically pumped THz radiation were studied experimentally. To improve THz laser energy and photon conversion efficiency, two different TEA CO 2 lasers were developed to pump CH 3 OH. When CH 3 OH was pumped by the 9P(36) line with different powers of the CO 2 laser, the generation of terahertz radiation with energy as high as 0.307mJ and 23.75mJ were obtained, respectively. The corresponding photon conversion efficiencies were 0.29% and 2.4%. The photon conversion efficiency increases by a factor of about 8. Meanwhile, higher peak power of pump laser effectively improves the photon conversion efficiency. And the optimum THz laser pressure increases with narrower pulse width of pump laser because of increasing absorptive gases molecules of CH 3 OH with higher peak power of pump laser.

  8. CO2 laser pulse switching by optically excited semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, V.L. da.

    1986-01-01

    The construction and the study of a semi-conductor optical switch used for generating short infrared pulses and to analyse the semiconductor characteristics, are presented. The switch response time depends on semiconductor and control laser characteristics. The results obtained using a Ge switch controlled by N 2 , NdYag and Dye lasers are presented. The response time was 50 ns limited by Ge recombination time. The reflectivity increased from 7% to 59% using N 2 laser to control the switch. A simple model for semiconductor optical properties that explain very well the experimental results, is also presented. (author) [pt

  9. Effect of surface-breakdown plasma on metal drilling by pulsed CO2-laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutiunian, P. V.; Baranov, V. Iu.; Bobkov, I. V.; Bol'Shakov, L. A.; Dolgov, V. A.

    1988-03-01

    The effect of low-threshold surface breakdown produced by short (5-microsec) CO2-laser pulses on the metal drilling process is investigated. Data on the interaction of metals with laser pulses having the same duration but different shape are shown to be different. The effect of the ambient atmospheric pressure on the laser drilling process is investigated.

  10. Temperature response of biological materials to pulsed non-ablative CO2 laser irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugmans, M. J.; Kemper, J.; Gijsbers, G. H.; van der Meulen, F. W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents surface temperature responses of various tissue phantoms and in vitro and in vivo biological materials in air to non-ablative pulsed CO2 laser irradiation, measured with a thermocamera. We studied cooling off behavior of the materials after a laser pulse, to come to an

  11. Possible applications of powerful pulsed CO2-lasers in tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastoyashchii, A.F.; Morozov, I.N.; Hassanein, A.

    1998-01-01

    Applications of powerful pulsed CO 2 -lasers for injection of fuel tablets or creation of a protective screen from the vapor of light elements to protect against the destruction of plasma-facing components are discussed, and the corresponding laser parameters are determined. The possibility of using CO 2 -lasers in modeling the phenomena of powerful and energetic plasma fluxes interaction with a wall, as in the case of a plasma disruption, is considered

  12. Pulse forming networks for fast pumping of high power electron-beam-controlled CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riepe, K.B.

    1975-01-01

    The transverse electric discharge is a widely used technique for pumping CO 2 lasers at high pressures for the generation, simply and efficiently, of very high power laser pulses. The development of the electron-beam-controlled discharge has allowed the application of the transverse discharge to large aperture, very high energy systems. LASL is now in the process of assembly and checkout of a CO 2 laser which is designed to generate a one nanosecond pulse containing 10 kilojoules, for use in laser fusion experiments. The front end of this laser consists of a set of preamplifiers and a mode locked oscillator with electro-optic single pulse switchout. The final amplifier stage consists of four parallel modules, each one consisting of a two-sided electron gun, and two 35 x 35 x 200 cm gas pumping regions operating at a pressure of 1800 torr with a 3/ 1 / 4 /1 (He/N 2 /CO 2 ) laser mix. (auth)

  13. An attemp to use a pulsed CO2 laser for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    MILAN S. TRTICA; SCEPAN S. MILJANIC; NATASA N. STJEPANOVIC

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. The main mechanism of cleaning by lasers is ablation. A pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used in this work for surface cleaning in order to show that ablation of metal surfaces is possible even at relatively low pulse energies, and to suggest that it could be competitive with other lase...

  14. Influence of laser-supported detonation waves on metal drilling with pulsed CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuermer, E.; von Allmen, M.

    1978-01-01

    Drilling of highly reflective metals in an ambient atmosphere with single TEA-CO 2 -laser pulses of fluences between 300 and 6000 J/cm 2 is reported. The drilling process was investigated by measuring the time-resolved laser power reflected specularly from the targets during the interaction and by analyzing the craters produced. Experiments were performed in ambient air, argon, and helium. Target damage was found to be strongly influenced by a laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave in the ambient gas. If the laser fluence exceeded a material-dependent damage threshold (copper: 300 J/cm 2 ), drilling occurred, but the efficiency was inversely related to the duration of the LSD wave. Efficient material removal is possible if the LSD wave can be dissipated within a small fraction of the laser pulse duration. This was achieved by small-F-number focusing of TEM 00 laser pulses of 5-μs duration. Replacing the ambient air at the target by a gas of lower density results in a further significant reduction of LSD-wave lifetime, and a correlated increase of the drilling yield. On copper targets a maximum drilling yield of 10 -5 cm 3 /J was observed in ambient helium at a laser fluence of 1 kJ/cm 2

  15. Studies of calorimeter absorbers for CW and pulsed CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    Solid and liquid absorbers, used in calorimeters to measure the power and energy of cw and pulsed CO 2 lasers, have been studied from 9.24 to 10.76 μm (cw) and near 10.588 μm (pulsed). The principal materials used were magnesium oxide, lithium fluoride, polystyrene, polytetrafluorethylene, carbon tetrachloride and kerosene. (U.S.)

  16. A compact plasma pre-ionized TEA-CO2 laser pulse clipper for material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Taieb

    2017-08-01

    An extra-laser cavity CO2-TEA laser pulse clipper using gas breakdown techniques for high spatial resolution material processing and shallow material engraving and drilling processes is presented. Complete extinction of the nitrogen tail, that extends the pulse width, is obtained at pressures from 375 up to 1500 torr for nitrogen and argon gases. Excellent energy stability and pulse repeatability were further enhanced using high voltage assisted preionized plasma gas technique. Experimental data illustrates the direct correlation between laser pulse width and depth of engraving in aluminum and alumina materials.

  17. Synthesis of higher diamondoids by pulsed laser ablation plasmas in supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Sho; Stauss, Sven; Kato, Toru; Terashima, Kazuo; Sasaki, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (wavelength 532 nm; fluence 18 J/cm 2 ; pulse width 7 ns; repetition rate 10 Hz) of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite was conducted in adamantane-dissolved supercritical CO 2 with and without cyclohexane as a cosolvent. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of the products revealed the presence of hydrocarbons possessing sp 3 -hybridized carbons similar to diamond structures. The synthesis of diamantane and other possible diamondoids consisting of up to 12 cages was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements of samples before and after pyrolysis treatment indicate the synthesis of the most compact decamantane, namely, superadamantane. It is thought that oxidant species originating from CO 2 during pulsed laser ablation might lead to the selective dissociation of C-H bonds, enabling the synthesis of low H/C ratio molecules. Therefore, laser ablation in supercritical CO 2 is proposed as a practical method for synthesizing diamondoids.

  18. Highly efficient repetitively pulsed electric-discharge industrial CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, V V; Ivanov, M G; Lisenkov, V V; Platonov, V V

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed at the development of a repetitively pulsed CO 2 laser with an active medium volume of 1000 cm 3 pumped by a combined discharge are generalised. It is shown that, at pump pulse durations of 200-500 μs the optimal characteristics are achieved at active-medium pressures of 60-100 Torr. In this case, the laser efficiency at the initial stage of its operation can reach 22% and; if the energy dissipated in the region of the cathode potential drop is neglected, the efficiency is 28%. After emission of 3x10 5 pulses, the laser efficiency falls to 12%. It has been found that adding CO with a relative concentration [CO]/[CO 2 ] ∼0.75 increases the input and output power by almost 50%. The lasing efficiency is then 10%-12%, and the service life of the laser is by more than 10 6 pulses with a power decrease of no more than 10%. Adding hydrogen up to a concentration [H 2 ]/[CO 2 ] ∼10 leads to an increase in the energy supplied to the gas due to a decrease in the rate of ionisation processes. However, the optimal ratio is [H 2 ]/[CO 2 ] ∼ 1, at which the output power increases by 15%. In a long-term operating mode, the laser power is 1 kW at a peak power of 10 kW and an efficiency of 12%. (lasers)

  19. Multi - pulse tea CO2 laser beam interaction with the TiN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakovic, B.; Trtica, M.; Nenadovic, T.; Pavlicevic, B.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of various types of energetic beams including a laser beam with the high-hardness coatings is of great fundamental and technological interest. The Nd:YAG, excimer and CO 2 are frequently used laser beams for this purpose. The interaction of a laser beam with low thickness coatings, deposited on austenitic stainless steel, is insufficiently known in the literature. Titanium nitride (TiN) possess the excellent physico-chemical characteristics. For this reason TiN films/coatings are widely used. The purpose of this article is a consideration of the effect of TEA C0 2 laser radiation on the TiN film deposited on austenitic stainless steel substrate (AISI 316). Investigation of TiN morphological changes, after multipulse laser irradiation, shown dependence on laser fluence, number of laser pulses and the laser pulse shape. Subsequently fast heating and cooling during multi-pulse laser bombardment cause the grain growth of TiN layer. Both laser pulses (pulses with tail and tail-free pulses) produced periodical wave like structure on polished substrate material. Periodicity is observed also on AISI 316 protected with TiN layer, but only with laser pulse with tail. (author)

  20. Spatial dynamics of picosecond CO2 laser pulses produced by optical switching in Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.; Fisher, A.S.; Veligdan, J.; Russell, P.

    1991-01-01

    The design, test and optimization of a picosecond CO 2 pulse-forming system are presented. The system switches a semiconductor's optical characteristics at 10 μm under the control of a synchronized 1.06-μm Nd:YAG picosecond laser pulse. An energy-efficient version of such a system using collimated beams is described. A simple, semi-empirical approach is used to simulate the switching process, specifically including the spatial distributions of the laser energy and phase, which are relevant for experiments in laser-driven electron acceleration. 11 refs., 7 figs

  1. Effect of a target on the stimulated emission of microsecond CO2-laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. Iu.; Dolgov, V. A.; Maliuta, D. D.; Mezhevov, V. S.; Semak, V. V.

    1987-12-01

    The paper reports a change in the pulse shape of a TEA CO2 laser with an unstable cavity under the interaction between the laser radiation and a metal surface in the presence of a breakdown plasma. It is shown that a continuous change in the phase difference between the wave reflected in the cavity and the principal cavity wave gives rise to changes in the pulse shape and the appearance of power fluctuations. The possible effect of these phenomena on the laser treatment of materials is considered.

  2. Pulsed photothermal radiometry in investigation of tissue destruction caused by CO2 laser action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotareva, Galina P.; Zubov, Boris V.; Nikitin, Alexander P.; Rakcheev, Anatolii P.; Alexeeva, Larisa R.

    1994-12-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) of tissue based on the analysis of thermal radiation kinetics measured from tissue at laser heating is an effective method of laser-tissue interaction investigation. The processes of destruction under laser radiation action (coagulation, fusion and welding), which are characterized by definite dynamics of temperature in the region of laser heating, have been studied. The amplitude and kinetics of the thermal signal registered by PPTR technique depend on space and temporal temperature changes in the zone of heating, which is conditioned by the regime of laser action and internal processes in tissue. In the present study the investigation of thermal tissue destruction under action of high-power pulsed CO2 and YAG:Er-laser radiation has been carried out using PPTR. Soft and hard tissues have been examined. The nonlinear dependencies of thermal emission kinetics, the thermal signal amplitude, and the integral absorption on laser energy density are presented and discussed. We represent PPTR as a technique which can be used for the definition of the destruction threshold and for the regulation of laser action on tissue. PPTR method has been applied in clinics with the aim of more accurate definition of CO2 pulsed medical laser radiation dose for treatment of patients with different dermatological diseases.

  3. Pulsed TEA CO2 Laser Irradiation of Titanium in Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganovic, J.; Matavulj, P.; Trtica, M.; Stasic, J.; Savovic, J.; Zivkovic, S.; Momcilovic, M.

    2017-12-01

    Surface changes created by interaction of transversely excited atmospheric carbon dioxide (TEA CO2) laser with titanium target/implant in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas were studied. TEA CO2 laser operated at 10.6 μm, pulse length of 100 ns and fluence of ˜17 J/cm2 which was sufficient for inducing surface modifications. Induced changes depend on the gas used. In both gases the grain structure was produced (central irradiated zone) but its forms were diverse, (N2: irregular shape; CO2: hill-like forms). Hydrodynamic features at peripheral zone, like resolidified droplets, were recorded only in CO2 gas. Elemental analysis of the titanium target surface indicated that under a nitrogen atmosphere surface nitridation occurred. In addition, irradiation in both gases was followed by appearance of plasma in front of the target. The existence of plasma indicates relatively high temperatures created above the target surface offering a sterilizing effect.

  4. Pulse propagation properties in high-power CO2 laser system for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daido, H.; Inoue, M.; Fujita, H.; Matoba, M.; Nakai, S.

    1981-01-01

    The simulation results of nonlinear propagation properties in the CO 2 laser system using a simulation model of the SF 6 saturable absorbers and the CO 2 laser amplifiers agree well with the experimental results. The technical problems of the simultaneous irradiation of the multi-beams to a target are also discussed. (author)

  5. ARTICLES: Physical laws governing the interaction of pulse-periodic CO2 laser radiation with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedenov, A. A.; Gladush, G. G.; Drobyazko, S. V.; Pavlovich, Yu V.; Senatorov, Yu M.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the efficiency of welding metals with a pulse-periodic CO2 laser beam of low duty ratio, at low velocities, can exceed that of welding with cw lasers and with electron beams. For the first time an investigation was made of the influence of the laser radiation parameters (energy and frequency) and of the welding velocity on the characteristics of the weld and on the shape of the weldpool. The influence of the laser radiation polarization on the efficiency of deep penetration was analyzed.

  6. Experimental investigation of drug delivery using a super pulse CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosroshahi, M. E.; Jafari, A.; Mansoori, S.

    2006-01-01

    We have carried out an experiment using a super long CO 2 laser pulse (10 ms) on simulated gelatin-ink model. The mechanism of laser-gelatin-ink model interaction was studied by photothermal deflection and time-resolved dynamics techniques and fast photography. It seems that the main operating mechanisms with super long CO 2 laser where the absorption coefficient of gelatin-ink model is high, are photothermal vaporization and photomechanical photophorosis and cavitation collapse. The drug molecules can be transported into the tissue bulk described by the Fick's law for a given cavity geometry and mechanical waves, unlike only by pure photomechanical waves (id est photo acoustically) as with short pulses.

  7. Possibilities of a metal surface radioactive decontamination using a pulsed CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milijanic, Scepan S.; Stjepanovic, Natasa N.; Trtica, Milan S.

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. A main mechanism of cleaning in by lasers is ablation. In this work a pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used for surface cleaning, primarily in order to demonstrate that the ablation from metal surfaces with this laser is possible even with relatively low pulse energies, and secondary, that it could be competitive with other lasers because of much higher energy efficiencies. The laser pulse contains two parts, one strong and shot peak at the beginning, followed with a tail. The beam was focused onto a contaminated surface with a KBr lens. The surface was contaminated with 137Cs. Three different metals were used: stainless steel, copper and aluminum. The evaporated material was pumped out in air atmosphere and transferred to a filter. Presence of the activity on the filter was proved by a germanium detector-multichannel analyzer. Activity levels were measured by a GM counter. Calculated decontamination factors as well as collection factors have shown that ablation takes place with relatively high efficiency of decontamination. This investigation suggests that decontamination using the CO2 laser should be seriously considered.

  8. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Influence of a target on operation of a pulsed CO2 laser emitting microsecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. Yu; Dolgov, V. A.; Malyuta, D. D.; Mezhevov, V. S.; Semak, V. V.

    1987-12-01

    The profile of pulses emitted by a TEA CO2 laser with an unstable resonator changed as a result of interaction of laser radiation with the surface of a metal in the presence of a breakdown plasma. This influence of a target on laser operation and its possible applications in laser processing of materials are analyzed.

  9. An attemp to use a pulsed CO2 laser for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN S. TRTICA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. The main mechanism of cleaning by lasers is ablation. A pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used in this work for surface cleaning in order to show that ablation of metal surfaces is possible even at relatively low pulse energies, and to suggest that it could be competitive with other lasers because of much higher energy efficiencies. A brief theoretical analysis was made before the experiments. The laser beam was focused using a KBr-lens onto a surface contaminated with 137Cs (b-, t1/2 = 30.17 y. Three different metals were used: stainless steel, copper and aluminium. The ablated material was pumped out in an air atmosphere and transferred to a filter. The presence of activity on the filter was shown by a germanium detector-multichannel analyzer. The activity levels were measured by a GM counter. The calculated decontamination factors and collection factors showed that ablation occurs with a relatively high efficiency of decontamination. This investigation suggests that decontamination using a CO2 laser should be seriously considered.

  10. ARTICLES: Stabilization of the composition of the gaseous medium in a pulse-periodic CO2 laser by hopcalite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. Yu; Drokov, G. F.; Kuz'menko, V. A.; Mezhevov, V. S.; Pigul'skaya, V. V.

    1986-05-01

    The results of experiments on using hopcalite to stabilize the gas mixture composition in pulse-periodic and single-pulse CO2 lasers are reported. A study was made of the reasons for a fall in the activity of the catalyst with time under typical CO2 laser conditions and a catalyst regeneration regime was selected. The use of hopcalite ensured prolonged operation of a high-power pulse-periodic CO2 laser without replenishment of the gas mixture in a closed loop. Certain characteristic features concerning the use of hopcalite are described.

  11. Cold cathode electron guns in the LASL high power short-pulse CO2 laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, S.; Ladish, J.S.; Nutter, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    The Electron Beam Controlled Discharge CO 2 Laser is now firmly established as the only high power short pulse laser amplifier that has been demonstrated to have scaling capabilities to large apertures and energies much greater than 100 J. These devices require a beam of energetic electrons to control the gas discharge that produces the required population inversion. Until recently, the electron source was usually a thermionic emitter, even for rather large lasers, whose heater requirements dwarfed the pulsed energies associated with the transient operation of the laser. With the advent of reliable cold-cathode electron guns, the operation of these lasers has been greatly simplified. At LASL, there are four electron beam controlled laser systems which are in operation, under construction, or in design: the 1 kJ system, now operational; the 2.5 kJ system; the 10 kJ system; and the 100 kJ system. Only the first uses thermionic-emitter electron guns; the remainder use or will use cold cathode sources. The operation of the 200 x 35 cm 2 two sided cold cathode electron gun used in the 2.5 kJ laser system and to be used in the 10 kJ laser is described

  12. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  13. Laser induced fluorescence in nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges for CO2 conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L. M.; Gatti, N.; Dilecce, G.; Scotoni, M.; Tosi, P.

    2018-01-01

    A CO2 nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge (NRP) is a harsh environment for laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics. The difficulties arise from it being a strongly collisional system in which the gas composition, pressure and temperature, have quick and strong variations. The relevant diagnostic problems are described and illustrated through the application of LIF to the measurement of the OH radical in three different discharge configurations, with gas mixtures containing CO2 + H2O. These range from a dielectric barrier NRP with He buffer gas, a less hostile case in which absolute OH density measurement is possible, to an NRP in CO2+H2O, where the full set of drawbacks is at work. In the last case, the OH density measurement is not possible with laser pulses and detector time resolution in the ns time scale. Nevertheless, it is shown that with a proper knowledge of the collisional rate constants involved in the LIF process, a collisional energy transfer-LIF methodology is still applicable to deduce the gas composition from the analysis of LIF spectra.

  14. Short-pulse CO2-laser damage studies of NaCl and KCl windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Nowak, A.V.; Gill, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The damage resistance of bare surfaces and the bulk interior of NaCl and KCl windows was measured with a short-pulse CO 2 laser at 10.6 μm. Parametric studies with 1.7-ns pulses indicated that adsorbed water was probably the limiting agent on surface thresholds in agreement with previous studies at long pulsewidths. Rear-surface thresholds up to 7 J/cm 2 were measured for polished NaCl windows, whereas KCl surfaces damaged at approximately 60% of this level. The breakdown electric-field thresholds of exit surfaces were only 50% of the value of the bulk materials. The pulsewidth dependence of surface damage from 1 to 65 ns, in terms of incident laser fluence, increased as t/sup 1/3/

  15. The Thomson scattering experiment pulsed by CO2 laser in FT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolini, L.; Fornetti, G.; Nardi, M.; Occhionero, G.; Ferri de Collibus, M.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment carried out to measure the plasma ion temperature Tsub(i) in the tokamak FT in Frascati by Collective Thomson Scattering. A tandem laser system generates two single mode beams (10.6μ) one of which is pulsed and amplified up to levels of 5 MW, 1μs and actively frequency locked to a second continuous wave low pressure CO 2 laser. The pulse beam crosses the plasma and the forward scattered light is collected at angles between 1 degrees centigrade and 1.6 degrees centigrade. An heterodyne technique in which the c.w. beam is the local oscillator is used to measure the Doppler enlarged spectral density of the signal. The experimental apparatus is described and the results are reported and discussed

  16. CO2 laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The research and development programs on high-energy, short-pulse CO 2 lasers were begun at LASL in 1969. Three large systems are now either operating or are being installed. The Single-Beam System (SBS), a four-stage prototype, was designed in 1971 and has been in operation since 1973 with an output energy of 250 J in a 1-ns pulse with an on-target intensity of 3.5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The Dual-Beam System (DBS), now in the final stages of electrical and optical checkout, will provide about ten times more power for two-beam target irradiation experiments. Four such dual-beam modules are being installed in the Laser-Fusion Laboratory to provide an Eight-Beam System (EBS) scheduled for operation at the 5- to 10-TW level in 1977. A fourth system, a 100- to 200-TW CO 2 laser, is being designed for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) program

  17. Pulse-forming and line-broadening in AM mode locking of the TEA-CO2laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, W.J.; Olbertz, A.H.M.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper describes AM mode locking for homogeneously broadened systems, a procedure for measuring linewidths under laser conditions, and finally, experimental results for a 1-atm CO2laser. Working in the frequency domain, analytic solutions are given for the pulse bandwidth and pulse shape

  18. CO2-laser ablation of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu oxide by millisecond pulse lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskoob, M.; Honda, T.; Safari, A.; Wachtman, J. B.; Danforth, S.; Wilkens, B. J.

    1990-03-01

    We have achieved ablation of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu oxide from single targets of superconducting pellets by CO2-laser pulses of l ms length to grow superconducting thin films. Upon annealing, the 6000-Å thin films have a Tc (onset) of 90 K and zero resistance at 78 K. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate the growth of single-phase thin films. This technique allows growth of uniform single-phase superconducting thin films of lateral area greater than 1 cm2.

  19. Time-resolved UV spectroscopy on ammonia excited by a pulsed CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbach, H.

    1980-07-01

    This work investigates the excitation of ammonia by a pulsed CO 2 laser, in particular the processes associated with collisions with argon. It was prompted by two previous observations: the previously reported infrared multiphoton dissociation of NH 3 under nearly collisionless conditions, and the ill understood excitation mechanism of apparently nonresonant low vibrational levels in the presence of Ar. Based on recent spectroscopic data, all vibrational-rotational levels were determined which are simultaneously excited by different CO 2 laser lines. Transitions between the 1 + and 2 - vibrational levels were also taken into account. The linewidth in these calculations was dominated by power broadening, which generates a half width at half maximum of 0.36 cm -1 at the typical power density of 10 MW/cm 2 . In order to reproduce published experimental absorption data, it proved necessary to take account all transitions within a distance of 20 cm -1 from the laser line. This fact implies in most cases the simultaneous population of a large number of vibrational-rotational levels. The population of levels by absorption or by subsequent collisional processes was probed by time-resolved absorption measurement of vibrational bands and their rotational envelope in the near UV. Time resolution (5...10) was sufficient to observe rotational relaxation within individual vibrational levels. Characteristic differences were found for the various excitation lines. (orig.) [de

  20. Simulation and initial experiments of a high power pulsed TEA CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, R.; Saghafifar, H.; Koushki, A. M.; Ganjovi, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the output characteristics of a UV pin array pre-ionized TEA CO2 laser have been simulated and compared with the associated experimental data. In our simulation, a new theoretical model has been improved for transient behavior analysis of the discharge current pulse. The laser discharge tube was modeled by a nonlinear RLC electric circuit as a real model for electron density calculation. This model was coupled with a six-temperature model (6TM) in order to simulation dynamic emission processes of the TEA CO2 laser. The equations were solved numerically by the fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method and some important variables such as current and voltage of the main discharge, resistance of the plasma column and electron density in the main discharge region, were calculated as functions of time. The effects of non-dissociation factor, rotational quantum number and output coupler reflectivity were also studied theoretically. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement.

  1. Lower energy and pulse stacking. A safer alternative for skin tightening using fractional CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Marcos Matias; Stelini, Rafael Fantelli; Calderoni, Davi Reis; Gilioli, Rovilson; Kharmandayan, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of different energies and stacking in skin shrinkage. Three decreasing settings of a fractional CO2 laser were applied to the abdomen of Twenty five Wistar rats divided into three groups. Group I (n=5) was histologically evaluated for microthermal zones dimensions. Groups II and III (n=10 each) were macroscopic evaluated with freeware ImageJ for area contraction immediately and after 30 and 60 days. No statistical significance was found within microthermal zone histological dimensions (Group I) in all settings studied. (Ablation depth: 76.90 to 97.18µm; Coagulation depth: 186.01 to 219.84 µm). In Group II, macroscopic evaluation showed that all settings cause significant immediate skin contraction. The highest setting cause significant more intense tightening effect initially, contracting skin area from 258.65 to 179.09 mm2. The same pattern was observed in Group III. At 30 and 60 days, the lowest setting significantly sustained contraction. Lower fractional CO2 laser energies associated to pulse stacking could cause consistent and long lasting tissue contraction in rats.

  2. Stabilization of the composition of the gas medium of a repetitively pulsed CO2 laser by means of hopcalite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. Iu.; Drokov, G. F.; Kuzmenko, V. A.; Mezhevov, V. S.; Pigulskaia, V. V.

    1986-05-01

    Results of experiments in which hopcalite was used to stabilize the composition of the gas medium of repetitively pulsed and monopulse CO2 lasers are reported. In particular, the mechanisms of the decrease in the catalyst activity with time under conditions for catalyst regeneration are determined. It is shown that the use of hopcalite has made it possible to achieve long-term operation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser without changing the gas mixture in a closed circuit. Some details related to the use of hopcalite are discussed.

  3. QCL seeded, ns-pulse, multi-line, CO2 laser oscillator for laser-produced-plasma extreme-UV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Krzysztof Michał; Suganuma, Takashi; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki; Ohta, Takeshi; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Nakarai, Hiroaki; Saitou, Takashi; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Sumitani, Akira; Endo, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Successful merger of state-of-the-art, semiconductor quantum-cascade lasers (QCL), with the mature CO2 laser technology, resulted in a delivery of highly-desired qualities of CO2 laser output that were not available previously without much effort. These qualities, such as multi-line operation, excellent spectro-temporal stability and pulse waveform control, became available from a single device of moderate complexity. This paper describes the operation principle and the unique properties of the solid{state seeded CO2 laser, invented for an application in laser-produced-plasma (LPP), extreme-UV (EUV) light source.

  4. Temporal Evolution Study of the Plasma Induced by CO2 Pulsed Laser on Targets of Titanium Oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diaz, L.; Camacho, J.J.; Sanz, M.; Hernández, M.; Jandová, Věra; Castillejo, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 86, AUG 1 (2013), s. 88-93 ISSN 0584-8547 Grant - others:DGICYT(ES) CTQ2008-05393/BQU; DGICYT(ES) CTQ2010-15680/BQU; CAM(ES) Geomateriales S2009/ Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : laser induced breakdown spectroscopy * time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy * high-power IR CO2 pulsed laser Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2013

  5. Fabrication of polystyrene microfluidic devices using a pulsed CO2 laser system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-10-10

    In this article, we described a simple and rapid method for fabrication of droplet microfluidic devices on polystyrene substrate using a CO2 laser system. The effects of the laser power and the cutting speed on the depth, width and aspect ratio of the microchannels fabricated on polystyrene were investigated. The polystyrene microfluidic channels were encapsulated using a hot press bonding technique. The experimental results showed that both discrete droplets and laminar flows could be obtained in the device.

  6. Fabrication of polystyrene microfluidic devices using a pulsed CO2 laser system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Foulds, Ian G.; Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we described a simple and rapid method for fabrication of droplet microfluidic devices on polystyrene substrate using a CO2 laser system. The effects of the laser power and the cutting speed on the depth, width and aspect ratio of the microchannels fabricated on polystyrene were investigated. The polystyrene microfluidic channels were encapsulated using a hot press bonding technique. The experimental results showed that both discrete droplets and laminar flows could be obtained in the device.

  7. The effects of focusing power on TEA CO2 laser-induced gas breakdown and the consequent pulse shaping effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshtipour, Saleheh; Safari, Ebrahim; Majdabadi, Abbas; Silakhori, Kaveh

    2018-02-01

    Transversely Excited Atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser pulses were used in order to generate an optical breakdown in a variety of mono- and polyatomic molecules using different focusing powers. The dependence of the spark kernel geometry and the transmitted pulse shapes on the focusing power as well as the pressure, molecular weight, and ionization energy of the gases was investigated in detail. Partial removal of the transmitted pulse tail in the 0.05-2.6 μs range together with shortened spikes in the 10-60 ns range has been observed by applying a 2.5 cm focal length lens for all the gases. At higher focal lengths, this effect is only incompletely observed for He gas. Spatial-temporal analyses of the laser beams and the relevant plasma plumes indicate that this behavior is due to the drop in the plasma density below the critical level, before the laser pulse tail is completed.

  8. Temporal shaping of nanosecond CO2 laser pulses in multiphoton saturable absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    It was shown that substantial temporal distortion of nanosecond 10.6 μm laser pulses occurs in traversing multiphoton saturable absorbers. The risetime and pulse delay effects appear to depend both on fluence and wavelength, and to be qualitatively consistent with predictions of a simple two-level absorption model

  9. Two-frequency operation of a hybrid TEA CO2 laser and its application to two-frequency pulse injection locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Koichi; Ohno, Hirotaka; Fujii, Takaharu; Tsukishima, Takashige.

    1990-10-01

    Simultaneous two-frequency oscillation of a hybrid TEA CO 2 laser is exhibited when the cw section is operated in a 'below threshold' state. The output of the hybrid laser thus obtained is injected into a main TEA CO 2 laser to obtain a power-modulated, long-pulse output with a well suppressed gain-switched spike. (author)

  10. Design and optimisation of a pulsed CO2 laser for laser ultrasonic applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available at the material surface is detected and converted into a defect map across the aircraft. The design and optimization of a laser system for this application, together with the basic science involved, is reviewed in this paper. This includes the optimization...

  11. Design and optimisation of a pulsed CO2 laser for laser ultrasonics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available , resulting in a response at the material surface. This is detected and converted into a defect map across the aircraft. In this paper the authors consider the design and optimisation of a laser system for this application, and cover the basic science...

  12. Pulsed CO2 laser for intra-articular cartilage vaporization and subchondral bone perforation in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Alan J.; Roth, Jerry E.; Krook, Lennart P.

    1991-05-01

    A pulsed carbon dioxide laser was used to vaporize articular cartilage in four horses, and perforate the cartilage and subchondral bone in four horses. Both intercarpal joints were examined arthroscopically and either a 1 cm cartilage crater or a series of holes was created in the third carpal bone of one joint. The contralateral carpus served as a control. The horses were evaluated clinically for 8 weeks, euthanatized and the joints examined radiographically, grossly, and histologically. Pulsed carbon dioxide laser vaporized cartilage readily but penetrated bone poorly. Cartilage vaporization resulted in no greater swelling, heat, pain on flexion, lameness, or synovial fluid reaction than the sham procedure. Laser drilling resulted in a shallow, charred hole with a tenacious carbon residue, and in combination with the thermal damage to deeper bone, resulted in increased swelling, mild lameness and a low-grade, but persistent synovitis. Cartilage removal by laser vaporization resulted in rapid regrowth with fibrous and fibrovascular tissue and occasional regions of fibrocartilage at week 8. The subchondral bone, synovial membrane, and draining lymph nodes appeared essentially unaffected by the laser cartilage vaporization procedure. Conversely, carbon dioxide laser drilling of subchondral bone resulted in poor penetration, extensive areas of thermal necrosis of bone, and significant secondary damage to the apposing articular surface of the radial carpal bone. The carbon dioxide laser is a useful intraarticular instrument for removal of cartilage and has potential application in inaccessible regions of diarthrodial joints. It does not penetrate bone sufficiently to have application in subchondral drilling.

  13. Deep pulse fractional CO2 laser combined with a radiofrequency system: results of a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Sannino, Mario; Tamburi, Federica; Chiricozzi, Andrea; Saraceno, Rosita; Morini, Cristiano; Nisticò, Steven

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation of the safety and efficacy of this new combined technology that adds deep ablation to thermal stimulation. Minimally ablative or subablative lasers, such as fractional CO2 lasers, have been developed in an attempt to achieve the same clinical results observed with traditional ablative lasers, but with fewer side effects. Despite being an ablative laser, the system used in this study is able to produce a fractional supply of the beam of light. Fractional ablation of skin is performed through the development of microscopic vertical columns surrounded by spared areas of epidermis and dermis, ensuring rapid wound healing and minimum down time. Simultaneous synchronized delivery of a radiofrequency (RF) current to the deeper layers of the skin completes the therapeutic scenario, ensuring an effective skin tightening effect over the entire treated area. Nine adult patients were treated for wrinkles and acne scars using this new laser technology. An independent observer evaluated the improvement using a five point scale. All patients had good results in terms of improvement of skin texture, with mild and transitory side effects. This novel combined system produced improvement in wrinkles and acne scars, with progressive enhancement of skin tone and elasticity.

  14. Highly textured fresnoite thin films synthesized in situ by pulsed laser deposition with CO2 laser direct heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Michael; Stölzel, Marko; Brachwitz, Kerstin; Hochmuth, Holger; Grundmann, Marius; De Pablos-Martin, Araceli; Patzig, Christian; Höche, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Fresnoite Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 (BTS) thin films were grown and crystallized in situ using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with CO 2 laser direct heating of the a-plane sapphire (1 1 0) substrates up to 1250 °C. Starting with 775 °C growth temperature, (0 0 1)- and (1 1 0)-textured BTS and BaTiO 3 phases, respectively, could be assigned in the films, and the typical fern-like BTS crystallization patterns appear. For higher process temperatures of 1100 to 1250 °C, atomically smooth, terraced surface of the films was found, accompanied by crystalline high-temperature phases of Ba–Ti–Si oxides. HAADF micrographs taken in both scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry mode show details of morphology and elemental distribution inside the films and at the interface. To balance the inherent Si deficiency of the BTS films, growth from glassy BTS × 2 SiO 2 and BTS × 2.5 SiO 2 targets was considered as well. The latter targets are ideal for PLD since the employed glasses possess 100% of the theoretical density and are homogeneous at the atomic scale. (paper)

  15. Effects of early combinatorial treatment of autologous split-thickness skin grafts in red duroc pig model using pulsed dye laser and fractional CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J Kevin; Blackstone, Britani N; DeBruler, Danielle M; Kim, Jayne Y; Baumann, Molly E; McFarland, Kevin L; Imeokparia, Folasade O; Supp, Dorothy M; Powell, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    The use of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and fractional CO 2 (FX CO 2 ) laser therapy to treat and/or prevent scarring following burn injury is becoming more widespread with a number of studies reporting reduction in scar erythema and pruritus following treatment with lasers. While the majority of studies report positive outcomes following PDL or FX CO 2 therapy, a number of studies have reported no benefit or worsening of the scar following treatment. The objective of this study was to directly compare the efficacy of PDL, FX CO 2 , and PDL + FX CO 2 laser therapy in reducing scarring post burn injury and autografting in a standardized animal model. Eight female red Duroc pigs (FRDP) received 4 standardized, 1 in. x 1 in. third degree burns that were excised and autografted. Wound sites were treated with PDL, FX CO 2 , or both at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post grafting. Grafts receiving no laser therapy served as controls. Scar appearance, morphology, size, and erythema were assessed and punch biopsies collected at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. At week 16, additional tissue was collected for biomechanical analyses and markers for inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, re-epithelialization, pigmentation, and angiogenesis were quantified at all time points using qRT-PCR. Treatment with PDL, FX CO 2 , or PDL + FX CO 2 resulted in significantly less contraction versus skin graft only controls with no statistically significant difference among laser therapy groups. Scars treated with both PDL and FX CO 2 were visually more erythematous than other groups with a significant increase in redness between two and three standard deviations above normal skin redness. Scars treated with FX CO 2 were visually smoother and contained significantly fewer wrinkles. In addition, hyperpigmentation was significantly reduced in scars treated with FX CO 2 . The use of fractional carbon dioxide or pulsed dye laser therapy within 1 month of autografting significantly reduced scar

  16. CO2 Laser Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Samuel

    1989-03-01

    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  17. 100-μsec pulsed CO2 laser resurfacing of lower eyelids: erythema and rhytides reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas; Harris, David M.; Schachter, Daniel; Burkart, John

    1997-05-01

    Lower eyelid skin is very thin with a low density of adnexal structures. Attempts to remove rhytides and improve surface appearance with chemical peels and dermabrasion have been disappointing. Laser resurfacing offers a new modality that may improve the outcome. We evaluated a very short duration (100 microsecond(s) ec) pulsed carbon-dioxide laser (Tru-PulseTM) in terms of healing time (duration of erythema) and efficacy (wrinkle reduction). Female patients aged 35 - 75 received laser resurfacing in a variety of cosmetic zones but only data from lower lids are reported here. Dosimetry varied from total fluences of 5 to 20 J/cm2 (9 mm2 spot, 250 - 500 mJ pulse, 1 to 4 passes). Patients followed a strict regime of post-op wound care. Pre-treatment and follow-up photographs were taken in a studio with constant photographic parameters. Projected 35 mm slides were evaluated side-by-side for clinical improvement and presence of erythema. Within the first 4 days post-op all (100%) lower eyelids exhibited erythema and swelling, at 7 days: 71%, 12 days: 60%, 3 weeks: 25%, and one (1) month or longer 7%. In our sample the longest duration of post-op lower lid erythema lasted 5 weeks. Most patients experienced 70 -80% wrinkle reduction with a range of 0 - 100%. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between percent wrinkle reduction and the treatment, demographic, and evaluation variables. There was a significant trend for wrinkles to improve over the 3 to 9 month evaluation period. Older patients improved slightly more than younger patients. There was no relationship between total energy density and wrinkle reduction.

  18. Visualization of transient phenomena during the interaction of pulsed CO2 laser radiation with matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R.; Hugenschmidt, Manfred

    1996-05-01

    Carbon-dioxide-lasers operating in the pulsed mode with energy densities up to several tens of J/cm2 and peak power densities in the multi-MW/cm2-range may cause fast heating and melting. Eventually quasi-explosive ejection, decomposition or vaporization of material can be observed. Surface plasmas are strongly influencing the energy transfer from the laser radiation field to any target. For optically transparent plastics, such as PMMA for example, only slowly expanding plasmas (LSC-waves) are ignited at fluences around 20 J/cm2, with a low level of self-luminosity. High brightness, supersonically expanding plasma jets (LSD-waves) are generated at the same fluences on glasses. Similar conditions were found for metals as well. From recordings with a high speed CCD-camera, interesting features concerning the initial plasma phases and temporal evolution were deduced. Additionally, information was obtained concerning the quasi explosive ejection of material for PMMA.

  19. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Influence of surface breakdown on the process of drilling metals with pulsed CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunyan, R. V.; Baranov, V. Yu; Bobkov, I. V.; Bol'shov, Leonid A.; Dolgov, V. A.; Kanevskiĭ, M. F.; Malyuta, D. D.; Mezhevov, V. S.

    1988-03-01

    A report is given of the influence of low-threshold surface optical breakdown, occurring under the action of short (~ 5-μs) radiation pulses from a CO2 laser, on the process of the laser drilling of metals. Data are given on the difference between the interaction of radiation pulses having the same duration but differing in shape. A study was made of the influence of the pressure of the atmosphere surrounding a target on the results of laser drilling of metals. A theoretical explanation is given of the experimental results.

  20. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Dynamics of splashing of molten metals during irradiation with single CO2 laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunyan, R. V.; Baranov, V. Yu; Bol'shov, Leonid A.; Dolgov, V. A.; Malyuta, D. D.; Mezhevov, V. S.; Semak, V. V.

    1988-03-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the dynamics of the loss of the melt as a result of interaction with single-mode CO2 laser radiation pulses of 5-35 μs duration. The dynamics of splashing of the melt during irradiation with short pulses characterized by a Gaussian intensity distribution differed from that predicted by models in which the distribution of the vapor pressure was assumed to be radially homogeneous.

  1. Surface modification of the titanium implant using TEA CO2 laser pulses in controllable gas atmospheres - Comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciganovic, J.; Stasic, J.; Gakovic, B.; Momcilovic, M.; Milovanovic, D.; Bokorov, M.; Trtica, M.

    2012-01-01

    Interaction of a TEA CO 2 laser, operating at 10.6 μm wavelength and pulse duration of 100 ns (FWHM), with a titanium implant in various gas atmospheres was studied. The Ti implant surface modification was typically studied at the moderate laser beam energy density/fluence of 28 J/cm 2 in the surrounding of air, N 2 , O 2 or He. The energy absorbed from the TEA CO 2 laser beam is partially converted to thermal energy, which generates a series of effects, such as melting, vaporization of the molten material, shock waves, etc. The following titanium implant surface changes and phenomena were observed, depending on the gas used: (i) creation of cone-like surface structures in the atmospheres of air, N 2 and O 2 , and dominant micro-holes/pores in He ambient; (ii) hydrodynamic features, most prominent in air; (iii) formation of titanium nitride and titanium oxide layers, and (iv) occurrence of plasma in front of the implant. It can be concluded from this study that the reported laser fluence and gas ambiences can effectively be applied for enhancing the titanium implant roughness and creation of titanium oxides and nitrides on the strictly localized surface area. The appearance of plasma in front of the implants indicates relatively high temperatures created above the surface. This offers a sterilizing effect, facilitating contaminant-free conditions.

  2. Damage resistance of AR-coated germanium surfaces for nanosecond CO2 laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Gill, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the state-of-the-art of AR coatings on gallium-doped germanium, used as a saturable absorber at 10.6 μm, has been conducted. Both 1-on-1 and N-on-1 laser damage thresholds were measured with 1.2 ns pulses on bare and coated surfaces. Only front surface damage was observed. With few exceptions, the thresholds for coated surfaces were centered at 0.49 +- 0.3 J/cm 2 . Bare Ge had a threshold ranging from 0.65 to 0.70 J/cm 2 . No significant differences due to substrate polish, crystallinity or doping level were evident and multiple-shot conditioning resulted in the same threshold as for single shot tests. From an analysis of standing-wave electric fields, damage for AR-coated Ge appeared to be limited by the surface properties of Ge. Measurements at both 1.2 and 70 ns indicated that the threshold (J/cm 2 ) of both coated and uncoated Ge increases as the square root of the pulse-width

  3. Enhancing caries resistance with a short-pulsed CO2 9.3-μm laser: a laboratory study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Rechmann, Beate M.; Groves, William H.; Le, Charles; Rapozo-Hilo, Marcia L.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this laboratory study was to test whether irradiation with a new 9.3µm microsecond short-pulsed CO2-laser enhances enamel caries resistance with and without additional fluoride applications. 101 human enamel samples were divided into 7 groups. Each group was treated with different laser parameters (Carbon-dioxide laser, wavelength 9.3µm, 43Hz pulse-repetition rate, pulse duration between 3μs to 7μs (1.5mJ/pulse to 2.9mJ/pulse). Using a pH-cycling model and cross-sectional microhardness testing determined the mean relative mineral loss delta Z (∆Z) for each group. The pH-cycling was performed with or without additional fluoride. The CO2 9.3μm short-pulsed laser energy rendered enamel caries resistant with and without additional fluoride use.

  4. Temporal and spatial temperature distribution in the glabrous skin of rats induced by short-pulse CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pen-Li; Hsu, Shu-Shen; Tsai, Meng-Li; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Wang, An-Bang; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2012-11-01

    Pain is a natural alarm that aids the body in avoiding potential danger and can also present as an important indicator in clinics. Infrared laser-evoked potentials can be used as an objective index to evaluate nociception. In animal studies, a short-pulse laser is crucial because it completes the stimulation before escape behavior. The objective of the present study was to obtain the temporal and spatial temperature distributions in the skin caused by the irradiation of a short-pulse laser. A fast speed infrared camera was used to measure the surface temperature caused by a CO2 laser of different durations (25 and 35 ms) and power. The measured results were subsequently implemented with a three-layer finite element model to predict the subsurface temperature. We found that stratum corneum was crucial in the modeling of fast temperature response, and escape behaviors correlated with predictions of temperature at subsurface. Results indicated that the onset latency and duration of activated nociceptors must be carefully considered when interpreting physiological responses evoked by infrared irradiation.

  5. LASERS: Parameters of a trigatron-driven low-pulse-repetition-rate TEA CO2 laser preionised by a surface corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, M.; Behjat, A.; Shabanzadeh, M.; Mansori, F.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a TEA CO2 laser with UV preionisation by a surface corona discharge is described and the dependences of its average output energy on the gas-flow rate, discharge voltage and pulse repetition rate are presented. The scheme of the electric circuit and the geometry of the pre-ionisation system are considered. The electric circuit is designed to produce only impulse voltage difference between the laser electrodes. The triggering system of the trigatron is used to prevent the appearance of the arc. The dependences of the current, voltage and average output energy on the gas-mixture composition and applied voltages at a low pulse repetition rate are presented. The central output wavelength of the laser was measured with an IR spectrometer. Lasing at two adjacent vibrational-rotational transitions of the CO2 molecule was observed, which demonstrates the possibility of simultaneous lasing at several lines.

  6. Dependence of the absorption of pulsed CO2-laser radiation by silane on wavenumber, fluence, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of absorbing and nonabsorbing gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazejowski, J.; Gruzdiewa, L.; Rulewski, J.; Lampe, F.W.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of three lines [P(20), 944.2 cm -1 ; P(14), 949.2 cm -1 ; and R(24), 978.5 cm -1 ] of the pulsed CO 2 laser (00 0 1--10 0 0 transition) by SiH 4 was measured at various pulse energy, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of the compound and nonabsorbing foreign gases. In addition, low intensity infrared absorption spectrum of silane was compared with high intensity absorption characteristics for all lines of the pulsed CO 2 laser. The experimental dependencies show deviations from the phenomenological Beer--Lambert law which can be considered as arising from the high intensity of an incident radiation and collisions of absorbing molecules with surroundings. These effects were included into the expression, being an extended form of the Beer--Lambert law, which reasonably approximates all experimental data. The results, except for extending knowledge on the interaction of a high power laser radiation with matter, can help understanding and planning processes leading to preparation of silicon-containing technologically important materials

  7. Characteristics of the evolution of a plasma generated by radiation from CW and repetitively pulsed CO2 lasers in different gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevskii, M. F.; Stepanova, M. A.

    1990-06-01

    The interaction between high-power CW and repetitively pulsed CO2 laser radiation and a low-threshold optical-breakdown plasma near a metal surface is investigated. The characteristics of the breakdown plasma are examined as functions of the experimental conditions. A qualitative analysis of the results obtained was performed using a simple one-dimensional model for laser combustion waves.

  8. An Improved Method of Mitigating Laser Induced Surface Damage Growth in Fused Silica Using a Rastered, Pulsed CO2 Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, I L; Guss, G M; Nostrand, M J; Wegner, P L

    2010-10-21

    A new method of mitigating (arresting) the growth of large (>200 m diameter and depth) laser induced surface damage on fused silica has been developed that successfully addresses several issues encountered with our previously-reported large site mitigation technique. As in the previous work, a tightly-focused 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser spot is scanned over the damage site by galvanometer steering mirrors. In contrast to the previous work, the laser is pulsed instead of CW, with the pulse length and repetition frequency chosen to allow substantial cooling between pulses. This cooling has the important effect of reducing the heat-affected zone capable of supporting thermo-capillary flow from scale lengths on the order of the overall scan pattern to scale lengths on the order of the focused laser spot, thus preventing the formation of a raised rim around the final mitigation site and its consequent down-stream intensification. Other advantages of the new method include lower residual stresses, and improved damage threshold associated with reduced amounts of redeposited material. The raster patterns can be designed to produce specific shapes of the mitigation pit including cones and pyramids. Details of the new technique and its comparison with the previous technique will be presented.

  9. Interaction Of CO2 Laser Nanosecond Pulse Train With The Metallic Targets In Optical Breakdown Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.; Firsov, K. N.; Konov, V. I.; Nikitin, P. I.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Silenok, A. S.; Sorochenko, V. R.

    1986-11-01

    In the present paper the electric field and currents in the air-breakdown plasma, produced by the train of nanosecond pulses of TEA-002 - regenerative amplifier near the un-charged targets are studied. The breakdown thresholds and the efficiency of plasma-target heat transmission are also measured. The results of numerical calculations made for increasing of the pulse train contrast with respect to the background in a regenerative amplifier are advanced.

  10. INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Increase in the amplitude of hf currents during exposure of a neutral target to microsecond CO2 laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, A. A.; Losev, Leonid L.; Meshalkin, E. A.

    1988-09-01

    High-frequency electric currents were generated by irradiation of a metal target with CO2 laser pulses. It was found that the region where the ambient gas was photoionized had a decisive influence on the hf current amplitude. A method for increasing the amplitude of the current by creating an auxiliary laser jet on the target was proposed and used. An hf current of up to 1 A amplitude was observed at a frequency of 75 MHz and this current lasted for 1.5 μs.

  11. High power CO2 laser development with AOM integration for ultra high-speed pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Markus; Vaupel, Matthias; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard; Jamalieh, Murad

    2017-01-01

    There is a 500 billion USD world market for packaging expected to grow to a trillion in 2030. Austria plays an important role world wide for high speed laser engraving applications — especially when it comes to high end solutions. Such high end solutions are fundamental for the production of print forms for the packaging and decorating industry (e. g. cans). They are additionally used for security applications (e. g. for printing banknotes), for the textile printing industry and for creating embossing forms (e. g. for the production of dashboards in the automotive industry). High speed, high precision laser engraving needs laser resonators with very stable laser beams (400 - 800W) especially in combination with AOMs. Based upon a unique carbon fiber structure - stable within the sub-micrometer range - a new resonator has been developed, accompanied by most recent thermo-mechanical FEM calculations. The resulting beam is evaluated on an automated optical bench using hexapods, allowing to optimize the complete beam path with collimators and AOM. The major steps related to laser engraving of dry offset printing plates during the full workflow from the artists design to the printed result on an aluminum can is presented in this paper as well as laser characteristics, AOM integration and correlative CLSM and SEM investigation of the results.

  12. [Experimental study of brain lesions after combined coaxial exposure to high-peaked pulse wave form CO2 and Nd: YAG lasers on the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyumu, M; Verasques, G; Yamazaki, S; Kuroiwa, T; Suzuki, R; Takei, H; Suzuki, K; Inaba, Y

    1985-04-01

    The CO2 laser is useful for cutting and vaporization but not for coagulation and hemostasis. On the contrary, YAG laser is effective for coagulation and hemostasis but not for cutting. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the exposure of combined, coaxial CO2 and YAG laser on the animal brain to supplement the advantages and draw-backs of each other. To compare these results, each of non-combined pulse wave form CO2 and YAG lasers was employed separately. The lasers in this study were pulse wave form CO2 and YAG lasers, employed separately or simultaneously using 130 YZ of Nihon Infrared Industries Company. Japanese white rabbits were anesthetized with pentobarbital. Fronto-parietal burr holes were made, the dura was removed and then Evans blue solution was injected intravenously. The lasers were employed to the cerebral cortex without great vessels using a micromanipulator attached to the operative microscope with a distance of 30 cm. The spot size was 700 mu for CO2 laser and 1200 mu for YAG laser. The first experiment was to see the effect of nine combinations of simultaneous coaxial CO2 of 2, 4 and 8 watts and YAG lasers of 10, 20 and 40 watts, 1 sec on the brain. In the second experiment, also combining two lasers, the exposure time of YAG laser was elongated from 1 or 2 seconds into 2 or 4 seconds and the arrangement of powers was the same as that of the first experiment. The lesions were thus made in 18 different conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Calculation of mass transfer in the remote cutting of metals by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladush, G G; Rodionov, N B

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of remote cutting of steel plates by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO 2 laser is theoretically studied. The models of melt removal by the gravity force and the recoil pressure of material vapour are proposed and the sufficient conditions for the initiation of cutting are determined. A numerical model of a thermally thin plate was employed to describe the cutting for large focal spots. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  14. CO2 laser cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John

    1998-01-01

    The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu­ tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con­ siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non­ technical language many o...

