WorldWideScience

Sample records for co2 fertilization effect

  1. [Effects of enhanced CO2 fertilization on phytoremediation of DEHP-polluted soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shu-Guang; Mu, Nan

    2013-03-01

    Low efficiency of remediation is one of the key issues to be solved in phytoremediation technology. Based on the necessity of reducing CO2 emission in China and the significance of CO2 in plant photosynthesis, this paper studied the effects of enhanced CO2 fertilization on the phytoremediation of polluted soil, selecting the C3 plant mung bean (Vigna radiate) and the C4 plant maize (Zea mays) as test plants for phytoremediation and the DEHP as the target pollutant. DEHP pollution had negative effects on the growth and rhizosphere micro-environment of the two plants. After enhanced CO2 fertilization, the aboveground dry mass of the two plants and the alkaline phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere soils of the two plants increased, the COD activity in the leaves of the two plants decreased, the microbial community in the rhizosphere soils shifted, and the numbers of the microbes with DEHP-tolerance in the rhizosphere soils increased. These changes indicated that enhanced CO2 fertilization could promote the plant growth and the plant tolerance to DEHP stress, and improve the rhizosphere micro-environment. Enhanced CO2 fertilization also increased the DEHP uptake by the two plants, especially their underground parts. All these effects induced the residual DEHP concentration in the rhizospheres of the two plants, especially that of mung bean, decreased obviously, and the phytoremediation efficiency increased. Overall, enhanced CO2 fertilization produced greater effects on C3 plant than on C4 plant. It was suggested that enhanced CO2 fertilization could be a useful measure to enhance the efficiency of phytoremediation.

  2. [Effects of fertilization on soil CO2 flux in Castanea mollissima stand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Shen, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Juan; Wang, Zhan-Lei

    2013-09-01

    In June 2011-June 2012, a fertilization experiment was conducted in a typical Castanea mollissima stand in Lin' an of Zhejiang Province, East China to study the effects of inorganic and organic fertilization on the soil CO2 flux and the relationships between the soil CO2 flux and environmental factors. Four treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), inorganic fertilization (IF), organic fertilization (OF), half organic plus half inorganic fertilization (OIF). The soil CO2 emission rate was determined by the method of static closed chamber/GC technique, and the soil temperature, soil moisture content, and soil water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentration were determined by routine methods. The soil CO2 emission exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with the highest rate in July or August and the lowest rate in February. The annual accumulative soil CO2 emission in CK was 27.7 t CO2 x hm(-2) x a(-1), and that in treatments IF, OF, and OIF was 29.5%, 47.0%, and 50.7% higher than the CK, respectively. The soil WSOC concentration in treatment IF (105.1 mg kg(-1)) was significantly higher than that in CK (76.6 mg x kg(-1)), but was obviously lower than that in treatments OF (133.0 mg x kg(-1)) and OIF (121.2 mg x kg(-1)). The temperature sensitivity of respiration (Q10) in treatments CK, IF, OF, and OIF was 1.47, 1.75, 1.49, and 1.57, respectively. The soil CO2 emission rate had significant positive correlations with the soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm and the soil WSOC concentration, but no significant correlation with soil moisture content. The increase of the soil WSOC concentration caused by fertilization was probably one of the reasons for the increase of soil CO2 emission from the C. mollissima stand.

  3. [Effects of CO2 fertilization on photosynthesis and growth of cut Anthurium andraeanum in solar greenhouse in winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke Bin; Meng, Fan Zhi; Guo, Xian Feng

    2017-06-18

    Aiming at the problem of the acute shortage of CO 2 in winter production of cut Anthurium andraeanum in solar greenhouse, the effect of CO 2 fertilization on photosynthetic characteristics and growth performance of A. andraeanum 'Fire' was investigated. Three treatments with different concentrations of CO 2 were designed, i.e., 700, 1000 and 1300 Μmol·mol -1 , with receiving no extra CO 2 as the control. The results showed that for the CO 2 -fertilized plants, the photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO 2 concentration and water use efficiency were significantly greater than those in the control plants after CO 2 fertilization for 60 days, and the largest increase range was observed in the 1000 Μmol·mol -1 CO 2 treatment, whereas the stomata conductance was significantly reduced compared with the control. Meanwhile, the contents of soluble sugar, starch and soluble protein in CO 2 -fertilized plants were significantly higher than those in control plants. Moreover, the quality of cut flowers with CO 2 fertilization was remarkably superior to control flowers in term of the parameters including spathe size, spathe color, peduncle length, leaf growth performance and peduncle growth rate. The most superior improvement was observed in the 1000 Μmol·mol -1 CO 2 treatment. It was therefore concluded that CO 2 fertilization of 1000 Μmol·mol -1 could effectively improve the winter production of cut A. andraeanum in solar greenhouse.

  4. Effect of Elevated CO2 in Different Fertilizer Conditions on Physiological Traits in Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis at Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nutrients supply are generally expected to enhance photosynthesis and growth of crops as a result considerably increase yields. The present study aims to investigate effects of elevated CO2 and different fertilizer conditions on physiological traits in Lemon balm. A factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications and nine treatments at the greenhouse in 2010. The experiment factors were included three CO2 concentrations (380, 700 and 1050 ppm and three kinds of conditions fertilizer (no fertilizer, manure fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer. The results indicated that increasing of CO2 from 380 to 1050 ppm led to improve in leaf area, plant height, relative growth ratio, total dry matter and final yield of individual plant. The highest and the lowest amount of measured traits related to with and without nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. Impact of elevated CO2 in conjunction with nitrogen and manure fertilizers increased. These effects were more on total dry matter and final yield than other growth indices. Therefore, it can be concluded that, whereas increase of temperature caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not any limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will be improved lemon balm production.

  5. Climate dependence of the CO2 fertilization effect on terrestrial net primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, G.A.; Yamagata, Y.; Oikawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative formulation of the fertilization effect of CO 2 enrichment on net primary production (NPP) introduced by Keeling and Bacastow in 1970s (known as Keeling's formula) has been recognized as a summary of experimental data and has been used in various assessments of the industrial impact on atmospheric chemistry. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the formula's key coefficient, the so-called growth factor, has remained open to question. Some of the global carbon cycle modelers avoid this question by tuning growth factor and choosing the value that fits the observed course of atmospheric CO 2 changes. However, for mapping terrestrial sinks induced by the CO 2 fertilization effect one needs a geographical pattern of the growth factor rather than its globally averaged value. The earlier approach to this problem involved formulating the climate dependence of the growth factor and the derivation of its global pattern from climatic variables (whose geographical distribution is known). We use a process-based model (TsuBiMo) for this purpose and derive the values of growth factor for major biomes for comparison our approach with the earlier studies. Contrary to the earlier prevailing opinion, TsuBiMo predicts that these values decrease with mean annual temperature (excluding biomes of limited water supply). We attribute this result to the effect of light limitation caused by mutual shading inside a canopy, which was considered earlier as unimportant, and conclude that current hypotheses about CO 2 fertilization effect (and thus projections of the related carbon sink) are very sensitive to the choice of driving forces taken into account

  6. Shifting terrestrial feedbacks from CO2 fertilization to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan; Canadell, Josep; Obersteiner, Michael; Piao, Shilong; Vautard, Robert; Sardans Jordi Sardans, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Humans are increasingly fertilizing the planet. Our activities are increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, nitrogen inputs to ecosystems and global temperatures. Individually and combined, they lead to biospheric availability of carbon and nitrogen, enhanced metabolic activity, and longer growing seasons. Plants can consequently grow more and take up more carbon that can be stored in ecosystem carbon pools, thus enhancing carbon sinks for atmospheric CO2. Data on the increased strength of carbon sinks are, however, inconclusive: Some data (eddy covariance, short-term experiments on elevated CO2 and nutrient fertilization) suggest that biospheric carbon uptake is already effectively increasing but some other data suggest it is not, or are not general and conclusive (tree-ring, forest inventory). The combined land-ocean CO2 sink flux per unit of excess atmospheric CO2 above preindustrial levels declined over 1959-2012 by a factor of about 1/3, implying that CO2 sinks increased more slowly than excess CO2. We will discuss the available data, and the discussion will drive us to revisit our projections for enhanced carbon sinks. We will reconsider the performance of the modulators of increased carbon uptake in a CO2 fertilized and warmed world: nutrients, climate, land use and pollution. Nutrient availability in particular plays a crucial role. A simple mass-balance approach indicates that limited phosphorus availability and the corresponding N:P imbalances can jointly reduce the projected future carbon storage by natural ecosystems during this century. We then present a new paradigm: we are shifting from a fertilization to a warming era. Compared to the historical period, future impacts of warming will be larger than the benefits of CO2 fertilization given nutrient limitations, management and disturbance (which reduces C stocks and thus sequestration potential) and because CO2 will decrease by 2050 in RCP2.6, meaning loss of CO2 fertilization, and CO2

  7. Effects of Soil Fertility and Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Leaf, Stem and Root Dark Respiration of Populus tremuloides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An open-top chamber experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Biological Station near Pellston, Michigan, USA, to study the effects of soil fertility and CO2 on leaf, stem and root dark respiration (Rd) of Populus tremuloides. Overall, area-based daytime leaf Rd (Rda) was significantly greater at elevated than at ambient CO2 in high-fertility soil, but not in low-fertility soil. Mass-based leaf Rd (Rdm) was overall greater for high- than for low-fertility soil grown trees at elevated, but not at ambient CO2. Nighttime leaf Rda and Rdm were unaffected by soil fertility or CO2, nor was stem Rda, which ranged from 1.0 to 1.4 μmol m-2 s-1 in the spring and 3.5 to 4.5 μmol m-2 s-1 in the summer. Root Rda was significantly higher in high- than in low-fertility soil, but was unaffected by CO2. Since biomass production of P. tremuloides will be significantly greater at elevated CO2 while specific Rd will either increase or remain unchanged, we predict that carbon loss to the atmosphere through respiration from this ecologically important species would increase at higher CO2. Soil fertility would also interact with elevated CO2 in affecting the carbon flow in the plant-soil-air system.

  8. Effects of Soil Fertility and Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Leaf,Stem and Root Dark Respiration of Populus tremuloides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Z.WANG; P.S.CURTIS; 等

    2001-01-01

    An open-top chamber experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Biological Station near Pellston,Michigan,USA,to study the effects of soil fertility and CO2 on leaf,sdtem and root dark respiration (Rd) of Populus tremuloides.Overall,area-based daytime leaf Rd(Rda) was significantly greater at elevated than at ambient CO2 in high-fertility soil,but not in low-fertility soil.Mass-based leaf Rd(Rdm) was overall greater for high-than for low-fertility soil grown trees at elevated,but not at ambient CO2 .Nighttime leaf Rda and Rdm were unaffected by soil fertility or CO2,nor was stem Rda ,which ranged from 1.0 to 1.4μmol m-2s-1 in the spring and 3.5 to 4.5μmol m-2s-1 in the summer.Root Rda was significantly higher in high-than in low-fertiliy soil,but was unaffected by CO2.Since biomass production of P.tremuloides will be significantly greater at elevated CO2 while specific Rd will either increase or remain unchanged,we predict that carbon loss to the atmosphere through respiration from this ecologically important species would increase at higher CO2.Soil fertility would also interact with elevated CO2 in affecting the carbon flow in the plant-soil-air system.

  9. Effects of CO(sub 2) and nitrogen fertilization on soils planted with ponderosa pine; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO(sub 2) (ambient, 525, and 700(micro)l l(sup -1))and N fertilization (0, 10, and 20 g N m(sup 2) yr(sup -1)) on soil pCO(sub 2), CO(sub 2) efflux, soil solution chemistry, and soil C and nutrients in an open-top chamber study with Pinus ponderosa are described. Soil pCO(sub 2) and CO(sub 2) efflux were significantly greater with elevated CO(sub 2), at first (second growing season) in the 525(micro)l l(sup -1) and later (fourth and fifth growing seasons) in the 700(micro)l l(sup -1) CO(sub 2) treatments. Soil solution HCO(sub 3)(sup -) concentrations were temporarily elevated in the 525(micro)l l(sup -1) CO(sub 2) treatment during the second growing season, consistent with the elevated pCO(sub 2). Nitrogen fertilization had no consistent effect on soil pCO(sub 2) or CO(sub 2) efflux, but did have the expected negative effect on exchangeable Ca(sup 2+), K(sup+), and Mg(sup 2+), presumed to be caused by increased nitrate leaching. Elevated CO(sub 2) had no consistent effects on exchangeable Ca(sup 2+), K(sup+), and Mg(sup 2+), but did cause temporary reductions in soil NO(sup 3(sup -)) (second growing season). Statistically significant negative effects of elevated CO(sub 2) on soil extractable P were noted in the third and sixth growing seasons. However, these patterns in extractable P reflected pre-treatment differences, which, while not statistically significant, followed the same pattern. Statistically significant effects of elevated CO(sub 2) on total C and N in soils were noted in the third and sixth growing seasons, but these effects were inconsistent among N treatments and years. The clearest effect of elevated CO(sub 2) was in the case of C/N ratio in year 6, where there was a consistent, positive effect. The increases in C/N ratio with elevated CO(sub 2) in year six were largely a result of reductions in soil N rather than increases in soil C. Future papers will assess whether this apparent reduction in soil N could have been

  10. INDEPENDENT AND CONTRASTING EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION ROOT ARCHITECTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on architecture of Pinus ponderosa fine roots and their associated mycorrhizal symbionts were measured over a 4-year period. The study was conducted in open-top field-exposure chambers located near Placerville, CA. A replicated (thr...

  11. Effect of different fertilization measures on soil CO2 emissions of spring corn in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shicai; Qiao, Shaoqing

    2018-04-01

    To research the sustainability of efficient utilization approaches and modes of nitrogen in spring corns. Taking different fertilization measures to research the influence on soil respiration and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen; the experiment takes the spring corns and black soil of Harbin in Northeast China as research objects. It researches the influence of 4 different fertilization measures by using field long-term located experiment on soil respiration of the spring corns and analyzes the yield. The four measures are as follows: farmer's fertilization practice FP; Tl mode of decreasing 20% of nitrogenous fertilizer on the basis of FP; T2 mode of 20% of Tl nitrogenous fertilizer replaced by organic fertilizer and other 20% replaced by slow-release nitrogen fertilizer; T3 mode of adding 2t/hm2 of corn stalk carbon on the basis of T2. There are significant differences of CO2 emission flux in spring corn soil with four fertilization measures (PTl>T2>FP and the yield rank of spring corns is: T3>T2>Tl>FP. (1) The rational nitrogen-decrease fertilization measure has no obvious influence on spring corn yield and the replacement of organic fertilizer and slow-release nitrogen fertilizer and the addition of active carbon can improve the spring corn yield. (2) Utilization of organic fertilizer can accelerate the emission of CO2 from the soil. (3) Addition of biological carbon can promote the emission of CO2 from soil during the growing period of spring corns.

  12. Nitrogen fertilization raises CO2 efflux from inorganic carbon: A global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Kazem; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2018-03-25

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization is an indispensable agricultural practice worldwide, serving the survival of half of the global population. Nitrogen transformation (e.g., nitrification) in soil as well as plant N uptake releases protons and increases soil acidification. Neutralizing this acidity in carbonate-containing soils (7.49 × 10 9  ha; ca. 54% of the global land surface area) leads to a CO 2 release corresponding to 0.21 kg C per kg of applied N. We here for the first time raise this problem of acidification of carbonate-containing soils and assess the global CO 2 release from pedogenic and geogenic carbonates in the upper 1 m soil depth. Based on a global N-fertilization map and the distribution of soils containing CaCO 3 , we calculated the CO 2 amount released annually from the acidification of such soils to be 7.48 × 10 12  g C/year. This level of continuous CO 2 release will remain constant at least until soils are fertilized by N. Moreover, we estimated that about 273 × 10 12  g CO 2 -C are released annually in the same process of CaCO 3 neutralization but involving liming of acid soils. These two CO 2 sources correspond to 3% of global CO 2 emissions by fossil fuel combustion or 30% of CO 2 by land-use changes. Importantly, the duration of CO 2 release after land-use changes usually lasts only 1-3 decades before a new C equilibrium is reached in soil. In contrast, the CO 2 released by CaCO 3 acidification cannot reach equilibrium, as long as N fertilizer is applied until it becomes completely neutralized. As the CaCO 3 amounts in soils, if present, are nearly unlimited, their complete dissolution and CO 2 release will take centuries or even millennia. This emphasizes the necessity of preventing soil acidification in N-fertilized soils as an effective strategy to inhibit millennia of CO 2 efflux to the atmosphere. Hence, N fertilization should be strictly calculated based on plant-demand, and overfertilization should be avoided not only

  13. Evaluation of Tillage, Residue Management and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on CO2 Emission in Maize (Zea Mays L. Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholla Moradi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states that future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs will continue to increase and cause climatic change (16. These conditions are also true for Iran. The three greenhouse gases associated with agriculture are carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. The three GHGs associated with agriculture CO2, CH4, and N2O differ in their effectiveness in trapping heat and in their turnover rates in the atmosphere. This environmental change will have serious impacts on different growth and development processes of crops. Increasing temperature could affect physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and partitioning of photoassimilates. Farmers are not able to change or manage the climatic conditions, but some factors such as soil, water, seed and agricultural practices can be managed to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change (32. Mitigation and adaptation are two known ways for reducing the negative impacts of climate change. Mitigation strategies are associated with decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions through management practices such as reducing chemical fertilizer application, mechanization, increasing carbon storage in agroecosystems, planting biofuel crops and moving towards organic farming (42, etc. Material and Methods: This study was carried out at the experimental field of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2011 and was repeated in 2012. The Research Station (36°16´N, 59°36´E is located at about 985 m a.s.l. Average temperature and precipitation rate of the research station in two years are shown in Figure. 1. The three-factor experiment was set up in a strip-split-plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments were tillage systems (conventional and reduced tillage and residual management (remaining and leaving of maize residual assigned to main plots

  14. Effects of experimental nitrogen fertilization on planktonic metabolism and CO2 flux in a hypereutrophic hardwater lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Bogard

    Full Text Available Hardwater lakes are common in human-dominated regions of the world and often experience pollution due to agricultural and urban effluent inputs of inorganic and organic nitrogen (N. Although these lakes are landscape hotspots for CO2 exchange and food web carbon (C cycling, the effect of N enrichment on hardwater lake food web functioning and C cycling patterns remains unclear. Specifically, it is unknown if different eutrophication scenarios (e.g., modest non point vs. extreme point sources yield consistent effects on auto- and heterotrophic C cycling, or how biotic responses interact with the inorganic C system to shape responses of air-water CO2 exchange. To address this uncertainty, we induced large metabolic gradients in the plankton community of a hypereutrophic hardwater Canadian prairie lake by adding N as urea (the most widely applied agricultural fertilizer at loading rates of 0, 1, 3, 8 or 18 mg N L-1 week-1 to 3240-L, in-situ mesocosms. Over three separate 21-day experiments, all treatments of N dramatically increased phytoplankton biomass and gross primary production (GPP two- to six-fold, but the effects of N on autotrophs plateaued at ~3 mg N L-1. Conversely, heterotrophic metabolism increased linearly with N fertilization over the full treatment range. In nearly all cases, N enhanced net planktonic uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, and increased the rate of CO2 influx, while planktonic heterotrophy and CO2 production only occurred in the highest N treatments late in each experiment, and even in these cases, enclosures continued to in-gas CO2. Chemical effects on CO2 through calcite precipitation were also observed, but similarly did not change the direction of net CO2 flux. Taken together, these results demonstrate that atmospheric exchange of CO2 in eutrophic hardwater lakes remains sensitive to increasing N loading and eutrophication, and that even modest levels of N pollution are capable of enhancing autotrophy and CO

  15. Impact of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on foliar elemental composition in a short rotation poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinari, Sara; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia; Grego, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on a short rotation coppice culture of poplars (POP-EUROFACE, Central Italy), growing in a free air carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere (FACE). The specific objective of this work was to study whether elevated CO 2 and fertilization (two CO 2 treatments, elevated CO 2 and control, two N fertilization treatments, fertilized and unfertilized), as well as the interaction between treatments caused an unbalanced nutritional status of leaves in three poplar species (P. x euramericana, P. nigra and P. alba). Finally, we discuss the ecological implications of a possible change in foliar nutrients concentration. CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the concentration of magnesium; whereas nitrogen fertilization had opposite effects on leaf nitrogen and magnesium concentrations. Moreover, the interaction between elevated CO 2 and N fertilization amplified some element unbalances such as the K/N-ratio. - CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the magnesium concentration in poplar

  16. Projected near-future levels of temperature and pCO2 reduce coral fertilization success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Albright

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2 are projected to contribute to a 1.1-6.4°C rise in global average surface temperatures and a 0.14-0.35 reduction in the average pH of the global surface ocean by 2100. If realized, these changes are expected to have negative consequences for reef-building corals including increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching and reduced rates of calcification and reef accretion. Much less is known regarding the independent and combined effects of temperature and pCO2 on critical early life history processes such as fertilization. Here we show that increases in temperature (+3°C and pCO2 (+400 µatm projected for this century negatively impact fertilization success of a common Indo-Pacific coral species, Acropora tenuis. While maximum fertilization did not differ among treatments, the sperm concentration required to obtain 50% of maximum fertilization increased 6- to 8- fold with the addition of a single factor (temperature or CO2 and nearly 50- fold when both factors interact. Our results indicate that near-future changes in temperature and pCO2 narrow the range of sperm concentrations that are capable of yielding high fertilization success in A. tenuis. Increased sperm limitation, in conjunction with adult population decline, may have severe consequences for coral reproductive success. Impaired sexual reproduction will further challenge corals by inhibiting population recovery and adaptation potential.

  17. Nitrogen fertilization has a stronger effect on soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities than elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, Sean T; Yeager, Chris M; Gallegos-Graves, Laverne; Steven, Blaire; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Jackson, Robert B; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2014-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is the primary supply of N to most ecosystems, yet there is considerable uncertainty about how N-fixing bacteria will respond to global change factors such as increasing atmospheric CO2 and N deposition. Using the nifH gene as a molecular marker, we studied how the community structure of N-fixing soil bacteria from temperate pine, aspen, and sweet gum stands and a brackish tidal marsh responded to multiyear elevated CO2 conditions. We also examined how N availability, specifically, N fertilization, interacted with elevated CO2 to affect these communities in the temperate pine forest. Based on data from Sanger sequencing and quantitative PCR, the soil nifH composition in the three forest systems was dominated by species in the Geobacteraceae and, to a lesser extent, Alphaproteobacteria. The N-fixing-bacterial-community structure was subtly altered after 10 or more years of elevated atmospheric CO2, and the observed shifts differed in each biome. In the pine forest, N fertilization had a stronger effect on nifH community structure than elevated CO2 and suppressed the diversity and abundance of N-fixing bacteria under elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. These results indicate that N-fixing bacteria have complex, interacting responses that will be important for understanding ecosystem productivity in a changing climate.

  18. Tree ring evidence for limited direct CO2 fertilization of forests over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalof, Ze'ev; Berg, Aaron A.

    2010-09-01

    The effect that rising atmospheric CO2 levels will have on forest productivity and water use efficiency remains uncertain, yet it has critical implications for future rates of carbon sequestration and forest distributions. Efforts to understand the effect that rising CO2 will have on forests are largely based on growth chamber studies of seedlings, and the relatively small number of FACE sites. Inferences from these studies are limited by their generally short durations, artificial growing conditions, unnatural step-increases in CO2 concentrations, and poor replication. Here we analyze the global record of annual radial tree growth, derived from the International Tree ring Data Bank (ITRDB), for evidence of increasing growth rates that cannot be explained by climatic change alone, and for evidence of decreasing sensitivity to drought. We find that approximately 20 percent of sites globally exhibit increasing trends in growth that cannot be attributed to climatic causes, nitrogen deposition, elevation, or latitude, which we attribute to a direct CO2 fertilization effect. No differences were found between species in their likelihood to exhibit growth increases attributable to CO2 fertilization, although Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), the two most commonly sampled species in the ITRDB, exhibit a CO2 fertilization signal at frequencies very near their upper and lower confidence limits respectively. Overall these results suggest that CO2 fertilization of forests will not counteract emissions or slow warming in any substantial fashion, but do suggest that future forest dynamics may differ from those seen today depending on site conditions and individual species' responses to elevated CO2.

  19. CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON FINE ROOT LENGTH, PRODUCTION, AND MORTALITY: A 4-YEAR PONDEROSA PINE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a 4-year study of Pinus ponderosa fine root (<2 mm) responses to atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers at 3 CO2 levels (ambient, ambient+175 mol/mol, ambient+350 mol/mol) and 3 N-fertilization levels (0, 10, 20 g?m-2?yr-1). ...

  20. Short-term effects of fertilization on photosynthesis and leaf morphology of field-grown loblolly pine following long-term exposure to elevated CO2 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, C.A.; Palmroth, S.; Ward, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an initial nitrogen (N) fertilizer application on the upper-canopy needle morphology and gas exchange of a loblolly pine tree exposed to elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations over a period of 9 years. Plots in the study were split, and one half of each plot was fertilized with 112 kg ha -1 of elemental N. Measurements included needle length, mass per unit area, N concentrations on a mass and area basis, light-saturated net photosynthesis per unit leaf area, and per unit mass and leaf conductance. Results of the study showed that fertilization had little impact on needle length, mass per unit area, or leaf conductance. Results suggested that although both needle age classes accumulated N following fertilization, current-year foliage incorporated N into its photosynthetic machinery, while 1-year old foliage stored N. No significant interactions were observed between elevated CO 2 and light-saturated net photosynthesis per unit leaf area. The study found few fertilization and CO 2 interaction effects on leaf physiology and morphology. 54 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Closing CO2 Loop in Biogas Production: Recycling Ammonia As Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingyao; Yu, Ge; Tu, Te; Yan, Shuiping; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhao, Shuaifei

    2017-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel system for simultaneous ammonia recovery, carbon capture, biogas upgrading, and fertilizer production in biogas production. Biogas slurry pretreatment (adjusting the solution pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand) plays an important role in the system as it significantly affects the performance of ammonia recovery. Vacuum membrane distillation is used to recover ammonia from biogas slurry at various conditions. The ammonia removal efficiency in vacuum membrane distillation is around 75% regardless of the ammonia concentration of the biogas slurry. The recovered ammonia is used for CO 2 absorption to realize simultaneous biogas upgrading and fertilizer generation. CO 2 absorption performance of the recovered ammonia (absorption capacity and rate) is compared with a conventional model absorbent. Theoretical results on biogas upgrading are also provided. After ammonia recovery, the treated biogas slurry has significantly reduced phytotoxicity, improving the applicability for agricultural irrigation. The novel concept demonstrated in this study shows great potential in closing the CO 2 loop in biogas production by recycling ammonia as an absorbent for CO 2 absorption associated with producing fertilizers.

  2. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION ON FINE ROOT DYNAMICS AND FUNGAL GROWTH IN SEEDLING PINUS PONDEROSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of elevated CO-2 and N fertilization on fine root growth of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. C. Laws., grown in native soil in open-top field-exposure chambers at Placerville, CA, were monitored for a 2-year period using minirhizotrons. The experimental design was a...

  3. DO ELEVATED CO2 AND N FERTILIZATION ALTER FINE ROOT-MYCORRHIZAE RELATIONSHIPS IN PINUS PONDEROSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite extensive studies on the response of plants to elevated CO2, climate change and N deposition, little is known about the response of roots and mycorrhizae in spite of their key role in plant water and nutrient acquisition. The effects of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on...

  4. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, A Christopher; Palmroth, Sari; Johnsen, Kurt H; McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram

    2014-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity, but the long-term effects of these factors on Fsoil are less clear. Expanding on previous studies at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, we quantified the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil using daily measurements from automated chambers over 10 years. Consistent with previous results, compared to ambient unfertilized plots, annual Fsoil increased under elevated [CO2] (ca. 17%) and decreased with N (ca. 21%). N fertilization under elevated [CO2] reduced Fsoil to values similar to untreated plots. Over the study period, base respiration rates increased with leaf productivity, but declined after productivity saturated. Despite treatment-induced differences in aboveground biomass, soil temperature and water content were similar among treatments. Interannually, low soil water content decreased annual Fsoil from potential values - estimated based on temperature alone assuming nonlimiting soil water content - by ca. 0.7% per 1.0% reduction in relative extractable water. This effect was only slightly ameliorated by elevated [CO2]. Variability in soil N availability among plots accounted for the spatial variability in Fsoil , showing a decrease of ca. 114 g C m(-2) yr(-1) per 1 g m(-2) increase in soil N availability, with consistently higher Fsoil in elevated [CO2] plots ca. 127 g C per 100 ppm [CO2] over the +200 ppm enrichment. Altogether, reflecting increased belowground carbon partitioning in response to greater plant nutritional needs, the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil in this stand are sustained beyond the early stages of stand development and

  5. One strategy for estimating the potential soil carbon storage due to CO2 fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, K.G.; Bonani, G.

    1994-01-01

    Soil radiocarbon measurements can be used to estimate soil carbon turnover rates and inventories. A labile component of soil carbon has the potential to respond to perturbations such as CO 2 fertilization, changing climate, and changing land use. Soil carbon has influenced past and present atmospheric CO 2 levels and will influence future levels. A model is used to calculate the amount of additional carbon stored in soil because of CO 2 fertilization

  6. The aerial fertilization effect of CO sub 2 and its implications for global carbon cycling and maximum greenhouse warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S B [US Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ (USA)

    1991-07-01

    The author observes that the CO{sub 2} sequestering ability of the world's plant life should increase with the rising CO{sub 2} content of the atmosphere. The enhanced cyclic variation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the Northern Hemisphere is seen to be a result of the CO{sub 2} fertilization effect. Trees are responsible for about two-thirds of global photosynthesis. It is calculated that a 300 ppm increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} produces a 182 per cent increase in the mean productivity of the world's forests. Global warming yet to be faced will not be much more than that which has already occurred. The rising CO{sub 2} content of the atmosphere provides a strong impetus for forest expansion, and a solution to any problems its continued upward trend might produce by intensifying the major mechanisms for its removal. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Climate change impacts on crop yield and quality with CO2 fertilization in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erda, Lin; Wei, Xiong; Hui, Ju; Yinlong, Xu; Yue, Li; Liping, Bai; Liyong, Xie

    2005-01-01

    A regional climate change model (PRECIS) for China, developed by the UK's Hadley Centre, was used to simulate China's climate and to develop climate change scenarios for the country. Results from this project suggest that, depending on the level of future emissions, the average annual temperature increase in China by the end of the twenty-first century may be between 3 and 4 °C. Regional crop models were driven by PRECIS output to predict changes in yields of key Chinese food crops: rice, maize and wheat. Modelling suggests that climate change without carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization could reduce the rice, maize and wheat yields by up to 37% in the next 20–80 years. Interactions of CO2 with limiting factors, especially water and nitrogen, are increasingly well understood and capable of strongly modulating observed growth responses in crops. More complete reporting of free-air carbon enrichment experiments than was possible in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Third Assessment Report confirms that CO2 enrichment under field conditions consistently increases biomass and yields in the range of 5–15%, with CO2 concentration elevated to 550 ppm Levels of CO2 that are elevated to more than 450 ppm will probably cause some deleterious effects in grain quality. It seems likely that the extent of the CO2 fertilization effect will depend upon other factors such as optimum breeding, irrigation and nutrient applications. PMID:16433100

  8. Large divergence of satellite and Earth system model estimates of global terrestrial CO2 fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Kolby; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Ballantyne, Ashley P; Anderegg, William R. L.; Wieder, William R.; Liu, Yi Y; Running, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric mass balance analyses suggest that terrestrial carbon (C) storage is increasing, partially abating the atmospheric [CO2] growth rate, although the continued strength of this important ecosystem service remains uncertain. Some evidence suggests that these increases will persist owing to positive responses of vegetation growth (net primary productivity; NPP) to rising atmospheric [CO2] (that is, ‘CO2 fertilization’). Here, we present a new satellite-derived global terrestrial NPP data set, which shows a significant increase in NPP from 1982 to 2011. However, comparison against Earth system model (ESM) NPP estimates reveals a significant divergence, with satellite-derived increases (2.8 ± 1.50%) less than half of ESM-derived increases (7.6  ±  1.67%) over the 30-year period. By isolating the CO2 fertilization effect in each NPP time series and comparing it against a synthesis of available free-air CO2 enrichment data, we provide evidence that much of the discrepancy may be due to an over-sensitivity of ESMs to atmospheric [CO2], potentially reflecting an under-representation of climatic feedbacks and/or a lack of representation of nutrient constraints. Our understanding of CO2 fertilization effects on NPP needs rapid improvement to enable more accurate projections of future C cycle–climate feedbacks; we contend that better integration of modelling, satellite and experimental approaches offers a promising way forward.

  9. Impact of atmospheric and terrestrial CO2 feedbacks on fertilization-induced marine carbon uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschlies, A.

    2009-08-01

    The sensitivity of oceanic CO2 uptake to alterations in the marine biological carbon pump, such as brought about by natural or purposeful ocean fertilization, has repeatedly been investigated by studies employing numerical biogeochemical ocean models. It is shown here that the results of such ocean-centered studies are very sensitive to the assumption made about the response of the carbon reservoirs on the atmospheric side of the sea surface. Assumptions made include prescribed atmospheric pCO2, an interactive atmospheric CO2 pool exchanging carbon with the ocean but not with the terrestrial biosphere, and an interactive atmosphere that exchanges carbon with both oceanic and terrestrial carbon pools. The impact of these assumptions on simulated annual to millennial oceanic carbon uptake is investigated for a hypothetical increase in the C:N ratio of the biological pump and for an idealized enhancement of phytoplankton growth. Compared to simulations with interactive atmosphere, using prescribed atmospheric pCO2 overestimates the sensitivity of the oceanic CO2 uptake to changes in the biological pump, by about 2%, 25%, 100%, and >500% on annual, decadal, centennial, and millennial timescales, respectively. The smaller efficiency of the oceanic carbon uptake under an interactive atmosphere is due to the back flux of CO2 that occurs when atmospheric CO2 is reduced. Adding an interactive terrestrial carbon pool to the atmosphere-ocean model system has a small effect on annual timescales, but increases the simulated fertilization-induced oceanic carbon uptake by about 4%, 50%, and 100% on decadal, centennial, and millennial timescales, respectively, for pCO2 sensitivities of the terrestrial carbon storage in the middle range of the C4MIP models (Friedlingstein et al., 2006). For such sensitivities, a substantial fraction of oceanic carbon uptake induced by natural or purposeful ocean fertilization originates, on timescales longer than decades, not from the atmosphere

  10. Effects of cover crops incorporation and nitrogen fertilization on N2O and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, T. P.; Gowda, P. H.; Northup, B. K.; DuPont, J.; Somenahally, A. C.; Rocateli, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we measured N2O and CO2 fluxes from plots planted to hairy vetch (winter cover crop) and broadleaf vetch (spring cover crop) as N sources for the following crabgrass (summer forage crop) in El Reno, Oklahoma, USA. Comparisons also included 0 and 60 kg ha-1 mineral N fertilizer supplied as dry urea. No significant N2O fluxes were observed during rapid growing periods of cover crops (March-April, 2017), however, large fluxes were observed after hairy vetch incorporation. Immediately after the hairy vetch biomass incorporation, large rainfall events were recorded. The fluxes subsided gradually with drying soil condition but were enhanced after every consecutive rainfall events. A rainfall induced flux measuring up to 8.2 kg N2O ha-1 day-1 was observed after 26 days of biomass incorporation. In total, 29 kg N2O ha-1 (18 kg N ha-1) was emitted within a month after biomass incorporation from hairy vetch plots. Growth of broadleaf vetch was poor and N2O fluxes were also lower. Similarly, plots fertilized with 60 kg N ha-1 had significant fluxes of N2O but the magnitude was much lower than the hairy vetch plots. Dynamics of N2O and CO fluxes correlated strongly. The results thus indicated that although cover crops may provide many environmental/agronomic benefits such as N fixation, soil carbon built-up, weed suppression and erosion control, high N2O emissions may dwarf these benefits.

  11. Effects of tillage and nitrogen fertilizers on CH4 and CO2 emissions and soil organic carbon in paddy fields of central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng-Fang

    Full Text Available Quantifying carbon (C sequestration in paddy soils is necessary to help better understand the effect of agricultural practices on the C cycle. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of tillage practices [conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT] and the application of nitrogen (N fertilizer (0 and 210 kg N ha(-1 on fluxes of CH(4 and CO(2, and soil organic C (SOC sequestration during the 2009 and 2010 rice growing seasons in central China. Application of N fertilizer significantly increased CH(4 emissions by 13%-66% and SOC by 21%-94% irrespective of soil sampling depths, but had no effect on CO(2 emissions in either year. Tillage significantly affected CH(4 and CO(2 emissions, where NT significantly decreased CH(4 emissions by 10%-36% but increased CO(2 emissions by 22%-40% in both years. The effects of tillage on the SOC varied with the depth of soil sampling. NT significantly increased the SOC by 7%-48% in the 0-5 cm layer compared with CT. However, there was no significant difference in the SOC between NT and CT across the entire 0-20 cm layer. Hence, our results suggest that the potential of SOC sequestration in NT paddy fields may be overestimated in central China if only surface soil samples are considered.

  12. Effects of tillage and nitrogen fertilizers on CH4 and CO2 emissions and soil organic carbon in paddy fields of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Fang, Li; Dan-Na, Zhou; Zhi-Kui, Kou; Zhi-Sheng, Zhang; Jin-Ping, Wang; Ming-Li, Cai; Cou-Gui, Cao

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying carbon (C) sequestration in paddy soils is necessary to help better understand the effect of agricultural practices on the C cycle. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of tillage practices [conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT)] and the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (0 and 210 kg N ha(-1)) on fluxes of CH(4) and CO(2), and soil organic C (SOC) sequestration during the 2009 and 2010 rice growing seasons in central China. Application of N fertilizer significantly increased CH(4) emissions by 13%-66% and SOC by 21%-94% irrespective of soil sampling depths, but had no effect on CO(2) emissions in either year. Tillage significantly affected CH(4) and CO(2) emissions, where NT significantly decreased CH(4) emissions by 10%-36% but increased CO(2) emissions by 22%-40% in both years. The effects of tillage on the SOC varied with the depth of soil sampling. NT significantly increased the SOC by 7%-48% in the 0-5 cm layer compared with CT. However, there was no significant difference in the SOC between NT and CT across the entire 0-20 cm layer. Hence, our results suggest that the potential of SOC sequestration in NT paddy fields may be overestimated in central China if only surface soil samples are considered.

  13. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and N-Fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermue, E.; Buurman, P.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO 2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter samples. Litter of P. euramerica was clearly different from that of P. nigra and P. alba. The latter two had higher contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and cutin/cutan, while the former had higher contents of phenols and benzofurans/pyrans. The difference between replications was at least as large as the effect of treatments, so that no systematic chemical changes were attributable to CO 2 effect or N-fertilization effect. The chemistry of SOM under the various species and treatments did not show significant changes either. The low number of available replicates that is two was clearly insufficient to overcome the effect of spatial variation on litter chemistry and detect small differences in molecular litter chemistry.

  14. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and N-Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Vermue

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter samples. Litter of P. euramerica was clearly different from that of P. nigra and P. alba. The latter two had higher contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and cutin/cutan, while the former had higher contents of phenols and benzofurans/pyrans. The difference between replications was at least as large as the effect of treatments, so that no systematic chemical changes were attributable to CO2 effect or N-fertilization effect. The chemistry of SOM under the various species and treatments did not show significant changes either. The low number of available replicates that is two was clearly insufficient to overcome the effect of spatial variation on litter chemistry and detect small differences in molecular litter chemistry.

  15. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and N Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Tomato Grown Under Reduced Irrigation Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The interactive effects of CO2 elevation, N fertilization, and reduced irrigation regimes on fruit yield (FY and quality in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. were investigated in a split-root pot experiment. The plants were grown in two separate climate-controlled greenhouse cells at atmospheric [CO2] of 400 and 800 ppm, respectively. In each cell, the plants were fertilized at either 100 or 200 mg N kg-1 soil and were either irrigated to full water holding capacity [i.e., a volumetric soil water content of 18%; full irrigation (FI], or using 70% water of FI to the whole pot [deficit irrigation (DI] or alternately to only half of the pot [partial root-zone irrigation (PRI]. The yield and fruit quality attributes mainly from sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose and organic acids (OAs; citric acid and malic acid to various ionic (NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3-, SO42-, and PO43- concentrations in fruit juice were determined. The results indicated that lower N supply reduced fruit number and yield, whereas it enhanced some of the quality attributes of fruit as indicated by greater firmness and higher concentrations of sugars and OAs. Elevated [CO2] (e[CO2] attenuated the negative influence of reduced irrigation (DI and PRI on FY. Principal component analysis revealed that the reduced irrigation regimes, especially PRI, in combination with e[CO2] could synergistically improve the comprehensive quality of tomato fruits at high N supply. These findings provide useful knowledge for sustaining tomato FY and quality in a future drier and CO2-enriched environment.

  16. The effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on stomatal conductance estimated from 11 years of scaled sap flux measurements at Duke FACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eric J; Oren, Ram; Bell, David M; Clark, James S; McCarthy, Heather R; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we employ a network of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) monitoring sap flux density to estimate leaf-specific transpiration (E(L)) and stomatal conductance (G(S)) in Pinus taeda (L.) and Liquidambar styraciflua L. exposed to +200 ppm atmospheric CO(2) levels (eCO(2)) and nitrogen fertilization. Scaling half-hourly measurements from hundreds of sensors over 11 years, we found that P. taeda in eCO(2) intermittently (49% of monthly values) decreased stomatal conductance (G(S)) relative to the control, with a mean reduction of 13% in both total E(L) and mean daytime G(S). This intermittent response was related to changes in a hydraulic allometry index (A(H)), defined as sapwood area per unit leaf area per unit canopy height, which decreased a mean of 15% with eCO(2) over the course of the study, due mostly to a mean 19% increase in leaf area (A(L)). In contrast, L. styraciflua showed a consistent (76% of monthly values) reduction in G(S) with eCO(2) with a total reduction of 32% E(L), 31% G(S) and 23% A(H) (due to increased A(L) per sapwood area). For L. styraciflua, like P. taeda, the relationship between A(H) and G(S) at reference conditions suggested a decrease in G(S) across the range of A(H). Our findings suggest an indirect structural effect of eCO(2) on G(S) in P. taeda and a direct leaf level effect in L. styraciflua. In the initial year of fertilization, P. taeda in both CO(2) treatments, as well as L. styraciflua in eCO(2), exhibited higher G(S) with N(F) than expected from shifts in A(H), suggesting a transient direct effect on G(S). Whether treatment effects on mean leaf-specific G(S) are direct or indirect, this paper highlights that long-term treatment effects on G(S) are generally reflected in A(H) as well.

  17. Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Oren; David S. Ellsworth; Kurt H. Johnsen; Nathan Phillips; Brent E. Ewers; Chris Maier; Karina V.R. Schafer; Heather McCarthy; George Hendrey; Steven G. McNulty; Gabriel G. Katul

    2001-01-01

    Northern mid-latitude forests are a large terrestrial carbon sink. Ignoring nutrient limitations, large increases in carbon sequestration from carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization are expected in these forests. Yet, forests are usually relegated to sites of moderate to poor fertility, where tree growth is often limited by nutrient supply, in...

  18. Root length, biomass, tissue chemistry and mycorrhizal colonization following 14 years of CO2 enrichment and 6 years of N fertilization in a warm temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benton N; Strand, Allan E; Cooper, Emily R; Beidler, Katilyn V; Schönholz, Marcos; Pritchard, Seth G

    2014-09-01

    Root systems serve important roles in carbon (C) storage and resource acquisition required for the increased photosynthesis expected in CO2-enriched atmospheres. For these reasons, understanding the changes in size, distribution and tissue chemistry of roots is central to predicting the ability of forests to capture anthropogenic CO2. We sampled 8000 cm(3) soil monoliths in a pine forest exposed to 14 years of free-air-CO2-enrichment and 6 years of nitrogen (N) fertilization to determine changes in root length, biomass, tissue C : N and mycorrhizal colonization. CO2 fumigation led to greater root length (98%) in unfertilized plots, but root biomass increases under elevated CO2 were only found for roots biomass in N-fertilized plots (19%), but fine root [N] and [C] both increased under N fertilization (29 and 2%, respectively). Mycorrhizal root tip biomass responded positively to CO2 fumigation in unfertilized plots, but was unaffected by CO2 under N fertilization. Changes in fine root [N] and [C] call for further study of the effects of N fertilization on fine root function. Here, we show that the stimulation of pine roots by elevated CO2 persisted after 14 years of fumigation, and that trees did not rely exclusively on increased mycorrhizal associations to acquire greater amounts of required N in CO2-enriched plots. Stimulation of root systems by CO2 enrichment was seen primarily for fine root length rather than biomass. This observation indicates that studies measuring only biomass might overlook shifts in root systems that better reflect treatment effects on the potential for soil resource uptake. These results suggest an increase in fine root exploration as a primary means for acquiring additional soil resources under elevated CO2. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Unexpected results in Chernozem soil respiration while measuring the effect of a bio-fertilizer on soil microbial activity [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bautista

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies investigating the effect of bio-fertilizers is increasing because of their importance in sustainable agriculture and environmental quality. In our experiments, we measured the effect of different fertilizers on soil respiration. In the present study, we were looking for the cause of unexpected changes in CO2 values while examining Chernozem soil samples. We concluded that CO2 oxidizing microbes or methanotrophs may be present in the soil that periodically consume CO2 . This is unusual for a sample taken from the upper layer of well-ventilated Chernozem soil with optimal moisture content.

  20. Regional contributions of ocean iron fertilization to atmospheric CO2 changes during the last glacial termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo, N. E.; Lambert, F.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosols affect climate directly by changing the radiative balance of the Earth, and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and by affecting biogeochemical cycles. The impact on marine biogeochemical cycles is primarily through the supply of micronutrients such as iron to nutrient-limited regions of the oceans. Iron fertilization of High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the oceans is thought to have significantly affected the carbon cycle on glacial-interglacial scales and contributed about one fourth of the 80-100 ppm lowering of glacial atmospheric CO2 concentrations.In this study, we quantify the effect of global dust fluxes on atmospheric CO2 using the cGENIE model, an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity with emphasis on the carbon cycle. Global Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) dust flux fields were obtained from both dust model simulations and reconstructions based on observational data. The analysis was performed in two stages. In the first instance, we produced 8 global intermediate dust flux fields between Holocene and LGM and simulated the atmospheric CO2 drawdown due to these 10 dust levels. In the second stage, we only changed dust flux levels in specific HNLC regions to isolate the effect of these ocean basins. We thus quantify the contribution of the South Atlantic, the South Pacific, the North Pacific, and the Central Pacific HNLC regions to the total atmospheric CO2 difference due to iron fertilization of the Earth's oceans.

  1. The influences of CO2 fertilization and land use change on the total aboveground biomass in Amazonian tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, A. D.; Zhang, K.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Field observations from undisturbed old-growth Amazonian forest plots have recently reported on the temporal variation of many of the physical and chemical characteristics such as: physiological properties of leaves, above ground live biomass, above ground productivity, mortality and turnover rates. However, although this variation has been measured, it is still not well understood what mechanisms control the observed temporal variability. The observed changes in time are believed to be a result of a combination of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variability, recovery from natural disturbance (drought, wind blow, flood), and increase of nutrient availability. The time and spatial variability of the fertilization effect of CO2 on above ground biomass will be explored in more detail in this work. A precise understanding of the CO2 effect on the vegetation is essential for an accurate prediction of the future response of the forest to climate change. To address this issue we simultaneously explore the effects of climate variability, historical CO2 and land-use change on total biomass and productivity using two different Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM). We use the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1 (ED2.1). Using land use changes database from 1700 - 2008 we reconstruct the total carbon balance in the Amazonian forest in space and time and present how the models predict the forest as carbon sink or source and explore why the model and field data diverge from each other. From 1970 to 2005 the Amazonian forest has been exposed to an increase of approximately 50 ppm in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Preliminary analyses with the IBIS and ED2.1 dynamic vegetation model shows the CO2 fertilization effect could account for an increase in above ground biomass of 0.03 and 0.04 kg-C/m2/yr on average for the Amazon basin, respectively. The annual biomass change varies temporally and spatially from about 0

  2. The impact on atmospheric CO2 of iron fertilization induced changes in the ocean's biological pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X.; Gruber, N.; Frenzel, H.; Doney, S. C.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2008-03-01

    Using numerical simulations, we quantify the impact of changes in the ocean's biological pump on the air-sea balance of CO2 by fertilizing a small surface patch in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region of the eastern tropical Pacific with iron. Decade-long fertilization experiments are conducted in a basin-scale, eddy-permitting coupled physical/biogeochemical/ecological model. In contrast to previous studies, we find that most of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) removed from the euphotic zone by the enhanced biological export is replaced by uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere. Atmospheric uptake efficiencies, the ratio of the perturbation in air-sea CO2 flux to the perturbation in export flux across 100 m, integrated over 10 years, are 0.75 to 0.93 in our patch size-scale experiments. The atmospheric uptake efficiency is insensitive to the duration of the experiment. The primary factor controlling the atmospheric uptake efficiency is the vertical distribution of the enhanced biological production and export. Iron fertilization at the surface tends to induce production anomalies primarily near the surface, leading to high efficiencies. In contrast, mechanisms that induce deep production anomalies (e.g. altered light availability) tend to have a low uptake efficiency, since most of the removed DIC is replaced by lateral and vertical transport and mixing. Despite high atmospheric uptake efficiencies, patch-scale iron fertilization of the ocean's biological pump tends to remove little CO2 from the atmosphere over the decadal timescale considered here.

  3. Validation on wheat response to irrigation, CO2 and nitrogen fertilization in the Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Understanding whether the Community Land Model (CLM) appropriate response to elevated CO2 and different levels of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation is a crucial question. We participated the AgMIP-wheat project and run 72 simulations at Maricopa spring wheat FACE sites and five winter wheat sites in North America forcing with site observed meteorology data. After calibration on the phenology, carbon allocation, and soil hydrology parameters, wheat in CLM45 has reasonable response to irrigation and elevated CO2. However, wheat in CLM45 has no response to low or high N fertilization because the low amount of N fertilization is sufficient for wheat growth in CLM45. We plan to further extend the same simulations for CLM5 (will release in Fall 2016), which has substantial improvements on soil hydrology (improved soil evaporation and plant hydraulic parameterization) and nitrogen dynamics (flexible leaf CN ratio and Vcmax25, plant pays for carbon to get nitrogen). We will evaluate the uncertainties of wheat response to nitrogen fertilization, irrigation, CO2 due to model improvements.

  4. Reconsideration of atmospheric CO2 lifetime: potential mechanism for explaining CO2 missing sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, R.; Gorbacheva, T.; Gerardo, R.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon cycle data (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1996) indicate that fossil fuel use accounts for emissions to the atmosphere of 5.5±0.5 GtC (Gigatons of carbon) annually. Other important processes in the global CO2 budget are tropical deforestation, estimated to generate about 1.6±1.0 GtC/yr; absorption by the oceans, removing about 2.0±0.8 GtC/yr; and regrowth of northern forests, taking up about 0.5±0.5 GtC/yr. However, accurate measurements of CO2 show that the atmosphere is accumulating only about 3.3±0.2 GtC/yr. The imbalance of about 1.3±1.5 GtC/yr, termed the "missing sink", represents the difference between the estimated sources and the estimated sinks of CO2; that is, we do not know where all of the anthropogenic CO2 is going. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain this missing carbon, such as CO2 fertilization, climate change, nitrogen deposition, land use change, forest regrowth et al. Considering the complexity of ecosystem, most of ecosystem model cannot handle all the potential mechanisms to reproduce the real world. It has been believed that the dominant sink mechanism is the fertilizing effects of increased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and the addition to soils of fixed nitrogen from fossil-fuel burning and agricultural fertilizers. However, a recent analysis of long-term observations of the change in biomass and growth rates suggests that such fertilization effects are much too small to explain more than a small fraction of the observed sink. In addition, long-term experiments in which small forest patches and other land ecosystems have been exposed to elevated CO2 levels for extended periods show a rapid decrease of the fertilization effect after an initial enhancement. We will explore this question of the missing sink in atmospheric CO2 residence time. Radioactive and stable carbon isotopes (13-C/12-C) show the real CO2 lifetime is about 5 years; i.e. CO2 is quickly taken out of the atmospheric

  5. The impact on atmospheric CO2 of iron fertilization induced changes in the ocean's biological pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. McWilliams

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using numerical simulations, we quantify the impact of changes in the ocean's biological pump on the air-sea balance of CO2 by fertilizing a small surface patch in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region of the eastern tropical Pacific with iron. Decade-long fertilization experiments are conducted in a basin-scale, eddy-permitting coupled physical/biogeochemical/ecological model. In contrast to previous studies, we find that most of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC removed from the euphotic zone by the enhanced biological export is replaced by uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere. Atmospheric uptake efficiencies, the ratio of the perturbation in air-sea CO2 flux to the perturbation in export flux across 100 m, integrated over 10 years, are 0.75 to 0.93 in our patch size-scale experiments. The atmospheric uptake efficiency is insensitive to the duration of the experiment. The primary factor controlling the atmospheric uptake efficiency is the vertical distribution of the enhanced biological production and export. Iron fertilization at the surface tends to induce production anomalies primarily near the surface, leading to high efficiencies. In contrast, mechanisms that induce deep production anomalies (e.g. altered light availability tend to have a low uptake efficiency, since most of the removed DIC is replaced by lateral and vertical transport and mixing. Despite high atmospheric uptake efficiencies, patch-scale iron fertilization of the ocean's biological pump tends to remove little CO2 from the atmosphere over the decadal timescale considered here.

  6. Studies of radiation gamma effects of 60 Co on fecundity, fertility and survival of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque Melo, Ana M.M. de; Motta, Mauricy A. da

    1997-01-01

    The effects of gamma 60 Co radiation on fecundity, fertility and survival of Biomphalaria straminea was carried out with these mollusks kept in totality reproductive isolation and grouped, for their possible utilization in the study of radiation effect in biological system. Biomphalaria straminea species are disseminated in Brazil, specially in Northeast region. The snails were exposed to the following doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 55; 60; 80; 160; 320; and 640 gy source was a Gamma Cell Co model RL (rate dose = 0,31 Gy/min). The fecundity was observed through the count of the spawing abd eggs number/snail/day; the fecundity and fertility when the radiation dose increased; it was evidenced that the grouped mollusks presented a better performance in respectivity when compared with the isolated ones. After the statistical analysis was observed that fercundity and fertility were closely related. The survival, presented higher levels of resistence in isolated mollusks than in grouped ones. The DL50/30 obtained for the isolated mollusks submitted the radiation was about 90 Gy and for the grouped ones 70 Gy. (author). 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Production and turnover of ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelial biomass and necromass under elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Alf; Mikusinska, Anna; Ågren, Göran I; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Wallander, Håkan; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bahr, Adam; Eriksson, Ulrika

    2016-08-01

    Extramatrical mycelia (EMM) of ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests, but poor knowledge about EMM biomass and necromass turnovers makes the quantification of their role problematic. We studied the impacts of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on EMM production and turnover in a Pinus taeda forest. EMM C was determined by the analysis of ergosterol (biomass), chitin (total bio- and necromass) and total organic C (TOC) of sand-filled mycelium in-growth bags. The production and turnover of EMM bio- and necromass and total C were estimated by modelling. N fertilization reduced the standing EMM biomass C to 57% and its production to 51% of the control (from 238 to 122 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), whereas elevated CO2 had no detectable effects. Biomass turnover was high (˜13 yr(-1) ) and unchanged by the treatments. Necromass turnover was slow and was reduced from 1.5 yr(-1) in the control to 0.65 yr(-1) in the N-fertilized treatment. However, TOC data did not support an N effect on necromass turnover. An estimated EMM production ranging from 2.5 to 6% of net primary production stresses the importance of its inclusion in C models. A slow EMM necromass turnover indicates an importance in building up forest humus. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Emission of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O from soil cultivated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) fertilized with different N sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Luqueno, F.; Reyes-Varela, V.; Martinez-Suarez, C.; Reynoso-Keller, R.E.; Mendez-Bautista, J.; Ruiz-Romero, E. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, F. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala C.P. 90700 (Mexico); Luna-Guido, M.L. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Addition of different forms of nitrogen fertilizer to cultivated soil is known to affect carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions. In this study, the effect of urea, wastewater sludge and vermicompost on emissions of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O in soil cultivated with bean was investigated. Beans were cultivated in the greenhouse in three consecutive experiments, fertilized with or without wastewater sludge at two application rates (33 and 55 Mg fresh wastewater sludge ha{sup -1}, i.e. 48 and 80 kg N ha{sup -1} considering a N mineralization rate of 40%), vermicompost derived from the wastewater sludge (212 Mg ha{sup -1}, i.e. 80 kg N ha{sup -1}) or urea (170 kg ha{sup -1}, i.e. 80 kg N ha{sup -1}), while pH, electrolytic conductivity (EC), inorganic nitrogen and CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions were monitored. Vermicompost added to soil increased EC at onset of the experiment, but thereafter values were similar to the other treatments. Most of the NO{sub 3}{sup -} was taken up by the plants, although some was leached from the upper to the lower soil layer. CO{sub 2} emission was 375 C kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the unamended soil, 340 kg C ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the urea-amended soil and 839 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the vermicompost-amended soil. N{sub 2}O emission was 2.92 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in soil amended with 55 Mg wastewater sludge ha{sup -1}, but only 0.03 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the unamended soil. The emission of CO{sub 2} was affected by the phenological stage of the plant while organic fertilizer increased the CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emission, and the yield per plant. Environmental and economic implications must to be considered to decide how many, how often and what kind of organic fertilizer could be used to increase yields, while limiting soil deterioration and greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Interaction Effect of CO2 Enrichment and Nutritional Conditions on Physiological Characteristics, Essential Oil and Yield of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud SHOOR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide enrichment and nutritional improvement can increase photosynthesis and growth of different crops. The aim of the present study was to assess interaction effects of CO2 enrichment and fertilizer on physiological characteristics and lemon balm essential oil. Experimental units were composed of CO2 at 380, 700, and 1050 ppm with and without manure and N fertilizer application. A continuous increasing trend of individual plant leaf area, total dry weight accumulation and relative growth ratio were recorded with CO2 enrichment. When CO2 was elevated from 380 to 1050 ppm, the values of height (24.3%, SPAD reading (2.7%, essential oil yield (26.3% and final yield (65.3% were increased, unlike, stomatal conductance (35.2% and essential oil percentage (53% were decreased. The highest and the lowest values (except for oil percentage were obtained under N and no fertilizer application, respectively. Except for SPAD, interaction between CO2 enrichment and each fertilizer on all measured characteristics had a significant effect, so that CO2 effect was intensified by applying each fertilizer. Therefore, it can be concluded that when temperature increase caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not a limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will improve lemon balm biomass and essential oil yield.

  10. The Effect of Elevated CO2 and Increased Temperature on in Vitro Fertilization Success and Initial Embryonic Development of Single Male:Female Crosses of Broad-Cast Spawning Corals at Mid- and High-Latitude Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on the in vitro fertilization success and initial embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals using a single male:female cross of three different species from mid- and high-latitude locations: Lyudao, Taiwan (22° N and Kochi, Japan (32° N. Eggs were fertilized under ambient conditions (27 °C and 500 μatm CO2 and under conditions predicted for 2100 (IPCC worst case scenario, 31 °C and 1000 μatm CO2. Fertilization success, abnormal development and early developmental success were determined for each sample. Increased temperature had a more profound influence than elevated CO2. In most cases, near-future warming caused a significant drop in early developmental success as a result of decreased fertilization success and/or increased abnormal development. The embryonic development of the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the high-latitude location was more sensitive to the increased temperature (+4 °C than the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the mid-latitude location. The response to the elevated CO2 level was small and highly variable, ranging from positive to negative responses. These results suggest that global warming is a more significant and universal stressor than ocean acidification on the early embryonic development of corals from mid- and high-latitude locations.

  11. Effects of Fertilization on Uptake of 85Sr, 60Co and 54Mn by Tomato and Phaseolus Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.B.; Ezz El-Din, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of N-, P-, and K- fertilizers on availability of 85 Sr, 60 Co and 54 Mn added to the soil were measured in an open field experiment. The uptake of 85 Sr, 60 Co and 54 Mn by tomato and phaseolus was lower in fertilized treatments than in unfertilized ones. The radionuclide availability under fertilized condition depends on soil and element properties. Solubilization of Ca-ions following nitrification of nitrogen in ammonium salts and the presence of stable Strontium, Cobalt and Manganese in the acidifying fertilizers are the main factors giving rise to the reduced radioisotopes uptake by plants. The relative order of uptake of the investigated radionuclides by plants appeared to be as follow 54 Mn> 60 Co> 85 Sr. The distribution pattern of the total absorbed radionuclides in the two plants shows that the shoots contained the highest percent of these radionuclides. Transfer factors for phaseolus plants were higher than those of tomato plants

  12. Canopy profiles of photosynthetic parameters under elevated CO2 and N fertilization in a poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Tulva, Ingmar; Eensalu, Eve; Perez, Marta; De Angelis, Paolo; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe; Kull, Olevi

    2005-01-01

    A poplar plantation has been exposed to an elevated CO 2 concentration for 5 years using the free air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) technique. Even after such a long period of exposure, leaves of Populus x euramericana have not shown clear signs of photosynthetic acclimation. Only at the end of the growing season for shade leaves was a decrease of maximum velocity of carboxylation (V cmax ) observed. Maximum electron transport rate (J max ) was increased by FACE treatment in July. Assimilation rates at CO 2 partial pressure of 400 (A 400 ) and 600 (A 600 ) μmol mol -1 were not significantly different under FACE treatment. Most notably FACE significantly decreased stomatal conductance (g s ) both on upper and lower canopy leaves. N fertilization increased N content in the leaves on mass basis (N m ) and specific leaf area (SLA) in both CO 2 treatments but did not influence the photosynthetic parameters. These data show that in poplar plantations the long-term effects of elevated CO 2 on photosynthesis do not differ considerably from the short-term ones even with N deposition. - Photosynthetic acclimation occurred only marginally

  13. Soil carbon accumulation in a Populus spp. plantation supplied with high atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagomarsino A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in the experimental area POPFACE (Tuscania, Viterbo, where a poplar short rotation forest (SRF was treated with 550 ppm of atmospheric CO2 for six years. The experimental plots (Control and FACE were divided in two halves, one of which was treated with nitrogen fertilization. The general aim of this research was to quantify the impact of the two rotation cycles, the CO2 enrichment and the nitrogen fertilization on: i soil organic matter fractions more relevant for microbial metabolism; ii microbial C mineralization activity and iii the ecosystem capacity to store C in the soil. On soil samples collected from 2000 to 2004, the soil Organic C (TOC, the total extractable C (TEC and several labile C fractions (MBC, WSC, ExC were analysed. The microbial mineralization activity was also analysed. In comparison with the previous culture crop, the plantation increased the organic C storage in soil by about 23% in the second rotation cycle. Under elevated CO2, the increase of above- and belowground productivity supported a greater accumulation of labile C in soil, favouring a microbial C immobilization process. Fertilization treatment induced short-term changes in the soil C content, without overall modifications in the second rotation cycle.

  14. Fertility and fertilizing ability of cotton pollen following γ-radiation (Co60)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of Co 60 gamma radiation on the fertility and fertilizing ability of ripe cotton (Tashkent-2 variety) pollen was studied. Radiation doses were 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10kR. The generally accepted cross-pollination method was used. The viability of the pollen after irradiation was determined by the Shardakov and aceto-carmine dye method. Determination of the peroxidase activity, which in this case was used as an index of the pollen viability, made it possible to assess its physiological state. Non-irradiated flowers were used as controls. It was shown that the pollen viability depended on the radiation dose. Doses from 0.5 to 2 kR had no effect on the peroxidase activity. Irradiation decreased the percentage of viable pollen somewhat (compared to controls). A similar relation to irradiation was observed in the pollen color in the aceto-carmine test for fertility. Doses of 5-10 kR decreased the percentage of fertility of the pollen. An important factor in evaluating the radiation sensitivity of cotton pollen is the number and type of bound bolls and seeds. Studies showed that the number of bound bolls depends on the radiation dose. With doses of 0.5 and 1.5 kR an average of 78.6% bound bolls formed, compared to 80.0% in the controls. With 1 kR the number of bound rolls formed, compared to 80.0% in the controls. With these doses the shape and size of the bolls did not differ from those in the controls; the average weight was 4.3 g. Doses of 2.3 and 4kR gave an average of 66% bound bolls, i.e., 14% different from the controls. With increase in the radiation dose, the size and shape of the bolls changed significantly. Doses of 5 and 10 kR had a lethal action on formation of filled-out seed; not one filled seed was found. Thus, pollen treated with different gamma radiation doses retains its viability, depending on the radiation dose

  15. The optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration for the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming

    2015-07-20

    This study examined the optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration of the CO2 fertilization effect on the growth of winter wheat with growth chambers where the CO2 concentration was controlled at 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 ppm respectively. I found that initial increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration dramatically enhanced winter wheat growth through the CO2 fertilization effect. However, this CO2 fertilization effect was substantially compromised with further increase in CO2 concentration, demonstrating an optimal CO2 concentration of 889.6, 909.4, and 894.2 ppm for aboveground, belowground, and total biomass, respectively, and 967.8 ppm for leaf photosynthesis. Also, high CO2 concentrations exceeding the optima not only reduced leaf stomatal density, length and conductance, but also changed the spatial distribution pattern of stomata on leaves. In addition, high CO2 concentration also decreased the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) of leaf photosynthesis. However, the high CO2 concentration had little effect on leaf length and plant height. The optimal CO2 fertilization effect found in this study can be used as an indicator in selecting and breeding new wheat strains in adapting to future high atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. On the potential for a CO2 fertilization effect in forest trees: An assessment of 58 controlled-exposure studies and estimates of the biotic growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wullschleger, S.D.; Post, W.M.; King, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    Characterizing the response of terrestrial ecosystems to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 and estimating their biological capacity to either moderate or accelerate predicted changes in the earth's climate, continues to present a formidable challenge to experimentalist and modelers alike. Nevertheless, it is generally recognized that the carbon dynamics of terrestrial vegetation represent an important biospheric feedback to increasing CO 2 concentrations, and hence to global warming, and as such there exists little debate that ecosystems occupy a.potentially pivotal role in determining both the direction and rate of future changes in atmospheric CO 2 concentration. What is currently the subject of much debate, however, is whether terrestrial ecosystems will contribute to global warming by releasing additional CO 2 the atmosphere as a result of increasing respiration and/or decomposition in a warming climate, or whether they will instead sequester additional carbon in response to the enhancing effects of atmospheric CO 2 on plant growth. This latter response, the so-called CO 2 fertilization effect, has been hypothesized as an important negative feedback to global warming, offering the potential to constrain future increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentration, and has often been invoked to either partially or wholly account for the estimated 1.6 Gt C/year imbalance or ''missing sink'' in calculations of the global carbon budget

  17. Atmospheric CO2 fertilization effects on biomass yields of 10 crops in northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan F. Degener

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and quantity of the influence that atmospheric CO2 has on cropgrowth is still a matter of debate. This study's aim is to estimate if CO2 will have an effect on biomass yields at all, to quantify and spatially locate the effects and to explore if an elevated photosynthesis rate or water-use-efficiency is predominantly responsible. This study uses a numerical carbon based crop model (BioSTAR to estimate biomass yields within theadministrative boundaries of Niedersachsen in Northern Germany. 10 crops are included (winter grains: wheat, barley,rye, triticale - early, medium, late maize variety - sunflower, sorghum, spring wheat, modeled annuallyfor the entire 21st century on 91,014 separate sites. Modeling was conducted twice, once with an annually adaptedCO2 concentration according to the SRES-A1B scenario and once with a fixed concentration of 390 ppm to separate the influence of CO2 from that of the other input variables.Rising CO2 concentrations will play a central role in keeping future yields of all crops above or aroundtoday's level. Differences in yields between modeling with fixed or adapted CO2 can be as high as60 % towards the century's end. Generally yields will increase when CO2 rises and decline whenit is kept constant. As C4-crops are equivalently affected it is presumed that anelevated efficiency in water use is the main responsible factor for all plants.