  15. The Clinical Efficacy of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma Combined with Ultra-Pulsed Fractional CO2 Laser Therapy for Facial Rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Qiang; Chang, Peng; Guo, Bingyu; Zhang, Yu; Tao, Kai

    2017-02-01

    Ultra-pulsed fractional CO 2 laser is an efficient, precise, and safe therapeutic intervention for skin refreshing, although accompanied with prolonged edema and erythema. In recent years, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proven to promote wound and soft tissue healing and collagen regeneration. To investigate whether the combination of PRP and ultra-pulsed fractional CO 2 laser had a synergistic effect on therapy for facial rejuvenation. Totally, 13 facial aging females were treated with ultra-pulsed fractional CO 2 laser. One side of the face was randomly selected as experimental group and injected with PRP, the other side acted as the control group and was injected with physiological saline at the same dose. Comprehensive assessment of clinical efficacy was performed by satisfaction scores, dermatologists' double-blind evaluation and the VISIA skin analysis system. After treatment for 3 months, subjective scores of facial wrinkles, skin texture, and skin elasticity were higher than that in the control group. Similarly, improvement of skin wrinkles, texture, and tightness in the experimental group was better compared with the control group. Additionally, the total duration of erythema, edema, and crusting was decreased, in the experimental group compared with the control group. PRP combined with ultra-pulsed fractional CO 2 laser had a synergistic effect on facial rejuvenation, shortening duration of side effects, and promoting better therapeutic effect.

  16. Parameters of a trigatron-driven low-pulse-repetition-rate TEA CO2 laser preionised by a surface corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aram, M; Shabanzadeh, M; Mansori, F; Behjat, A

    2007-01-01

    The design of a TEA CO 2 laser with UV preionisation by a surface corona discharge is described and the dependences of its average output energy on the gas-flow rate, discharge voltage and pulse repetition rate are presented. The scheme of the electric circuit and the geometry of the pre-ionisation system are considered. The electric circuit is designed to produce only impulse voltage difference between the laser electrodes. The triggering system of the trigatron is used to prevent the appearance of the arc. The dependences of the current, voltage and average output energy on the gas-mixture composition and applied voltages at a low pulse repetition rate are presented. The central output wavelength of the laser was measured with an IR spectrometer. Lasing at two adjacent vibrational-rotational transitions of the CO 2 molecule was observed, which demonstrates the possibility of simultaneous lasing at several lines. (lasers)

  17. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Experimental study of the energy balance in the interaction of a pulsed CO2 laser with metal and insulating targets in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, N. A.; Vas'kovskiĭ, Yu M.; Rovinskiĭ, R. E.; Ryabinkina, V. A.

    1991-09-01

    Measurements were made of components of the energy balance in the interaction of pulsed CO2 laser radiation with Dural, glass, quartz, ebonite, and Plexiglas in air at atmospheric pressure. At laser energy densities between 1 and 20 J/cm2 and in the spectral range 0.2-7 μm, the re-emission of radiation by the laser plasma was found to be less than 1 %. At energy densities exceeding 10 J/cm2, up to 90% of the laser energy failed to reach the irradiated surface.

  18. Emitting recombination of BCl molecules with chlorine atoms, resulting from dissociation of boron trichloride molecules under action of pulse CO2-laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonorov, A.P.; Moskvitina, E.N.; Kuzyakov, Yu.Ya.; Stepanov, P.I.

    1983-01-01

    Luminescence in BCl 3 is investigated. The results of measurements of gas temperature, BCl molecules concentration, and luminescence absolute intensity at boron trichloride presure of 40 mm pH and density of laser pulse energy from 1.7 up to 4.0 J/cm 2 are obtained. Nature of uninterrupted spectrum is considered. It is established that luminescence appearing in the BCl 3 under action of pulse CO 2 -laser is caused by reaction of emitting recombination of BCl molecules with chlorine atoms. Rate constant of this reaction in the range of 2300-3100 K is determined

  19. Biocompatible Au@Carbynoid/Pluronic-F127 nanocomposites synthesized by pulsed laser ablation assisted CO2 recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, T.; Louro, S. R. W.; Deepak, F. L.; Romani, E. C.; Zaman, Q.; Tahir; Pandoli, O.; Cremona, M.; Freire Junior, F. L.; De Beule, P. A. A.; De St. Pierre, T.; Aucelio, R. Q.; Mariotto, G.; Gemini-Piperni, S.; Ribeiro, A. R.; Landi, S. M.; Magalhães, A.

    2018-05-01

    Ligand-free carbynoid-encapsulated gold nanocomposites (Au@Carbynoid NCs) with blue-shifted localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) have been synthesized by CO2 recycling induced by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of a solid gold target in aqueous solution with NaOH at pH 7.0. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images at not destructive acceleration voltage of 80 kV revealed carbynoid nanocrystals around the gold core, associated to the intense bond length alternation (BLA) Raman mode of the carbon atomic wires (CAWs), centered at 2124 cm-1, observed in the Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectra. It was verified that interlinking process with sp to sp2 conversion of the CAWs is induced both by high acceleration voltage in HRTEM and high irradiance of the excitation beam used in SERS measurements. Post synthesis mixing of Pluronic-F127 copolymer with pre-synthesized Au@Carbynoid NCs allows the formation of a fully biocompatible colloidal solution of Au@Carbynoid/Copolymer NCs. SERS investigation highlights that the Raman band of the BLA mode can be used as efficient Raman tag to monitor the functionalization of the NCs with the copolymer. The biocompatibility of the NCs was demonstrated performing a study of cytotoxicity using human skin fibroblasts. As proof of principle, it was demonstrated that the photodynamic activity of the bifunctional Au@Carbynoid/PF127 NCs in the presence of chlorin e6 (Ce6) drug can be enhanced inducing the aggregation state of the colloidal suspension. The stability of the colloidal dispersions of Au@Carbynoid NCs functionalized with Pluronic-F127 is verified after centrifugation in PBS (0.15 mol L-1 NaCl) solutions, confirming the possibility to use the green carbynoid based NCs as drug-carrier in biological applications.

  20. Stereotactic CO2 laser therapy for hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozodoy-Pins, Rebecca L.; Harrington, James A.; Zazanis, George A.; Nosko, Michael G.; Lehman, Richard M.

    1994-05-01

    A new fiber-optic delivery system for CO2 radiation has been used to successfully treat non-communicating hydrocephalus. This system consists of a hollow sapphire waveguide employed in the lumen of a stereotactically-guided neuroendoscope. CO2 gas flows through the bore of the hollow waveguide, creating a path for the laser beam through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This delivery system has the advantages of both visualization and guided CO2 laser radiation without the same 4.3 mm diameter scope. Several patients with hydrocephalus were treated with this new system. The laser was used to create a passage in the floor of the ventricle to allow the flow of CSF from the ventricles to the sub-arachnoid space. Initial postoperative results demonstrated a relief of the clinical symptoms. Long-term results will indicate if this type of therapy will be superior to the use of implanted silicone shunts. Since CO2 laser radiation at 10.6 micrometers is strongly absorbed by the water in tissue and CSF, damage to tissue surrounding the lesion with each laser pulse is limited. The accuracy and safety of this technique may prove it to be an advantageous therapy for obstructive hydrocephalus.

  1. FEM modeling and histological analyses on thermal damage induced in facial skin resurfacing procedure with different CO2 laser pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Zingoni, Tiziano; Di Cicco, Emiliano; Manetti, Leonardo; Pini, Roberto; Fortuna, Damiano

    2011-07-01

    Laser light is nowadays routinely used in the aesthetic treatments of facial skin, such as in laser rejuvenation, scar removal etc. The induced thermal damage may be varied by setting different laser parameters, in order to obtain a particular aesthetic result. In this work, it is proposed a theoretical study on the induced thermal damage in the deep tissue, by considering different laser pulse duration. The study is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM): a bidimensional model of the facial skin is depicted in axial symmetry, considering the different skin structures and their different optical and thermal parameters; the conversion of laser light into thermal energy is modeled by the bio-heat equation. The light source is a CO2 laser, with different pulse durations. The model enabled to study the thermal damage induced into the skin, by calculating the Arrhenius integral. The post-processing results enabled to study in space and time the temperature dynamics induced in the facial skin, to study the eventual cumulative effects of subsequent laser pulses and to optimize the procedure for applications in dermatological surgery. The calculated data where then validated in an experimental measurement session, performed in a sheep animal model. Histological analyses were performed on the treated tissues, evidencing the spatial distribution and the entity of the thermal damage in the collageneous tissue. Modeling and experimental results were in good agreement, and they were used to design a new optimized laser based skin resurfacing procedure.

  2. Development of longitudinally excited CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masroon, N. S.; Tanaka, M.; Tei, M.; Uno, K.; Tsuyama, M.; Nakano, H.

    2018-05-01

    Simple, compact, and affordable discharged-pumped CO2 laser controlled by a fast high voltage solid state switch has been developed. In this study, longitudinal excitation scheme has been adapted for simple configuration. In the longitudinal excitation scheme, the discharge is produced along the direction of the laser axis, and the electrodes are well separated with a small discharge cross-section. Triggered spark gap switch is usually used to switch out the high voltage because of simple and low cost. However, the triggered spark gap operates in the arc mode and suffer from recovery problem causing a short life time and low efficiency for high repetition rate operation. As a result, there is now considerable interest in replacing triggered spark gap switch with solid state switches. Solid state switches have significant advantages compared to triggered spark gap switch which include longer service lifetime, low cost and stable high trigger pulse. We have developed simple and low cost fast high voltage solid state switch that consists of series connected-MOSFETs. It has been installed to the longitudinally excited CO2 laser to realize the gap switch less operation. Characteristics of laser oscillation by varying the discharge length, charging voltage, capacitance and gas pressure have been evaluated. Longer discharge length produce high power of laser oscillation. Optimum charging voltage and gas pressure were existed for longitudinally excited CO2 laser.

  3. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Characteristics of the evolution of a plasma formed by cw and pulse-periodic CO2 laser radiation in various gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevskiĭ, M. F.; Stepanova, M. A.

    1990-06-01

    An investigation was made of the interaction between high-power cw and pulse-periodic CO2 laser radiation and a low-threshold optical breakdown plasma near a metal surface. Characteristics of the breakdown plasma were studied as a function of the experimental conditions. A qualitative analysis was made of the results using a simple one-dimensional model for laser combustion waves.

  4. CO2 laser technology for advanced particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1996-06-01

    Short-pulse, high-power CO 2 lasers open new prospects for development of ultra-high gradient laser-driven electron accelerators. The advantages of λ=10 μm CO 2 laser radiation over the more widely exploited solid state lasers with λ∼1 μm are based on a λ 2 -proportional ponderomotive potential, λ-proportional phase slippage, and λ-proportional scaling of the laser accelerator structures. We show how a picosecond terawatt CO 2 laser that is under construction at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility may benefit the ATF's experimental program of testing far-field, near-field, and plasma accelerator schemes

  5. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  6. Thermal detection thresholds of Aδ- and C-fibre afferents activated by brief CO2 laser pulses applied onto the human hairy skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Churyukanov

    Full Text Available Brief high-power laser pulses applied onto the hairy skin of the distal end of a limb generate a double sensation related to the activation of Aδ- and C-fibres, referred to as first and second pain. However, neurophysiological and behavioural responses related to the activation of C-fibres can be studied reliably only if the concomitant activation of Aδ-fibres is avoided. Here, using a novel CO(2 laser stimulator able to deliver constant-temperature heat pulses through a feedback regulation of laser power by an online measurement of skin temperature at target site, combined with an adaptive staircase algorithm using reaction-time to distinguish between responses triggered by Aδ- and C-fibre input, we show that it is possible to estimate robustly and independently the thermal detection thresholds of Aδ-fibres (46.9±1.7°C and C-fibres (39.8±1.7°C. Furthermore, we show that both thresholds are dependent on the skin temperature preceding and/or surrounding the test stimulus, indicating that the Aδ- and C-fibre afferents triggering the behavioural responses to brief laser pulses behave, at least partially, as detectors of a change in skin temperature rather than as pure level detectors. Most importantly, our results show that the difference in threshold between Aδ- and C-fibre afferents activated by brief laser pulses can be exploited to activate C-fibres selectively and reliably, provided that the rise in skin temperature generated by the laser stimulator is well-controlled. Our approach could constitute a tool to explore, in humans, the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in processing C- and Aδ-fibre input, respectively.

  7. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Calculation of mass transfer in the remote cutting of metals by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladush, G. G.; Rodionov, N. B.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of remote cutting of steel plates by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser is theoretically studied. The models of melt removal by the gravity force and the recoil pressure of material vapour are proposed and the sufficient conditions for the initiation of cutting are determined. A numerical model of a thermally thin plate was employed to describe the cutting for large focal spots.

  8. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO2 laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1997-09-01

    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO 2 laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO 2 lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO 2 lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. The authors discuss applications of TWps-CO 2 lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for γ-γ (or γ-lepton) colliders, for a possible table-top source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams

  9. Ablation of Liquids for Laser Propulsion With TEA CO2 Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sinko, John; Kodgis, Lisa; Porter, Simon; Sterling, Enrique; Lin, Jun; Pakhomov, Andrew V; Larson, C. W; Mead, Jr., Franklin B

    2005-01-01

    .... A Transversely Excited at Atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO2 laser operated at 10.6 um, 300 ns pulse width, and 9 J pulse energy was used to ablate liquids contained in various aluminum and glass vessels...

  10. Ablation of Liquids for Laser Propulsion with TEA CO2 Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sinko, John; Kodgis, Lisa; Porter, Simon; Sterling, Enrique; Lin, Jun; Pakhomov, Andrew V; Larson, C. W; Mead, Jr, Franklin B

    2005-01-01

    .... A Transversely Excited at Atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO2 laser operated at 10.6 micro-m, 300 ns pulse width, and 9 J pulse energy was used to ablate liquids contained in various aluminum and glass vessels...

  11. Absorption Enhanced Liquid Ablation with TEA CO2 Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterling, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    ... that strongly absorbs radiation in the 8-11 m wavelength interval. A TEA CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 m), 300 ns pulse width and 8 J pulse energy, was used for ablation of water diluted NaBF4 contained in a conical aluminum nozzle...

  12. Trend of CO2 laser cutting; Saikin no CO2 laser setsudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T.; Sano, Y.; Nagahori, M. [Tanaka Engineering Works Ltd., Saitama (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes CO2 laser cutting of medium thick plates. Carbon dioxide laser is mainly used for laser generators. The generation efficiency of CO2 laser is 5 to 15% which is higher than that of the other lasers. Ninety percent of the usage is for cutting, piercing and welding. Laser cutter having a separated generator with a power from 3 to 6 kW is often used for cutting medium thick plates. The recent trend of new cutting technology is introduced. When power is increased from 3 kW to 6 kW without using oxygen as assist gas, the cutting thickness of stainless steel plate increased into 1.5 times, and the cutting speed increased into 1.5 to 2 times. For the soft steel members with black coating in which the power-up effects have not been obtained, the cutting speed, quality of cutting surface and cutting stability were improved by introducing new technology. Piercing time has been reduced by developing a method by which pulse generation is changed during piercing and a method by which piercing is conducted by irradiating the maximum power of continuous generation. Cutting quality with high accuracy has been realized by developing light weight generator and high performance NC unit. 10 figs.

  13. Synthesis of oxocarbon-encapsulated gold nanoparticles with blue-shifted localized surface plasmon resonance by pulsed laser ablation in water with CO2 absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, T.; Rey, N. A.; Rosado, T.; Landi, S.; Larrude, D. G.; Romani, E. C.; Freire Junior, F. L.; Quinteiro, S. M.; Cremona, M.; Aucelio, R. Q.; Margheri, G.; Pandoli, O.

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal suspensions of oxocarbon-encapsulated gold nanoparticles have been synthesized in a one-step procedure by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) at 532 nm of a solid gold target placed in aqueous solution containing CO2 absorbers, but without any stabilizing agent. Multi-wavelength surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy allows the identification of adsorbed amorphous carbon and graphite, Au-carbonyl, Au coordinated CO2-derived bicarbonates/carbonates and hydroxyl groups around the AuNPs core. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy highlight the organic shell structure around the crystalline metal core. The stability of the colloidal solution of nanocomposites (NCs) seems to be driven by solvation forces and is achieved only in neutral or basic pH using monovalent hydroxide counter-ions (NaOH, KOH). The NCs are characterized by a blue shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band typical of metal-ligand stabilization by terminal π-back bonding, attributed to a core charging effect caused by Au-carbonyls. Total organic carbon measurements detect the final content of organic carbon in the colloidal solution of NCs that is about six times higher than the value of the water solution used to perform PLA. The colloidal dispersions of NCs are stable for months and are applied as analytical probes in amino glycoside antibiotic LSPR based sensing.

  14. Recent developments in CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Keming

    1993-05-01

    CO2 lasers have been used in industry mainly for such things as cutting, welding, and surface processing. To conduct a broad spectrum of high-speed and high-quality applications, most of the developments in industrial CO2 lasers at the ILT are aimed at increasing the output power, optimizing the beam quality, and reducing the production costs. Most of the commercial CO2 lasers above 5 kW are transverse-flow systems using dc excitation. The applications of these lasers are limited due to the lower beam quality, the poor point stability, and the lower modulation frequency. To overcome the problems we developed a fast axial- flow CO2 laser using rf excitation with an output of 13 kW. In section 2 some of the results are discussed concerning the gas flow, the discharge, the resonator design, optical effects of active medium, the aerodynamic window, and the modulation of the output power. The first CO2 lasers ever built are diffusion-cooled systems with conventional dc excited cylindrical discharge tubes surrounded by cooling jackets. The output power per unit length is limited to 50 W/m by those lasers with cylindrical tubes. In the past few years considerable increases in the output power were achieved, using new mechanical geometries, excitation- techniques, and resonator designs. This progress in diffusion-cooled CO2 lasers is presented in section 3.

  15. CO2 laser technology for advanced particle accelerators. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1996-06-01

    Short-pulse, high-power CO 2 lasers open new prospects for development of ultra-high gradient laser-driven electron accelerators. The advantages of λ=10 μm CO 2 laser radiation over the more widely exploited solid state lasers with λ∼1 μm are based on a λ 2 -proportional ponderomotive potential, λ-proportional phase slippage distance, and λ-proportional scaling of the laser accelerator structures. We show how a picosecond terawatt CO 2 laser that is under construction at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility may benefit the ATF's experimental program of testing far-field, near-field, and plasma accelerator schemes

  16. Longitudinally excited CO2 laser with multiple laser tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2016-11-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser system that was constituted of two or three laser tubes and a single driving circuit. The multiple laser tubes simultaneously produced almost the same short laser pulses with a spike pulse width of about 164 ns and a pulse tail length of about 74 μs with a single driving circuit. The double-tube system was constituted of two 30 cm-long laser tubes with inner diameters of 13 mm and 16 mm and a single driving circuit with an input energy of 2.18 J. The output energy of the 13 mm-tube was 23.3 mJ, and that of the 16 mm-tube was 21.9 mJ at a gas pressure of 4.2 kPa (CO2:N2:He = 1:1:2). The triple-tube system was constituted of three 30 cm-long laser tubes with inner diameters of 9 mm, 13 mm, and 16 mm and a single driving circuit with an input energy of 2.18 J. The output energy of the 9 mm tube was 15.9 mJ, that of the 13 mm tube was 24.1 mJ, and that of the 16 mm tube was 19.2 mJ at a gas pressure of 4.2 kPa. With the same driving circuit and the same input energy, the total output energies of the multitube laser systems were higher than the output energy of a single-tube system.

  17. Dental hard tissue drilling by longitudinally excited CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Takuya; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2017-07-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser with a long optical cavity and investigated the drilling characteristics of dental hard tissue. The CO2 laser was very simple and consisted of a 45-cm-long alumina ceramic pipe with an inner diameter of 13 mm, a pulse power supply, a step-up transformer, a storage capacitance, a spark gap, and a long optical cavity with a cavity length of 175 cm. The CO2 laser produced a short pulse that had a spike pulse with the width of 337 ns and the energy of 1.9 mJ, a pulse tail with the length of 180 μs and the energy of 37.6 mJ, and a doughnut-like beam. In the investigation, a sample was a natural drying human tooth (enamel and dentine). In a processing system, a ZnSe focusing lens with the focal length of 50 mm was used and the location of the focal plane was that of the sample surface. In 1 pulse irradiation, the drilling characteristics depended on the fluence was investigated. In the enamel and dentin drilling, the drilling depth increased with the fluence. The 1 pulse irradiation with the fluence of 21.5 J/cm2 produced the depth of 79.3 μm in the enamel drilling, and the depth of 152.7 μm in the dentin drilling. The short-pulse CO2 laser produced a deeper drilling depth at a lower fluence than long-pulse CO2 lasers in dental hard tissue processing.

  18. Single mode operation of a TEA CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Kazuhiro; Tunawaki, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Masanobu.

    1993-01-01

    Single mode operation of a TEA CO 2 laser was performed by using an optical system of Fox-Smith type. Laser beam was taken out from the cavity by using a beam splitter, and was reflected by a mirror back to the cavity. By inserting a Fabry-Perot etalon between the splitter and the mirror, beat of laser pulses can be removed completly. (author)

  19. 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most important greenhouse gases. It is essential for the study of global warming to accurately measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and continuously record its variation. A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed in NASA Langley Research Center. This laser system is capable of making a vertical profiling of CO2 from ground and column measurement of CO2 from air and space-borne platform. The transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. A Ho:YLF laser operating in the range of 2.05 micrometers can be tuned over several characteristic lines of CO2 absorption. Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of CO2 with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ. For coherent detection, high repetition rate is required for speckle averaging to obtain highly precise measurements. However, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser can not operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. A Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can operate in high repetition rate. A theoretical model has been established to simulate the performance of Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF lasers. For continuous wave (CW) operation, high pump intensity with small beam

  20. Laser plasma generation of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon thin films on Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure tube materials and silicon wafers with a pulsed high-power CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, N.A.; Mouris, J.F.; Hoffmann, C.R.J.; Davis, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    We report the first experiments on the laser plasma deposition of hydrogen-free, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure-tube materials and silicon substrates, using the short-pulse, high-power, CO 2 laser in the High-Power Laser Laboratory at Chalk River Laboratories. The films were (AFM). The thin films show the characteristic signature of DLC films in the Raman spectra obtained using a krypton-ion (Kr + ) laser. The Vickers ultra-low-load microhardness tests show hardness of the coated surface of approximately 7000 Kg force mm -2 , which is consistent with the hardness associated with DLC films. AFM examination of the film morphology shows diamond-like crystals distributed throughout the film, with film thicknesses of up to 0.5 μm generated with 50 laser pulses. With significantly more laser pulses, it is expected that very uniform diamond-like films would be produced. These experiments suggest that it should be possible to deposit hydrogen-free, diamond-like films of relevance to nuclear reactor components with a high-power and high-repetition-rate laser facility. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs

  1. Efficient TEA CO2 laser based coating removal system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prinsloo, FJ

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Prinsloo_2007.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11617 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Prinsloo_2007.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Efficient TEA CO2 laser based... by keeping energy density below the damage threshold. The advantage of a pulsed TEA CO2 laser system is that a laser frequency and temporal profile can be chosen to maximize paint removal and concurrently minimize substrate damage. To achieve...

  2. Potential of sub-ablative pulsed CO2 laser irradiation on inhibition of artificial caries-like lesion progress in bovine dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcella Esteves

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether sub-ablative pulsed C0 2 laser (1 0,6 μm) irradiation is capable of reducing the susceptibility of the dental enamel to demineralization, and thus achieving a potential caries-protective effect. The crowns of 51 bovine front teeth, embedded in acrylic resin and polished until exposure of flat enamel surface, were used. The samples were cut in cubes of 10x10 mm, and totally coated with acid-resistant nail varnish, except for an enamel exposed window of 16 mm square. Three groups (n=17) were obtained: control group (CG) not irradiated; group laser A (LA) and group laser B (LB) where the samples were irradiated. The conditions were 60 mJ, 100 Hz, 0,3 J/cm 2 for LA and 135 mJ, 10 Hz, 0,7 J/cm 2 for LB. Two samples of each group were submitted to SEM analysis and fifteen to demineralization in 3 ml acetate buffer solution (0,1 mol/L) with pH 4,5 for 24h at 37 deg C, with regular agitation. After the specimens were removed from the solution, the calcium and phosphorous content were measured with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and 2 more samples of each were submitted to SEM analysis. The obtained Ca and P means in μg/ml and the calculated Ca/P molar ratio were: CG (367,88 ± 33,47; 168,91 ± 14,55; 1,70 ± 0,07) ; LA (372,70 ± 41,70; 161,46 ± 15,26; 1,79 ± 0,07) and LB (328,87 ± 24,91; 145,02 ± 11,04; 1,77 ± 0,05). The ANOVA statistical test revealed statistically significant difference for [Ca], [P] e Ca/P content between the groups (p 2 pulsed CO 2 laser irradiation of bovine enamel was capable of reducing the enamel acid solubility without causing damage to the surface and therefore is a potential method of caries prevention. (author)

  3. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after...... treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album....... When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm(-1) of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close...

  4. Hologaphy of a CO2 laser generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkerbout, A.C.H.; Van Dijk, J.W.; Donaldson, T.P.

    1976-01-01

    An expermental technique for generating holographic interferograms is discussed and illustrated with results obtained on a plasma generated by a 75 J CO 2 laser pulse incident at intensities of approximately 9 x 10 12 W/cm 2 on a plane carbon target. (author)

  5. Plasma Arc Augmented CO2 laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Andersen, Mikkel; Frederiksen, Niels

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the hardness of laser beam welded 2.13 mm medium strength steel CMn 250, a plasma arc has been used simultaneously with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser source. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the plasma arc current, plasma gas flow and distance to the laser source were varied...... with all laser parameters fixed. The welds were quality assessed and hardness measured transversely to the welding direction in the top, middle and root of the seam. In the seams welded by laser alone, hardness values between 275 and 304 HV1 were measured, about the double of the base material, 150 HV1...

  6. Striated filamentary sparks produced by a CO2 TEA laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Sparks in the form of long, thin filaments having quasi-periodic longitudinal light and dark regions (striations) in time-integrated images have been ovserved in various gases using a CO 2 TEA laser. Typically, a 50-mJ pulse will produce a filament 1 cm long and 130 μm in diameter, with more than 150 striations spaced 50 μm apart in atmospheric air. Each striation is associated with the formation of a plasma region by one pulse in train of pulses from the mode-locked laser, and the filament results from the formation of successive (nearly identical) region, each displaced from the previous one toward the laser. The possible use of these sparks as a light source in diagnostics is noted

  7. Power stabilized CO2 gas transport laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.D.; Kirk, R.F.; Moreno, F.E.; Ahmed, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The output power of a high power (1 kW or more) CO 2 gas transport laser is stabilized by flowing the gas mixture over copper plated baffles in the gas channel during operation of the laser. Several other metals may be used instead of copper, for example, nickel, manganese, palladium, platinum, silver and gold. The presence of copper in the laser gas circuit stabilizes output power by what is believed to be a compensation of the chemical changes in the gas due to the cracking action of the electrical discharge which has the effect of diminishing the capactiy of the carbon dioxide gas mixture to maintain the rated power output of the laser. (U.S.)

  8. CO2 laser-aided waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, J.R.; Guiberteau, P.; Caminat, P.; Bournot, P.

    1994-01-01

    Lasers are widely employed in laboratories and in certain industrial applications, notably for welding, cutting and surface treatments. This paper describes a new application, incineration, which appears warranted when the following features are required: high-temperature incineration (> 1500 deg C) with close-tolerance temperature control in an oxidizing medium while ensuring containment of toxic waste. These criteria correspond to the application presented here. Following a brief theoretical introduction concerning the laser/surface interaction, the paper describes the incineration of graphite waste contaminated with alpha-emitting radionuclides. Process feasibility has been demonstrated on a nonradioactive prototype capable of incinerating 10 kg -h-1 using a 7 kW CO 2 laser. An industrial facility with the same capacity, designed to operate within the constraints of an alpha-tight glove box environment, is now at the project stage. Other types of applications with similar requirements may be considered. (authors). 3 refs., 7 figs

  9. Therapeutic Effect of Fractionated Ultra-Pulse CO2 Laser and Fractionated Er∶YAG Laser on Enlarged Facial Pores: an Observation and Comparison%点阵式超脉冲CO2激光和点阵式Er∶YAG激光治疗面部毛孔粗大的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元文; 靳贺; 罗世兰; 陈永新; 王娅; 潘文东

    2017-01-01

    Objective To observe and compare the clinic efficacy and operation safety of fractionated ultra-pulse CO2 laser and fractionated Er ∶ YAG laser in the treatment of enlarged facial pores.Methods Totally 60 patients with enlarged facial pores were divided into two groups randomly:30 of them were treated with fractionated ultrapulse CO2 laser and the rest with fractionated Er ∶ YAG laser.During the follow-up conducted 3 months after the treatment,the clinical improvement was evaluated with a photographic scale for grading the widening of pores,and the adverse reaction was assessed.Results After the treatment,the improvement in the appearance of facial pores was distinctive (P < 0.05) in each group.The difference between the fractionated ultra-pulse CO2 laser group and fractionated Er∶ YAG laser group in clinic efficacy was statistically significant (P < 0.05).The patients'satisfaction rate was 83.3% for the fractionated ultrapulse CO2 laser group and 90.0% for the fractionated Er∶YAG laser group.The adverse events were limited to transient pain,erythema,edema and crust desquamates.No permanent hyperpigmentation,hypopigmentation or scar was observed.Conclusions Both fractionated ultra-pulse CO2 laser and fractionated Er∶YAG laser may shrink enlarged facial pores effectively with minimal side effects.%目的 比较点阵式超脉冲CO2激光与点阵式Er∶YAG激光治疗面部毛孔粗大的疗效及安全性.方法 面部毛孔粗大患者60例,随机分为两组,每组30例,分别采用点阵式CO2激光与点阵式Er∶ YAG激光治疗.疗程结束后随访3个月,应用面部毛孔标准照片评价法进行临床疗效评估并比较两组疗效.结果 点阵CO2激光组治疗前与治疗后3个月患者面部毛孔标准照片评分分别为(4.97 ±0.77)和(2.00 ±0.95),点阵Er∶YAG激光组分别为(5.03 ±0.77)和(2.40±0.82),组内比较治疗前后差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).组间比较点阵CO2激光组疗效优于点阵Er

  10. TEA CO2 laser machining of CFRP composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, A.; Li, L.; Mativenga, P.; Whitehead, D.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have found wide applications in the aerospace, marine, sports and automotive industries owing to their lightweight and acceptable mechanical properties compared to the commonly used metallic materials. Machining of CFRP composites using lasers can be challenging due to inhomogeneity in the material properties and structures, which can lead to thermal damages during laser processing. In the previous studies, Nd:YAG, diode-pumped solid-state, CO2 (continuous wave), disc and fibre lasers were used in cutting CFRP composites and the control of damages such as the size of heat-affected zones (HAZs) remains a challenge. In this paper, a short-pulsed (8 μs) transversely excited atmospheric pressure CO2 laser was used, for the first time, to machine CFRP composites. The laser has high peak powers (up to 250 kW) and excellent absorption by both the carbon fibre and the epoxy binder. Design of experiment and statistical modelling, based on response surface methodology, was used to understand the interactions between the process parameters such as laser fluence, repetition rate and cutting speed and their effects on the cut quality characteristics including size of HAZ, machining depth and material removal rate (MRR). Based on this study, process parameter optimization was carried out to minimize the HAZ and maximize the MRR. A discussion is given on the potential applications and comparisons to other lasers in machining CFRP.

  11. Picosecond CO2 laser for relativistic particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kimura, W.D.; Kurnit, N.A.; Kannari, F.

    1994-01-01

    A table-top 20-GW 50-ps CO 2 laser system is under operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility. We compare laser performance with model predictions. Extrapolations suggest the possibility of compact terawatt CO 2 laser systems suitable as laser accelerator drivers and for other strong-field applications. Latest progress on an Inverse Cherenkov Laser Accelerator experiment is reported

  12. Multistage plasma initiation process by pulsed CO2 laser irradiation of a Ti sample in an ambient gas (He, Ar, or N2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, J.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Dubreuil, B.

    1993-02-01

    New experimental results are reported on plasma initiation in front of a titanium sample irradiated by ir (λ=10.6 μm) laser pulses in an ambient gas (He, Ar, and N2) at pressures ranging from several Torr up to the atmosphere. The plasma is studied by space- and time-resolved emission spectroscopy, while sample vaporization is probed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Threshold laser intensities leading to the formation of a plasma in the vapor and in the ambient gases are determined. Experimental results support the model of a vaporization mechanism for the plasma initiation (vaporization-initiated plasma breakdown). The plasma initiation is described by simple numerical criteria based on a two-stage process. Theoretical predictions are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the experiment. This study provides also a clear explanation of the influence of the ambient gas on the laser beam-metal surface energy transfer. Laser irradiation always causes an important vaporization when performed in He, while in the case of Ar or N2, the interaction is reduced in heating and vaporization of some surface defects and impurities.

  13. CO2 laser-driven Stirling engine. [space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Perry, R. L.; Carney, B.

    1978-01-01

    A 100-W Beale free-piston Stirling engine was powered remotely by a CO2 laser for long periods of time. The engine ran on both continuous-wave and pulse laser input. The working fluid was helium doped with small quantities of sulfur hexafluoride, SF6. The CO2 radiation was absorbed by the vibrational modes of the sulfur hexafluoride, which in turn transferred the energy to the helium to drive the engine. Electrical energy was obtained from a linear alternator attached to the piston of the engine. Engine pressures, volumes, and temperatures were measured to determine engine performance. It was found that the pulse radiation mode was more efficient than the continuous-wave mode. An analysis of the engine heat consumption indicated that heat losses around the cylinder and the window used to transmit the beam into the engine accounted for nearly half the energy input. The overall efficiency, that is, electrical output to laser input, was approximately 0.75%. However, this experiment was not designed for high efficiency but only to demonstrate the concept of a laser-driven engine. Based on this experiment, the engine could be modified to achieve efficiencies of perhaps 25-30%.

  14. Studies on CO2-laser Hybrid-Welding of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    CO2-laser welding of copper is known to be difficult due to the high heat conductivity of the material and the high reflectivity of copper at the wavelength of the CO2-laser light. THis paper presents a study of laser welding of copper, applying laser hybrid welding. Welding was performed as a hy...

  15. Tritium removal by CO2 laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Mueller, D.

    1997-01-01

    Efficient techniques for rapid tritium removal will be necessary for ITER to meet its physics and engineering goals. One potential technique is transient surface heating by a scanning CO 2 or Nd:Yag laser that would release tritium without the severe engineering difficulties of bulk heating of the vessel. The authors have modeled the heat propagation into a surface layer and find that a multi-kW/cm 2 flux with an exposure time of order 10 ms is suitable to heat a 50 micron co-deposited layer to 1,000--2,000 degrees. Improved wall conditioning may be a significant side benefit. They identify remaining issues that need to be addressed experimentally

  16. Tritium removal by CO2 laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Mueller, D.

    1997-10-01

    Efficient techniques for rapid tritium removal will be necessary for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) to meet its physics and engineering goals. One potential technique is transient surface heating by a scanning CO 2 or Nd:YAG laser that would release tritium without the severe engineering difficulties of bulk heating of the vessel. The authors have modeled the heat propagation into a surface layer and find that a multi-kW/cm 2 flux with an exposure time of order 10 msec is suitable to heat a 50 micron co-deposited layer to 1,000--2,000 degrees. Improved wall conditioning may be a significant side benefit. They identify remaining issues that need to be addressed experimentally

  17. Anterior capsulotomy using the CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Adiel; Ma-Naim, Tova; Rosner, Mordechai; Eyal, Ophir; Belkin, Michael

    1998-06-01

    Continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) is the preferred technique for removal of the anterior capsule during cataract surgery due to this technique assuring accurate centration of the intraocular lens. During modern cataract surgery, especially with small or foldable intra ocular lenses, centration of the lens is obligatory. Radial tears at the margin of an anterior capsulotomy may be associated with the exit of at least one loop of an intraocular lens out of the capsular bag ('pea pod' effect) and its subsequent decentration. The anterior capsule is more likely to ream intact if the continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) technique is used. Although manual capsulorhexis is an ideal anterior capsulectomy technique for adults, many ophthalmologists are still uncomfortable with it and find it difficult to perform, especially in complicated cases such as these done behind small pupil, cataract extraction in children and pseudoexfoliation syndrome. We have developed a technique using a CO2 laser system for safe anterior capsulotomy and tested it in animal eyes.

  18. Diffraction efficiency enhancement of femtosecond laser-engraved diffraction gratings due to CO2 laser polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hun-Kook; Jung, Deok; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Noh, Young-Chul; Lee, Yong-Tak; Kim, Jin-Tae; Ahsan, Shamim

    2014-01-01

    This research demonstrates laser-assisted fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in fused-silica glass samples. Initially, femtosecond laser pulses are used to engrave diffraction gratings on the glass surfaces. Then, these micro-patterned glass samples undergo CO 2 laser polishing process. unpolished diffraction gratings encoded in the glass samples show an overall diffraction efficiency of 18.1%. diffraction gratings imprinted on the glass samples and then polished four times by using a CO 2 laser beam attain a diffraction efficiency of 32.7%. We also investigate the diffraction patterns of the diffraction gratings encoded on fused-silica glass surfaces. The proposed CO 2 laser polishing technique shows great potential in patterning high-efficiency diffraction gratings on the surfaces of various transparent materials.

  19. Gaseous saturable absorbers for the Helios CO2 laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.; Nowak, A.V.; Czuchlewski, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Saturable absorbers are widely used to suppress parasitic oscillations in large-aperture, high-power CO 2 fusion-laser systems. We report experimental results on SF 6 -based gaseous saturable absorbers used for parasitic suppression in the eight-beam, 10 kJ Helios fusion-laser system. The gas mix effectively quenches self-lasing in the 9 and 10 μm branches of the CO 2 laser spectrum while simultaneously allowing high transmission of subnanosecond multiwavelength pulses for target-irradiation experiments. The gas isolator now in use consists of SF 6 and the additional fluorocarbons: 1, 1-difluoroethane (FC-152a); dichlorodifluoromethane (FC-12); chloropentafluoroethane (FC-115); 1,1-dichloro 2,2-difluoroethylene (FC-1112a); chlorotrifluoroethylene (FC-1113); and perfluorocyclobutane (FC-C318). The saturation of the mix was studied as a function of incident fluence, pressure, cell length, and incident wavelength. Experimental results are presented on the saturation properties of pure SF 6 and FC-152a and compared with the saturation behavior of CO 2 at 400 0 C

  20. DF--CO2 transfer laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregay, G.W.; Drexhage, M.G.; Wood, L.M.; Andrysiak, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    Power extraction and chemiluminescence experiments have been conducted in the large-scale DF-CO 2 transfer chemical laser (TCL) (IRIS-I and IRIS-II) facility at Bell Aerospace Company (BAC). The modular design of the device allowed testing to be conducted with both a supersonic nozzle bank and also in subsonic flow with sonic injection for the deuterium. Power levels of 15 kW at 10.6 μ were obtained in IRIS-I (subsonic) employing an unstable resonator with a 50 percent output coupling ratio and cavity pressure of 35 torr. For IRIS-II (supersonic) somewhat lower power was obtained. In both systems the fluorine dissociation (α = F/F + 2F 2 ) was less than 0.01. Chemiluminescent emission from HF and DF was monitored under zero-power conditions along an axis parallel to the laser-mirror axis. From the measured DF-concentration profiles it can be inferred that vibrationally excited DF is being produced throughout the cavity and, accordingly, the production of DF must be attributed largely to the chain reaction

  1. Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand K.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Wu, Stewart; Chen, Jeffrey; Numata, Kenji; Kawa, Stephan R.; Yang, Mei Ying Melissa; DiGangi, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    Here we report on measurements made with an improved CO2 Sounder lidar during the ASCENDS 2014 and 2016 airborne campaigns. The changes made to the 2011 version of the lidar included incorporating a rapidly wavelength-tunable, step-locked seed laser in the transmitter, using a much more sensitive HgCdTe APD detector and using an analog digitizer with faster readout time in the receiver. We also improved the lidar's calibration approach and the XCO2 retrieval algorithm. The 2014 and 2016 flights were made over several types of topographic surfaces from 3 to 12 km aircraft altitudes in the continental US. The results are compared to the XCO2 values computed from an airborne in situ sensor during spiral-down maneuvers. The 2014 results show significantly better performance and include measurement of horizontal gradients in XCO2 made over the Midwestern US that agree with chemistry transport models. The results from the 2016 airborne lidar retrievals show precisions of ˜ 0.7 parts per million (ppm) with 1 s averaging over desert surfaces, which is an improvement of about 8 times compared to similar measurements made in 2011. Measurements in 2016 were also made over fresh snow surfaces that have lower surface reflectance at the laser wavelengths. The results from both campaigns showed that the mean values of XCO2 retrieved from the lidar consistently agreed with those based on the in situ sensor to within 1 ppm. The improved precision and accuracy demonstrated in the 2014 and 2016 flights should benefit future airborne science campaigns and advance the technique's readiness for a space-based instrument.

  2. A compact spark pre-ionized pulser sustainer TE–CO2 laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Compact transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 lasers (Marchetti et al 1983) find numerous scientific and technical applications. These include pulsed laser deposition (PLD). (Sankur et al 1988), photo-chemistry (Baranov 1983), lidar (Killinger & Menyuk 1981), optical pumping of molecular lasers (Midorikawa et al ...

  3. Subsurface plasma in beam of continuous CO2-laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danytsikov, Y. V.; Dymshakov, V. A.; Lebedev, F. V.; Pismennyy, V. D.; Ryazanov, A. V.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments performed at the Institute of Atomic Energy established the conditions for formation of subsurface plasma in substances by laser radiation and its characteristics. A quasi-continuous CO2 laser emitting square pulses of 0.1 to 1.0 ms duration and 1 to 10 kW power as well as a continuous CO2 laser served as radiation sources. Radiation was focused on spots 0.1 to 0.5 mm in diameter and maintained at levels ensuring constant power density during the interaction time, while the temperature of the target surface was measured continuously. Metals, graphite and dielectric materials were tested with laser action taking place in air N2 + O2 mixtures, Ar or He atmosphere under pressures of 0.01 to 1.0 atm. Data on radiation intensity thresholds for evaporation and plasma formation were obtained. On the basis of these thresholds, combined with data on energy balance and the temperature profile in plasma layers, a universal state diagram was constructed for subsurface plasma with nonquantified surface temperature and radiation intensity coordinates.

  4. D2O laser pumped by an injection-locked CO2 laser for ion-temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tatsuo; Ohga, Tetsuaki; Yokoo, Masakazu; Muraoka, Katsunori; Akazaki, Masanori.

    1986-01-01

    The cooperative Thomson scattering method is one of the various new techniques proposed for measuring the temperature of ions in nuclear fusion critical plasma, for which a high-performance FIR laser pumped by an injection-locked CO 2 laser is required. This report deals with D 2 O laser with a wavelength of 385 μm which is pumped by injection-locked single-mole TEA CO 2 laser composed of a driver laser and an output-stage laser. A small-sized automatic pre-ionization type laser is employed for the driver. The resonator of the driver laser consists of a plane grating of littrow arrangement and ZnSe plane output mirrors with reflection factor of 50 %. An aperture and ZnSe etalon are inserted in the resonator to produce single transverse- and longitudinal-mode oscillation, respectively. The output-stage laser is also of the automatic pre-ionization type. Theoretically, an injection power of 0.1 pW/mm 3 is required for a CO 2 laser. Single-mode oscillation of several hundred nW/mm 3 can be produced by the CO 2 laser used in this study. Tuning of the output-stage laser is easily controlled by the driver laser. High stability of the injection-locked operation is demonstrated. CO 2 laser beam is introduced into the D 2 O laser through a KCl window to excite D 2 O laser beam in the axial direction. Input and output characteristics of the D 2 O laser are shown. Also presented are typical pulse shapes from the D 2 O laser pumped by a free-running CO 2 laser pulse or by an injection-locked single-mode CO 2 laser pulse. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Gain measurements in CO2 CW low pressure lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, N.A.S.; Chanes Junior, J.B.; Jayaram, K.

    1983-01-01

    A series of gain measurements in low pressure CO 2 CW laser were performed in order to study the behaviour of a CO 2 laser ampliflier as a function of pressure and discharge current. A theoretical model, based on rate equations is also presented to describe the laser behaviour and the experimental procedure adopted. (C.L.B.) [pt

  6. Technology of discharge and laser resonators for high power CO2 lasers. Koshutsuryoku CO2 laser ni tsukawareru hoden reiki laser kyoshinki gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Y.; Kuzumoto, M. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-20

    This paper describes discharge excitation technology and resonator technology as basic technologies for high power CO2 lasers. As a result of progress in high-frequency power element techniques, the discharge excitation technology now generally uses laser excitation using AC discharge of capacity coupling type. Its representative example is silent discharge (SD) excitation. This is a system to excite laser by applying high voltages with as high frequency as 100 kHz to 1 MHz across a pair of electrodes covered with a dielectric material. The system maintains stability in discharge even if power supply voltage amplitude is modulated, and easily provides pulse outputs. Discharge excitation for diffusion cooled type CO2 laser generates a discharge in a gap with a gap length of about 2 mm, and can perform gas cooling by means of thermal conduction of gas, whereas a compact resonator can be fabricated. A resonator for the diffusion cooled type CO2 laser eliminates gas circulation and cooling systems, hence the device can be made more compact. A report has been given that several of these compact resonators were combined, from which a laser output of 85W was obtained by using RF discharge of 2kW. 43 refs., 21 figs.

  7. A DC excited waveguide multibeam CO2 laser using high frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High power industrial multibeam CO2 lasers consist of a large number of closely packed ... by producing pre-ionization using an auxiliary high frequency pulsed ... of few kilowatts output power, multibeam technique is used [2]. .... gas mixture of CO2, N2 and He enters in each discharge tube individually from .... Commercial.

  8. Investigation of a high power UV pre-ionized tea CO2 laser for making purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Shiw Jin; Low Kum Seng

    1988-01-01

    A simple, high-power TEA CO 2 laser using profiled electrodes with capacitatively-coupled side-arcs to provide preionization is described. The output pulse energy, beam size and beam divergence of this laser is measured as well as the voltage across the two laser electrodes. The effect of various operating parameters on the output pulse energy and efficiency of this laser are also described. The laser, with a maximum output energy of 4 J per pulse, has been used successfully to mark plastic surfaces such as plastic Ic components. (author)

  9. CO2 electric discharge lasers - Present status and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    CO 2 electric discharge lasers (EDLs) have proven themselves to be efficient sources of high-power high-quality laser energy. The paper outlines applications of high-power CO 2 EDLs, applications which are now becoming commercially viable, as well as those which are still being investigated in research laboratories. Applications of CO 2 lasers are discussed relative to industrial applications (laser welding, laser surface hardening, heat treatment, and surface chemistry modification by laser alloying and laser glazing), laser radar applications, laser-induced fusion, and laser propulsion. Attention is given to requirements of applications versus status of technology. Examples are given of the engineering solutions used to address the technology issues identified by particular laser applications

  10. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing for atrophic acne scars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, Lene; Haak, Christina Skovbølling; Togsverd-Bo, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of acne scars with fractional CO(2) lasers is gaining increasing impact, but has so far not been compared side-by-side to untreated control skin.......The treatment of acne scars with fractional CO(2) lasers is gaining increasing impact, but has so far not been compared side-by-side to untreated control skin....

  11. Airborne 2-Micron Double-Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Column CO2 Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 millijouls and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 microseconds and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micron IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  12. The transient evolution of AM mode locking a TEA CO2laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bonnie, Ronald J.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of the pulse in an AM mode-locked TEA CO2laser has been investigated. The experiments have been performed by injecting the mode-locked pulses in a high-pressure slave oscillator at various time intervals after the initiation of the mode-lock process. This technique allows the

  13. Clinical effects of CO2 laser on equine diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Arne; Svensson, Ulf; Collinder, Eje

    2002-10-01

    CO2 lasers has been used for five years at Malaren Equine Hospital, as an alternative treatment of some equine diseases. The application of CO2 laser has been studied for evaluation of its appropriateness for treatment of the equine diseases sarcoids, lameness in fetlock joints or pulmonary haemorrhage. During the last five years, above 100 equine sarcoids have been removed by laser surgery (CO2 laser) and so far resulting in significantly few recurrences compared with results from usual excision surgery. In one study, acute traumatic arthritis in fetlock joints was treated three times every second day with defocalised CO2 laser. The therapeutic effectiveness of CO2 laser in this study was better than that of the customary therapy with betamethasone plus hyaluronan. During one year, chronic pulmonary bleeders, namely exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage, has been treated with defocalised CO2 laser. Six race horses have been treated once daily during five days. Until now, three of these horses have subsequently been successfully racing and no symptoms of pulmonary haemorrhage have been observed. These studies indicate that CO2 laser might be an appropriate therapy on sarcoids and traumatic arthritis, and probably also on exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Other treatments for this pulmonary disease are few.

  14. Comparison of CO2 Laser Cutting with Different Laser Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketting, Hans-Ole; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains CO2 laser cutting results in mild and stainless steel with different laser sources. The main factors which affect the cutting speed and quality are the power, the cutting gas and focal point conditions. Keeping the power and cutting gas constant, the focal point conditions have...... size,for the maximum cutting speed. One of the 7 laser sources with different focal length and thus different minimum spot size, was then used to investigate more in details the importance of the focal spot size cutting stainless steel with high pressure nitrogen. It looks as if there is a strong...... connection between the smallest avail-able spot size and cutting speed in mild steel, whereas the conditions in stainless steel, depends strongly on the flow conditions in the cut kerf, and not only on the focal spot size....

  15. High speed surface cleaning by a high repetition rated TEA-CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunemi, Akira; Hirai, Ryo; Hagiwara, Kouji; Nagasaka, Keigo; Tashiro, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of high speed cleaning of solid surfaces by the laser ablation technique using a TEA-CO 2 laser. The laser pulses with the repetition rate of 1 kHz were applied to paint, rust, moss and dirt attached on the surfaces. The attachments were effectively removed without the damage of bulk surfaces by the irradiation of line-focused sequential pulses with an energy of 300 mJ/pulse. A cleaning rate reached to 17 m 2 /hour for the case of paint removal from iron surfaces. (author)

  16. CO2 laser photolysis of clustered ions, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Yasumasa; Soga, Takeshi; Suzuki, Kazuya; Ohno, Shin-ichi.

    1990-09-01

    Vibrational excitation and the following decomposition of cluster ions by CO 2 laser photons are studied. Characteristics of the cluster ion and the CO 2 laser photon are summarized in their relation to the photolysis of cluster ions. An apparatus was installed, which is composed of (1) corona discharge-jet expansion section (formation of cluster ions), (2) CO 2 laser section (photolysis of cluster ions), and (3) mass spectrometer section. Experimental results of ammonia cluster ions were described. Effects of repeller voltage, shape of repellers, and adiabatic cooling are examined on the formation of ammonia cluster ions by corona discharge-jet expansion method. Collisional dissociation of cluster ions was observed at high repeller voltages. Size distribution of the ammonia cluster ion is discussed in connection with the temperature of cluster ions. Intensity of CO 2 laser was related to decomposition yield of cluster ions. (author)

  17. 367 cases of CO2 laser therapy on facial acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunqing; Liu, Songhao; Zhang, You; Liu, T. C.

    1996-09-01

    Since 1989, we have cured 367 persons of facial acne of different course by using direct irradiation of high-power CO2 laser combing with operative therapy of low-power CO2 laser. The cure rate is 100 percent. In this paper, we stated the therapeutic approach. It was shown that this therapeutic approach is simple and effective, and its recurrence rate is zero. There are no cicatrices after healing. It is easy to accept it, and is worthy of extension.