  18. Effectiveness of Some Ameliorants in Reducing Co2 and N2o Emission in Corn Planting in Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Maftuah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amelioration is very important in supporting plant growth in peat land. The use of low emission ameliorant will support the sustainability of agricultural system in peat land. The research is intended to study the effectiveness of some ameliorants in reducing CO2 and N2O emission in corn planting in peat land. The research was conducted in April to October 2013, in Kalampangan Village Palangkaraya Municipality Central Kalimantan. Ameliorant materials used were chicken manure fertilizer, domolite, mineral soil, paddy husk biochar, coconut shell biochar. Ameliorant treatments applied were the type of ameliorant compositions, those were (A1 80% chicken manure fertilizer + 20% dolomite, (A2 20% chicken manure fertilizer + 20% agricultural weeds + 20% spodosol mineral soil + 20% “purun tikus” (eleocharis dulcis compost + 20% dolomite, (A3 19% chicken manure fertilizer + 9% dolomite + 72% mineral soil, (A4 100% coconut shell biochar, (A5 paddy husk biochar, (A6 farmer’s way (20% ash + 40% spodosol mineral soil + 40% chicken manure fertilizer and control. Experiment design used a Randomized Factorial Block Design, with 3 repetitions. Ameliorant dosage used was 7.5 t/ha. The crop used was hybrid corn. Parameters which were observed periodically were emission of CO2 and N2O, ground water level height, soil pH and Eh, once a month for 5 periods. The research result showed that ameliorant was capable of reducing emission of both CO2 and N2O in corn planting in peat land. Coconut shell biochar could reduce emission of CO2 up to 26% as compared with control, whereas paddy husk biochar could reduce emission of N2O up to 52% as compared with control.

  19. Nitrogen Availability Dampens the Positive Impacts of CO2 Fertilization on Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon and Water Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Chen, Jing M.; Croft, Holly; Gonsamo, Alemu; Luo, Xiangzhong; Liu, Jane; Zheng, Ting; Liu, Ronggao; Liu, Yang

    2017-11-01

    The magnitude and variability of the terrestrial CO2 sink remain uncertain, partly due to limited global information on ecosystem nitrogen (N) and its cycle. Without N constraint in ecosystem models, the simulated benefits from CO2 fertilization and CO2-induced increases in water use efficiency (WUE) may be overestimated. In this study, satellite observations of a relative measure of chlorophyll content are used as a proxy for leaf photosynthetic N content globally for 2003-2011. Global gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration are estimated under elevated CO2 and N-constrained model scenarios. Results suggest that the rate of global GPP increase is overestimated by 85% during 2000-2015 without N limitation. This limitation is found to occur in many tropical and boreal forests, where a negative leaf N trend indicates a reduction in photosynthetic capacity, thereby suppressing the positive vegetation response to enhanced CO2 fertilization. Based on our carbon-water coupled simulations, enhanced CO2 concentration decreased stomatal conductance and hence increased WUE by 10% globally over the 1982 to 2015 time frame. Due to increased anthropogenic N application, GPP in croplands continues to grow and offset the weak negative trend in forests due to N limitation. Our results also show that the improved WUE is unlikely to ease regional droughts in croplands because of increases in evapotranspiration, which are associated with the enhanced GPP. Although the N limitation on GPP increase is large, its associated confidence interval is still wide, suggesting an urgent need for better understanding and quantification of N limitation from satellite observations.

  20. Effect of Elevated CO2 Concentration, Elevated Temperature and No Nitrogen Fertilization on Methanogenic Archaeal and Methane-Oxidizing Bacterial Community Structures in Paddy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyan; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-09-29

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) enhance the production and emission of methane in paddy fields. In the present study, the effects of elevated [CO2], elevated temperature (ET), and no nitrogen fertilization (LN) on methanogenic archaeal and methane-oxidizing bacterial community structures in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental paddy field were investigated by PCR-DGGE and real-time quantitative PCR. Soil samples were collected from the upper and lower soil layers at the rice panicle initiation (PI) and mid-ripening (MR) stages. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was not markedly affected by the elevated [CO2], ET, or LN condition. The abundance of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was also not affected by elevated [CO2] or ET, but was significantly increased at the rice PI stage and significantly decreased by LN in the lower soil layer. In contrast, the composition of the methane-oxidizing bacterial community was affected by rice-growing stages in the upper soil layer. The abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was significantly decreased by elevated [CO2] and LN in both soil layers at the rice MR stage and by ET in the upper soil layer. The ratio of mcrA/pmoA genes correlated with methane emission from ambient and FACE paddy plots at the PI stage. These results indicate that the decrease observed in the abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was related to increased methane emission from the paddy field under the elevated [CO2], ET, and LN conditions.

  1. Effects of forest fertilization on C sequestration and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.E.; Grayston, S.J.; Basiliko, N.; Seely, B.A.; Weetman, G.F.; Bull, G.Q.; Northway, S.; Mohn, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential to create carbon credits from the increased storage in all carbon pools on the forest landscape. It was conducted in response to the Kyoto Protocol provision which allows the inclusion of carbon sinks. The productivity of Canada's forest landbase is limited by availability of nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N). Studies have shown that forest fertilization not only increases productivity of many forest type, but offers the associated benefit of increased carbon (C) sequestration in biomass. There is increasing evidence that N fertilization will also increase C sequestration in soil organic matter, since higher N availability appears to interfere with litter decomposition causing more C to become humified. Many long-term fertilization experiments in British Columbia have provided an opportunity to quantify the effects of N addition on C sequestration in vegetation and soil organic matter. It was noted that determining the effects of fertilization on emission of nitrous oxides (N 2 O) and consumption of methane (CH 4 ) is critical since the greenhouse warming potential of these gases is much greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). This study also used state-of-the-art molecular methods to identify the soil microorganisms responsible for N 2 O production and CH 4 oxidation in order to determine the complex and often contradictory effects of fertilizers on N 2 O emission and CH 4 oxidation in forest soils. The actual N 2 O, CO 2 , and CH 4 fluxes from these soils were also measured. The main objective of the project was the development of microbial indicators as tools to detect soil GHG emission activity

  2. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The effect of elevated CO2 and N on decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues in calcareous and non calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razavi Darbar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of plant residue in soils is considered as an important agricultural practice for maintaining soil fertility in sustainable agricultural system. CO2 levels, nitrogen fertilization and plant residues are factors which highly affect decomposition of added organic matter to soil. In this research controlled chambers were used to investigate the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 vs. 760 CO2 ppm under two N fertilization levels (0 vs. 500 kg N ha-1 and two replicates on decomposition of wheat and alfalfa residues in two calcareous (32.66 % CaCO3 and non calcareous soils (3.4 % CaCO3 at 6 times (0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 90 under laboratory condition. Soil moistures were adjusted at 70% of field capacity. The results showed that elevated CO2 significantly increased decomposition of residues in both calcareous and non calcareous soils. In the samples that received N fertilizer, decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues increased in both soils. From the obtained results, we concluded that in all treatments the amount of decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues in calcareous soil were higher than non calcareous soils.

  4. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION ON SURVIVAL OF PONDEROSA PINE FINE ROOTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used minihizaotrons to assess the effects of elevated CO2N and season on the life-span of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws.) fine roots. CO2 levels were ambient air (A), ambient air + 175 ?mol mol-1 (A+175) and ambient air + 350 ?mol mol-1 (A+350). N treatments ...

  5. Effects of forest fertilization on C sequestration and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, C.E.; Grayston, S.J.; Basiliko, N.; Seely, B.A.; Weetman, G.F. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Bull, G.Q.; Northway, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Resources Management; Mohn, W.W. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated the potential to create carbon credits from the increased storage in all carbon pools on the forest landscape. It was conducted in response to the Kyoto Protocol provision which allows the inclusion of carbon sinks. The productivity of Canada's forest landbase is limited by availability of nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N). Studies have shown that forest fertilization not only increases productivity of many forest type, but offers the associated benefit of increased carbon (C) sequestration in biomass. There is increasing evidence that N fertilization will also increase C sequestration in soil organic matter, since higher N availability appears to interfere with litter decomposition causing more C to become humified. Many long-term fertilization experiments in British Columbia have provided an opportunity to quantify the effects of N addition on C sequestration in vegetation and soil organic matter. It was noted that determining the effects of fertilization on emission of nitrous oxides (N{sub 2}O) and consumption of methane (CH{sub 4}) is critical since the greenhouse warming potential of these gases is much greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This study also used state-of-the-art molecular methods to identify the soil microorganisms responsible for N{sub 2}O production and CH{sub 4} oxidation in order to determine the complex and often contradictory effects of fertilizers on N{sub 2}O emission and CH{sub 4} oxidation in forest soils. The actual N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} fluxes from these soils were also measured. The main objective of the project was the development of microbial indicators as tools to detect soil GHG emission activity.

  6. Application of biochar and nitrogen influences fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O in a forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Iain; Johnson, Mark S; Jassal, Rachhpal S; Black, T Andrew; Grant, Nicholas J; Smukler, Sean M

    2017-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of forests for increasing carbon sequestration and wood volume is expected to influence soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially to increase N 2 O emissions. As biochar application is known to affect soil GHG emissions, we investigated the effect of biochar application, with and without N fertilization, to a forest soil on GHG emissions in a controlled laboratory study. We found that biochar application at high (10%) application rates increased CO 2 and N 2 O emissions when applied without urea-N fertilizer. At both low (1%) and high biochar (10%) application rates CH 4 consumption was reduced when applied without urea-N fertilizer. Biochar application with urea-N fertilization did not increase CO 2 emissions compared to biochar amended soil without fertilizer. In terms of CO 2 -eq, the net change in GHG emissions was mainly controlled by CO 2 emissions, regardless of treatment, with CH 4 and N 2 O together accounting for less than 1.5% of the total emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CO2 fertilization and enhanced drought resistance in Greek firs from Cephalonia Island, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutavas, Athanasios

    2013-02-01

    Growth-climate relationships were investigated in Greek firs from Ainos Mountain on the island of Cephalonia in western Greece, using dendrochronology. The goal was to test whether tree growth is sensitive to moisture stress, whether such sensitivity has been stable through time, and whether changes in growth-moisture relationships support an influence of atmospheric CO2 on growth. Regressions of tree-ring indices (ad 1820-2007) with instrumental temperature, precipitation, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) indicate that growth is fundamentally limited by growing-season moisture in late spring/early summer, most critically during June. However, this simple picture obscures a pattern of sharply evolving growth-climate relationships during the 20th century. Correlations between growth and June temperature, precipitation, and PDSI were significantly greater in the early 20th century but later degraded and disappeared. By the late 20th-early 21st century, there remains no statistically significant relationship between moisture and growth implying markedly enhanced resistance to drought. Moreover, growth experienced a net increase over the last half-century culminating with a sharp spike in ad 1988-1990. This recent growth acceleration is evident in the raw ring-width data prior to standardization, ruling out artifacts from statistical detrending. The vanishing relationship with moisture and parallel enhancement of growth are all the more notable because they occurred against a climatic backdrop of increasing aridity. The results are most consistent with a significant CO2 fertilization effect operating through restricted stomatal conductance and improved water-use efficiency. If this interpretation is correct, atmospheric CO2 is now overcompensating for growth declines anticipated from drier climate, suggesting its effect is unusually strong and likely to be detectable in other up-to-date tree-ring chronologies from the Mediterranean. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing

  8. Effect of melatonin on maturation capacity and fertilization of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nagina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation of in vitro maturation media on in vitro maturation (IVM and in vitro fertilization (IVF rate of buffalo oocytes. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs were aspirated from follicles of 2-8 mm diameter. In experiment I, COCs were matured in IVM medium supplemented with 0 (control, 250, 500, and 1000 μM melatonin for 22-24 hours in CO2 incubator at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 and at 95% relative humidity. The maturation rate did not differ in media supplemented with melatonin at 250 μM, 500 μM, 1000 μM and control (0 μM. In experiment II, the matured oocytes were fertilized in 50 μl droplets of Tyrode’s Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP medium having 10 ug/ml heparin for sperm (2 million/ml capacitation. The fertilization droplets were then kept for incubation at 5% CO2, 39°C and at 95% relative humidity for 18 hours. The fertilization rate was assessed by sperm penetration and pronuclear formation. Fertilization rate was improved when maturation medium was supplemented with 250 μM melatonin compared to control. In conclusion, melatonin supplementation to serum free maturation media at 250 μM improved the fertilization rate of buffalo oocytes.

  9. Quantifying Direct and Indirect Effects of Elevated CO2 on Ecosystem Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, S.; Leuzinger, S.; Paschalis, A.; Donnellan-Barraclough, A.; Hovenden, M. J.; Langley, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are expected to affect carbon assimilation, evapotranspiration (ET) and ultimately plant growth. Direct leaf biochemical effects have been widely investigated, while indirect effects, although documented, are very difficult to quantify in experiments. We hypothesize that the interaction of direct and indirect effects is a possible reason for conflicting results concerning the magnitude of CO2 fertilization effects across different climates and ecosystems. A mechanistic ecohydrological model (Tethys-Chloris) is used to investigate the relative contribution of direct (through plant physiology) and indirect (via stomatal closure and thus soil moisture, and changes in Leaf Area Index, LAI) effects of elevated CO2 across a number of ecosystems. We specifically ask in which ecosystems and climate indirect effects are expected to be largest. Data and boundary conditions from flux-towers and free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments are used to force the model and evaluate its performance. Numerical results suggest that indirect effects of elevated CO2, through water savings and increased LAI, are very significant and sometimes larger than direct effects. Indirect effects tend to be considerably larger in water-limited ecosystems, while direct effects correlate positively with mean air temperature. Increasing CO2 from 375 to 550 ppm causes a total effect on Net Primary Production in the order of 15 to 40% and on ET from 0 to -8%, depending on climate and ecosystem type. The total CO2 effect has a significant negative correlation with the wetness index and positive correlation with vapor pressure deficit. These results provide a more general mechanistic understanding of relatively short-term (less than 20 years) implications of elevated CO2 on ecosystem response and suggest plausible magnitudes for the expected changes.

  10. Effect of elevated CO2, O3, and UV radiation on soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formánek, Pavel; Rejšek, Klement; Vranová, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have attempted to review the current knowledge on the impact of elevated CO2, O3, and UV on soils. Elevated CO2 increases labile and stabile soil C pool as well as efficiency of organic pollutants rhizoremediation and phytoextraction of heavy metals. Conversely, both elevated O3 and UV radiation decrease inputs of assimilates to the rhizosphere being accompanied by inhibitory effects on decomposition processes, rhizoremediation, and heavy metals phytoextraction efficiency. Contrary to elevated CO2, O3, or UV-B decreases soil microbial biomass, metabolisable C, and soil N t content leading to higher C/N of soil organic matter. Elevated UV-B radiation shifts soil microbial community and decreases populations of soil meso- and macrofauna via direct effect rather than by induced changes of litter quality and root exudation as in case of elevated CO2 or O3. CO2 enrichment or increased UV-B is hypothesised to stimulate or inhibit both plant and microbial competitiveness for soluble soil N, respectively, whereas O3 favours only microbial competitive efficiency. Understanding the consequences of elevated CO2, O3, and UV radiation for soils, especially those related to fertility, phytotoxins inputs, elements cycling, plant-microbe interactions, and decontamination of polluted sites, presents a knowledge gap for future research.

  11. Unexpected results in Chernozem soil respiration while measuring the effect of a bio-fertilizer on soil microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Gabriela; Mátyás, Bence; Carpio, Isabel; Vilches, Richard; Pazmino, Karina

    2017-01-01

    The number of studies investigating the effect of bio-fertilizers is increasing because of their importance in sustainable agriculture and environmental quality. In our experiments, we measured the effect of different fertilizers on soil respiration. In the present study, we were looking for the cause of unexpected changes in CO2 values while examining Chernozem soil samples. We concluded that CO2 oxidizing microbes or methanotrophs may be present in the soil that periodically consume CO2 . This is unusual for a sample taken from the upper layer of well-ventilated Chernozem soil with optimal moisture content.

  12. Family policies in developed countries : a "fertility-booster" with side-effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thévenon, O.; Gauthier, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes recent fertility trends in European and/or Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] countries and surveys the effects of family-friendly policies on fertility. Although these policies do seem to have an impact on fertility, their magnitude is limited.

  13. Effect of Elevated CO2, O3, and UV Radiation on Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Formánek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have attempted to review the current knowledge on the impact of elevated CO2, O3, and UV on soils. Elevated CO2 increases labile and stabile soil C pool as well as efficiency of organic pollutants rhizoremediation and phytoextraction of heavy metals. Conversely, both elevated O3 and UV radiation decrease inputs of assimilates to the rhizosphere being accompanied by inhibitory effects on decomposition processes, rhizoremediation, and heavy metals phytoextraction efficiency. Contrary to elevated CO2, O3, or UV-B decreases soil microbial biomass, metabolisable C, and soil Nt content leading to higher C/N of soil organic matter. Elevated UV-B radiation shifts soil microbial community and decreases populations of soil meso- and macrofauna via direct effect rather than by induced changes of litter quality and root exudation as in case of elevated CO2 or O3. CO2 enrichment or increased UV-B is hypothesised to stimulate or inhibit both plant and microbial competitiveness for soluble soil N, respectively, whereas O3 favours only microbial competitive efficiency. Understanding the consequences of elevated CO2, O3, and UV radiation for soils, especially those related to fertility, phytotoxins inputs, elements cycling, plant-microbe interactions, and decontamination of polluted sites, presents a knowledge gap for future research.

  14. Effect of Elevated CO2, O3, and UV Radiation on Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejšek, Klement; Vranová, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have attempted to review the current knowledge on the impact of elevated CO2, O3, and UV on soils. Elevated CO2 increases labile and stabile soil C pool as well as efficiency of organic pollutants rhizoremediation and phytoextraction of heavy metals. Conversely, both elevated O3 and UV radiation decrease inputs of assimilates to the rhizosphere being accompanied by inhibitory effects on decomposition processes, rhizoremediation, and heavy metals phytoextraction efficiency. Contrary to elevated CO2, O3, or UV-B decreases soil microbial biomass, metabolisable C, and soil Nt content leading to higher C/N of soil organic matter. Elevated UV-B radiation shifts soil microbial community and decreases populations of soil meso- and macrofauna via direct effect rather than by induced changes of litter quality and root exudation as in case of elevated CO2 or O3. CO2 enrichment or increased UV-B is hypothesised to stimulate or inhibit both plant and microbial competitiveness for soluble soil N, respectively, whereas O3 favours only microbial competitive efficiency. Understanding the consequences of elevated CO2, O3, and UV radiation for soils, especially those related to fertility, phytotoxins inputs, elements cycling, plant-microbe interactions, and decontamination of polluted sites, presents a knowledge gap for future research. PMID:24688424

  15. Nitrogen mediates CO2-induced changes in rhizosphere priming effects in an aggrading forest (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Finzi, A.

    2009-12-01

    Root-induced changes in soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition are likely to provide an important feedback to carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems but to date, there have been few measurements of such “priming effects” in forest soils. Our goal was to estimate the potential magnitude of SOM priming in a 28 year-old loblolly pine stand exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 (ambient + 200 ppm) and nitrogen fertilization (11 g m-2 yr-1) at the Duke Forest FACE site, NC. We hypothesized that CO2- and nitrogen-induced changes in carbon supply to soil via root exudation would mediate the magnitude and timing of priming effects. Over a two-year period, trees exposed to CO2 enrichment increased dissolved carbon supply to soil by ~50% in nutrient-poor soils, resulting in a doubling of microbial biomass in the rhizosphere in the upper 10 cm of mineral soil (p proteolytic extracellular enzymes involved in SOM depolymerization, with the greatest changes occurring in non-fertilized soils. We interpret the enhanced microbial and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere as evidence of root-induced priming effects. Collectively, our results suggest that although increased carbon flux from to roots to soil may provide a mechanism for trees to accelerate soil nitrogen cycling under elevated CO2, such inputs may also accelerate SOM decomposition and thus reduce storage in the longest lived, most stable pools of carbon in aggrading forests.

  16. Effect of increased pCO2 level on early shell development in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Andersen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of high anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the concentration of CO2 in the oceans has increased, causing a decrease in pH, known as ocean acidification (OA. Numerous studies have shown negative effects on marine invertebrates, and also that the early life stages are the most sensitive to OA. We studied the effects of OA on embryos and unfed larvae of the great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck, at pCO2 levels of 469 (ambient, 807, 1164, and 1599 μatm until seven days after fertilization. To our knowledge, this is the first study on OA effects on larvae of this species. A drop in pCO2 level the first 12 h was observed in the elevated pCO2 groups due to a discontinuation in water flow to avoid escape of embryos. When the flow was restarted, pCO2 level stabilized and was significantly different between all groups. OA affected both survival and shell growth negatively after seven days. Survival was reduced from 45% in the ambient group to 12% in the highest pCO2 group. Shell length and height were reduced by 8 and 15%, respectively, when pCO2 increased from ambient to 1599 μatm. Development of normal hinges was negatively affected by elevated pCO2 levels in both trochophore larvae after two days and veliger larvae after seven days. After seven days, deformities in the shell hinge were more connected to elevated pCO2 levels than deformities in the shell edge. Embryos stained with calcein showed fluorescence in the newly formed shell area, indicating calcification of the shell at the early trochophore stage between one and two days after fertilization. Our results show that P. maximus embryos and early larvae may be negatively affected by elevated pCO2 levels within the range of what is projected towards year 2250, although the initial drop in pCO2 level may have overestimated the effect of the highest pCO2 levels. Future work should focus on long-term effects on this species from hatching, throughout the larval stages, and further into the

  17. CO2 emission from soil after reforestation and application of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Braga Carmo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions from an Oxisol under degraded pasture located in Sorocaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. The treatments were: sewage sludge (LE, sewage sludge compost (CLE, mineral fertilizer (AM and no fertilization (T0. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with analysis of the effect of the four treatments (CLE, LE, and AM T0 with four replications. The application of sewage sludge, sewage sludge compost, mineral fertilizer and no fertilizer was statistically significant for the variables of height increase and stem height of Guanandi seedlings (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambessèdes - Calophyllaceae. Treatments showed significant differences in terms of CO2 emissions from soil. The CLE exhibited the highest CO2 fluxes, reaching a peak of 9.33±0.96 g C m- 2 day- 1 (p<0.0001, as well as the LE with a maximum CO2 flux of 6.35±1.17 C m- 2 day- 1 (p<0.005. The AM treatment (4.96±1.61 g C m- 2 day- 1 had the same statistical effect as T0 (5.33±0.49 g C m- 2 day- 1. CO2 fluxes were correlated with soil temperature in all treatments. However, considering the period of 172 days of evaluation, the total loss of C as CO2 was 2.7% for sewage sludge and 0.7% for the sewage sludge compost of the total C added with the application on soil.

  18. Soil CO 2 fluxes from direct seeding rice fields under two tillage practices in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-fang; Kou, Zhi-kui; Yang, Jin-hua; Cai, Ming-li; Wang, Jin-ping; Cao, Cou-gui

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural practices affect the production and emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from paddy soils. It is crucial to understand the effects of tillage and N fertilization on soil CO 2 flux and its influencing factors for a better comprehension of carbon dynamics in subtropical paddy ecosystems. A 2-yr field study was conducted to assess the effects of tillage (conventional tillage [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) and N fertilization (0 and 210 kg N ha -1) on soil CO 2 fluxes during the 2008 and 2009 rice growing seasons in central China. Treatments were established following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices as the main plot and N fertilizer level as the split-plot treatment. The soil CO 2 fluxes were measured 24 times in 2008 and 17 times in 2009. N fertilization did not affect soil CO 2 emissions while tillage affected soil CO 2 emissions, where NT had similar soil CO 2 emissions to CT in 2008, but in 2009, NT significantly increased soil CO 2 emissions. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were 2079-2245 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 2084-2141 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2008, and were 1257-1401 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 1003-1034 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2009, respectively. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were significantly related to aboveground biomass and soil organic C. Before drainage of paddy fields, soil CO 2 fluxes were significantly related to soil temperature with correlation coefficients ( R) of 0.67-0.87 in 2008 and 0.69-0.85 in 2009; moreover, the Q 10 values ranged from 1.28 to 1.55 and from 2.10 to 5.21 in 2009, respectively. Our results suggested that NT rice production system appeared to be ineffective in decreasing carbon emission, which suggested that CO 2 emissions from integrated rice-based system should be taken into account to assess effects of tillage.

  19. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge. Part 2: Evaluation of ash materials as phosphorus fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gøbel, Benny; Stoholm, Peder; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik B; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie

    2017-08-01

    The study is part 2 of 2 in an investigation of gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge in low temperature gasifiers. In this work, solid residuals from thermal gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge were investigated for their potential use as fertilizer. Ashes from five different low temperature circulating fluidized bed (LT-CFB) gasification campaigns including two mono-sludge campaigns, two sludge/straw mixed fuels campaigns and a straw reference campaign were compared. Experiments were conducted on two different LT-CFBs with thermal capacities of 100kW and 6MW, respectively. The assessment included: (i) Elemental composition and recovery of key elements and heavy metals; (ii) content of total carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N); (iii) pH; (iv) water extractability of phosphorus after incubation in soil; and (v) plant phosphorus response measured in a pot experiment with the most promising ash material. Co-gasification of straw and sludge in LT-CFB gasifiers produced ashes with a high content of recalcitrant C, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), a low content of heavy metals (especially cadmium) and an improved plant P availability compared to the mono-sludge ashes, thereby showing the best fertilizer qualities among all assessed materials. It was also found that bottom ashes from the char reactor contained even less heavy metals than cyclone ashes. It is concluded that LT-CFB gasification and co-gasification is a highly effective way to purify and sanitize sewage sludge for subsequent use in agricultural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using the CLM Crop Model to assess the impacts of changes in Climate, Atmospheric CO2, Irrigation, Fertilizer and Geographic Distribution on Historical and Future Crop Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since the start of the green revolution global crop yields have increased linearly for most major cereal crops, so that present day global values are around twice those of the 1960s. The increase in crop yields have allowed for large increases in global agricultural production without correspondingly large increases in cropping area. Future projections under the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP) framework and other assessments result in increases of global crop production of greater than 100% by the year 2050. In order to meet this increased agricultural demand within the available arable land, future production gains need to be understood in terms of the yield changes due to changes in climate, atmospheric CO2, and adaptive management such as irrigation and fertilizer application. In addition to the changes in crop yield, future agricultural demand will need to be met through increasing cropping areas into what are currently marginal lands at the cost of existing forests and other natural ecosystems. In this study we assess the utility of the crop model within the Community Land Model (CLM Crop) to provide both historical and future guidance on changes in crop yields under a range of global idealized crop modeling experiments. The idealized experiments follow the experimental design of the AgMIP Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI) in which CLM Crop is a participating model. The idealized experiments consist of global crop simulations for Cotton, Maize, Rice, Soy, Sugarcane, and Wheat under various climate, atmospheric CO2 levels, irrigation prescription, and nitrogen fertilizer application. The time periods simulated for the experiments are for the Historical period (1901 - 2005), and for the two Representative Concentration Pathways of RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 (2006 - 2100). Each crop is simulated on all land grid cells globally for each time period with atmospheric forcing that is a combination of: 1. transient climate and CO2; 2. transient climate

  1. The effect of wood ash fertilization on soil respiration and tree stand growth in boreal peatland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Maarit; Maljanen, Marja; Hytönen, Jyrki

    2017-04-01

    Out of Finland's original 10 million hectares of peatlands over half has been drained for forestry. Natural peatlands act as a sink for carbon but when peatland is drained, increased oxygen concentration in the peat accelerates the aerobic decomposition of the old organic matter of the peat leading to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to atmosphere. Increasing use of bioenergy increases also the amount of ash produced as a byproduct in power plants. Wood ash contains all essential nutrients for trees to grow except nitrogen. Therefore, wood ash is ideal fertilizer for nitrogen rich peatland forests where lack of phosphorus or potassium may restrict tree growth. At the moment, wood ash is the only available PK-fertilizer for peatland forests in Finland and areas of peatland forests fertilized with ash are increasing annually. The effects of wood ash on vegetation, soil properties and tree growth are rather well known although most of the studies have been made using fine ash whereas nowadays mostly stabilized ash (e.g. granulated) is used. Transporting and spreading of stabilized ash is easier than that of dusty fine ash. Also, slower leaching rate of nutrients is environmentally beneficial and prolongs the fertilizer effect. The knowledge on the impact of granulated wood ash on greenhouse gas emissions is still very limited. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of granulated wood ash on CO2 emissions from peat and tree stand growth. Field measurements were done in two boreal peatland forests in 2011 and 2012. One of the sites is more nutrient rich with soil carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 18 whereas the other site is nutrient poor with C/N ratio of 82. Both sites were fertilized with granulated wood ash in 2003 (5000 kg ha-1). The effect of fertilization was followed with tree stand measurements conducted 0, 5 and 10 years after the fertilization. The CO2 emissions of the decomposing peat (heterotrophic respiration) were measured from study plots where

  2. An Integrated Hydrogen Production-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhicheng Wang

    2007-03-15

    The new technology concept integrates two significant complementary hydrogen production and CO{sub 2}-sequestration approaches that have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Clark Atlanta University. The process can convert biomass into hydrogen and char. Hydrogen can be efficiently used for stationary power and mobile applications, or it can be synthesized into Ammonia which can be used for CO{sub 2}-sequestration, while char can be used for making time-release fertilizers (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) by absorption of CO{sub 2} and other acid gases from exhaust flows. Fertilizers are then used for the growth of biomass back to fields. This project includes bench scale experiments and pilot scale tests. The Combustion and Emission Lab at Clark Atlanta University has conducted the bench scale experiments. The facility used for pilot scale tests was built in Athens, GA. The overall yield from this process is 7 wt% hydrogen and 32 wt% charcoal/activated carbon of feedstock (peanut shell). The value of co-product activated carbon is about $1.1/GJ and this coproduct reduced the selling price of hydrogen. And the selling price of hydrogen is estimated to be $6.95/GJ. The green house experimental results show that the samples added carbon-fertilizers have effectively growth increase of three different types of plants and improvement ability of keeping fertilizer in soil to avoid the fertilizer leaching with water.

  3. The 2017 Fertilizer Emissions Airborne Study (FEAST): Quantifying N2O emissions from croplands and fertilizer plants in the Mississippi River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, E. A.; Gvakharia, A.; Smith, M. L.; Conley, S.; Frauhammer, K.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is a crucial atmospheric trace gas that drives 21st century stratospheric ozone depletion and substantively impacts climate. Anthropogenic emissions drive the global imbalance and annual growth of N2O, and the dominant anthropogenic source is fertilizer production and application, both of which have large uncertainties. In this presentation we will discuss the FEAST campaign, a study designed to demonstrate new approaches to quantify N2O emissions from fertilizer production and usage with aircraft measurements. In the FEAST campaign we deployed new instrumentation along with experienced flight sensors onboard the Scientific Aviation Mooney aircraft to make 40 hours of continuous 1Hz measurements of N2O, CO2, CO, H2O, CH4, O3, T, and winds. The Mississippi River Valley provided an optimal target as this location includes significant fertilizer production facilities as well as large cropland areas (dominated by corn, soy, rice, and cotton) with substantive fertilizer application. By leveraging our payload and unique airborne capabilities we directly observe and quantify N2O emissions from individual fertilizer production facilities (as well as CO2 and CH4 emissions from these same facilities). We are also able to quantify N2O fluxes from large cropland areas ( 100's km) employing a mass balance approach, a first for N2O, and will show results highlighting differences between crop types and amounts of applied fertilizer. The ability to quantify fluxes of croplands at 100km scale enables new understanding of processes controlling emissions at spatial scales that has eluded prior studies that either rely on extrapolation of small (flux chamber, towers), or work on 1,000+ km spatial scales (regional-global inversions from atmospheric measurements).

  4. Nitrogen-mediated effects of elevated CO2 on intra-aggregate soil pore structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S; Giménez, Daniel; Subroy, Vandana; Heck, Richard J; Prior, Stephen A; Runion, G Brett; Torbert, H Allen

    2017-04-01

    Soil pore structure has a strong influence on water retention, and is itself influenced by plant and microbial dynamics such as root proliferation and microbial exudation. Although increased nitrogen (N) availability and elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (eCO 2 ) often have interacting effects on root and microbial dynamics, it is unclear whether these biotic effects can translate into altered soil pore structure and water retention. This study was based on a long-term experiment (7 yr at the time of sampling) in which a C 4 pasture grass (Paspalum notatum) was grown on a sandy loam soil while provided factorial additions of N and CO 2 . Through an analysis of soil aggregate fractal properties supported by 3D microtomographic imagery, we found that N fertilization induced an increase in intra-aggregate porosity and a simultaneous shift toward greater accumulation of pore space in larger aggregates. These effects were enhanced by eCO 2 and yielded an increase in water retention at pressure potentials near the wilting point of plants. However, eCO 2 alone induced changes in the opposite direction, with larger aggregates containing less pore space than under control conditions, and water retention decreasing accordingly. Results on biotic factors further suggested that organic matter gains or losses induced the observed structural changes. Based on our results, we postulate that the pore structure of many mineral soils could undergo N-dependent changes as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations rise, having global-scale implications for water balance, carbon storage, and related rhizosphere functions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Hopewell Beneficial CO2 Capture for Production of Fuels, Fertilizer and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UOP; Honeywell Resins & Chemicals; Honeywell Process Solutions; Aquaflow Bionomics Ltd

    2010-09-30

    For Phase 1 of this project, the Hopewell team developed a detailed design for the Small Scale Pilot-Scale Algal CO2 Sequestration System. This pilot consisted of six (6) x 135 gallon cultivation tanks including systems for CO2 delivery and control, algal cultivation, and algal harvesting. A feed tank supplied Hopewell wastewater to the tanks and a receiver tank collected the effluent from the algal cultivation system. The effect of environmental parameters and nutrient loading on CO2 uptake and sequestration into biomass were determined. Additionally the cost of capturing CO2 from an industrial stack emission at both pilot and full-scale was determined. The engineering estimate evaluated Amine Guard technology for capture of pure CO2 and direct stack gas capture and compression. The study concluded that Amine Guard technology has lower lifecycle cost at commercial scale, although the cost of direct stack gas capture is lower at the pilot scale. Experiments conducted under high concentrations of dissolved CO2 did not demonstrate enhanced algae growth rate. This result suggests that the dissolved CO2 concentration at neutral pH was already above the limiting value. Even though dissolved CO2 did not show a positive effect on biomass growth, controlling its value at a constant set-point during daylight hours can be beneficial in an algae cultivation stage with high algae biomass concentration to maximize the rate of CO2 uptake. The limited enhancement of algal growth by CO2 addition to Hopewell wastewater was due at least in part to the high endogenous CO2 evolution from bacterial degradation of dissolved organic carbon present at high levels in the wastewater. It was found that the high level of bacterial activity was somewhat inhibitory to algal growth in the Hopewell wastewater. The project demonstrated that the Honeywell automation and control system, in combination with the accuracy of the online pH, dissolved O2, dissolved CO2, turbidity, Chlorophyll A and

  6. Does Elevated CO2 Alter Silica Uptake in Trees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson W. Fulweiler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C and N (N cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global carbon dioxide fertilization, long-term free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine, and five hardwood species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica (BSi concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20% and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.