  18. CO2-Tea pulse clipping using pulsed high voltage preionization for high spatial resolution I.R. Lidar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasmi Taieb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An extra-cavity CO2-TEA laser pulse clipper for high spatial resolution atmospheric monitoring is presented. The clipper uses pulsed high voltageto facilitate the breakdown of the gas within the clipper cell. Complete extinction of the nitrogen tail, that degrades the range resolution of LIDARS, is obtained at pressures from 375 up to 1500 Torr for nitrogen and argon gases whereas an attenuation coefficient of almost 102 is achieved for helium. Excellent energy stability and pulse width repeatability were achieved using high voltage pre-ionized gas technique.

  19. CO2-Tea pulse clipping using pulsed high voltage preionization for high spatial resolution I.R. Lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Taieb

    2018-04-01

    An extra-cavity CO2-TEA laser pulse clipper for high spatial resolution atmospheric monitoring is presented. The clipper uses pulsed high voltageto facilitate the breakdown of the gas within the clipper cell. Complete extinction of the nitrogen tail, that degrades the range resolution of LIDARS, is obtained at pressures from 375 up to 1500 Torr for nitrogen and argon gases whereas an attenuation coefficient of almost 102 is achieved for helium. Excellent energy stability and pulse width repeatability were achieved using high voltage pre-ionized gas technique.

  20. A thyratron-switched modular CO2 TEA laser for infrared photochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, N.; Kelly, J.W.; Struve, H.

    1982-09-01

    A thyratron-switched, ultraviolet pre-ionised CO 2 TEA laser, consisting of four modules connected in series, has been designed and constructed. The laser can be operated in the TEM 00 mode and is able to produce 2.5 J per pulse. The design and operation of the laser as a tool for infrared studies is discussed together with an evaluation of the effect of operating parameters on output characteristics

  1. CO 2 laser cutting of MDF . 1. Determination of process parameter settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, K. C. P.; Ng, S. L.; Black, I.

    2000-02-01

    This paper details an investigation into the laser processing of medium-density fibreboard (MDF). Part 1 reports on the determination of process parameter settings for the effective cutting of MDF by CO 2 laser, using an established experimental methodology developed to study the interrelationship between and effects of varying laser set-up parameters. Results are presented for both continuous wave (CW) and pulse mode (PM) cutting, and the associated cut quality effects have been commented on.

  2. Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate using excimer and CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, H.; Dadsetan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Attempts have been made to evaluate microstructuring which affects cell behaviour, physical and chemical changes produced by laser irradiation onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface. The surfaces of PET were irradiated using the CO 2 laser and KrF excimer pulsed laser. The changes in chemical and physical properties of the irradiated PET surface were investigated by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and contact angle measurements. ATR-IR Spectra showed that the crystallinity in the surface region decreased due to the CO 2 laser and excimer laser irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the morphology of the laser irradiated PET surface changed due to laser irradiation. The results obtained from the cell behaviour studies revealed that changes of physico-chemical properties of the laser treated PET film have significantly changed in comparison with the unmodified PET

  3. Efficient extreme ultraviolet plasma source generated by a CO2 laser and a liquid xenon microjet target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Ariga, Tatsuya; Soumagne, George; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pogorelsky, Igor; Pavlishin, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2007-05-01

    We demonstrated efficacy of a CO2-laser-produced xenon plasma in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region at 13.5nm at variable laser pulse widths between 200ps and 25ns. The plasma target was a 30μm liquid xenon microjet. To ensure the optimum coupling of CO2 laser energy with the plasma, they applied a prepulse yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The authors measured the conversion efficiency (CE) of the 13.5nm EUV emission for different pulse widths of the CO2 laser. A maximum CE of 0.6% was obtained for a CO2 laser pulse width of 25ns at an intensity of 5×1010W/cm2.

  4. Efficient extreme ultraviolet plasma source generated by a CO2 laser and a liquid xenon microjet target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Ariga, Tatsuya; Soumagne, George; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pogorelsky, Igor; Pavlishin, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrated efficacy of a CO 2 -laser-produced xenon plasma in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region at 13.5 nm at variable laser pulse widths between 200 ps and 25 ns. The plasma target was a 30 μm liquid xenon microjet. To ensure the optimum coupling of CO 2 laser energy with the plasma, they applied a prepulse yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The authors measured the conversion efficiency (CE) of the 13.5 nm EUV emission for different pulse widths of the CO 2 laser. A maximum CE of 0.6% was obtained for a CO 2 laser pulse width of 25 ns at an intensity of 5x10 10 W/cm 2

  5. High power CO2 lasers and their applications in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Carbon dioxide laser is one of the most popular lasers in industry for material processing applications. It has very high power capability and high efficiency, can be operated in continuous wave (CW), modulated and pulsed modes, and has relatively low cost. Due to these characteristics high power CO 2 lasers are being used worldwide in different industries for a wide variety of materials processing operations. In nuclear industry, CO 2 laser has made its way in many applications. Some of the tasks performed by multikilowatt CO 2 laser are cutting operations necessary to remove unprocessible hardware from reactor fuel assemblies, sealing/fixing/removing radioactive contaminations onto/from concrete surfaces and surface modification of engineering components for improved surface mechanical and metallurgical characteristics. We have developed various models of CW CO 2 lasers of power up to 12 kW and a high repetitive rate TEA (Transversely Excited Atmospheric pressure) CO 2 laser of 500 W average power operating at 500 Hz repetition rates. We have carried many materials processing applications of direct relevance to DAE. Recent work includes laser welding of end plug PFBR fuel tubes, martensitic stainless steel and titanium alloy, surface cladding of turbine blades made of Ni-super alloy with stellite 694, fabrication on graded material of stainless steel and stellite, and laser scabbling, drilling and cutting of concrete which have potential application in decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. A brief overview of these indigenous developments will be presented. (author)

  6. Controlling chaotic behavior in CO2 and other lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Additional substantial experimental progress has been made, in the third month of the project, in setting up equipment and testing for producing chaotic behavior with a CO2 laser. The project goal is to synchronize and control chaos in CO2 and other lasers, and thereby increase the power in ensembles of coupled laser sources. Numerous investigations into the chaos regime have been made, a second CO2 laser has been brought on stream, and work is progressing in the fourth month toward coupling the two lasers and control of the first laser. It is also intended to submit at least two papers to the Second Experimental Chaos Conference which is supported by the Office of Naval Research. Abstracts to those two papers are attached. Last month's report discussed the experimental investigation of nonlinear dynamics of CO2 lasers which involved a new technique of inducing chaos. In this new technique, an acoustically modulated feedback of the laser light was used and led to chaotic dynamics at a very low modulation frequency of 375 Hz. Since then, new results have been obtained by an Electro-Optical Modulation (EOM) technique. In the new setup, the electro-optical modulator is placed in an external cavity outside the laser.

  7. High-powered CO2 -lasers and noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkasalo, Antero; Kuronen, Juhani

    High-power CO2 -lasers are being more and more widely used for welding, drilling and cutting in machine shops. In the near future, different kinds of surface treatments will also become routine practice with laser units. The industries benefitting most from high power lasers will be: the automotive industry, shipbuilding, the offshore industry, the aerospace industry, the nuclear and the chemical processing industries. Metal processing lasers are interesting from the point of view of noise control because the working tool is a laser beam. It is reasonable to suppose that the use of such laser beams will lead to lower noise levels than those connected with traditional metal processing methods and equipment. In the following presentation, the noise levels and possible noise-control problems attached to the use of high-powered CO2 -lasers are studied.

  8. Modeling CO2 Laser Ablative Impulse with Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinko, John E.; Phipps, Claude R.; Sasoh, Akihiro

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation vaporization models have usually ignored the spatial dependence of the laser beam. Here, we consider effects from modeling using a Gaussian beam for both photochemical and photothermal conditions. The modeling results are compared to experimental and literature data for CO 2 laser ablation of the polymer polyoxymethylene under vacuum, and discussed in terms of the ablated mass areal density and momentum coupling coefficient. Extending the scope of discussion, laser ablative impulse generation research has lacked a cohesive strategy for linking the vaporization and plasma regimes. Existing models, mostly formulated for ultraviolet laser systems or metal targets, appear to be inappropriate or impractical for applications requiring CO 2 laser ablation of polymers. A recently proposed method for linking the vaporization and plasma regimes for analytical modeling is addressed here along with the implications of its use. Key control parameters are considered, along with the major propulsion parameters needed for laser ablation propulsion modeling.

  9. Fractional CO2 laser treatment for vaginal laxity: A preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Rin; Kim, Jong Hwan; Seok, Joon; Kim, Jae Min; Bak, Dong-Ho; Choi, Mi-Ji; Mun, Seok Kyun; Kim, Chan Woong; Ahn, Seungwon; Kim, Beom Joon

    2018-05-07

    Various studies have investigated treatment for vaginal laxity with microablative fractional carbon dioxide CO 2 laser in humans; however, this treatment has not yet been studied in an animal model. Herein, we evaluate the therapeutic effects of fractional CO 2 laser for tissue remodeling of vaginal mucosa using a porcine model, with the aim of improving vaginal laxity. The fractional CO 2 laser enables minimally invasive and non-incisional procedures. By precisely controlling the laser energy pulses, energy is sent to the vaginal canal and the introitus area to induce thermal denaturation and contraction of collagen. We examined the effects of fractional CO 2 laser on a porcine model via clinical observation and ultrasound measurement. Also, thermal lesions were histologically examined via hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining, and Elastica van Gieson staining and immunohistochemistry. The three treatment groups, which were determined according to the amount of laser-energy applied (60, 90, and 120 mJ), showed slight thermal denaturation in the vaginal mucosa, but no abnormal reactions, such as excessive hemorrhaging, vesicles, or erythema, were observed. Histologically, we also confirmed that the denatured lamina propria induced by fractional CO 2 laser was dose-dependently increased after laser treatment. The treatment groups also showed an increase in collagen and elastic fibers due to neocollagenesis and angiogenesis, and the vaginal walls became firmer and tighter because of increased capillary and vessel formation. Also, use of the fractional CO 2 laser increased HSP (heat shock protein) 70 and collagen type I synthesis. Our results show that microablative fractional CO 2 laser can produce remodeling of the vaginal connective tissue without causing damage to surrounding tissue, and the process of mucosa remodeling while under wound dressings enables collagen to increase and the vaginal wall to become thick and tightened. Lasers Surg. Med

  10. Mechanism of single-frequency operation of the hybrid-CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, A.; Heckenberg, N.R.; Holzhauer, E.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of a new method of obtaining high-power single-frequency pulses from a TEA-CO 2 laser is discussed. Measurements of the shape and monochromaticity of pulses from the hybrid laser which has both a TEA and a low-pressure gain section inside one resonator are presented. The mechanism of single-frequency operation of the hybrid laser is discussed with reference to numerical solutions of simplified rate equations. The low-pressure section provides gain only over a narrow range of frequencies so that a mode lying in that band-width builds up faster than neighboring modes to give a single-frequency pulse resembling in overall shape the normal TEA laser pulse. If the system is already lasing when the TEA discharge begins, the single-mode radiation already present rapidly grows to give a single-frequency pulse lacking a gain-switched peak. (U.S.)

  11. Laser Wakefield Acceleration Driven by a CO2 Laser (STELLA-LW) - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Wayne D

    2008-06-27

    The original goals of the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration – Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) program were to investigate two new methods for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). In pseudo-resonant LWFA (PR-LWFA), a laser pulse experiences nonlinear pulse steepening while traveling through the plasma. This steepening allows the laser pulse to generate wakefields even though the laser pulse length is too long for resonant LWFA to occur. For the conditions of this program, PR-LWFA requires a minimum laser peak power of 3 TW and a low plasma density (10^16 cm^-3). Seeded self-modulated LWFA (seeded SM-LWFA) combines LWFA with plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA). An ultrashort (~100 fs) electron beam bunch acts as a seed in a plasma to form a wakefield via PWFA. This wakefield is subsequently amplified by the laser pulse through a self-modulated LWFA process. At least 1 TW laser power and, for a ~100-fs bunch, a plasma density ~10^17 cm^-3 are required. STELLA-LW was located on Beamline #1 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The ATF TW CO2 laser served as the driving laser beam for both methods. For PR-LWFA, a single bunch was to probe the wakefield produced by the laser beam. For seeded SM-LWFA, the ATF linac would produce two bunches, where the first would be the seed and the second would be the witness. A chicane would compress the first bunch to enable it to generate wakefields via PWFA. The plasma source was a short-length, gas-filled capillary discharge with the laser beam tightly focused in the center of the capillary, i.e., no laser guiding was used, in order to obtain the needed laser intensity. During the course of the program, several major changes had to be made. First, the ATF could not complete the upgrade of the CO2 laser to the 3 TW peak power needed for the PR-LWFA experiment. Therefore, the PR-LWFA experiment had to be abandoned leaving only the seeded SM-LWFA experiment. Second, the ATF discovered that the

  12. Helios, a 20 TW CO2 laser fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladish, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Since June 1978 the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Helios CO 2 laser fusion facility has been committed to an experimental target program to investigate the feasibility of laser produced inertial confinement fusion. This system is briefly described, and preliminary experimental results are reported

  13. Influence of acoustic waves on TEA CO2 laser performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Bergmann, H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author’s present results on the influence of acoustic waves on the output laser beam from high repetition rate TEA CO2 lasers. The authors show that acoustic waves generated inside the cavity lead to deterioration in beam quality...

  14. CO 2 lasers to destroy defiance of nanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria are mysterious particles that have spurred one of the biggest controversies in modern microbiology. The apatite mineral around the nanobacteria serves as a primary defense shield against various chemicals and extremely harsh condition. It is combined with a very slow metabolism of nanobacteria. These two items would be the likely explanation for the sever resistance of nanobacteria. The Hypothesis: The CO 2 laser is a continuous wave gas laser and emits infrared light at 9,600-10,600 nm in an easily manipulated focused beam that is well absorbed by water and hydroxyapatite. Hence, it seems logical to postulate that CO 2 laser can be used successfully to destroy defensive external hydroxyapatite layer of nanobacteria. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Main criticism with this hypothesis is differential radiation of nanobacteria. It is well known that CO 2 laser has high water absorption and consequently can cause unwanted damage to human host tissues.

  15. Bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems to enamel and dentin irradiated with a novel CO2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser for dental restorative procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Bartolome, N; Kinsel, R; Vaderhobli, R; Rechmann, B M T

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of CO 2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel and dentin. Two hundred enamel and 210 dentin samples were irradiated with a 9.3 µm carbon dioxide laser (Solea, Convergent Dental, Inc., Natick, MA) with energies which either enhanced caries resistance or were effective for ablation. OptiBond Solo Plus [OptiBondTE] (Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA) and Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakTE] (Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT) were used. In addition, Scotchbond Universal [ScotchbondSE] (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) and Peak SE self-etching primer with Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakSE] (Ultradent Products) were tested. Clearfil APX (Kuraray, New York, NY) was bonded to the samples. After 24 h, a single plane shear bond test was performed. Using the caries preventive setting on enamel resulted in increased shear bond strength for all bonding agents except for self-etch PeakSE. The highest overall bond strength was seen with PeakTE (41.29 ± 6.04 MPa). Etch-and-rinse systems achieved higher bond strength values to ablated enamel than the self-etch systems did. PeakTE showed the highest shear bond strength with 35.22 ± 4.40 MPa. OptiBondTE reached 93.8% of its control value. The self-etch system PeakSE presented significantly lower bond strength. The shear bond strength to dentin ranged between 19.15 ± 3.49 MPa for OptiBondTE and 43.94 ± 6.47 MPa for PeakSE. Etch-and-rinse systems had consistently higher bond strength to CO 2 9.3 µm laser-ablated enamel. Using the maximum recommended energy for dentin ablation, the self-etch system PeakSE reached the highest bond strength (43.9 ± 6.5 MPa).

  16. A comparison of CO2 laser versus traditional stapedectomy outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, S

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to audit the introduction of the use of the CO2 laser into our department and to compare hearing outcomes and complication rates in patients who underwent either laser or mechanical stapedectomy. We found that the use of laser is at least as safe as the traditional approach with regards the rate of post-operative complications. One patient in the laser group suffered prolonged post-operative tinnitus, whilst one patient in the traditional group suffered prolonged post-operative vertigo. There was no evidence, however, of improved Air-Bone Gap closure compared to the traditional approach (Pre- and Post-Op Air Bone Gaps of 34 +\\/- 3 and 9 +\\/- 2 for laser stapedectomy versus 35 +\\/- 4 and 13 +\\/- 2 for traditional stapedectomy (mean +\\/- SEM)). In summary, therefore, CO2 laser surgery for otosclerosis is a safe surgical procedure resulting in similar hearing outcomes to that obtained following mechanical stapes surgery.

  17. Study of plasma formation in CW CO2 laser beam-metal surface interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Vasilchenko, Zh V.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Gresev, A. N.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Chubrik, N. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.

    1994-04-01

    An interaction of the cw CO2 laser beam and a moving metal surface has been studied. The pulsed and thermodynamical parameters of the surface plasma were investigated by optical and spectroscopical methods. The subsonic radiation wave propagation in the erosion plasma torch has been studied.

  18. Precision beam splitters for CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Beam splitters for 10-μm lasers are discussed and then applied to the precision measurement of high average powers. In particular, beam splitter stability has been investigated in various materials over the 20--600-W power range with power densities up to 1 kW/cm 2 . The absolute beam splitter ratios are given along with the achieved measurement precisions. The semiconductors investigated were GaAs, CdTe, and ZnSe in addition to one alkali-halide KC1. Standard deviations for the beam splitter ratios of 1% over the power range were typical. Absolute ratios agree with the predictions from Fresnel's equations to 1% or better. The best measurement was made on ZnSe when a standard deviation of 0.4% was obtained for the measurement of a ratio that agreed with a calculation from Fresnel's equations to better than 0.5%

  19. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests wer...

  20. Investigation of scleral buckling by CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maswadi, S.

    2001-05-01

    This thesis investigates the effect of using the infrared wavelength CO 2 laser (10.6μm) as a localised heat source for inducing scleral buckling on eyes. Retinal detachment disease is a major cause of blindness and the scleral buckling is an important technique used in treatment. A radio-frequency excited 10.6λm laser source is used to heat collagen in the sclera above its shrinkage temperature so as to produce a localised indentation and deformation in the human eye (in vitro). Basic measurements of the onset shrinkage temperatures of porcine and human sclera are taken. Optical properties of sclera tissue at 10.6μm are also determined to provide information about the interaction of the CO 2 laser with the sclera. It is found that CO 2 laser radiation is highly absorbed by the scleral water. Optical diffraction technique is investigated to quantify in-plane deformation in the sclera tissue as result of heating by producing grating on porcine and human sclera using the ArF laser (193nm). Photothermal deflection technique is also used to investigate scleral ablation by using the TEA and Ultrapulse CO 2 laser. This technique provides a useful guide to the regime where ablation rather than heat shrinkage of collagen in the sclera will dominate using the Ultrapulse CO 2 laser. A quantitative assessment of buckling using the technique of projection moire interferometry is described which allows a non-contact measurement to be made of the out-of-plane displacement by laser radiation. In-plane surface strain (shrinkage) has also been demonstrated using in-situ optical microscopy of the laser treated eye. The moire method is suitable to obtain information on buckling in real time and to obtain a three-dimensional view of the eye surface as laser treatment proceeds. A theoretical heat flow model is described for predicting the temperature profile produced in the sclera using the Ultrapulse CO 2 laser. For appropriate exposure parameters the CO 2 laser is found to be an

  1. Material Processing with High Power CO2-Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakowsky, Lothar

    1986-10-01

    After a period of research and development lasertechnique now is regarded as an important instrument for flexible, economic and fully automatic manufacturing. Especially cutting of flat metal sheets with high power C02-lasers and CNC controlled two or three axes handling systems is a wide spread. application. Three dimensional laser cutting, laser-welding and -heat treatment are just at the be ginning of industrial use in production lines. The main. advantages of laser technology. are - high. accuracy - high, processing velocity - law thermal distortion. - no tool abrasion. The market for laser material processing systems had 1985 a volume of 300 Mio S with growth rates between, 20 % and 30 %. The topic of this lecture are hiTrh. power CO2-lasers. Besides this systems two others are used as machining tools, Nd-YAG- and Eximer lasers. All applications of high. power CO2-lasers to industrial material processing show that high processing velocity and quality are only guaranteed in case of a stable intensity. profile on the workpiece. This is only achieved by laser systems without any power and mode fluctuations and by handling systems of high accuracy. Two applications in the automotive industry are described, below as examples for laser cutting and laser welding of special cylindrical motor parts.

  2. The first picosecond terawatt CO2 laser at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Babzien, M.

    1998-02-01

    The first terawatt picosecond CO 2 laser will be brought to operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility in 1998. System consists of a single-mode TEA oscillator, picosecond semiconductor optical switch, multi-atmosphere. The authors report on design, simulation, and performance tests of the 10 atm final amplifier that allows for direct multi-joule energy extraction in a picosecond laser pulse

  3. Holographic interferometry of isolated deuterium plasmas produced by a CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatenby, P.V.; Walker, A.C.

    1978-10-01

    The application of double exposure fractional fringe holographic interferometry to measurements of electron density in a plasma generated by irradiation of a freely falling pellet of solid deuterium with a focused CO 2 laser pulse is discussed. A particularly simple technique is used for processing and reconstructing the holograms and this is described in detail. A summary and discussion of the results is included with the emphasis on the observed evolution of the deuterium plasma over the duration of the laser irradiation. (author)

  4. CO2 and diode laser for excisional biopsies of oral mucosal lesions. A pilot study evaluating clinical and histopathological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Valérie G A; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Sendi, Pedram; Mettraux, Gérald; Bornstein, Michael M

    2010-01-01

    The present pilot study evaluates the histopathological characteristics and suitability of CO2 and diode lasers for performing excisional biopsies in the buccal mucosa with special emphasis on the extent of the thermal damage zone created. 15 patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of their fibrous hyperplasias with a laser. These patients were randomly assigned to one diode or two CO2 laser groups. The CO2 laser was used in a continuous wave mode (cw) with a power of 5 W (Watts), and in a pulsed char-free mode (cf). Power settings for the diode laser were 5.12 W in a pulsed mode. The thermal damage zone of the three lasers and intraoperative and postoperative complications were assessed and compared. The collateral thermal damage zone on the borders of the excisional biopsies was significantly smaller with the CO, laser for both settings tested compared to the diode laser regarding values in pm or histopathological index scores. The only intraoperative complication encountered was bleeding, which had to be controlled with electrocauterization. No postoperative complications occurred in any of the three groups. The CO2 laser seems to be appropriate for excisional biopsies of benign oral mucosal lesions. The CO2 laser offers clear advantages in terms of smaller thermal damage zones over the diode laser. More study participants are needed to demonstrate potential differences between the two different CO2 laser settings tested.

  5. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2 in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334% and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264% and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature.

  6. Microsecond enamel ablation with 10.6μm CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góra, W. S.; McDonald, A.; Hand, D. P.; Shephard, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    Lasers have been previously been used for dental applications, however there remain issues with thermally-induced cracking. In this paper we investigate the impact of pulse length on CO2 laser ablation of human dental enamel. Experiments were carried in vitro on molar teeth without any modification to the enamel surface, such as grinding or polishing. In addition to varying the pulse length, we also varied pulse energy and focal position, to determine the most efficient ablation of dental hard tissue and more importantly to minimize or eradicate cracking. The maximum temperature rise during the multi pulse ablation process was monitored using a set of thermocouples embedded into the pulpal chamber. The application of a laser device in dental surgery allows removal of tissue with higher precision, which results in minimal loss of healthy dental tissue. In this study we use an RF discharge excited CO2 laser operating at 10.6μm. The wavelength of 10.6 μm overlaps with a phosphate band (PO3-4) absorption in dental hard tissue hence the CO2 laser radiation has been selected as a potential source for modification of the tissue. This research describes an in-depth analysis of single pulse laser ablation. To determine the parameters that are best suited for the ablation of hard dental tissue without thermal cracking, a range of pulse lengths (10-200 μs), and fluences (0-100 J/cm2) are tested. In addition, different laser focusing approaches are investigated to select the most beneficial way of delivering laser radiation to the surface (divergent/convergent beam). To ensure that these processes do not increase the temperature above the critical threshold and cause the necrosis of the tissue a set of thermocouples was placed into the pulpal chambers. Intermittent laser radiation was investigated with and without application of a water spray to cool down the ablation site and the adjacent area. Results show that the temperature can be kept below the critical threshold

  7. A promising split-lesion technique for rapid tattoo removal using a novel sequential approach of a single sitting of pulsed CO(2) followed by Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K; Bansal, Shivani; Goel, Khushbu

    2013-12-01

    Laser tattoo removal conventionally uses Q-switched (QS) lasers, but they require multiple sittings, and the end results depend largely on the type of tattoo treated. In pigmented skin, due to the competing epidermal pigment results, laser results in tattoo are slow and inadequate. To evaluate the efficacy of a combined use of ultrapulse CO2 and QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser in the treatment of tattoos in Indian skin. A split-lesion trial was carried out in five patients, with the left side of tattoos receiving the QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and the right side, a sequential combination of Up CO2 and QS Nd: YAG at 6 weeks interval with a maximum of six sittings. Outcome assessment was carried out by a blinded assessor using standardized photography. An assessment of physician improvement score, side-effects score, and patient satisfaction score was taken during and at the end of the study. There was a statistically significant improvement on the combination side(physician improvement score -3.7 vs. 1.87: P = 0.0019) which occurred earlier with fewer sittings (1.7 vs. 6). There was no statistically significant difference in the side effects. A combination of an Up CO2 laser with QS Nd: YAG laser is a promising tool for rapid and effective removal of blue-black/blue amateur tattoo in pigmented skin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene nanofibers prepared by CO2 laser supersonic drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suzuki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE nanofibers were prepared by carbon dioxide (CO2 laser irradiation of asspun ETFE fibers with four different melt flow rates (MFRs in a supersonic jet that was generated by blowing air into a vacuum chamber through the fiber injection orifice. The drawability and superstructure of fibers produced by CO2 laser supersonic drawing depend on the laser power, the chamber pressure, the fiber injection speed, and the MFR. Nanofibers obtained using a laser power of 20 W, a chamber pressure of 20 kPa, and an MFR of 308 g•10 min–1 had an average diameter of 0.303 µm and a degree of crystallinity of 54%.

  9. CO 2 laser photoacoustic spectra and vibrational modes of heroin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heroin, morphine and narcotine are very large molecules having 50, 40 and 53 atoms respectively. Moderately high resolution photoacoustic (PA) spectra have been recorded in 9.6 m and 10.6 m regions of CO2 laser. It is very difficult to assign the modes of vibrations for PA bands by comparison with conventional low ...

  10. Fractional CO(2) laser-assisted drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Farinelli, William A

    2010-01-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) creates vertical channels that might assist the delivery of topically applied drugs into skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drug delivery by CO(2) laser AFR using methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL), a porphyrin precursor, as a test drug....

  11. Using a CO2 laser for PIR-detector spoofing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, R.; Putten, F.J.M. van

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the use of a CO2 laser for triggering of PIR sensors. Pyro-electric InfraRed sensors are often used as motion detectors for detection of moving persons or objects that are warmer than their environment. Apart from uses in the civilian domain, also

  12. Ablative skin resurfacing with a novel microablative CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkin, Robert H; Sarnoff, Deborah S; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Sadick, Neil S; Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene

    2009-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin resurfacing has been a mainstay of facial rejuvenation since its introduction in the mid 1990s. Recently, a new generation of fractional or microablative CO2 lasers has been introduced to the marketplace. According to the concept of fractional photothermolysis, these lasers ablate only a fraction of the epidermal and dermal architecture in the treatment area. An array of microscopic thermal wounds is created that ablates the epidermis and dermis within very tiny zones; adjacent to these areas, the epidermis and dermis are spared. This microablative process of laser skin resurfacing has proven safe and effective not only for facial rejuvenation, but elsewhere on the body as well. It is capable of improving wrinkles, acne scars, and other types of atrophic scars and benign pigmented lesions associated with elastotic, sun-damaged skin. Because of the areas of spared epidermis and dermis inherent in a procedure that employs fractional photothermolysis, healing is more rapid compared to fully ablative CO2 laser skin resurfacing and downtime is proportionately reduced. A series of 32 consecutive patients underwent a single laser resurfacing procedure with the a new microablative CO2 laser. All patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months and were asked to complete patient satisfaction questionnaires; a 6 month postoperative photographic evaluation by an independent physician, not involved in the treatment, was also performed. Both sets of data were graded and reported on a quartile scale. Results demonstrated greater than 50% improvement in almost all patients with those undergoing treatment for wrinkles, epidermal pigment or solar elastosis deriving the greatest change for the better (>75%).

  13. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  14. Cladding using a 15 kW CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, E.J.; Verma, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    Laser alloying or cladding differs little in principle from the traditional forms of weld overlays, but lasers as a heat source offer some distinct advantages. With the selective heating attainable using high power lasers, good metallurgical bond of the clad layer, minimal dilution and typically, a very fine homogeneous microstructure can be obtained in the clad layer. This is a review of work in laser cladding using the 15 kW CO 2 laser. The authors discuss the ability of the laser clad surface to increase the high temperature oxidation resistance of a low-alloy carbon steel (4140). Examples of clads subjected to high- temperature thermal cycling of nickel-20% aluminum and TaC + 4140 clad low-alloy steel and straight high-temperature oxidation of Stellite 6-304L cladding on a 4140 substrate are given

  15. High repetition ration solid state switched CO2 TEA laser employed in industrial ultrasonic testing of aircraft parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergmann, Hubertus; Morkel, Francois; Stehmann, Timo

    2015-02-01

    Laser Ultrasonic Testing (UT) is an important technique for the non-destructive inspection of composite parts in the aerospace industry. In laser UT a high power, short pulse probe laser is scanned across the material surface, generating ultrasound waves which can be detected by a second low power laser system and are used to draw a defect map of the part. We report on the design and testing of a transversely excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO2 laser system specifically optimised for laser UT. The laser is excited by a novel solid-state switched pulsing system and utilises either spark or corona preionisation. It provides short output pulses of less than 100 ns at repetition rates of up to 1 kHz, optimised for efficient ultrasonic wave generation. The system has been designed for highly reliable operation under industrial conditions and a long term test with total pulse counts in excess of 5 billion laser pulses is reported.

  16. Advanced concept of 100 kJ CO2 laser module for reactor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Matoba, M.; Fujita, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Daido, H.

    1980-01-01

    The design study of 100 kJ CO 2 laser module for inertial fusion confinement is in progress. The basic requirement for the design of a 100 kJ laser is that the structure should be simple enough so as to be one module which can be compiled to set up a 1 MJ system. The requirements imposed on the design are the single gain medium to extract 100 kJ, the multi-pass amplification to achieve high efficiency, laser beam passing the gain medium many times, the possibility to preserve the arbitrary angle of beam injection, and the possibility of construction based on the established or tractable techniques. The gain medium of cylindrical shape was adopted to preserve all directional access with equal configuration. Demonstration experiments are planned to find out the optimized condition regarding to the vibrational relaxation, the time interval of each passage of a laser pulse, gas mixture and pressure, and pumping condition. The optical design of one beam for a 100 kJ test module is presented. This optical design named PENTAGONAL 10 has the following features; compact optics, high parasitic oscillation threshold, and the same intervals of multiple passing for energy extraction with four beams. The laser is an electron beam (E-beam)-controlled discharge laser. An electric power source and feed through were also studied. The construction of a 100 kJ laser system will be possible with the conventional techniques. (Kato, T.)

  17. Experimental study on concrete cutting by CO2 laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsumizu, Akira; Tomura, Hidemasa; Wakizaka, Tatsuya; Hishikawa, Kyoichi; Moriya, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    Methods for dismantling nuclear reactor facilities must meet particularly exacting requirements imposed by heavily reinforced and radioactivated reactor shield walls. Conventional methods do not meet all such requirements, however. Intrigued by excellent characteristics of the laser cutting method relative to nuclear facility demolition, we carried out an experimental study to make a comprehensive evaluation of its characteristics, especially for deep cutting, with success in identifying main factors affecting the cutting depth of a laser and characterizing its cutting behavior. The study results indicate that a 50 kW class CO 2 laser has a potential to provide a practicable cutting speed and depth. (author)

  18. The use of laser CO2 in salivary gland diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolfi, C.; Rocchetti, F.; Fioravanti, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Salivary gland diseases can include reactive lesions, obstructive lesions, and benign tumors. All these clinical entities are slow growing. Salivary glands reactive lesions, such as mucoceles, can result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissue or from retention of saliva within the duct. Sialolithiasis, one of the most common obstructive lesions, is generally due to calculi, which are attributed to retention of saliva. Monomorphic adenoma is a salivary gland benign tumor, which is exclusively resulted from proliferation of epithelial cells, with no alterations interesting the connective tissue. The elective therapy of these lesions is surgical excision because sometimes they can be accompained by difficulties during chewing and phonation and can interfere with prosthesis's stability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser in the treatment of patients with salivary gland diseases. Three different cases - a mucocele, a scialolithiasis and a monomorphic adenoma - were treated with CO2 laser excision (CW and 4W), under local anesthesia. Two different techniques were used: circumferential incision for the adenoma, and mucosa preservation technique for mucocele and sialolithiasis. In each case final haemostasis was obtained by thermocoagulation, but suture was applied to guarantee good healing by sewing up the flaps. The patients were checked after twenty days and the healing was good. The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas laser to be developed, and is still the highest-power continuous wave laser that is currently available. In dentistry the CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers. Laser excision can be very useful in oral surgery. In the cases presented CO2 laser offered, differently from traditional surgery, simplified surgical technique, shorter duration of operation, minimal postoperative pain, minimal scarring

  19. Absorption of CO2 laser light by a dense, high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.; Forrest, M.J.; Morgan, P.D.; Offenberger, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction between a pulsed, CO 2 laser beam and the plasma produced in a plasma focus device is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The CO 2 laser radiation, directed orthogonal to the pinch axis and along the density gradient only weakly perturbs the focus since the radiation density of 30 J cm -3 (allowing for the Airy enhancement factor near the critical layer), is still less than the plasma thermal energy >=1 kJ cm -3 . On the contrary, the CO 2 laser beam is grossly affected by the plasma and absorption during the compressed pinch phase when the plasma frequency is much more complete than can be predicted by classical resistivity. Density fluctuations at the Langmuir frequency are measured directly for forward scattering from a probe, ruby laser beam. Since the wave numbers correspond to approximately 0.1 the Langmuir waves should appear as electron 'lines' in the scattered spectrum shifted by 427 A from the ruby laser wavelength. At low CO 2 laser pump intensity the electron wave intensity is close to the thermal level. As the pump is increased beyond a threshold of approximately 3x10 9 W/cm -2 (in vacuo) enhanced scattering is observed, reaching a factor of 30 above thermal. A WKB treatment of the electron-ion decay instability which takes into account the linear growth of waves at equal electron and ion temperatures and their convection in an inhomogeneous plasma is reasonably consistent with the observations

  20. Picosecond streak camera diagnostics of CO2 laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; Marjoribanks, R.S.; Sancton, R.W.; Enright, G.D.; Richardson, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of intense laser radiation with solid targets is currently of considerable interest in laser fusion studies. Its understanding requires temporal knowledge of both laser and plasma parameters on a picosecond time scale. In this paper we describe the progress we have recently made in analysing, with picosecond time resolution, various features of intense nanosecond CO 2 laser pulse interaction experiments. An infrared upconversion scheme, having linear response and <20 ps temporal resolution, has been utilized to characterise the 10 μm laser pulse. Various features of the interaction have been studied with the aid of picosecond IR and x-ray streak cameras. These include the temporal and spatial characteristics of high harmonic emission from the plasma, and the temporal development of the x-ray continuum spectrum. (author)

  1. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  2. Removal of dogs' gingival pigmentation with CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Jose A. P.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Gioso, Marco A.; Pesce, Hildeberto F.; Jatene, Adib D.

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the ability of CO2 laser to remove physiologic pigmentation of gingiva. Dogs were chosen for this study because of their intense black pigmentation on the gingiva, similar to what can be found in human negroes and other dark- skinned races. Three specimens were irradiated at the left side of the buccal aspect of the gingiva, while for comparison the right side was used as a control. CO2 laser in a continuous mode applying 3 watt power was used (Xanar-20, USA). The portion to be irradiated was continuously irrigated with saline solution, to prevent tissue damage from the excessive heat generated. The handpiece device irradiated the target easily and fast, with no bleeding. All the pigmentation could be removed from the portion exposed to the laser beam. A 45th day follow up showed very little repigmentation just in one of the specimens. It could be concluded that CO2 laser irradiation can be an alternative to remove pigmentation of the gingiva for cosmetic purposes. The risk of repigmentation exists, so the patients should be aware of this inconvenience, sometimes demanding further irradiation.

  3. Synchronisation of electron-beam controlled CO2 lasers with a plasma mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Boiko, V.A.; Danilychev, V.A.; Zvorykin, V.D.; Lobanov, A.N.; Kholin, I.V.; Chugunov, A.Y.

    1979-03-01

    A new approach to the development of laser systems for spherically symmetrical compression of thermonuclear targets which essentially involves using a plasma formed by the action of laser radiation on the surface of a target as a common mirror for high-power electron-beam-controlled CO 2 lasers distributed uniformly around a sphere has been proposed. The achievement of the required time-synchronised operation of several lasers to obtain symmetrical irradiation is discussed here. It is found that the lasers cannot be synchronised accurately by stabilising only the electrical parameters of the systems. Even if the laser pumping systems are switched on strictly simultaneously, small random fluctuations in the pumping level, active mixture composition, optical Q factor of the resonators and other parameters give rise to an appreciable scatter in the output pulse evolution times. Methods for precise synchronisation based on introducing optical coupling between the laser resonators are proposed. (UK)

  4. Proton- and x-ray beams generated by ultra-fast CO2 lasers for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelsky, Igor; Polyanskiy, Mikhail; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Shkolnikov, Peter; Najmudin, Zulfikar; Palmer, Charlotte A. J.; Dover, Nicholas P.; Oliva, Piernicola; Carpinelli, Massimo

    2011-05-01

    Recent progress in using picosecond CO2 lasers for Thomson scattering and ion-acceleration experiments underlines their potentials for enabling secondary radiation- and particle- sources. These experiments capitalize on certain advantages of long-wavelength CO2 lasers, such as higher number of photons per energy unit, and favorable scaling of the electrons' ponderomotive energy and critical plasma density. The high-flux x-ray bursts produced by Thomson scattering of the CO2 laser off a counter-propagating electron beam enabled high-contrast, time-resolved imaging of biological objects in the picosecond time frame. In different experiments, the laser, focused on a hydrogen jet, generated monoenergetic proton beams via the radiation-pressure mechanism. The strong power-scaling of this regime promises realization of proton beams suitable for laser-driven proton cancer therapy after upgrading the CO2 laser to sub-PW peak power. This planned improvement includes optimizing the 10-μm ultra-short pulse generation, assuring higher amplification in the CO2 gas under combined isotopic- and power-broadening effects, and shortening the postamplification pulse to a few laser cycles (150-200 fs) via chirping and compression. These developments will move us closer to practical applications of ultra-fast CO2 lasers in medicine and other areas.

  5. Water vapor-nitrogen absorption at CO2 laser frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Nordstrom, R. J.; Damon, E. K.; Long, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a series of pressure-broadened water vapor absorption measurements at 27 CO2 laser frequencies between 935 and 1082 kaysers. Both multiple traversal cell and optoacoustic (spectrophone) techniques were utilized together with an electronically stabilized CW CO2 laser. Comparison of the results obtained by these two methods shows remarkable agreement, indicating a precision which has not been previously achieved in pressure-broadened studies of water vapor. The data of 10.59 microns substantiate the existence of the large (greater than 200) self-broadening coefficients determined in an earlier study by McCoy. In this work, the case of water vapor in N2 at a total pressure of 1 atm has been treated.

  6. Homoclinic crises in a model for the CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pando L, C.L.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1993-04-01

    We show that the four-level model for the CO 2 laser with modulated losses predicts a critical exponent close to 1/2 for the characteristic times in two homoclinic crises. In the five-dimensional Poincare map corresponding to this model, a sequential horseshoe formation due to the period three unstable orbit takes place after a region of multistability. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs

  7. Welding of dissimilar metals by CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garciandia, F.; Zubiri, F.; Etayo, J.L.; Cervantes, R.; Iriberri, I.

    1998-01-01

    The work carried out in CETENASA (laser department) in order to weld dissimilar metals is summarized. The involved metallic pair is M-35 and F-143, a high speed steel and a spring steel, respectively. Looking at the chemical composition of the involved alloys that will appear later, it can be easily understood the difficulty to obtain welded parts with structures metallurgically acceptable because of the high cracking degree that these materials show, specially M-35. The principles of a study which is being developed in the authors laboratory and which shows some interesting CO 2 laser possibilities are presented. (Author) 2 refs

  8. 13CO2/12CO2 ratio analysis in exhaled air by lead-salt tunable diode lasers for noninvasive diagnostics in gastroenterology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Selivanov, Yurii G.; Chizhevskii, Eugene G.; Os'kina, Svetlana; Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Nikitina, Elena I.

    1999-07-01

    An analyzer of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air based on lead-salt tunable diode lasers is presented. High accuracy of the carbon isotope ratio detection in exhaled carbon dioxide was achieved with help of very simple optical schematics. It was based on the use of MBE laser diodes operating in pulse mode and on recording the resonance CO2 absorption at 4.2 micrometers . Special fast acquisition electronics and software were applied for spectral data collection and processing. Developed laser system was tested in a clinical train aimed to assessment eradication efficiency in therapy of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Data on the 13C-urea breath test used for P.pylori detection and obtained with tunable diode lasers in the course of the trail was compared with the results of Mass-Spectroscopy analysis and histology observations. The analyzer can be used also for 13CO2/12CO2 ratio detection in exhalation to perform gastroenterology breath test based on using other compounds labeled with stable isotopes.

  9. Management of recalcitrant oral pemphigus vulgaris with CO 2 laser - Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Ashu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser has been used efficiently for treatment of oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, aphthous ulcers and oral manifestations of HIV. Two cases of recalcitrant oral pemphigus vulgaris that were successfully treated with CO 2 laser are described. The patients had been treated by a dermatologist with pulse therapy of methyl prednisolone and cyclophosphamide over a period of 6 to 8 months, but the clinical course was characterized by episodes of painful flare-ups and nonresponsiveness. The patients were extremely uncomfortable with recurrent oral lesions. CO 2 laser at low power was used to irradiate the lesions. It was shown to be effective in relieving pain and healing of lesions, with nonrecurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of such a treatment of oral pemphigus vulgaris. Further clinical studies are warranted to confirm efficacy and to optimize the treatment protocol.

  10. Development of electrical excited CO2-laser with transversal gas flow as well an axial flowed CO2-laser for material treatment, in particular for cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollermann-Windgasse, R.; Ackermann, F.

    1987-04-01

    The project describes the development of a new generation of CO 2 -lasers using high frequency discharge (13.56 MHz) for laser excitation by capacitive dielectrical input. HF-excitation has a lot of advantages compared with direct current technology, these are higher electrical input power into the plasma, better homogeneity and stability of discharges. In addition to this, HF-excitation shows excellent possibilities for pulsing and modulation. As a result of this, there are compact powerful laser systems with the possibility of scaling up to the multi-kW-range. The examination included fast transversal flowed as well as fast axial flowed systems. In the end of this project development prototypes with laser output power of 1000 W, 1500 W and 3000 W were available. Detailed attempts of application show that these lasers on grounds of excellent laser output quality and controlability of laser power specifically to each process make possible new ways for material treatment by laser. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Image-guided automatic triggering of a fractional CO2 laser in aesthetic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Koprowski, Robert; Wiernek, Barbara K; Błońska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Laser procedures in dermatology and aesthetic medicine are associated with the need for manual laser triggering. This leads to pulse overlapping and side effects. Automatic laser triggering based on image analysis can provide a secure fit to each successive doses of radiation. A fractional CO2 laser was used in the study. 500 images of the human skin of healthy subjects were acquired. Automatic triggering was initiated by an application together with a camera which tracks and analyses the skin in visible light. The tracking algorithm uses the methods of image analysis to overlap images. After locating the characteristic points in analysed adjacent areas, the correspondence of graphs is found. The point coordinates derived from the images are the vertices of graphs with respect to which isomorphism is sought. When the correspondence of graphs is found, it is possible to overlap the neighbouring parts of the image. The proposed method of laser triggering owing to the automatic image fitting method allows for 100% repeatability. To meet this requirement, there must be at least 13 graph vertices obtained from the image. For this number of vertices, the time of analysis of a single image is less than 0.5s. The proposed method, applied in practice, may help reduce the number of side effects during dermatological laser procedures resulting from laser pulse overlapping. In addition, it reduces treatment time and enables to propose new techniques of treatment through controlled, precise laser pulse overlapping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of a pulsed CO2 laser operating at 9.4 μm on the surface morphology, reflectivity, and acid resistance of dental enamel below the threshold for melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wan; Lee, Raymond; Chan, Kenneth H.; Jew, Jamison M.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Below the threshold for laser ablation, the mineral phase of enamel is converted into a purer phase hydroxyapatite with increased acid resistance. Studies suggest the possibility of achieving the conversion without visible surface alteration. In this study, changes in the surface morphology, reflectivity, and acid resistance were monitored with varying irradiation intensity. Bovine enamel specimens were irradiated using a CO2 laser operating at 9.4 μm with a Gaussian spatial beam profile-1.6 to 3.1 mm in diameter. After laser treatment, samples were subjected to demineralization to simulate the acidic intraoral conditions of dental decay. The resulting demineralization and erosion were assessed using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography, three-dimensional digital microscopy, and polarized light microscopy. Distinct changes in the surface morphology and the degree of inhibition were found within the laser-treated area in accordance with the laser intensity profile. Subtle visual changes were noted below the melting point for enamel that appear to correspond to thresholds for denaturation of the organic phase and thermal decomposition of the mineral phase. There was significant protection from laser irradiation in areas in which the reflectivity was not increased significantly, suggesting that aesthetically sensitive areas of the tooth can be treated for caries prevention.

  13. Progress Toward Measuring CO2 Isotopologue Fluxes in situ with the LLNL Miniature, Laser-based CO2 Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, J. L.; Bora, M.; Bond, T.

    2015-12-01

    One method to constrain photosynthesis and respiration independently at the ecosystem scale is to measure the fluxes of CO2­ isotopologues. Instrumentation is currently available to makes these measurements but they are generally costly, large, bench-top instruments. Here, we present progress toward developing a laser-based sensor that can be deployed directly to a canopy to passively measure CO2 isotopologue fluxes. In this study, we perform initial proof-of-concept and sensor characterization tests in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate performance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) tunable diode laser flux sensor. The results shown herein demonstrate measurement of bulk CO2 as a first step toward achieving flux measurements of CO2 isotopologues. The sensor uses a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in the 2012 nm range. The laser is mounted in a multi-pass White Cell. In order to amplify the absorption signal of CO2 in this range we employ wave modulation spectroscopy, introducing an alternating current (AC) bias component where f is the frequency of modulation on the laser drive current in addition to the direct current (DC) emission scanning component. We observed a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.998 and r2 = 0.978 at all and low CO2 concentrations, respectively) between the 2f signal and the CO2 concentration in the cell across the range of CO2 concentrations relevant for flux measurements. We use this calibration to interpret CO2 concentration of a gas flowing through the White cell in the laboratory and deployed over a grassy field. We will discuss sensor performance in the lab and in situ as well as address steps toward achieving canopy-deployed, passive measurements of CO2 isotopologue fluxes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675788

  14. Laser plant "Iguana" for transmyocardial revascularization based on kW-level waveguide CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Bockeria, L. A.; Berishvili, I. I.; Vasiltsov, Victor V.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Ul'yanov, Valery A.

    2001-05-01

    For many years the Institute on Laser and Information Technologies RAN has been developing a concept of high-power industrial CO2 lasers with diffusion cooling of the working medium. The paper gives a description of the laser medical system Iguana for transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) as an example of various applications of high-power waveguide CO2 lasers. The clinical results of the TMLR method application in surgical treatment are presented. The methods of determination of the time, when the laser beam passes through the demarcation line between myocardium tissue and blood, are discussed.

  15. Measurement of atmospheric CO2 column concentrations to cloud tops with a pulsed multi-wavelength airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianping; Ramanathan, Anand; Abshire, James B.; Kawa, Stephan R.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Rodriguez, Michael; Hasselbrack, William E.; Sun, Xiaoli; Numata, Kenji; Chen, Jeff; Choi, Yonghoon; Yang, Mei Ying Melissa

    2018-01-01

    We have measured the column-averaged atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio to a variety of cloud tops by using an airborne pulsed multi-wavelength integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. Airborne measurements were made at altitudes up to 13 km during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) science campaigns flown in the United States West and Midwest and were compared to those from an in situ sensor. Analysis of the lidar backscatter profiles shows the average cloud top reflectance was ˜ 5 % for the CO2 measurement at 1572.335 nm except to cirrus clouds, which had lower reflectance. The energies for 1 µs wide laser pulses reflected from cloud tops were sufficient to allow clear identification of CO2 absorption line shape and then to allow retrievals of atmospheric column CO2 from the aircraft to cloud tops more than 90 % of the time. Retrievals from the CO2 measurements to cloud tops had minimal bias but larger standard deviations when compared to those made to the ground, depending on cloud top roughness and reflectance. The measurements show this new capability helps resolve CO2 horizontal and vertical gradients in the atmosphere. When used with nearby full-column measurements to ground, the CO2 measurements to cloud tops can be used to estimate the partial-column CO2 concentration below clouds, which should lead to better estimates of surface carbon sources and sinks. This additional capability of the range-resolved CO2 IPDA lidar technique provides a new benefit for studying the carbon cycle in future airborne and space-based CO2 missions.

  16. Measurement of Atmospheric CO2 Column Concentrations to Cloud Tops With a Pulsed Multi-Wavelength Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianping; Ramanathan, Anand; Abshire, James B.; Kawa, Stephan R.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Rodriguez, Michael R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Sun, Xiaoli; Numata, Kenji; hide

    2018-01-01

    We have measured the column-averaged atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio to a variety of cloud tops by using an airborne pulsed multi-wavelength integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. Airborne measurements were made at altitudes up to 13 km during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) science campaigns flown in the United States West and Midwest and were compared to those from an in situ sensor. Analysis of the lidar backscatter profiles shows the average cloud top reflectance was approx. 5% for the CO2 measurement at 1572.335 nm except to cirrus clouds, which had lower reflectance. The energies for 1 micro-s wide laser pulses reflected from cloud tops were sufficient to allow clear identification of CO2 absorption line shape and then to allow retrievals of atmospheric column CO2 from the aircraft to cloud tops more than 90% of the time. Retrievals from the CO2 measurements to cloud tops had minimal bias but larger standard deviations when compared to those made to the ground, depending on cloud top roughness and reflectance. The measurements show this new capability helps resolve CO2 horizontal and vertical gradients in the atmosphere. When used with nearby full-column measurements to ground, the CO2 measurements to cloud tops can be used to estimate the partial-column CO2 concentration below clouds, which should lead to better estimates of surface carbon sources and sinks. This additional capability of the range-resolved CO2 IPDA lidar technique provides a new benefit for studying the carbon cycle in future airborne and space-based CO2 missions.

  17. Measurement of atmospheric CO2 column concentrations to cloud tops with a pulsed multi-wavelength airborne lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the column-averaged atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio to a variety of cloud tops by using an airborne pulsed multi-wavelength integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA lidar. Airborne measurements were made at altitudes up to 13 km during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS science campaigns flown in the United States West and Midwest and were compared to those from an in situ sensor. Analysis of the lidar backscatter profiles shows the average cloud top reflectance was ∼ 5 % for the CO2 measurement at 1572.335 nm except to cirrus clouds, which had lower reflectance. The energies for 1 µs wide laser pulses reflected from cloud tops were sufficient to allow clear identification of CO2 absorption line shape and then to allow retrievals of atmospheric column CO2 from the aircraft to cloud tops more than 90 % of the time. Retrievals from the CO2 measurements to cloud tops had minimal bias but larger standard deviations when compared to those made to the ground, depending on cloud top roughness and reflectance. The measurements show this new capability helps resolve CO2 horizontal and vertical gradients in the atmosphere. When used with nearby full-column measurements to ground, the CO2 measurements to cloud tops can be used to estimate the partial-column CO2 concentration below clouds, which should lead to better estimates of surface carbon sources and sinks. This additional capability of the range-resolved CO2 IPDA lidar technique provides a new benefit for studying the carbon cycle in future airborne and space-based CO2 missions.

  18. Assessment of radicular dentin permeability after irradiation with CO2 laser and endodontic irrigation treatments with thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heajin; Lee, Robert C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the permeability changes due to the surface modification of dentin can be quantified via thermal imaging during dehydration. The CO2 laser has been shown to remove the smear layer and disinfect root canals. Moreover, thermal modification via CO2 laser irradiation can be used to convert dentin into a highly mineralized enamel-like mineral. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radicular dentin surface modification after CO2 laser irradiation by measuring the permeability with thermal imaging. Human molar specimens (n=12) were sectioned into 4 axial walls of the pulp chamber and treated with either 10% NaClO for 1 minute, 5% EDTA for 1 minute, CO2 laser or none. The CO2 laser was operated at 9.4 μm with a pulse duration of 26 μs, pulse repetition rate of 300 Hz and a fluence of 13 J/cm2. The samples were dehydrated using an air spray for 60 seconds and imaged using a thermal camera. The resulting surface morphological changes were assessed using 3D digital microscopy. The images from digital microscopy confirmed melting of the mineral phase of dentin. The area enclosed by the time-temperature curve during dehydration, ▵Q, measured with thermal imaging increased significantly with treatments with EDTA and the CO2 laser (Ptreatment increases permeability of radicular dentin.

  19. CO2-laser--produced plasma columns in a solenoidal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offenberger, A.A.; Cervenan, M.R.; Smy, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    A 1-GW CO 2 laser pulse has been used to produce extended column breakdown of hydrogen at low pressure in a 20-cm-long solenoid. Magnetic fields of up to 110 kG were used to inhibit radial losses of the plasma column. A differential pumping scheme was devised to prevent formation of an opaque absorption wave travelling out of the solenoid back toward the focusing lens. Target burns give direct evidence for trapped laser beam propagation along the plasma column

  20. Ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene using a continuous CO2 laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstopyatov, E M

    2005-01-01

    The ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is studied using a continuous CO 2 laser beam of 30-50 W at a mean intensity of 0.05-50 MW m -2 . The ablation products and changes in the target layer are examined using infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The main experiments were conducted with an unfocused beam of intensity 0.9-1.2 MW m -2 . The radiation-polymer interaction characteristics were found to change appreciably as the ablation conditions are approached. Within the polymer layer, light scattering diminishes and true resonant light absorption increases. Two distinct polymer components, which differ primarily in their resistance to CO 2 laser radiation, were found to exist under ablation conditions. The less stable component depolymerizes intensively, while the more resistant component is blown up into fibres by intense gas flow. The reasons behind this behaviour are discussed. Preliminary gamma irradiation of PTFE is found to have a significant influence on the laser ablation process

  1. Catalysts for long-life closed-cycle CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, David R.; Sidney, Barry D.; Miller, Irvin M.; Hess, Robert V.; Wood, George M.; Batten, Carmen E.; Burney, Lewis G.; Hoyt, Ronald F.; Paulin, Patricia A.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Long-life, closed-cycle operation of pulsed CO2 lasers requires catalytic CO-O2 recombination both to remove O2, which is formed by discharge-induced CO2 decomposition, and to regenerate CO2. Platinum metal on a tin (IV) oxide substrate (Pt/SnO2) has been found to be an effective catalyst for such recombination in the desired temperature range of 25 to 100 C. This paper presents a description of ongoing research at NASA-LaRC on Pt/SnO2 catalyzed CO-O2 recombination. Included are studies with rare-isotope gases since rare-isotope CO2 is desirable as a laser gas for enhanced atmospheric transmission. Results presented include: (1) achievement of 98% to 100% conversion of a stoichiometric mixture of CO and O2 to CO2 for 318 hours (greater than 1 x 10 to the 6th power seconds), continuous, at a catalyst temperature of 60 C, and (2) development of a technique verified in a 30-hour test, to prevent isotopic scrambling when CO-18 and O-18(2) are reacted in the presence of a common-isotope Pt/Sn O-16(2) catalyst.

  2. CO2-laser photoacoustic detection of gaseous n-pentylacetate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herecová, L.; Hejzlar, T.; Pavlovský, J.; Míček, D.; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Kubát, Pavel; Janečková, B.; Nevrlý, Václav; Bitala, P.; Střižík, Michal; Klouda, E.; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 256, č. 1 (2009), s. 109-110 ISSN 0022-2852 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 111; GA MŠk LC06071; GA ČR GA202/06/0216; GA MŽP SPII1A0/45/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : n-pentylacetate * CO2 laser photoacoustic spectroscopy * FTIR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.542, year: 2009

  3. Design and construction of wave guide CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ali, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, construction and operation of a countinous wave (CW) CO2 waveguide laser with axial gas flow in which the multi-electrode technique was used to achieve uniform volume of ionized gas using two and four pairs of electrodes. Resonators of lengths ( 26 - 47.5 ) cm with inside diameter ( 3 - 4 ) mm were used with discharge taking place between four pairs of electordes 8.25 cm long each, in axial direction of the tube. The avearge flow at the tube outlet was ( 5 - 6.5 ) L/min at different gas pressures. ( 4 tabs., 74 figs., 58 refs. )

  4. Repeatability analysis on LPFGs written by a CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespereira, Marta; Castro Alves, D.; Coelho, João. M. P.; Monteiro, Fernando; Abreu, Manuel; Rebordão, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanisms involved in the writing process of long period fiber gratings (LPFG) using mid-infrared radiation emitted by CO2 lasers limit the obtained characteristics, in particular the minimum period that can be achieved. In order to evaluate the performances of a new methodology developed by us, we analyzed its capability to produce gratings with different periods (from 600 μm down to 300 μm). We also present a repeatability study on the obtained LPFG characteristics (mainly the resonant wavelength and grating length) for several values of the repetition period.

  5. Research on catalysts for long-life closed-cycle CO2 laser oaperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Barry D.; Schryer, David R.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Hess, Robert V.; Wood, George M.

    1987-01-01

    Long-life, closed-cycle operation of pulsed CO2 lasers requires catalytic CO-O2 recombination both to remove O2, which is formed by discharge-induced CO2 decomposition, and to regenerate CO2. Platinum metal on a tin-oxide substrate (Pt/SnO2) has been found to be an effective catalyst for such recombination in the desired temperature range of 25 to 100 C. This paper presents a description of ongoing research at NASA-Langley on Pt/SnO2 catalyzed CO-O2 recombination. Included are studies with rare-isotope gases since rare-isotope CO2 is desirable as a laser gas for enhanced atmospheric transmission. Results presented include: (1) the effects of various catalyst pretreatment techniques on catalyst efficiency; (2) development of a technique, verified in a 30-hour test, to prevent isotopic scrambling when C(O-18) and (O-18)2 are reacted in the presence of a common-isotope Pt/Sn(O-16)2 catalyst; and (3) development of a mathematical model of a laser discharge prior to catalyst introduction.

  6. Dedicated Laboratory Setup for CO2 TEA Laser Propulsion Experiments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Kenoyer, David; Myrabo, Leik N.; Notaro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Laser propulsion research progress has traditionally been hindered by the scarcity of photon sources with desirable characteristics, as well as integrated specialized flow facilities in a dedicated laboratory environment. For TEA CO 2 lasers, the minimal requirements are time-average powers of >100 W), and pulse energies of >10 J pulses with short duration (e.g., 0.1 to 1 μs); furthermore, for the advanced pulsejet engines of interest here, the laser system must simulate pulse repetition frequencies of 1-10 kilohertz or more, at least for two (carefully sequenced) pulses. A well-equipped laser propulsion laboratory should have an arsenal of sensor and diagnostics tools (such as load cells, thrust stands, moment balances, pressure and heat transfer gages), Tesla-level electromagnet and permanent magnets, flow simulation facilities, and high-speed visualization systems, in addition to other related equipment, such as optics and gas supply systems. In this paper we introduce a cutting-edge Laser Propulsion Laboratory created at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, one of the very few in the world to be uniquely set up for beamed energy propulsion (BEP) experiments. The present BEP research program is described, along with the envisioned research strategy that will exploit current and expanded facilities in the near future.

  7. Upper Eyelid Fractional CO2 Laser Resurfacing With Incisional Blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlus, Brett S; Schwarcz, Robert M; Nakra, Tanuj

    2016-01-01

    Laser resurfacing, performed at the same time as blepharoplasty, has most commonly been applied to the lower eyelid skin but can effectively be used on the upper eyelid to reduce rhytidosis and improve skin quality. The authors evaluate the safety and efficacy of this procedure. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing was performed in conjunction with incisional upper blepharoplasty. The ultrapulsed laser energy was applied to the sub-brow skin, the upper medial canthal skin, and the pretarsal skin in 30 patients. Photos were obtained preoperatively and at 3 months. All patients demonstrated reduction in upper eyelid rhytidosis without any serious complications. Independent rhytidosis grading (0-4) showed a mean improvement of 42%. One patient experienced wound dehiscence that satisfactorily resolved without intervention. Upper eyelid laser resurfacing is effective and can be safely performed at the same time as upper blepharoplasty. This approach reduces or eliminates the need for medial incisions to address medial canthal skin redundancy and rhytidosis and it directly treats upper eyelid wrinkles on residual eyelid and infra-brow skin during blepharoplasty.

  8. l- and n-changing collisions during interaction of a pulsed beam of Li Rydberg atoms with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, B.; Harnafi, M.

    1989-07-01

    The pulsed Li atomic beam produced in our experiment is based on controlled transversely-excited-atmospheric CO2 laser-induced ablation of a Li metal target. The atomic beam is propagated in vacuum or in CO2 gas at low pressure. Atoms in the beam are probed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. This allows the determination of time-of-flight and velocity distributions. Li Rydberg states (n=5-13) are populated in the beam by two-step pulsed-laser excitation. The excited atoms interact with CO2 molecules. l- and n-changing cross sections are deduced from the time evolution of the resonant or collision-induced fluorescence following this selective excitation. l-changing cross sections of the order of 104 AṦ are measured; they increase with n as opposed to the plateau observed for Li* colliding with a diatomic molecule. This behavior is qualitatively well explained in the framework of the free-electron model. n-->n' changing processes with large cross sections (10-100 AṦ) are also observed even in the case of large electronic energy change (ΔEnn'>103 cm-1). These results can be interpreted in terms of resonant-electronic to vibrational energy transfers between Li Rydberg states and CO2 vibrational modes.

  9. A comparative evaluation: Oral leukoplakia surgical management using diode laser, CO2 laser, and cryosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natekar, Madhukar; Raghuveer, Hosahallli-Puttaiah; Rayapati, Dilip-Kumar; Shobha, Eshwara-Singh; Prashanth, Nagesh-Tavane; Rangan, Vinod; Panicker, Archana G

    2017-06-01

    The comparatively evaluate the three surgical treatment modalities namely cryosurgery, diode and CO2 laser surgery in terms of healing outcomes on the day of surgery, first and second week post operatively and recurrence at the end of 18 months was assessed. Thirty selected patients were divided randomly into three groups. Each group comprising of ten patients were subjected to one of the three modalities of treatment namely cryosurgery, diode laser or CO2 laser surgery for ablation of OL. Obtained data was analyzed using mainly using Chi-square and Anova tests. Study showed statistical significant differences (p > 0.05) for evaluation parameters like pain, edema and scar. The parameters like infection, recurrence, bleeding showed no statistical significance. Pain was significantly higher in CO2 laser surgery group as compared with diode laser group. There was no recurrence observed at the end of the 6 months follow up period in all the three study groups. Observations from the study highlights that all three surgical modalities used in this study were effective for treatment of OL, and the overall summation of the results of the study showed that laser therapy (CO2 and Diode) seems to offer better clinically significant results than cryotherapy. Key words: Oral premalignant lesion, leukoplakia, cryosurgery, CO2 laser surgery, diode laser surgery.

  10. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  11. Bringing Pulsed Laser Welding into Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, some research and develop-ment activities within pulsed laser welding technology at the Tech-nical University of Denmark will be described. The laser group at the Insti-tute for Manufacturing Technology has nearly 20 years of experience in laser materials process-ing. Inter......-nationally the group is mostly known for its contri-butions to the development of the laser cutting process, but further it has been active within laser welding, both in assisting industry in bringing laser welding into production in several cases and in performing fundamental R & D. In this paper some research...... activities concerning the weldability of high alloyed austenitic stainless steels for mass production industry applying industrial lasers for fine welding will be described. Studies on hot cracking sensitivity of high alloyed austenitic stainless steel applying both ND-YAG-lasers and CO2-lasers has been...

  12. Survey on modern pulsed high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements to be met by lasers for particle acceleration are partially similar to those already known for fusion lasers. The power level wanted in both caes is up to 100 TW or even more. The pulse durations favourable for laser accelerators are in the range from 1 ps to 1000 ps whereas fusion lasers require several ns. The energy range for laser accelerators is thus correspondingly smaller than that for fusion lasers: 1-100 kJ versus several 100 kJ. The design criteria of lasers meeting the requirements are discussed in the following. The CO 2 , iodine, Nd:glass and excimer lasers are treated in detail. The high repetition rate aspect will not be particularly addressed since for the present generation of lasers the wanted rates of far above 1 Hz are completely out of scope. Moreover, for the demonstration of principle these rates are not needed. (orig./HSI)

  13. Lithium niobate bulk crystallization promoted by CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, N. M.; Costa, F. M.; Nogueira, R. N.; Graça, M. P. F.

    2012-09-01

    The crystallization induced by laser radiation is a very promising technique to promote glass/ceramic transformation, being already used to produce crystalline patterns on glass surfaces. In this work, a SiO2-Li2O-Nb2O5 glass, prepared by the sol-gel route, was submitted to CO2 laser radiation and conventional heat-treatments in order to induce the LiNbO3 crystallization. The structure and morphology of the samples prepared by both routes was analyzed as a function of exposure time, radiation power and heat-treatment temperatures by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The results reveal a correlation between the crystallization degree of LiNbO3 particles and glass matrix with the heat treatment type and experimental parameters. An heat-treatment at 650 °C/4 h was necessary to induce crystallization in heat treatments samples while 4 W/500 s was enough for laser radiation ones, corresponding a reduction time processing of ˜14 000 s.

  14. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests were based on a L9(34 orthogonal array design, with the effects of the process parameters on the quality responses being determined by means of a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA. Quadratic mathematical models were developed to determine the relationships between the cutting parameters and the quality responses. Finally, a routine based on an optimization criterion was employed to predict the optimal setting of cutting factors and its effect on the quality responses. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the appropriateness of the optimization routine. The results show that all of the examined process parameters have a key role in determining the cut quality of hot stamping boron steel sheets, with cutting speed and their interactions having the most influencing effects. Particularly, interactions can have an opposite behavior for different levels of the process parameters.

  15. Effect Of Laser CO2 Parameters In Marking Of Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanafi-Benghalem, Nafissa; Boudoukha, Hassina; Benghalem, Kamel

    2008-01-01

    Currently many techniques of marking are exploited in a great number of sectors, on various materials (cardboard, textile, wood, leather, plastic, metal, ceramics and glass). The printing is done on supports of great or small dimension for all geometrical forms (plane, round, conical and ovalised). We can print colour as much than we wish. The marking technology for the identification of the glass parts knows a remarkable development carried by the new needs for the industrialists using transparent materials such as the optical, chemical, pharmaceutical sectors, the luxury and drink industries or publicity and decoration (neon signs, advertising mirrors). The objective of our work consists particularly in engraving on glass the measurement scales forming a whole of ordered graduation which the goal is to carry out reading systems of measuring apparatus about 1/10 μm of precision. We used as tool for marking the laser CO 2 . Our choice is justified by the flexibility of the laser, the permanent lifespan of the graduations carried out and the guarantee of the facility of reading incidentally the precision and the accuracy of the measuring apparatus. The study parameters of the laser beam are the velocity (400, 600, 800, 1000 m/s.), the power (25, 75 and 80% of 25W) and the numbers pass (one, two and three pass). The optical observations results obtained suggest that the highest and the average power used remain the favourable parameters for the quality of the graduations carried out.

  16. High Efficiency Mask Based Laser Materials Processing with TEA-CO2 - and Excimer Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review of the ...... line marking with TEA-CO2 laser of high speed canning lines. The second one is manufactured for marking or microdrilling with excimer laser....

  17. Pulsed atomic soliton laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, L.D.; Brand, J.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that simultaneously changing the scattering length of an elongated, harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate from positive to negative and inverting the axial portion of the trap, so that it becomes expulsive, results in a train of self-coherent solitonic pulses. Each pulse is itself a nondispersive attractive Bose-Einstein condensate that rapidly self-cools. The axial trap functions as a waveguide. The solitons can be made robustly stable with the right choice of trap geometry, number of atoms, and interaction strength. Theoretical and numerical evidence suggests that such a pulsed atomic soliton laser can be made in present experiments

  18. Development of Double and Triple-Pulsed 2-micron IPDA Lidars for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas that significantly contributes to the carbon cycle and globalradiation budget on Earth. CO2 role on Earth’s climate is complicated due to different interactions with various climatecomponents that include the atmosphere, the biosphere and the hydrosphere. Although extensive worldwide efforts formonitoring atmospheric CO2 through various techniques, including in-situ and passive sensors, are taking place highuncertainties exist in quantifying CO2 sources and sinks. These uncertainties are mainly due to insufficient spatial andtemporal mapping of the gas. Therefore it is required to have more rapid and accurate CO2 monitoring with higheruniform coverage and higher resolution. CO2 DIAL operating in the 2-µm band offer better near-surface CO2measurement sensitivity due to the intrinsically stronger absorption lines. For more than 15 years, NASA LangleyResearch Center (LaRC) contributed in developing several 2-?m CO2 DIAL systems and technologies. This paperfocuses on the current development of the airborne double-pulsed and triple-pulsed 2-?m CO2 integrated pathdifferential absorption (IPDA) lidar system at NASA LaRC. This includes the IPDA system development andintegration. Results from ground and airborne CO2 IPDA testing will be presented. The potential of scaling suchtechnology to a space mission will be addressed.

  19. Inflammatory responses, matrix remodeling, and re-epithelialization after fractional CO2 laser treatment of scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruler, Danielle M; Blackstone, Britani N; Baumann, Molly E; McFarland, Kevin L; Wulff, Brian C; Wilgus, Traci A; Bailey, J Kevin; Supp, Dorothy M; Powell, Heather M

    2017-09-01

    Fractional CO 2 laser therapy has been used to improve scar pliability and appearance; however, a variety of treatment protocols have been utilized with varied outcomes. Understanding the relationship between laser power and extent of initial tissue ablation and time frame for remodeling could help determine an optimum power and frequency for laser treatment. The characteristics of initial injury caused by fractional CO 2 laser treatment, the rates of dermal remodeling and re-epithelialization, and the extent of inflammation as a function of laser stacking were assessed in this study in a porcine scar model. Full-thickness burn wounds were created on female Red Duroc pigs followed by immediate excision of the eschar and split-thickness autografting. Three months after injury, the resultant scars were treated with a fractional CO 2 laser with 70 mJ of energy delivered as either a single pulse or stacked for three consecutive pulses. Immediately prior to laser treatment and at 1, 24, 96, and 168 hours post-laser treatment, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and microscopic characteristics of laser injury were measured. In addition, markers for inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins, and re-epithelialization were quantified at all time points using qRT-PCR. Both treatments produced erythema in the scar that peaked 24 hours after treatment then decreased to basal levels by 168 hours. TEWL increased after laser treatment and returned to normal levels between 24 and 96 hours later. Stacking of the pulses did not significantly increase the depth of ablated wells or extend the presence of erythema. Interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were found to increase significantly 1 hour after treatment but returned to baseline by 24 hours post laser. In contrast, expression of transforming growth factor β1 and transforming growth factor β3 increased slowly after treatment with a more modest increase than interleukin 6 and monocyte

  20. Closed-Cycle, Frequency-Stable CO2 Laser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Carmen E. (Editor); Miller, Irvin M. (Editor); Wood, George M., Jr. (Editor); Willetts, David V. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings contain a collection of papers and comments presented at a workshop on technology associated with long-duration closed-cycle operation of frequency-stable, pulsed carbon dioxide lasers. This workshop was held at the NASA Langley Research Center June 10 to 12, 1986. The workshop, jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), was attended by 63 engineers and scientists from the United States and the United Kingdom. During the 2 1/2 days of the workshop, a number of issues relating to obtaining frequency-stable operation and to the catalytic control of laser gas chemistry were discussed, and specific recommendations concerning future activities were drafted.

  1. Alignment system for large high-power CO2 laser fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bausman, M.D.; Liberman, I.; Manning, J.P.; Singer, S.

    1977-01-01

    Aligning a pulsed CO 2 laser fusion system involves control systems which insure that the centers of beams follow a prescribed path to within 1 mm, that the pointing of the beams is correct to approximately 20 microradians, and that focal spot at the location of the experimental fusion target be placed to accuracies of 10 to 20 micrometers laterally and approximately 50 micrometers axially. These alignments are accomplished by a variety of sensing techniques which include thermal pinholes and quadrant detectors, Seebeck effect silicon detectors, and imaging autocollimating Hartmann test procedures employing ir vidicon systems

  2. CO2 laser interaction with magnetically confined plasmas. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlases, G.C.; Pietrzyk, Z.A.

    1977-08-01

    The experimental program involves two basic experimental configurations termed the slow (or steady) solenoid, and the fast solenoid. In the former, the field is essentially steady during the experiment lifetime, the gas (plasma) remains in contact with the wall, and all the heating is done by the laser. In the fast solenoid, the field rises on a timescale comparable to the laser pulse length, removing the plasma from the wall, and contributing to the plasma energy content via compression work. In the slow solenoid, preionization is generally not used, and the laser both creates the plasma and heats it. In the fast solenoid, the preionization technique is relatively critical as it must create conditions leading to a true particle minimum on axis in order to insure favorable refraction of the laser beam (''trapping''). Substantial progress has been made in both experiments this year, particularly with respect to diagnostic capabilities. In addition, the theoretical effort has expanded considerably. Highlights of this year's program are listed and details are contained in the balance of the report

  3. Development of high-power CO2 lasers and laser material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Ashish K.; Choudhary, Praveen; Kumar, Manoj; Kaul, R.

    2000-02-01

    Scaling laws to determine the physical dimensions of the active medium and optical resonator parameters for designing convective cooled CO2 lasers have been established. High power CW CO2 lasers upto 5 kW output power and a high repetition rate TEA CO2 laser of 500 Hz and 500 W average power incorporated with a novel scheme for uniform UV pre- ionization have been developed for material processing applications. Technical viability of laser processing of several engineering components, for example laser surface hardening of fine teeth of files, laser welding of martensitic steel shroud and titanium alloy under-strap of turbine, laser cladding of Ni super-alloy with stellite for refurbishing turbine blades were established using these lasers. Laser alloying of pre-placed SiC coating on different types of aluminum alloy, commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and laser curing of thermosetting powder coating have been also studied. Development of these lasers and results of some of the processing studies are briefly presented here.

  4. Nonlinear dynamic effects in a two-wave CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorobets, V A; Kozlov, K V; Kuntsevich, B F; Petukhov, V O

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations were made of nonlinear dynamic regimes of the operation of a two-wave CO 2 laser with cw excitation in an electric discharge and loss modulation in one of the channels. Nonlinear amplitude - frequency characteristics of each of the laser channels have two low-frequency resonance spikes, associated with forced linear oscillations of two coupled oscillators, and high-frequency spikes, corresponding to doubling of the period of the output radiation oscillations. At low loss-modulation frequencies the intensity oscillations of the output radiation in the coupled channels are in antiphase, whereas at high modulation frequencies the dynamics is cophasal. Nonlinear dynamic effects, such as doubling of the period and of the repetition frequency of the pulses and chaotic oscillations of the output radiation intensity, are observed for certain system parameters. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  5. Application of CO2 laser cutting machine to shipbuilding; Zosen no setsudan eno CO2 laser no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Carbon dioxide laser has been applied to cutting works in shipbuilding. As NC cutter was obsolete, CO2 laser cutting machine with a rated output 3 kW was introduced. According to the specifications of the machinable plate, the maximum thickness is 19 mm, and effective width and length are 5.4 m and 29.1 m, respectively. As the cutting width is wide and the running distance of laser beam is long, the error of light axis is expanded only by a small error of irradiation angle, which results in the inconvenience. Stable operation was realized by improving the fixation of reflecting mirror. Right angle cutting section with a cutting curve below 0.5 mm was obtained, and cutting time was reduced by the one-line cutting by which both sections can be available with a single cutting line. For the cutting of thin plate with a thickness less than 10 mm, strain was not formed, and remedy was not required. Block strain was remarkably reduced during the assembly process. Maintenance-free operation without monitoring can be performed for a long time. This machine is operated at night and lunch time, resulting in the reduced processes. The working environment is appropriate without noise and dust. Facility cost and maintenance cost were also reduced. Lower cutting speed is a weak point, when compared with the plasma cutting machine. The present machine is not applied to aluminum plates with high surface reflectivity. 13 figs.

  6. Explosive vaporization induced by high-power CO2-laser target interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugenschmidt, M.; Vollrath, K.

    1976-01-01

    The interactions of high-power laser pulses with targets such as metals or dielectric materials causes a series of optical, thermal, and mechanical processes. Thereby, heating, melting, and vaporization can take place in a short time. At power densities of about 10 7 to several 10 8 W/cm 2 this can even be produced explosively. As compared to continuous ablation, this type of interaction can remove greater masses from the bulk of material. The investigations are performed by using an electron-beam preionized CO 2 -laser acting on different target materials. The energy of the laser pulses is about 30 J, the pulse-half-widths of the long-tail pulses 4 to 6 μs. Optical measurements yield some information on threshold values for these processes, for the formation and expansion of plasmas, and for the ejection of material in form of greater particles. High speed photographic techniques include a rotating mirror- and an image converter camera. Starting from shock-wave theory, gas dynamic equations (in unidimensional approximation) allow for a quantitative determination of the specific internal energies and pressures in the case of optical detonation. (orig.) [de

  7. Micromachining for Si etching using CW CO_2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hawat, Sh.; Naddaf, M.; Al-Sadat, W.; Wiess, Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments were carried out to achieve etching for silicon samples located on glass substrate (Pyrex or Quartz) using CW CO_2 laser under treating conditions which were in the case of linear scanning as: the power was 35-47 W, the number of round trips was 10-60 and the linear scanning speed was 17-75 mm/s, and in the case of fixed sample they were as: the power was 40 W and the exposure time was between 2-6 min. The obtained results were different depending on the form of etching and its quality, according to the applied treating conditions on the silicon samples, taking the treated silicon surface attached directly to the glass substrate surface or taking the opposite side of the silicon sample. The etching of the first type was easy to get, but the second one was more difficult to obtain, which requires very strong conditions. The best of these results were recorded using a quartz substrate under treating conditions: the laser power was 42.5 W, the number of round trips was 30, and the scanning speed was 75 mm/s, so the etching was limited to separate spots produced on the surface of the sample. In the all cases, the pictures of spots and lines formed on treated Si samples were taken using scanning electron microscope (SEM) for both sides of the studied samples.(author)

  8. CO2 Laser-Based Rapid Prototyping of Micropumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Strike

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of microdevices for fluidic control often requires the use of flexible diaphragms in a way that requires cleanroom equipment and compromises performance. We use a CO 2 laser to perform the standard ablative techniques of cutting and engraving materials, but we also apply a method that we call laser placement. This allows us to fabricate precisely-positioned and precisely-sized, isolated diaphragms. This in turn enables the rapid prototyping of integrated multilayer microfluidic devices to form complex structures without the need for manual positioning or cleanroom equipment. The fabrication process is also remarkably rapid and capable of being scaled to manufacturing levels of production. We explore the use of these devices to construct a compact system of peristaltic pumps that can form water in oil droplets without the use of the non-pulsatile pumping systems typically required. Many devices can be fabricated at a time on a sheet by sheet basis with a fabrication process that, to our knowledge, is the fastest reported to date for devices of this type (requiring only 3 h. Moreover, this system is unusually compact and self-contained.

  9. Micromachining for Si etching using CW CO 2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawat, Sh.; Naddaf, M.; Al-Sadat, W.; Weiss, Sh.

    2012-08-01

    Many experiments were carried out to achieve etching for silicon samples located on glass substrate (Pyrex or Quartz) using Cw CO 2 laser under treating conditions which were in the case of linear scanning as: the power was 35-47 W, the number of round trips was 10-60 and the linear scanning speed was 17-75 mm/s, and in the case of fixed sample they were as: the power was 40 W and the exposure time was between 2-6 min. The obtained results were different depending on the form of etching and its quality, according to the applied treating conditions on the silicon samples, taking the treated silicon surface attached directly to the glass substrate surface or taking the opposite side of the silicon sample. The etching of the first type was easy to get, but the second one was more difficult to obtain, which requires very strong conditions. The best of these results were recorded using a quartz substrate under treating conditions: the laser power was 42.5 W, the number of round trips was 30, and the scanning speed was 75 mm/s, so the etching was limited to separate spots produced on the surface of the sample. In the all cases, the pictures of spots and lines formed on treated Si samples were taken using scanning electron microscope (SEM) for both sides of the studied samples. (authors)

  10. Contribution to the beam plasma material interactions during material processing with TEA CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, Rainer; Konrad, Peter E.; Mayerhofer, Roland; Bergmann, Hans W.; Bickel, Peter G.; Kowalewicz, Roland; Kuttenberger, Alfred; Christiansen, Jens

    1995-03-01

    The TEA-CO2-laser (transversely excited atmospheric pressure) is a tool for the pulsed processing of materials with peak power densities up to 1010 W/cm2 and a FWHM of 70 ns. The interaction between the laser beam, the surface of the work piece and the surrounding atmosphere as well as gas pressure and the formation of an induced plasma influences the response of the target. It was found that depending on the power density and the atmosphere the response can take two forms. (1) No target modification due to optical break through of the atmosphere and therefore shielding of the target (air pressure above 10 mbar, depending on the material). (2) Processing of materials (air pressure below 10 mbar, depending on the material) with melting of metallic surfaces (power density above 0.5 109 W/cm2), hole formation (power density of 5 109 W/cm2) and shock hardening (power density of 3.5 1010 W/cm2). All those phenomena are usually linked with the occurrence of laser supported combustion waves and laser supported detonation waves, respectively for which the mechanism is still not completely understood. The present paper shows how short time photography and spatial and temporal resolved spectroscopy can be used to better understand the various processes that occur during laser beam interaction. The spectra of titanium and aluminum are observed and correlated with the modification of the target. If the power density is high enough and the gas pressure above a material and gas composition specific threshold, the plasma radiation shows only spectral lines of the background atmosphere. If the gas pressure is below this threshold, a modification of the target surface (melting, evaporation and solid state transformation) with TEA-CO2- laser pulses is possible and the material specific spectra is observed. In some cases spatial and temporal resolved spectroscopy of a plasma allows the calculation of electron temperatures by comparison of two spectral lines.

  11. Pulse height measurements and electron attachment in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO2 mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A

    2003-01-01

    We present pulse height measurements in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO2 gas mixtures. We investigate the attachment of primary electrons on oxygen and SF6 contaminants in the detection gas. The measurements are compared with simulations of properties of drifting electrons. We present two methods to check the gas quality: gas chromatography and Fe55 pulse height measurements using monitor detectors.

  12. Pulse height measurements and electron attachment in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO2 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronic, A.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Blume, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bucher, D.; Busch, O.; Ramirez, A.C.A. Castillo; Catanescu, V.; Ciobanu, M.; Daues, H.; Devismes, A.; Emschermann, D.; Fateev, O.; Garabatos, C.; Herrmann, N.; Ivanov, M.; Mahmoud, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Petracek, V.; Petrovici, M.; Reygers, K.; Sann, H.; Santo, R.; Schicker, R.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Simon, R.S.; Smykov, L.; Soltveit, H.K.; Stachel, J.; Stelzer, H.; Tsiledakis, G.; Vulpescu, B.; Wessels, J.P.; Windelband, B.; Winkelmann, O.; Xu, C.; Zaudtke, O.; Zanevsky, Yu.; Yurevich, V.

    2003-01-01

    We present pulse height measurements in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO 2 gas mixtures. We investigate the attachment of primary electrons on oxygen and SF 6 contaminants in the detection gas. The measurements are compared with simulations of properties of drifting electrons. We present two methods to check the gas quality: gas chromatography and 55 Fe pulse height measurements using monitor detectors

  13. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Range During the ASCENDS 2009-2011 Airborne Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J. B.; Weaver, C. J.; Riris, H.; Mao, J.; Sun, X.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission and have demonstrated the CO2 and O2 measurements from aircraft. Our technique uses two pulsed lasers allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line near 1572 nm, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band, surface height and backscatter profile. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line doublet during the measurement. The column densities for the CO2 and O2 are estimated from the differential optical depths (DOD) of the scanned absorption lines via the IPDA technique. For the 2009 ASCENDS campaign we flew the CO2 lidar only on a Lear-25 aircraft, and measured the absorption line shapes of the CO2 line using 20 wavelength samples per scan. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3 to 12.6 km over the Lamont OK, central Illinois, North Carolina, and over the Virginia Eastern Shore. Although the received signal energies were weaker than expected for ASCENDS, clear C02 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps with 200-300 seconds of recorded measurements per step. We averaged every 10 seconds of measurements and used a cross-correlation approach to estimate the range to the scattering surface and the echo pulse energy at each wavelength. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the DOD of the fitted CO2 line, and computed its statistics at the various altitude steps. We compared them to CO2 optical depths calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the column number densities calculated from the airborne in-situ readings. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed in detail and they were similar on all flights. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. They showed the expected nearly the linear dependence of DOD vs

  14. Numerical simulation of the shape of laser cut for fiber and CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, A. V.; Ermolaev, G. V.; Polyanskiy, T. A.; Gurin, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The results of numerical modeling of steel plate laser cutting with nitrogen as assist gas with consideration of heat transfer into a bulk material are presented. In this work we studied a distribution of absorbed radiation energy inside cut kerf and the difference between CO2 and fiber laser radiation propagation and absorption. The influence of secondary absorption of reflected from the cut front radiation on stability of melt hydrodynamics is discussed for different laser types.

  15. Catalytic recombination of dissociation products with Pt/SnO2 for rare and common isotope long-life, closed-cycle CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth G.; Sidney, B. D.; Schryer, D. R.; Upchurch, B. T.; Miller, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports results on recombination of pulsed CO2 laser dissociation products with Pt/SnO2 catalysts, and supporting studies in a surrogate laboratory catalyst reactor. The closed-cycle, pulsed CO2 laser has been continuously operated for one million pulses with an overall power degradation of less than 5 percent by flowing the laser gas mixture through a 2-percent Pt/SnO2 catalyst bed. In the surrogate laboratory reactor, experiments have been conducted to determine isotopic exchange with the catalyst when using rare-isotope gases. The effects of catalyst pretreatment, sample weight, composition, and temperature on catalyst efficiency have also been determined.

  16. Interaction of a CO2 laser beam with a shock-tube plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, S.J.C.; John, P.K.; Byszewski, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the interaction of a CO 2 laser beam with plasma produced in an electromagnetic shock tube are presented. The interaction was investigated in two different configurations: with the laser beam perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the shock wave and with the laser beam parallel to the direction of the shock wave. The laser energy was 0.3 J in a 180-nsec pulse. The plasma density was in the range 10 17 --10 18 cm -3 and temperature was around 2 eV. Spectroscopic methods were used in the measurement of density and temperature. Direct observation of the path of the laser beam through the plasma was made by an image-convertor camera in conjunction with a narrow-band interference filter. The propagation of the laser through the plasma and energy absorption are discussed. The observed maximum increase in electron temperature due to the laser in the first configuration was 0.4 eV and the estimated temperature increase in the second configuration was about 2 eV

  17. Plasma production and heating by a laser TEA-CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, L.C.S.; Sudano, J.P.; Rodrigues, N.A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary experiments of plasma production and heating by laser irradiation of gases and solid targets have been performed with a laser TEA-CO 2 (1 MW, 80 ns, monomode), developed and built at the IEAv/Laser Laboratory. The laser beam was focused in the interior of a vacuum chamber (100 1) with a base pressure of 10 1 torr, and recolimated by a system of confocal lenses. The breakdown theresholds for nitrogen gas was investigated by varying the laser power, the neutral gas density and the focal lenght of the lenses. Plasma breakdown observed in the range of pressures between 100-720 torr was in good agreement with calculations of cascade ionization theory and classical absorption by inverse-Bremsstrahlung. The laser absorption was inferred by measuring the power transmitted in the presence and absence of plasma. The light emitted by the plasma was detected by a fast photo-diode, indicating that the plasma expansion phase lasted for several microseconds. These investigations have been applied in the development of plasma shutters for laser pulse compression. (author) [pt

  18. Direct diode lasers with comparable beam quality to fiber, CO2, and solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Kaiman, Michael; Overman, Robert; Glenn, John D.; Tayebati, Parviz

    2012-03-01

    TeraDiode has produced kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 2,040 W from a 50 μm core diameter, 0.15 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. This was achieved with a novel beam combining and shaping technique using COTS diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.75 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 2-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers.

  19. Epoxy-paint stripping using TEA CO2 laser: Determination of threshold fluence and the process parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Bhargava, P.; Biswas, A. K.; Sahu, Shasikiran; Mandloi, V.; Ittoop, M. O.; Khattak, B. Q.; Tiwari, M. K.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that the threshold fluence for laser paint stripping can be accurately estimated from the heat of gasification and the absorption coefficient of the epoxy-paint. The threshold fluence determined experimentally by stripping of the epoxy-paint on a substrate using a TEA CO2 laser matches closely with the calculated value. The calculated threshold fluence and the measured absorption coefficient of the paint allowed us to determine the epoxy paint thickness that would be removed per pulse at a given laser fluence even without experimental trials. This was used to predict the optimum scan speed required to strip the epoxy-paint of a given thickness using a high average power TEA CO2 laser. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) studies were also carried out on laser paint-stripped concrete substrate to show high efficacy of this modality.

  20. Thermal damage produced by high-irradiance continuous wave CO2 laser cutting of tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacker, K T; Walsh, J T; Flotte, T J; Deutsch, T F

    1990-01-01

    Thermal damage produced by continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser ablation of tissue in vitro was measured for irradiances ranging from 360 W/cm2 to 740 kW/cm2 in order to investigate the extent to which ablative cooling can limit tissue damage. Damage zones thinner than 100 microns were readily produced using single pulses to cut guinea pig skin as well as bovine cornea, aorta, and myocardium. Multiple pulses can lead to increased damage. However, a systematic decrease in damage with irradiance, predicted theoretically by an evaporation model of ablation, was not observed. The damage-zone thickness was approximately constant around the periphery of the cut, consistent with the existence of a liquid layer which stores heat and leads to tissue damage, and with a model of damage and ablation recently proposed by Zweig et al.

  1. CO2 and diode laser welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jinhong; Li Lin; Liu Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are being increasingly used in automotive and aerospace structures. Laser welding is an important joining method in such applications. There are several kinds of industrial lasers available at present, including the conventional CO 2 and Nd:YAG lasers as well as recently available high power diode lasers. A 1.5 kW diode laser and a 2 kW CO 2 laser are used in the present study for the welding of AZ31 alloys. It is found that different welding modes exist, i.e., keyhole welding with the CO 2 laser and conduction welding with both the CO 2 and the diode lasers. This paper characterizes welds in both welding modes. The effect of beam spot size on the weld quality is analyzed. The laser processing parameters are optimized to obtain welds with minimum defects

  2. CO2 laser welding of galvanized steel sheets using vent holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weichiat; Ackerson, Paul; Molian, Pal

    2009-01-01

    Joining of galvanized steels is a challenging issue in the automotive industry because of the vaporization of zinc at 906 deg. C during fusion welding of steel (>1530 deg. C). In this work, hot-dip galvanized steel sheets of 0.68 mm thick (24-gage) were pre-drilled using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser to form vent holes along the weld line and then seam welded in the lap-joint configuration using a continuous wave CO 2 laser. The welds were evaluated through optical and scanning electron microscopy and tensile/hardness tests. The vent holes allowed zinc vapors to escape through the weld zone without causing expulsion of molten metal, thereby eliminating the defects such as porosity, spatter, and loss of penetration. In addition, riveting of welds occurred so long as the weld width was greater than the hole diameter that in turn provided much higher strength over the traditional 'joint gap' method

  3. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  4. A new approach to model CW CO2 laser using rate equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-11

    Nov 11, 2016 ... Abstract. Two popular methods to analyse the operation of CW CO2 lasers use the temperature model and ... Grouping of the vibration levels helped in restrict- ..... [10] D C Tyte, Carbon dioxide lasers, in: Advances in quan-.

  5. Selection of Near Optimal Laser Cutting Parameters in CO2 Laser Cutting by the Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš MADIĆ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of laser cutting conditions that are insensitive to parameter variations and noise is of great importance. This paper demonstrates the application of Taguchi method for optimization of surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel. The laser cutting experiment was planned and conducted according to the Taguchi’s experimental design using the L27 orthogonal array. Four laser cutting parameters such as laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure, and focus position were considered in the experiment. Using the analysis of means and analysis of variance, the significant laser cutting parameters were identified, and subsequently the optimal combination of laser cutting parameter levels was determined. The results showed that the cutting speed is the most significant parameter affecting the surface roughness whereas the influence of the assist gas pressure can be neglected. It was observed, however, that interaction effects have predominant influence over the main effects on the surface roughness.

  6. Modematic: a fast laser beam analyzing system for high power CO2-laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Flemming O.; Ulrich, Dan

    2003-03-01

    The performance of an industrial laser is very much depending upon the characteristics of the laser beam. The ISO standards 11146 and 11154 describing test methods for laser beam parameters have been approved. To implement these methods in industry is difficult and especially for the infrared laser sources, such as the CO2-laser, the availabl analyzing systems are slow, difficult to apply and having limited reliability due to the nature of the detection methods. In an EUREKA-project the goal was defined to develop a laser beam analyzing system dedicated to high power CO2-lasers, which could fulfill the demands for an entire analyzing system, automating the time consuming pre-alignment and beam conditioning work required before a beam mode analyses, automating the analyzing sequences and data analysis required to determine the laser beam caustics and last but not least to deliver reliable close to real time data to the operator. The results of this project work will be described in this paper. The research project has led to the development of the Modematic laser beam analyzer, which is ready for the market.

  7. High-quality laser cutting of stainless steel in inert gas atmosphere by ytterbium fibre and CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyat'ev, V B

    2014-01-01

    Processes of cutting stainless steel by ytterbium fibre and CO 2 lasers have been experimentally compared. The cut surface roughnesses for 3- and 5-mm-thick stainless steel sheets are determined. The absorption coefficient of laser radiation during cutting is measured. It is established that the power absorbed by metal during cutting by the CO 2 laser exceeds that for the ytterbium laser (provided that the cutting speed remains the same). The fact that the maximum cutting speed of the CO 2 laser is lower than that of the ytterbium fibre laser is explained. (laser technologies)

  8. Passive Q-switching in CW-CO2 laser with SF6 as an intracavity saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hawat, Sh.

    2007-10-01

    A passive Q-switching was applied to a tunable CW CO 2 laser with output power about 3.5 W using SF 6 as a saturable absorber inside the cavity. The Q-Switching phenomenon was studied ( pulse shape, pulse duration, repetition rate and conditions of its generation ) at the spectral lines of 10P(10), 10P(26), 10P(28) and 10P(30) from the branch of 10P of CO 2 laser. These lines had a weak absorption in relation to other lines of this branch, under SF 6 pressure till 0.5 mbar. To control the behaviour of such phenomenon, the gases He and Xe were added separately to SF 6 . It was observed that the Q-switching phenomenon was depended on the added gas pressure of Xe and He, through the repetitive rate of pulses , duration and energy of generated laser pulse. A computational program was written to calculate the Q-switching pulses parameters under similar conditions as those applied in the case of SF 6 +He mixture. A comparison was made with the experimental data , not so big discrepancies were observed between them. In addition to that, absorption coefficients of SF 6 were determined in two cases: the first one when the absorption cell was located outside the laser cavity, and the second one when the cell was located inside the cavity. On the basis of obtained coefficients the absorption cross sections of SF 6 were found and compared with NIST database.(author)

  9. SF6 laser remote sensing by CO2 laser DIAL lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvin, P.; Basam, Z.; Zamanipour, Z.; Kariminezhad, H.; Boyook, N.; Borna, F.; Azari, T.; Eshragi, N.; Ataran, A.; Ghods Ahmad Zadeh, R.

    2004-01-01

    A DIAL system using tunable CO 2 laser has been demonstrated practically for remote sensing of SF 6 components in Mashad Shahid Motahhari Research Complex. Non toxic components of SF 6 as a rare isotope is studied to calibrate the lidar function in several conditions. The whole system enables us to detect ppm amounts of chemical gases as well as pollutants and poisonous species

  10. The feasibility of TEA CO2 laser-induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of geological samples in simulated Martian conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savovic, Jelena; Stoiljkovic, Milovan; Kuzmanovic, Miroslav; Momcilovic, Milos; Ciganovic, Jovan; Rankovic, Dragan; Zivkovic, Sanja; Trtica, Milan

    2016-04-01

    The present work studies the possibility of using pulsed Transversely Excited Atmospheric (TEA) carbon dioxide laser as an energy source for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of rocks under simulated Martian atmospheric conditions. Irradiation of a basaltic rock sample with the laser intensity of 56 MW cm- 2, in carbon-dioxide gas at a pressure of 9 mbar, created target plasma with favorable conditions for excitation of all elements usually found in geological samples. Detection limits of minor constituents (Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, and Zr) were in the 3 ppm-30 ppm range depending on the element. The precision varied between 5% and 25% for concentration levels of 1% to 10 ppm, respectively. Generally, the proposed relatively simple TEA CO2 laser-LIBS system provides good sensitivity for geological studies under reduced CO2 pressure.

  11. Fabrication of microlens and microlens array on polystyrene using CO 2 laser

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a new process for fabricating microlens and microlens arrays directly on a surface of polystyrene using a CO2 laser. The working spot of the polystyrene is heated locally by a focused CO2 laser beam, which tends to have a

  12. The results of CO2 laser surgery in patients with oral leukoplakia : a 25 year follow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hem, PS; Nauta, JM; van der Wal, JE; Roodenburg, JLN

    Oral leukoplakia, is an important premalignant Lesion of the oral mucosa. We treat this Lesion prophylactically with CO2 laser evaporation. In the period from 1976 to 2001, a group of 200 patients with 282 oral leukoplakias were treated by CO2 laser evaporation. In a follow up period of 1-219 months

  13. CO2 laser treatment of As-S chalcogenide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesch, A.M.; Bertolotti, M.; Ferrari, A.; Popesku, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The changes of the refractive index of As 2 S 3 and As 2 S 5 films deposited on glass substrates upon CO 2 laser irradiation have been studied. The possibility of writing with the CO 2 laser a waveguiding channel in As 2 S 3 is demonstrated

  14. Comparison of Ultrasonic and CO2 Laser Pretreatment Methods on Enzyme Digestibility of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Zuo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To decrease the cost of bioethanol production, biomass recalcitrance needs to be overcome so that the conversion of biomass to bioethanol becomes more efficient. CO2 laser irradiation can disrupt the lignocellulosic physical structure and reduce the average size of fiber. Analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area, and the microstructure of corn stover were used to elucidate the enhancement mechanism of the pretreatment process by CO2 laser irradiation. The present work demonstrated that the CO2 laser had potential to enhance the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulosic waste to renewable bioethanol. The saccharification rate of the CO2 laser pretreatment was significantly higher than ultrasonic pretreatment, and reached 27.75% which was 1.34-fold of that of ultrasonic pretreatment. The results showed the impact of CO2 laser pretreatment on corn stover to be more effective than ultrasonic pretreatment.

  15. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  16. Optical diagnostics of CO2 laser-fusion targets using backscattered light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casperson, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the f/2.4 focusing optics on one of the eight Helios CO 2 laser beam lines, direct backscattered light from a variety of glass microballoon targets has been observed. The quantities that have been measured include: (1) the total backscattered energy; (2) relative amplitudes of the backscattered fundamental and low harmonics (n = 1, 2, 3) of the 10.6 μm incident light; (3) the 3/2 harmonic emission from a double pulse backscatter experiment; (4) the temporally resolved 10.6 μm light using a fast pyroelectric detector and a Los Alamos 5-GHz oscilloscope; and (5) the time-integrated spectrally resolved fundamental using a 3/4 meter spectrometer and a high resolution pyroelectric detector array (resolution approx. 40 A at 10.6 μm). The suitability of these diagnostics for evaluating the CO 2 laser plasma in terms of stimulated scattering processes, plasma density gradients, velocity of the critical surface, etc., is discussed

  17. Approach to compact terawatt CO2 laser system for particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Kimura, W.D.; Fisher, C.H.; Kannari, F.

    1994-01-01

    A compact table-top 20-GW 50-ps CO 2 laser system is in operation for strong-field physics studies at the ATF. We propose scaling up of the picosecond CO 2 laser to a terawatt peak power level to meet the requirements of advanced laser accelerators. Computer modeling shows that a relatively compact single-beam picosecond CO 2 laser system with a high-pressure x-ray picosecond amplifier of a 10-cm aperture is potentially scalable to the ∼1-TW peak power level

  18. Adaptive feedforward control for improving output power response of CO2 laser; Tekiogata feedforward ni yoru laser shutsuryoku oto no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Y.; Takahashi, t.; Morita, A. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-31

    Feedback control has been used to stabilize the steady-state output power of a CO2 laser to overcome the problems caused by the change in the temperature/deterioration of CO2 gas. The transient response, however, is as slow as a few hundred milliseconds because of the slow dynamics of a thermopile power sensor. When machining conditions of a CO2 laser are changed, this rather slow response requires an extra dwell time, resulting in low productivity of the machining. To cope with this problem, the authors have developed adaptive feedforward control for a CO2 laser in addition to conventional feedback control. The model of a CO2 laser is described as a gain, which is varied by the setting parameters; laser power, pulse frequency and duty factor, as well as gas conditions. In this paper, two new variables, effective discharge power and threshold discharge power, are introduced to obtain a compact and adjustable model. With the proposed control system, the step response time of a laser power is reduced to less than ten milliseconds without overshoot, and can be set to desired constant time. The effects of such a fast and stable response on the machining speed and machining quality are examined. The experimental results show that for thin metal line-cutting, neither the melt-off area nor dross is observed even in the no-dwell time case. For thin metal hole-cutting, the machining speed is improved by 30%. 11 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Initiation of long, free-standing z discharges by CO2 laser gas heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, C.; Tauschwitz, A.; Penache, D.; Neff, S.; Knobloch, R.; Birkner, R.; Presura, R.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.

    2002-01-01

    High current discharge channels can neutralize both current and space charge of very intense ion beams. Therefore, they are considered an interesting solution for final focus and beam transport in a heavy ion beam fusion reactor. At the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung accelerator facility, 50 cm long, free-standing discharge channels were created in a 60 cm diameter metallic chamber. Discharges with currents of 45 kA in 2 to 25 mbar ammonia (NH3) gas are initiated by a CO2 laser pulse along the channel axis before the capacitor bank is triggered. Resonant absorption of the laser, tuned to the v2 vibration of the ammonia molecule, causes strong gas heating. Subsequent expansion and rarefaction of the gas prepare the conditions for a stable discharge to fulfill the requirements for ion beam transport. The influence of an electric prepulse on the high current discharge was investigated. This article describes the laser-gas interaction and the discharge initiation mechanism. We found that channels are magnetohydrodynamic stable up to currents of 45 kA, measured by fast shutter and streak imaging techniques. The rarefaction of the laser heated gas is studied by means of a one-dimensional Lagrangian fluid code (CYCLOPS) and is identified as the dominant initiation mechanism of the discharge.