  7. Soil pCO2, soil respiration, and root activity in CO2 - fumigated and nitrogen-fertilized ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale Johnson; Donn Geisinger; Roger Walker; John Newman; James Vose; Katherine Elliott; Timothy Ball

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the effects of C02 and N treatments on soil pC02, calculated CO2 efflux, root biomass and soil carbon in open-top chambers planted with Pinus ponderosa seedlings. Based upon the literature, it was hypothesized that both elevated CO...

  8. Effective integration between heavy water plant and fertilizer plant for higher production of heavy water (D2O) (Preprint No. PD-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periakaruppan, M.; Gupta, S.K.; Bhowmick, S.C.

    1989-04-01

    For smooth and efficient running of heavy water plants linked with fertilize r plants, it is necessary that certain factors must be taken into consideration right from the design stage of a fertilizer plant. These factors are: (1)preventing loss in D 2 concentration in syn gas, (2)keeping the level of CO 2 and CO in syn gas below 1 ppm, (3)operating the ammonia plant at highest pressure and (4)keeping the feed gas ammonia supply available without any interruption. Incorporation of these factors in the design is discussed. (M.G.B. )

  9. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge. Part 2: Evaluation of ash materials as phosphorus fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gøbel, Benny

    2017-01-01

    to the mono-sludge ashes, thereby showing the best fertilizer qualities among all assessed materials. It was also found that bottomashes from the char reactor contained even less heavy metals than cyclone ashes. It is concluded thatLT-CFB gasification and co-gasification is a highly effective way to purify...

  10. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    tagged NH4HCO3 (ABC) was used. Products of ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) or long-term effect ammonium bicarbonate (LEABC) were tagged with 14C when they were synthesized in the laboratory. An indoor greenhouse was built and wheat was chosen as the plant to study in this ecosystem. The investigated ecosystem consists of plant (wheat), soils with three different pH values (alkaline, neutral and acid), and three types of underground water (different Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations). After biological assimilation and metabolism in wheat receiving ABC or LEABC, it was found that a considerable amount (up to 10%) of the carbon source is absorbed by the wheat with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source (up to 76%) percolated into the soil as carbonates, such as environmentally benign calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Generally speaking, alkaline soil has a higher capability to capture and store carbon. For the same soil, there is no apparent difference in carbon capturing capability between ABC fertilizer and LEABC fertilizer. These findings answer the question how carbon is distributed after synthesized fertilizer is applied into the ecosystem. In addition, a separate post-experiment on fertilizer carbon forms that exist in the soil was made. It was found that the up to 88% of the trapped carbon exists in the form of insoluble salts (i.e., CaCO3) in alkaline soils. This indicates that alkaline soil has a greater potential for storing carbon after the use of the synthesized fertilizer from exhausted CO2.

  11. The Interrelationship of pCO2, Soil Moisture Content, and Biomass Fertilization Expressed in the Carbon Isotope Signature of C3 Plant Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hundreds of chamber and field experiments have shown an increase in C3 plant biomass in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2); however, secondary water and nutrient deficits are thought to limit this response. Some have hypothesized that secondary limitation might be self-alleviating under elevated pCO2 as greater root biomass imparts enhanced access to water and nutrients. Here we present results of growth chamber experiments designed to test this hypothesis: we grew 206 Arabidopsis thaliana plants within 5 growth chambers, each set at a different level of pCO2: 390, 685, 1075, 1585, and 2175 ppmv. Within each growth chamber, soil moisture content (θm) was maintained across a spectrum: 1.50, 0.83, 0.44, and 0.38 g g-1. After 3 weeks of total growth, tissues were analyzed for both biomass and net carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) value. From these values, we calculated Δresidual, which represents the residual effect of water stress after subtraction of the effect of pCO2 due to photorespiration. Across the full range of moisture content, Δresidual displayed a significant 2.5‰ increase with increasing pCO2. This further implies a 0.1 unit increase in ci/ca, consistent with decreased water stress at elevated pCO2. The influence of CO2 fertilization on the alleviation of water stress was further evidenced in a positive correlation between percent biomass change and Δresidual, such that a doubling of plant biomass yielded a 1.85‰ increase in carbon isotope discrimination. In addition to providing new insight into water uptake in plants growing under elevated carbon dioxide, these data underscore the importance of separating the effects of increased pCO2 (via photorespiration) and altered ci/ca (via stomatal conductance) when considering changes in the Δ13C value of C3 land plants during the Anthropocene, or across any geological period that includes a marked change in global carbon cycling.

  12. Emissions of nitrous acid (HONO), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from boreal agricultural soil - Effect of N fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Hem Raj; Virkajärvi, Perttu; -Yli Pirilä, Pasi; Maljanen, Marja

    2017-04-01

    There is no doubt that nitrogen (N) fertilization has crucial role in increasing food production. However, in parallel it can cause severe impact in environment such as eutrophication, surface/groundwater pollution via nitrate (NO3-) leaching and emissions of N trace gases. Fertilization increases the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) which is 260 stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (CO2). It also enhances the emissions of nitric oxide (NO); an oxidized and very reactive form of nitrogen which can fluctuate the ozone (O3) concentration in atmosphere and cause acidification. The effects of N- fertilization on the emission of N2O and NO from agricultural soil are well known. However, the effects of N fertilization on nitrous acid (HONO) emissions are unknown. Few studies have shown that HONO is emitted from soil but they lack to interlink fertilization and HONO emission. HONO accounts for 17-34 % of hydroxyl (OH-) radical production? in the atmosphere, OH- radicals have vital role in atmospheric chemistry; they can cause photochemical smog, form O3, oxidize volatile organic compounds and also atmospheric methane (CH4). We formulated hypothesis that N fertilization will increase the HONO emissions as it does for N2O and NO. To study this, we took soil samples from agricultural soil receiving different amount of N-fertilizer (0, 250 and 450 kg ha-1) in eastern Finland. HONO emissions were measured by dynamic chamber technique connected with LOPAP (Quma Elektronik & Analytik GmbH), NO by NOx analyzer (Thermo scientific) and static chamber technique and gas chromatograph was used for N2O gas sampling and analysis. Several soil parameters were also measured to establish the relationship between the soil properties, fertilization rate and HONO emission. This study is important because eventually it will open up more questions regarding the forms of N loss from soils and impact of fertilization on atmospheric chemistry.

  13. Underground coal gasification with extended CO2 utilization as economic and carbon neutral approach to address energy and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Islam, Rafiqul; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The application of underground coal gasification (UCG) with proven carbon mitigation techniques may provide a carbon neutral approach to tackle electricity and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh. UCG facilitates the utilization of deep-seated coal seams, not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. The high-calorific synthesis gas produced by UCG can be used for e.g. electricity generation or as chemical raw material for hydrogen, methanol and fertilizer production. Kempka et al. (2010) carried out an integrated assessment of UCG operation, demonstrating that about 19 % of the CO2 produced during UCG may be mitigated by CO2 utilization in fertilizer production. In the present study, we investigated an extension of the UCG system by introducing excess CO2 storage in the gas deposit of the Bahkrabad gas field (40 km east of Dhaka, Bangladesh). This gas field still holds natural gas resources of 12.8 million tons of LNG equivalent, but is close to abandonment due to a low reservoir pressure. Consequently, applying enhanced gas recovery (EGR) by injection of excess carbon dioxide from the coupled UCG-urea process may mitigate carbon emissions and support natural gas production from the Bahkrabad gas field. To carry out an integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled system, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014) to consider the urea and EGR processes. Reservoir simulations addressing EGR in the Bakhrabad gas field by utilization of excess carbon dioxide from the UCG process were carried out to account for the induced pressure increase in the reservoir, and thus additional gas recovery potentials. The Jamalganj coal field in Northwest Bangladesh provides favorable geological and infrastructural conditions for a UCG operation at coal seam depths of 640 m to 1,158 m. Excess CO2 can be transported via existing pipeline networks to the Bahkrabad gas field (about 300 km distance from the coal deposit) to be

  14. Ocean fertilization with iron: effects on climate and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, Peter; Chuck, Adele; Bakker, Dorothee; Turner, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that iron fertilization can increase primary production and hence CO 2 drawdown over a significant fraction of the oceans. What is less well established is the extent to which this leads to long-term sequestration of carbon to the deep oceans, and to feedbacks to the atmosphere arising from increased biological activity. In this note results for changes in trace gas concentrations during an iron addition experiment in the Southern Ocean are presented. They demonstrate that a complex situation exists; some gases (DMS, CH 3 I, CHBr 2 Cl) show increases in concentration following fertilization with iron while others show no change (CH 3 ONO 2 , CH 2 ClI) or even a decrease (CHBr 3 ). The concomitant effects on air/sea fluxes of these gases are potentially important for climate and atmospheric composition

  15. RISING ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere could alter Earth's climate system, but it is thought that higher concentrations may improve plant growth by way of the fertilization effect. Forests, an important part of the Earth's carbon cycle, are postulated to sequester a...

  16. Amplification of heat extremes by plant CO2 physiological forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Christopher B; Poulsen, Christopher J; Mankin, Justin S

    2018-03-15

    Plants influence extreme heat events by regulating land-atmosphere water and energy exchanges. The contribution of plants to changes in future heat extremes will depend on the responses of vegetation growth and physiology to the direct and indirect effects of elevated CO 2 . Here we use a suite of earth system models to disentangle the radiative versus vegetation effects of elevated CO 2 on heat wave characteristics. Vegetation responses to a quadrupling of CO 2 increase summer heat wave occurrence by 20 days or more-30-50% of the radiative response alone-across tropical and mid-to-high latitude forests. These increases are caused by CO 2 physiological forcing, which diminishes transpiration and its associated cooling effect, and reduces clouds and precipitation. In contrast to recent suggestions, our results indicate CO 2 -driven vegetation changes enhance future heat wave frequency and intensity in most vegetated regions despite transpiration-driven soil moisture savings and increases in aboveground biomass from CO 2 fertilization.

  17. Effect of Various Organic Fertilizers Substitute Chemical Fertilizer on Cucumber Productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadang, Nattayana; Ratanapanit, Sittisuk; Chaowanklang, Pratuang; Ratanapanit; Nadtinee; Jaipakdee, Putinee; Ongsakitboriboon

    2006-09-01

    The effect of using the various organic fertilizer to substitute on the chemical fertilizer on cucumber, was carried out at Tambol Pattananikom, Amphur Pattananikom, Lopburi, Thailand, from December 1, 2005 to February 1, 2006 By using Randomized Comp let Block Design (RCBD), Contain with 4 treatments, chemical fertilizer: 16-16-16: 40 Kg/rai (Control), Pillet organic fertilizer: 50 Kg/rai, Bio extract from cow milk: 300 cc./ water 20 Ltr,.+ compost mixed in soil and bio fertilizer from the office of Atomic Energy Peace : 300 cc./water 20 Ltr. + campost mixed in soil (15 m. 2 /plot) were compared. Experiment result indicate that there were no significant differences on the yield. The highest yield of 25.91 kg/plot (27663.73 kg/rai) was obtained from chemical fertilizer, Fertilizer, followed by pillet organic fertilizer 22.88 kg/plot (2440.53 kg/rai), bio fertilizer 22.34 kg/pot (2382.93 kg/rai) and bio extract 19.03 kg/plot) (2029.87 kg/rai.

  18. Response to elevated CO2 in the temperate C3 grass Festuca arundinaceae across ten soil orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Nord

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils vary widely in mineral nutrient availability and physical characteristics, but the influence of this variability on plant responses to elevated CO2 remains poorly understood. As a first approximation of the effect of global soil variability on plant growth response to CO2, we evaluated the effect of CO2 on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea grown in soils representing 10 of the 12 global soil orders plus a high-fertility control. Plants were grown in small pots in continuously stirred reactor tanks in a greenhouse. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm increased plant biomass in the high-fertility control and in two of the more fertile soils. Elevated CO2 had variable effects on foliar mineral concentration - nitrogen was not altered by elevated CO2, and phosphorus and potassium were only affected by CO2 in a small number of soils. While leaf photosynthesis was stimulated by elevated CO2 in six soils, canopy photosynthesis was not stimulated. Four principle components were identified; the first was associated with foliar minerals and soil clay, and the second with soil acidity and foliar manganese concentration. The third principle component was associated with gas exchange, and the fourth with plant biomass and soil minerals. Soils in which tall fescue did not respond to elevated CO2 account for 83% of global land area. These results show that variation in soil physical and chemical properties have important implications for plant responses to global change, and highlight the need to consider soil variability in models of vegetation response to global change.

  19. Effects of CO₂ on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M; Ribeiro, H; Abreu, I; Cruz, A; Esteves da Silva, J C G

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric gaseous pollutants can induce qualitative and quantitative changes in airborne pollen characteristics. In this work, it was investigated the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates. Pollen was collected directly from the anthers and in vitro exposed to three CO2 levels (500, 1000, and 3000 ppm) for 6 and 24 h in an environmental chamber. Pollen fertility was determined using viability and germination assays, total soluble protein was determined with Coomassie Protein Assay Reagent, and the antigenic and allergenic properties were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunological techniques using patients' sera. Also, pollen fructose, sucrose, and glucose values were determined. Carbon dioxide exposure affected negatively pollen fertility, total soluble protein content, and fructose content. The patient sera revealed increased IgE reactivity to proteins of A. negundo pollen exposed to increasing levels of the pollutant. No changes were detected in the SDS-PAGE protein profiles and in sucrose and glucose levels. Our results indicate that increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations can have a negative influence of some features of A. negundo airborne pollen that can influence the reproductive processes as well as respiratory pollen allergies in the future.

  20. Effect of Cumulus cell co-culture and Protein Supplement on Success of in vitro Fertilization and Development of Pre-implanted Embryos in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad-Baqir M-R. Fakhrildin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful oocyte fertilization and normal embryonic development of mice were considered the most important diagnostic criteria for the safety of materials and tools used for human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET. Therefore, we studied the influence of cumulus cells co-culture and protein supplement within culture medium on percentages of in vitro fertilization (IVF and normal development of early stages of mouse embryo later. Oocytes were collected and treated with hyaluronidase to remove cumulus cells. Oocytes were divided into four groups namely: Group-1: Oocytes incubated within modified Earl’s medium (MEM supplied with 10% inactivated bovine amniotic fluid as a protein source and cumulus cells; Group-2: Oocytes incubated with MEM supplied with cumulus cells only; Group-3: Oocytes incubated with MEM supplied with 10% inactivated bovine amniotic fluid only; and Group-4: Oocytes  incubated with MEM free of both protein source and cumulus cells. For IVF, 5-6 oocytes were incubated with active spermatozoa under paraffin oil for 18-20 hours at 37° oC in 5% CO2. Percentages of IVF and embryonic development were then recorded. Best results for IVF and normal embryonic development were achieved from oocytes of Group-1 when compared to the other groups. As compared to Group-1, the percentage of IVF for Group-2 and Group-3 were decreased insignificantly and significantly (P<0.002, respectively. Significant (P<0.01 reduction in the percentages of IVF and normal embryonic development were reported in Group-4 as compared to Group-1. Therefore, it was concluded that the presence of cumulus cells co-culture and bovine amniotic fluid as a protein source within culture medium may have an important role on the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa and oocytes and normal development of pre-implanted mouse embryo later.

  1. Long-term CO2 fertilization increases vegetation productivity and has little effect on hydrological partitioning in tropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Donohue, Randall J.; McVicar, Tim R.; Roderick, Michael L.; Beck, Hylke E.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how tropical rainforests respond to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) is essential for predicting Earth's carbon, water, and energy budgets under future climate change. Here we use long-term (1982-2010) precipitation (P) and runoff (Q) measurements to infer runoff coefficient (Q/P) and evapotranspiration (E) trends across 18 unimpaired tropical rainforest catchments. We complement that analysis by using satellite observations coupled with ecosystem process modeling (using both "top-down" and "bottom-up" perspectives) to examine trends in carbon uptake and relate that to the observed changes in Q/P and E. Our results show there have been only minor changes in the satellite-observed canopy leaf area over 1982-2010, suggesting that eCO2 has not increased vegetation leaf area in tropical rainforests and therefore any plant response to eCO2 occurs at the leaf level. Meanwhile, observed Q/P and E also remained relatively constant in the 18 catchments, implying an unchanged hydrological partitioning and thus approximately conserved transpiration under eCO2. For the same period, using a top-down model based on gas exchange theory, we predict increases in plant assimilation (A) and light use efficiency (ɛ) at the leaf level under eCO2, the magnitude of which is essentially that of eCO2 (i.e., 12% over 1982-2010). Simulations from 10 state-of-the-art bottom-up ecosystem models over the same catchments also show that the direct effect of eCO2 is to mostly increase A and ɛ with little impact on E. Our findings add to the current limited pool of knowledge regarding the long-term eCO2 impacts in tropical rainforests.

  2. The PTK7-related transmembrane proteins off-track and off-track 2 are co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 required for male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemannstöns, Karen; Ripp, Caroline; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Brechtel-Curth, Katja; Hedderich, Marie; Wodarz, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was identified as a Wnt co-receptor required for control of planar cell polarity (PCP) in frogs and mice. We found that flies homozygous for a complete knock-out of the Drosophila PTK7 homolog off track (otk) are viable and fertile and do not show PCP phenotypes. We discovered an otk paralog (otk2, CG8964), which is co-expressed with otk throughout embryonic and larval development. Otk and Otk2 bind to each other and form complexes with Frizzled, Frizzled2 and Wnt2, pointing to a function as Wnt co-receptors. Flies lacking both otk and otk2 are viable but male sterile due to defective morphogenesis of the ejaculatory duct. Overexpression of Otk causes female sterility due to malformation of the oviduct, indicating that Otk and Otk2 are specifically involved in the sexually dimorphic development of the genital tract.

  3. Chances and challenges of forest scale CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Rising CO2 is changing the biosphere's diet. As with any dietary change, both amount and quality of food matter. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment is clearly providing a rather one-sided, C-rich diet. Hence, the reaiistic experimental simulation of its effect on the single biggest C reservoir of the biosphere, that is forest, requires experimental conditions that resemble exactly that situation. In the past, trees where most commonly exposed to elevated CO2 while provided with ample other constituents of a plant's diet (soil nutrients), yielding exaggerated growth stimulation, unlikely to reflect real world responses. So, by either selecting fertile soils, disturbing the system by fire or planting activities, offering ample soil space to isolated individuals or even adding fertilizer, almost any CO2-response can be 'designed'. The 'art' of designing future Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments will be to avoid exactly these pitfalls. Plants can incorporate additional C only to the extent the provision of chemical elements other than C will permit, given the stoichiometry of life. Site selection (soil fertility), degree of canopy closure, recent disturbance regime or successional stage will influence CO2 effects. It is the fundamental dilemma in CO2-enrichment research that simple, homogenous, artificial test systems offer statistical power, while systems that account for 'naturalness' and species diversity do not. Any new FACE program needs to handle that tradeoff between precision and relevance. In this presentation I will advocate a pragmatic approach that will inevitably have to lean on individual tree responses, across a wide as possible range of neighborhoods, age and growth conditions, with the statistical power depending in obtaining the best possible pre-treatment traits and responses. By illustrating the results of 15 years of FACE with 30-40 m tall forest trees, I will caution against over-optimistic ecosystem scale approaches with just ONE technology

  4. Amazon rainforest responses to elevated CO2: Deriving model-based hypotheses for the AmazonFACE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammig, A.; Fleischer, K.; Lapola, D.; Holm, J.; Hoosbeek, M.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is assumed to have a stimulating effect ("CO2 fertilization effect") on forest growth and resilience. Empirical evidence, however, for the existence and strength of such a tropical CO2 fertilization effect is scarce and thus a major impediment for constraining the uncertainties in Earth System Model projections. The implications of the tropical CO2 effect are far-reaching, as it strongly influences the global carbon and water cycle, and hence future global climate. In the scope of the Amazon Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment, we addressed these uncertainties by assessing the CO2 fertilization effect at ecosystem scale. AmazonFACE is the first FACE experiment in an old-growth, highly diverse tropical rainforest. Here, we present a priori model-based hypotheses for the experiment derived from a set of 12 ecosystem models. Model simulations identified key uncertainties in our understanding of limiting processes and derived model-based hypotheses of expected ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 that can directly be tested during the experiment. Ambient model simulations compared satisfactorily with in-situ measurements of ecosystem carbon fluxes, as well as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stocks. Models consistently predicted an increase in photosynthesis with elevated CO2, which declined over time due to developing limitations. The conversion of enhanced photosynthesis into biomass, and hence ecosystem carbon sequestration, varied strongly among the models due to different assumptions on nutrient limitation. Models with flexible allocation schemes consistently predicted an increased investment in belowground structures to alleviate nutrient limitation, in turn accelerating turnover rates of soil organic matter. The models diverged on the prediction for carbon accumulation after 10 years of elevated CO2, mainly due to contrasting assumptions in their phosphorus cycle representation. These differences define the expected

  5. Nitrogen fertilization of switchgrass increases biomass yield and improves net greenhouse gas balance in northern Michigan, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiema, Paligwende; Rothstein, David E.; Min, Doo-Hong; Kapp, Christian J.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can increase bioenergy crop production; however, fertilizer production and application can contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, potentially undermining the GHG benefits of bioenergy crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on GHG emissions and biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop, in northern Michigan. Nitrogen fertilization treatments included 0 kg ha -1 (control), 56 kg ha -1 (low) and 112 kg ha -1 (high) of N applied as urea. Soil fluxes of CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 were measured every two weeks using static chambers. Indirect GHG emissions associated with field activities, manufacturing and transport of fertilizer and pesticides were derived from the literature. Switchgrass aboveground biomass yield was evaluated at the end of the growing season. Nitrogen fertilization contributed little to soil GHG emissions; relative to the control, there were additional global warming potential of 0.7 Mg ha -1 y -1 and 1.5 Mg ha -1 y -1 as CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 eq), calculated using the IPCC values, in the low and high N fertilization treatments, respectively. However, N fertilization greatly stimulated CO 2 uptake by switchgrass, resulting in 1.5- and 2.5-fold increases in biomass yield in the low and high N fertilization treatments, respectively. Nitrogen amendments improved the net GHG benefits by 2.6 Mg ha -1 y -1 and 9.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 as CO 2 eq relative to the control. Results suggest that N fertilization of switchgrass in this region could reduce (15-50%) the land base needed for bioenergy production and decrease pressure on land for food and forage crop production. -- Highlights: → We examine the effects of N fertilization of switchgrass on GHG emissions. → Effects of N fertilization on biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop. → N fertilization contributed little to greenhouse gas emissions. → N fertilization greatly stimulated CO 2 uptake by the switchgrass. → N

  6. Effect of long-term fertilization on humic redox mediators in multiple microbial redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Zhang, Chunfang; Wang, Yi; Yu, Xinwei; Zhang, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongdong

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of different long-term fertilizations on humic substances (HSs), humic acids (HAs) and humins, functioning as redox mediators for various microbial redox biotransformations, including 2,2',4,4',5,5'- hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153 ) dechlorination, dissimilatory iron reduction, and nitrate reduction, and their electron-mediating natures. The redox activity of HSs for various microbial redox metabolisms was substantially enhanced by long-term application of organic fertilizer (pig manure). As a redox mediator, only humin extracted from soils with organic fertilizer amendment (OF-HM) maintained microbial PCB 153 dechlorination activity (1.03 μM PCB 153 removal), and corresponding HA (OF-HA) most effectively enhanced iron reduction and nitrate reduction by Shewanella putrefaciens. Electrochemical analysis confirmed the enhancement of their electron transfer capacity and redox properties. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that C=C and C=O bonds, and carboxylic or phenolic groups in HSs might be the redox functional groups affected by fertilization. This research enhances our understanding of the influence of anthropogenic fertility on the biogeochemical cycling of elements and in situ remediation ability in agroecosystems through microorganisms' metabolisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  8. A cost effective CO2 strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , a scenario-part and a cost-benefit part. Air and sea modes are not analyzed. The model adopts a bottom-up approach to allow a detailed assessment of transport policy measures. Four generic areas of intervention were identified and the likely effect on CO2 emissions, socioeconomic efficiency and other...... are evaluated according to CO2 reduction potential and according to the ‘shadow price’ on a reduction of one ton CO2. The shadow price reflects the costs (and benefits) of the different measures. Comparing the measures it is possible to identify cost effective measures, but these measures are not necessarily...... by the Ministry of Transport, with the Technical University of Denmark as one of the main contributors. The CO2-strategy was to be based on the principle of cost-effectiveness. A model was set up to assist in the assessment. The model consists of a projection of CO2-emissions from road and rail modes from 2020...

  9. Field effect of P fertilization on N$_{2}$ fixation rate of Ulex europaeus

    OpenAIRE

    Cavard , Xavier; Augusto , Laurent; Saur , Etienne; Trichet , Pierre

    2007-01-01

    European gorse (Ulex europaeus L.) N-2 fixation rate (% Ndfa) was studied in a maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) oligotrophic forest. Fertilization field trials were carried out on 5 sites with various inputs of phosphorus (0-240 kg P2O5. ha(-1)). Seven to ten years after pine planting, gorse were sampled to evaluate the effect of P fertilization on gorse % Ndfa, determined using the N-15 natural abundance method. One of the prerequisites of this method is the existence of a significant dif...

  10. The PTK7-related transmembrane proteins off-track and off-track 2 are co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 required for male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Linnemannstöns

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7 was identified as a Wnt co-receptor required for control of planar cell polarity (PCP in frogs and mice. We found that flies homozygous for a complete knock-out of the Drosophila PTK7 homolog off track (otk are viable and fertile and do not show PCP phenotypes. We discovered an otk paralog (otk2, CG8964, which is co-expressed with otk throughout embryonic and larval development. Otk and Otk2 bind to each other and form complexes with Frizzled, Frizzled2 and Wnt2, pointing to a function as Wnt co-receptors. Flies lacking both otk and otk2 are viable but male sterile due to defective morphogenesis of the ejaculatory duct. Overexpression of Otk causes female sterility due to malformation of the oviduct, indicating that Otk and Otk2 are specifically involved in the sexually dimorphic development of the genital tract.

  11. Effects of Biochar Addition on CO2 and N2O Emissions following Fertilizer Application to a Cultivated Grassland Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoo, Gayoung

    2015-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration potential of biochar should be considered together with emission of greenhouse gases when applied to soils. In this study, we investigated CO2 and N2O emissions following the application of rice husk biochars to cultivated grassland soils and related gas emissions tos oil C and nitrogen (N) dynamics. Treatments included biochar addition (CHAR, NO CHAR) and amendment (COMPOST, UREA, NO FERT). The biochar application rate was 0.3% by weight. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions differed according to biochar addition and amendments. CO2 emissions from the COMPOST soils were significantly higher than those from the UREA and NO FERT soils and less CO2 emission was observed when biochar and compost were applied together during the summer. Overall N2O emission was significantly influenced by the interaction between biochar and amendments. In UREA soil, biochar addition increased N2O emission by 49% compared to the control, while in the COMPOST and NO FERT soils, biochar did not have an effect on N2O emission. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain the higher N2O emissions upon biochar addition to UREA soil than other soils. Labile C in the biochar may have stimulated microbial N mineralization in the C-limited soil used in our study, resulting in an increase in N2O emission. Biochar may also have provided the soil with the ability to retain mineral N, leading to increased N2O emission. The overall results imply that biochar addition can increase C sequestration when applied together with compost, and might stimulate N2O emission when applied to soil amended with urea.

  12. Effects of climate change, CO2 and O3 on wheat productivity in Eastern China, singly and in combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fulu; Feng, Zhaozhong; Tang, Haoye; Chen, Yi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Air pollution and climate change are increasing threats to agricultural production and food security. Extensive studies have focused on the effect of climate change, but the interactive effects of multiple global change factors are poorly understood. Here, we incorporate the interactions between climate change, carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) into an eco-physiological mechanistic model based on three years of O3 Free-Air Concentration Elevation (O3-FACE) experiments. We then investigate the effects of climate change, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and rising O3 concentration ([O3]) on wheat growth and productivity in eastern China in 1996-2005 (2000s) and 2016-2025 (2020s) under two climate change scenarios, singly and in combination. We find the interactive effects of climate change, CO2 and O3 on wheat productivity have spatially explicit patterns; the effect of climate change dominates the general pattern, which is however subject to the large uncertainties of climate change scenarios. Wheat productivity is estimated to increase by 2.8-9.0% due to elevated [CO2] however decline by 2.8-11.7% due to rising [O3] in the 2020s, relative to the 2000s. The combined effects of CO2 and O3 are less than that of O3 only, on average by 4.6-5.2%, however with O3 damage outweighing CO2 benefit in most of the region. This study demonstrates a more biologically meaningful and appropriate approach for assessing the interactive effects of climate change, CO2 and O3 on crop growth and productivity. Our findings promote the understanding on the interactive effects of multiple global change factors across contrasting climate conditions, cast doubt on the potential of CO2 fertilization effect in offsetting possible negative effect of climate change on crop productivity as suggested by many previous studies.

  13. Method of Euthanasia Influences the Oocyte Fertilization Rate with Fresh Mouse Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Karen C; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E; Garrett, Lisa J

    2014-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is used to produce mouse embryos for a variety of reasons. We evaluated the effect of the method of euthanasia on the fertilization rate in 2 different IVF protocols. Oocytes collected from C57BL/6J female mice euthanized by CO2 inhalation or cervical dislocation were used in IVF with fresh sperm from either wild-type or genetically engineered C57BL/6J. Compared with CO2 inhalation, cervical dislocation improved the resulting rate of fertilization by 18% in an IVF method using Cook media and by 13% in an IVF method using methyl-B cyclodextrin and reduced glutathione. The lower fertilization rate due to euthanasia by CO2 inhalation was accompanied by changes in blood pH and body temperature despite efforts to minimize temperature drops. In our hands, euthanasia by cervical dislocation improved fertilization rates and consequently reduced the number of egg-donor mice required. PMID:25650969

  14. Method of euthanasia influences the oocyte fertilization rate with fresh mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Karen C; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E; Garrett, Lisa J

    2014-11-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is used to produce mouse embryos for a variety of reasons. We evaluated the effect of the method of euthanasia on the fertilization rate in 2 different IVF protocols. Oocytes collected from C57BL/6J female mice euthanized by CO2 inhalation or cervical dislocation were used in IVF with fresh sperm from either wild-type or genetically engineered C57BL/6J. Compared with CO2 inhalation, cervical dislocation improved the resulting rate of fertilization by 18% in an IVF method using Cook media and by 13% in an IVF method using methyl-B cyclodextrin and reduced glutathione. The lower fertilization rate due to euthanasia by CO2 inhalation was accompanied by changes in blood pH and body temperature despite efforts to minimize temperature drops. In our hands, euthanasia by cervical dislocation improved fertilization rates and consequently reduced the number of egg-donor mice required.

  15. Organic fertilizer application increases the soil respiration and net ecosystem carbon dioxide absorption of paddy fields under water-saving irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shihong; Xiao, Ya Nan; Xu, Junzeng

    2018-04-01

    Quantifying carbon sequestration in paddy soil is necessary to understand the effect of agricultural practices on carbon cycles. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of organic fertilizer addition (MF) on the soil respiration and net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) absorption of paddy fields under water-saving irrigation (CI) in the Taihu Lake Region of China during the 2014 and 2015 rice-growing seasons. Compared with the traditional fertilizer and water management (FC), the joint regulation of CI and MF (CM) significantly increased the rice yields and irrigation water use efficiencies of paddy fields by 4.02~5.08 and 83.54~109.97% (p < 0.05). The effects of organic fertilizer addition on soil respiration and net ecosystem CO 2 absorption rates showed inter-annual differences. CM paddy fields showed a higher soil respiration and net CO 2 absorption rates during some periods of the rice growth stage in the first year and during most periods of the rice growth stage in the second year. These fields also had significantly higher total CO 2 emission through soil respiration (total R soil ) and total net CO 2 absorption compared with FC paddy fields (p < 0.05). The total R soil and net ecosystem CO 2 absorption of CM paddy fields were 67.39~91.55 and 129.41~113.75 mol m -2 , which were 27.66~135.52 and 12.96~31.66% higher than those of FC paddy fields. The interaction between water and fertilizer management had significant effects on total net ecosystem CO 2 absorption. The frequent alternate wet-dry cycles of CI paddy fields increased the soil respiration and reduced the net CO 2 absorption. Organic fertilizer promoted the soil respiration of paddy soil but also increased its net CO 2 absorption and organic carbon content. Therefore, the joint regulation of water-saving irrigation and organic fertilizer is an effective measure for maintaining yield, increasing irrigation water use efficiency, mitigating CO 2 emission, and promoting paddy

  16. Effect of multi-effect triazole on absorption of phosphorus and nitrogen and distribution of 14CO2-assimilates in rape plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Haifu; Ye Qingfu; Shen Huicong; Zhou Weijun

    1995-01-01

    By using tracer technique, the effects of Multi-Effect Triazole (MET) on uptake of 32 P, 15 N and distribution of 14 CO 2 -assimilates in rape plant were studied. The experimental results showed that the foliar spraying of MET with the concentration of 150 ppm in three leaves stage could significantly increase 32 P uptake by 75.34%∼101.08%, the utilization rate of base fertilizer 15 NH 4 HCO 3 by 9.10%. And the rate of photosynthesis increased by 7.44%∼31.40% in seedling stage, by 47.74% in initial flowering stage and by 47.93% in mature stage. The regulation effects of MET on distribution of 15 N absorbed and 14 CO 2 -assimilates were shown by increasing absorption of 15 N and assimilates in seeds of rape plant

  17. FY 1996 annual report of investigation on biological fixation of carbon dioxide. 2; 1996 nendo seibutsuteki CO2 kotei ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Various kinds of biological fixation processes of CO2 were evaluated from the various viewpoints. Afforestation of tropical and temperate areas, greening of desert, biomass energy production in these areas by energy plantation, coastal mangrove plantation, fertilization with nitrogen and phosphate to outer ocean and coastal, upwelling zone fertilization with iron, and coral reef expansion combined with OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) were comparatively investigated as the selected measures. As a result, the cost of CO2 fixation by cultivation of sea weed and plankton was much higher than that of afforestation. The iron fertilization method which was considered to be one of the high CO2 reduction potentials might be economical. However, its effect could not be quantitatively evaluated. The afforestation of tropical and temperate areas seemed to be most feasible in a short term from the viewpoints of economy and environment. It was suggested that the establishment of a systematic water management technology could make greening and afforestation of desert. 76 refs., 27 figs., 28 tabs.