  20. High power ultrashort pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Small scale terawatt and soon even petawatt (1000 terawatt) class laser systems are made possible by application of the chirped-pulse amplification technique to solid-state lasers combined with the availability of broad bandwidth materials. These lasers make possible a new class of high gradient accelerators based on the large electric fields associated with intense laser-plasma interactions or from the intense laser field directly. Here, we concentrate on the laser technology to produce these intense pulses. Application of the smallest of these systems to the production of high brightness electron sources is also introduced

  1. Near-IR laser-based spectrophotometer for comparative analysis of isotope content of CO2 in exhale air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, E V; Glushko, A N; Kasoev, S G; Koval', A V; Lapshin, D A

    2011-01-01

    We present a laser spectrophotometer aimed at high-accuracy comparative analysis of content of 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 isotope modifications in the exhale air samples and based on a tunable near-IR diode laser (2.05 μm). The two-channel optical scheme of the spectrophotometer and the special digital system for its control are described. An algorithm of spectral data processing aimed at determining the difference in the isotope composition of gas mixtures is proposed. A few spectral regions (near 4880 cm -1 ) are determined to be optimal for analysis of relative content of 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 in the exhale air. The use of the proposed spectrophotometer scheme and the developed algorithm makes the results of the analysis less susceptible to the influence of the interference in optical elements, to the absorption in the open atmosphere, to the slow drift of the laser pulse envelope, and to the offset of optical channels. The sensitivity of the comparative analysis of the isotope content of CO 2 in exhale air samples, achieved using the proposed scheme, is estimated to be nearly 0.1‰.

  2. Pulpal safety of 9.6 microm TEA CO2 laser used for caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E; Fried, Daniel; Gansky, Stuart; Rechmann, Peter; Featherstone, John D B

    2004-01-01

    Lasers are used for several procedures involving hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. A potential future application is the use of the CO2 laser to alter the surface structure of tooth enamel to render it more resistant to caries. A new 9.6 microm wavelength transverse excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO2 laser (Argus Photonics, Jupiter, FL) has been investigated as a device that can be used for this purpose without harming the dental pulp. Erupted caries- and restoration-free third molars (n = 24 participants; 74 teeth) were used in the study. Teeth were irradiated at an incident fluence of 1.5 J/cm2, a repetition rate of 10 Hz and a spot size 1 mm in diameter. At the low and high settings, 200-400 pulses at 5-8 microseconds pulse duration were delivered at 12 mJ per pulse for a total energy of 2.4 or 4.8 J delivered for 20 or 40 seconds, respectively. Other teeth were subjected to a sham dental procedure (positive control) or no procedure (negative control). Prior to testing, radiographs were taken of all teeth, and they were assessed pulpally using heat, cold, and electricity to determine vitality. The teeth were removed either immediately or at 1 week or 1 month after testing. Teeth were bioprepared and examined histologically for signs of inflammation. Only one tooth developed symptoms of sensitivity to cold for 10 days following exposure to the high power level. The sensitivity was of fleeting duration and was judged to be reversible pulpitis. All teeth tested responded normally at pre-testing and pre-extraction time periods. Histological examination of all teeth disclosed no indication of an inflammatory response in the pulp tissue at any time point. All sections appeared normal with no changes seen in the normal pulpal morphology. We conclude that the 9.6 microm wavelength laser causes no permanent/serious pulpal damage at the energy levels used and can be used safely for caries prevention treatments in humans.

  3. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantus, Marcos [Okemos, MI; Lozovoy, Vadim V [Okemos, MI; Comstock, Matthew [Milford, MI

    2009-10-27

    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  4. High-power pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The ideas that led to the successful construction and operation of large multibeam fusion lasers at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reviewed. These lasers are based on the use of Nd:glass laser materials. However, most of the concepts are applicable to any laser being designed for fusion experimentation. This report is a summary of lectures given by the author at the 20th Scottish University Summer School in Physics, on Laser Plasma Interaction. This report includes basic concepts of the laser plasma system, a discussion of lasers that are useful for short-pulse, high-power operation, laser design constraints, optical diagnostics, and system organization

  5. Growth dynamics of carbon-metal particles and nanotubes synthesized by CO2 laser vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokai, F.; Takahashi, K.; Yudasaka, M.; Iijima, S.

    To study the growth of carbon-Co/Ni particles and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by 20 ms CO2 laser-pulse irradiation of a graphite-Co/Ni (1.2 at.%) target in an Ar gas atmosphere (600 Torr), we used emission imaging spectroscopy and shadowgraphy with a temporal resolution of 1.67 ms. Wavelength-selected emission images showed that C2 emission was strong in the region close to the target (within 2 cm), while for the same region the blackbody radiation from the large clusters or particles increased with increasing distance from the target. Shadowgraph images showed that the viscous flow of carbon and metal species formed a mushroom or a turbulent cloud spreading slowly into the Ar atmosphere, indicating that particles and SWNTs continued to grow as the ejected material cooled. In addition, emission imaging spectroscopy at 1200 °C showed that C2 and hot clusters and particles with higher emission intensities were distributed over much wider areas. We discuss the growth dynamics of the particles and SWNTs through the interaction of the ambient Ar with the carbon and metal species released from the target by the laser pulse.

  6. Excitation of transversely excited CO2 waveguide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood II, O.R.; Smith, P.W.; Adams, C.R.; Maloney, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Using a preionization scheme based on the Malter effect, small-signal gains >5%/cm at 10.6 μm have been produced in a 1-mm 2 -cross-section waveguide CO 2 amplifier at total operating pressures of 100--760 Torr. Comparisons are made between this preionization scheme and those using electron beams

  7. Experimental Investigation of Pulsed Nanosecond Streamer Discharges for CO2 Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachuilo, Michael; Levko, Dima; Raja, Laxminarayan; Varghese, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Rapid global industrialization has led to an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases, specifically carbon dioxide levels. Plasmas present a great potential for efficient reforming of greenhouse gases. There are several plasma discharges which have been reported for reforming process: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD), microwave discharges, and glide-arcs. Microwave discharges have CO2 conversion energy efficiency of up to 40% at atmospheric conditions, while glide-arcs have 43% and DBD 2-10%. In our study, we analyze a single nanosecond pulsed cathode directed streamer discharge in CO2 at atmospheric pressure and temperature. We have conducted time resolved imaging with spectral bandpass filters of a streamer discharge with an applied negative polarity pulse. The image sequences have been correlated to the applied voltage and current pulses. From the spectral filters we can determine where spatially and temporally excited species are formed. In this talk we report on spectroscopic studies of the discharge and estimate plasma properties such as temperature and density of excited species and electrons. Furthermore, we report on the effects of pulse polarity as well as anodic streamer discharges on the CO2 conversion efficiency. Finally, we will focus on the effects of vibrational excitation on carbon dioxide reforming efficiency for streamer discharges. Our experimental results will be compared with an accompanying plasma computational model studies.

  8. CO2 laser-fabricated cladding light strippers for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Keiron; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Daniel, Jae; Swain, Robert; Mies, Eric; Rees, Simon; Andrew Clarkson, W; Haub, John

    2016-04-10

    We present and characterize a simple CO2 laser processing technique for the fabrication of compact all-glass optical fiber cladding light strippers. We investigate the cladding light loss as a function of radiation angle of incidence and demonstrate devices in a 400 μm diameter fiber with cladding losses of greater than 20 dB for a 7 cm device length. The core losses are also measured giving a loss of cladding light stripping of a 300 W laser diode with minimal heating of the fiber coating and packaging adhesives.

  9. Clinical efficacy of utilizing Ultrapulse CO2 combined with fractional CO2 laser for the treatment of hypertrophic scars in Asians-A prospective clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Li, Shi Feng; Yu, Yi Ling; Tan, Jun; Gold, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is seen regularly. Tissue penetration of laser energy into hypertrophic scars using computer defaults from some lasers may be insufficient and penetration not enough. We have developed a treatment with an interrupted laser "drilling" by the Ultrapulse CO 2 (Manual Fractional Technology, MFT) and, a second pass, with fractional CO 2 . The MFT with fractional CO 2 lasers to treat hypertrophic scars is evaluated. A total of 158 patients with hypertrophic scars had three sessions of MFT with fractional CO 2 laser at 3-month intervals. Evaluations made before and 6 months after the 3rd treatment: (1) the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), (2) the University of North Carolina (UNC) Scar Scale, and (3) a survey of patient satisfaction. All data were analyzed using a t-test before and after treatment. The VSS score decreased from 9.35 to 3.12 (Plaser drilling by MFT and a fractional CO2 laser had profound effects on the hypertrophic scars treated. It works by increasing the penetration depth of the CO 2 laser in the scar tissue, exerting more precise effects on the hypertrophic scars. MFT combined with fractional CO 2 laser has the potential to be a major advance in the treatment of hypertrophic scars. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Endoscopic myotomy of the cricopharyngeal muscle with CO2 laser surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takes, R.P.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Marres, H.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cricopharyngeal dysfunction may lead to severe dysphagia and aspiration. Several treatment modalities are available, such as external myotomy of the muscle, dilatation, and local infiltration with botulinum toxin. Recently, endoscopic transmucosal myotomies using a CO2 laser have been

  11. Assisting Gas Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1996-01-01

    High quality laser welding is achieved under the condition of optimizing all process parameters. Assisting gas plays an important role for sound welds. In the conventional welding process assisting gas is used as a shielding gas to prevent that the weld seam oxidates. In the laser welding process...... assisting gas is also needed to control the laser induced plasma.Assisting gas is one of the most important parameters in the laser welding process. It is responsible for obtaining a quality weld which is characterized by deep penetration, no interior imperfections, i.e. porosity, no crack, homogeneous seam...... surface, etc. In this work a specially designed flexible off-axis nozzle capable of adjusting the angle of the nozzle, the diameter of the nozzle, and the distance between the nozzle end and the welding zone is tested. In addition to the nozzle parameters three gases, Nitrogen, Argon, and Helium...

  12. Multivariate regulation of soil CO2 and N2 O pulse emissions from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liyin L; Grantz, David A; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2016-03-01

    Climate and land-use models project increasing occurrence of high temperature and water deficit in both agricultural production systems and terrestrial ecosystems. Episodic soil wetting and subsequent drying may increase the occurrence and magnitude of pulsed biogeochemical activity, affecting carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and influencing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we provide the first data to explore the responses of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes to (i) temperature, (ii) soil water content as percent water holding capacity (%WHC), (iii) substrate availability throughout, and (iv) multiple soil drying and rewetting (DW) events. Each of these factors and their interactions exerted effects on GHG emissions over a range of four (CO2 ) and six (N2 O) orders of magnitude. Maximal CO2 and N2 O fluxes were observed in environments combining intermediate %WHC, elevated temperature, and sufficient substrate availability. Amendments of C and N and their interactions significantly affected CO2 and N2 O fluxes and altered their temperature sensitivities (Q10 ) over successive DW cycles. C amendments significantly enhanced CO2 flux, reduced N2 O flux, and decreased the Q10 of both. N amendments had no effect on CO2 flux and increased N2 O flux, while significantly depressing the Q10 for CO2 , and having no effect on the Q10 for N2 O. The dynamics across DW cycles could be attributed to changes in soil microbial communities as the different responses to wetting events in specific group of microorganisms, to the altered substrate availabilities, or to both. The complex interactions among parameters influencing trace gas fluxes should be incorporated into next generation earth system models to improve estimation of GHG emissions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. TEA CO2 laser machining of CFRP composite

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Adel; Li, Lin; Mativenga, Paul; Whitehead, David

    2016-01-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have found wide applications in the aerospace, marine, sports and automotive industries owing to their lightweight and acceptable mechanical properties compared to the commonly used metallic materials. Machining of CFRP composites using lasers can be challenging due to inhomogeneity in the material properties and structures, which can lead to thermal damages during laser processing. In the previous studies, Nd:YAG, diode-pumped solid-state, CO...

  14. Early treatment using fractional CO2 laser before skin suture during scar revision surgery in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feiya; Yu, Yusheng; Zhou, Zhiqin; Wang, Liujia; Zheng, Shusen

    2018-04-01

    Fractional CO 2 laser is one of the most effective treatment options used to resurface scars. However, most previous studies have been performed on mature scars at least 2 months after surgery. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of early treatment to reduce scar formation. In the present study, we described our experience with fractional CO 2 laser intervention before skin suture during scar revision surgery in Asians, and found the treatment was safe and effective.

  15. Influence of CO2 Laser Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of Portland Cement Pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Mota, R.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the treatment of fresh cement pastes with CO2 laser radiation (10.6μm, in order to improve its mechanical properties in addition to obtaining lower setting times than those of a natural setting (without radiation . It was observed that the CO2 laser radiation has a positive influence on the mechanical properties of cement paste, not due to the heat produced during irradiation, but due to the effect of electric field propagation on water molecules, whose are arranged around functional groups of the binder and by the effect of ration, causes a micro vibration effect, resulting in a more compact and less porous paste which has better mechanical properties compared to natural setting paste. The internal and surface temperature of the samples, the evolution of setting, Young's modulus (using ultrasonic pulse velocity and compressive strength were registered.En este artículo se presentan los resultados correspondientes al tratamiento de pastas frescas de cemento con radiación láser de CO2 (10.6µm, con el propósito de mejorar sus propiedades mecánicas además de obtener tiempos de fraguado menores a los del fraguado en forma natural (sin radiación. Se demostró que la radiación con láser de CO2 influye positivamente en las propiedades mecánicas de la pasta de cemento, no por el calentamiento producido durante la irradiación, sino por el efecto de la propagación del campo eléctrico sobre las moléculas de agua que están dispuestas alrededor de los grupos funcionales del aglutinante y que al rotar producen un efecto equivalente a micro vibraciones, dando como resultado un material más compacto, con menos poros y mejores propiedades mecánicas respecto al fraguado natural. Se registró la temperatura interna y superficial de las muestras, la evolución del fraguado, el módulo de Young y la resistencia a compresión.

  16. Fabrication of microlens and microlens array on polystyrene using CO 2 laser

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2011-11-01

    This study presents a new process for fabricating microlens and microlens arrays directly on a surface of polystyrene using a CO2 laser. The working spot of the polystyrene is heated locally by a focused CO2 laser beam, which tends to have a hyperboloid profile due to the surface tension and can be used as a microlens. The microlenses with different dimensions were fabricated by changing the power of the laser beam. Microlens array was also fabricated with multiple scans of the laser beam on the polystyrene surface. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  17. CO2 laser photo-induced decomposition of ammoniated ammonium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Yasumasa; Soga, Takesi; Suzuki, Kazuya; Moriyama, Noboru; Ohno, Shin-ichi

    1995-01-01

    Photo-induced decomposition of ammoniated (clustered) ammonium ions was studied using a CO 2 laser to excite vibrational levels of the cluster ion. A tandem mass spectrometer (TMS) was installed with two quadrupole mass filters, a corona discharge ionization chamber, and a series of einzel lenses. Cluster ions of NH 4 + ·nNH 3 with n=1-7 were formed in TMS, and found to decompose at the frequency of 1077 cm -1 to an extent in proportional to laser intensity. CO 2 laser between 925 and 1055 do not decompose the cluster ions with laser intensities examined. (author)

  18. Combination of CO2 and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers is more effective than Q-switched Nd:YAG laser alone for eyebrow tattoo removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmanesh, Mohammad; Rafiei, Zohreh

    2015-04-01

    The eyebrow tattoo removal using Q-switched lasers is usually prolonged. Other modalities may be required to enhance the efficacy and shorten the treatment course. To compare the efficacy of Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser alone versus combination of Q-switched Nd:YAG and Ultrapulse CO2 lasers for eyebrow tattoo removal after a single session. After local anesthesia, the right eyebrow of 20 patients was treated with Ultrapulse CO2 laser with the parameters of 4 J/cm(2) and 3.2 J/cm(2) for the first and the second passes. Both eyebrows were then treated with 1064-nm and 532-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The spot size and pulse duration were 3 mm and 5 nanoseconds for both wavelengths, and the fluence was 7 J/cm(2) for 1064 nm and 3 J/cm (2) for 532 nm. The side treated with combination of Q-switched Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers improved 75-100% in 6 of 20 patients versus only 1 of 20 in the side treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG alone. Similarly, the right side in 13 of 20 patients showed more than 50% improvement with combination therapy versus the left side (the monotherapy side), where only 6 of 20 cases showed more than 50% improvement. The Mann-Whitney test was 2.85 for the right side and 1.95 for the left side (P value = 0.007). Using Ultra pulse CO2 laser enhances the efficacy of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in eyebrow tattoo removal.

  19. The investigations of nanoclusters and micron-sized periodic structures created at the surface of the crystal and amorphous silica by resonant CO2 laser irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamedgalieva A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of nanoclasters and micrometer sized periodical structures at the surface of silica (crystal quartz and fused quartz by action of pulsed CO2 laser radiation (pulse energy of 1 J, pulse time of 70 ns have been investigated. The laser action on the surface of samples lead to appearance of two kind of structures – periodical micron-sized structures with the period length close to wave length of CO2 laser irradiation and nanoclusters with size close to 50-100 nanometers. This creation connects with the intensive ablation of matter at the maxima of standing waves which are a results of the interference of falling and surfaces waves. This connects with the resonant absorption of infrared laser radiation by silicate minerals.

  20. Measurements of sulfur compounds in CO2 by diode laser atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzke, J.; Stancu, D.G.; Niemax, K.

    2003-01-01

    Two simple methods for the analysis of the total concentration of sulfur in CO 2 by diode laser atomic absorption spectrometry of excited, metastable sulfur atoms in a direct current discharge are presented. In the first method, the CO 2 sample gas is mixed with the plasma gas (Ar or He) while the second is based on reproducible measurements of the sulfur released from the walls in a helium discharge after being deposited as a result of operating the discharge in pure CO 2 sample gas. The detection limits obtained satisfy the requirements for the control of sulfur compounds in CO 2 used in the food and beverage industry

  1. Influence of laser-target interaction on the polarization of a CO2-laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, K.; Herziger, G.; Loosen, P.; Seelig, W.

    1988-01-01

    Laser materials processing shows a special peculiarity compared to other customary techniques: the generally reflecting target introduces optical feedback into the system. This feedback changes the mode properties of the laser radiation according to the targets dynamics. The authors report on one of these aspects of laser-target interaction resulting in the change of the polarization of the incident light. Based of rate equations, a theoretical model is presented in this paper that allows the calculation of this change with respect of the target properties, yielding a simple relation for the two orthogonal planes of polarization of a laser mode. This relation turns out to be linearly dependent of a function ψ (t) which describes the optical feedback. The relation holds for target reflexions of up to 10% and four times larger than τ 2 x τ 2 /τ 1 - τ 2 (where τ 1 , τ 2 are the time constants of the passive resonator for the two orthogonal planes of polarization). The model offers a method for the modulation for the modulation of laser radiation without change of frequency or intensity. It might also be of interest for high-power CO 2 laser cutting and welding of metals

  2. Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C determination in CO2 produced from laser decomposition of aragonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Brad E; Thorrold, Simon R; Roberts, Mark L

    2008-11-01

    The determination of (14)C in aragonite (CaCO(3)) decomposed thermally to CO(2) using an yttrium-aluminum-garnet doped neodymium laser is reported. Laser decomposition accelerator mass spectrometry (LD-AMS) measurements reproduce AMS determinations of (14)C from the conventional reaction of aragonite with concentrated phosphoric acid. The lack of significant differences between these sets of measurements indicates that LD-AMS radiocarbon dating can overcome the significant fractionation that has been observed during stable isotope (C and O) laser decomposition analysis of different carbonate minerals. The laser regularly converted nearly 30% of material removed into CO(2) despite it being optimized for ablation, where laser energy breaks material apart rather than chemically altering it. These results illustrate promise for using laser decomposition on the front-end of AMS systems that directly measure CO(2) gas. The feasibility of such measurements depends on (1) the improvement of material removal and/or CO(2) generation efficiency of the laser decomposition system and (2) the ionization efficiency of AMS systems measuring continuously flowing CO(2).

  3. Fractional CO2 lasers contribute to the treatment of stable non-segmental vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinping; Chen, Hongqiang; Yan, Ru; Cui, Shaoshan; Li, Yuan-Hong; Wu, Yan; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2016-12-01

    Stable non-segmental vitiligo is often resistant to conventional therapies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three types of fractional lasers in the treatment of stable non-segmental vitiligo. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. The vitiligo lesions of each patient were divided into four treatment parts, and all parts were treated with narrowband ultraviolet-B (NB-UVB). Three of the four parts were respectively treated with three types of fractional lasers (two ablative 10,600-nm CO 2 lasers and one non-ablative 1,565-nm laser), followed by topical betamethasone solution application. The treatment period lasted six months. Efficacy and satisfaction were respectively assessed by dermatologists and patients. The ablative CO 2 lasers, in combination with topical betamethasone solution and NB-UVB, achieved marked to excellent improvement on white patches assessed by dermatologists. Patients showed high satisfaction scores for the treatments. The non-ablative 1,565-nm fractional laser did not provide any further benefit in the treatment of vitiligo. No severe adverse events developed for any of the treatments. The treatment protocol with ablative CO 2 lasers, in combination with topical betamethasone solution and NB-UVB, was suitable for stable non-segmental vitiligo. For vitiligo, the ablative fractional CO 2 laser is more effective than the non-ablative fractional laser.

  4. Impact of combined CO2 laser irradiation and fluoride on enamel and dentin biofilm-induced mineral loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; El-Sayed, Karim Fawzy; Dörfer, Christof; Schwendicke, Falk

    2017-05-01

    The caries-protective effects of CO 2 laser irradiation on dental enamel have been demonstrated using chemical demineralization models. We compared the effect of CO 2 laser irradiation, sodium fluoride, or both on biofilm-induced mineral loss (∆Z) and Streptococcus mutans adhesion to enamel and dentin in vitro. Ground, polished bovine enamel, and dentin samples were allocated to four groups (n = 12/group): no treatment (C); single 22,600-ppm fluoride (F) varnish (5 % NaF) application; single CO 2 laser treatment (L) with short pulses (5 μs/λ = 10.6 μm); and laser and subsequent fluoride treatment (LF). Samples were sterilized and submitted to an automated mono-species S. mutans biofilm model. Brain heart infusion plus 5 % sucrose medium was provided eight times daily, followed by rinses with artificial saliva. After 10 days, bacterial numbers in biofilms were enumerated as colony-forming units/ml (CFU/ml) (n = 7/group). ∆Z was assessed using transversal microradiography (n = 12/group). Univariate ANOVA with post hoc Tukey honestly-significant-difference test was used for statistical analysis. Bacterial numbers were significantly higher on dentin than enamel (p  0.05). In dentin, only LF (163/227) significantly reduced ∆Z (p fluoride application was required to protect dentin.

  5. Preparation of graphite dispersed copper composite on copper plate with CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Muizz, M. N. A.; Hisyamudin, M. N. N.; Nishiyama, K.; Sasano, J.; Izaki, M.

    2018-01-01

    It was tried in this work to prepare the graphite dispersed copper composite locally on a copper plate with a CO2 laser. The objectives of this study were to clear whether copper graphite composite was prepared on a copper plate and how the composite was prepared. The carbon content at the laser spot decreased with the laser irradiation time. This mainly resulted from the elimination by the laser trapping. The carbon content at the outside of the laser spot increased with time. Both the laser ablation and the laser trapping did not act on the graphite particles at the outside of the laser spot. Because the copper at the outside of the laser spot melted by the heat conduction from the laser spot, the particles were fixed by the wetting. However, the graphite particles were half-floated on the copper plate. The Vickers hardness decreased with an increase with laser irradiation time because of annealing.

  6. Direct acceleration of electrons by a CO2 laser in a curved plasma waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Longqing; Shen, Baifei

    2016-01-01

    Laser plasma interaction with micro-engineered targets at relativistic intensities has been greatly promoted by recent progress in the high contrast lasers and the manufacture of advanced micro- and nano-structures. This opens new possibilities for the physics of laser-matter interaction. Here we propose a novel approach that leverages the advantages of high-pressure CO 2 laser, laser-waveguide interaction, as well as micro-engineered plasma structure to accelerate electrons to peak energy greater than 1 GeV with narrow slice energy spread (~1%) and high overall efficiency. The acceleration gradient is 26 GV/m for a 1.3 TW CO2 laser system. The micro-bunching of a long electron beam leads to the generation of a chain of ultrashort electron bunches with the duration roughly equal to half-laser-cycle. These results open a way for developing a compact and economic electron source for diverse applications.

  7. Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Treatment with Fractional CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Grassi Salles, MD, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PE is a rare genetic disease characterized by calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers of the skin, retina, and cardiovascular system. We report a case of PE in which fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment was successfully used to achieve improvement of the cervical skin with 2-year follow-up, in a patient with Fitzpatrick skin type IV. After the fifth session, the patient presented with a local herpes infection. The postlaser reaction of the PE skin was similar to that of the normal skin, in terms of the duration of redness, pain, swelling, and duration of crusting. The overall cosmetic result was satisfactory, with improvement in skin texture, irregularity, volume, and distensibility. The herpetic infection reinforces the value of antiviral prophylaxis during laser treatment of extrafacial areas.

  8. CO2 laser cutting of advanced high strength steels (AHSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamikiz, A.; Lacalle, L.N. Lopez de; Sanchez, J.A.; Pozo, D. del; Etayo, J.M.; Lopez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article demonstrates the optimum working areas and cutting conditions for the laser cutting of a series of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The parameters that most influence the cutting of sheet metal have been studied and the results have been divided into two large groups with thickness of more and less than 1 mm. The influence of the material and, more important, the effect of coating have been taken into account. The results, have demonstrate very different behaviours between the thinnest and thickest sheets, whilst the variation of the cutting parameters due to the influence of the material is less relevant. The optimum cutting areas and the quality of the cut evaluated with different criteria are presented. Finally, the best position for the laser beam has been observed to be underneath the sheet

  9. Application Of CO2 Lasers To High Speed Blanking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, L. E.

    1986-11-01

    While laser cutting of sheetmetal has attained wide acceptance in the automotive industry for the purposes of prototyping and very limited preproduction work, the production rates possible with currently available systems have precluded the use of this technique in a production environment. The device design to be described embodies a high speed X-Y positioner carrying a cutting head with limited Z-axis capability. This approach confers two main benefits, first, production rate is limited only by laser power, since the positioner technology selected will permit movement at rates up to 1.5 m/s (60 in/s), second, the use of a high speed non-contact surface follower to control the Z-axis movement reduces the need to clamp the workpiece rigidly to a precision reference surface. The realized reduction of the clamping requirement permits some latitude in the feed methods that can be employed, allowing the use of coil or sheet feeding as appropriate. The author will provide estimated production rates for the proposed design and demonstrate that a suitable choice of laser source and material feed will permit the production of parts at a rate and cost comparable to conventional blanking with the advantage of much greater flexibility and reduced retooling time.

  10. Adaptive metal mirror for high-power CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, Uwe-Klaus

    1996-08-01

    Spherical mirrors with a variable radius of curvature are used inside laser resonators as well as in the beam path between the laser and the workpiece. Commercially-available systems use piezoelectric actuators, or the pressure of the coolant, to deform the mirror surface. In both cases, the actuator and the cooling system influence each other. This interaction is avoided through the integration of the cooling system with the flexible mirror membrane. A multi- channel design leads to an optimized cooling effect, which is necessary for high power applications. The contour of the variable metal mirror depends on the mounting between the membrane and the mirror body and on the distribution of forces. Four cases of deformation can be distinguished for a circular elastic membrane. The realization of an adaptive metal mirror requires a technical compromise to be made. A mechanical construction is presented which combines an elastic hinge with the inlet and outlet of the coolant. For the deformation of the mirror membranes two actuators with different character of deformation are used. The superposition of the two deformations results in smaller deviations from the spherical surface shape than can be achieved using a single actuator. DC proportional magnets have been introduced as cheap and rigid actuators. The use of this adaptive mirror, either in a low pressure atmosphere of a gas laser resonator, or in an extra-cavity beam path is made possible through the use of a ventilation system.

  11. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment of cutaneous papillomas in a common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiti, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser was used to treat multiple cutaneous papillomas on an adult female common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina serpentina. A combination of excisional and ablative techniques provided excellent intraoperative visibility and postoperative results due to the laser's unique ability to incise and vaporize soft tissue.

  12. Acoustic waves in transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser discharges: effect on performance and reduction techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    von Bergmann, HM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the influence of acoustic waves on the performance of high-repetition-rate TEA CO2 lasers. It is shown that acoustic waves generated inside the laser cavity lead to nonuniform discharges, resulting in a deterioration...

  13. Comparison of results with CO2 laser and traditional surgical treatment of stage I malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reali, U.M.; Donati, E.; Quercetani, R.; Ciardi, C.; Chiarugi, C.

    1987-01-01

    The follow-up data on 39 cases of stage I malignant melanoma treated with CO 2 laser are compared to those of an analogous group of cases treated by traditional surgical methods and selected for their clinical and pathologic similarities with the laser-treated group. The findings ware expressed in terms of tumor-free time and were evaluated by variance analysis. The data showed that traditional methods gave better results. CO 2 laser surgery requires longer headling time, which may have a negative effect on the course of the disease

  14. Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0365 Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Jerome Moloney...SUBTITLE "Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0272 5b...Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10 µm CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Grant/Contract Number AFOSR assigned control number. It must

  15. Diffusion-cooled high-power single-mode waveguide CO2 laser for transmyocardial revascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berishvili, I. I.; Bockeria, L. A.; Egorov, E. N.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Galushkin, Michail G.; Kheliminsky, A. A.; Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Roshin, A. P.; Sigaev, I. Y.; Vachromeeva, M. N.; Vasiltsov, Victor V.; Yoshina, V. I.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Zelenov, Evgenii V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the results on investigations and development of multichannel waveguide CO2 laser with diffusion cooling of active medium excited by discharge of audio-frequency alternating current. The description of high-power single-mode CO2 laser with average beam power up to 1 kW is presented. The result of measurement of the laser basic parameters are offered, as well as the outcomes of performances of the laser head with long active zone, operating in waveguide mode. As an example of application of these laser, various capabilities a description of the developed medical system 'Genom' used in the transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) procedure and clinical results of the possibilities of the TMLR in the surgical treatment are presented.

  16. Laser Decontamination of Type 304 Stainless Steel Contaminated with Co2+ and CeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Hui Jun; Baigalmaa, Byambatseren; Moon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Lee, Kune Woo

    2009-01-01

    The merits of laser decontamination are a remote operation, a short application time, and the high removal efficiency. And also, generation of the secondary waste is negligible. A series of laser decontamination test by Qswitched Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm were performed on stainless steel specimens artificially contaminated with the Co 2+ and CeO 2 , respectively. Test results were examined by SEM and EPMA

  17. Histological Ex Vivo Evaluation of Peri-Incisional Thermal Effect Created by a New-Generation CO2 Superpulsed Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Palaia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the evaluation of the histological effects of a new-generation superpulsed CO2 laser through an “ex vivo” study. A CO2 (λ = 10,600 nm ultra-speed laser (SmartUS20D, DEKA, Florence, Italy has been used at different parameters from 2 to 4 watt in Continuous Wave (CW and Pulsed Wave (PW, 50 Hz to obtain 30 samples from pig cadaver tongues. All the specimens have been subdivided into 6 groups (from A to F and each group consisted of 5 samples. A final specimen has been taken by scalpel and used as control group. Histological analysis has been performed using an optical microscope (Leica DM 2000 at a magnification of ×40. Results showed that histological readability was optimal in all the samples. The thermal damage has been negligible in all the groups. Furthermore, the average of thermal damage was 0,095 mm in the epithelial, while it was 0.245 mm in the connective tissue. Statistical analysis using Graphpad Prism 5 software showed no significant differences among the groups. CO2 laser demonstrated a good surgical effectiveness provoking little peripheral damage onto the cut edges and allowing a safe histological diagnosis.

  18. Third harmonic generation of CO2 laser radiation in AgGaSe2 crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. September 2000 physics pp. 405–412. Third harmonic generation of .... cell, the short pulse is accompanied by an unavoidable background pulse of 216 ns dura- ... the long pulse laser interacts with only a small number of SF molecules. ... illuminates the discharge region and produces electrons by ionization of ...

  19. Transversely Excited Atmospheric CO2 Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy for the Detection of Heavy Metals in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaeni, A.; Sugito, H.; Setia Budi, W.; Yoyo Wardaya, A.

    2018-01-01

    A rapid detection of heavy metals in soil was presented by the metal-assisted gas plasma method using specific characteristics of a pulsed, transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser. The soil particles were placed in a hole made of acrylic plate. The sample was covered by a to prevent the soil particles from being blown off. The mesh also functioned to initiate a luminous plasma. When a TEA CO2 laser (1500 mJ, 200 ns) was focused on the soil sample, passing through the metal mesh, some of the laser energy was used to generate the gas plasma on the mesh surface, and the remaining laser energy was employed to ablate the soil particles. The fine, ablated soil particles moved into the gas plasma region to be dissociated and excited. Using this technique, analysis can be made with reduced sample pretreatment, and therefore a rapid analysis can be performed efficiently. The results proved that the signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the emission spectral lines is much better for the case of the present method (mesh method) compared to the case of standard laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using the pellet method. Rapid detection of heavy metal elements in soil has been successfully carried out. The detection limits of Cu and Hg in soil were estimated to be 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The present method has good potential for rapid and sensitive detection of heavy metals in soil samples.

  20. Fundamental experiment for flash removal of aluminum alloy by CO2 laser beam cutting; CO2 laser beam setsudan ni yoru aluminium gokin no ibaritori no kiso jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Y.; Tokunaga, T. [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Miyazaki, T. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    1995-08-25

    CO2 laser beam has been applied to cut of the aluminum alloy. Average cut width, roughness of cut surface and average thickness of heat affected zone are investigated as functions of laser power, cutting speed and assist gas pressure. The average cut width increases with laser power, but it does not depend on the cutting speed. The narrowest average cut width obtained is 0.22mm under the conditions of laser power of 900W and cutting speeds from 600 to 1000mm/min. The roughness of cut surface decreases with decreasing cutting speed. The best smoothness of cut surface obtained is 17 {mu}m (Rmax) , when the conditions are 1100W and 600mm/min. The average thickness of heat affected zone decreases with increasing assist gas pressure. CO2 laser beam cutting is applicable to flash removal from aluminum alloy casting. This process is expected to reduce the need of physical labor and to improve the working conditions in the foundry industry. 32 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Column CO2 Measurement From an Airborne Solid-State Double-Pulsed 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.; Refaat, T. F.; Remus, R.; Fay, J.; Reithmaier, K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micrometers IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  2. Comparison of effects of diode laser and CO2 laser on human teeth and their usefulness in topical fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Alberto; de Dios López-González, Juan; del Castillo, Juan de Dios Luna; Villalba-Moreno, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Various authors have reported more effective fluoridation from the use of lasers combined with topical fluoride than from conventional topical fluoridation. Besides the beneficial effect of lasers in reducing the acid solubility of an enamel surface, they can also increase the uptake of fluoride. The study objectives were to compare the action of CO(2) and GaAlAs diode lasers on dental enamel and their effects on pulp temperature and enamel fluoride uptake. Different groups of selected enamel surfaces were treated with amine fluoride and irradiated with CO(2) laser at an energy power of 1 or 2 W or with diode laser at 5 or 7 W for 15 s each and compared to enamel surfaces without treatment or topical fluoridated. Samples were examined by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Surfaces of all enamel samples were then acid-etched, measuring the amount of fluoride deposited on the enamel by using a selective ion electrode. Other enamel surfaces selected under the same conditions were irradiated as described above, measuring the increase in pulp temperature with a thermocouple wire. Fluorination with CO(2) laser at 1 W and diode laser at 7 W produced a significantly greater fluoride uptake on enamel (89 ± 18 mg/l) and (77 ± 17 mg/l) versus topical fluoridation alone (58 ± 7 mg/l) and no treatment (20 ± 1 mg/l). Diode laser at 5 W produced a lesser alteration of the enamel surface compared to CO(2) laser at 1 W, but greater pulp safety was provided by CO(2) laser (ΔT° 1.60° ± 0.5) than by diode laser (ΔT° 3.16° ± 0.6). Diode laser at 7 W and CO(2) laser at 2 W both caused alterations on enamel surfaces, but great pulp safety was again obtained with CO(2) (ΔT° 4.44° ± 0.60) than with diode (ΔT° 5.25° ± 0.55). Our study demonstrates that CO(2) and diode laser irradiation of the enamel surface can both increase fluoride uptake; however, laser energy parameters must be carefully

  3. Wound healing with PRGF infiltration in CO(2) laser lesions of the tongue: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; López-Jornet, Pía; Jiménez-Torres, María José; Orduña-Domingo, Albina

    2009-06-01

    This study was done of the effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on the healing of tongue wounds induced by the CO(2) laser. A prospective blind study was made of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats divided into two groups after the creation of tongue lesions using the CO(2) laser. Nothing was applied to the resulting wounds in the first group, while PRGF was applied to the 30 wounds in the second group. Wound re-epithelialization and inflammation were measured after 7, 14, and 28 d. No significant differences were seen between the two groups in relation to wound re-epithelialization, and the group without PRGF actually showed significantly better resolution of the inflammatory process after 14 d (p = 0.036). After 28 d, the rat tongue wounds produced by the CO(2) laser showed complete healing, independently of PRGF application.

  4. Development of control and data processing system for CO2 laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Shinichi; Kawano, Yasunori; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Inoue, Akira

    2001-11-01

    CO 2 laser interferometer diagnostic has been operating to measure the central electron density in JT-60U plasmas. We have developed a control and data processing system for the CO 2 laser interferometer with flexible functions of data acquisition, data processing and data transfer in accordance with the sequence of JT-60U discharges. This system is mainly composed of two UNIX workstations and CAMAC clusters, in which the high reliability was obtained by sharing the data process functions to the each workstations. Consequently, the control and data processing system becomes to be able to provide electron density data immediately after a JT-60U discharge, routinely. The realtime feedback control of electron density in JT-60U also becomes to be available by using a reference density signal from the CO 2 laser interferometer. (author)

  5. LASER PLASMA: Experimental confirmation of the erosion origin of pulsed low-threshold surface optical breakdown of air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min'ko, L. Ya; Chumakou, A. N.; Chivel', Yu A.

    1988-08-01

    Nanosecond kinetic spectroscopy techniques were used to identify the erosion origin of pulsed low-threshold surface optical breakdown of air as a result of interaction of microsecond neodymium and CO2 laser pulses with some metals (indium, lead).

  6. Design and performance of a sealed CO2 laser for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero, G; Gomez, D; Nisperuza, D; Bastidas, A

    2011-01-01

    A large amount of materials processing is done using an industrial CO 2 laser operating in the mid-infrared (IR) spectrum. Their high efficiency and tremendous power output have made them one of the most commonly known transition wavelength at 10,6 microns facilitates laser cutting, drilling and marking of a wide variety of materials in the electronics and medical industries. Because lasers are feedback systems, many of their design parameters strongly interact with one another, and arriving at an optimum design requires a really thorough understanding of just how they interact. We report the construction of a sealed CO2 gas discharge laser with a glass laser tube design as well as clear acrylic housing makes this an excellent demonstrational tool. Sealed operation was characterized in mode, power, warm-up and stability over a long time. The results indicate a good operation, optimum wavelength, powers and beam quality will remove material more efficiently in effective industrial applications.

  7. A sulfur hexafluoride sensor using quantum cascade and CO2 laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mila; Sthel, Marcelo; Lima, Guilherme; da Silva, Marcelo; Schramm, Delson; Miklós, András; Vargas, Helion

    2010-01-01

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions is a serious environmental problem and has stimulated the scientific community to pay attention to the need for detection and monitoring of gases released into the atmosphere. In this regard, the development of sensitive and selective gas sensors has been the subject of several research programs. An important greenhouse gas is sulphur hexafluoride, an almost non-reactive gas widely employed in industrial processes worldwide. Indeed it is estimated that it has a radiative forcing of 0.52 W/m(2). This work compares two photoacoustic spectrometers, one coupled to a CO(2) laser and another one coupled to a Quantum Cascade (QC) laser, for the detection of SF(6). The laser photoacoustic spectrometers described in this work have been developed for gas detection at small concentrations. Detection limits of 20 ppbv for CO(2) laser and 50 ppbv for quantum cascade laser were obtained.

  8. Temporal correlation measurements of pulsed dual CO2 lidar returns. [for atmospheric pollution detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyuk, N.; Killinger, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed dual-laser direct-detection differential-absorption lidar DIAL system, operating near 10.6 microns, is used to measure the temporal correlation and statistical properties of backscattered returns from specular and diffuse topographic targets. Results show that atmospheric-turbulence fluctuations can effectively be frozen for pulse separation times on the order of 1-3 msec or less. The diffuse target returns, however, yielded a much lower correlation than that obtained with the specular targets; this being due to uncorrelated system noise effects and different statistics for the two types of target returns.

  9. Research on industrial 10kW CO2 laser achieves major breakthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The industrial 10kW CO2 laser is one of the items which the industrially developed nations are competing to develop. This laser is capable of continuous output power of over 10kW and can operate continuously for more than 6 hours. The 10kW CO2 laser developed as a key task of China's 7th Five-Year Plan and all its technological targets such as output power, electrooptical conversion efficiency and primary charging continuous operating time, have reached the level of world advancement, allowing China to enter the ranks of international advancement in the area of laser technology. The industrial 10kW CO2 laser can have wide application in such areas of industry as heat treating, machining, welding and surface treatment in industries such as steel, automobiles, ship building and aircraft manufacturing. For instance, using the high-efficiency laser beams of this 10kW laser to treat rollers, fan blades and automotive cylinder blocks can increase the life of these parts and produce large economic benefits. At present, industrial tests of gear welding is already being done on this 10kW laser.

  10. Comparison of fiber delivered CO2 laser and electrocautery in transoral robot assisted tongue base surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Murat; Gün, Taylan; Temelkuran, Burak; Aynacı, Engin; Kaya, Cem; Tekin, Ahmet Mahmut

    2017-05-01

    To compare intra-operative and post-operative effectiveness of fiber delivered CO 2 laser to monopolar electrocautery in robot assisted tongue base surgery. Prospective non-randomized clinical study. Twenty moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, non-compliant with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), underwent Transoral Robotic Surgery (TORS) using the Da Vinci surgical robot in our University Hospital. OSA was treated with monopolar electrocautery in 10 patients, and with flexible CO 2 laser fiber in another 10 patients. The following parameters in the two sets are analyzed: Intraoperative bleeding that required cauterization, robot operating time, need for tracheotomy, postoperative self-limiting bleeding, length of hospitalization, duration until start of oral intake, pre-operative and post-operative minimum arterial oxygen saturation, pre-operative and post-operative Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, postoperative airway complication and postoperative pain. Mean follow-up was 12 months. None of the patients required tracheotomy and there were no intraoperative complications related to the use of the robot or the CO 2 laser. The use of CO 2 laser in TORS-assisted tongue base surgery resulted in less intraoperative bleeding that required cauterization, shorter robot operating time, shorter length of hospitalization, shorter duration until start of oral intake and less postoperative pain, when compared to electrocautery. Postoperative apnea-hypopnea index scores showed better efficacy of CO 2 laser than electrocautery. Comparison of postoperative airway complication rates and Epworth sleepiness scale scores were found to be statistically insignificant between the two groups. The use of CO 2 laser in robot assisted tongue base surgery has various intraoperative and post-operative advantages when compared to monopolar electrocautery.

  11. Coaxial short pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1975-08-01

    This invention relates to a laser system of rugged design suitable for use in a field environment. The laser itself is of coaxial design with a solid potting material filling the space between components. A reservoir is employed to provide a gas lasing medium between an electrode pair, each of which is connected to one of the coaxial conductors. (auth)

  12. Influences on target irradiation symmetry in CO2 laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The existence of very steep density profiles and high upper shelf densities imply that the CO 2 laser deposits its energy spatially quite close to the ablation surface where calculations indicate that a high degree of symmetry must exist in order to achieve the necessary high compression ratios. Thus, energy transport provides only limited improvement in the ablative symmetry over that achieved in the irradiation symmetry. Current data suggests that a balance between radiation pressure and hydrodynamic pressure underestimates the density to which the CO 2 laser light penetrates for early times

  13. Electron transport in solid targets and in the active mixture of a CO2 laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkowski, A.

    The paper examines the use of the NIKE code for the Monte Carlo computation of the deposited energy profile and other characteristics of the absorption process of an electron beam in a solid target and the spatial distribution of primary ionization in the active mixture of a CO2 laser amplifier. The problem is considered in connection with the generation of intense electron beams and the acceleration of thin metal foils, as well as in connection with the electric discharge pumping of a CO2 laser amplifier.

  14. High efficiency pump combiner fabricated by CO2 laser splicing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gongwen

    2018-02-01

    High power combiners are of great interest for high power fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers. With the advent of CO2 laser splicing system, power combiners are made possible with low manufacturing cost, low loss, high reliability and high performance. Traditionally fiber optical components are fabricated with flame torch, electrode arc discharge or filament heater. However, these methods can easily leave contamination on the fiber, resulting inconsistent performance or even catching fire in high power operations. The electrodes or filaments also degrade rapidly during the combiner manufacturing process. The rapid degradation will lead to extensive maintenance, making it unpractical or uneconomic for volume production. By contrast, CO2 laser is the cleanest heating source which provides reliable and repeatable process for fabricating fiber optic components including high power combiners. In this paper we present an all fiber end pumped 7x1 pump combiner fabricated by CO2 laser splicing system. The input pump fibers are 105/125 (core/clad diameters in μm) fibers with a core NA of 0.22. The output fiber is a 300/320 fiber with a core NA of 0.22. The average efficiency is 99.4% with all 7 ports more than 99%. The process is contamination-free and highly repeatable. To our best knowledge, this is the first report in the literature on power combiners fabricated by CO2 laser splicing system. It also has the highest reported efficiency of its kind.

  15. Standard guidelines of care: CO2 laser for removal of benign skin lesions and resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupashankar, D S

    2008-01-01

    Resurfacing is a treatment to remove acne and chicken pox scars, and changes in the skin due to ageing. MACHINES: Both ablative and nonablative lasers are available for use. CO 2 laser is the gold standard in ablative lasers. Detailed knowledge of the machines is essential. INDICATIONS FOR CO 2 LASER: Therapeutic indications: Actinic and seborrheic keratosis, warts, moles, skin tags, epidermal and dermal nevi, vitiligo blister and punch grafting, rhinophyma, sebaceous hyperplasia, xanthelasma, syringomas, actinic cheilitis angiofibroma, scar treatment, keloid, skin cancer, neurofibroma and diffuse actinic keratoses. CO 2 laser is not recommended for the removal of tattoos. AESTHETIC INDICATIONS: Resurfacing for acne, chicken pox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photo ageing changes, facial resurfacing. PHYSICIANS' QUALIFICATIONS: Any qualified dermatologist (DVD or MD) may practice CO 2 laser. The dermatologist should possess postgraduate qualification in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist/plastic surgeon, who has experience and training in using lasers. For the use of CO 2 lasers for benign growths, a full day workshop is adequate. As parameters may vary in different machines, specific training with the available machine at either the manufacturer's facility or at another centre using the machine is recommended. CO 2 lasers can be used in the dermatologist's minor procedure room for the above indications. However, when used for full-face resurfacing, the hospital operation theatre or day care facility with immediate access to emergency medical care is essential. Smoke evacuator is mandatory. Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, possible postoperative complications, should be discussed with the patient. The patient should be provided brochures to study and

  16. Standard guidelines of care: CO 2 laser for removal of benign skin lesions and resurfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupashankar D

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Resurfacing is a treatment to remove acne and chicken pox scars, and changes in the skin due to ageing. Machines : Both ablative and nonablative lasers are available for use. CO 2 laser is the gold standard in ablative lasers. Detailed knowledge of the machines is essential. Indications for CO 2 laser: Therapeutic indications: Actinic and seborrheic keratosis, warts, moles, skin tags, epidermal and dermal nevi, vitiligo blister and punch grafting, rhinophyma, sebaceous hyperplasia, xanthelasma, syringomas, actinic cheilitis angiofibroma, scar treatment, keloid, skin cancer, neurofibroma and diffuse actinic keratoses. CO 2 laser is not recommended for the removal of tattoos. Aesthetic indications: Resurfacing for acne, chicken pox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photo ageing changes, facial resurfacing. Physicians′ qualifications: Any qualified dermatologist (DVD or MD may practice CO 2 laser. The dermatologist should possess postgraduate qualification in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist/plastic surgeon, who has experience and training in using lasers. For the use of CO 2 lasers for benign growths, a full day workshop is adequate. As parameters may vary in different machines, specific training with the available machine at either the manufacturer′s facility or at another centre using the machine is recommended. Facility: CO 2 lasers can be used in the dermatologist′s minor procedure room for the above indications. However, when used for full-face resurfacing, the hospital operation theatre or day care facility with immediate access to emergency medical care is essential. Smoke evacuator is mandatory. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, possible postoperative complications, should be

  17. Enhancement of low power CO2 laser cutting process for injection molded polycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mahmoud; Mehrabi, Omid; Azdast, Taher; Benyounis, Khaled Y.

    2017-11-01

    Laser cutting technology is a non-contact process that typically is used for industrial manufacturing applications. Laser cut quality is strongly influenced by the cutting processing parameters. In this research, CO2 laser cutting specifications have been investigated by using design of experiments (DOE) with considering laser cutting speed, laser power and focal plane position as process input parameters and kerf geometry dimensions (i.e. top and bottom kerf width, ratio of the upper kerf to lower kerf, upper heat affected zone (HAZ)) and surface roughness of the kerf wall as process output responses. A 60 Watts CO2 laser cutting machine is used for cutting the injection molded samples of polycarbonate sheet with the thickness of 3.2 mm. Results reveal that by decreasing the laser focal plane position and laser power, the bottom kerf width will be decreased. Also the bottom kerf width decreases by increasing the cutting speed. As a general result, locating the laser spot point in the depth of the workpiece the laser cutting quality increases. Minimum value of the responses (top kerf, heat affected zone, ratio of the upper kerf to lower kerf, and surface roughness) are considered as optimization criteria. Validating the theoretical results using the experimental tests is carried out in order to analyze the results obtained via software.

  18. Pulsed chemical laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, T.V.; Kimbell, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    A hydrogen fluoride laser capable of operating super radiantly and at atmospheric pressure is described. A transverse electrical discharge is utilized to energize the reaction of a hydrogen donor to provide hydrogen fluoride in a metastable energy state which reverts to a stable state by laser action. A large range of hydrogen and fluorine donors is disclosed. A preferred pair of donors is sulphur hexafluoride and propane. Helium is frequently added to the gas mix to act as a buffer. (U.S.)

  19. Investigating the CO2 laser cutting parameters of MDF wood composite material

    OpenAIRE

    Eltawahni, Hayat; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani; Benyounis, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    Laser cutting of medium density fibreboard (MDF) is a complicated process and the selection of the process parameters combinations is essential to get the highest quality of the cut section. This paper presents laser cutting of MDF based on design of experiments (DOE). CO2 laser was used to cut three thicknesses 4, 6 and 9 mm of MDF panels. The process factors investigated are: laser power, cutting speed, air pressure and focal point position. In this work, cutting quality was evaluated by me...

  20. Optimization of Cutting Parameters of the Haynes 718 Nickel Alloy With Gas CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana PETRŮ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the application of laser technology and the optimization of parameters in the area of nickel alloy laser cutting intended for application in the aircraft industry. The main goal is to outline possibilities of use of the laser technology, primarily its application in the area of 3D material cutting. This experiment is focused on the optimization of cutting parameters of the Haynes 718 alloy with a gas CO2 laser. Originating cuts are evaluated primarily from the point of view of cut quality and accompanying undesirable phenomena occurring in the process of cutting. In conclusion the results achieved in the metallographic laboratory are described and analyzed.

  1. In Vitro Comparison of the Effects of Diode Laser and CO2 Laser on Topical Fluoride Uptake in Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Fotuhi Ardakani, Faezeh; Sorouri, Milad

    2015-08-01

    Fluoride therapy is important for control and prevention of dental caries. Laser irradiation can increase fluoride uptake especially when combined with topical fluoride application. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of CO2 and diode lasers on enamel fluoride uptake in primary teeth. Forty human primary molars were randomly assigned to four groups (n=10). The roots were removed and the crowns were sectioned mesiodistally into buccal and lingual halves as the experimental and control groups. All samples were treated with 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish. The experimental samples in the four groups were irradiated with 5 or 7W diode or 1 or 2W CO2 laser for 15 seconds and were compared with the controls in terms of fluoride uptake, which was determined using an ion selective electrode after acid dissolution of the specimens. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using ANOVA treating the control measurements as covariates. The estimated amount of fluoride uptake was 59.5± 16.31 ppm, 66.5± 14.9 ppm, 78.6± 12.43 ppm and 90.4± 11.51 ppm for 5W and 7 W diode and 1W and 2 W CO2 lasers, respectively, which were significantly greater than the values in the conventional topical fluoridation group (Pdiode laser and 1W CO2 laser, 5W and 7W diode laser, or 1W and 2W CO2 laser in this regard. The results showed that enamel surface irradiation by CO2 and diode lasers increases the fluoride uptake.

  2. Comparative analysis of the effects of CO2 fractional laser and sonophoresis on human skin penetration with 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J H; Shin, E J; Jeong, K H; Shin, M K

    2017-11-01

    Successful delivery of a photosensitizer into the skin is an important factor for effective photodynamic therapy (PDT). The effective method to increase drug penetration within short incubation time overcoming skin barrier have been investigated. This study was performed to analyze and compare the effectiveness of ablative fractional laser (FXL) pretreatment and/or sonophoresis for enhancing the penetration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) into human skin in vivo. Twenty-four identical 1 × 1 cm 2 treatment areas were mapped on the backs of ten healthy male subjects. Each area received FXL pretreatment and/or sonophoresis with different energy settings and ALA incubation times. After treatments, porphyrin fluorescence reflecting the ALA penetration were measured. Application of ablative CO 2 FXL pretreatment resulted to higher fluorescence intensities than the non-treatment group. Incubation times were positively correlated with the increments of ALA penetration. However, increasing pulse energy or combining with sonophoresis did not show additional positive effects on ALA penetration. Ablative CO 2 FXL pretreatment effectively facilitated ALA penetration in human skin in vivo. Ablative CO 2 FXL alone without sonophoresis setting pulse energy of 10 and 20 mJ with more than 60 min of ALA incubation time could be an ideal setting for ALA penetration.

  3. Investigation into CO2 laser cleaning of titanium alloys for gas-turbine component manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.W.; Crouse, P.L.; Li, L; Smith, A.J.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports results of the investigation into the feasibility of using a CO 2 laser technology to perform critical cleaning of gas-turbine aero-engine components for manufacture. It reports the results of recent trials and relates these to a thermal model of the cleaning mechanisms, and describes resultant component integrity. The paper defines the experimental conditions for the laser cleaning of various aerospace-grade contaminated titanium alloys, using a continuous wave CO 2 laser. Laser cleaning of Ti64 proved successful for electron beam welding, but not for the more sensitive Ti6246. For diffusion bonding the trials produced a defective standard of joint. Effects of oxide formation is modelled and examined experimentally

  4. Fabrication of versatile cladding light strippers and fiber end-caps with CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, M.; Theeg, T.; Wysmolek, M.; Ottenhues, C.; Pulzer, T.; Neumann, J.; Kracht, D.

    2018-02-01

    We report on novel fabrication schemes of versatile cladding light strippers and end-caps via CO2 laser radiation. We integrated cladding light strippers in SMA-like connectors for reliable and stable fiber-coupling of high-power laser diodes. Moreover, the application of cladding light strippers in typical fiber geometries for high-power fiber lasers was evaluated. In addition, we also developed processes to fuse end-caps to fiber end faces via CO2 laser radiation and inscribe the fibers with cladding light strippers near the end-cap. Corresponding results indicate the great potential of such devices as a monolithic and low-cost alternative to SMA connectors.

  5. High pressure X-ray preionized TEMA-CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie, R. J. M.; Witteman, W. J.

    1987-09-01

    The construction of a high-pressure (up to 20 atm) transversely excited CO2 laser using transverse X-ray preionization is described. High pressure operation was found to be greatly improved in comparison to UV-preionized systems. Homogeneous discharges have been achieved in the pressure range 5-20 atm, yielding a specific laser output in the order of 35 J/l.

  6. Parameters Influence of CO2 Laser on Cutting Quality of Polymer Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Cep; Sarka Malotova; Marek Pagac; Marek Sadilek; Jiri Lichovnik

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with evaluating of the resulting surface state of the three plastic materials and identification of suitable conditions for laser cutting with CO2 tube. As representative were chosen polypropylene, polymethylmethacrylate and polyamide. When cutting these types of materials it could melt eventually their re-sintering. A suitable combination of parameters is possible to achieve of sufficient quality of the cut. The samples were cut at different feed speed and laser power. Then...

  7. Portable laser spectrometer for airborne and ground-based remote sensing of geological CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Manuel; Burton, Mike; Allan, Graham R; Chiarugi, Antonio

    2017-07-15

    A 24 kg, suitcase sized, CW laser remote sensing spectrometer (LARSS) with a ~2 km range has been developed. It has demonstrated its flexibility in measuring both atmospheric CO2 from an airborne platform and terrestrial emission of CO2 from a remote mud volcano, Bledug Kuwu, Indonesia, from a ground-based sight. This system scans the CO2 absorption line with 20 discrete wavelengths, as opposed to the typical two-wavelength online offline instrument. This multi-wavelength approach offers an effective quality control, bias control, and confidence estimate of measured CO2 concentrations via spectral fitting. The simplicity, ruggedness, and flexibility in the design allow for easy transportation and use on different platforms with a quick setup in some of the most challenging climatic conditions. While more refinement is needed, the results represent a stepping stone towards widespread use of active one-sided gas remote sensing in the earth sciences.

  8. A Novel Triple-Pulsed 2-micrometer Lidar for Simultaneous and Independent CO2 and H2O Column Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The study of global warming needs precisely and accurately measuring greenhouse gases concentrations in the atmosphere. CO2 and H2O are important greenhouse gases that significantly contribute to the carbon cycle and global radiation budget on Earth. NRC Decadal Survey recommends a mission for Active Sensing of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS). 2 micron laser is a viable IPDA transmitter to measure CO2 and H2O column density from space. The objective is to demonstrate a first airborne direct detection 2 micron IPDA lidar for CO2 and H2O measurements.

  9. CO2 and Nd:YAP laser interaction with lithium disilicate and Zirconia dental ceramics: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Jean-Paul; Fornaini, Carlo; Brulat-Bouchard, Nathalie; Bassel Seif, Samy; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne

    2014-04-01

    Lithium disilicate and Zirconia ceramics offer a high level of accuracy when used in prosthetic dentistry. Their bonding using different resins is highly dependent on micro-mechanical interlocking and adhesive chemical bonding. Investigation of the performances of high strength ceramics when their surface is modified for chemical and mechanical bonding is then required. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using laser for surface treatment of different high strength CAD/CAM ceramics and thus to improve their mechanical and chemical properties. Thirty two CAD/CAM ceramic discs were divided into two different groups: lithium disilicate ceramics (IPS e.max CAD®, Ivoclar, Vivadent, Italy) and Zirconia ceramics (IPS e.max ZirCAD®, Ivoclar, Vivadent, Italy). The Laser surface treatment was performed by Carbon Dioxide laser (Dream Pulse Laser®, Daeshin Enterprise Corp., Korea) at 20 W, 25 W and 30 W CW and by Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite laser (Nd:YAP Lokki®, Lobel Medical, France) at 10 W and 30 Hz. Physical modifications of the irradiated ceramic discs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemically analyzed by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Surface wettability was tested using the water drop test and the crystalline structure was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The macroscopic observation showed a shinier structure in all the groups, while at the SEM observation only CO2 25 W and 30 W treated groups showed cracks and fissures. In the conditions of this study, CO2 laser and Nd:YAP laser with the parameters used create chemical and physical surface modifications of the ceramics, indicating the possibility of an improvement in adhesion of the tested ceramics.

  10. An investigation of CO2 laser scleral buckling using moiré interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadi, Saher M; Dyer, Peter E; Verma, Dinesh; Jalabi, Wadah; Dave, Dinesh

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate suitability of moiré interferometry to assess and quantify laser-induced shrinkage of scleral collagen for buckling procedures. Scleral buckling of human cadaver eyes was investigated using a Coherent Ultrapulse CO2 laser. Projection moiré interferometry was employed to determine the out-of plane displacement produced by laser exposure, and in-situ optical microscopy of reference markers on the eye was used to measure in-plane shrinkage. Measurements based on moiré interferometry allow a three dimensional view of shape changes in the eye surface as laser treatment proceeds. Out-of-plane displacement reaches up to 1.5 mm with a single laser spot exposure. In-plane shrinkage reached a maximum of around 30%, which is similar to that reported by Sasoh et al (Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1998;29:410) for a Tm:YAG laser. The moiré technique is found to be suitable for quantifying the effects of CO2 laser scleral shrinkage and buckling. This can be further developed to provide a standardized method for experimental investigations of other laser sources for scleral shrinkage.

  11. Theoretical And Experimental Investigations On The Plasma Of A CO2 High Power Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, W.; Wallter, B.

    1984-03-01

    The CO2 high power laser is increasingly used in material processing. This application of the laser has to meet some requirements: at one hand the laser is a tool free of wastage, but at the other hand is to guarantee that the properties of that tool are constant in time. Therefore power, geometry and mode of the beam have to be stable over long intervalls, even if the laser is used in rough industrial environment. Otherwise laser material processing would not be competitive. The beam quality is affected by all components of the laser - by the CO2 plasma and its IR - amplification, by the resonator which at last generates the beam by optical feedback, and also by the electric power supply whose effects on the plasma may be measured at the laser beam. A transversal flow laser has been developed at the Technical University of Vienna in cooperation with VOest-Alpine AG, Linz (Austria). This laser produces 1 kW of beam power with unfolded resonator. It was subject to investigations presented in this paper.

  12. High Power OPO Laser and wavelength-controlled system for 1.6μm CO2-DIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, M.; Nagasawa, C.; Shibata, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Unlike the existing 2.0μm CO2-DIAL, a high-energy pulse laser operating in the 1.6μm absorption band of CO2 has not been realized. Quasi phase matching (QPM) devices have high conversion efficiency and high beam quality due to their higher nonlinear optical coefficient. We adapt the PPMgLT crystal as the QPM device. The PPMgLT crystal had 3mm × 3mm apertures, and the periodically poled period was 30.9 μm, with the duty ratio close to the ideal value of 0.5. The beam quality of the pumping laser was exceed M2 ≥1.2. The repetition rate was 400 Hz and the energy was 35 mJ. The pumping laser pulse was injection-seeded by the continuous-wave (CW) fiber laser, which had a narrow spectrum. The pulse pumped the PPMgLT crystal in the ring cavity with a single pass through the dielectric mirror. The PPMgLT crystal was mounted on a copper holder, and the temperature was maintained at 40 °C using a Peltier module. The holder’s temperature was stabilized to within 0.01 °C when the copper holder was covered with a plastic case. The OPO ring cavity was a singly resonant oscillator optimized for the signal wave. Single-frequency oscillation of the PPMgLT OPO was achieved by injection seeding, as described in the following. The injection seeder was a DFB laser having a power of 30mW with a 1MHz oscillation spectrum. Their oscillation wavelength was coarse tuned by temperature and fine tuned by adjusting injection currents. The partial power of the online wavelength was split in the wavelength control unit. We locked the DFB laser as an injection seeder of the online wavelength onto the line center by referencing the fiber coupled multipath gas cell (path length 800mm) containing pure CO2 at a pressure of 700 Torr. Stabilization was estimated to within 1.8MHz rms of the line center of the CO2 absorption line by monitoring the feedback signal of a wavelength-controlled unit. Injection seeding of the PPMgLT OPO was performed by matching the cavity length to the seeder

  13. New pulsed YAG laser performances in cutting thick metallic materials for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de; Pilot, G.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacities of the pulsed YAG laser thick cutting on metallic material and to compare with the CO 2 laser capacities. Stainless steel (304L) cutting tests were made in air and underwater using CO 2 and YAG lasers. A performance assessment was made for each laser and the wastes produced in the cutting operation were measured and the gases and the aerosols analyzed. The results show that the pulsed YAG laser is high performance tool for thick cutting and particularly attractive for nuclear applications

  14. Advances in High Energy Solid-State Pulsed 2-Micron Lidar Development for Ground and Airborne Wind, Water Vapor and CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Kavaya, Michael J.; Remus, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron lasers. From fundamental spectroscopy research, theoretical prediction of new materials, laser demonstration and engineering of lidar systems, it has been a very successful program spanning around two decades. Successful development of 2-micron lasers has led to development of a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement with an unprecedented laser pulse energy of 250 millijoules in a rugged package. This high pulse energy is produced by a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser with an optical amplifier. While the lidar is meant for use as an airborne instrument, ground-based tests were carried out to characterize performance of the lidar. Atmospheric measurements will be presented, showing the lidar's capability for wind measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere. Lidar wind measurements are compared to a balloon sonde, showing good agreement between the two sensors. Similar architecture has been used to develop a high energy, Ho:Tm:YLF double-pulsed 2-micron Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) instrument based on direct detection technique that provides atmospheric column CO2 measurements. This instrument has been successfully used to measure atmospheric CO2 column density initially from a ground mobile lidar trailer, and then it was integrated on B-200 plane and 20 hours of flight measurement were made from an altitude ranging 1500 meters to 8000 meters. These measurements were compared to in-situ measurements and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) airborne flask measurement to derive the dry mixing ratio of the column CO2 by reflecting the signal by various reflecting surfaces such as land, vegetation, ocean surface, snow and sand. The lidar measurements when compared showed a very agreement with in-situ and airborne flask measurement. NASA Langley Research Center is currently developing a

  15. Light scattering from thermal density fluctuations using a CW-CO2-laser and heterodyne detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massig, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The ion feature in the scattered light spectrum of an arc plasma was measured using heterodyne detection. A low-power CW-CO 2 -laser was employed. The weak signals were discriminated against noise by lock-in technique. (orig.) [de

  16. Suppression of thermal transients in advanced LIGO interferometers using CO2 laser preheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberian Hamedan, V.; Zhao, C.; Ju, L.; Blair, C.; Blair, D. G.

    2018-06-01

    In high optical power interferometric gravitational wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO, the thermal effects due to optical absorption in the mirror coatings and the slow thermal response of fused silica substrate cause time dependent changes in the mirror profile. After locking, high optical power builds up in the arm cavities. Absorption induced heating causes optical cavity transverse mode frequencies to drift over a period of hours, relative to the fundamental mode. At high optical power this can cause time dependent transient parametric instability, which can lead to interferometer disfunction. In this paper, we model the use of CO2 laser heating designed to enable the interferometer to be maintained in a thermal condition such that transient changes in the mirrors are greatly reduced. This can minimize transient parametric instability and compensate dark port power fluctuations. Modeling results are presented for both single compensation where a CO2 laser acting on one test mass per cavity, and double compensation using one CO2 laser for each test mass. Using parameters of the LIGO Hanford Observatory X-arm as an example, single compensation allows the maximum mode frequency shift to be limited to 6% of its uncompensated value. However, single compensation causes transient degradation of the contrast defect. Double compensation minimise contrast defect degradation and reduces transients to less than 1% if the CO2 laser spot is positioned within 2 mm of the cavity beam position.

  17. Endoscopic treatment of pharyngeal pouches: electrocoagulation vs carbon dioxide (CO2) laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flikweert, D. C.; van der Baan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Endoscopic treatment of a hypopharyngeal diverticulum was performed in 75 patients during the period 1976-1990. Initially electrocoagulation was used to divide the septum between the diverticulum and oesophagus. More recently, the CO2 laser combined with the operating microscope has been used.

  18. Single mode CO2 laser frequency modulation up to 350 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, W. R.; Peruso, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments on internal frequency modulation (FM) of a CO2 laser showed no limitation of FM by the linewidth. However, distortions in the form of strong enhancement of sideband amplitude arise for frequencies equal to the cavity resonant frequencies, most pronounced if the modulator is positioned near a cavity mirror.

  19. Modeling CO2 laser ablation impulse of polymers in vapor and plasma regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinko, John E.; Phipps, Claude R.

    2009-01-01

    An improved model for CO 2 laser ablation impulse in polyoxymethylene and similar polymers is presented that describes the transition effects from the onset of vaporization to the plasma regime in a continuous fashion. Several predictions are made for ablation behavior.

  20. Development of CO2 and KrF gas lasers as drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Several different driver systems are currently under development in the national ICF program. Los Alamos has traditionally emphasized gas laser systems because of their intrinsic high average power capability and ease of operation. This paper will review the status of activities in both carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and krypton fluoride (KrF) development at the Laboratory

  1. Finding Optimum Focal Point Position with Neural Networks in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    CO2 lasers are increasingly being utilized for quality welding in production. Considering the high equipment cost, the start-up time and set-up time should be minimized. Ideally the parameters should be set up and optimized more or less automatically. In this article neural networks are designed...

  2. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, K T; Chung, C K

    2016-01-01

    An integrated technology of CO 2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO 2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO 2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO 2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold. (paper)

  3. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, K. T.; Chung, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    An integrated technology of CO2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold.

  4. Innovative CO2 LASER-Based Pavement Striping and Stripe Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This is a Technical Report of an FY2014 NDOT funded project on Innovative CO2 Laserbased Pavement Striping and Stripe Removal. The project was concerned with adopting the laser technology for pavement stripe and markers removal and inferring on its e...

  5. Treatment of striae distensae with needling therapy versus CO2 fractional laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Mohamed H; Khattab, Fathia M; Abdelhaleem, Manal R

    2016-01-01

    Striae are atrophic dermal scars with overlying epidermal atrophy causing cosmetic concern. This study assesses and compares the efficacy and safety of needling therapy versus CO2 fractional laser in treatment of striae. Twenty Egyptian female patients with striae in the abdomen and lower limbs were involved in the study. The patients were treated with needling therapy and CO2 laser every 1 month for 3 sessions. Follow-up by digital photography and skin biopsy was conducted at baseline and 6 months after treatment. Clinical improvement was assessed by comparing photographs and patient's satisfaction before and after treatment. Nine of 10 (90%) needle-treated patients showed improvement. Among them, 3 (30%) had good, 4 (40%) had fair, and 2 (20%) had poor improvements; however, 1 (10%) did not show any improvement after the treatment. In CO2-laser treated patients, 5 of 10 (50%) of the patients showed clinical improvement; 1 (10%) were good, 3 (30%) were fair, and 1 (10%) were poor; however, 5 (50%) did not show improvement. The results support the use of microneedle therapy over CO2 lasers for striae treatment.

  6. High pressure X-ray preionized TEMA-CO2 laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnie, R.J.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The construction of a high-pressure (up to 20 atm) transversely excited CO2 laser using transverse X-ray preionization is described. High pressure operation was found to be greatly improved in comparison to UV-preionized systems. Homogeneous discharges have been achieved in the pressure range 5–20

  7. CO2 Laser annealing of n-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Ferrari, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Fiorini, P.; Proietti, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Low power CO 2 laser annealing of n-doped a-Si:H is reported. Conductivity and its activation energy, photoconductivity, absorption coefficient and dependence of photoconductivity on light power show changes which can be interpreted as due to a better doping efficiency

  8. CO2-laser-assisted processing of glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Christian; Emonts, Michael; Schares, Richard Ludwig; Stimpfl, Joffrey

    2013-02-01

    To fully exploit the potential of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (FRTC) and to achieve a broad industrial application, automated manufacturing systems are crucial. Investigations at Fraunhofer IPT have proven that the use of laser system technology in processing FRTC allows to achieve high throughput, quality, flexibility, reproducibility and out-of-autoclave processing simultaneously. As 90% of the FRP in Europe1 are glass fiber-reinforced a high impact can be achieved by introducing laser-assisted processing with all its benefits to glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTC). Fraunhofer IPT has developed the diode laser-assisted tape placement (laying and winding) to process carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (CFRTC) for years. However, this technology cannot be transferred unchanged to process milky transparent GFRTC prepregs (preimpregnated fibers). Due to the short wavelength (approx. 980 nm) and therefore high transmission less than 20% of the diode laser energy is absorbed as heat into non-colored GFRTC prepregs. Hence, the use of a different wave length, e.g. CO2-laser (10.6 μm) with more than 90% laser absorption, is required to allow the full potential of laser-assisted processing of GFRTC. Also the absorption of CO2-laser radiation at the surface compared to volume absorption of diode laser radiation is beneficial for the interlaminar joining of GFRTC. Fraunhofer IPT is currently developing and investigating the CO2-laser-assisted tape placement including new system, beam guiding, process and monitoring technology to enable a resource and energy efficient mass production of GFRP composites, e.g. pipes, tanks, masts. The successful processing of non-colored glass fiber-reinforced Polypropylene (PP) and Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) has already been proven.

  9. Utility and safety of the flexible-fiber CO2 laser in endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Devaiah, Anand K; Chin, Lawrence S

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to report on the utility and safety of the flexible-fiber CO2 laser in endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. A retrospective chart review identified 16 patients who underwent laser-assisted transsphenoidal surgery. All tumor pathology types were considered. Results were assessed based on hormone status, tumor size, pathology, complications, and resection rates. Sixteen pituitary lesions (pituitary adenomas, 12; Rathke cleft cyst, 2; pituitary cyst and craniopharyngioma, 1 each) with an average size of 22.7 mm were identified by radiographic and pathologic criteria. All patients underwent flexible-fiber CO2 laser-assisted endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. Of the adenomas, 8 were nonsecreting and 4 were secreting (3 prolactinomas and 1 ACTH secreting). Gross total resection was achieved in 7 of 16 patients (43.75%) with hormone remission in all patients (100%) after a mean follow-up of 19.3 months. Postoperative complications occurred in 3 patients (18.75%): 2 patients developed transient diabetes insipidus (DI) and 1 developed a CSF leak requiring surgical repair. Five patients (31.25%) underwent postoperative radiation to the residual lesions. We found that CO2-laser-assisted endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for sellar tumors is a minimally invasive approach using a tool that is quick and effective at cutting and coagulation. The surgery has a low rate of complication, and no laser-related complications were encountered. The laser fiber allows the surgeon to safely cut and coagulate without the line-of-sight problems encountered with conventional CO2 lasers. Further studies are recommended to further define its role in endoscopic endonasal sellar surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of inferior turbinoplasty with the use of CO(2) laser, radiofrequency, and electrocautery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopakis, Emmanuel P; Koudounarakis, Eleftherios I; Velegrakis, George A

    2014-01-01

    Inferior turbinate surgery is one of the most commonly performed methods for the treatment of rhinitis symptoms, especially nasal obstruction. This is a comparative study of CO2 laser, electrocautery, and radiofrequency turbinoplasty in the treatment of rhinitis symptoms. From 1994 to 2011, 3219 patients were enrolled in the study. Two hundred eighty-three patients were lost during follow-.up. Of the remaining 2936 patients, 1066 were managed using the CO2 laser, whereas 664 and 1206 were managed with the use of radiofrequency and electrocautery, respectively. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia. Patients were asked to evaluate their symptoms with the visual analog scale (VAS) preoperatively, as well as 1 month and 1 year postoperatively. Rhinomanometry was used to objectively evaluate the effect on nasal obstruction. Mean VAS values preoperatively, regarding nasal obstruction, were 7.43 ± 0.96, 7.33 ± 0.87, and 7.64 ± 0.95 in the CO2 laser, radiofrequency, and electrocautery group, respectively. One month postoperatively, the score was significantly improved in all groups (CO2 laser, 3.44 ± 0.99; radiofrequency, 3.26 ± 0.76; electrocautery, 3.19 ± 0.79), which was almost stable in the 1st year of follow-up. Similar results were also observed in the evaluation of sneezing and rhinorrhea. Outcome did not statistically differ between the three methods. The CO2 laser, radiofrequency and electrocautery offer excellent postoperative results in turbinoplasty cases under local anesthesia.

  11. Interaction of both plasmas in CO2 laser-MAG hybrid welding of carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuna, Muneharu; Chen, Liang

    2003-03-01

    Researches and developments of laser and arc hybrid welding has been curried out since in 1978. Especially, CO2 laser and TIG hybrid welding has been studied for increasing the penetration depth and welding speed. Recently laser and MIG/MAG/Plasma hybrid welding processes have been developed and applied to industries. It was recognized as a new welding process that promote the flexibility of the process for increasing the penetration depth, welding speed and allowable joint gap and improving the quality of the welds. In the present work, CO2 Laser-MAG hybrid welding of carbon steel (SM490) was investigated to make clear the phenomenon and characteristics of hybrid welding process comparing with laser welding and MAG process. The effects of many process parameters such as welding current, arc voltage, welding speed, defocusing distance, laser-to-arc distance on penetration depth, bead shape, spatter, arc stability and plasma formation were investigated in the present work. Especially, the interaction of laser plasma and MAG arc plasma was considered by changing the laser to arc distance (=DLA).

  12. Metal cutting by radiation from a CO2 laser with a self-filtering cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malikov, A G; Orishich, Anatolii M; Shulyat'ev, Viktor B

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of quality cutting by radiation from a CO 2 laser with an unstable self-filtering cavity (SFC) is experimentally investigated. The SFC provides the product of the divergence angle by the beam radius close to that for lower modes in a stable cavity (SC), however, at a higher radiation power, which favours faster cutting. In the far-field zone, the SFC beam has a diffraction structure with side maxima, which is usually considered as a negative factor in laser cutting. 25-mm-thick steel slabs have been cut. The comparison of the obtained results with known data on SC lasers shows that the principal characteristics of the cut (the width, edge roughness, specific expenditure of energy) are close in these lasers. A conclusion is made that at the chosen cavity parameters, the specific spatial structure of the SFC laser beam has no significant effect on the cut characteristics. (laser technologies)

  13. Pulpal safety of a 9.6-μm TEA CO2 laser used for caries prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2002-06-01

    Lasers are used for several procedures involving hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. Included in those procedures is the use of the CO2 laser to alter the surface structure of tooth enamel to render it more resistant to caries. A new 9.6micrometers wavelength TEA CO2 laser (Argu Photonics, Jpiter, FL) has been investigated as a device that can be used for this procedure without harming the dental pulp. Erupted, caries and restoration free third molars (n=24) were used in the experiment. Teeth were irradiated at an incident fluence of 1.5J/cm2 and a repetition rate of 10Hz and a spot size 1mm in diameter. At the low and high settings, 200 to 400 pulses were delivered at 12mJ per pulse for a total energy of 2.4 or 4.8J delivered for 20 or 40 seconds respectively. Other teeth were subjected to a sham dental procedure (positive control) or no procedure (negative control). Prior to testing, radiographs were taken of all teeth, and they were tested pulpally using heat, cold and electricity to determine vitality. The teeth were removed either immediately or at one week or one month after testing. They were bioprepared and examined histologically for signs of inflammation. Only one tooth developed symptoms of sensitivity to cold for 10 days following exposure to the high power level. The sensitivity was of fleeting duration and was judged to be reversible pulpitis. All teeth tested responded normally at pretesting and pre-extraction time periods. Histological examination disclosed no indication of an inflammatory response in the pulp tissue. All sections appeared normal with no changes seen in the normal pulpal morphology. We conclude that the 9.6 micrometers wavelength laser causes no pulpal damage at the energy levels used and can be used safely for caries prevention treatments.

  14. Frequency stabilization of quantum cascade laser for spectroscopic CO2 isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Luo; Xia, Hua; Pang, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong; Wu, Bian; Liu, Shuo; Sun, Pengshuai; Cui, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2018-06-01

    Using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy, named OA-ICOS, the absorption spectrum of CO2 at 4.32 μm is recorded by using a quantum cascade laser (QCL). The concentration of the three isotopologues 16O12C16O, 16O13C16O and 16O12C18O is detected simultaneously. The isotope abundance ratio of 13C and 18O in CO2 gas can be obtained, which is most useful for ecological research. Since the ambient temperature has a serious influence on the output wavelength of the laser, even small temperature variations seriously affect the stability and sensitivity of the system. In this paper, a wavelength locking technique for QCL is proposed. The output of a digital potentiometer integrated in the laser current driver control is modified by software, resulting in a correction of the driving current of the laser and thus of its wavelength. This method strongly reduces the influence of external factors on the wavelength drift of lasers and thus substantially improves the stability and performance of OA-ICOS as is demonstrated with long-time measurements on CO2 in laboratory air.

  15. Comparison of Videonystagmography and Audiological Findings after Stapedotomy; CO2 Laser vs Perforator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Sait; Basut, Oğuz; Demir, Uygar Levent; Özmen, Ömer Afşın; Kasapoğlu, Fikret; Coşkun, Hakan

    2016-08-01

    Various types of laser, microdrill, and perforator are effectively used in the surgical treatment of otosclerosis. However, they have certain disadvantages along with advantages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser and perforator stapedotomy techniques on audiological outcomes and postoperative vestibular functions via videonystagmography (VNG). This prospective and randomized clinical study was conducted in an academic tertiary medical center. Sixty-nine patients diagnosed with otosclerosis who underwent stapedotomy were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups based on the technique used in stapedotomy: CO2 laser and perforator. Postoperative hearing gain and VNG findings were the main outcome measures. Subsequently, the two study groups were compared for analysis. The preoperative air-bone gap was 32.7±8.9 decibel (dB) in the study population and it was improved to 12.9±8.4 dB after operation. There were no differences in VNG findings and vertigo symptoms between the laser and perforator groups at postoperative day 2. There was no significant gain difference regarding the air conduction, bone conduction, and air-bone gap between the two groups (p=0.294, p=0.57, and p=0.37, respectively). Both CO2 laser and perforator stapedotomy have successful audiological outcomes with no difference in postoperative vestibular disturbance.

  16. [Open-path online monitoring of ambient atmospheric CO2 based on laser absorption spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Kan, Rui-Feng; Xia, Hui; Geng, Hui; Ruan, Jun; Wang, Min; Cui, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2009-01-01

    With the conjunction of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology (TDLAS) and the open long optical path technology, the system designing scheme of CO2 on-line monitoring based on near infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology was discussed in detail, and the instrument for large-range measurement was set up. By choosing the infrared absorption line of CO2 at 1.57 microm whose line strength is strong and suitable for measurement, the ambient atmospheric CO2 was measured continuously with a 30 s temporal resolution at an suburb site in the autumn of 2007. The diurnal atmospheric variations of CO2 and continuous monitoring results were presented. The results show that the variation in CO2 concentration has an obvious diurnal periodicity in suburb where the air is free of interference and contamination. The general characteristic of diurnal variation is that the concentration is low in the daytime and high at night, so it matches the photosynthesis trend. The instrument can detect gas concentration online with high resolution, high sensitivity, high precision, short response time and many other advantages, the monitoring requires no gas sampling, the calibration is easy, and the detection limit is about 4.2 x 10(-7). It has been proved that the system and measurement project are feasible, so it is an effective method for gas flux continuous online monitoring of large range in ecosystem based on TDLAS technology.

  17. Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer for Measurements of CO2 in the Atmospheric Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E. L.; Mclinden, M. L.; Miller, J. H.; Allan, G. R.; Lott, L. E.; Melroy, H. R.; Clarke, G. B.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a low-cost, miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer for highly sensitive measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmospheric column. In this passive design, sunlight that has undergone absorption by CO2 in the atmosphere is collected and mixed with continuous wave laser light that is step-scanned across the absorption feature centered at 1,573.6 nm. The resulting radio frequency beat signal is collected as a function of laser wavelength, from which the total column mole fraction can be de-convolved. We are expanding this technique to include methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO), and with minor modifications, this technique can be expanded to include species such as water vapor (H2O) and nitrous oxide (N2O).

  18. CO2 laser direct writing of silver lines on epoxy resin from solid film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.G.; Chen, C.H.; Zheng, J.S.; Huang, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    A technique of CO 2 laser direct writing from solid film was proposed in this paper. Patterns of silver lines were locally deposited on the non-conductive substrate using a preset layer of silver compound solid film, which was irradiated by focused CO 2 laser beam. The deposits were analyzed by XPS and EPMA. Results showed that metallic silver was dominant with an even distribution on the surface of the substrate, and part of the deposited silver had diffused into the substrate interior. The deposits had catalytic activity for the further electroless copper plating and had strong adhesion to the substrate. At last, the deposition mechanism and the dependence of the width of silver lines on the laser power and scan speed were roughly explored

  19. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm, Ken Steffen; Andersen, Ole K.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background: CO(2) lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial...... to deeper skin layers. Methods: In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO(2) laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were...... compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. Results: The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p

  20. Application of Factorial Design for Gas Parameter Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different gas process parameters involved in CO2 laser welding has been studied by applying two-set of three-level complete factorial designs. In this work 5 gas parameters, gas type, gas flow rate, gas blowing angle, gas nozzle diameter, gas blowing point-offset, are optimized...... to be a very useful tool for parameter optimi-zation in laser welding process. Keywords: CO2 laser welding, gas parameters, factorial design, Analysis of Variance........ The bead-on-plate welding specimens are evaluated by a number of quality char-acteristics, such as the penetration depth and the seam width. The significance of the gas pa-rameters and their interactions are based on the data found by the Analysis of Variance-ANOVA. This statistic methodology is proven...

  1. Performance comparison of CO2 and diode lasers for deep-section concrete cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, Philip L.; Li, Lin; Spencer, Julian T.

    2004-01-01

    Layer-by-layer laser machining with mechanical removal of vitrified dross between passes is a new technique with a demonstrated capability for deep-section cutting, not only of concrete, but of ceramic and refractory materials in general. For this application fairly low power densities are required. A comparison of experimental results using high-power CO 2 and diode lasers under roughly equivalent experimental conditions, cutting to depths of >100 mm, is presented. A marked improvement in cutting depth per pass is observed for the case of the diode laser. The increased cutting rate is rationalized in terms of the combined effects of coupling efficiency and beam shape

  2. Energy modulation of nonrelativistic electrons with a CO2 laser using a metal microslit

    OpenAIRE

    Jongsuck, Bae; Ryo, Ishikawa; Sumio, Okuyama; Takashi, Miyajima; Taiji, Akizuki; Tatsuya, Okamoto; Koji, Mizuno

    2000-01-01

    A metal microslit has been used as an interaction circuit between a CO2 laser beam and nonrelativistic free electrons. Evanescent waves which are induced on the slit by illumination of the laser light modulate the energy of electrons passing close to the surface of the slit. The electron-energy change of more than ±5 eV for the 80 keV electron beam has been observed using the 7 kW laser beam at the wavelength of 10.6 μm.

  3. Energy modulation of nonrelativistic electrons with a CO2 laser using a metal microslit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jongsuck; Ishikawa, Ryo; Okuyama, Sumio; Miyajima, Takashi; Akizuki, Taiji; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Mizuno, Koji

    2000-04-01

    A metal microslit has been used as an interaction circuit between a CO2 laser beam and nonrelativistic free electrons. Evanescent waves which are induced on the slit by illumination of the laser light modulate the energy of electrons passing close to the surface of the slit. The electron-energy change of more than ±5 eV for the 80 keV electron beam has been observed using the 7 kW laser beam at the wavelength of 10.6 μm.

  4. Flexible CO2 laser and submucosal gel injection for safe endoluminal resection in the intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Joyce T; Mittra, Arjun; Wong, Joyce; Carpenter, Susanne; Carson, Joshua; Haddad, Dana; Monette, Sebastien; Ezell, Paula; Patel, Snehal; Fong, Yuman

    2012-01-01

    The CO(2) laser's unique wavelength of 10.6 μm has the advantage of being readily absorbed by water but historically limited it to line-of-sight procedures. Through recent technological advances, a flexible CO(2) laser fiber has been developed and holds promise for endoluminal surgery. We examined whether this laser, along with injection of a water-based gel in the submucosal space, will allow safe dissection of the intestines and enhance the potential of this tool for minimally invasive surgery. Using an ex vivo model with porcine intestines, spot ablation was performed with the flexible CO(2) laser at different power settings until transmural perforation. Additionally, excisions of mucosal patches were performed by submucosal dissection with and without submucosal injection of a water-based gel. With spot ablation at 5 W, none of the specimens was perforated by 5 min, which was the maximum recorded time. The time to perforation was significantly shorter with increased laser power, and gel pretreatment protected the intestines against spot ablation, increasing the time to perforation from 6 to 37 s at 10 W and from 1 to 7 s at 15 W. During excision of mucosal patches, 56 and 83% of untreated intestines perforated at 5 and 10 W, respectively. Gel pretreatment prior to excision protected all intestines against perforation. These specimens were verified to be intact by inflation with air to over 100 mmHg. Furthermore, excision of the mucosal patch was complete in gel-pretreated specimens, whereas 22% of untreated specimens had residual islands of mucosa after excision. The flexible CO(2) laser holds promise as a precise dissection and cutting tool for endoluminal surgery of the intestines. Pretreatment with a submucosal injection of a water-based gel protects the intestines from perforation during ablation and mucosal dissection.

  5. Advantages of CO2 laser use in surgical management of otosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matković Svjetlana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Otosclerosis is a progressive osteo-destructive disorder of the bony labyrinth in which the fixation of the stapes causes the hearing loss. The aim of this study was the postoperative determination of parameters of the effect of surgical intervention on hearing and the incidence of complications and, on the basis of the differences in the examined parameters of the study, the estimation of the eficacy of the two mentioned surgical thechniques in the treatment of otosclerosis. Methods. In our research 40 patients with conductive hearing loss caused by otosclerosis underwent surgery with CO2 laser. Functional results were compared postoperatively with the results of 40 patients operated by the classical technique without the use of CO2 laser. The research was accomplished as a prospective comparative study. Results. The air-bone interval (gap as the difference between the rim of air and bone conductivity for separate frequencies did not significantly differ between the control and the experimental group. Both methods were effective in closing the air-bone gap with the rates of closure to within 10 dB in 82.6% and 75.3% for the laser and drill, respectively. The incidence of tinnitus was significantly lower in patients who underwent surgery with CO2 laser. The frequency of intraoperative and postoperative complications was significantly lower in the laser group. Differences were statistically significant for all parameters (p<0.05. Conclusion. On the basis of the degree of postoperative hearing improvement, tinnitus and the incidence of complications it can be concluded that the use of CO2 laser during inverse stapedoplasty represents an effective and safe method, justifying the promotion of its use in the surgical management of otosclerosis.

  6. CO2 laser ablation of bent optical fibers for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lévesque, L; Jdanov, V

    2011-01-01

    A procedure for the fabrication of a fiber optic sensor involving CO 2 laser ablation at λ = 10.6 µm is proposed. A basic system to achieve optical fiber bending and material processing on a single mode optical fiber is described and it is demonstrated that an optical fiber can be bent at a very precise angle by focusing a CO 2 beam locally near the glass cladding surface until it reaches melting temperature. A method is also described for removing material at the apex of a bent fiber to obtain a smooth and well flattened plane surface that is suitable for optical fiber sensing

  7. Infrared radiation and inversion population of CO2 laser levels in Venusian and Martian atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordiyets, B. F.; Panchenko, V. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Formation mechanisms of nonequilibrium 10 micron CO2 molecule radiation and the possible existence of a natural laser effect in the upper atmospheres of Venus and Mars are theoretically studied. An analysis is made of the excitation process of CO2 molecule vibrational-band levels (with natural isotropic content) induced by direct solar radiation in bands 10.6, 9.4, 4.3, 2.7 and 2.0 microns. The model of partial vibrational-band temperatures was used in the case. The problem of IR radiation transfer in vibrational-rotational bands was solved in the radiation escape approximation.

  8. High-speed high-efficiency 500-W cw CO2 laser hermetization of metal frames of microelectronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Andrey V.

    1996-04-01

    High-speed, efficient method of laser surface treatment has been developed using (500 W) cw CO2 laser. The principal advantages of CO2 laser surface treatment in comparison with solid state lasers are the basis of the method. It has been affirmed that high efficiency of welding was a consequence of the fundamental properties of metal-IR-radiation (10,6 mkm) interaction. CO2 laser hermetization of metal frames of microelectronic devices is described as an example of the proposed method application.

  9. Flow with vibrational energy exchange, application to CO2 electric laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, Claude.

    1974-01-01

    The performances of a continuous wave (CO 2 , N 2 , He) laser ionized by an electron beam are calculated. Several types of phenomena are considered: energy exchange processes between molecules of laser medium, electron molecular excitation processes, aerodynamic phenomena: the energy exchanges accompanying the laser effect generate important quantities of heat, which have to be evacuated by the flow. After a survey of the fundamental assumptions on molecular phenomena, a computer code was developed for following, along the flow, the evolution of the thermodynamic parameters (pressure, temperature), of the laser gain, and of the electrical properties (electron density and temperature). To provide a finer description of the last ones, a model giving the energy distribution of the electrons in the laser medium was established [fr

  10. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt-Nielsen Lars

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CO2 lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial to deeper skin layers. Methods In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO2 laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. Results The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p 0.90, p 2 (5 W, 0.12 s, d1/e2 = 11.4 mm only two reported pain to glabrous skin stimulation using the same stimulus intensity. The temperature at the epidermal-dermal junction (depth 50 μm in hairy and depth 133 μm in glabrous skin was estimated to 46°C for hairy skin stimulation and 39°C for glabrous skin stimulation. Conclusions As compared to previous one dimensional heat distribution models, the current two dimensional model provides new possibilities for detailed studies regarding CO2 laser stimulation intensity, temperature levels and nociceptor activation.

  11. Diffusion of Co and W in diamond tool induced by 10.6 µm CO2 laser radiation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, Bathusile N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available www.csir.co.za Experimental setup CO2 laser ZnSe lens, f = 250 mm HPHT diamond sample Infrared camera Slide 8 © CSIR 2009 www.csir.co.za Experimental setup CO2 laser ZnSe lens, f = 250 mm HPHT diamond sample Infrared camera...

  12. Modeling the Losses of Dissolved CO(2) from Laser-Etched Champagne Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2016-04-21

    Under standard champagne tasting conditions, the complex interplay between the level of dissolved CO2 found in champagne, its temperature, the glass shape, and the bubbling rate definitely impacts champagne tasting by modifying the neuro-physicochemical mechanisms responsible for aroma release and flavor perception. On the basis of theoretical principles combining heterogeneous bubble nucleation, ascending bubble dynamics, and mass transfer equations, a global model is proposed, depending on various parameters of both the wine and the glass itself, which quantitatively provides the progressive losses of dissolved CO2 from laser-etched champagne glasses. The question of champagne temperature was closely examined, and its role on the modeled losses of dissolved CO2 was corroborated by a set of experimental data.

  13. Development of an optical displacement transducer for CO2 laser auto-focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.D.

    1986-01-01

    The PCMWP has partially funded the development of an optical displacement transducer by UKAEA Culham Laboratory (Laser Applications Group). This report covers all work which was done up to the end of the 1984/5 financial year. The purpose of the transducer is to sense automatically the standoff gap between the workpiece and a laser cutting head and subsequently to control an auto-focusing head for the CO 2 laser cutting process. Development of the transducer has reached a stage where it can be mounted on an industrial robot and incorporated into a closed loop servo control system so that standoff gap can be closely controlled whilst traversing variable geometry workpieces. The transducer has been shown to be insensitive to angular displacement of the workpiece (within limits) and to workpiece type or surface finish with the exception of transparent materials. Separate trials have shown it to be unaffected by CO 2 laser light and it has been used, with a motorised laser head, to control standoff whilst the laser cuts a range of contoured materials. The scientific principle of the transducer has thus been proved and a laboratory system has been successfully tested. Its performance has matched the specification with the exception of its ability to sense transparent materials. (author)

  14. Fractional CO2 Laser Resurfacing as Monotherapy in the Treatment of Atrophic Facial Acne Scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher

    2014-04-01

    While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as 'excellent' if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar scars with minimal adverse effects.

  15. Optimization of CO2 Laser Cutting Process using Taguchi and Dual Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Selection of optimal cutting parameter settings for obtaining high cut quality in CO2 laser cutting process is of great importance. Among various analytical and experimental optimization methods, the application of Taguchi and response surface methodology is one of most commonly used for laser cutting process optimization. Although the concept of dual response surface methodology for process optimization has been used with success, till date, no experimental study has been reported in the field of laser cutting. In this paper an approach for optimization of CO2 laser cutting process using Taguchi and dual response surface methodology is presented. The goal was to determine the near optimal laser cutting parameter values in order to ensure robust condition for minimization of average surface roughness. To obtain experimental database for development of response surface models, Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array was implemented for experimental plan. Three cutting parameters, the cutting speed (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 m/min, the laser power (0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5 kW, and the assist gas pressure (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 bar, were used in the experiment. To obtain near optimal cutting parameters settings, multi-stage Monte Carlo simulation procedure was performed on the developed response surface models.

  16. Parameter optimization for selective laser melting of TiAl6V4 alloy by CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitimerov, R. M.; Lykov, P. A.; Radionova, L. V.; Safonov, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    TiAl6V4 alloy is one of the widely used materials in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing technologies. In recent years selective laser melting (SLM) of TiAl6V4 alloy by fiber laser has been well studied, but SLM by CO2-lasers has not. SLM of TiAl6V4 powder by CO2-laser was studied in this paper. Nine 10×10×10 mm cubic specimens were fabricated using different SLM process parameters. All of the fabricated specimens have a good dense structure and a good surface finish quality without dimensional distortion. The lowest porosity that was achieved was about 0.5%.

  17. Laser beam diagnostics for kilowatt power pulsed YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi; Leong, Keng H.

    1992-01-01

    There is a growing need for high power YAG laser beam diagnostics with the recent introduction of such lasers in laser material processing. In this paper, we will describe the use of a commercially available laser beam analyzer (Prometec) to profile the laser beam from a 1600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser that has a 1 mm fiber optic beam delivery system. The selection of laser pulse frequency and pulse width for the measurement is discussed. Laser beam propagation parameters by various optical components such as fibers and lenses can be determined from measurements using this device. The importance of such measurements will be discussed

  18. 13CO2/12CO2 isotope ratio analysis in human breath using a 2 μm diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingguo; Cao, Zhensong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Gao, Xiaoming; Chen, Weidong; Yinbo, Huang; Ruizhong, Rao

    2015-04-01

    The bacterium H. pylori is believed to cause peptic ulcer. H. pylori infection in the human stomach can be diagnosed through a CO2 isotope ratio measure in exhaled breath. A laser spectrometer based on a distributed-feedback semiconductor diode laser at 2 μm is developed to measure the changes of 13CO2/12CO2 isotope ratio in exhaled breath sample with the CO2 concentration of ~4%. It is characterized by a simplified optical layout, in which a single detector and associated electronics are used to probe CO2 spectrum. A new type multi-passes cell with 12 cm long base length , 29 m optical path length in total and 280 cm3 volume is used in this work. The temperature and pressure are well controlled at 301.15 K and 6.66 kPa with fluctuation amplitude of 25 mK and 6.7 Pa, respectively. The best 13δ precision of 0.06o was achieved by using wavelet denoising and Kalman filter. The application of denoising and Kalman filter not only improved the signal to noise ratio, but also shorten the system response time.

  19. Fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing as monotherapy in the treatment of atrophic facial acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as ′excellent′ if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and <25% improvement were labelled as ′good′ and ′poor′ response, respectively. The overall satisfaction of the patients and any adverse reactions to the treatment were also noted. Results: Most of the patients showed a combination of different morphological types of acne scars. At the time of final assessment 6 months after the last laser session, an excellent response was observed in 26 patients (43.3% while 15 (25% and 19 patients (31.7% demonstrated a good and poor response respectively. Rolling and superficial boxcar scars responded the best while pitted scars responded the least to fractional laser monotherapy. The commonest reported adverse effect was transient erythema and crusting lasting for an average of 3-4 and 4-6 days, respectively while three patients developed post-inflammatory pigmentation lasting for 8-12 weeks. Conclusions: Fractional laser resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar

  20. Analysis of the heat affected zone in CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madić Miloš J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the effect of the laser cutting parameters on the heat affected zone in CO2 laser cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel. The mathematical model for the heat affected zone was expressed as a function of the laser cutting parameters such as the laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position using the artificial neural network. To obtain experimental database for the artificial neural network training, laser cutting experiment was planned as per Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array with three levels for each of the cutting parameter. Using the 27 experimental data sets, the artificial neural network was trained with gradient descent with momentum algorithm and the average absolute percentage error was 2.33%. The testing accuracy was then verified with 6 extra experimental data sets and the average predicting error was 6.46%. Statistically assessed as adequate, the artificial neural network model was then used to investigate the effect of the laser cutting parameters on the heat affected zone. To analyze the main and interaction effect of the laser cutting parameters on the heat affected zone, 2-D and 3-D plots were generated. The analysis revealed that the cutting speed had maximum influence on the heat affected zone followed by the laser power, focus position and assist gas pressure. Finally, using the Monte Carlo method the optimal laser cutting parameter values that minimize the heat affected zone were identified.

  1. Complications of endoscopic CO2 laser surgery for laryngeal cancer and concepts of their management.

    OpenAIRE

    Prgomet, Drago; Bačić, Antun; Prstačić, Ratko; Janjanin, Saša

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic CO 2 laser surgery (ELS) is a widely accepted treatment modality for early laryngeal cancer. Commonly re- ported advantages of ELS are good oncologic results with low incidence of complications. Although less common if com- pared with open procedures, complications following ELS can be very serious, even with lethal outcome. They can range from intraoperative endotracheal tube fire accidents to early and late postoperative sequels that require intensive medical treatment, blood tra...

  2. Effect of CO2 laser on root caries inhibition around composite restorations: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Jociana Bandeira; Hanashiro, Fernando Seishim; Steagall, Washington; Turbino, Miriam Lacalle; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês; Youssef, Michel Nicolau; de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effect of CO2 laser on the inhibition of root surface demineralization around composite resin restorations. For this purpose, 30 blocks obtained from human molar roots were divided into three groups: group 1 (negative control), cavity prepared with cylindrical diamond bur + acid etching + adhesive + composite resin restoration; group 2, cavity prepared with cylindrical diamond bur + CO2 laser (5.0 J/cm(2)) + acid etching + adhesive + composite resin; and group 3, cavity prepared with cylindrical diamond bur + CO2 laser (6.0 J/cm(2)) + acid etching + adhesive + composite resin. After this procedure, the blocks were submitted to thermal and pH cycling. Root surface demineralization around the restorations was measured by microhardness analysis. The hardness results of the longitudinally sectioned root surface were converted into percentage of mineral volume, which was used to calculate the mineral loss delta Z (ΔZ). The percentage of mineral volume, ΔZ, and the percentage of demineralization inhibition of the groups were statistically analyzed by using analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer test. The percentage of mineral volume was higher in the irradiated groups up to 80 μm deep. The ΔZ was significantly lower in the irradiated groups than in the control group. The percentage of reduction in demineralization ranged from 19.73 to 29.21 in position 1 (50 μm), and from 24.76 to 26.73 in position 2 (100 μm), when using 6 and 5 J/cm(2), respectively. The CO2 laser was effective in inhibiting root demineralization around composite resin restorations.

  3. Differential expression of myofibroblasts on CO2 laser wounds and scalpel wounds: an experimental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, R. M.; Oliveira, C. R. B.; Vitória, L. A.; Xavier, F. C. A.; Pinheiro, A. L. B.; Freitas, A. C.; Ramalho, L. M. P.

    2018-04-01

    Wound contraction of both traumatic and surgical origin may reduce or limit the function of the tissue. Myofibroblasts are cells involved on the process of wound contraction, which is smaller on CO2 Laser wounds. The aims of this study were to quantitative and statistically assess the presence of myofibroblasts on both conventional and CO2 Laser wounds. Thirty-two animals (rattus norvegicus) were divided into four groups and operated using either the CO2 Laser (groups A1 and A2) or conventional scalpel (groups B1 and B2). The animals were sacrificed eight days post-operatively (groups: A1 and B1) and 14th days after surgery (groups: A2 and B2). The spec imens we re routinely processed to wax and stained with a-Smooth Muscle Actin (aSMA) and analyzed under light microscopy (40X). Two standard areas around the wound of each slide were selected and used to count the number of myofribroblasts present using a calibrated eyepiece and a graticule. The number of myofibroblasts at day eight was significantly higher than at day 14th. Comparison of the two techniques at day eight showed significant differences between the two groups (Laser, p=0.007 and scalpel, p=0.001). The number of cells present on group B1 was significantly higher than group A1 (p=0.001). However at the 14th day there was no such difference (p=0,072). It is concluded that the small number of myofibroblasts at day eight after wounding with the CO2 Lasermay be the reason why contraction on this wound is smaller than the one observed in conventional surgery.

  4. A CO2 laser polarimeter for measurement of plasma current profile in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Irby, J.; Luke, T.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel infrared polarimeter system for measurement of the plasma current profile in Alcator C-Mod has been designed, constructed, and tested. The system utilizes a cw CO 2 , laser at a wavelength of 10.6 μm. An electro-optic polarization-modulation technique has been used to achieve the high sensitivity required for the measurement. The recent results of the measurements as well as the feasibility of its application on ITER are presented

  5. Experimental observation of parametric effects near period doubling in a loss-modulated CO2 laser

    OpenAIRE

    Chizhevsky, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    A number of parametric effects, such as suppression of period doubling, shift of the bifurcation point, scaling law relating the shift and the perturbation amplitude, influence of the detuning on the suppression, reaching of the maximum gain between the original and shifted bifurcation points, and scaling law for idler power are experimentally observed near period doubling bifurcation in a loss-driven CO2 laser that is subjected to periodic loss perturbations at a frequency that is close to a...