  18. Effects of Biochar Addition on CO2 and N2O Emissions following Fertilizer Application to a Cultivated Grassland Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available Carbon (C sequestration potential of biochar should be considered together with emission of greenhouse gases when applied to soils. In this study, we investigated CO2 and N2O emissions following the application of rice husk biochars to cultivated grassland soils and related gas emissions tos oil C and nitrogen (N dynamics. Treatments included biochar addition (CHAR, NO CHAR and amendment (COMPOST, UREA, NO FERT. The biochar application rate was 0.3% by weight. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions differed according to biochar addition and amendments. CO2 emissions from the COMPOST soils were significantly higher than those from the UREA and NO FERT soils and less CO2 emission was observed when biochar and compost were applied together during the summer. Overall N2O emission was significantly influenced by the interaction between biochar and amendments. In UREA soil, biochar addition increased N2O emission by 49% compared to the control, while in the COMPOST and NO FERT soils, biochar did not have an effect on N2O emission. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain the higher N2O emissions upon biochar addition to UREA soil than other soils. Labile C in the biochar may have stimulated microbial N mineralization in the C-limited soil used in our study, resulting in an increase in N2O emission. Biochar may also have provided the soil with the ability to retain mineral N, leading to increased N2O emission. The overall results imply that biochar addition can increase C sequestration when applied together with compost, and might stimulate N2O emission when applied to soil amended with urea.

  19. The optimal CO2 concentrations for the growth of three perennial grass species

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yunpu; Li, Fei; Hao, Lihua; Shedayi, Arshad Ali; Guo, Lili; Ma, Chao; Huang, Bingru; Xu, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Background Grasslands are one of the most representative vegetation types accounting for about 20% of the global land area and thus the response of grasslands to climate change plays a pivotal role in terrestrial carbon balance. However, many current climate change models, based on earlier results of the doubling-CO2 experiments, may overestimate the CO2 fertilization effect, and as a result underestimate the potentially effects of future climate change on global grasslands when the atmospher...

  20. [Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on emission and sources of N2O in vegetable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Ding, Jun Jun; Li, Yu Zhong; Xu, Chun Ying; Li, Qiao Zhen; Zheng, Qian; Zhuang, Shan

    2018-05-01

    To clarify the microbial pathway of the N 2 O production and consumption under different fertilizers and provide theoretical basis for the reduction of N 2 O emission and rational management of fertilization in vegetable soils, we examined dynamics of N 2 O flux and isotope signatures under different fertilizer treatments in the vegetable soils of Beijing, by setting up four treatments (organic-acetylene, organic-nonacetylene, inorganic-acetylene, inorganic-nonacetylene) and using the stable isotope technique of natural N 2 O abundance. The results showed that the cumulative N 2 O emission from organic-acetylene group, organic-nonacetylene group, inorganic-acetylene group and inorganic-nonacetylene group was (374±37), (283±34), (458±36), (355±41) g·m -2 in cabbage growing season, respectively. N 2 O fluxes were significantly lower in treatments with organic fertilizer than those with inorganic fertilizer and significantly higher in acetylene group than nonacetylene group. The degree of N 2 O reduction were similar in both fertilizer treatments, and higher nitrification was found in inorganic fertilizer than organic fertilizer treatments. Acetylene only inhibited partial nitrification and partial N 2 O reduction at the peak of N 2 O emission. When the emission was reduced, N 2 O reduction could be completely suppressed. Therefore, the inorganic fertilizer might trigger nitrification and promote higher N 2 O emission. The high concentration of N 2 O could withstand that acetylene to inhibite N 2 O reduction. Hence, using organic fertilizers instead of some inorganic ones could effectively reduce N 2 O emission in vegetable soils of Beijing. The N 2 O concentration threshold should be considered when we identify N 2 O source by acetylene inhibition method.

  1. Isolating and Quantifying the Effects of Climate and CO2 Changes (1980–2014 on the Net Primary Productivity in Arid and Semiarid China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Fang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the net primary productivity (NPP of arid/semiarid ecosystem is generally thought to be controlled by precipitation, other factors like CO2 fertilization effect and temperature change may also have important impacts, especially in the cold temperate areas of the northern China, where significant warming was reported in the recent decades. However, the impacts of climate and atmospheric CO2 changes to the NPP dynamics in the arid and semiarid areas of China (ASA-China is still unclear, hindering the development of climate adaptation strategy. Based on numeric experiments and factorial analysis, this study isolated and quantified the effects of climate and CO2 changes between 1980–2014 on ASA-China’s NPP, using the Arid Ecosystem Model (AEM that performed well in predicting ecosystems’ responses to climate/CO2 change according to our evaluation based on 21 field experiments. Our results showed that the annual variation in NPP was dominated by changes in precipitation, which reduced the regional NPP by 10.9 g·C/(m2·year. The precipitation-induced loss, however, has been compensated by the CO2 fertilization effect that increased the regional NPP by 14.9 g·C/(m2·year. The CO2 fertilization effect particularly benefited the extensive croplands in the Northern China Plain, but was weakened in the dry grassland of the central Tibetan Plateau due to suppressed plant activity as induced by a drier climate. Our study showed that the climate change in ASA-China and the ecosystem’s responses were highly heterogeneous in space and time. There were complex interactive effects among the climate factors, and different plant functional types (e.g., phreatophyte vs. non-phreatophyte could have distinct responses to similar climate change. Therefore, effective climate-adaptive strategies should be based on careful analysis of local climate pattern and understanding of the characteristic responses of the dominant species. Particularly, China

  2. The dose effect of irradiated rice pollen on double fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Houcong; Chen Zhengming; Chen Ruming; Qiu Simi; Yang Juemin; Yang Huijie

    1995-01-01

    The mature panicles of rice were treated with 60 Co γ-rays in the range of 0∼0.372 kGy. The male sterile line used as the female plants were fertilized with γ-irradiated pollen manually. The dose effect of the irradiated pollen on double fertilization was investigated. It was found that double fertilization of the irradiated pollen was suppressed to different degrees as compared with the control. The effect was noticeable as that the fusion time of the male nucleolus with the female one was delayed with the increasing of γ-radiation dose. The delayed time was less than 13 hours when the dose was below 0.186 kGy and it was more than 15 hours when the dose was above 0.279 kGy. Furthermore, several types of deformed embryonic cells and endosperm nuclei were observed

  3. The uptake of phosphorus from mixed fertilizer ammonium bicarbonate and 32P-calcium superphosphate by corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Zhang Xizhong; Li Dongyang

    1985-01-01

    In this experiment the effect of different nitrogen contents in mixed and separeted fertilizers on the utilization rate of phosphyrus by corn has been stutied by using 32 P trcer. It is shown that the utilization rate of phosphorus of mixed fertilizer is higher than that of (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 and Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 4 applied separately when the content of nitrogen in fertilizer is 2.5-4.5%. There are no significant differences, when the contents of nitrogen in fertilizer are 12.4-14.1%. But the utilization rate of phosphorus of mixed fertilizer is lower than that of (NH 4 )CO 3 and Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 applied separately, when the contents of nitrogen in fertilizer is 10%

  4. Adaptation, Spatial Heterogeneity, and the Vulnerability of Agricultural Systems to Climate Change and CO2 Fertilization: An Integrated Assessment Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antle, J.M.; Capalbo, S.M.; Elliott, E.T.; Paustian, K.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we develop economic measures of vulnerability to climate change with and without adaptation in agricultural production systems. We implement these measures using coupled, site-specific ecosystem and economic simulation models. This modeling approach has two key features needed to study the response of agricultural production systems to climate change: it represents adaptation as an endogenous, non-marginal economic response to climate change; and it provides the capability to represent the spatial variability in bio-physical and economic conditions that interact with adaptive responses. We apply this approach to the dryland grain production systems of the Northern Plains region of the United States. The results support the hypothesis that the most adverse impacts on net returns distributions tend to occur in the areas with the poorest resource endowments and when mitigating effects of CO2 fertilization and adaptation are absent. We find that relative and absolute measures of vulnerability depend on complex interactions between climate change, CO2 level, adaptation, and economic conditions such as relative output prices. The relationship between relative vulnerability and resource endowments varies with assumptions about climate change, adaptation, and economic conditions. Vulnerability measured with respect to an absolute threshold is inversely related to resource endowments in all cases investigated

  5. Causes of variation among rice models in yield response to CO2 examined with Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and growth chamber experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Li, Tao; Yin, Xinyou; Zhu, Yan; Boote, Kenneth; Baker, Jeffrey; Bregaglio, Simone; Buis, Samuel; Confalonieri, Roberto; Fugice, Job; Fumoto, Tamon; Gaydon, Donald; Kumar, Soora Naresh; Lafarge, Tanguy; Marcaida Iii, Manuel; Masutomi, Yuji; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Oriol, Philippe; Ruget, Françoise; Singh, Upendra; Tang, Liang; Tao, Fulu; Wakatsuki, Hitomi; Wallach, Daniel; Wang, Yulong; Wilson, Lloyd Ted; Yang, Lianxin; Yang, Yubin; Yoshida, Hiroe; Zhang, Zhao; Zhu, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    The CO 2 fertilization effect is a major source of uncertainty in crop models for future yield forecasts, but coordinated efforts to determine the mechanisms of this uncertainty have been lacking. Here, we studied causes of uncertainty among 16 crop models in predicting rice yield in response to elevated [CO 2 ] (E-[CO 2 ]) by comparison to free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) and chamber experiments. The model ensemble reproduced the experimental results well. However, yield prediction in response to E-[CO 2 ] varied significantly among the rice models. The variation was not random: models that overestimated at one experiment simulated greater yield enhancements at the others. The variation was not associated with model structure or magnitude of photosynthetic response to E-[CO 2 ] but was significantly associated with the predictions of leaf area. This suggests that modelled secondary effects of E-[CO 2 ] on morphological development, primarily leaf area, are the sources of model uncertainty. Rice morphological development is conservative to carbon acquisition. Uncertainty will be reduced by incorporating this conservative nature of the morphological response to E-[CO 2 ] into the models. Nitrogen levels, particularly under limited situations, make the prediction more uncertain. Improving models to account for [CO 2 ] × N interactions is necessary to better evaluate management practices under climate change.

  6. Elevated CO{sub 2} and development of frost hardiness in Norway spruce (picea abies (L.) Karst.); Oekt CO{sub 2} og utvikling av frostherdighet i gran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Lars Sandved

    1998-09-01

    This thesis discusses controlled laboratory experiments carried out to study the effects of CO{sub 2} pollution on Norwegian spruce. It was found that elevated CO{sub 2} increased height growth and biomass production. It slightly increased frost hardiness, but only at high nitrogen values. There was no evidence of adverse effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on the phenology of bud set and the development of frost hardiness. Although not statistically significant, there seemed to be a consistently higher concentration of soluble carbohydrates in one-season-old Norway spruce seedlings treated with elevated CO{sub 2}. This was not found in three-year-old seedlings grown in open top chambers, possibly indicating a down-regulation of photosynthesis or a transition from free to predetermined growth, and change in allocation of photosynthates with age. Treatment with high or low concentrations of CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilizer did not affect apoplastic chitinolytic activity during cold acclimation, nor were there any effects on antifreeze activity in these apoplastic extracts from cold acclimated needles. 149 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Effects of tillage practice and atmospheric CO2 level on soil CO2 efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affects both the quantity and quality of plant tissues, which impacts the cycling and storage of carbon (C) within plant/soil systems and thus the rate of CO2 release back to the atmosphere. Research to accurately quantify the effects of elevated CO2 and as...

  8. The sweet side of global change-dynamic responses of non-structural carbohydrates to drought, elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization in tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weibin; Hartmann, Henrik; Adams, Henry D; Zhang, Hongxia; Jin, Changjie; Zhao, Chuanyan; Guan, Dexin; Wang, Anzhi; Yuan, Fenghui; Wu, Jiabing

    2018-06-11

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) play a central role in plant functioning as energy carriers and building blocks for primary and secondary metabolism. Many studies have investigated how environmental and anthropogenic changes, like increasingly frequent and severe drought episodes, elevated CO2 and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, influence NSC concentrations in individual trees. However, this wealth of data has not been analyzed yet to identify general trends using a common statistical framework. A thorough understanding of tree responses to global change is required for making realistic predictions of vegetation dynamics. Here we compiled data from 57 experimental studies on 71 tree species and conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate general responses of stored soluble sugars, starch and total NSC (soluble sugars + starch) concentrations in different tree organs (foliage, above-ground wood and roots) to drought, elevated CO2 and N deposition. We found that drought significantly decreased total NSC in roots (-17.3%), but not in foliage and above-ground woody tissues (bole, branch, stem and/or twig). Elevated CO2 significantly increased total NSC in foliage (+26.2%) and roots (+12.8%), but not in above-ground wood. By contrast, total NSC significantly decreased in roots (-17.9%), increased in above-ground wood (+6.1%), but was unaffected in foliage from N fertilization. In addition, the response of NSC to three global change drivers was strongly affected by tree taxonomic type, leaf habit, tree age and treatment intensity. Our results pave the way for a better understanding of general tree function responses to drought, elevated CO2 and N fertilization. The existing data also reveal that more long-term studies on mature trees that allow testing interactions between these factors are urgently needed to provide a basis for forecasting tree responses to environmental change at the global scale.

  9. Nitrogen fertilization and δ18 O of CO2 have no effect on 18 O-enrichment of leaf water and cellulose in Cleistogenes squarrosa (C4 ) - is VPD the sole control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai Tao; Gong, Xiao Ying; Schäufele, Rudi; Yang, Fang; Hirl, Regina Theresia; Schmidt, Anja; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-12-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of cellulose (δ 18 O Cel ) archives hydrological and physiological information. Here, we assess previously unexplored direct and interactive effects of the δ 18 O of CO 2 (δ 18 O CO2 ), nitrogen (N) fertilizer supply and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on δ 18 O Cel , 18 O-enrichment of leaf water (Δ 18 O LW ) and cellulose (Δ 18 O Cel ) relative to source water, and p ex p x , the proportion of oxygen in cellulose that exchanged with unenriched water at the site of cellulose synthesis, in a C 4 grass (Cleistogenes squarrosa). δ 18 O CO2 and N supply, and their interactions with VPD, had no effect on δ 18 O Cel , Δ 18 O LW , Δ 18 O Cel and p ex p x . Δ 18 O Cel and Δ 18 O LW increased with VPD, while p ex p x decreased. That VPD-effect on p ex p x was supported by sensitivity tests to variation of Δ 18 O LW and the equilibrium fractionation factor between carbonyl oxygen and water. N supply altered growth and morphological features, but not 18 O relations; conversely, VPD had no effect on growth or morphology, but controlled 18 O relations. The work implies that reconstructions of VPD from Δ 18 O Cel would overestimate amplitudes of VPD variation, at least in this species, if the VPD-effect on p ex p x is ignored. Progress in understanding the relationship between Δ 18 O LW and Δ 18 O Cel will require separate investigations of p ex and p x and of their responses to environmental conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermue, E.; Buurman, P.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter

  11. Emission of CO2 from energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhollow, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The production of cellulosic energy crops (e.g., short rotation woody crops and herbaceous crops) make a net contribution of CO 2 to the atmosphere to the extent that fossil-fuel based inputs are used in their production. The CO 2 released from the use of the biomass is merely CO 2 that has recently been removed from the atmosphere by the plant growth process. Fossil inputs used in the production of energy corps include energy invested in fertilizers and pesticides, and petroleum fuels used for machinery operation such as site preparation, weed control, harvesting, and hauling. Fossil inputs used come from petroleum, natural gas, and electricity derived from fossil sources. No fossil inputs for the capital used to produce fertilizers, pesticides, or machinery is calculated in this analysis. In this paper calculations are made for the short rotation woody crop hybrid poplar (Populus spp.), the annual herbaceous crop sorghum (Sorghum biocolor [L.] Moench), and the perennial herbaceous crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). For comparison purposes, emissions of CO 2 from corn (Zea mays L.) are calculated

  12. Nutlin-3a decreases male fertility via UQCRC2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamla Kant Shukla

    Full Text Available Ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase core protein 2 (UQCRC2 is a component of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex that is known to correlate with male fertility via spermatogenesis. Simultaneously, nutlin-3a is a small molecule antagonist of mouse double minute 2 repressor (MDM2, activate p53 and induce apoptosis responsible for spermatogenesis. To date, however there are no known effects of nutlin-3a on reproduction. Therefore, present study was designed to investigate the effect of nutlin-3a on male fertility via UQCRC2. In this in vitro trial with mice spermatozoa, we utilized CASA, CTC staining, ATP assay, western blotting, and IVF to measure the main study outcome. The short-term exposure of spermatozoa in nutlin-3a decreases sperm motion kinematics, intracellular ATP production, capacitation, the acrosome reaction, UQCRC2, and tyrosine phosphorylation (TYP of sperm proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the decreased UQCRC2 and TYP were associated with reduced sperm kinematics, ATP production, and capacitation, which ultimately led to adverse effects on male fertility such as poor fertilization rates and embryo development. Thus, nutlin-3a may be considered as a potential male contraceptive agent due to its ability to decrease fertility secondary to changes in overall sperm physiology and embryonic development. However, the results of this preliminary study have to be confirmed by additional independent trial.

  13. Effect of Fertilization on Soil Fertility and Nutrient Use Efficiency at Potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshev, Nesho; Manolov, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The effect of fertilization on soil fertility, yields and nutrient use efficiency of potatoes grown under field experimental conditions was studied. The trail was conducted on shallow brown forest soil (Cambisols-coarse) during the vegetation periods of 2013 to 2015. The variants of the experiment were: control, N140; P80; K100; N140P80; N140K100; P80K100; N140P80K100; N140P80K100Mg33. The applied fertilization slightly decreased soil's pH after the harvest of potatoes compared to the soil pH their planting. Decreasing of pH was more severe at variant N (from 5,80 to 4,19 in 2014). The mineral nitrogen content in the soil after the harvest of potatoes was lower for the variants P, K and PK. The positive effect of fertilization on soil fertility after the end of the trails was more pronounced at variants NPK and NPKMg. The content of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium forms for these variants was the highest for each year. The highest content of mineral nitrogen was observed in 2013 (252,5 and 351,1 mg/1000g, respectively for variants NPK and NPKMg). It was due to extremely dry weather conditions during the vegetation in this year. Soil content of mineral N for the next two years was lower. The same tendency was observed for phosphorus and potassium was observed. In 2013 the P2O5 and K2O content in soil was the highest for the variants with full mineral fertilization - NPK (64,4 and 97,6 mg 100g-1 respectively for P2O5 and K2O) and NPKMg (65,2 and 88,0 mg 100g-1 respectively for P2O5 and K2O). The highest yields were recorded at variants NPK and NPKMg - 24,21 and 22,01 t ha-1, average for the studied period. The yield of variant NPK was 25 % higher than the yield from variant NP and 68 % higher than control. The partial factor productivity (PFPN, PFPP and PFPK) of the applied fertilizers was the highest at variant NPK. The PFPN (80,10 kg kg-1) for the yields of variant N was 57 % lower than the PFPN at variant NPK (180,36 kg kg-1). The PFPP and PFPK at

  14. [Interactions of straw, nitrogen fertilizer and bacterivorous nematodes on soil labile carbon and nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng-Hao; Wang, Nan; Liu, Man-Qiang; Li, Fang-Hui; Zhu, Kang-Li; Li, Hui-Xin; Hu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    A 3 x 2 factorial design of microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of straw, nitrogen fertilizer and bacterivorous nematodes on soil microbial biomass carbon (C(mic)) and nitrogen (N(mic)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), mineral nitrogen (NH(4+)-N and NO(3-)-N), and greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. Results showed that straw amendment remarkably increased the numbers of bacterivorous nematodes and the contents of Cmic and Nmic, but Cmic and Nmic decreased with the increasing dose of nitrogen fertilization. The effects of bacterivorous nematodes strongly depended on either straw or nitrogen fertilization. The interactions of straw, nitrogen fertilization and bacterivorous nematodes on soil DOC, DON and mineral nitrogen were strong. Straw and nitrogen fertilization increased DOC and mineral nitrogen contents, but their influences on DON depended on the bacterivorous nematodes. The DOC and mineral nitrogen were negatively and positively influenced by the bacterivorous nematodes, re- spectively. Straw significantly promoted CO2 and N2O emissions but inhibited CH4 emission, while interactions between nematodes and nitrogen fertilization on emissions of greenhouse gases were obvious. In the presence of straw, nematodes increased cumulative CO2 emissions with low nitrogen fertilization, but decreased CO2 and N2O emissions with high nitrogen fertilization on the 56th day after incubation. In summary, mechanical understanding the soil ecological process would inevitably needs to consider the roles of soil microfauna.

  15. The impact of CO2 fertilization and historical land use/land cover change on regional climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, Kirsten; Berg, Alexis; Gentine, Pierre; Krasting, John; Lintner, Benjamin; Malyshev, Sergey; Santanello, Joseph; Shevliakova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Recent research highlights the role of land surface processes in heat waves, droughts, and other extreme events. Here we use an earth system model (ESM) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) to investigate the regional impacts of historical anthropogenic land use/land cover change (LULCC) and the vegetative response to changes in atmospheric CO2 on combined extremes of temperature and humidity. A bivariate assessment allows us to consider aridity and moist enthalpy extremes, quantities central to human experience of near-surface climate conditions. We show that according to this model, conversion of forests to cropland has contributed to much of the upper central US and central Europe experiencing extreme hot, dry summers every 2-3 years instead of every 10 years. In the tropics, historical patterns of wood harvesting, shifting cultivation and regrowth of secondary vegetation have enhanced near surface moist enthalpy, leading to extensive increases in the occurrence of humid conditions throughout the tropics year round. These critical land use processes and practices are not included in many current generation land models, yet these results identify them as critical factors in the energy and water cycles of the midlatitudes and tropics. Current work is targeted at understanding how CO2 fertilization of plant growth impacts water use efficiency and surface flux partitioning, and how these changes influence temperature and humidity extremes. We use this modeling work to explore how remote sensing can be used to determine how different forest ecosystems in different climatological regimes are responding to enhanced CO2 and a warming world.

  16. [Effects of Chemical Fertilizers and Organic Fertilizer on Yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong Rhizome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin; Chen, Xing-fu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Jie; Peng, Shi-ming

    2015-10-01

    To study the effects of different N, P, K and organic fertilizer (OF) on yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome, in order to provide the theoretical foundation for the establishment of standardization cultivation techniques. The field plot experiments used Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome which planted in Pengshan as material, and were studied by the four factors and five levels with quadratic regression rotation-orthogonal combination design. According to the data obtained, a function model which could predict the fertilization and yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome accurately was established. The model analysis showed that the yields of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome were significantly influenced by the N, P, K and OF applications. Among these factors, the order of increase rates by the fertilizers was K > OF > N > P; The effect of interaction between N and K, N and OF, K and OF on the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome were significantly different. High levels of N and P, N and organic fertilizer, K and organic fertilizer were conducive to improve the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. The results showed that the optimal fertilizer application rates of N was 148.20 - 172.28 kg/hm2, P was 511.92 - 599.40 kg/hm2, K was 249.70 - 282.37 kg/hm2, and OF was 940.00 - 1 104.00 kg/hm2. N, P, K and OF obviously affect the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. K and OF can significantly increase the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. Thus it is suggested that properly high mount of K and OF and appropriate increasing N are two favorable factors for cultivating Ligusticum chuanxiong.

  17. Greenhouse effect mitigation: synthesis of the natural and artificial methods of CO{sub 2} capture and storage; Limitations de l'effet de serre: synthese des methodes de capture et de stockage naturelles et artificielles du CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ciais, P.; Orr, J. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ducroux, R. [Centre d' Initiative et de Recherche en Energie et Environnement, CIRENE, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2001-02-01

    This document presents the industrial and natural solutions that can be implemented to reduce the atmospheric CO{sub 2} stock: CO{sub 2} capture (physical adsorption, chemical absorption, membranes, cryogenics, R and D needs); CO{sub 2} valorization possibilities; long-term disposal of CO{sub 2} (disposal in geologic reservoirs (salt caverns, depleted oil and gas fields, abandoned mines, other reservoirs)), oceanic storage - direct injection of CO{sub 2} (near and far field studies), R and D needs and perspectives; increase of natural carbon stocks: carbon cycle (main natural reservoirs, present day knowledge about natural CO{sub 2} sources and sinks), carbon sequestration in the ocean (increase of marine productivity: iron fertilization, intensive algae culture), continental sequestration (agro-ecosystems: restoration of eroded and degraded soils, change of agriculture practices; grasslands; forests: revegetation, fertilization by nitrogen supplies, fire prevention, prevention of insects degradations, forest management). A reprint of the paper presented at the 5. international conference on greenhouse gas control technologies (Cairns, Australia, 13-16 August 2000) is added at the end of the document. (J.S.)

  18. Increased resin flow in mature pine trees growing under elevated CO2 and moderate soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.A. Novick; G.G. Katul; H.R. McCarthy; R. Oren

    2012-01-01

    Warmer climates induced by elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) are expected to increase damaging bark beetle activity in pine forests, yet the effect of eCO2 on resin production—the tree’s primary defense against beetle attack—remains largely unknown. Following growth-differentiation balance theory, if extra carbohydrates produced under eCO2 are not consumed by respiration...

  19. Rapid establishment of the CO2 sink associated with Kerguelen's bloom observed during the KEOPS2/OISO20 cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Monaco, C.; Metzl, N.; D'Ovidio, F.; Llort, J.; Ridame, C.

    2014-12-01

    Iron and light are the main factors limiting the biological pump of CO2 in the Southern Ocean. Iron fertilization experiments have demonstrated the potential for increased uptake of atmospheric CO2, but little is known about the evolution of fertilized environnements. This paper presents observations collected in one of the largest phytoplankton bloom of the Southern Ocean sustained by iron originating from the Kerguelen Plateau. We first complement previous studies by investigating the mechanisms that control air-sea CO2 fluxes over and downstream of the Kerguelen Plateau at the onset of the bloom based on measurements obtained in October-November 2011. These new observations show the rapid establishment of a strong CO2 sink in waters fertilized with iron as soon as vertical mixing is reduced. The magnitude of the CO2 sink was closely related to chlorophyll a and iron concentrations. Because iron concentration strongly depends on the distance from the iron source and the mode of delivery, we identified lateral advection as the main mechanism controlling air-sea CO2 fluxes downtream the Kerguelen Plateau during the growing season. In the southern part of the bloom, situated over the Plateau (iron source), the CO2 sink was stronger and spatially more homogeneous than in the plume offshore. However, we also witnessed a substantial reduction in the uptake of atmospheric CO2 over the Plateau following a strong winds event. Next, we used all the data available in this region in order to draw the seasonal evolution of air-sea CO2 fluxes. The CO2 sink is rapidly reduced during the course of the growing season, which we attribute to iron and silicic acid depletion. South of the Polar Front, where nutrients depletion is delayed, we suggest that the amplitude and duration of the CO2 sink is mainly controlled by vertical mixing. The impact of iron fertilization on air-sea CO2 fluxes is revealed by comparing the uptake of CO2 integrated over the productive season in the bloom

  20. Effect of anhydrous magnesium sulphate fertilizer and cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of anhydrous magnesium sulphate fertilizer on Panicum maximum yield and chemical composition of the resultant herbage harvested at 3, 4 and 5 weeks of age was investigated. The treatments were labeled T1 to T6. T1 was fertilized and harvested at 3 weeks cutting interval, T2 was fertilized and harvested at 4 ...

  1. Measuring priming using 14C of respired CO2: effects on respiration source pools and interactions with warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Trumbore, S.

    2011-12-01

    The role of substrate availability on soil carbon turnover is a critical unknown in predicting future soil carbon stocks. Substrate composition and availability can be altered by land cover change, warming, and nitrogen deposition, which can in turn affect soil carbon stocks through the priming effect. In particular, little is understood about the interaction between warming and changing substrate concentration. We examined the interactions between global change factors and the priming effect using sucrose addition to incubations of soils from two forest Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) sites (Duke and Aspen). In addition to the in situ global change manipulations conducted at these sites, the CO2 fertilization procedure over the decade-long experiment labeled soil carbon pools with fossil-derived carbon (depleted in 14C relative to the background isotope content of soil carbon), allowing us to determine the effect of priming on respiration of soil carbon substrates of different ages. Thus, we used the carbon-13 signature of sucrose-derived CO2 to account for losses of substrate C, and the carbon-14 signature to partition fluxes of soil-derived CO2 between pre-FACE (> 10 y) and FACE derived (stocks, differences in the source of the priming effect between the two sites may be due to inherent differences in the relative role of stabilization factors within the soil carbon stock.

  2. Ocean acidification affects fish spawning but not paternity at CO2 seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Marco; Cattano, Carlo; Alonzo, Suzanne H; Foggo, Andrew; Gristina, Michele; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Sinopoli, Mauro; Spatafora, Davide; Stiver, Kelly A; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2016-07-27

    Fish exhibit impaired sensory function and altered behaviour at levels of ocean acidification expected to occur owing to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions during this century. We provide the first evidence of the effects of ocean acidification on reproductive behaviour of fish in the wild. Satellite and sneaker male ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus) compete to fertilize eggs guarded by dominant nesting males. Key mating behaviours such as dominant male courtship and nest defence did not differ between sites with ambient versus elevated CO2 concentrations. Dominant males did, however, experience significantly lower rates of pair spawning at elevated CO2 levels. Despite the higher risk of sperm competition found at elevated CO2, we also found a trend of lower satellite and sneaker male paternity at elevated CO2 Given the importance of fish for food security and ecosystem stability, this study highlights the need for targeted research into the effects of rising CO2 levels on patterns of reproduction in wild fish. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. The potential for carbon bio-sequestration in China's paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) as impacted by slag-based silicate fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Alin; Ning, Dongfeng; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Provance-Bowley, Mary; Liang, Yongchao

    2015-12-01

    Rice is a typical silicon-accumulating plant. Silicon (Si), deposited as phytoliths during plant growth, has been shown to occlude organic carbon, which may prove to have significant effects on the biogeochemical sequestration of atmospheric CO2. This study evaluated the effects of silicate fertilization on plant Si uptake and carbon bio-sequestration in field trials on China's paddy soils. The results showed (1) Increased Si concentrations in rice straw with increasing application rates of silicate fertilizer; (2) Strong positive correlations between phytolith contents and straw SiO2 contents and between phytolith contents and phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) contents in rice straw; (3) Positive correlations between the phytolith production flux and either the above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) or the PhytOC production rates; (4) Increased plant PhytOC storage with increasing application rates of silicate fertilizer. The average above-ground PhytOC production rates during China's rice production are estimated at 0.94 × 10(6) tonnes CO2 yr(-1) without silicate fertilizer additions. However, the potential exists to increase PhytOC levels to 1.16-2.17 × 10(6) tonnes CO2 yr(-1) with silicate fertilizer additions. Therefore, providing silicate fertilizer during rice production may serve as an effective tool in improving atmospheric CO2 sequestration in global rice production areas.

  4. Effect of elevated [CO2] and nutrient management on wet and dry season rice production in subtropical India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushree Sagarika Satapathy; Dillip Kumar Swain; Surendranath Pasupalak; Pratap Bhanu Singh Bhadoria

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of elevated [CO2] with varying nutrient management on rice–rice production system. The experiment was conducted in the open field and inside open-top chambers (OTCs) of ambient [CO2] (≈390μmol L−1) and elevated [CO2] environment (25%above ambient) during wet and dry seasons in 2011–2013 at Kharagpur, India. The nutrient management included recommended doses of N, P, and K as chemical fertilizer (CF), integration of chemical and organic sources, and application of increased (25%higher) doses of CF. The higher [CO2] level in the OTC increased aboveground biomass but marginally decreased filled grains per panicle and grain yield of rice, compared to the ambient environment. However, crop root biomass was increased significantly under elevated [CO2]. With respect to nutrient management, increasing the dose of CF increased grain yield significantly in both seasons. At the recommended dose of nutrients, integrated nutrient management was comparable to CF in the wet season, but significantly inferior in the dry season, in its effect on growth and yield of rice. The [CO2] elevation in OTC led to a marginal increase in organic C and available P content of soil, but a decrease in available N content. It was concluded that increased doses of nutrients via integration of chemical and organic sources in the wet season and chemical sources alone in the dry season will minimize the adverse effect of future climate on rice production in subtropical India.

  5. Effect of fertilizer nitrogen management on N2O emissions in commercial corn fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebarth, B.J.; Rochette, P.; Burton, D.L.; Price, M.

    2008-01-01

    Corn crops receive higher fertilizer nitrogen (N) application rates than many other crops. Pre-sidedress soil nitrate tests (PSNT) are used to determine how much fertilizer N is applied at the sidedress of corn crops, and can provide an opportunity to reduce fertilizer N application rates and delay the timing of fertilizer N applications which contribute to nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions into the atmosphere. This study examined how the rate and time of fertilizer N application influence N 2 O emissions in corn crops grown in alluvial soils in Atlantic Canada. Starter fertilizer was applied at 45 and 59 kg N per hectare (ha) in 2004 and 2005. Treatments included the application of 75 or 150 kg N per ha banded at a sidedress, and 150 kg N per ha broadcast at the emergence of the crops. Soil mineral N content was measured using a soil core method. Cumulative N 2 O emissions were calculated using a linear interpolation method between sampling dates. Results showed that delays in fertilizer application to the sidedress, and reductions in fertilizer N application reduced nitrate (NO 3 ) intensity but had no impact on cumulative N 2 O emissions. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand controls on denitrification and N 2 O emissions. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Implications of overestimated anthropogenic CO2 emissions on East Asian and global land CO2 flux inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Tazu; Patra, Prabir K.