  6. Comparison of surface roughness quality created by abrasive water jet and CO2 laser beam cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeleňák, M.; Valíček, Jan; Klich, Jiří; Židková, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2012), s. 481-485 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive waterjet cut ting * CO2 laser beam cut ting * optical profilometry * titanium sample Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.601, year: 2012 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=129054

  7. Oral Crest Lengthening for Increasing Removable Denture Retention by Means of CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Nammour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of teeth and their replacement by artificial denture is associated with many problems. The denture needs a certain amount of ridge height to give it retention and a long-term function. Crest lengthening procedures are performed to provide a better anatomic environment and to create proper supporting structures for more stability and retention of the denture. The purpose of our study is to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 laser-assisted surgery in patients treated for crest lengthening (vestibular deepening. There have been various surgical techniques described in order to restore alveolar ridge height by pushing muscles attaching of the jaws. Most of these techniques cause postoperative complications such as edemas, hemorrhage, pain, infection, slow healing, and rebound to initial position. Our clinical study describes the treatment planning and clinical steps for the crest lengthening with the use of CO2 laser beam (6–15 Watts in noncontact, energy density range: 84.92–212.31 J/cm2, focus, and continuous mode with a focal point diameter of 0.3 mm. At the end of each surgery, dentures were temporarily relined with a soft material. Patients were asked to mandatorily wear their relined denture for a minimum of 4–6 weeks and to remove it for hygienic purposes. At the end of each surgery, the deepest length of the vestibule was measured by the operator. No sutures were made and bloodless wounds healed in second intention without grafts. Results pointed out the efficiency of the procedure using CO2 laser. At 8 weeks of post-op, the mean of crest lengthening was stable without rebound. Only a loss of 15% was noticed. To conclude, the use of CO2 laser is an effective option for crest lengthening.

  8. Properties of ZnO whiskers under CO2-laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkumbatyuk, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    Needlelike ZnO single crystals (whiskers) 0.3-0.8 mm long and 1-10 μm in diameter with a resistivity from 3 x 10 2 to 1 Ω cm have been grown under cw CO 2 -laser irradiation. The whiskers exhibit weak electroluminescence caused by injection from contacts with participation of intrinsic defects, which affect the electric field distribution.

  9. Alignment control of columnar liquid crystals with wavelength tunable CO2 laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monobe, Hirosato; Awazu, Kunio; Shimizu, Yo

    2008-01-01

    Infrared-induced alignment change with wavelength tunable CO 2 laser irradiation for columnar liquid crystal domains was investigated for a liquid crystalline triphenylene derivative. A uniformly aligned alignment change of domains was observed when a chopped linearly polarized infrared laser light corresponding to the wavelength of the aromatic C-O-C stretching vibration band (9.65 μm) was irradiated. The results strongly imply that the infrared irradiation is a possible technique for device fabrication by use of columnar mesophase as a liquid crystalline semiconductor

  10. Epiglottis reshaping using CO2 laser: A minimally invasive technique and its potent applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velegrakis George

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laryngomalacia (LRM, is the most common laryngeal abnormality of the newborn, caused by a long curled epiglottis, which prolapses posteriorly. Epiglottis prolapse during inspiration (acquired laryngomalacia is an unusual cause of airway obstruction and a rare cause of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. We present a minimally invasive technique where epiglottis on cadaveric larynx specimens was treated with CO2 laser. The cartilage reshaping effect induced by laser irradiation was capable of exposing the glottis opening widely. This technique could be used in selected cases of LRM and OSAS due to epiglottis prolapse as an alternative, less morbid approach.

  11. Design of an Optical System for High Power CO2 Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lange, D.F.; Meijer, J.; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2003-01-01

    The results of a design study for the optical system for cutting with high power CO2 lasers (6 kW and up) will be presented. As transparent materials cannot be used for these power levels, mirrors have been applied. A coaxial cutting gas supply has been designed with a laser beam entrance into th...... independent of the entering beam angle or position. manufacturing tolerances have been compensated in a one time adjustment during the assembly of the optical system. Preliminary cutting results in 13 mm thick steel in a shipyard application show a signinficant improvement in the cutting performance....

  12. Dispersion of Light and Heavy Pollutants in Urban Scale Models: CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelinger, Zdeněk; Střižík, M.; Kubát, Pavel; Civiš, Svatopluk; Grigorová, E.; Janečková, R.; Zavila, O.; Nevrlý, Václav; Herecová, L.; Bailleux, S.; Horká-Zelenková, Veronika; Ferus, Martin; Skříňský, J.; Kozubková, M.; Drábková, S.; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 4 (2009), s. 430-436 ISSN 0003-7028 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 111; GA MŠk LC06071; GA ČR GA202/06/0216; GA MŽP SPII1A0/45/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : Air pollution * CO2 laser photoacoustic spectroscopy * PAS * Laser diode spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.564, year: 2009

  13. Experimental and theoretical analysis of defocused CO2 laser microchanneling on PMMA for enhanced surface finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    The poor surface finish of CO2 laser-micromachined microchannel walls is a major limitation of its utilization despite several key advantages, like low fabrication cost and low time consumption. Defocused CO2 laser beam machining is an effective solution for fabricating smooth microchannel walls on polymer and glass substrates. In this research work, the CO2 laser microchanneling process on PMMA has been analyzed at different beam defocus positions. Defocused processing has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally, and the depth of focus and beam diameter have been determined experimentally. The effect of beam defocusing on the microchannel width, depth, surface roughness, heat affected zone and microchannel profile were examined. A previously developed analytical model for microchannel depth prediction has been improved by incorporating the threshold energy density factor. A semi-analytical model for predicting the microchannel width at different defocus positions has been developed. A semi-empirical model has also been developed for predicting microchannel widths at different defocusing conditions for lower depth values. The developed models were compared and verified by performing actual experiments. Multi-objective optimization was performed to select the best optimum set of input parameters for achieving the desired surface roughness.

  14. Topical sucralfate for pain after oral CO2 laser surgery: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chau-Shiang; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Chien, Chih-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of topical sucralfate on postoperative pain scores and other secondary outcomes including the frequency and duration of analgesic use and postoperative bleeding episodes after CO(2) laser treatment of oral leukoplakia. In this prospective trial, a total of 80 patients were randomized into the sucralfate group (n = 40) or the control group (n = 40). Postoperative pain scores, the frequency and duration of analgesic requirements, and postoperative wound bleeding episodes were compared between the 2 groups from the operative day to postoperative day 6. Patients in the sucralfate group experienced significantly less postoperative pain on postoperative days 1 and 2. Although there was no significant difference in frequency and duration of analgesic use between the 2 groups, a trend toward lower frequency and fewer days of analgesic use in the sucralfate group was observed. This study demonstrated the efficacy of topical sucralfate application in diminishing postoperative pain after CO(2) laser therapy for oral leukoplakia. Topical sucralfate can be considered a feasible adjuvant medication for the control of pain after CO(2) laser treatment of oral leukoplakia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CO2-laser decomposition method of carbonate for AMS 14C measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    A CO 2 laser decomposition method enabled the efficient preparation of carbonate samples for AMS 14 C measurement. Samples were loaded in a vacuum chamber and thermally decomposed using laser emission. CO 2 liberated from the carbonate was directly trapped in the cold finger trap of a small CO 2 reduction reactor and graphitized by a hydrogen gas reduction method using catalytic iron powder. The fraction modern values for 0.07–0.57 mg of carbon, obtained from 200 μm-diameter spots of IAEA-C1, varied with sample size in the range of 0.00072 ± 0.00003 to 0.00615 ± 0.00052. The contamination induced by the laser decomposition method and the following graphite handling was estimated to be 0.53 ± 0.21 μg of modern carbon, assuming a constant amount of extraneous carbon contamination. This method could also make it possible to avoid the time-consuming procedures of the conventional acid dissolution method that involves multiple complex steps for the preparation of carbonate samples.

  16. Correlation between Surface Roughness Characteristics in CO2 Laser Cutting of Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radovanović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CO2 laser oxygen cutting of mild steel is widely used industrial application. Cut surface quality is a very important characteristic of laser cutting that ensures an advantage over other contour cutting processes. In this paper mathematical models for estimating characteristics of surface quality such as average surface roughness and ten-point mean roughness in CO2 laser cutting of mild steel based on laser cutting parameters were developed. Empirical models were developed using artificial neural networks and experimental data collected. Taguchi’s orthogonal array was implemented for experimental plan. From the analysis of the developed mathematical models it was observed that functional dependence between laser cutting parameters, their interactions and surface roughness characteristics is complex and non-linear. It was also observed that there exist region of minimal average surface roughness to ten-point mean roughness ratio. The relationship between average surface roughness and ten-point mean roughness was found to be nonlinear and can be expressed with a second degree polynomial.

  17. Feasibility study of a CO2-laser based lightning-protection system realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, Victor V.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of producing a continuous laser spark (CLS) with low resistance by focusing radiation from a CO2 laser with a conic mirror is demonstrated. The laser energy input per unit length required for this is experimentally found to be equal to ≈200 J/m. The possibility to efficiently control the trajectory of an electric discharge by means of a CLS is demonstrated. The effect of polarity in the electric breakdown of the air gaps between the CLS plasma channel and a metal rod is discovered and interpreted. The transverse structure of CLS conductivity is investigated. The possibility of producing a long laser spark (LLS) with much higher resistance by focusing radiation from a CO2 laser with a spherical mirror used to protect objects against lightning is studied. The conditions under which the electric discharges from clouds can be guided reproducibly along a LLS are determined. Experiments reveal that the interaction between the LLS and the discharge from an electrode (lightning rod) leads to a decrease in the lifetime of the streamer corona burst, as well as to an increase in the current of the developing leader and its velocity compared to the case without the LLS.

  18. Application of CO2 laser beam weld for repair of fuel element of nuclear reactor 'YAYOI'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Yanagi, Hideharu; Sukegawa, Toshio; Saito, Isao; Sasuga, Norihiko; Aizawa, Nagaaki; Miya, Kenzo

    1986-01-01

    The present studies are to develop CO 2 laser beam welding techniques in order to apply for repoint of nuclear reactor fuel of Fast Neutron Source Reactor YAYOI. For that purpos, many experiments were conduted to obtain various effects of laser welding variables with use of SUS 304 plates, pipes and simulated dumy fuels. These experiments provided us an optimal welding condition through metallurgical observations, non-destructive and mechanical tests. It was found that the laser welds exhibited properties equivalent to those of the base metal, in addition they provided us a favorable system than that of electron beam welds against a cladding of radioactive nuclear fuel in a hot cell. The present paper reports on the characteristics of laser welds, structural analysis of fuel element and a system design of remotely operated devices setting in a hot cell. (author)

  19. Investigating the CO 2 laser cutting parameters of MDF wood composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltawahni, H. A.; Olabi, A. G.; Benyounis, K. Y.

    2011-04-01

    Laser cutting of medium density fibreboard (MDF) is a complicated process and the selection of the process parameters combinations is essential to get the highest quality cut section. This paper presents a means for selecting the process parameters for laser cutting of MDF based on the design of experiments (DOE) approach. A CO 2 laser was used to cut three thicknesses, 4, 6 and 9 mm, of MDF panels. The process factors investigated are: laser power, cutting speed, air pressure and focal point position. In this work, cutting quality was evaluated by measuring the upper kerf width, the lower kerf width, the ratio between the upper kerf width to the lower kerf width, the cut section roughness and the operating cost. The effect of each factor on the quality measures was determined. The optimal cutting combinations were presented in favours of high quality process output and in favours of low cutting cost.

  20. Beta dosimetry using pulsed laser heating of TLD materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quam, W.

    1983-01-01

    Use of a pulsed CO 2 laser to heat the surface of hot-pressed LiF chips has been investigated. The thermoluminescent traps in the first 10 to 20 μm of depth may be read out with good efficiency, which will allow entrance dose and exit dose to be determined using a standard chip. These dose data can be used to calculate beta dose and gamma dose separately. Readout speed is estimated to be a few milliseconds per chip

  1. Quantitative measurement of carbon isotopic composition in CO2 gas reservoir by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Li, Rongxi; Zhao, Bangsheng; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Shuan; Cheng, Jinghua; Wu, Xiaoli

    2018-04-15

    The use of Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology for quantitatively determining gas carbon isotope composition is presented. In this study, 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 were mixed with N 2 at various molar fraction ratios to obtain Raman quantification factors (F 12CO2 and F 13CO2 ), which provide a theoretical basis for calculating the δ 13 C value. And the corresponding values were 0.523 (0Raman peak area can be used for the determination of δ 13 C values within the relative errors range of 0.076% to 1.154% in 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 binary mixtures when F 12CO2 /F 13CO2 is 0.466972625. In addition, measurement of δ 13 C values by Micro-Laser Raman analysis were carried out on natural CO 2 gas from Shengli Oil-field at room temperature under different pressures. The δ 13 C values obtained by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technology are in good agreement with each other, and the relative errors range of δ 13 C values is 1.232%-6.964%. This research provides a fundamental analysis tool for determining gas carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C values) quantitatively by using Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy. Experiment of results demonstrates that this method has the potential for obtaining δ 13 C values in natural CO 2 gas reservoirs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Novel CO2 laser robotic controller outperforms experienced laser operators in tasks of accuracy and performance repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu-Tung; Finley, Charles C; Giallo, Joseph F; Buckmire, Robert A

    2011-08-01

    To introduce a novel method of combining robotics and the CO(2) laser micromanipulator to provide excellent precision and performance repeatability designed for surgical applications. Pilot feasibility study. We developed a portable robotic controller that appends to a standard CO(2) laser micromanipulator. The robotic accuracy and laser beam path repeatability were compared to six experienced users of the industry standard micromanipulator performing the same simulated surgical tasks. Helium-neon laser beam video tracking techniques were employed. The robotic controller demonstrated superiority over experienced human manual micromanipulator control in accuracy (laser path within 1 mm of idealized centerline), 97.42% (standard deviation [SD] 2.65%), versus 85.11% (SD 14.51%), P = .018; and laser beam path repeatability (area of laser path divergence on successive trials), 21.42 mm(2) (SD 4.35 mm(2) ) versus 65.84 mm(2) (SD 11.93 mm(2) ), P = .006. Robotic micromanipulator control enhances accuracy and repeatability for specific laser tasks. Computerized control opens opportunity for alternative user interfaces and additional safety features. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Space-Based CO2 Active Optical Remote Sensing using 2-μm Triple-Pulse IPDA Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra; Refaat, Tamer; Ismail, Syed; Petros, Mulugeta

    2017-04-01

    Sustained high-quality column CO2 measurements from space are required to improve estimates of regional and global scale sources and sinks to attribute them to specific biogeochemical processes for improving models of carbon-climate interactions and to reduce uncertainties in projecting future change. Several studies show that space-borne CO2 measurements offer many advantages particularly over high altitudes, tropics and southern oceans. Current satellite-based sensing provides rapid CO2 monitoring with global-scale coverage and high spatial resolution. However, these sensors are based on passive remote sensing, which involves limitations such as full seasonal and high latitude coverage, poor sensitivity to the lower atmosphere, retrieval complexities and radiation path length uncertainties. CO2 active optical remote sensing is an alternative technique that has the potential to overcome these limitations. The need for space-based CO2 active optical remote sensing using the Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been advocated by the Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth (A-Scope) and Active Sensing of CO2 Emission over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) studies in Europe and the USA. Space-based IPDA systems can provide sustained, high precision and low-bias column CO2 in presence of thin clouds and aerosols while covering critical regions such as high latitude ecosystems, tropical ecosystems, southern ocean, managed ecosystems, urban and industrial systems and coastal systems. At NASA Langley Research Center, technology developments are in progress to provide high pulse energy 2-μm IPDA that enables optimum, lower troposphere weighted column CO2 measurements from space. This system provides simultaneous ranging; information on aerosol and cloud distributions; measurements over region of broken clouds; and reduces influences of surface complexities. Through the continual support from NASA Earth Science Technology Office

  4. Comparison of CO(2) laser and 4.0 MHz radiosurgery for making incisions in the skin and muscles of green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Divers, S J; Stahl, S J; Rakich, P M; Blas-Machado, U

    2009-01-03

    Four green iguanas scheduled for euthanasia were used to compare the extent of collateral tissue damage associated with CO(2) laser and 4.0 MHz radiosurgery. The iguanas were anaesthetised and a series of three skin and three muscle incisions was made by 4.0 MHz radiosurgery (0.18 mm wire electrode, 25 W, cut mode) and CO(2) laser (0.3 mm ceramic tip, 15 W focused beam super-pulse mode), and three incisions were made with a scalpel blade as controls. Following euthanasia, a total of 60 skin and 36 muscle sections were evaluated histologically. Radiosurgery and the laser both produced bloodless incisions, but radiosurgery caused significantly less collateral tissue damage in the skin (307 [97] v 386 [108] microm) and the muscle (18 [7] v 91 [15] microm).

  5. Osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by CO2 laser-treatment stimulating macrophages via BMP2 signalling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-01-01

    Immune reactions play an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone formation, either in new bone formation or inflammatory fibrous tissue encapsulation. Macrophage cell, the important effector cells in the immune reaction, which are indispensable for osteogenesis and their heterogeneity and plasticity, render macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. However, there are very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used CO 2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of macrophage cells on the CO 2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was also significantly up regulated by the CO 2 laser stimulation, indicating that macrophage may participate in the CO 2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when laser treatment macrophage-conditioned medium were applied to human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs), the osteogenesis differentiation of hPDLs was significantly enhanced, indicating the important role of macrophages in CO 2 laser-induced osteogenesis. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of CO 2 laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment. (paper)

  6. Laser ablation comparison by picosecond pulses train and nanosecond pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V. N.; Filippov, M. N.; Bunkin, A. F.; Pershin, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    A comparison of laser ablation by a train of picosecond pulses and nanosecond pulses revealed a difference in laser craters, ablation thresholds, plasma sizes and spectral line intensities. Laser ablation with a train of picosecond pulses resulted in improved crater quality while ablated mass decreased up to 30%. A reduction in laser plasma dimensions for picosecond train ablation was observed while the intensity of atomic/ionic lines in the plasma spectra was greater by a factor of 2-4 indicating an improved excitation and atomization in the plasma.

  7. System for increasing laser pulse rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A technique of static elements is disclosed for combining a plurality of laser beams having time sequenced, pulsed radiation to achieve an augmented pulse rate. The technique may also be applied in a system for combining both time sequenced pulses and frequency distinct pulses for use in a system for isotope enrichment. (author)

  8. The effect of fractional CO2 laser irradiation on remineralization of enamel white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosti, Maryam; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Moosavi, Horieh; Najjaran, Hoda

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the combined effect of fractional CO(2) laser irradiation and fluoride on treatment of enamel caries. Sixty intact premolars were randomly assigned into four groups and then stored in a demineralizing solution to induce white spot lesions. Tooth color was determined at baseline (T1) and after demineralization (T2). Afterwards, the teeth in group 1 remained untreated (control), while group 2 was exposed to an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel for 4 min. In groups 3 and 4, a fractional CO(2) laser was applied (10 mJ, 200 Hz, 10 s) either before (group 3) or through (group 4) the APF gel. The teeth were then immersed in artificial saliva for 90 days while subjected to daily fluoride mouthrinse and weekly brushing. Color examinations were repeated after topical fluoride application (T3) and 90 days later (T4). Finally, the teeth were sectioned, and microhardness was measured at the enamel surface and at 30 and 60 μ from the surface. In both lased groups, the color change between T1 and T4 stages (∆E(T1-T4)) was significantly lower than those of the other groups (p Laser irradiation followed by fluoride application (group 3) caused a significant increase in surface microhardness compared to APF alone and control groups (p laser before fluoride therapy is suggested for recovering the color and rehardening of demineralized enamel.

  9. Validity of reciprocity rule on mouse skin thermal damage due to CO2 laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, P.; Dehghanpour, H. R.; Moghadam, M. S.; Daneshafrooz, V.

    2013-07-01

    CO2 laser (10.6 μm) is a well-known infrared coherent light source as a tool in surgery. At this wavelength there is a high absorbance coefficient (860 cm-1), because of vibration mode resonance of H2O molecules. Therefore, the majority of the irradiation energy is absorbed in the tissue and the temperature of the tissue rises as a function of power density and laser exposure duration. In this work, the tissue damage caused by CO2 laser (1-10 W, ˜40-400 W cm-2, 0.1-6 s) was measured using 30 mouse skin samples. Skin damage assessment was based on measurements of the depth of cut, mean diameter of the crater and the carbonized layer. The results show that tissue damage as assessed above parameters increased with laser fluence and saturated at 1000 J cm-2. Moreover, the damage effect due to high power density at short duration was not equivalent to that with low power density at longer irradiation time even though the energy delivered was identical. These results indicate the lack of validity of reciprocity (Bunsen-Roscoe) rule for the thermal damage.

  10. Automation methodology for the development of LPFG using CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Alves, D.; Coelho, João. M. P.; Nespereira, Marta; Monteiro, Fernando; Abreu, Manuel; Rebordão, J. M.

    2013-11-01

    The mid-infrared radiation produced by CO2 lasers is being widely used to produce long period fiber gratings (LPFG) with several advantages over other methods. Several techniques can be used to irradiate the fiber in order to produce the necessary effect. Using a cylindrical lens to create a line of light or scanning of a spot over the fiber are the most common approaches. Usually, the period is produced either by a translation stage moving perpendicular to the incident beam or by using a two mirrors scanner that inscribes the entire period directly on the fiber. In both cases, the synchronization between the laser and the moving elements is critical. Also, when using a two mirrors scanner, the dimension of the LPFG is limited by the focusing lens diameter and its focal length. All this become critical when one needs to increase the LPFG's length or reduce its period. The later usually implies shorter laser emission times, which is limited by the laser emission physics (at least for cheap low power CW lasers). In order to overcome the disadvantages of each method, a combined approach is presented and analyzed. A mirror scans vertically the beam over a cylindrical lens and a translation stage moves the fiber to create the different periods. The laser keeps emitting during the complete process increasing laser power stability and thus, improving grating homogeneity. To guarantee the synchronization between the translation table and the one mirror scanner, special hardware and software was created.

  11. Fractional CO2 laser treatment for vulvovaginal atrophy symptoms and vaginal rejuvenation in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available César Arroyo HM Montepríncipe University Hospital Laser Unit, Madrid, Spain Background: This study investigated a novel fractional carbon dioxide (CO2 laser for treatment of symptoms associated with vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA in perimenopausal women.Methods: The study included 21 perimenopausal women (mean age 45±7 years treated three times by CO2 laser resurfacing and coagulation of the vaginal canal tissue and mucosal tissue of the introitus. Vaginal health index (VHI scores were computed by the investigator at baseline and follow-ups. Subjects reported on sexual function, satisfaction, and improvement with treatment. A visual analog scale was used to measure discomfort with treatment.Results: Vaginal health and subject assessment of vaginal symptoms improved with successive treatments. At 12 weeks following the third treatment, 82% of the patients showed a statistically significant improvement in VHI (P<0.05. Additionally, 81% of subjects reported improvement in sexual gratification, 94% reported improvement in vaginal rejuvenation, and 100% reported satisfaction with treatment. VHI improvement remained significant at 6–8 months after treatments (P<0.01. Most patients (97% reported no to mild discomfort with treatment. Responses were mild and transient following treatment, with itching being the most commonly reported (20% side effect.Conclusion: In this study, fractional CO2 laser treatment was associated with improvement of vaginal health and amelioration of symptoms of VVA, resulting in improved sexual function in perimenopausal women. Treatment time was quick, and there was minimal discomfort associated with treatment. Investigation of clinical outcome in a larger study population is warranted. Keywords: genitourinary syndrome of menopause, vaginal rejuvenation, stress urinary incontinence, collagen remodeling, sexual dysfunction, vulvovaginal atrophy

  12. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background CO2 lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial to deeper skin layers. Methods In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO2 laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. Results The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p 0.90, p < 0.001). Of the 16 subjects tested; eight subjects reported pricking pain in the hairy skin following a stimulus of 0.6 J/cm2 (5 W, 0.12 s, d1/e2 = 11.4 mm) only two reported pain to glabrous skin stimulation using the same stimulus intensity. The temperature at the epidermal-dermal junction (depth 50 μm in hairy and depth 133 μm in glabrous skin) was estimated to 46°C for hairy skin stimulation and 39°C for glabrous skin stimulation. Conclusions As compared to previous one dimensional heat distribution models, the current two dimensional model provides new possibilities for detailed studies regarding CO2 laser stimulation intensity, temperature levels and nociceptor activation. PMID:21059226

  13. Photoemission using femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.; Fischer, J.

    1991-10-01

    Successful operation of short wavelength FEL requires an electron bunch of current >100 A and normalized emittance < 1 mm-mrad. Recent experiments show that RF guns with photocathodes as the electron source may be the ideal candidate for achieving these parameters. To reduce the emittance growth due to space charge and RF dynamics effects, the gun may have to operate at high field gradient (hence at high RF frequency) and a spot size small compared to the aperture. This may necessitate the laser pulse duration to be in the subpicosecond regime to reduce the energy spread. We will present the behavior of metal photocathodes upon irradiation with femtosecond laser beams, comparison of linear and nonlinear photoemission, and scalability to high currents. Theoretical estimate of the intrinsic emittance at the photocathode in the presence of the anomalous heating of the electrons, and the tolerance on the surface roughness of the cathode material will be discussed

  14. CO2 laser coating of nanodiamond on aluminum using an annular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Rodger; Molian, Pal

    2014-01-01

    Laser coating of nanodiamond (ND) on aluminum alloy A319 substrate was investigated using a diffraction-free ring beam. A 1000 W continuous wave CO 2 laser in the ring beam configuration heated the 25–35 μm thick electrostatically sprayed ND powder layers on aluminum surface, melted a very thin layer (10 μm) of aluminum in a controlled fashion and caused phase transition of ND to form 50–60 μm thick ND/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. Significant improvements in friction, wear resistance and surface finish were observed in the ring beam method over the traditional Gaussian beam method suggesting that these thick (50–60 μm) ND/DLC laser coatings can outperform the currently used thin (<4 μm) chemically vapor deposited DLC coatings for aluminum parts in automobiles.

  15. AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN CO2 LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOŠ MADIĆ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In laser cutting, the cut quality is of great importance. Multiple non-linear effects of process parameters and their interactions make very difficult to predict cut quality. In this paper, artificial intelligence (AI approach was applied to predict the surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting. To this aim, artificial neural network (ANN model of surface roughness was developed in terms of cutting speed, laser power and assist gas pressure. The experimental results obtained from Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array were used to develop ANN model. The ANN mathematical model of surface roughness was expressed as explicit nonlinear function of the selected input parameters. Statistical results indicate that the ANN model can predict the surface roughness with good accuracy. It was showed that ANNs may be used as a good alternative in analyzing the effects of cutting parameters on the surface roughness.

  16. Real-time near IR (1310 nm) imaging of CO2 laser ablation of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-18

    The high-transparency of dental enamel in the near-IR (NIR) can be exploited for real-time imaging of ablation crater formation during drilling with lasers. NIR images were acquired with an InGaAs focal plane array and a NIR zoom microscope during drilling incisions in human enamel samples with a lambda=9.3-microm CO(2) laser operating at repetition rates of 50-300-Hz with and without a water spray. Crack formation, dehydration and thermal changes were observed during ablation. These initial images demonstrate the potential of NIR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to provide information about the mechanism of ablation and to evaluate the potential for peripheral thermal and mechanical damage.

  17. A 2.5-kW industrial CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golov, V. K.; Ivanchenko, A. I.; Krasheninnikov, V. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Shepelenko, A. A.

    1986-06-01

    A fast-flow laser is reported in which the active medium is excited by a self-sustained dc discharge produced by an electric-discharge device with nonsectioned electrodes. In the laser, two discharge gaps are formed by a flat anode and two cathodes, one on each side of the anode. A gas mixture is driven through the gasdynamic channel by a centrifugal fan rotating at 6000 rpm/min. With a mixture of CO2:N2:He = 2.5:7.5:5 mm Hg, the rated power is 2.5 kW; the maximum power is 4 kW with the mixture 2.5:7.5:10 mm Hg. The general design of the laser is described, and its principal performance characteristics are given.

  18. The first terawatt picosecond CO2 laser for advanced accelerator studies at the Brookhaven ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Skaritka, J.

    1996-10-01

    The first terawatt picosecond C0 2 laser system is under development at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility. Presently operational 1 Joule 100-ps ATF laser will be upgraded with a 10 atm amplifier capable of delivery ∼ 15 Joules of laser energy in a 3 ps pulse. We describe the design of the x-ray preionized 10 atm amplifier of a 10 liter active volume energized by a 1 MV, 200 kA transverse electric discharge. The amplifier, equipped with internal optics, permits the accommodation of a regenerative stage and a multi-pass booster in a relatively compact single discharge volume. The ATF terawatt C0 2 laser shall become operational in 1997 to serve for laser acceleration, x-ray generation and other strong-field physics experiments

  19. High-speed scanning ablation of dental hard tissues with a λ = 9.3 μm CO2 laser: adhesion, mechanical strength, heat accumulation, and peripheral thermal damage

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Daniel; Chang, Kwang; Hedayatollahnajafi, Saba; Staninec, Michal; Chan, Kenneth; Lee, Robert; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    CO2 lasers can be operated at high laser pulse repetition rates for the rapid and precise removal of dental decay. Excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage is a concern when using high pulse repetition rates. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. The interpulpal temperature rise was recorded using microthermocouples situated at ...

  20. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Concentration and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection IPDA Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Weaver, Clark J.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar to measure range and the column concentration of atmospheric CO2. The lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and samples the shape of the 1,572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. We participated in the ASCENDS science flights on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during August 2011 and report here lidar measurements made on four flights over a variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US. These included over a stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, to a dry lake bed surrounded by mountains in Nevada, to a desert area with a coal-fired power plant, and from the Rocky Mountains to Iowa, with segments with both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Most flights were to altitudes >12 km and had 5-6 altitude steps. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range, CO2 column absorption, and CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds, between cumulus clouds, and to stratus cloud tops. The retrievals shows the decrease in column CO2 due to growing vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as a sudden increase in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption lineshape (averaged for 50 s) matched the predicted shapes to better than 1% RMS error. For 10 s averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2-3 ppm and was limited by the received signal photon count. Retrievals were made using atmospheric parameters from both an atmospheric model and from in situ temperature and pressure from the aircraft. The retrievals had no free parameters and did not use empirical adjustments, and >70% of the measurements passed screening and were used in analysis. The differences between the lidar-measured retrievals and in situ measured average CO2 column concentrations were 6 km.

  1. Interaction of CO2 laser-modified nylon with osteoblast cells in relation to wettability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, D.G.; Lawrence, J.; Morgan, D.J.; Thomas, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    It has been amply demonstrated previously that CO 2 lasers hold the ability to surface modify various polymers. In addition, it has been observed that these surface enhancements can augment the biomimetic nature of the laser irradiated materials. This research has employed a CO 2 laser marker to produce trench and hatch topographical patterns with peak heights of around 1 μm on the surface of nylon 6,6. The patterns generated have been analysed using white light interferometry, optical microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to determine the surface oxygen content. Contact angle measurements were used to characterize each sample in terms of wettability. Generally, it was seen that as a result of laser processing the contact angle, surface roughness and surface oxygen content increased whilst the apparent polar and total surface energies decreased. The increase in contact angle and reduction in surface energy components was found to be on account of a mixed intermediate state wetting regime owing to the change in roughness due to the induced topographical patterns. To determine the biomimetic nature of the modified and as-received control samples each one was seeded with 2 x 10 4 cells/ml normal human osteoblast cells and observed after periods of 24 h and 4 days using optical microscopy and SEM to determine mean cell cover densities and variations in cell morphology. In addition, a haemocytometer was used to show that the cell count for the laser patterned samples had increased by up to a factor of 1.5 compared to the as-received control sample after 4 days of incubation. Significantly, it was determined that all laser-induced patterns gave rise to better cell response in comparison to the as-received control sample studied due to increased preferential cell growth on those surfaces with increased surface roughness.

  2. Reactive pulsed laser deposition with gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowski, R.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.

    2001-01-01

    Different metal (Sn, Al, steel, Cu, W) thin films were synthesized by reactive pulsed laser deposition on steel, copper and glass wafers. In our work pulsed Nd:glass (10 J, 800μs) laser system was used. Jet of gas was created by electromagnetic valve perpendicularly to the laser beam. Nitrogen, oxygen and argon were used. We used several to tens laser shots to obtain visible with the naked eye layers. Thin layers were observed under an optical microscope. (author)

  3. Thermal stress in dentin and enamel under CO2 laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dirk H.; Foth, Hans-Jochen

    1996-01-01

    Ablation of dentin and tartar was studied under carbon dioxide-laser irradiation in cw and pulse mode with pulse length down to 150 microseconds. The specimens had been cut by a diamant blade to slices of thicknesses between 0.8 and 2.8 mm. The laser induced temperature rise was measured by an infrared camera monitoring the backside of the samples. The specimens shape and structure at the laser spot was analyzed by electron microscopy. Of special interest was the testing of the SwiftLaseTM to reducing the heat. The experimental results show the necessity of a water cooling in all application modes. The origin of the cracks which had been observed in many of the samples, is currently under investigation.

  4. Physics of laser fusion. Volume III. High-power pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Eimerl, D.; George, E.V.; Trenholme, J.B.; Simmons, W.W.; Hunt, J.T.

    1982-09-01

    High-power pulsed lasers can deliver sufficient energy on inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) time scales (0.1 to 10 ns) to heat and compress deuterium-tritium fuel to fusion-reaction conditions. Several laser systems have been examined, including Nd:glass, CO 2 , KrF, and I 2 , for their ICF applicability. A great deal of developmental effort has been applied to the Nd:glass laser and the CO 2 gas laser systems; these systems now deliver > 10 4 J and 20 x 10 12 W to ICF targets. We are constructing the Nova Nd:glass laser at LLNL to provide > 100 kJ and > 100 x 10 12 W of 1-μm radiation for fusion experimentation in the mid-1980s. For ICF target gain > 100 times the laser input, we expect that the laser driver must deliver approx. 3 to 5 MJ of energy on a time scale of 10 to 20 ns. In this paper we review the technological status of fusion-laser systems and outline approaches to constructing high-power pulsed laser drivers

  5. Physics of zinc vaporization and plasma absorption during CO2 laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, A. K.; Mazumder, J.; Li, P.

    2007-01-01

    A number of mathematical models have been developed earlier for single-material laser welding processes considering one-, two-, and three-dimensional heat and mass transfers. However, modeling of laser welding of materials with multiple compositions has been a difficult problem. This paper addresses a specific case of this problem where CO 2 laser welding of zinc-coated steel, commonly used in automobile body manufacturing, is mathematically modeled. The physics of a low boiling point material, zinc, is combined with a single-material (steel) welding model, considering multiple physical phenomena such as keyhole formation, capillary and thermocapillary forces, recoil and vapor pressures, etc. The physics of laser beam-plasma interaction is modeled to understand the effect on the quality of laser processing. Also, an adaptive meshing scheme is incorporated in the model for improving the overall computational efficiency. The model, whose results are found to be in close agreement with the experimental observations, can be easily extended for studying zinc-coated steel welding using other high power, continuous wave lasers such as Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG

  6. Thermal infrared laser heterodyne spectroradiometry for solar occultation atmospheric CO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Alex; Macleod, Neil A.; Huebner, Marko; Weidmann, Damien

    2016-12-01

    This technology demonstration paper reports on the development, demonstration, performance assessment, and initial data analysis of a benchtop prototype quantum cascade laser heterodyne spectroradiometer, operating within a narrow spectral window of ˜ 1 cm-1 around 953.1 cm-1 in transmission mode and coupled to a passive Sun tracker. The instrument has been specifically designed for accurate dry air total column, and potentially vertical profile, measurements of CO2. Data from over 8 months of operation in 2015 near Didcot, UK, confirm that atmospheric measurements with noise levels down to 4 times the shot noise limit can be achieved with the current instrument. Over the 8-month period, spectra with spectral resolutions of 60 MHz (0.002 cm-1) and 600 MHz (0.02 cm-1) have been acquired with median signal-to-noise ratios of 113 and 257, respectively, and a wavenumber calibration uncertainty of 0.0024 cm-1.Using the optimal estimation method and RFM as the radiative transfer forward model, prior analysis and theoretical benchmark modelling had been performed with an observation system simulator (OSS) to target an optimized spectral region of interest. The selected narrow spectral window includes both CO2 and H2O ro-vibrational transition lines to enable the measurement of dry air CO2 column from a single spectrum. The OSS and preliminary retrieval results yield roughly 8 degrees of freedom for signal (over the entire state vector) for an arbitrarily chosen a priori state with relatively high uncertainty ( ˜ 4 for CO2). Preliminary total column mixing ratios obtained are consistent with GOSAT monthly data. At a spectral resolution of 60 MHz with an acquisition time of 90 s, instrumental noise propagation yields an error of around 1.5 ppm on the dry air total column of CO2, exclusive of biases and geophysical parameters errors at this stage.

  7. Analysis of picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Huang, C.Y.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm -1 and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm -1 , the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nonosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence

  8. Early Regenerative Modifications of Human Postmenopausal Atrophic Vaginal Mucosa Following Fractional CO2 Laser Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal women experience undesired symptoms that adversely affect their quality of life. In the recent years, a specific 12 - week fractional CO2 laser treatment has been introduced, with highly significant relief of symptoms. AIM: The aim of this paper is the identification of the early modifications of structural components of atrophic vaginal mucosa induced by laser irradiation, which is responsible for the restorative processes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated by microscopical, ultrastructural and biochemical methods the modifications of the structural components of postmenopausal atrophic vaginal mucosa tissues after 1 hour following a single fractional laser CO2 application. RESULTS: In one hour, the mucosal epithelium thickens, with the maturation of epithelial cells and desquamation at the epithelial surface. In the connective tissue, new papillae indenting the epithelium with newly formed vessels penetrating them, new thin fibrils of collagen III are also formed in a renewed turnover of components due to the increase of metalloproteinase - 2. Specific features of fibroblasts support stimulation of their activity responsible of the renewal of the extracellular matrix, with an increase of mechanical support as connective tissue and stimulation of growth and maturation to epithelium thanks to new vessels and related factors delivered. CONCLUSION: We found the activation of regenerative mechanisms expressed both in the connective tissue - with the formation of new vessels, new papillae, and new collagen - and in the epithelium with the associated thickening and desquamation of cells at the mucosal surface.

  9. Effect of laser pulse energies in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, P.A.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of laser pulse energy on double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal is studied. In particular, the energy of the first pulse has been changed, while the second pulse energy is held fixed. A systematic study of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal dependence on the interpulse delay is performed, and the results are compared with the ones obtained with a single laser pulse of energy corresponding to the sum of the two pulses. At the same time, the crater formed at the target surface is studied by video-confocal microscopy, and the variation in crater dimensions is correlated to the enhancement of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal. The results obtained are consistent with the interpretation of the double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement in terms of the changes in ambient gas pressure produced by the shock wave induced by the first laser pulse

  10. Ultra-low emittance beam generation using two-color ionization injection in a CO2 laser-driven plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Bulanov, Stepan; Chen, Min; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron; Vay, J.; Yu, Lule; Leemans, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-low emittance (tens of nm) beams can be generated in a plasma accelerator using ionization injection of electrons into a wakefield. An all-optical method of beam generation uses two laser pulses of different colors. A long-wavelength drive laser pulse (with a large ponderomotive force and small peak electric field) is used to excite a large wakefield without fully ionizing a gas, and a short-wavelength injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field), co-propagating and delayed with respect to the pump laser, to ionize a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapped wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wake. The trapping condition, the ionized electron distribution, and the trapped bunch dynamics are discussed. Expressions for the beam transverse emittance, parallel and orthogonal to the ionization laser polarization, are presented. An example is shown using a 10-micron CO 2 laser to drive the wake and a frequency-doubled Ti:Al 2 O 3 laser for ionization injection.

  11. Fabrication Quality Analysis of a Fiber Optic Refractive Index Sensor Created by CO2 Laser Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the CO2 laser-stripped partial cladding of silica-based optic fibers with a core diameter of 400 μm, which enables them to sense the refractive index of the surrounding environment. However, inappropriate treatments during the machining process can generate a number of defects in the optic fiber sensors. Therefore, the quality of optic fiber sensors fabricated using CO2 laser machining must be analyzed. The results show that analysis of the fiber core size after machining can provide preliminary defect detection, and qualitative analysis of the optical transmission defects can be used to identify imperfections that are difficult to observe through size analysis. To more precisely and quantitatively detect fabrication defects, we included a tensile test and numerical aperture measurements in this study. After a series of quality inspections, we proposed improvements to the existing CO2 laser machining parameters, namely, a vertical scanning pathway, 4 W of power, and a feed rate of 9.45 cm/s. Using these improved parameters, we created optical fiber sensors with a core diameter of approximately 400 μm, no obvious optical transmission defects, a numerical aperture of 0.52 ± 0.019, a 0.886 Weibull modulus, and a 1.186 Weibull-shaped parameter. Finally, we used the optical fiber sensor fabricated using the improved parameters to measure the refractive indices of various solutions. The results show that a refractive-index resolution of 1.8 × 10−4 RIU (linear fitting R2 = 0.954 was achieved for sucrose solutions with refractive indices ranging between 1.333 and 1.383. We also adopted the particle plasmon resonance sensing scheme using the fabricated optical fibers. The results provided additional information, specifically, a superior sensor resolution of 5.73 × 10−5 RIU, and greater linearity at R2 = 0.999.

  12. Structure and properties of optical-discharge plasma in CO2-laser beam near target surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danshchikov, Ye. V.; Dymshakov, V. A.; Lebedev, F. V.; Ryazanov, A. V.

    1986-05-01

    An experimental study of optical-discharge plasma in a CO2-laser beam at a target surface was made for the purpose of exploring the not yet understood role of this plasma in the laser-target interaction process. Such a plasma was produced by means of a quasi-continuous CO2-laser with an unstable resonator, its power being maintained constant for 1 ms periods. Its radiation was focused on the surfaces of thick and seeding thin Al, Ti, and Ta targets inclined at an approximately 70 deg. angle to the beam, inside a hermetic chamber containing air, argon, or helium under atmospheric pressure. The radiation intensity distribution over the focal plane and the nearest caustic surface in the laser beam was measured along with the plasma parameters, the latter by the methods of spectral analysis and photoelectric recording. The instrumentation for this purpose included an MDR-3 monochromator with an entrance slit, a double electron-optical converter, a memory oscillograph, and an SI-10-30 ribbon lamp as radiation reference standard. The results yielded integral diametral intensity distributions of the emission lines Ti-II (457.2 nm), Ti-I (464 nm), Ar-II (462 nm), radial and axial temperature profiles of optical discharge in metal vapor in surrounding gas, and the radial temperature profile of irradiated metal surface at successive instants of time. The results reveal marked differences between the structures and the properties of optical-discharge plasma in metal vapor and in surrounding gas, optical discharge in the former being characterized by localization within the laser beam and optical discharge in the latter being characterized by a drift away from the target.

  13. Interaction of Repetitively Pulsed High Energy Laser Radiation With Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, Manfred

    1986-10-01

    The paper is concerned with laser target interaction processes involving new methods of improving the overall energy balance. As expected theoretically, this can be achieved with high repetition rate pulsed lasers even for initially highly reflecting materials, such as metals. Experiments were performed by using a pulsed CO2 laser at mean powers up to 2 kW and repetition rates up to 100 Hz. The rates of temperature rise of aluminium for example were thereby increased by lore than a factor of 3 as compared to cw-radiation of comparable power density. Similar improvements were found for the overall absorptivities that were increased by this method by more than an order of magnitude.

  14. CO2 laser with modulated losses: Theoretical models and experiments in the chaotic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pando L, C.L.; Meucci, R.; Ciofini, M.; Arecchi, F.T.

    1993-04-01

    We compare two different theoretical models for a CO 2 laser, namely the two-and four-level model, and show that the second one traces with much better accuracy the experimental behavior in the case of a chaotic dynamics due to time modulation of the cavity losses. Even though the two-level model provides a qualitative explanation of the chaotic dynamics, only the four-level one assures a quantitative fitting. We also show that, at the onset of chaos, the chaotic dynamics is low dimensional and can be described in terms of a noninvertible unidimensional map. (author). 12 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Angiofibroma of inferior turbinate as an unusual complication of CO2 laser turbinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju Wan; Kim, Yon Hee; Kim, Jeong Hong

    2013-01-01

    Angiofibroma is a benign vascular tumor that usually occurs in the nasopharynx, and extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas are rarely reported. We report the first case of an angiofibroma arising from the inferior turbinate after CO2 laser turbinoplasty. Endoscopic excisional biopsy was performed, but the tumor recurred after 2 months of surgery. The mass was excised by endoscopic approach including surrounding normal mucosal tissue. Histologic examination suggested the diagnosis of angiofibroma. The patient was asymptomatic, and there was no evidence of recurrence after 1 year of the second surgery.

  16. Recurrence rate and patient satisfaction of CO2 laser evaporation of lesions in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Riis; Dufour, Deirde Nathalie; Zarchi, Kian

    2015-01-01

    : To determine the recurrence rate, time to recurrence, and factors influencing disease recurrence in skin treated with CO2 laser evaporation, and healing by secondary intention; and patients' satisfaction with treatment. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients treated with CO2 laser evaporation were interviewed regarding...... recurrence and satisfaction after a mean of 25.7 months. RESULTS: Seventeen of 58 (29%) reported recurrence of HS lesions within the borders of the treated areas after a mean of 12.7 months. Obesity was a risk factor for recurrence with a hazard ratio of 4.53. Fifty-five patients (95%) reported some or great...... improvement, and 91% would recommend the CO2 laser surgery to other HS patients. CONCLUSION: This study supports the claim that CO2 laser treatment is an effective modality for recurrent HS lesions in a majority of patients. The authors identified obesity as a risk factor for recurrence. Self...

  17. Surface hardening using cw CO2 laser: laser heat treatment, modelation, and experimental work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, German; Alum, Jorge

    1996-02-01

    In the present work are given the results of the application of laser metal surface hardening techniques using a cw carbon dioxide laser as an energy source on steel 65 G. The laser heat treatment results are presented theoretically and experimentally. Continuous wave carbon dioxide laser of 0.6, 0.3, and 0.4 kW were used. A physical model for the descriptions of the thermophysical laser metal interactions process is given and a numerical algorithm is used to solve this problem by means of the LHT code. The results are compared with the corresponding experimental ones and a very good agreement is observed. The LHT code is able to do predictions of transformation hardening by laser heating. These results will be completed with other ones concerning laser alloying and cladding presented in a second paper.

  18. Tripling of CO2 laser radiation in DBr, DCl and Se. Final technical report, 1 May 1977--31 Jan 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, M.J.

    1979-03-01

    This report discusses frequency tripling of CO 2 lasers in deuterium chloride (DCl), deuterium bromide (DBr), and selenium (Se) gases. Theoretical tripling equations are reviewed and summarized. Third order nonlinear susceptibilities, chi/sup (3)/, for DCl, DBr and Se are calculated. Experimental measurements of frequency tripling in high pressure DCl and DBr are discussed. Resonantly enhanced four-wave sum-frequency generation in Se using simultaneous 9.5 and 10.6 μm TEA CO 2 laser pulses is demonstrated. The necessary selenium vapor density is generated in a shock tube. All of the experiments are in relatively good agreement with theory and results in chi /sup (3)/ values of 1.4 x 10 -37 ESU for DBr, 2.0 x 10 -36 for DCl and 1.1 x 10 -33 for Se (at 2000 0 K). Scaling equations are discussed which predict frequency conversion efficiencies of > 50% in DCl and Se using gigawatt power, nanosecond pulsed CO 2 lasers and reasonably sized conversion cells

  19. The Influence of Different Assist Gases on Ductile Cast Iron Cutting by CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meško J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the technology and principles of the laser cutting of ductile cast iron. The properties of the CO2 laser beam, input parameters of the laser cutting, assist gases, the interaction of cut material and the stability of cutting process are described. The commonly used material (nodular cast iron - share of about 25% of all castings on the market and the method of the laser cutting of that material, including the technological parameters that influence the cutting edge, are characterized. Next, the application and use of this method in mechanical engineering practice is described, focusing on fixing and renovation of mechanical components such as removing the inflow gate from castings with the desired quality of the cut, without the further using of the chip machining technology. Experimental samples from the nodular cast iron were created by using different technological parameters of laser cutting. The heat affected zone (HAZ, its width, microstructure and roughness parameter Pt was monitored on the experimental samples (of thickness t = 13 mm. The technological parameters that were varied during the experiments included the type of assist gases (N2 and O2, to be more specific the ratio of gases, and the cutting speed, which ranged from 1.6 m/min to 0.32 m/min. Both parameters were changed until the desired properties were achieved.

  20. The effect of microablative fractional CO2 laser on vaginal flora of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, S; Pitsouni, E; Antonopoulou, S; Zacharakis, D; Salvatore, S; Falagas, M E; Grigoriadis, T

    2016-10-01

    To assess the effect of microablative fractional CO2 laser (MFCO2-Laser) therapy on the vaginal microenvironment of postmenopausal women. Three laser therapies at monthly intervals were applied in postmenopausal women with moderate to severe symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause, pH of vaginal fluid >4.5 and superficial epithelial cells on vaginal smear Vaginal fluid pH values, fresh wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and aerobic and anaerobic cultures were evaluated at baseline and 1 month after each subsequent therapy. Nugent score and Hay-Ison criteria were used to evaluate vaginal flora. Fifty-three women (mean age 57.2 ± 5.4 years) participated and completed this study. MFCO2-Laser therapy increased Lactobacillus (p vaginal pH from a mean of 5.5 ± 0.8 (initial value) to 4.7 ± 0.5 (p aerobic vaginitis or candidiasis did not appear in any participant. MFCO2-Laser therapy is a promising treatment for improving the vaginal health of postmenopausal women by helping repopulate the vagina with normally existing Lactobacillus species and reconstituting the normal flora to premenopausal status.

  1. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Modification of biological objects in water media by CO2-laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, G. A.; Belyaev, A. A.; Onikienko, S. B.; Smirnov, S. A.; Khukharev, V. V.

    2005-09-01

    The modification of biological objects (polysaccharides and cells) by CO2-laser radiation in water added drop by drop into the interaction region is studied theoretically and experimentally. Calculations are performed by using the models describing gas-dynamic and heterogeneous processes caused by absorption of laser radiation by water drops. It is found experimentally that the laser modification of polysaccharides leads to the formation of low-molecular derivatives with immunostimulating properties. A dose of the product of laser activation of the yeast culture Saccharamyces cerevisiae prevented the development of a toxic emphysema in mice and protected them against lethal grippe and also prevented a decrease of survival rate, increased the average life, and prevented the development of metabolic and immune disorders in mice exposed to sublethal gamma-radiation doses.

  2. Construction and design of CO2-laser amplifiers with self-sustained and electron-beam-controlled gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, W.E.

    1975-08-01

    Following a description of the fundamentals and of the manner of functioning of CO 2 lasers, a theoretical and experimental investigation is performed to see whether the self-sustained or the non-self-sustained gas discharge is suitable for an amplifier in a CO 2 high-power laser system. The measured results show that the excitation by non-self-sustained gas discharge is more advantageous for amplifiers. The reasons are given. (GG/LH) [de

  3. Rapid and low-cost fabrication of polystyrene-based molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we described a rapid and low-cost method to fabricate polystyrene molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser system. It takes only several minutes to fabricate the polystyrene mold with bump pattern on top of it using a CO2 laser system. The bump pattern can be easily transferred to PDMS and fabricate microchannles as deep as 3μm on PDMS. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  4. Rapid and low-cost fabrication of polystyrene-based molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Foulds, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we described a rapid and low-cost method to fabricate polystyrene molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser system. It takes only several minutes to fabricate the polystyrene mold with bump pattern on top of it using a CO2 laser system. The bump pattern can be easily transferred to PDMS and fabricate microchannles as deep as 3μm on PDMS. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  5. Potential of CO2 lasers (10.6 µm associated with fluorides in inhibiting human enamel erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayanne Monteiro RAMOS-OLIVEIRA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study aimed to investigate the potential of CO2 lasers associated with different fluoride agents in inhibiting enamel erosion. Human enamel samples were randomly divided into 9 groups (n = 12: G1-eroded enamel; G2-APF gel; G3-AmF/NaF gel; G4-AmF/SnF2 solution; G5-CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 µm+APF gel; G6-CO2 laser+AmF/NaF gel; G7-CO2laser+AmF/SnF2solution; G8-CO2 laser; and G9-sound enamel. The CO2 laser parameters were: 0.45 J/cm2; 6 μs; and 128 Hz. After surface treatment, the samples (except from G9 were immersed in 1% citric acid (pH 4.0, 3 min. Surface microhardness was measured at baseline and after surface softening. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (p < 0.05. G2 (407.6 ± 37.3 presented the highest mean SMH after softening, followed by G3 (407.5 ± 29.8 and G5 (399.7 ± 32.9. Within the fluoride-treated groups, G4 (309.0 ± 24.4 had a significantly lower mean SMH than G3 and G2, which were statistically similar to each other. AmF/NaF and APF application showed potential to protect and control erosion progression in dental enamel, and CO2 laser irradiation at 0.45J/cm2 did not influence its efficacy. CO2 laser irradiation alone under the same conditions could also significantly decrease enamel erosive mineral loss, although at lower levels.