    2017-12-01

    Measurement and modelling of regional or country-level carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are becoming critical for verification of the greenhouse gases emission control. One of the commonly adopted approaches is inverse modelling, where CO2 fluxes (emission: positive flux, sink: negative flux) from the terrestrial ecosystems are estimated by combining atmospheric CO2 measurements with atmospheric transport models. The inverse models assume anthropogenic emissions are known, and thus the uncertainties in the emissions introduce systematic bias in estimation of the terrestrial (residual) fluxes by inverse modelling. Here we show that the CO2 sink increase, estimated by the inverse model, over East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia), by about 0.26 PgC year-1 (1 Pg = 1012 g) during 2001-2010, is likely to be an artifact of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions increasing too quickly in China by 1.41 PgC year-1. Independent results from methane (CH4) inversion suggested about 41% lower rate of East Asian CH4 emission increase during 2002-2012. We apply a scaling factor of 0.59, based on CH4 inversion, to the rate of anthropogenic CO2 emission increase since the anthropogenic emissions of both CO2 and CH4 increase linearly in the emission inventory. We find no systematic increase in land CO2 uptake over East Asia during 1993-2010 or 2000-2009 when scaled anthropogenic CO2 emissions are used, and that there is a need of higher emission increase rate for 2010-2012 compared to those calculated by the inventory methods. High bias in anthropogenic CO2 emissions leads to stronger land sinks in global land-ocean flux partitioning in our inverse model. The corrected anthropogenic CO2 emissions also produce measurable reductions in the rate of global land CO2 sink increase post-2002, leading to a better agreement with the terrestrial biospheric model simulations that include CO2-fertilization and climate effects.

  7. The potential for carbon bio-sequestration in China’s paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) as impacted by slag-based silicate fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Alin; Ning, Dongfeng; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Provance-Bowley, Mary; Liang, Yongchao

    2015-01-01

    Rice is a typical silicon-accumulating plant. Silicon (Si), deposited as phytoliths during plant growth, has been shown to occlude organic carbon, which may prove to have significant effects on the biogeochemical sequestration of atmospheric CO2. This study evaluated the effects of silicate fertilization on plant Si uptake and carbon bio-sequestration in field trials on China’s paddy soils. The results showed (1) Increased Si concentrations in rice straw with increasing application rates of silicate fertilizer; (2) Strong positive correlations between phytolith contents and straw SiO2 contents and between phytolith contents and phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) contents in rice straw; (3) Positive correlations between the phytolith production flux and either the above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) or the PhytOC production rates; (4) Increased plant PhytOC storage with increasing application rates of silicate fertilizer. The average above-ground PhytOC production rates during China’s rice production are estimated at 0.94 × 106 tonnes CO2 yr−1 without silicate fertilizer additions. However, the potential exists to increase PhytOC levels to 1.16–2.17 × 106 tonnes CO2 yr−1 with silicate fertilizer additions. Therefore, providing silicate fertilizer during rice production may serve as an effective tool in improving atmospheric CO2 sequestration in global rice production areas. PMID:26621377

  8. CO2 supply from an integrated network : the opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.

    2006-01-01

    Strategies for using carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from an integrated network were discussed. The oil and gas industry is currently considering carbon capture and storage (CCS) scenarios for Alberta. Integrated scenarios are aimed at providing business solution for CO 2 currently being produced in the province as well as optimizing the amounts of CO 2 that can be stored in geologic sinks. The scenarios hope to transform CCS into a value-added market capable of providing optimal returns to stakeholders along the CO 2 supply chain through the creation of an infrastructure designed to transport CO 2 in sufficient volumes. The storage of CO 2 in geologic sinks is expected to remove optimal amounts of anthropogenic CO 2 from larger stationary point sources. Interest in an integrated CO 2 market in Alberta has arisen from both economic and environmental concerns. The most effective CO 2 sources are fertilizer, gas processing, and hydrogen plants. Petrochemical facilities also produce high purity CO 2 . CO 2 capture approaches include post- and pre-combustion capture technologies as well as oxyfuel conversion. It was concluded that the cost of capturing CO 2 depends on concentration and purity levels obtained at the point of capture. Major CO 2 sources in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) were provided. tabs., figs

  9. Emission Characteristics of Greenhouse Gas from Maize Field of Black Soil Region Under Long-term Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Hong-jun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Study on greenhouse gases emission and their global warming potential under different fertilizations would be the theoretical basis for establishing measurements to reduce greenhouses gas emissions. Based on a long-term fertilization experiment, greenhouses gas(GHG emissions from black soil of summer maize were measured by using a static chamber-gas chromatograph technique, and global warming potential(GWP effect was also estimated. The results showed the peaks of CO2 and N2O emissions occurred at maize jointing period. The CO2 and N2O emission flux and CH4 uptake flux in the M2NPK treatment(mixed application of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer were significantly higher than those of the chemical fertilizer treatments(P2 and N2O emission flux in the chemical fertilizer treatments were higher than that of the no fertilizer treatment. The CO2 emission flux of the fallow treatment was the highest among all the treatments, but its N2O emission flux was significantly lower than that of the chemical fertilizer treatment. Under equal N rates, the N2O emission flux of the NPK treatment was significantly higher than that of the SNPK treatment(straw returning, but CH4 uptake flux was the opposite result. Compared with no fertilizer treatment(CK, GWP of the N and NPK treatments increased by 142% and 32% respectively, GWP of SNPK treatment decreased by 38%, and GWP in the M2NPK treatment was negative value. Greenhouse gas emission intensity(GHGI of the NPK, SNPK and M2NPK treatments were significantly lower than that of the CK and the N treatments, GHGI of the M2NPK treatment was -222 kg CO2-eq·t-1. Therefore, in order to implement the higher maize yield with lower GHGI synchronously, mixed application of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer would be the optimal fertilization measurement in black soil region of Northeast China.

  10. Soil respiration, microbial biomass and exoenzyme activity in switchgrass stands under nitrogen fertilization management and climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, S.; Li, J.; de Koff, J.; Celada, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Wang, G.; Guo, C.

    2016-12-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), as a model bioenergy crop, received nitrogen fertilizers for increasing its biomass yields. Studies rarely investigate the interactive effects of nitrogen fertilization and climate warming on soil microbial activity and carbon cycling in switchgrass cropping systems. Enhanced nitrogen availability under fertilization can alter rates of soil organic matter decomposition and soil carbon emissions to the atmosphere and thus have an effect on climate change. Here, we assess soil CO2 emission, microbial biomass and exoenzyme activities in two switchgrass stands with no fertilizer and 60 lbs N / acre. Soils were incubated at 15 ºC and 20 ºC for 180-day. Dry switchgrass plant materials were added to incubation jars and the 13C stable isotopic probing technique was used to monitor soil CO2 respiration derived from relatively labile litter and indigenous soil. Measurements of respiration, δ13C of respiration, microbial biomass carbon and exoenzyme activity were performed on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180. Soil respiration rate was greater in the samples incubated at 20 ºC as compared to those incubated at 15 ºC. Exoenzyme activities were significantly altered by warming, litter addition and nitrogen fertilization. There was a significant interactive effect of nitrogen fertilization and warming on the proportion of CO2 respired from soils such that nitrogen fertilization enhanced warming-induced increase by 12.0% (Pmineralization. Fertilization increased soil microbial biomass carbon at both temperatures (9.0% at 15 ºC and 14.5% at 20 ºC). Our preliminary analysis suggested that warming effects on enhanced soil respiration can be further increased with elevated fertilizer input via greater microbial biomass and exoenzyme activity. In addition to greater biomass yield under N fertilization, this study informs potential soil carbon loss from stimulated soil respiration under nitrogen fertilization and warming in

  11. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on soil CO2 efflux in a young longleaf pine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can affect the quantity and quality of plant tissues which will impact carbon (C) cycling and storage in plant/soil systems and the release of CO2 back to the atmosphere. Research is needed to quantify the effects of elevated CO2 on soil CO2 efflux to predi...

  12. Economic effects on taxing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaparanta, P.; Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J.

    1996-01-01

    The CO 2 emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO 2 taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO 2 tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  13. Effect of Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation and CO2 Exsolution on CO2 transport in Geological Carbon Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruina; Li, Rong; Ma, Jin; He, Di; Jiang, Peixue

    2017-09-19

    Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) in deep saline aquifers is an effective means for storing carbon dioxide to address global climate change. As the time after injection increases, the safety of storage increases as the CO 2 transforms from a separate phase to CO 2 (aq) and HCO 3 - by dissolution and then to carbonates by mineral dissolution. However, subsequent depressurization could lead to dissolved CO 2 (aq) escaping from the formation water and creating a new separate phase which may reduce the GCS system safety. The mineral dissolution and the CO 2 exsolution and mineral precipitation during depressurization change the morphology, porosity, and permeability of the porous rock medium, which then affects the two-phase flow of the CO 2 and formation water. A better understanding of these effects on the CO 2 -water two-phase flow will improve predictions of the long-term CO 2 storage reliability, especially the impact of depressurization on the long-term stability. In this Account, we summarize our recent work on the effect of CO 2 exsolution and mineral dissolution/precipitation on CO 2 transport in GCS reservoirs. We place emphasis on understanding the behavior and transformation of the carbon components in the reservoir, including CO 2 (sc/g), CO 2 (aq), HCO 3 - , and carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), highlight their transport and mobility by coupled geochemical and two-phase flow processes, and consider the implications of these transport mechanisms on estimates of the long-term safety of GCS. We describe experimental and numerical pore- and core-scale methods used in our lab in conjunction with industrial and international partners to investigate these effects. Experimental results show how mineral dissolution affects permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, which are important phenomena affecting the input parameters for reservoir flow modeling. The porosity and the absolute permeability increase when CO 2 dissolved water is

  14. Effect of Uncertainties in CO2 Property Databases on the S-CO2 Compressor Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Je Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ahn, Yoonhan; Kim, Seong Gu; Cha, Je Eun

    2013-01-01

    Various S-CO 2 Brayton cycle experiment facilities are on the state of construction or operation for demonstration of the technology. However, during the data analysis, S-CO 2 property databases are widely used to predict the performance and characteristics of S-CO 2 Brayton cycle. Thus, a reliable property database is very important before any experiment data analyses or calculation. In this paper, deviation of two different property databases which are widely used for the data analysis will be identified by using three selected properties for comparison, C p , density and enthalpy. Furthermore, effect of above mentioned deviation on the analysis of test data will be briefly discussed. From this deviation, results of the test data analysis can have critical error. As the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle researcher knows, CO 2 near the critical point has dramatic change on thermodynamic properties. Thus, it is true that a potential error source of property prediction exists in CO 2 properties near the critical point. During an experiment data analysis with the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle experiment facility, thermodynamic properties are always involved to predict the component performance and characteristics. Thus, construction or defining of precise CO 2 property database should be carried out to develop Korean S-CO 2 Brayton cycle technology

  15. Effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on the N-fertilizer use efficiency, lint properties and seed cotton yield using 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Khalifa, Kh

    2001-12-01

    Field experiment was carried out at Der El-Hajar research station during 1998 growing season to evaluate the effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on N-recovery, seed cotton yield and lint properties using 15 N isotope dilution technique. Aleppo 40 variety was tested, irrigation scheduling was set up at 80% of field capacity. Phosphorus fertilizer was applied as TSP 46% before planting at a rate of 180 kg/ha. N fertilizer was applied as urea (46%) in four different applications follows: one application 180 kg N/ha before planting (T1), two split application 180 (90 + 90) kg N/ha (T2), three equally split applications 180 (60 + 60 + 60) kg N/ha (T3), and four equally split applications 180 (45 + 45 + 45 + 45) kg N/ha (T4). Labeled N-fertilizer (5.09 a.e%) was also applied as urea 46% to the subplots (1.0 m 2 each) of the corresponding treatments. All agricultural practices were carried out as the common practices locally employed. Soil samples were analyzed for CEC, ph, EC, OM, total N, available P, and CaCO 3 as outlined by our laboratory standard procedure. Plant samples were collected at physiological maturity and analyzed for 15 N enrichment to assess N recovery. Lint samples were analyzed for lint properties. the results showed no significant effect of the nitrogen fertilizer time course application on the tested parameters such as dry matter production, seed cotton yield, N uptake and lint properties. on the other hand the T2, T3 and T4 treatments where shown to have a positive significant response toward time course application relative to T1 treatment. (authors)

  16. Effects of HfO{sub 2}/Co interface and Co/HfO{sub 2} interface on anomalous Hall behavior in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shao-Long [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yang, Guang [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Teng, Jiao, E-mail: tengjiao@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Guo, Qi-Xun; Liu, Yi-Wei; Li, Xu-Jing [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Guang-Hua, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Anomalous Hall effect in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers is studied. • Thermally stable AHE feature is obtained in [Pt/Co]{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2}/Pt multilayers. • Good thermal stability is due to enhanced intrinsic and side-jump contributions. - Abstract: Effects of the HfO{sub 2}/Co interface and the Co/HfO{sub 2} interface on thermal stability of anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers have been studied. It is observed that thermally stable AHE behavior cannot be obtained in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers with the HfO{sub 2}/Co interface, mainly due to Co-Pt interdiffusion during annealing. In contrast, thermally stable AHE feature is observed in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers with the Co/HfO{sub 2} interface despite Co-Pt interdiffusion, which is owing to the enhancement of the side jump and intrinsic contributions to the AHE through interfacial modification after annealing.

  17. The Effect of Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems on CO2 Emission from Agricultural Soils: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Grego

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different agricultural systems on soil organic carbon content and CO2 emission are investigated in this work. In a long-term experiment a conventional system, characterized by traditional agricultural practices (as deep tillage and chemical inputs was compared with an organic one, including green manure and organic fertilizers. Both systems have a three-year crop rotation including pea – durum wheat – tomato; the organic system is implemented with the introduction of common vetch (Vicia sativa L. and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare bicolor as cover crops. In the year 2006 (5 years after the experimentation beginning was determined the soil C content and was measured the CO2 emissions from soil. The first results showed a trend of CO2 production higher in organic soils in comparison with conventional one. Among the two compared cropping systems the higher differences of CO2 emission were observed in tomato soil respect to the durum wheat and pea soils, probably due to the vetch green manuring before the tomato transplanting. These results are in agreement with the total organic carbon content and water soluble carbon (WSC, which showed the highest values in organic soil. The first observations suggest a higher biological activity and CO2 emission in organic soil than conventional one, likely due to a higher total carbon soil content.

  18. Biological N2-FIXATION and Mineral N-Fertilization Effects on Soybean (Glicine max L. Merr.) Yield Under Temperate Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Summary In a nitrogen fertilization experiment set up on slightly calcareous Ramann sandy- loam brown forest soil studies were made on the effect of nitrogen (N) x Rhizobium japonicum inoculation (I) x variety (V) interactions on soybean yield in Hungary. The agrochemical parameters of the ploughed layer of soil were as follows: humus 1.3%, CaCO3 2.1%, silty clay 27%, pH (H2O) 7.2, pH (KCl) 7.0. The experiment involved 4N x 3I x 3V = combinations in 4 replications, giving a total of 144 plots. The most important results can be summarized as follows: (a.) 0, (b.) 100, (c.) 150 and (d.) 200 kg ha-1 year-1 of nitrogen application (a.) inoculation effect was maximum at 1 kg t-1 Nitrofix, (b.) yields were linearly and inversely related to the rate of Nitrofix, (c.) presence of any amount of Nitrofix has been a negative effect on yield and (d.) Nitrofix 1 kg t-1 was showed the best results. Both biological N2 fixation (BNF) and nitrate (NO3-) utilization by mineral nitrogen fertilizer (MNF) input were essential for maximum soybean yield. Introduction Nitrogen is the most frequently deficient nutrient in crop production therefore, most cropping system require N- inputs (Johnston 2000, Márton 2000, 2001). Many soursces are available for use in supplying N to crops (Kováts et al. 1985). In addition to from N2 fixation by leguminous crops can supply sufficient N for optimum crop production (Wilcox 1987, Kádár & Márton 1999, Márton & Kádár 1998, László & Jose 2001, László et al. 2001). Understanding the behaviour of N in the soil is essential for maximizing agricultural productivity and profitability while reducing the impacts of N fertilization on the environment. Managing the delicate balance in the soil N- supply in order to meet this goals. Nowadays there is an essential need to use nitrogen to achieve both economic yields and to produce enough food. Because the only way for agriculture to keep pace with population (world's population now exceeds 6 billion and

  19. Disparate effects of global-change drivers on mountain conifer forests: warming-induced growth enhancement in young trees vs. CO2 fertilization in old trees from wet sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, J Julio; Gazol, Antonio; Galván, Juan Diego; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Gutiérrez, Emilia

    2015-02-01

    Theory predicts that the postindustrial rise in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere (c(a)) should enhance tree growth either through a direct fertilization effect or indirectly by improving water use efficiency in dry areas. However, this hypothesis has received little support in cold-limited and subalpine forests where positive growth responses to either rising ca or warmer temperatures are still under debate. In this study, we address this issue by analyzing an extensive dendrochronological network of high-elevation Pinus uncinata forests in Spain (28 sites, 544 trees) encompassing the whole biogeographical extent of the species. We determine if the basal area increment (BAI) trends are linked to climate warming and increased c(a) by focusing on region- and age-dependent responses. The largest improvement in BAI over the past six centuries occurred during the last 150 years affecting young trees and being driven by recent warming. Indeed, most studied regions and age classes presented BAI patterns mainly controlled by temperature trends, while growing-season precipitation was only relevant in the driest sites. Growth enhancement was linked to rising ca in mature (151-300 year-old trees) and old-mature trees (301-450 year-old trees) from the wettest sites only. This finding implies that any potential fertilization effect of elevated c(a) on forest growth is contingent on tree features that vary with ontogeny and it depends on site conditions (for instance water availability). Furthermore, we found widespread growth decline in drought-prone sites probably indicating that the rise in ca did not compensate for the reduction in water availability. Thus, warming-triggered drought stress may become a more important direct driver of growth than rising ca in similar subalpine forests. We argue that broad approaches in biogeographical and temporal terms are required to adequately evaluate any effect of rising c(a) on forest growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Metabolic effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation during laparoscopic surgery: changes in pH, arterial partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide (PaCo 2 ) and End Tidal Carbon Dioxide (EtCO 2 ) ... Respiratory adjustments were done for EtCO2 levels above 60mmHg or SPO2 below 92% or adverse haemodynamic changes.

  1. Predicting, monitoring and controlling geomechanical effects of CO2 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, J.E.; Siggins, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    A key objective of geological carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage in porous rock is long-term subsurface containment of CO 2 . Fault stability and maximum sustainable pore-fluid pressures should be estimated in geomechanical studies in order to avoid damage to reservoir seals and fault seals of storage sites during CO 2 injection. Such analyses rely on predicting the evolution of effective stresses in rocks and faults during CO 2 injection. However, geomechanical analyses frequently do not incorporate poroelastic behaviour of reservoir rock, as relevant poroelastic properties are rarely known. The knowledge of rock poroelastic properties would allow the use of seismic methods for the accurate measurement of the effective stress evolution during CO 2 injection. This paper discussed key geomechanical effects of CO 2 injection into porous rock, and in particular, focused on the effects that the poroelasticity of reservoir rocks and pore pressure/stress coupling have on effective stresses. Relevant geophysical monitoring techniques were also suggested. The paper also outlined how these techniques could be applied to measure stress changes related to poroelastic rock behaviour during CO 2 injection and to test the predictions of sustainable changes in effective stress in CO 2 storage sites. It was concluded that a combination of predictive geomechanical techniques and application of geophysical monitoring techniques is a valid new concept for controlling and monitoring the geomechanical effects of CO 2 storage. 36 refs., 5 figs

  2. Photosynthesis and metabolite responses of Isatis indigotica Fortune to elevated [CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Li; Hongying Li; Yuzheng Zong; Frank Yonghong Li; Yuanhuai Han; Xingyu Hao

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is affecting global crop productivity, food quality, and security. However, few studies have addressed the mechanism by which elevated CO2 may affect the growth of medicinal plants. Isatis indigotica Fortune is a widely used Chinese medicinal herb with multiple pharmacological properties. To investigate the physiological mechanism of I. indigotica response to elevated [CO2], plants were grown at either ambient [CO2] (385μmol mol?1) or elevated [CO2] (590μmol mol?1) in an open-top chamber (OTC) experimental facility in North China. A significant reduction in transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (gs) and a large increase in water-use efficiency contributed to an increase in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under elevated [CO2] 76 days after sowing. Leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was decreased, so that more energy was used in effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSI ) under elevated [CO2]. High ΦPSI , meaning high electron transfer efficiency, also increased Pn. The [CO2]-induced increase in photosynthesis significantly increased biomass by 36.8%. Amounts of metabolic compounds involved in sucrose metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis, and other processes in leaves were reduced under elevated [CO2]. These results showed that the fertilization effect of elevated [CO2] is conducive to increasing dry weight but not secondary metabolism in I. indigotica.

  3. Forecasting carbon budget under climate change and CO2 fertilization for subtropical region in China using integrated biosphere simulator (IBIS) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q.; Jiang, H.; Liu, J.; Peng, C.; Fang, X.; Yu, S.; Zhou, G.; Wei, X.; Ju, W.

    2011-01-01

    The regional carbon budget of the climatic transition zone may be very sensitive to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This study simulated the carbon cycles under these changes using process-based ecosystem models. The Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM), was used to evaluate the impacts of climate change and CO2 fertilization on net primary production (NPP), net ecosystem production (NEP), and the vegetation structure of terrestrial ecosystems in Zhejiang province (area 101,800 km2, mainly covered by subtropical evergreen forest and warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf forest) which is located in the subtropical climate area of China. Two general circulation models (HADCM3 and CGCM3) representing four IPCC climate change scenarios (HC3AA, HC3GG, CGCM-sresa2, and CGCM-sresb1) were used as climate inputs for IBIS. Results show that simulated historical biomass and NPP are consistent with field and other modelled data, which makes the analysis of future carbon budget reliable. The results indicate that NPP over the entire Zhejiang province was about 55 Mt C yr-1 during the last half of the 21st century. An NPP increase of about 24 Mt C by the end of the 21st century was estimated with the combined effects of increasing CO2 and climate change. A slight NPP increase of about 5 Mt C was estimated under the climate change alone scenario. Forests in Zhejiang are currently acting as a carbon sink with an average NEP of about 2.5 Mt C yr-1. NEP will increase to about 5 Mt C yr-1 by the end of the 21st century with the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. However, climate change alone will reduce the forest carbon sequestration of Zhejiang's forests. Future climate warming will substantially change the vegetation cover types; warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf forest will be gradually substituted by subtropical evergreen forest. An increasing CO2 concentration will have little

  4. The 'compensation effect' in the graphite/CO2 reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, W.J.

    1983-08-01

    The compensation effect is the often observed linear relationship between the activation energy and pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius equations of a series of related reactions. Previously reported studies of the graphite/CO 2 reaction at different total pressures and CO 2 /CO ratios are used as an example of the compensation effect. The effect is shown in general to be an artefact produced by a strong correlation between the parameter estimates in the conventional Arrhenius plot. A transformation of the Arrhenius plot to minimise the overall correlation between estimates and thus enable detection of a true compensation effect is presented. The results of this transformation on the kinetic data for the graphite/CO 2 reaction are consistent with previous analyses of the reaction system. They show that there is only a limited compensation effect within this study and demonstrate the influence of the approach to equilibrium of the graphite/CO 2 reaction. (author)

  5. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. 2. Investigation in fiscal 1998 on biological fixation process of CO{sub 2} utilizing arid areas and oligotrophic sea areas; 1998 nendo kansochi, hin'eiyo kaiiki wo riyoshita seibutsuteki CO{sub 2} kotei ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An investigation was carried out subsequent to fiscal 1997 on biological CO2 fixation process. Western Australia was investigated for afforestation in an arid area. Eighty-eight percent of the total amount of ground surface biomass is found on trees having a height of 4 m or higher. Plants in Sturt Meadows were classified into 16 kinds, and biomass amount in each kind was estimated. Water management was discussed as a possibility of applying the element technologies in arid area afforestation. Different technical proposals on desert planting were also discussed. With regard to oceans, problems and effects are described on fertilization by sprinkling wide area of ocean with nutrient salts for CO2 fixation by means of the ecosystem. Nutrient salt addition is effective in increasing production of organic matters, but what is important is the understanding about food network balance and elementary process of the ecosystem. Composition of organic matters migrating into greater depths is one of the important parameters. A proposal was made on a system evaluation project including fertilizer application by means of closed system experiments for promotion of CO2 fixation and utilization of the produced organic matters in multiple aspects. The project includes balancing experiments on marine ecosystems including coral reefs. Modeling is also important (NEDO)

  6. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. 2. Investigation in fiscal 1998 on biological fixation process of CO{sub 2} utilizing arid areas and oligotrophic sea areas; 1998 nendo kansochi, hin'eiyo kaiiki wo riyoshita seibutsuteki CO{sub 2} kotei ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An investigation was carried out subsequent to fiscal 1997 on biological CO2 fixation process. Western Australia was investigated for afforestation in an arid area. Eighty-eight percent of the total amount of ground surface biomass is found on trees having a height of 4 m or higher. Plants in Sturt Meadows were classified into 16 kinds, and biomass amount in each kind was estimated. Water management was discussed as a possibility of applying the element technologies in arid area afforestation. Different technical proposals on desert planting were also discussed. With regard to oceans, problems and effects are described on fertilization by sprinkling wide area of ocean with nutrient salts for CO2 fixation by means of the ecosystem. Nutrient salt addition is effective in increasing production of organic matters, but what is important is the understanding about food network balance and elementary process of the ecosystem. Composition of organic matters migrating into greater depths is one of the important parameters. A proposal was made on a system evaluation project including fertilizer application by means of closed system experiments for promotion of CO2 fixation and utilization of the produced organic matters in multiple aspects. The project includes balancing experiments on marine ecosystems including coral reefs. Modeling is also important (NEDO)

  7. Norwegian emissions of CO2 1987-1994. A study of some effects of the CO2 tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.M.; Nesbakken, R.

    1997-01-01

    Several countries have introduced taxes on fossil fuels with the aim of reducing atmospheric emissions, partly because of local environmental goals (SO2, NOx) and partly to participate in a global effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Many macroeconomic studies, based on both global and national models, have been made of how emissions can be reduced with the help of taxes and the consequent reduction in GDP following the introduction of such taxes. Norway has had a CO2 tax for five years, thereby providing a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of this tax on emissions. The paper provides a counterfactual analysis of energy consumption and emissions if no CO2 taxes had been introduced, compared with the actual situation in which such taxes exist. The effect of a CO2 tax on oil consumption, and thus CO2 emissions, is studied on the basis of partial economic models for various sectors of the Norwegian economy. The study indicates that the CO2 tax has had an impact on CO2 emissions in Norway. 7 figs., 3 tabs., 17 refs

  8. Water availability drives gas exchange and growth of trees in northeastern US, not elevated CO2 and reduced acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Mathieu; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Pederson, Neil

    2017-04-10

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) exhibit high uncertainty about how climate change, elevated atmospheric CO 2 (atm. CO 2 ) concentration, and atmospheric pollutants will impact carbon sequestration in forested ecosystems. Although the individual roles of these environmental factors on tree growth are understood, analyses examining their simultaneous effects are lacking. We used tree-ring isotopic data and structural equation modeling to examine the concurrent and interacting effects of water availability, atm. CO 2 concentration, and SO 4 and nitrogen deposition on two broadleaf tree species in a temperate mesic forest in the northeastern US. Water availability was the strongest driver of gas exchange and tree growth. Wetter conditions since the 1980s have enhanced stomatal conductance, photosynthetic assimilation rates and, to a lesser extent, tree radial growth. Increased water availability seemingly overrides responses to reduced acid deposition, CO 2 fertilization, and nitrogen deposition. Our results indicate that water availability as a driver of ecosystem productivity in mesic temperate forests is not adequately represented in DGVMs, while CO 2 fertilization is likely overrepresented. This study emphasizes the importance to simultaneously consider interacting climatic and biogeochemical drivers when assessing forest responses to global environmental changes.

  9. Biogenic CH4 and N2O emissions overwhelm land CO2 sink in Asia: Toward a full GHG budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The recent global assessment indicates the terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere (Tian et al Nature 2016). The fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHG) vary by region. Both TD and BU approaches indicate that human-caused biogenic fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O in the biosphere of Southern Asia led to a large net climate warming effect, because the 100-year cumulative effects of CH4 and N2O emissions together exceed that of the terrestrial CO2 sink. Southern Asia has about 90% of the global rice fields and represents more than 60% of the world's nitrogen fertilizer consumption, with 64%-81% of CH4 emissions and 36%-52% of N2O emissions derived from the agriculture and waste sectors. Given the large footprint of agriculture in Southern Asia, improved fertilizer use efficiency, rice management and animal diets could substantially reduce global agricultural N2O and CH4 emissions. This study highlights the importance of including all three major GHGs in regional climate impact assessments, mitigation option and climate policy development.

  10. CO2 EFFECTS ON MOJAVE DESERT PLANT INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; S. D. SMITH; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal and interannual droughts characteristic of deserts have the potential to modify plant interactions as atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations continue to rise. At the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility in the northern Mojave Desert, the effects of elevated atmospheric C02 (550 vs. ambient {approx}360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) on plant interactions were examined during two years of high and low rainfall. Results suggest that CO{sub 2} effects on the interaction between native species and their understory herbs are dependent on the strength of competition when rainfall is plentiful, but are unimportant during annual drought. Seasonal rainfall for 1999 was 23% the long-term average for the area, and neither elevated CO{sub 2} nor the low production of herbaceous neighbors had an effect on relative growth rate (RGR, d{sup -1}) and reproductive effort (RE, number of flowers g{sup -1}) for Achnatherum hymenoides (early season perennial C{sub 3} grass), Pleuraphis rigida (late season perennial C{sub 4} grass), and Larrea tridentata (evergreen C{sub 3} shrub). In contrast, 1998 received 213% the average rainfall. Consequently, the decrease in RGR and increase in RE for Achnatherum, whose period of growth overlaps directly with that of its neighbors, was exaggerated at elevated CO{sub 2}. However, competitive effects of neighbors on Eriogonum trichopes (a winter annual growing in shrub interspaces), Pleuraphis and Larrea were not affected by elevated CO{sub 2}, and possible explanations are discussed. Contrary to expectations, the invasive annual neighbor Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens had little influence on target plant responses because densities in 1998 and 1999 at this site were well below those found in other studies where it has negatively affected perennial plant growth. The extent that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces the performance of Achnatherum in successive years to cause its loss from the plant community depends more on future pressure

  11. CO2 Effects in Space: Relationship to Intracranial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David J.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effects of enhanced exposure to CO2 on Earth and in space. The effects of enhanced exposure to CO2 are experienced in almost all bodily systems. In space some of the effects are heightened due to the fluid shifts to the thorax and head. This fluid shift results in increased intracranial pressure, congested cerebral circulation, increased Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) and Intravenous dilatation. The mechanism of the effect of CO2 on CBF is diagrammed, as is the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) production. A listing of Neuroendocrine targets is included.

  12. Carbon dioxide emissions from semi-arid soils amended with biochar alone or combined with mineral and organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José M; Nieto, M Aurora; López-de-Sá, Esther G; Gascó, Gabriel; Méndez, Ana; Plaza, César

    2014-06-01

    Semi-arid soils cover a significant area of Earth's land surface and typically contain large amounts of inorganic C. Determining the effects of biochar additions on CO2 emissions from semi-arid soils is therefore essential for evaluating the potential of biochar as a climate change mitigation strategy. Here, we measured the CO2 that evolved from semi-arid calcareous soils amended with biochar at rates of 0 and 20tha(-1) in a full factorial combination with three different fertilizers (mineral fertilizer, municipal solid waste compost, and sewage sludge) applied at four rates (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, and 225kg potentially available Nha(-1)) during 182 days of aerobic incubation. A double exponential model, which describes cumulative CO2 emissions from two active soil C compartments with different turnover rates (one relatively stable and the other more labile), was found to fit very well all the experimental datasets. In general, the organic fertilizers increased the size and decomposition rate of the stable and labile soil C pools. In contrast, biochar addition had no effects on any of the double exponential model parameters and did not interact with the effects ascribed to the type and rate of fertilizer. After 182 days of incubation, soil organic and microbial biomass C contents tended to increase with increasing the application rates of organic fertilizer, especially of compost, whereas increasing the rate of mineral fertilizer tended to suppress microbial biomass. Biochar was found to increase both organic and inorganic C contents in soil and not to interact with the effects of type and rate of fertilizer on C fractions. As a whole, our results suggest that the use of biochar as enhancer of semi-arid soils, either alone or combined with mineral and organic fertilizers, is unlikely to increase abiotic and biotic soil CO2 emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions on employment; Sysselsettingsvirkninger av redusert CO{sub 2}-utslipp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, L

    1995-06-01

    This report discusses how reducing the CO{sub 2} emission might affect employment, adaptation and job mobility between trades. It confirms and expands the results of many previous studies. The socio-economic costs involved in regulation of greenhouse gas emissions appear to be low and perhaps negative, and very unevenly distributed on the sectors which must be regulated if the emission goals are to be achieved. The author`s analyses show that in addition to affecting the transport sectors, regulations have an especially strong impact on trades within the processing industries such as refining of crude oil, production of ferro alloys, fertilizers, cement and primary aluminium. For the Norwegian CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 not to exceed the 1989 level, the activities within crude oil refining and ferro alloys production must be halved and the activities within the three other industries must go down by 10-15%. This ranking is very stable under changes in common external conditions provided all the sectors face the same tax per unit emitted. The trades most strongly influenced by regulations are mostly found in places with few alternative job possibilities, which results in frictional unemployment. Some of the unemployed may get lost forever so that the unemployment becomes permanent. However, less than 1% of the total manpower of Norway work in the five sectors and so the loss of work places will be 0.2%, or 4000. 35 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Effects of plant diversity, N fertilization, and elevated carbon dioxide on grassland soil N cycling in a long-term experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kevin E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Tilman, David; Reich, Peter B

    2013-04-01

    The effects of global environmental changes on soil nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes have consequences for ecosystem functions such as plant productivity and N retention. In a 13-year grassland experiment, we evaluated how elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), N fertilization, and plant species richness alter soil N cycling. We focused on soil inorganic N pools, including ammonium and nitrate, and two N fluxes, net N mineralization and net nitrification. In contrast with existing hypotheses, such as progressive N limitation, and with observations from other, often shorter, studies, elevated CO2 had relatively static and small, or insignificant, effects on soil inorganic N pools and fluxes. Nitrogen fertilization had inconsistent effects on soil N transformations, but increased soil nitrate and ammonium concentrations. Plant species richness had increasingly positive effects on soil N transformations over time, likely because in diverse subplots the concentrations of N in roots increased over time. Species richness also had increasingly positive effects on concentrations of ammonium in soil, perhaps because more carbon accumulated in soils of diverse subplots, providing exchange sites for ammonium. By contrast, subplots planted with 16 species had lower soil nitrate concentrations than less diverse subplots, especially when fertilized, probably due to greater N uptake capacity of subplots with 16 species. Monocultures of different plant functional types had distinct effects on N transformations and nitrate concentrations, such that not all monocultures differed from diverse subplots in the same manner. The first few years of data would not have adequately forecast the effects of N fertilization and diversity on soil N cycling in later years; therefore, the dearth of long-term manipulations of plant species richness and N inputs is a hindrance to forecasting the state of the soil N cycle and ecosystem functions in extant plant communities. © 2012 Blackwell

  15. The effect of dual-hemisphere breeding on stallion fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbornn, S R; Love, C C; Blanchard, T L; Brinsko, S P; Varner, D D

    2017-05-01

    Breeding records were analyzed from 24 Thoroughbred stallions that were subjected to dual-hemisphere breeding (DH), including novice (first-year; NOV; n = 11) and experienced (EXP; n = 13) stallions. Fertility variables included seasonal pregnancy rate, pregnancy rate per cycle, and first-cycle pregnancy rate. In addition, values for book size, total number of covers, distribution of mare type (maiden, foaling, and barren) within a stallion's book, cycles per mare, and mare age were examined. Some data were also categorized by mare type (maiden-M, foaling-F, and barren-B). Five separate analyses of the data were performed. For Analyses 1-3, the effects of hemisphere (northern hemisphere [NH] vs. southern hemisphere [SH]) and breeding order (refers to the first [O1] or second [O2] season within the first year of dual-hemisphere breeding) were examined for all stallions (combined group [CG]), NOV stallions only, and EXP stallions only, respectively. Fertility values were generally higher in the SH than the NH (P fertility of O1 was generally similar to O2 (P > 0.05). For Analysis 4, fertility of DH breeding seasons was compared to single hemisphere (SIN) breeding seasons within the same 16 stallions and was found to be similar between the two groups (P > 0.05). For Analysis 5, the effect of the number of consecutive DH breeding seasons on fertility was examined and was found to remain unchanged (P > 0.05). In summary, no adverse effects of DH breeding on fertility were detected. Fertility was higher when stallions were bred in the SH, as compared to the NH. Potential reasons for higher fertility achieved in the SH were smaller book sizes and better mare reproductive quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Effects of Different Fertilizing Formulae on Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Trials conducted on potato fertilization at different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have shown that the elements able to influence the marketable tuber yield are nitrogen and phosphorus. The potato dry matter, which reflects other quality aspects such as the specific gravity and the starch content, increases with nitrogen fertilization till 150-200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen; beyond those rates values remain nearly unchanged. Dry matter increases also with the application of phosphorus and at low potassium rates. The objective of the research was to test the effect of different rates of N P K fertilizer on yield and some quality traits of potato. The test was conducted at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty, Bari University, Italy. It involved the comparison of 6 fertilizing formulae N1 P1 K1, N1 P2 K1, N2 P1 K1, N2 P2 K1, N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, obtained from the factorial combination of three nitrogen levels (N = 100-200-300 kg ha-1 and two phosphorus rates (P2O5 = 50-100 kg ha-1 against an unfertilized control N0P0K0. The dose of potassium was constant for all fertilizing formulae (K2O = 300 kg ha-1. The highest total and marketable yields of tubers per plant have been observed at the two highest fertilizing levels (N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, which are not statistically different so that the best treatments is shown to be N3 P1 K1; the trend was similar for the mean weight of tubers. With the various treatments, no difference was observed in terms of yield of tubers belonging to the two first size classes (< 35mm and 35-55mm; what has increased with the fertilizing levels is the yield of tubers greater than 55 mm. Tuber specific gravity show, as expected, a positive correlation with the dry matter percentage. Both parameters increased shifting from the control to the N2 P2 K1 and decreased at the highest N level, without any difference being observed with the change in the P rate. The highest starch percentage (20.5% was also observed in the

  17. Enhancement of Carbon Sequestration in west coast Douglas-fir Forests with Nitrogen Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Jassal, R.; Black, A.; Brummer, C.; Spittlehouse, D.; Nesic, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Fertilization is one of the eligible management practices for C sequestering and hence reducing CO2 emissions under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. In the coastal regions of British Columbia, which have very little nitrogen (N) deposition from pollution sources owing to their remote location, and soils deficient in N (Hanley et al., 1996), Douglas-fir stands respond to N fertilization (Brix, 1981; Fisher and Binkley, 2000; Chapin et al., 2002). However, a major concern with N fertilization is the potential loss from the soil surface of the highly potent greenhouse gas N2O, and little is known about such losses in N-fertilized forest soils. While it is necessary to determine and quantify the effects of N fertilization on stand C sequestration, it is also important to address environmental concerns by measuring N2O emissions to determine the net greenhouse gas (GHG) global warming potential (GWP). The GWP of N2O is 296 times (100-year time horizon) greater than that of CO2 (Ehhalt and Prather, 2001), yet there is little information on its net radiative forcing as a result of forest fertilization. We report two years of results on the effects of N fertilization in a chronosequence of three Douglas-fir stands (7, 19 and 58 years old, hereafter referred to as HDF00, HDF88 and DF49, respectively) on net C sequestration or net primary productivity measured using the eddy-covariance technique. DF49 (110 ha) and HDF88 (20 ha) were aerially fertilized with urea at 200 kg N ha-1 on Jan 13 and Feb 17, 2007, respectively, while due to its young age and competing understory, fertilizer to HDF00 (5 ha) was manually applied at 80 g urea/tree (60 kg N ha-1) along the tree drip line on Feb 13-14, 2007. Additionally, we calculate the net change in GHG GWP resulting from fertilization of DF49 by accounting for N2O emissions and energy costs of fertilizer production, transport, and application. We also compare polymer-coated slow-release urea (Environmentally Smart Nitrogen (ESN

  18. Optimizing nitrogen fertilizer application to irrigated wheat. Results of a co-ordinated research project. 1994-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This TECDOC summarizes the results of a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Optimizing Fertilizer Application under Irrigated Wheat to Increase the Efficient Use of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Consequently Reduce Environmental Pollution. The project was carried out between 1994 and 1998 through the technical co-ordination of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Fourteen Member States of the IAEA and FAO carried out a series of field experiments aimed at improving irrigation water and fertilizer-N uptake efficiencies through integrated management of the complex Interactions involving inputs, soils, climate, and wheat cultivars. Its goals were: to investigate various aspects of fertilizer N uptake efficiency of wheat crops under irrigation through an interregional research network involving countries growing large areas of irrigated wheat; to use 15 N and the soil-moisture neutron probe to determine the fate of applied N, to follow water and nitrate movement in the soil, and to determine water balance and water-use efficiency in irrigated wheat cropping systems; to use the data generated to further develop and refine various relationships in the Ceres-Wheat computer simulation model; to use the knowledge generated to produce a N-rate-recommendation package to refine specific management strategies with respect to fertilizer applications and expected yields

  19. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Yanghui; Gao, Jiping; Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong; Lan, Yu; Li, Shuhang; Meng, Jun; Xu, Zhengjin; Tang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha −1 ) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha −1 ) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH 4 emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha −1 biochar. There were no differences in CO 2 emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha −1 biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha −1 biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g −1 and 11.69 mg g −1 (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha −1 biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g −1 . The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH 4 emission. • Rice straw-derived biochar interacted with the effects of N fertilizers on

  20. The effect of N fertilization on sugar beet production, root activity, and the efficent use of fertilizer N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charanek, Ahmad

    1990-10-01

    This study includes 2 field experiments using 15 N labelled fertilizer on sugarbeets. Five fertilization treatments with 6 replicates in Autumn and 3 with 5 replicates in Spring were carried out for three years (1985-1987), in the fields of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Damascus. The aim of the Autumn sugarbeet experiment was to study the effects of nitrogen fertilizer on the production of sugarbeet, root activity and the efficeint use of N from the fertilizer. The purpose of the Spring sugarbeet experiment was to compare two methods of N-fertilizer applications (surface and banding) and their effects on the utilization of N-fertilizer. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied as ammonium sulphate (21%) in Autumn at rates of 60, 120, 180 and 240 KgN/ha and as urea (46%) at 120 KgN/ha in Spring. The fertilizer was applied in two equal amounts, the first at the emergence and the second at the beginning of the optimal leaves development. Treatment at 120 Kg was only given labelled 15 N fertilizer. The purpose of this research study was to find out the optimal amount of fertilizer that produces the highest yield and the best nitrogen utilization rate. It was concluded from these results that the optimal amount of fertilizer needed to achieve the highest sugar content was between 120-180 KgN/ha. The second application of fertilizer affected positivily root production. The utilization rate of nitrogen in banding was more efficient than surface method at harvest of the second application. (author). 14 refs., 14 figs., 43 tabs

  1. Economic effects on taxing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaparanta, P [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland); Jerkkola, J; Pohjola, J [The Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO{sub 2} taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO{sub 2} tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  2. Economic effects on taxing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaparanta, P. [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland); Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J. [The Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO{sub 2} taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO{sub 2} tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  3. Sequestering CO2 in the Ocean: Options and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Caldeira, K.

    2002-12-01

    The likelihood of negative climate and environmental impacts associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 has prompted serious consideration of various CO2 mitigation strategies. Among these are methods of capturing and storing of CO2 in the ocean. Two approaches that have received the most attention in this regard have been i) ocean fertilization to enhanced biological uptake and fixation of CO2, and ii) the chemical/mechanical capture and injection of CO2 into the deep ocean. Both methods seek to enhance or speed up natural mechanisms of CO2 uptake and storage by the ocean, namely i) the biological CO2 "pump" or ii) the passive diffusion of CO2 into the surface ocean and subsequent mixing into the deep sea. However, as will be reviewed, concerns about the capacity and effectiveness of either strategy in long-term CO2 sequestration have been raised. Both methods are not without potentially significant environmental impacts, and the costs of CO2 capture and injection (option ii) are currently prohibitive. An alternate method of ocean CO2 sequestration would be to react and hydrate CO2 rich waste gases (e.g., power plant flue gas) with seawater and to subsequently neutralize the resulting carbonic acid with limestone to produce calcium and bicarbonate ions in solution. This approach would simply speed up the CO2 uptake and sequestration that naturally (but very slowly) occurs via global carbonate weathering. This would avoid much of the increased acidity associated with direct CO2 injection while obviating the need for costly CO2 separation and capture. The addition of the resulting bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich solution to the ocean would help to counter the decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration, and hence loss of biological calcification that is presently occurring as anthropogenic CO2 invades the ocean from the atmosphere. However, as with any approach to CO2 mitigation, the costs, impacts, risks, and benefits of this method need to be better understood

  4. Effect of oviduct epithelial cells on the fertilization and development of sheep oocytes in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter; Irvine, Brendon J.; Armstrong, David T.

    1994-01-01

    The study examined whether co-culture with oviductal epithelial cells was of benefit to ovine in vitro fertilization ( IVF) and embryo culture procedures utilizing ·a well charac- terized culture system based on a synthetic oviductal fluid medium (SOFM) supple- mented with serum in a 90% N2, 5% 0 2......, 5% C02, atmosphere at 38.6°C. Two experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1, comparison was made between the frequency of fertil- ization and development of in vitro matured ( IVM) oocytes cultured in the absence (Group 1) or presence of oviductal cells for a 24 h (Group 2), 48 h (Group 3) or 96...... h (Group 4) period post insemination. In Experiment 2, comparison was made between the develop- ment of IVM oocytes fertilized and cultured in vitro for 7. 5 days in the absence or presence of oviductal cells with IVM oocytes which had been fertilized in vitro for 20 h in the pres- ence of oviductal...

  5. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, J. M.

    2015-08-31

    The Arctic Ocean is warming at two to three times the global rate1 and is perceived to be a bellwether for ocean acidification2, 3. Increased CO2 concentrations are expected to have a fertilization effect on marine autotrophs4, and higher temperatures should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production5. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range of 145–2,099 μatm; however, the greatest effects are observed only at lower temperatures and are constrained by nutrient and light availability to the spring period. The temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production has significant implications for metabolic balance in a warmer, CO2-enriched Arctic Ocean in the future. In particular, it indicates that a twofold increase in primary production during the spring is likely in the Arctic.

  6. Long-term CO2 rise has increased photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency but did not stimulate diameter growth of tropical trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, P.; Zuidema, P.; Sleen, P. V. D.; Vlam, M.; Ehlers, I.; Schleucher, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forests are a crucial component of the global carbon cycle, and their responses to atmospheric changes may shift carbon cycling and climate systems. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are the major tools to simulate tropical forest responses to climate change. One of the main determinants of these simulated responses is the effect of CO2 on tropical tree physiology and growth, the 'CO2 fertilization effect'. The paucity of CO2 enrichment experiments in the tropics importantly limits insights into the CO2 fertilization effect as well as the validation of DGVMs. However, use can be made of the 40% rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The effects of the historical CO2 rise on tree physiology and growth can be obtained from stable isotopes, isotopomers and tree diameter increments obtained in tree-ring studies. We studied the physiological and growth responses of 12 tree species in Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand to 150 years of CO2 enrichment. Analyses of 13C of wood cellulose revealed strong, long-term increases in leaf intercellular CO2 concentrations for all study species and a marked improvement of intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE). For a subset of one species per site, we studied the Deuterium isotopomers (isomers with isotopic atoms) of glucose in wood to obtain a direct estimate of the photorespiration-to-photosynthesis ratio. We found that this ratio consistently and strongly decreased over the past century, thus increasing the effeciency and rate of photosynthesis. In spite of these strong physiological responses to increased CO2levels, we did not find evidence for increased tree diameter growth for any of the sites, or for sites combined. Possible reasons for the lack of a growth stimulation include increased (leaf) temperature, insufficient availability of nutrients or a shift in biomass investment in trees. Our results suggest that the strong CO2 fertilization of tropical tree growth often

  7. Partial reactive crystallization of variable CO2-bearing siliceous MORB-eclogite-derived melt in fertile peridotite and genesis of alkalic basalts with signatures of crustal recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, A.; Dasgupta, R.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of heterogeneity in the form of recycled altered oceanic crust (MORB-eclogite) has been proposed in the source of HIMU ocean island basalts (OIBs) [1]. Partial melts of recycled oceanic crust, however, are siliceous and Mg-poor and thus do not resemble the major element compositions of alkalic OIBs that are silica-poor and Mg-rich. In an upwelling heterogenous mantle, MORB-eclogite undergoes melting deeper than volatile-free peridotite, hence, andesitic partial melt derived from eclogite will react with subsolidus peridotite. We have examined the effect of such a melt-rock reaction under volatile-free conditions at 1375 °C, 3 GPa by varying the melt-rock ratio from 8 to 50 wt.% [2]. We concluded that the reacted melts reproduce certain major element characteristics of oceanic basanites, but not nephelinites. Also, the melt-rock reaction produces olivine and garnet-bearing websteritic residue. Because presence of CO2 has been invoked in the source of many HIMU ocean islands, the effect of CO2 on such a melt-rock reaction needs to be evaluated. Accordingly, we performed reaction experiments on mixtures of 25% and 33% CO2-bearing andesitic partial melt and peridotite at 1375 °C, 3 GPa by varying the dissolved CO2 content of the reacting melts from 1 to 5 wt.% (bulk CO2 from 0.25 to 1.6 wt.%) [3, this study]. Owing to melt-rock reaction, with increasing CO2 in the bulk mixture, (a) modes of olivine and cpx decrease while melt, opx and garnet increase, (b) reacted melts evolve to greater degree of Si-undersaturation (from andesite through basanite to nephelinite), (c) enhanced crystallization of garnet take place with higher CO2 in the melt, reducing alumina content of the reacted melts, and (d) CaO and MgO content of the reacted melts increase, without affecting FeO* and Na2O contents (indicating greater propensity of Ca2+ and Mg2+ over Fe2+ and Na+ to enter silicate melt as carbonate). For a given melt-MgO, the CO2-bearing reacted melts are a better

  8. Azotobacter chroococcum as a potentially useful bacterial biofertilizer for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum): Effect in reducing N fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perdomo, Felipe; Abril, Jorge; Camelo, Mauricio; Moreno-Galván, Andrés; Pastrana, Iván; Rojas-Tapias, Daniel; Bonilla, Ruth

    The aim of this research was to evaluate whether the application of two plant growth-promoting (rhizo)bacteria might reduce nitrogen fertilization doses in cotton. We used strains Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 and AC10 for their proven ability to promote seed germination and cotton growth. These microorganisms were characterized by their plant growth-promoting activities. Then, we conducted a glasshouse study to evaluate the plant growth promoting ability of these strains with reduced doses of urea fertilization in cotton. Results revealed that both strains are capable of fixing nitrogen, solubilizing phosphorus, synthesizing indole compounds and producing hydrolytic enzymes. After 12 weeks, the glasshouse experiment showed that cotton growth was positively influenced due to bacterial inoculation with respect to chemical fertilization. Notably, we observed that microbial inoculation further influenced plant biomass (p<0.05) than nitrogen content. Co-inoculation, interestingly, exhibited a greater beneficial effect on plant growth parameters compared to single inoculation. Moreover, similar results without significant statistical differences were observed among bacterial co-inoculation plus 50% urea and 100% fertilization. These findings suggest that co-inoculation of A. chroococcum strains allow to reduce nitrogen fertilization doses up to 50% on cotton growth. Our results showed that inoculation with AC1 and AC10 represents a viable alternative to improve cotton growth while decreasing the N fertilizer dose and allows to alleviate the environmental deterioration related to N pollution. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Using dendrochronology to detect and attribute CO2-induced growth increases in P. menziesii and P. ponderosa in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretch, V.; Gedalof, Z.; Berg, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Increased atmospheric CO2 could increase photosynthetic rates and cause trees to use water more efficiently, thereby increasing overall growth rates relative to climatic limiting factors. CO2 fertilization has been found across a range of forest types; however results have been inconsistent and based on short-term studies. Long-term studies based on tree-rings have generally been restricted to a few sites and have produced conflicting results. An initial global analysis of tree-ring widths for evidence of increasing growth relative to drought suggested a small but highly significant proportion of trees exhibit increasing growth over the past 130 years. These growth increases could not be attributed to increasing water use efficiency, elevation effects, nitrogen deposition, or divergence. These results suggest that CO2 fertilization is occurring at some locations and may influence future forest dynamics but this does not appear to occur at all locations. The processes causing differential responses are the focus of this study. Here we illustrate response differences between Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). Using multiple site chronologies from these species over western North America, we demonstrate several site-specific explanations for differential responses to CO2 fertilization, such as forest composition, density, slope, aspect, soil type, and position relative to range limits.

  10. Short- and long-term effects of unemployment on fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Schwandt, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have been examining the relationship between fertility and unemployment for more than a century. Most studies find that fertility falls with unemployment in the short run, but it is not known whether these negative effects persist, because women simply may postpone childbearing to better economic times. Using more than 140 million US birth records for the period 1975–2010, we analyze both the short- and long-run effects of unemployment on fertility. We follow fixed cohorts of US-born women defined by their own state and year of birth, and relate their fertility to the unemployment rate experienced by each cohort at different ages. We focus on conceptions that result in a live birth. We find that women in their early 20s are most affected by high unemployment rates in the short run and that the negative effects on fertility grow over time. A one percentage point increase in the average unemployment rate experienced between the ages of 20 and 24 reduces the short-run fertility of women in this age range by six conceptions per 1,000 women. When we follow these women to age 40, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate experienced at ages 20–24 leads to an overall loss of 14.2 conceptions. This long-run effect is driven largely by women who remain childless and thus do not have either first births or higher-order births. PMID:25267622

  11. The evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soil amended with organic fertilizers and bulking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włóka, Dariusz; Placek, Agnieszka; Rorat, Agnieszka; Smol, Marzena; Kacprzak, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soils fertilized with organic amendments (sewage sludge, compost), bulking agents (mineral sorbent, silicon dioxide in form of nano powder), and novel compositions of those materials. The scope of conducted works includes a cyclic CO 2 production measurements and the determinations of PAHs content in soil samples, before and after 3-months of incubation. Obtained results show that the use of both type of organic fertilizers have a positive effect on the PAHs removal from soil. However, the CO 2 emission remains higher only in the first stage of the process. The best acquired means in terms of PAHs removal as well as most sustained CO 2 production were noted in samples treated with the mixtures of organic fertilizers and bulking agents. In conclusion the addition of structural forming materials to the organic fertilizers was critical for the soil bioremediation efficiency. Therefore, the practical implementation of collected data could find a wide range of applications during the design of new, more effective solutions for the soil bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fertility effects of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Donald E; Hacker, Neville

    2003-01-01

    Cancer sufferers are a subfertile group, and most treatments have the potential to adversely affect gonadal function. As cancer treatment becomes more effective and survival rates improve there are more cancer survivors in the reproductive age group for whom parenting is an important consideration. This article outlines the effects on fertility of cancer treatments and techniques to minimise the risk of infertility. The overall prospects for younger cancer sufferers to either retain their fertility or have genetic offspring is now better than ever before, due to advances in assisted reproductive technology, the appropriate use of fertility sparing surgery and other techniques to reduce the toxicity of therapy on the reproductive organs. These advances raise new moral and ethical concerns that must be considered before advising cancer sufferers of the options for preserving reproductive capacity.

  13. Potential sustainable slow release fertilizers obtained by mechanochemical activation of layered double hydroxides and K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Roger; Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: 1roger.borges@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Prevot, Vanessa; Forano, Claude [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: This study describes the preliminary results on the development of potential sustainable slow-release fertilizer (SSRF), obtained by mechanochemical activation of mixtures of calcined layered double hydroxides (LDH) Mg{sub 2}Al-CO{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}Fe-CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}. The effect of LDH temperature of calcination, milling time (using a high-energy balls mill) and LDH:K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} molar were investigated. The samples were characterized by XRD and FTIR. Phosphate release essays shown that its solubility is reduced, while the solubility of amorphous structures from LDH can be increased, which characterize the expected slow release behavior of a SSRF. (author)

  14. The effect of juvenile hormone on Polistes wasp fertility varies with cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Sheehan, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Social insects provide good models for studying how and why the mechanisms that underlie reproduction vary, as there is dramatic reproductive plasticity within and between species. Here, we test how the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) on fertility covaries with cooperative behavior in workers and nest-founding queens in the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes metricus. P. metricus foundresses and workers appear morphologically similar and both are capable of reproduction, though there is variation in the extent of social cooperation and the probability of reproduction across castes. Do the endocrine mechanisms that mediate reproduction co-vary with cooperative behavior? We found dramatic differences in the effect of JH on fertility across castes. In non-cooperative nest-founding queens, all individuals responded to JH by increasing their fertility. However, in cooperative workers, the effect of JH on fertility varies with body weight; large workers increase their fertility in response to JH while small workers do not. The variation in JH response may be an adaptation to facilitate resource allocation based on the probability of independent reproduction. This work contrasts with previous studies in closely related Polistes dominulus paper wasps, in which both foundresses and workers form cooperative associations and both castes show similar, condition-dependent JH response. The variation in JH responsiveness within and between species suggests that endocrine responsiveness and the factors influencing caste differentiation are surprisingly evolutionarily labile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Possible impacts of CO2 storage on the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poremski, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the potential impacts of deep-sea carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration on the marine environment. The upper layers of oceans are currently saturated with CO 2 , while deeper ocean waters remain undersaturated. Arctic and Antarctic waters have higher uptake rates of CO 2 due to their lower temperatures. CO 2 deposited in Arctic and Antarctic waters sinks to the bottom of the ocean, and is then transported to equatorial latitudes, where stored amounts of CO 2 that are not fixed by biochemical processes will be released and enter the atmosphere again after a period of approximately 1000 years. Nearly 50 per cent of CO 2 fixation occurs as a result of phytoplankton growth, which is dependent on the availability of a range of nutrients, essential trace metals, and optimal physical conditions. Fertilization-induced CO 2 fixation in the sediments of southern oceans will result in nutrient depletion of bottom layers, which will in turn result in lower primary production levels at equatorial latitudes. Current modelling approaches to CO 2 injection assume that the injected CO 2 will dissolve in a plume extending 100 m around a riser. Retention times of several hundred years are anticipated. However, further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of CO 2 deep ocean storage technologies. Increased CO 2 uptake can also increase the formation of bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) acidification, decrease pH values, and inhibit the formation of biomass in addition to impacting on the calcification of many organisms. It was concluded that ocean storage by injection or deep storage is an untenable option at present due to the fact that the effects of excessive CO 2 in marine environments are not fully understood. 22 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Soil CO2 Efflux in a Young Longleaf Pine System

    OpenAIRE

    Runion, G. Brett; Butnor, J. R.; Prior, S. A.; Mitchell, R. J.; Rogers, H. H.

    2012-01-01

    The southeastern landscape is composed of agricultural and forest systems that can store carbon (C) in standing biomass and soil. Research is needed to quantify the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on terrestrial C dynamics including CO2 release back to the atmosphere and soil sequestration. Longleaf pine savannahs are an ecologically and economically important, yet understudied, component of the southeastern landscape. We investigated the effects of ambient and elevated C...

  17. Efficiency of small scale carbon mitigation by patch iron fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, J. L.; Slater, R. D.; Dunne, J.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Hiscock, M. R.

    2010-11-01

    While nutrient depletion scenarios have long shown that the high-latitude High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions are the most effective for sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide, recent simulations with prognostic biogeochemical models have suggested that only a fraction of the potential drawdown can be realized. We use a global ocean biogeochemical general circulation model developed at GFDL and Princeton to examine this and related issues. We fertilize two patches in the North and Equatorial Pacific, and two additional patches in the Southern Ocean HNLC region north of the biogeochemical divide and in the Ross Sea south of the biogeochemical divide. We evaluate the simulations using observations from both artificial and natural iron fertilization experiments at nearby locations. We obtain by far the greatest response to iron fertilization at the Ross Sea site, where sea ice prevents escape of sequestered CO2 during the wintertime, and the CO2 removed from the surface ocean by the biological pump is carried into the deep ocean by the circulation. As a consequence, CO2 remains sequestered on century time-scales and the efficiency of fertilization remains almost constant no matter how frequently iron is applied as long as it is confined to the growing season. The second most efficient site is in the Southern Ocean. The North Pacific site has lower initial nutrients and thus a lower efficiency. Fertilization of the Equatorial Pacific leads to an expansion of the suboxic zone and a striking increase in denitrification that causes a sharp reduction in overall surface biological export production and CO2 uptake. The impacts on the oxygen distribution and surface biological export are less prominent at other sites, but nevertheless still a source of concern. The century time scale retention of iron in this model greatly increases the long-term biological response to iron addition as compared with simulations in which the added iron is rapidly scavenged from the

  18. Efficiency of small scale carbon mitigation by patch iron fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sarmiento

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available While nutrient depletion scenarios have long shown that the high-latitude High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC regions are the most effective for sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide, recent simulations with prognostic biogeochemical models have suggested that only a fraction of the potential drawdown can be realized. We use a global ocean biogeochemical general circulation model developed at GFDL and Princeton to examine this and related issues. We fertilize two patches in the North and Equatorial Pacific, and two additional patches in the Southern Ocean HNLC region north of the biogeochemical divide and in the Ross Sea south of the biogeochemical divide. We evaluate the simulations using observations from both artificial and natural iron fertilization experiments at nearby locations. We obtain by far the greatest response to iron fertilization at the Ross Sea site, where sea ice prevents escape of sequestered CO2 during the wintertime, and the CO2 removed from the surface ocean by the biological pump is carried into the deep ocean by the circulation. As a consequence, CO2 remains sequestered on century time-scales and the efficiency of fertilization remains almost constant no matter how frequently iron is applied as long as it is confined to the growing season. The second most efficient site is in the Southern Ocean. The North Pacific site has lower initial nutrients and thus a lower efficiency. Fertilization of the Equatorial Pacific leads to an expansion of the suboxic zone and a striking increase in denitrification that causes a sharp reduction in overall surface biological export production and CO2 uptake. The impacts on the oxygen distribution and surface biological export are less prominent at other sites, but nevertheless still a source of concern. The century time scale retention of iron in this model greatly increases the long-term biological response to iron addition as compared with

  19. Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Norby; E. DeLucia; B. Gielen; C. Calfapietra; C. Giardina; J. King; J. Ledford; H. McCarthy; D. Moore; R. Ceulemans; P. De Angelis; A. C. Finzi; D. F. Karnosky; M. E. Kubiske; M. Lukac; K. S. Pregitzer; G. E. Scarascia-Mugnozza; W. Schlesinger and R. Oren.

    2005-01-01

    Climate change predictions derived from coupled carbon-climate models are highly dependent on assumptions about feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere. One critical feedback occurs if C uptake by the biosphere increases in response to the fossil-fuel driven increase in atmospheric [CO2] ("CO2 fertilization...

  20. Frozen cropland soil in northeast China as source of N2O and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shujie; Qiao, Yunfa; Han, Xiaozeng; Brancher Franco, Roberta; Burger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural soils are important sources of atmospheric N2O and CO2. However, in boreal agro-ecosystems the contribution of the winter season to annual emissions of these gases has rarely been determined. In this study, soil N2O and CO2 fluxes were measured for 6 years in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in northeast China to quantify the contribution of wintertime N2O and CO2 fluxes to annual emissions. The treatments were chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus composted pig manure (NPKOM), and control (Cont.). Mean soil N2O fluxes among all three treatments in the winter (November-March), when soil temperatures are below -7°C for extended periods, were 0.89-3.01 µg N m(-2) h(-1), and in between the growing season and winter (October and April), when freeze-thaw events occur, 1.73-5.48 µg N m(-2) h(-1). The cumulative N2O emissions were on average 0.27-1.39, 0.03-0.08 and 0.03-0.11 kg N2O_N ha(-1) during the growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The average contributions of winter N2O efflux to annual emissions were 6.3-12.1%. In all three seasons, the highest N2O emissions occurred in NPKOM, while NPK and Cont. emissions were similar. Cumulative CO2 emissions were 2.73-4.94, 0.13-0.20 and 0.07-0.11 Mg CO2-C ha(-1) during growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The contribution of winter CO2 to total annual emissions was 2.0-2.4%. Our results indicate that in boreal agricultural systems in northeast China, CO2 and N2O emissions continue throughout the winter.

  1. Scenario analysis of fertilizer management practices for N2O mitigation from corn systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Diego; Smith, Ward N; Grant, Brian B; Drury, Craig F; MacKell, Sarah; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-12-15

    Effective management of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application by farmers provides great potential for reducing emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O). However, such potential is rarely achieved because our understanding of what practices (or combination of practices) lead to N 2 O reductions without compromising crop yields remains far from complete. Using scenario analysis with the process-based model DNDC, this study explored the effects of nine fertilizer practices on N 2 O emissions and crop yields from two corn production systems in Canada. The scenarios differed in: timing of fertilizer application, fertilizer rate, number of applications, fertilizer type, method of application and use of nitrification/urease inhibitors. Statistical analysis showed that during the initial calibration and validation stages the simulated results had no significant total error or bias compared to measured values, yet grain yield estimations warrant further model improvement. Sidedress fertilizer applications reduced yield-scaled N 2 O emissions by c. 60% compared to fall fertilization. Nitrification inhibitors further reduced yield-scaled N 2 O emissions by c. 10%; urease inhibitors had no effect on either N 2 O emissions or crop productivity. The combined adoption of split fertilizer application with inhibitors at a rate 10% lower than the conventional application rate (i.e. 150kgNha -1 ) was successful, but the benefits were lower than those achieved with single fertilization at sidedress. Our study provides a comprehensive assessment of fertilizer management practices that enables policy development regarding N 2 O mitigation from agricultural soils in Canada. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensitivity of Terrestrial Water and Energy Budgets to CO2-Physiological Forcing: An Investigation Using an Offline Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ranjith; Bala, Govindsamy; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Cao, Long; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Ravindranath, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influence climate by suppressing canopy transpiration in addition to its well-known greenhouse gas effect. The decrease in plant transpiration is due to changes in plant physiology (reduced opening of plant stomata). Here, we quantify such changes in water flux for various levels of CO2 concentrations using the National Center for Atmospheric Research s (NCAR) Community Land Model. We find that photosynthesis saturates after 800 ppmv (parts per million, by volume) in this model. However, unlike photosynthesis, canopy transpiration continues to decline at about 5.1% per 100 ppmv increase in CO2 levels. We also find that the associated reduction in latent heat flux is primarily compensated by increased sensible heat flux. The continued decline in canopy transpiration and subsequent increase in sensible heat flux at elevated CO2 levels implies that incremental warming associated with the physiological effect of CO2 will not abate at higher CO2 concentrations, indicating important consequences for the global water and carbon cycles from anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Keywords: CO2-physiological effect, CO2-fertilization, canopy transpiration, water cycle, runoff, climate change 1.

  3. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Yanghui [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Gao, Jiping [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Lan, Yu [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Li, Shuhang [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Meng, Jun [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Xu, Zhengjin, E-mail: xuzhengjin@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tl_rice@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha{sup −1}) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1}) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH{sub 4} emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha{sup −1} biochar. There were no differences in CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g{sup −1} and 11.69 mg g{sup −1} (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1} biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g{sup −1}. The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH{sub 4} emission. • Rice straw

  4. Positive feedback between increasing atmospheric CO2 and ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    atmosphere, air temperature, and plant iWUE. This positive feedback is expressed by (a) nonparallel changes of δ13C signal of atmospheric CO2 (δa) and plant samples (δp), (b) negative correlation between the Δ and average temperatures during the growth season, although only for temperatures up to 21°C. The lack of effect at higher temperatures suggests a negative influence of growing season warming on the iWUE. These results suggest a complex feedback between atmospheric CO2 increase, plant physiology, ecosystem productivity, and soil CO2 fluxes. These complex effects support our hypothesis of a CO2 fertilization effect on plant productivity, and they raise additional questions regarding adaptation of plants to changing atmospheric CO2 and climate.