  6. Ultrashort pulse laser technology laser sources and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schrempel, Frank; Dausinger, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Ultrashort laser pulses with durations in the femtosecond range up to a few picoseconds provide a unique method for precise materials processing or medical applications. Paired with the recent developments in ultrashort pulse lasers, this technology is finding its way into various application fields. The book gives a comprehensive overview of the principles and applications of ultrashort pulse lasers, especially applied to medicine and production technology. Recent advances in laser technology are discussed in detail. This covers the development of reliable and cheap low power laser sources as well as high average power ultrashort pulse lasers for large scale manufacturing. The fundamentals of laser-matter-interaction as well as processing strategies and the required system technology are discussed for these laser sources with respect to precise materials processing. Finally, different applications within medicine, measurement technology or materials processing are highlighted.

  7. Caries like lesion initiation in sound enamel following CW CO2 laser irradiation: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafie, A.; Issam, A.; Ali, M. S. R.

    2005-01-01

    This Study aimed to asses the caries - preventive potential of various CW CO 2 laser parameters, and to explore the effect of the laser power density, and the exposure time on the varies inhibition activity. Materials and Methods: Extracted human premolar teeth were irradiated with three different power densities (7.95, 15.9 and 31.8) W/Cm 2 for three different exposure times (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8) sec of 10.6 μm CW CO 2 laser. All teeth were subjected to caries like lesion formation by 3.5 pH lactic acid for 21 days. The teeth after that were sectioned into ground cross section and the lesion depths were measured using a graticule polarizing microscope. CW CO 2 laser preventive treatments inhibit caries like lesion progression up to 44%. This effect was improved with: (1) Increased power density for each of the three exposure times. (2) Decreased exposure time for each of the three power densities within the limits of the previously listed laser parameters. Conclusion: (1) short exposure time of CW CO 2 laser results in a significant inhibition of the enamel caries like lesion formation. (2) The inhibitory effect depends upon the power density and the exposure time of the laser beam. (3) The optimal CW CO 2 laser parameters used for caries inhibition purpose is achieved with approximately 30 W/Cm 2 power density and 0.2 sec exposure time. (author)

  8. Angle-dependent light emission from aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes under CO2 laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Gong, T; Liu, W J; Wei, J Q; Zhang, X F; Wang, K L; Zhong, M L; Wu, D H

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the light emission from aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) under continuous wave CO 2 laser (λ = 10.6 μm) irradiation. Results indicate that the light emission is dependent on the angle θ between the laser incident direction and the nanotube axis. The relative intensity of the light emission at certain wavelengths shows a Lorentzian feature when θ varies from 0 0 to 90 0 . The Lorentzian fitting curve displays a distinct tendency between shorter (λ 700 nm). A minimum intensity was observed at θ m close to 67 0 under shorter wavelength, whereas a maximum intensity was shown at θ m of about 60 0 at longer wavelength. These results show the anisotropic property of aligned MWNTs

  9. Dissociation of NH3 and NH2D by high power CO2 laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.R.

    1976-08-01

    Multiquantum dissociation of polyatomics using intense CO 2 lasers resulting in isotopic enrichment has been demonstrated for several molecules. In this presentation, the possibility of selective dissociation of NH 3 and NH 2 D by high power laser radiation at 10 μm will be considered. Relevant work performed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and elsewhere will be summarized. In this review, attention will be given to four distinct mechanisms that can play varying degrees of importance in such investigations. Discussion will deal with the usefulness of two-resonant-frequency molecular excitation, the role of buffer gases, and the need to monitor the yields into the ground and excited electronic states of the dissociated fragments

  10. Parameters Influence of CO2 Laser on Cutting Quality of Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cep

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with evaluating of the resulting surface state of the three plastic materials and identification of suitable conditions for laser cutting with CO2 tube. As representative were chosen polypropylene, polymethylmethacrylate and polyamide. When cutting these types of materials it could melt eventually their re-sintering. A suitable combination of parameters is possible to achieve of sufficient quality of the cut. The samples were cut at different feed speed and laser power. Then they was compared on the basis of the measured roughness parameters Ra a Rz by using a portable touch roughness Hommel-Etamic W5 and dates was processed according to ČSN EN ISO 4287. Cutting of samples was realized at the Department of Machining, Assembly and Engineering Metrology, VŠB-TUO.

  11. Interaction of cw CO2 laser radiation with plasma near-metallic substrate surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Astapchik, S. A.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Golubev, V. S.; Grezev, A. N.; Filatov, Igor V.; Chubrik, N. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.

    2000-07-01

    Optical and spectroscopic methods were used in studying near-surface plasma that is formed under the effect CW CO2 laser of (2- 5)x106W/cm2 power density upon stainless steel in He and Ar shielding gases. The variation of plume spatial structure with time has been studied, the outflow of gas-vapor jets from the interaction area has been characterized. The spectra of plasma plume pulsations have been obtained for the frequency range Δf = 0-1 MHz. The temperature and electron concentration of plasma plume have been found under radiation effect upon the target of stainless steel. Consideration has been given to the most probable mechanisms of CW laser radiation-metal non-stationary interaction.

  12. Feasibility of alpha particle measurement in a magnetically confined plasma by CO2 laser Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.K.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Hutchinson, D.P.

    1987-08-01

    Fusion-product alpha particles will dominate the behavior of the next generation of ignited D-T fusion reactors. Advanced diagnostics will be required to characterize the energy deposition of these fast alpha particles in the magnetically confined plasma. For small-angle coherent Thomson scattering of a CO 2 laser beam from such a plasma, a resonance in the scattered power occurs near 90 0 with respect to the magnetic field direction. This spatial concentration permits a simplified detection of the scattered laser power from the plasma using a heterodyne system. The signal produced by the presence of fusion-product alpha particles in an ignited plasma is calculated to be well above the noise level, which results from statistical variations of the background signal produced by scattering from free electrons. 7 refs

  13. Vibrational Spectrum of HMX at CO2 Laser Wavelengths: A Combined DRIFT and LPAS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Puiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational spectrum of solid standard HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine was investigated. Two spectroscopic techniques were adopted for their different sensitivity and resolution. A preliminary survey of the absorption bands of the compound was performed in the 8000–400 cm−1 spectral range by employing the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT technique at room temperature. The high-resolution line spectrum of HMX was obtained in the 9.2–10.8 μm spectral range by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS method, using a line tuneable 10 W stabilised cw CO2 laser light source. By comparing the data collected with the two techniques in the common frequency range, a very good agreement was observed.

  14. Does the CO2 laser reduce bond strength in different types of ceramic brackets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lourenço Romano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the influence of the CO2 laser and of the type of ceramic bracket on the shear bond strength (SBS to enamel. METHODS: A total of 60 enamel test surfaces were obtained from bovine incisors and randomly assigned to two groups, according to the ceramic bracket used: Allure (A; Transcend (T. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups (n = 15: L, laser (10W, 3s; C, no laser, or control. Twenty-four hours after the bonding protocol using Transbond XT, SBS was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min in a universal testing machine. After debonding, the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI was evaluated at 10 x magnification and compared among the groups. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s, Mann-Whitney’s and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = 0.05. RESULTS: Mean SBS in MPa were: AL = 0.88 ± 0.84; AC = 12.22 ± 3.45; TL = 12.10 ± 5.11; TC = 17.71 ± 6.16. ARI analysis showed that 73% of the specimens presented the entire adhesive remaining on the tooth surfaces (score 3. TC group presented significantly higher SBS than the other groups. The lased specimens showed significantly lower bond strength than the non-lased groups for both tested brackets. CONCLUSION: CO2 laser irradiation decreased SBS values of the polycrystalline ceramic brackets, mainly Allure.

  15. CO2 laser and plasma microjet process for improving laser optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Butler, James A.; Grundler, Walter; Governo, George K.

    2003-09-16

    A optic is produced for operation at the fundamental Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 1.06 micrometers through the tripled Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 355 nanometers by the method of reducing or eliminating the growth of laser damage sites in the optics by processing the optics to stop damage in the optics from growing to a predetermined critical size. A system is provided of mitigating the growth of laser-induced damage in optics by virtue of very localized removal of glass and absorbing material.

  16. Decoding Biosynthetic Pathways in Plants by Pulse-Chase Strategies Using 13CO2 as a Universal Tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelbert Bacher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 13CO2 pulse-chase experiments monitored by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry can provide 13C-isotopologue compositions in biosynthetic products. Experiments with a variety of plant species have documented that the isotopologue profiles generated with 13CO2 pulse-chase labeling are directly comparable to those that can be generated by the application of [U-13C6]glucose to aseptically growing plants. However, the application of the 13CO2 labeling technology is not subject to the experimental limitations that one has to take into account for experiments with [U-13C6]glucose and can be applied to plants growing under physiological conditions, even in the field. In practical terms, the results of biosynthetic studies with 13CO2 consist of the detection of pairs, triples and occasionally quadruples of 13C atoms that have been jointly contributed to the target metabolite, at an abundance that is well above the stochastic occurrence of such multiples. Notably, the connectivities of jointly transferred 13C multiples can have undergone modification by skeletal rearrangements that can be diagnosed from the isotopologue data. As shown by the examples presented in this review article, the approach turns out to be powerful in decoding the carbon topology of even complex biosynthetic pathways.

  17. Estudo comparativo entre blefaropeeling e laser fracionado de CO2 no tratamento do rejuvenescimento periorbital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela dos Santos Boeno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A queixa de rugas e flacidez na região periocular é freqüente.O blefaropeelingutilizando a fórmula de Baker-Gordon e a aplicação de laser fracionado ablativo de CO2 fracionado são consideradas opções efetivas para o tratamento dessa região. Objetivo: Comparar as técnicas, a recuperação e os resultados finais das duas modalidades terapêuticas. Material e Métodos: Estudo comparativo de hemi-faces em pacientes com dermatocálase e rítides moderadas. Realizou-se no lado direito blefaropeeling e, no esquerdo, laser fracionado de CO2, cujos resultados foram avaliados por fotografia, medidas do sulco palpebral superior e melhora clínica. Resultados: Foram incluídas 11 pacientes no protocolo.Verificou-se melhora clínica efotográfica com ambos os métodos. O tempo de recuperação foi maior com o peeling de fenol. As medidas do sulco palpebral superior não mostraram diferenças significativas. Conclusões: Ambas as modalidades terapêuticas são efetivas no tratamento do envelhecimento periorbital. O processo de recuperação o blefaropeeling foi mais demorado. Clinicamente a melhora da flacidez palpebral foi superior com o blefaropeeling.

  18. CO2 laser-assisted microsurgery for intracordal cysts: technique and results of 49 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Nayla; Amoussa, Kassira; Verduyckt, Ingrid; Nollevaux, Marie-Cecile; Jamart, Jacques; Lawson, Georges; Remacle, Marc

    2010-12-01

    Microsurgery for intracordal cysts is a challenging procedure, because cysts are close to the vocal ligament and the risk of inducing a scar is high. In this retrospective study, our experience with the CO(2)-laser scanning system (Acublade(®)) is reported on 49 patients. There were 41% epidermoid cysts and 59% mucous retention cysts. A quarter of the patients presented with bilateral cystic lesions and 59% had a contralateral lesion other than a cyst. The cyst was removed after a minimicroflap. It was dissected away from the lamina propria and the epithelium. Collagen was injected intraoperatively if the glottal gap was considered important. The epithelium was redraped using Tissucol (Baxter, Vienna, Austria). The mean follow-up time was 160 days. We noted a statistically significant improvement in the grade of the dysphonia according to Hirano's perceptual scale (G pre = 2, G post = 1, p = 0.002); the Vocal Handicap Index (VHI pre = 51, VHI post = 28, p = 0.001) and the maximal phonation time in milliseconds (MPT pre = 11, 1 MPT post = 12.7, p = 0.033) in all the patients. In the professional voice subgroup (20/49 patients), there was a significant improvement in the frequency range (FR pre = 310 Hz, FR post = 434 Hz, p = 0.001). The CO(2)-laser scanning system is reliable in the treatment of intracordal cysts.

  19. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  20. CO2 laser imaging heterodyne and phase contrast interferometer for density profile and fluctuation measurements in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Akiyama, T.; Kawahata, K.; Ito, Y.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Sanin, A.L.; Okajima, S.

    2007-01-01

    A CO 2 laser heterodyne imaging interferometer (CO 2 HI) and a CO 2 laser phase contrast imaging interferometer (CO 2 PCI) were installed in LHD. The purpose of CO 2 HI is to measure electron density profile at high density (>1x10 20 m -3 ), where the existing far infrared laser (wavelength 118.9 μm) interferometer suffers from fringe jump due to the reduction of signal intensity caused by refraction. In the beginning of 10th LHD experimental campaign (2006-2007), sixty three three of CO 2 HI with 10 channels of YAG HI for vibration compensation, and in the later of 10th LHD experimental campaign. Eighty one channels CO 2 HI and 15 channels YAG HI became available. The purpose of CO 2 PCI is to measure turbulent fluctuation, which can contribute to the energy and particle transport. In order to get local fluctuation information, magnetic shear technique was applied with use of 48 (6 by 8) channel two dimensional detector. (author)

  1. Effects of Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers on cerebral microvasculature. Study in normal rabbit brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroiwa, T; Tsuyumu, M; Takei, H; Inaba, Y

    1986-01-01

    The effect of Nd:YAG and CO2 laser beams on cerebral microvasculature was examined in experimental animals. Soft x-ray microangiography and histological examination of the brain after Nd:YAG laser exposure revealed broad avascular or oligovascular zones in the irradiated and the surrounding edematous tissue, in which the surviving vessels were narrowed and tapered without significant leakage of blood. After CO2 laser exposure, a wedge-shaped tissue defect surrounded by layers of charring, coagulation, and edema was observed. The main finding in the surrounding coagulation and edematous layers was dilatation of the vessels. Hemorrhage was sometimes observed, mainly in the edematous layer. These findings seem to explain the effective hemostatic capability of the Nd:YAG laser and the occasional hemorrhage following CO2 laser exposure, especially at high energy output.

  2. Detection of salts in soil using transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) carbon dioxide (CO2) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) by the aid of a metal mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N.; Ramli, M.; Khumaeni, A.; Kurihara, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a nickel metal mesh was used to allow a direct detection of salt in soil sample by LIBS utilizing unique characteristics of a TEA CO2. The metal mesh is placed in the front of the soil sample to prevent the soil sample from blowing off upon focusing the high pulsed laser beam irradiation. LIBS apparatus used in this work is a TEA CO2 laser operated at wavelength of 10.6 μm with pulse energy and duration of 3J and 200 ns, respectively. The laser beam was focused using a ZnSe lens (f = 200 mm) onto soil sample after passing through the metal mesh. The emission spectrum from the induced plasma was detected using an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system consisting of a 0.32-m-focal length spectrograph with a grating of 1200 graves/mm and a 1024-channel photodiode detector array with a micro-channel plate intensifier. The soil sample used is a standard soil and ordinary soil containing several salts such as Ca, Mg at high concentration. The LIBS experiment was carried out at high pressure surrounding gas of 1 atmosphere. It was observed that by the aid of the metal mesh, strong breakdown gas plasma can be produced just after TEA CO2 laser irradiation on soil sample without significant sample blowing off. It was found that emission lines from salts, Ca (Ca II 393. 3 nm, Ca II 396.3 nm, Ca I 422.5 nm), and also other salts including Mg and Na can clearly be detected with strong emission intensity and narrow spectral width. This result implies that a TEA CO2 LIBS assisted by the metal mesh (metal mesh method) can be used for direct analysis several salts such as Ca, Mg, and Na in soil sample.

  3. Measurements of the parametric decay of CO2 laser radiation into plasma waves at quarter critical density using ruby laser Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuss, J.J.; Chu, T.K.; Johnson, L.C.

    1977-11-01

    We report the results of small-angle ruby laser Thomson scattering measurements of the parametric excitation of plasma waves by CO 2 laser radiation at quarter-critical density in a laser-heated gas target plasma. From supplementary data obtained from interferometry and large-angle ruby laser scattering we infer that the threshold conditions for a convective decay are satisfied

  4. Fabrication of rectangular cross-sectional microchannels on PMMA with a CO2 laser and underwater fabricated copper mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Subrata

    2017-09-01

    CO2 lasers are commonly used for fabricating polymer based microfluidic devices. Despite several key advantages like low cost, time effectiveness, easy to operate and no requirement of clean room facility, CO2 lasers suffer from few disadvantages like thermal bulging, improper dimensional control, difficulty to produce microchannels of other than Gaussian cross sectional shapes and inclined surface walls. Many microfluidic devices require square or rectangular cross-sections which are difficult to produce using normal CO2 laser procedures. In this work, a thin copper sheet of 40 μm was used as a mask above the PMMA (Polymethyl-methacrylate) substrate while fabricating the microchannels utilizing the raster scanning feature of the CO2 lasers. Microchannels with different width dimensions were fabricated utilizing a CO2 laser in with mask and without-mask conditions. A comparison of both the fabricating process has been made. It was found that microchannels with U shape cross section and rectangular cross-section can efficiently be produced using the with mask technique. In addition to this, this technique can provide perfect dimensional control and better surface quality of the microchannel walls. Such a microchannel fabrication process do not require any post-processing. The fabrication of mask using a nanosecond fiber laser has been discussed in details. An underwater laser fabrication method was adopted to overcome heat related defects in mask preparation. Overall, the technique was found to be easy to adopt and significant improvements were observed in microchannel fabrication.

  5. Plasma column development in the CO2 laser-heated solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Offenberger, A.A.; Capjack, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Axial and radial plasma dynamics in the CO 2 laser-heated solenoid have been studied experimentally and numerically. The axial behavior is found to be well described by a self-regulated bleaching wave model. The radial expansion is found to be strongly dependent on the focusing ratio of the input laser beam. With a fast focus ( f/5), the early radial expansion rate is twice that found with a slower focusing arrangement ( f/15). The faster focusing ratio also results in a significantly wider plasma column. On the other hand, no significant dependence of f/number on the axial propagation was found. A finite ionization time and the rapid formation of a density minimum on axis are observed and verify earlier experimental results. Detailed comparisons are made with a 2-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and laser propagation code. The axial and radial plasma behavior and, in particular, the dependence of the radial behavior on the focal ratio of the laser are reasonably well supported by the simulation results. Computational results are also in good agreement with experimental measurements of temperature and density using stimulated scattering (Brillouin, Raman) and interferometry diagnostic techniques

  6. Short pulse laser systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical information on the clinical applications of short pulse laser systems and the techniques for optimizing these applications in a manner that will be relevant to a broad audience, including engineering and medical students as well as researchers, clinicians, and technicians. Short pulse laser systems are useful for both subsurface tissue imaging and laser induced thermal therapy (LITT), which hold great promise in cancer diagnostics and treatment. Such laser systems may be used alone or in combination with optically active nanoparticles specifically administered to the tissues of interest for enhanced contrast in imaging and precise heating during LITT. Mathematical and computational models of short pulse laser-tissue interactions that consider the transient radiative transport equation coupled with a bio-heat equation considering the initial transients of laser heating were developed to analyze the laser-tissue interaction during imaging and therapy. Experiments were first performe...

  7. Holograms made with a pulsed dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Guasti, M.; Iturbe-Castillo, D.; Silva-Perez, A.; Gil-Villegas, A.; Gonzalez-Torres, H.; Lopez-Guerrero, R.

    1989-01-01

    We report the obtention of holograms with a nitrogen pumped dye laser, whose source is inherently pulsed. We review the advantages and posibilities of holograms of moving objects which are impossible to make with CW lasers. The lasers used in these experiments were designed and built in the quantum optics laboratory at the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa. (Author)

  8. Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation from relativistic laser plasmas using few-cycle laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guangjin; Dallari, William; Borot, Antonin; Tsakiris, George D.; Veisz, Laszlo; Krausz, Ferenc; Yu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We have performed a systematic study through particle-in-cell simulations to investigate the generation of attosecond pulse from relativistic laser plasmas when laser pulse duration approaches the few-cycle regime. A significant enhancement of attosecond pulse energy has been found to depend on laser pulse duration, carrier envelope phase, and plasma scale length. Based on the results obtained in this work, the potential of attaining isolated attosecond pulses with ∼100 μJ energy for photons >16 eV using state-of-the-art laser technology appears to be within reach

  9. Tunable Seed Lasers for Laser Remote Sensing of CO2 and O2, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vescent Photonics propose to develop a chip-sized narrow linewidth ( 10 nm's) diode laser that will be suitable for a wide variety of NASA remote sensing missions....

  10. Experimental comparison of laser energy losses in high-quality laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using radiation from fibre and CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyat'ev, V B

    2015-01-01

    We report a comparative experimental study of laseroxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using a fibre laser with a wavelength of 1.07 μm and a CO 2 laser with a wavelength of 10.6 μm at the sheet thickness of 3 – 16 mm. For the two lasers we have measured the dependence of the cutting speed on the radiation power and determined the cutting speed at which the surface roughness is minimal. The coefficient of laser radiation absorption in the laser cutting process is measured for these lasers at different values of the cutting speed and radiation power. It is found that the minimal roughness of the cut surface is reached at the absorbed laser energy per unit volume of the removed material, equal to 11 – 13 J mm -3 ; this value is the same for the two lasers and does not depend on the sheet thickness. (laser technologies)

  11. Propagating Characteristics of Pulsed Laser in Rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the performance of laser ranging system under the rain weather condition, we need to know the propagating characteristics of laser pulse in rain. In this paper, the absorption and attenuation coefficients were calculated based on the scattering theories in discrete stochastic media, and the propagating characteristics of laser pulse in rain were simulated and analyzed using Monte-Carlo method. Some simulation results were verified by experiments, and the simulation results are well matched with the experimental data, with the maximal deviation not less than 7.5%. The results indicated that the propagating laser beam would be attenuated and distorted due to the scattering and absorption of raindrops, and the energy attenuation and pulse shape distortion strongly depended on the laser pulse widths.

  12. In Situ analysis of CO2 laser irradiation on controlling progression of erosive lesions on dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Colucci, Vivian; De Alexandria, Adílis Kalina; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate in situ the effect of CO2 laser irradiation to control the progression of enamel erosive lesions. Fifty-six slabs of bovine incisors enamel (5 × 3 × 2.5 mm(3) ) were divided in four distinct areas: (1) sound (reference area), (2) initial erosion, (3) treatment (irradiated or nonirradiated with CO2 laser), (4) final erosion (after in situ phase). The initial erosive challenge was performed with 1% citric acid (pH = 2.3), for 5 min, 2×/day, for 2 days. The slabs were divided in two groups according to surface treatment: irradiated with CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 µm; 0.5 W) and nonirradiate. After a 2-day lead-in period, 14 volunteers wore an intraoral palatal appliance containing two slabs (irradiated and nonirradiated), in two intraoral phases of 5 days each. Following a cross-over design during the first intraoral phase, half of the volunteers immersed the appliance in 100 mL of citric acid for 5 min, 3×/day, while other half of the volunteers used deionized water (control). The volunteers were crossed over in the second phase. Enamel wear was determined by an optical 3D profilometer. Three-way ANOVA for repeated measures revealed that there was no significant interaction between erosive challenge and CO2 laser irradiation (P = 0.419). Erosive challenge significantly increased enamel wear (P = 0.001), regardless whether or not CO2 laser irradiation was performed. There was no difference in enamel wear between specimens CO2 -laser irradiated and non-irradiated (P = 0.513). Under intraoral conditions, CO2 laser irradiation did not control the progression of erosive lesions in enamel caused by citric acid. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. LASER PROCESSING ON SINGLE CRYSTALS BY UV PULSE LASER

    OpenAIRE

    龍見, 雅美; 佐々木, 徹; 高山, 恭宜

    2009-01-01

    Laser processing by using UV pulsed laser was carried out on single crystal such as sapphire and diamond in order to understand the fundamental laser processing on single crystal. The absorption edges of diamond and sapphire are longer and shorter than the wave length of UV laser, respectively. The processed regions by laser with near threshold power of processing show quite different state in each crystal.

  14. Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants fabricated by rapid prototyping based on CO(2) laser cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, R; Lusquiños, F; Del Val, J; López-Álvarez, M; Quintero, F; Riveiro, A; Boutinguiza, M; de Carlos, A; Jones, J R; Hill, R G; Pou, J

    2011-09-01

    Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants were produced by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding without using moulds. CO(2) laser radiation was employed to melt 45S5 and S520 bioactive glass particles and to deposit the material layer by layer following a desired geometry. Controlled thermal input and cooling rate by fine tuning of the processing parameters allowed the production of crack-free fully dense implants. Microstructural characterization revealed chemical composition stability, but crystallization during processing was extensive when 45S5 bioactive glass was used. Improved results were obtained using the S520 bioactive glass, which showed limited surface crystallization due to an expanded sintering window (the difference between the glass transition temperature and crystallization onset temperature). Ion release from the S520 implants in Tris buffer was similar to that of amorphous 45S5 bioactive glass prepared by casting in graphite moulds. Laser processed S520 scaffolds were not cytotoxic in vitro when osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with the dissolution products of the glasses; and the MC3T3-E1 cells attached and spread well when cultured on the surface of the materials. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conception and realisation of a system for the automatic alignment of a CO2 laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, Nathalie

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the continuous control of the direction of a CO 2 laser beam, with a view to laser machining. Slow deviations, due to the cavity instability, move away the beam from the focusing system axis. An automatic alignment device acting on the last flat mirror of the optical line has been designed. This mirror is actuated by 2 motors which vary its inclination in 2 directions x,y. The first part of the present paper deals with the alignment principle worked according to the specific constraints to be faced and to the characteristics of the beam. It uses the revolution symmetry of the energy distribution of the beam: 4 thermocouples surrounding the beam on a same circumference yield equals signals if the beam is centered onto the 4 sensors. An angular displacement is characterised by the difference between the signals of 2 opposed detectors. The second part presents the digital feedback system: the divergence or the beam is computed from the differential signal by a coefficient K experimentally valued. The motor commands proceed from optical geometry laws. The filtering of the thermocouple signals is necessary in order to sort the slowly changing signal related to the beam displacement, from the higher frequency signal related to the laser system instability. The system has been implemented on a 16 bit microprocessor. (author) [fr

  16. Optimization of CO2 laser cutting parameters on Austenitic type Stainless steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, A.; Sathish, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Ravikumar, R.

    2017-03-01

    Thin AISI 316L stainless steel sheet widely used in sheet metal processing industries for specific applications. CO2 laser cutting is one of the most popular sheet metal cutting processes for cutting of sheets in different profile. In present work various cutting parameters such as laser power (2000 watts-4000 watts), cutting speed (3500mm/min - 5500 mm/min) and assist gas pressure (0.7 Mpa-0.9Mpa) for cutting of AISI 316L 2mm thickness stainless sheet. This experimentation was conducted based on Box-Behenken design. The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model kerf width for straight and curved profile through response surface methodology. The developed mathematical models for straight and curved profile have been compared. The Quadratic models have the best agreement with experimental data, and also the shape of the profile a substantial role in achieving to minimize the kerf width. Finally the numerical optimization technique has been used to find out best optimum laser cutting parameter for both straight and curved profile cut.

  17. Quantitative measurement of carbon isotopic composition in CO2 gas reservoir by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Li, Rongxi; Zhao, Bangsheng; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Shuan; Cheng, Jinghua; Wu, Xiaoli

    2018-04-01

    The use of Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology for quantitatively determining gas carbon isotope composition is presented. In this study, 12CO2 and 13CO2 were mixed with N2 at various molar fraction ratios to obtain Raman quantification factors (F12CO2 and F13CO2), which provide a theoretical basis for calculating the δ13C value. And the corresponding values were 0.523 (0 Laser Raman analysis were carried out on natural CO2 gas from Shengli Oil-field at room temperature under different pressures. The δ13C values obtained by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technology are in good agreement with each other, and the relative errors range of δ13C values is 1.232%-6.964%. This research provides a fundamental analysis tool for determining gas carbon isotope composition (δ13C values) quantitatively by using Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy. Experiment of results demonstrates that this method has the potential for obtaining δ13C values in natural CO2 gas reservoirs.

  18. Pulsed Laser Deposition: passive and active waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Flory, F.; Escoubas, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2009), s. 438-449 ISSN 0268-1900 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : PLD * pulsed laser deposition * laser ablation * passive waveguides * active waveguides * waveguide laser * sensors * thin films * butane detection Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.384, year: 2009

  19. CO2-laser micromachining and back-end processing for rapid production of PMMA-based microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klank, Henning; Kutter, Jörg Peter; Geschke, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    , a three-layer polymer microstructure with included optical fibers was fabricated within two days. The use of CO2-laser systems to produce microfluidic systems has not been published before. These systems provide a cost effective alternative to UV-laser systems and they are especially useful......In this article, we focus on the enormous potential of a CO2-laser system for rapidly producing polymer microfluidic structures. The dependence was assessed of the depth and width of laser-cut channels on the laser beam power and on the number of passes of the beam along the same channel...... for microstructured PMMA [poly( methyl methacrylate)] parts were investigated, such as solvent-assisted glueing, melting, laminating and surface activation using a plasma asher. A solvent-assisted thermal bonding method proved to be the most time-efficient one. Using laser micromachining together with bonding...

  20. Efficacy of a new fractional CO2 laser in the treatment of photodamage and acne scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of a novel fractional CO(2) laser device for improving facial rhytids, hyperpigmentation, enlarged pores, skin laxity, and acne scarring. Subjects (n= 15) were treated three to five times at 3-week intervals. Biopsy specimens were used to evaluate healing response and neocollagenesis. Clinical improvement was rated on a quartile rating scale from digital photographs. Subject discomfort during treatment was evaluated on a scale of 0 to 5. Fourteen subjects who completed the study achieved good to excellent improvement in overall appearance, with 60% rated excellent. Improvement in photodamage was good to excellent in 92% of subjects, and reduction in rhytids was good to excellent in 85%. A total of 79% of subjects achieved good to excellent improvement in pore sizes and skin laxity. Subject discomfort during treatment was 3.0 +/- 0.7. Erythema persisted for 2-3 days, and subjects resumed normal activities 1-2 days after the procedure. Histological slides after a single treatment showed new collagen formation. The SmartSkin fractional CO(2) system (Cynosure, Inc., Westford, MA, USA) provides significant improvement for the treatment of facial wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, pore size, and skin laxity associated with photodamage.

  1. Welding of zircalloy-2 and zircalloy-4 by CO2 laser and by TIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, V.

    1990-01-01

    This study deals with the welding of zircaloy-2 and zircaloy-4 by means of two techniqes, namely tungsten inert gas welding and CO 2 laser welding. Suitable devices and jigs were developed and manufactured to allow the welding of flat specimens and cylindrical specimens. The optimal welding parameters for the two welding methods were determined. The quality of the welds was determined by tensile strength tests at room temperature and by determining the corrosion resistance to steam at temprature of 450 deg C, 550 deg C, and at 650 deg C. The influence of the weld on the microstructure of the material, on its composition and its crystallographic structure was investigated. Analysis of fracture surfaces of the tensile specimens was carried out with a scanning electron microscope. (author)

  2. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of CO2 laser in the detection of gaseous molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, G. R.; Sthel, M. S.; da Silva, M. G.; Schramm, D. U. S.; de Castro, M. P. P.; Vargas, H.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of trace gases is very important for a variety of applications, including the monitoring of atmospheric pollutants, industrial process control, measuring air quality in workplaces, research into fruits physiological processes and medical diagnosis of diseases through the analysis of exhaled gases. The implementation of these and many other applications requiring gas sensors able to meet high sensitivity and selectivity. In this work, a photoacoustic laser spectrometer with CO2 emission in the infrared range and a resonant photoacoustic cell was used. We obtain the resonance frequency of 2.4 kHz to photoacoustic cell, was estimated detection limit of the spectrometer for molecules of ethylene (C2H4), 16 ppbV and ammonia (NH3) 42 ppbV.

  3. Levitated atoms in a CO2 laser trap: towards BEC with cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbig, J.; Weber, T.; Naegerl, H.-C.; Grimm, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Since the standard approach towards Bose-Einstein condensation has failed for cesium, we are exploring a novel concept employing an optical dipole trap formed by intense CO2 lasers. These provide a conservative and large-volume trapping potential. In order to compensate the gravitational force, a magnetic field gradient along the vertical axis is applied. This counterbalances gravitation for the absolute internal ground state of Cs (F=3, mF=3), effectively levitating those atoms. Other spin states are expelled from the trap, opening up a path for rf exploration. Our approach to trap the lowest spin state at low densities minimizes inelastic processes. The free choice of a magnetic bias field allows exploration of Feshbach resonances to tune scattering properties. (author)

  4. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of CO2 laser in the detection of gaseous molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, G R; Sthel, M S; Da Silva, M G; Schramm, D U S; De Castro, M P P; Vargas, H

    2011-01-01

    The detection of trace gases is very important for a variety of applications, including the monitoring of atmospheric pollutants, industrial process control, measuring air quality in workplaces, research into fruits physiological processes and medical diagnosis of diseases through the analysis of exhaled gases. The implementation of these and many other applications requiring gas sensors able to meet high sensitivity and selectivity. In this work, a photoacoustic laser spectrometer with CO 2 emission in the infrared range and a resonant photoacoustic cell was used. We obtain the resonance frequency of 2.4 kHz to photoacoustic cell, was estimated detection limit of the spectrometer for molecules of ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), 16 ppbV and ammonia (NH 3 ) 42 ppbV.

  5. HOS cell adhesion on Ti6Al4V ELI texturized by CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Amador, A.; Bayona–Alvarez, Y. M.; Carreño Garcia, H.; Escobar-Rivero, P.; Y Peña-Ballesteros, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the response of HOS cells on Ti6Al4V ELI textured surfaces by a CO2 laser was evaluated. The test surfaces were; smooth Ti6Al4V, used as the control, and four textured surfaces with linear geometry. These four surfaces had different separation distances between textured lines, D1 (1000 microns), D2 (750 microns), D3 (500 microns) and D4 (250 microns). Toxicity of textured surfaces was assessed by MTT and the cellular adhesion test was performed using HOS ATCC CRL 1543 line cells. This test was done after 5 days of culture in a RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics. The results showed that the linear textures present 23% toxicity after 30 days of incubation, nevertheless, the adhesion tests results are inconclusive in such conditions and therefore the effect of the line separation on the cell adhesion cannot be determined.

  6. Experimental and theoretical electron-beam-sustained CO2 laser output at approx. 200 and approx. 3000K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, D.H.; Feinberg, R.M.; Lowder, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    A six-temperature kinetic model of the He : He 2 Co 2 : N 2 : CO laser system is developed, in which five temperatures describe the vibrational excitation of the three CO 2 modes, N 2 , and CO, while the sixth refers to the kinetic temperature. Theoretical predictions of gain and laser output are compared with experiments performed on an electron-beam sustained laser used at atmospheric pressure. Gain and laser measurements have been made with initial gas temperature near 200 and 300 degreeK. A stable discharge can be produced in this type of laser in gas mixtures containing no He, and successful electric laser operation has been demonstrated using H 2 as CO 2 ν 2 deactivant. Various gas mixtures have been investigated experimentally and theoretically; specific output J>100 J/liter atm was obtained both in He : N 2 : CO 2 : H 2 3 : 2 : 1 : 0 and 0 : 3 : 1 : 0.08, with efficiencies near 30%. While the gain measured appears to peak later and decay later than predicted, in all laser output measurements there is good agreement between theoretical prediction and experiment

  7. Estudo comparativo histológico na prega vocal após incisão com instrumental a frio e com laser de CO2 em modelo animal Comparative histology study of the vocal folds after incision with cold instruments and CO2 laser in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. C. Santos

    2003-12-01

    Jako and Strong's works in 1972(1,2, when CO2 was first applied in the treatment of papilomatosis and early glottic malign lesions, its indications have risen, most especially in benign lesions, due to new technology developed over the last years as, for example, the reduction of microspot and the super-pulse, reducing the thermal effects on the tissues. METHODS: In this work, incisions with cold steel instruments and 1watt continuous mode and super-pulse CO2 laser were conducted on canine vocal folds. The amount of collagen deposited over the vocal folds was observed through histological exams using the Sirius Red method. RESULTS: The amount of collagen on the vocal folds was greater than the control group and statistically greater in the group of animals submitted to surgical procedures using cold instruments than procedures involving CO2. There was no statistical difference between the control group and the group submitted to incisions with cold steel instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The larynx surgery with CO2 laser, when employed in low potency, with small microspot and super-pulse, is a safe method in relation to the collagen deposit when compared with cold blade instruments.

  8. Modeling and Simulated Annealing Optimization of Surface Roughness in CO2 Laser Nitrogen Cutting of Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    M. Madić; M. Radovanović; B. Nedić

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic methodology for empirical modeling and optimization of surface roughness in nitrogen, CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel . The surface roughness prediction model was developed in terms of laser power , cutting speed , assist gas pressure and focus position by using The artificial neural network ( ANN ) . To cover a wider range of laser cutting parameters and obtain an experimental database for the ANN model development, Taguchi 's L27 orthogonal array was im...

  9. Effect of CO2 Laser and Fluoride Varnish Application on Microhardness of Enamel Surface Around Orthodontic Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Majid; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Farhadian, Nasrin; Jamalian, Seyed Farzad; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Momeni, Mohammadali; Basamtabar, Masome

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Orthodontic treatment has many advantages such as esthetic improvement and self-esteem enhancement; yet it has some disadvantages such as increasing the risk of formation of white spot lesions, because it makes oral hygiene more difficult. It is rational to implement procedures to prevent these lesions. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of CO 2 laser and fluoride varnish on the surface of the enamel surface microhardness around the orthodontic braces. Methods: Eighty extracted premolar teeth were selected, scaled, polished with nonfluoridated pumic and metal brackets were bonded to them. Then, they were randomly allocated to 5 groups: control (neither fluoride nor laser is used on enamel surfaces), fluoride (4 minutes fluoride varnish treatment of the enamel surfaces), CO 2 laser (10.6 µm CO 2 laser irradiation of the teeth), laserfluoride (fluoride application after laser irradiation) and fluoride-laser (fluoride was applied and then teeth were irradiated with laser). After surface treatment around brackets on enamel, the samples were stored in 0.1% thymol for less than 5 days and then they were exposed to a 10-day microbiological caries model. Microhardness values of enamel were evaluated with Vickers test. One sample of each group (5 teeth from 80 samples) was prepared for SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and the data from 75 remaining teeth were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests (α =0.05). Results: Microhardness mean values from high to low were as follow: fluoride-laser, laser-fluoride, laser, fluoride and control. Microhardness in fluoride-laser group was significantly higher compared with that of the control group. Distribution adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were significantly different between groups and most of bond failures occurred at the enamel-adhesive interface in groups 2 to 5 and at the adhesive-bracket interface in the control group. Conclusion: Combination of fluoride varnish and

  10. Pulsed Laser Cladding of Ni Based Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, A.; Stanciu, E. M.; Croitoru, C.; Roata, I. C.; Tierean, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize the operational parameters and quality of one step Metco Inconel 718 atomized powder laser cladded tracks, deposited on AISI 316 stainless steel substrate by means of a 1064 nm high power pulsed laser, together with a Precitec cladding head manipulated by a CLOOS 7 axes robot. The optimization of parameters and cladding quality has been assessed through Taguchi interaction matrix and graphical output. The study demonstrates that very good cladded layers with low dilution and increased mechanical proprieties could be fabricated using low laser energy density by involving a pulsed laser.

  11. Superluminous laser pulse in an active medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.L.; Tajima, T.

    1993-12-01

    Physical conditions are obtained to make the propagation velocity of a laser pulse and thus the phase velocity of the excited wake be at any desired value, including that equal to or greater than the speed of light. The provision of an active-plasma laser medium with an appropriately shaped pulse allows not only replenishment of laser energy loss to the wakefield but also acceleration of the group velocity of photons. A stationary solitary solution in the accelerated frame is obtained from the model equations and simulations thereof for the laser, plasma and atoms. This approach has applications in photonics and telecommunications as well as wakefield accelerators

  12. Using a laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analyser to investigate gas transfer in geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, S.; Pili, E.; Agrinier, P.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 stable carbon isotopes are very attractive in environmental research to investigate both natural and anthropogenic carbon sources. Laser-based CO 2 carbon isotope analysis provides continuous measurement at high temporal resolution and is a promising alternative to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We performed a thorough assessment of a commercially available CO 2 Carbon Isotope Analyser (CCIA DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) that allows in situ measurement of C-13 in CO 2 . Using a set of reference gases of known CO 2 concentration and carbon isotopic composition, we evaluated the precision, long-term stability, temperature sensitivity and concentration dependence of the analyser. Despite good precision calculated from Allan variance (5.0 ppm for CO 2 concentration, and 0.05 per thousand for δC-13 at 60 s averaging), real performances are altered by two main sources of error: temperature sensitivity and dependence of C-13 on CO 2 concentration. Data processing is required to correct for these errors. Following application of these corrections, we achieve an accuracy of 8.7 ppm for CO 2 concentration and 1.3 per thousand for δC-13, which is worse compared to mass spectrometry performance, but still allowing field applications. With this portable analyser we measured CO 2 flux degassed from rock in an underground tunnel. The obtained carbon isotopic composition agrees with IRMS measurement, and can be used to identify the carbon source. (authors)

  13. Recurrence rate and patient satisfaction of CO2 laser evaporation of lesions in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Riis; Dufour, Deirde Nathalie; Zarchi, Kian; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2015-02-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a debilitating disease and is difficult to treat. Validation of surgical techniques is therefore of great importance in the management of HS. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser evaporation has been shown effective, but larger-scale studies are scarce. To determine the recurrence rate, time to recurrence, and factors influencing disease recurrence in skin treated with CO2 laser evaporation, and healing by secondary intention; and patients' satisfaction with treatment. Fifty-eight patients treated with CO2 laser evaporation were interviewed regarding recurrence and satisfaction after a mean of 25.7 months. Seventeen of 58 (29%) reported recurrence of HS lesions within the borders of the treated areas after a mean of 12.7 months. Obesity was a risk factor for recurrence with a hazard ratio of 4.53. Fifty-five patients (95%) reported some or great improvement, and 91% would recommend the CO2 laser surgery to other HS patients. This study supports the claim that CO2 laser treatment is an effective modality for recurrent HS lesions in a majority of patients. The authors identified obesity as a risk factor for recurrence. Self-reported satisfaction is high, and only 3 of 58 report no change in the condition. None reported a worsening.

  14. Metal processing with ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Paul S.; Felt, M. D.; Komashko, Aleksey M.; Perry, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2000-08-01

    Femtosecond laser ablation has been shown to produce well-defined cuts and holes in metals with minimal heat effect to the remaining material. Ultrashort laser pulse processing shows promise as an important technique for materials processing. We will discuss the physical effects associated with processing based experimental and modeling results. Intense ultra-short laser pulse (USLP) generates high pressures and temperatures in a subsurface layer during the pulse, which can strongly modify the absorption. We carried out simulations of USLP absorption versus material and pulse parameters. The ablation rate as function of the laser parameters has been estimated. Since every laser pulse removes only a small amount of material, a practical laser processing system must have high repetition rate. We will demonstrate that planar ablation is unstable and the initially smooth crater bottom develops a corrugated pattern after many tens of shots. The corrugation growth rate, angle of incidence and the polarization of laser electric field dependence will be discussed. In the nonlinear stage, the formation of coherent structures with scales much larger than the laser wavelength was observed. Also, there appears to be a threshold fluence above which a narrow, nearly perfectly circular channel forms after a few hundred shots. Subsequent shots deepen this channel without significantly increasing its diameter. The role of light absorption in the hole walls will be discussed.

  15. Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Town, R.J.; Clark, D.S.; Kemp, A.J.; Lasinski, B.F.; Tabak, M.

    2008-01-01

    We are applying our recently developed, LDRD-funded computational simulation tool to optimize and develop applications of Fast Ignition (FI) for stockpile stewardship. This report summarizes the work performed during a one-year exploratory research LDRD to develop FI point designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These results were sufficiently encouraging to propose successfully a strategic initiative LDRD to design and perform the definitive FI experiment on the NIF. Ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will begin in 2010 using the central hot spot (CHS) approach, which relies on the simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule. Unlike this approach, the fast ignition (FI) method separates fuel compression from the ignition phase. In the compression phase, a laser such as NIF is used to implode a shell either directly, or by x rays generated from the hohlraum wall, to form a compact dense (∼300 g/cm 3 ) fuel mass with an areal density of ∼3.0 g/cm 2 . To ignite such a fuel assembly requires depositing ∼20kJ into a ∼35 (micro)m spot delivered in a short time compared to the fuel disassembly time (∼20ps). This energy is delivered during the ignition phase by relativistic electrons generated by the interaction of an ultra-short high-intensity laser. The main advantages of FI over the CHS approach are higher gain, a lower ignition threshold, and a relaxation of the stringent symmetry requirements required by the CHS approach. There is worldwide interest in FI and its associated science. Major experimental facilities are being constructed which will enable 'proof of principle' tests of FI in integrated subignition experiments, most notably the OMEGA-EP facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory of Laser Energetics and the FIREX facility at Osaka University in Japan. Also, scientists in the European Union have recently proposed the construction of a new FI facility, called HiPER, designed to

  16. Ablation threshold and ablation mechanism transition of polyoxymethylene irradiated by CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gan; Cheng, Mousen; Li, Xiaokang

    2016-09-01

    Polyoxymethylene (POM) decomposes gradually as it is heated up by the irradiation of CO2 laser; the long-chain molecules of POM are broken into short chains, which leads to the lowering of the melting point and the critical temperature of the ablation products. When the product temperature is above the melting point, ablation comes up in the way of vaporization; when the product temperature is higher than the critical temperature, all liquid products are transformed into gas instantly and the ablation mechanism is changed. The laser fluence at which significant ablation is observed is defined as the ablation threshold, and the fluence corresponding to the ablation mechanism changing is denoted as the flyover threshold. In this paper, random pyrolysis is adopted to describe the pyrolytic decomposition of POM, and consequently, the components of the pyrolysis products under different pyrolysis rates are acquired. The Group Contribution method is used to count the thermodynamic properties of the pyrolysis products, and the melting point and the critical temperature of the product mixture are obtained by the Mixing Law. The Knudsen layer relationship is employed to evaluate the ablation mass removal when the product temperature is below the critical temperature. The gas dynamics conservation laws associated with the Jouguet condition are used to calculate the mass removal when the product temperature is higher than the critical temperature. Based on the model, a set of simulations for various laser intensities and lengths are carried out to generalize the relationships between the thresholds and the laser parameters. Besides the ablated mass areal density, which fits the experimental data quite well, the ablation temperature, pyrolysis rate, and product components are also discussed for a better understanding of the ablation mechanism of POM.

  17. The synergistic effects of CO2 laser treatment with calcium silicate cement of antibacterial, osteogenesis and cementogenesis efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T-T; Yang, J-J; Kao, C-T; Huang, T-H; Chen, Y-W; Shie, M-Y

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate-based material (CS) has been successfully used in dental clinical applications. Some researches show that the antibacterial effects of CO 2 laser irradiation are highly efficient when bacteria are embedded in biofilm, due to a photo-thermal mechanism. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of CO 2 laser irradiation on CS, with regard to both material characterization and human periodontal ligament cell (hPDLs) viability. CS was irradiated with a dental CO 2 laser using directly mounted fiber optics in wound healing mode with a spot area of 0.25 cm 2 , and then stored in an incubator at 100% relative humidity and 37 °C for 1 d to set. The hPDLs cultured on CS were analyzed, along with their proliferation and odontogenic differentiation behaviors. The results indicate that the CO 2 laser irradiation increased the amount of Ca and Si ions released from the CS, and regulated cell behavior. CO 2 laser-irradiated CS promoted cementogenic differentiation of hPDLs, with the increased formation of mineralized nodules on the substrate’s surface. It also up-regulated the protein expression of multiple markers of cementogenic and the expression of cementum attachment protein. The current study provides new and important data about the effects of CO 2 laser irradiation on CS. Taking cell functions into account, the Si concentration released from CS with laser irradiated may be lower than a critical value, and this information could lead to the development of new regenerative therapies for dentin and periodontal tissue. (letter)

  18. The synergistic effects of CO2 laser treatment with calcium silicate cement of antibacterial, osteogenesis and cementogenesis efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T.-T.; Kao, C.-T.; Chen, Y.-W.; Huang, T.-H.; Yang, J.-J.; Shie, M.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Calcium silicate-based material (CS) has been successfully used in dental clinical applications. Some researches show that the antibacterial effects of CO2 laser irradiation are highly efficient when bacteria are embedded in biofilm, due to a photo-thermal mechanism. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on CS, with regard to both material characterization and human periodontal ligament cell (hPDLs) viability. CS was irradiated with a dental CO2 laser using directly mounted fiber optics in wound healing mode with a spot area of 0.25 cm2, and then stored in an incubator at 100% relative humidity and 37 °C for 1 d to set. The hPDLs cultured on CS were analyzed, along with their proliferation and odontogenic differentiation behaviors. The results indicate that the CO2 laser irradiation increased the amount of Ca and Si ions released from the CS, and regulated cell behavior. CO2 laser-irradiated CS promoted cementogenic differentiation of hPDLs, with the increased formation of mineralized nodules on the substrate’s surface. It also up-regulated the protein expression of multiple markers of cementogenic and the expression of cementum attachment protein. The current study provides new and important data about the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on CS. Taking cell functions into account, the Si concentration released from CS with laser irradiated may be lower than a critical value, and this information could lead to the development of new regenerative therapies for dentin and periodontal tissue.

  19. Preliminary investigation into laser high voltage interaction in the case of streamer-to-leader process using a high power CO2 laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    West, NJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preliminary small-scale experiments conducted in order to investigate the influence of intensely focused laser light produced by a CO2 laser on high voltage fields. The laser used operated at a maximum energy of 430 mJ per...

  20. Tratamiento del rinofima con láser de CO2: Presentación de un caso Treatment of rhinophyma with CO2 laser: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Cebrián Carretero

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El rinofima es una alteración cutánea de la región nasal que produce problemas estéticos importantes. Describimos nuestra experiencia en un caso de rinofima avanzado y su resolución por medio de una técnica sencilla. Material y métodos. Previa desinfección cutánea se realizó anestesia infiltrativa y bloqueo troncular de nervios infraorbitarios y etmoidales. A continuación se realizó la resección de casi todo el espesor cutáneo con un láser de CO2 Lumenis Sharplan conservando la dermis profunda para permitir la curación por segunda intención. Posteriormente se aplicó vaselina y se realizaron curas y lavados diarios. El paciente fue dado de alta al día siguiente de la intervención. Resultados. Los resultados estéticos fueron muy buenos. El dolor postoperatorio fue controlado con analgesia habitual. En la primera semana se objetivaba un buen grado de cicatrización. A los 2 meses la reepitelización fue completa y ya no se observaban costras ni eritema. Conclusión. La utilización del láser de CO2 en el tratamiento del rinofima avanzado logra unos excelentes resultados estéticos con una morbilidad y riesgo operatorio mínimos.Introduction. Rhinophyma is a skin alteration of the nasal region that causes considerable aesthetic problems. We describe our experience with a case of advanced rhinophyma and its resolution by means of a simple technique. Materials and methods. The skin area was disinfected beforehand, anaesthesia infiltration and the infraorbital and ethmoidal nerve trunks were blocked. Then, using a Lumenis Sharplan CO2 laser almost the complete skin thickness was resected while preserving the deep dermis layer so as to allow second intention healing. Later, Vaseline was applied and the area was treated daily. The patient was discharged the day after the intervention. Results. The aesthetic results were very good. Postoperative pain was controlled with standard analgesics. Adequate healing was