  5. The Potential for Forestry to Reduce Net CO2 Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Forestry may have an important role to play in attempts to reduce atmospheric CO 2 levels, since countries may choose to account for forest management activities to fulfil their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. However, the effectiveness of such efforts may depend on the forest management strategies applied. This thesis is based on four separate studies in which the potential for forest management strategies to decrease net CO 2 emissions was considered. Long-term field experiments and models were used to: evaluate the impact of different thinning regimes; study broad-leaved stands growing on abandoned farmland with different rotation lengths; predict the effects of using different rotation lengths on carbon accumulation and fossil fuel substitution; and perform an integrated analysis of forest management practices and the potential to substitute fossil fuels by wood products. To evaluate the effects of the management regimes considered, carbon stocks in the investigated stands and the potential of the resulting biomass to substitute fossil fuel were estimated. No significant differences were found in biomass production between the thinning regimes for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands, but the standing biomass was significantly larger in unthinned stands, indicating that to maximize the carbon stock in tree biomass thinnings should be avoided. For Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), thinned and fertilized stands produced significantly more biomass (2.60-2.72 ton d.w./ha/yr) than unthinned and unfertilized stands (2.17-2.34 ton d.w./ha/yr) in the northern regions. These findings indicate that fertilization might be a viable measure to increase production of biomass with the potential to replace fossil fuel and energy-intensive material. In addition, for broad-leaved trees stands on abandoned farmland, management regimes with a short rotation were found to be better for maximizing the substitution of fossil fuel than regimes with a long rotation

  6. [Effects of mechanical transplanting of rice with controlled release bulk blending fertilizer on rice yield and soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Jun-Shan; Liu, Yan-Ling; Gu, Yan; Han, Ke-Feng; Wu, Liang-Huan

    2014-03-01

    Abstract: A 2-year field experiment with a yellow-clay paddy soil in Zhejiang Province was conducted to study the effects of different planting measures combined with different fertilization practices on rice yield, soil nutrients, microbial biomass C and N and activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase at the maturity stage. Results showed that mechanical transplanting of rice with controlled release bulk blending (BB) fertilizer (BBMT) could achieve a significantly higher mean yield than traditional manual transplanting with traditional fertilizer (TFTM) and direct seeding with controlled release BB fertilizer (BBDS) by 16.3% and 27.0%, respectively. The yield by BBMT was similar to that by traditional manual transplanting with controlled release BB fertilizer (BBTM). Compared with TFTM, BBMT increased the contents of soil total-N, available N, available P and microbial biomass C, and the activities of urease, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase by 21.5%, 13.6%, 41.2%, 27.1%, 50.0%, 22.5% and 46.2%, respectively. Therefore, BBMT, a simple high-efficiency rice cultivation method with use of a light-weighted mechanical transplanter, should be widely promoted and adopted.

  7. Magnetodielectric effect in CoCr2-XFeXO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Huixin; Yang Sen; Ren Xiaobing

    2011-01-01

    Conventional multiferroics show the multiferroic behaviors below two successive transitions (a ferroelectric transition and a ferromagnetic transition). In the present study, we report the magneto-dielectric (MD) effect (both in-plane and out-of-plane) in CoCr 2-X Fe X O 4 which undergoes only a ferromagnetic transition. We found the MD effect in the pure ferromagnetic phase (T S C ) of CoCr 2 O 4 . And such MD effect is temperature dependent. The magnitude of the MD effect gradually decreases with approaching Curie temperature (T C ) and finally becomes zero at T C . With doping Fe into CoCr 2 O 4 , we found the magnitude of MD effect increases and the MD effect exists in a wider temperature region because T C increases and T S decrease with doping Fe. Our results show the coupling between the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric orders. It suggests that both the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties originate from the same transition.

  8. [Effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-li; Meng, Lin; Wang, Qiu-jun; Luo, Jia; Huang, Qi-wei; Xu, Yang-chun; Yang, Xing-ming; Shen, Qi-rong

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment was carried to study the effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield, nitrogen (N) use efficiency, soil N supply, and soil microbial diversity. Rapeseed cake compost (RCC), pig manure compost (PMC), and Chinese medicine residue compost (MRC) were mixed with chemical N, P and K fertilizers. All the treatments except CK received the same rate of N. The results showed that all N fertilizer application treatments had higher rice yield (7918.8-9449.2 kg x hm(-2)) than the control (6947.9 kg x hm(-2)). Compared with that of chemical fertilizers (CF) treatment (7918.8 kg x hm(-2)), the yield of the three organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers treatments ranged in 8532.0-9449.2 kg x hm(-2), and the increment was 7.7%-19.3%. Compared with treatment CF, the treatments of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers were significantly higher in N accumulation, N transportation efficiency, N recovery rate, agronomic N use efficiency, and physiological N use efficiency. These mixed fertilizers treatments promoted rice N uptake and improved soil N supply, and thus, increased N use efficiency, compared with treatments CF and CK. Neighbor joining analysis indicated that soil bacterial communities in the five treatments could be classified into three categories, i.e., CF and CK, PMC and MRC, and RCC, implying that the application of exogenous organic materials could affect soil bacterial communities, while applying chemical fertilizers had little effect on them.

  9. The influence of microbial-based inoculants on N2O emissions from soil planted with corn (Zea mays L.) under greenhouse conditions with different nitrogen fertilizer regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Pamela; Watts, Dexter B; Kloepper, Joseph W; Torbert, H Allen

    2016-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions are increasing at an unprecedented rate owing to the increased use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Thus, new innovative management tools are needed to reduce emissions. One potential approach is the use of microbial inoculants in agricultural production. In a previous incubation study, we observed reductions in N 2 O emissions when microbial-based inoculants were added to soil (no plants present) with N fertilizers under laboratory incubations. This present study evaluated the effects of microbial-based inoculants on N 2 O and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions when applied to soil planted with corn (Zea mays L.) under controlled greenhouse conditions. Inoculant treatments consisted of (i) SoilBuilder (SB), (ii) a metabolite extract of SoilBuilder (SBF), and (iii) a mixture of 4 strains of plant-growth-promoting Bacillus spp. (BM). Experiments included an unfertilized control and 3 N fertilizers: urea, urea - ammonium nitrate with 32% N (UAN-32), and calcium - ammonium nitrate with 17% N (CAN-17). Cumulative N 2 O fluxes from pots 41 days after planting showed significant reductions in N 2 O of 15% (SB), 41% (BM), and 28% (SBF) with CAN-17 fertilizer. When UAN-32 was used, reductions of 34% (SB), 35% (SBF), and 49% (BM) were obtained. However, no reductions in N 2 O emissions occurred with urea. Microbial-based inoculants did not affect total CO 2 emissions from any of the fertilized treatments or the unfertilized control. N uptake was increased by an average of 56% with microbial inoculants compared with the control (nonmicrobial-based treatments). Significant increases in plant height, SPAD chlorophyll readings, and fresh and dry shoot mass were also observed when the microbial-based treatments were applied (with and without N). Overall, results demonstrate that microbial inoculants can reduce N 2 O emissions following fertilizer application depending on the N fertilizer type used and can enhance N uptake and plant growth. Future

  10. Modeling cumulative effects in life cycle assessment: the case of fertilizer in wheat production contributing to the global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laratte, Bertrand; Guillaume, Bertrand; Kim, Junbeum; Birregah, Babiga

    2014-05-15

    This paper aims at presenting a dynamic indicator for life cycle assessment (LCA) measuring cumulative impacts over time of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fertilizers used for wheat cultivation and production. Our approach offers a dynamic indicator of global warming potential (GWP), one of the most used indicator of environmental impacts (e.g. in the Kyoto Protocol). For a case study, the wheat production in France was selected and considered by using data from official sources about fertilizer consumption and production of wheat. We propose to assess GWP environmental impact based on LCA method. The system boundary is limited to the fertilizer production for 1 ton of wheat produced (functional unit) from 1910 to 2010. As applied to wheat production in France, traditional LCA shows a maximum GWP impact of 500 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production, whereas the GWP impact of wheat production over time with our approach to dynamic LCA and its cumulative effects increases to 18,000 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production. In this paper, only one substance and one impact assessment indicator are presented. However, the methodology can be generalized and improved by using different substances and indicators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Simulated effect of calcification feedback on atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Cao, Long

    2016-01-01

    Ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 reduces pH and saturation state of calcium carbonate materials of seawater, which could reduce the calcification rate of some marine organisms, triggering a negative feedback on the growth of atmospheric CO2. We quantify the effect of this CO2-calcification feedback by conducting a series of Earth system model simulations that incorporate different parameterization schemes describing the dependence of calcification rate on saturation state of CaCO3. In a scenario with SRES A2 CO2 emission until 2100 and zero emission afterwards, by year 3500, in the simulation without CO2-calcification feedback, model projects an accumulated ocean CO2 uptake of 1462 PgC, atmospheric CO2 of 612 ppm, and surface pH of 7.9. Inclusion of CO2-calcification feedback increases ocean CO2 uptake by 9 to 285 PgC, reduces atmospheric CO2 by 4 to 70 ppm, and mitigates the reduction in surface pH by 0.003 to 0.06, depending on the form of parameterization scheme used. It is also found that the effect of CO2-calcification feedback on ocean carbon uptake is comparable and could be much larger than the effect from CO2-induced warming. Our results highlight the potentially important role CO2-calcification feedback plays in ocean carbon cycle and projections of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. PMID:26838480

  12. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Vermue, E.; Buurman, P.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter samples. Litter of P. euramerica was clearly different from that of P. nigra and P. alba. The latter two had higher contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and cutin/cutan, while the former had higher c...

  13. Effect of CO2 supply strategy on specific energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of CO2-dosing with exhaust gases on the efficiency of glasshouse tomato production. The paper shows that it can be recommended to ensure a continuing CO2 supply during the warm period. The discussion focuses on exhaust gases as a CO2 source, but the results also

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solid and Liquid Organic Fertilizers Applied to Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonsiri, Phasita; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Sukor, Arina; Davis, Jessica G

    2016-11-01

    Improper application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and environmental factors can cause the loss of nitrous oxide (NO) to the environment. Different types of fertilizers with different C/N ratios may have different effects on the environment. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmental factors and four organic fertilizers (feather meal, blood meal, fish emulsion, and cyano-fertilizer) applied at different rates (0, 28, 56, and 112 kg N ha) on NO emissions and to track CO emissions from a lettuce field ( L.). The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 and compared preplant-applied solid fertilizers (feather meal and blood meal) and multiple applications of liquid fertilizers (fish emulsion and cyano-fertilizer). Three days a week, NO and CO emissions were measured twice per day in 2013 and once per day in 2014 using a closed-static chamber, and gas samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Preplant-applied solid fertilizers significantly increased cumulative NO emissions as compared with control, but multiple applications of liquid fertilizers did not. Emission factors for NO ranged from 0 to 0.1% for multiple applications of liquid fertilizers and 0.6 to 11% for preplant-applied solid fertilizers, which could be overestimated due to chamber placement over fertilizer bands. In 2014, solid fertilizers with higher C/N ratios (3.3-3.5) resulted in higher CO emissions than liquid fertilizers (C/N ratio, 0.9-1.5). Therefore, organic farmers should consider the use of multiple applications of liquid fertilizers as a means to reduce soil greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining high yields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Plant growth responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 are increased by phosphorus sufficiency but not by arbuscular mycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Iver; Smith, Sally E; Smith, F Andrew; Watts-Williams, Stephanie J; Clausen, Signe S; Grønlund, Mette

    2016-11-01

    Capturing the full growth potential in crops under future elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) concentrations would be facilitated by improved understanding of eCO 2 effects on uptake and use of mineral nutrients. This study investigates interactions of eCO 2 , soil phosphorus (P), and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in Medicago truncatula and Brachypodium distachyon grown under the same conditions. The focus was on eCO 2 effects on vegetative growth, efficiency in acquisition and use of P, and expression of phosphate transporter (PT) genes. Growth responses to eCO 2 were positive at P sufficiency, but under low-P conditions they ranged from non-significant in M. truncatula to highly significant in B. distachyon Growth of M. truncatula was increased by AM at low P conditions at both CO 2 levels and eCO 2 ×AM interactions were sparse. Elevated CO 2 had small effects on P acquisition, but enhanced conversion of tissue P into biomass. Expression of PT genes was influenced by eCO 2 , but effects were inconsistent across genes and species. The ability of eCO 2 to partly mitigate P limitation-induced growth reductions in B. distachyon was associated with enhanced P use efficiency, and requirements for P fertilizers may not increase in such species in future CO 2 -rich climates. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Simulating soil N2O emissions and heterotrophic CO2 respiration in arabe systems using FASSET and MoBiLE-DNDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Kracher, Daniele; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Modelling of soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) is complicated by complex interactions between processes and factors influencing their production, consumption and transport. In this study N2O emissions and heterotrophic CO2 respiration were simulated from soils under w...... mineral nitrogen, which seemed to originate from deficiencies in simulating degradation of soil organic matter, incorporated residues of catch crops and organic fertilizers. To improve the performance of the models, organic matter decomposition parameters need to be revised.......Modelling of soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) is complicated by complex interactions between processes and factors influencing their production, consumption and transport. In this study N2O emissions and heterotrophic CO2 respiration were simulated from soils under...... winter wheat grown in three different organic and one inorganic fertilizer-based cropping system using two different models, i.e., MoBiLE-DNDC and FASSET. The two models were generally capable of simulating most seasonal trends of measured soil heterotrophic CO2 respiration and N2O emissions. Annual soil...

  17. [Effects of long-term fertilization on enzyme activities in black soil of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Qi; Han, Xiao-Zeng; Qiao, Yun-Fa; Wang, Shou-Yu

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, black soil samples at the depths of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm were collected from the Hailun Agricultural Ecology Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences to study the effects of long-term fertilization on their urease, invertase, phosphatase and catalase activities and total C and N contents. The results showed that long-term application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure increased the activities of urease, invertase and phosphatase in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers in different degree, and the combined application of them increased the activities of the three enzymes significantly, with an increment of 43.6%-113.2%, 25.9%-79.5% and 14.7%-134.4% in 0-20 cm soil layer and 56.1%-127.2%, 14.5%-113.8% and 16.2%-207.2% in 20-40 cm soil layer, respectively. However, long-term application of chemical fertilizers without organic manure had little effects on catalase activity. The activities of urease, invertase and phosphatase decreased with increasing soil depth. Long-term application of N fertilizer increased urease activity, and P fertilization had obvious positive effect on phosphatase activity. Long-term fertilization also had obvious effects on the soil total C and N contents and C/N ratio.

  18. EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND CHEMICAL SOIL FERTILIZERS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH FOLIAR FERTILIZER ON SOME VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF FENUGREEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. JASIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on the extension experiments farm in Babylon during the growing season 2013 - 2014 to study the effect of 5 soil fertilization treatments [control, 200 kg.ha-1 of NPK (18-18-0 , 4 and 8 t.ha-1 of compost of poultry], and its interaction with 4 treatments of foliar fertilizers [control, spray urea 1 g / liter, spraying humic acid 2 ml.l-1 and spray polimet 2 ml.l-1] on growth and yield of fenugreek. Randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was used. Seeds are sown on lines (30 cm apart in 21.10.2013 and the experimental unit contained 6 lines. After a week of germination the seedlings were thinned to 10 cm apart. Soil fertilizers were added as side dressing and the foliar fertilizers were added twice in 15/1 and 01/02/2014. The results showed that chemical fertilizer was superior significantly compared to other treatment in plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and wet and dry weight, while poultry (8 t.ha-1 was superior compared to control in branches number and wet weight. Urea spray was superior in plant height, leaves no. and soft weight. Polimet spray was superior compared to control in branches.plant-1. The interaction between the soil and spraying fertilizers had a significant effect in increasing plant height, branches no., leaves no., leaf area and wet and dry weight.

  19. Energy and CO{sub 2eq} analysis of the agricultural phase in the sunflower biodiesel chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spugnoli, C.P.; Dainelli, R.; D' avino, L.; Mazzoncini, M.; Lazzeri, L. [DEISTAF Univ. degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The suitability of the sunflower for biodiesel production was discussed in terms of the reference values on carbon dioxide equivalents (CO{sub 2eq}) emissions for every phase of the biofuels chain as indicated in the European Union (EU) Directive on renewable energies. A life cycle analysis performed on the agricultural phase of the sunflower showed that CO{sub 2eq} emissions from the cultivation phase exceeded the EU reference value. This paper highlighted the relevance of allocation methods to spread out energy consumption and CO{sub 2eq} emissions among sunflower biodiesel and oilcake. Allocation was made according to the principles of mass content, energy content and the economic value of co-products. The CO{sub 2eq} reductions obtained with the 3 methods were approximately 60, 50 and 25 per cent, respectively when compared to a case without allocation. Since these methods did not distinguish the different functionality of co-products in relation to their real use, this study also considered the method of system expansion and allocation by substitution. The considered equivalent functions of oilcake were animal feed, coal fuel and fertilizer. The results showed that while the substitution with coal gives rise to an emission credit, the others allow only minor improvements. A sensitivity analysis emphasized the significance of fossil fuels and fertilizers on energy depletion and CO{sub 2eq} emissions. It was concluded that only a major revision of farm practices aimed at reducing the use of N-fertilizer, can allow the sunflower to be suitable for biodiesel production in central Italy, given the EU constrains for CO{sub 2eq} emissions.

  20. Effect of different methods of soil fertility increasing via application of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on grain yield and quality of canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different resource of fertilizers had an effect on grain yield, oil and grain quality. Information regarding the effect of simultaneous application of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on canola (Brassica napus L. traits is not available. In order to study the effect of different systems of soil fertility on grain yield and quality of canola (Talayeh cultivar, an experiment was conducted at experimental farm of Agricultural Research Center of Sanandaj, Iran, during two growing seasons of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The experimental units were arranged as split plots based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Main plots consisted of five methods for obtaining the basal fertilizers requirement including (N1: farm yard manure; (N2: compost; (N3: chemical fertilizers; (N4: farm yard manure + compost and (N5: farm yard manure + compost + chemical fertilizers; and control (N6. Sub plots consisted four levels of biofertilizers were (B1: Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida; (B2: Trichoderma harzianum; (B3: Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4: control, (without biofertilizers. Results showed that basal fertilizers and biofertilizers have a significant effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield was obtained from N5 treatment in which organic and chemical fertilizers were applied simultaneously applied. Basal fertilizers, biofertilizers have a significant effect on leaf chlorophyll. The highest nitrogen content (42.85 mg.g-1 and least amount of (N/S were obtained from N5 treatment. The highest oil percent was obtained from N1 and N2 treatments and highest oil yield was obtained from N5 treatment. Finally, application of organic manure and biofertilizers with chemical fertilizer led to an increase in yield and quality of canola grain.

  1. Effects of CO2 and temperature on tritrophic interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A Dyer

    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in studies of how global change parameters affect interacting species or entire communities, yet the combined or interactive effects of increased atmospheric CO2 and associated increases in global mean temperatures on chemically mediated trophic interactions are mostly unknown. Thus, predictions of climate-induced changes on plant-insect interactions are still based primarily on studies of individual species, individual global change parameters, pairwise interactions, or parameters that summarize communities. A clear understanding of community response to global change will only emerge from studies that examine effects of multiple variables on biotic interactions. We examined the effects of increased CO2 and temperature on simple laboratory communities of interacting alfalfa, chemical defense, armyworm caterpillars, and parasitoid wasps. Higher temperatures and CO2 caused decreased plant quality, decreased caterpillar development times, developmental asynchrony between caterpillars and wasps, and complete wasp mortality. The effects measured here, along with other effects of global change on natural enemies suggest that biological control and other top-down effects of insect predators will decline over the coming decades.

  2. Efficient co-conversion process of chicken manure into protein feed and organic fertilizer by Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Xiaopeng; Mazza, Lorenzo; Yu, Yongqiang; Cai, Minmin; Zheng, Longyu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Yu, Jeffrey; Huis, van Arnold; Yu, Ziniu; Fasulo, Salvatore; Zhang, Jibin

    2018-01-01

    A chicken manure management process was carried out through co-conversion of Hermetia illucens L. larvae (BSFL) with functional bacteria for producing larvae as feed stuff and organic fertilizer. Thirteen days co-conversion of 1000 kg of chicken manure inoculated with one million 6-day-old BSFL and

  3. Soil CO2 flux in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization: patterns and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Katherine J. Elliott; D.W. Johnson

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils is due to the metabolic activity of roots, mycorrhizae, and soil micro- and macro-organisms. Although precise estimates of carbon (C) recycled to the atmosphere from belowground sources are unavailable, Musselman and Fox (1991) propose that the belowground contribution exceeds 100 Pg y-1...

  4. SOIL RESPIRATION RESPONSE TO THREE YEARS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION IN PONDEROSA PINE (PINUS PONDEROSA DOUG. EX LAWS.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured growing season soil CO-2 evolution under elevated atmospheric (CO-2) and soil nitrogen (N) additions. Our objectives were to determine treatment effects, quantify seasonal variation, and compare two measurement techniques. Elevated (CO-2) treatments were applied in op...

  5. The direct and indirect CO_2 rebound effect for private cars in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Liu, Zhao; Qin, Chang-Xiong; Tan, Tai-De

    2017-01-01

    The quantity of China's private cars has increased dramatically in the past decade, which has become one of the key sources of carbon emission and air pollution in the cities of China. In theory, to improve energy efficiency can reduce carbon emission significantly, but the result may be affected by the rebound effect. This paper utilizes a two-stage Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model to estimate the total CO_2 rebound effect for China's private cars during 2001–2012 at the provincial level, then uses a panel data model to analyze its impact factors. The results suggest that, first of all, the CO_2 emissions of private cars have the super conservation effect, partial rebound effect and backfire effect among provinces in China. And the direct CO_2 rebound effect plays a dominant role in the total CO_2 rebound effect in most provinces. Second, the total CO_2 rebound effect of private cars among China's provinces presents an overall convergence trend over time. Finally, the household expenditure and the population density have a negative and positive influence on the total CO_2 rebound effect for China's private cars, respectively. - Highlights: • Private cars have become the key source of carbon emission in China. • This paper employs a two-stage Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model • The direct and indirect CO_2 rebound effects for China's private cars are estimated. • The direct CO_2 rebound effect plays a dominant role in the total CO_2 rebound effect in most provinces. • The total CO_2 rebound effect among China's provinces has a convergence over time.

  6. Effects of sewage sludge stabilization on fertilizer value and greenhouse gas emissions after soil application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Nielsen, Martin P.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    was therefore to investigate the effect of sewage sludge stabilization techniques on the C and N mineralization and gaseous emissions from soil. A soil incubation was conducted to determine the rate of C and N mineralization and N2O and CH4 emissions of sewage sludge stabilized using different techniques....... Unstabilized sludge released up to 90% of their C content as CO2, part of which could be caused by release of CO2 from carbonates. Compared with this, sludge stabilization including anaerobic digestion and drying resulted in a reduction of the C mineralization rate of about 40%. Liming reduced C mineralization...... the value of the sludge as a fertilizer. Emissions of CH4 were also reduced through sludge stabilization and mainly occurred after application of easily degradable sludge types, which is likely to have enhanced the creation of anaerobic microsites. The stabilization processes also decreased emissions of N2O...

  7. Soil respiration response to three years of elevated CO2 and N fertilization in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Laws.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Katherine J. Elliott; Dale W. Johnson; David T. Tingey; Mark G. Johnson

    1997-01-01

    We measured growing season soil CO2 evolution under elevated atmospheric [CO2 and soil nitrogen (N) additions. Our objectives were to determine treatment effects, quantify seasonal variation, and compare two measurement techniques. Elevated [CO2] treatments were applied in open-top chambers...

  8. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, PaCO2, HCO3-, PH and cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatani, Akio; Akutsu, Tooru; Yoshida, Michihiko; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Seo, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    To estimate the quantitative reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO 2 , arterial partial pressure of CO 2 (PaCO 2 ), HCO 3 - , pH and CBF were examined. The CBF was measured by 133 Xe inhalation method with ring type SPECT (HEADTOME). Activation study with sodium bicarbonate administration was performed after 30 minutes of resting study, and the reactivity of each parameters was investigated. The arterial HCO 3 - and pH increased with similar reactivity, but PaCO 2 , end-tidal CO 2 and CBF in the non-injured hemisphere changed with irregular reactivity. The excellent correlation between PaCO 2 and end-tidal CO 2 was vanished by the administration of sodium bicarbonate. The reactivity of CBF did not correlate with reactivity of PaCO 2 and end-tidal CO 2 , but correlated with arterial HCO 3 - and pH. Thus the measurement of arterial HCO 3 - and pH may be indispensable to estimate the CBF reactivity with the administration of sodium bicarbonate. (author)

  9. Effect of exogenous glutathione in medium fertilization to improve blastocyst rates of bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Triwulaninngsih

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione (C10H17N3O6S is a tripeptide (γ-Glu-Cys-Gly widespread in living organism. Glutathione (GSH at the 5 mM concentration increased the motility and fertility of frozen-thawed sperm. Intracellulair glutathione improved the cleavage rate and embryo development to the blastocyst rate. Research on in vitro embryos production through the implementation of GSH during IVF (in vitro fertilization on embryo development has been conducted at the Laboratorium Reproductive of Physiology, Research Institute for Animal Production. Ovaries of beef cattle as source of oocytes were collected from the slaughterhouse in a thermo flask with 350C PBS as medium and transported to the laboratory. The oocytes were fertilized in vitro with selected motile sperm using Percoll gradient (90 and 45%. Ten COCs (cumulus oocytes complexes were transfered to 44 μl of fertilization medium (mTALP was performed with either 0; 0.25; 0.50; 0.75 and 1.00 mM of glutathione as treatment A, B, C, D and E respectively, and inseminated with 2 μl of capacitated sperm and added 2 μl of heparin and 2 μl of PHE (consisting of 20 μM penicillamine, 10 μM hypotaurine, 1 μM epinephrine. Incubation between sperm and oocytes in the 5% CO2 incubator and RH 90% in fertilization media (TALP for 20 hours. All zygotes were cultured in modification of CR1aa medium up to blastocyst and were fed serum 5 μl/50μl medium on day 6. Results of this experiment showed that the effect of concentration of glutathione (0, 0.25; 0.50; 0.75 and 1.00 mM on fertilization medium to the percentage of cleavage rates were 69.35 + 29.40; 79.07 + 13.17; 67.88 + 10.65; 98.10 + 3.30 and 82.62 + 24.19% not significant different (P>0.05 among treatments A, B, C, D dan E respectively.The precentages of morula and blastocyst for treatment D were 50.45 + 42.64% and 31.28 + 24.28%; while 36.55 + 24.13% and 17.74 + 17.86% for treatment E respectively.

  10. Effects of CO2 hydrate on deep-sea foraminiferal assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricketts, E. R.; Kennett, J. P.; Hill, T. M.; Barry, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    This study, conducted with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), is the first to investigate potential effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrates on benthic microfossils, specifically oraminifera. The experiment was conducted in September 2003 aboard the R/V Western Flier using the ROV Tiburon. Experimental (CO2 exposed) and control cores were collected at 3600m and stained to distinguish live (stained) from dead (unstained) individuals. Foraminifera are ideal for these investigations because of differing test composition (calcareous and agglutinated) and thickness, and diverse epifaunal and infaunal depth preferences. The effects of the CO2 on assemblages have been tracked both vertically (10cm depth) and horizontally, and between live and dead individuals. Increased mortality and dissolution of calcareous forms resulted from exposure to CO2 hydrate. Preliminary results suggest several major effects on surface sediment assemblages: 1) total number of foraminifera in a sample decreases; 2) foraminiferal diversity decreases in both stained and unstained specimens. The number of planktonic and hyaline calcareous tests declines greatly, with milliolids being more resistant to dissolution when stained; and 3) percentage of stained (live) forms is higher. Down-core trends (up to 10cm) indicate: 1) percent agglutinated forms decline and calcareous forms increasingly dominate; 2) agglutinated diversity decreases with depth; and 3) assemblages become increasingly similar with depth to those in control cores not subjected to CO2 hydrate. These results imply almost complete initial mortality and dissolution upon CO2 hydrate emplacement in the corrals. (Author)

  11. The Effect of Low Carbohydrate Diets on Fertility Hormones and Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Women: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrice, Melanie; Porter, Judi

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Medical interventions including assisted reproductive technologies have improved fertility outcomes for many sub-fertile couples. Increasing research interest has investigated the effect of low carbohydrate diets, with or without energy restriction. We aimed to systematically review the published literature to determine the extent to which low carbohydrate diets can affect fertility outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered prospectively with Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42016042669) and followed Preferred Reporting Items For Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Infertile women were the population of interest, the intervention was low carbohydrate diets (less than 45% total energy from carbohydrates), compared to usual diet (with or without co-treatments). Four databases were searched from date of commencement until April 2016; a supplementary Google scholar search was also undertaken. Title and abstract, then full text review, were undertaken independently and in duplicate. Reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews were checked to ensure that all relevant studies were identified for inclusion. Quality assessment was undertaken independently by both authors using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Outcome measures were improved fertility outcomes defined by an improvement in reproductive hormones, ovulation rates and/or pregnancy rates; (3) Results: Seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the evidence synthesis. Interventions were diverse and included a combination of low carbohydrate diets with energy deficit or other co-treatments. Study quality was rated as positive for six studies, suggesting a low risk of bias, with one study rated as neutral. Of the six studies which reported changes in reproductive hormones, five reported significant improvements post intervention; (4) Conclusion: The findings of these

  12. Total soil C and N sequestration in a grassland following 10 years of free air CO2 enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van C.; Boots, B.; Graaff, de M.A.; Harris, D.; Blum, H.; Six, J.

    2006-01-01

    Soil C sequestration may mitigate rising levels of atmospheric CO2. However, it has yet to be determined whether net soil C sequestration occurs in N-rich grasslands exposed to long-term elevated CO2. This study examined whether N-fertilized grasslands exposed to elevated CO2 sequestered additional

  13. Simulation of CO2 Injection in Porous Media with Structural Deformation Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2011-06-18

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is one of the most attractive methods to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by injecting it into the geological formations. Furthermore, it is also an effective mechanism for enhanced oil recovery. Simulation of CO2 injection based on a suitable modeling is very important for explaining the fluid flow behavior of CO2 in a reservoir. Increasing of CO2 injection may cause a structural deformation of the medium. The structural deformation modeling in carbon sequestration is useful to evaluate the medium stability to avoid CO2 leakage to the atmosphere. Therefore, it is important to include such effect into the model. The purpose of this study is to simulate the CO2 injection in a reservoir. The numerical simulations of two-phase flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media are presented. Also, the effects of gravity and capillary pressure are considered. IMplicit Pressure Explicit Saturation (IMPES) and IMplicit Pressure-Displacements and an Explicit Saturation (IMPDES) schemes are used to solve the problems under consideration. Various numerical examples were simulated and divided into two parts of the study. The numerical results demonstrate the effects of buoyancy and capillary pressure as well as the permeability value and its distribution in the domain. Some conclusions that could be derived from the numerical results are the buoyancy of CO2 is driven by the density difference, the CO2 saturation profile (rate and distribution) are affected by the permeability distribution and its value, and the displacements of the porous medium go to constant values at least six to eight months (on average) after injection. Furthermore, the simulation of CO2 injection provides intuitive knowledge and a better understanding of the fluid flow behavior of CO2 in the subsurface with the deformation effect of the porous medium.

  14. Evaluation of the residual effect of P fertilizer`s on plant P nutrition using isotopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardeau, J.C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Physiologie Vegetale et Ecosystemes; Kato, N. [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zapata, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria). Laboratories

    1994-12-31

    The residual effect of P fertilizers previously applied to a soil on plant P nutrition was examined by both the isotopic dilution method (pot experiment) and isotopic exchange method (laboratory test) using {sup 32}p as a tracer. The fraction of P derived from a fertilizer in plant (%Pdff in plant) was compared with the fraction of P derived from fertilizer in soil solution (%Pdff in soil solution) which is a new laboratory index proposed by Morel and Fardeau to predict %Pdff in plant. Four soil samples of a Humic Andosol from long-term experimental plots, which received no fertilizer (A1 soil), a readily soluble fertilizer (A2 soil), the same readily soluble fertilizer (RSF) plus a fused magnesium phosphate (A3 soil), and combination of RSF with Florida phosphate rock (A4 soil), were tested. In the pot experiment, maize (Zea mays) was grown during 38 days and dry shoot weight, P uptake and specific radioactivity were measured. Dry shoot weight, P uptake and L-value were the highest in A3 soil, followed by A4, A2 and A1 soils. %Pdff in plant were 71,9%, 51,9% and 15,4% in A3, A4 and A2 soils respectively. A laboratory study using {sup 32}p isotopic exchange kinetics was carried out to examine three status parameters of soil P, intensity, quantity and capacity factors. Goof agreement was obtained between quantity factor (E{sub 1}-value), and the pot experimental data; i.e. P uptake and L-value. %Pdff in soil solution were similar to those %Pdff in plant except for A4 soil. The enhancement of P uptake by the plant from the phosphate rock obtained in A4 soil could be attributed to specific plant factors and soil moisture conditions. (authors).

  15. Ocean carbon sequestration by fertilization: An integrated bioeochemical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, N.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Gnandesikan, A.

    2005-05-31

    Under this grant, the authors investigated a range of issues associated with the proposal to fertilize the ocean with nutrients (such as iron) in order to increase the export of organic matter from the ocean's near surface waters and consequently increase the uptake of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. There are several critical scientific questions that have the potential to be make-or-break issues for this proposed carbon sequestration mechanism: (1) If iron is added to the ocean, will export of organic carbon from the surface actually occur? Clearly, if no export occurs, then there will be no sequestration. (2) if iron fertilization does lead to export of organic carbon from the surface of the ocean, how much CO{sub 2} will actually be removed from the atmosphere? Even if carbon is removed from the surface of the ocean, this does not guarantee that there will be significant removal of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere, since the CO{sub 2} may be supplied by a realignment of dissolved inorganic carbon within the ocean. (3) What is the time scale of any sequestration that occurs? If sequestered CO{sub 2} returns to the atmosphere on a relatively short time scale, iron fertilization will not contribute significantly to slowing the growth of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. (4) Can the magnitude of sequestration be verified? If verification is extremely difficult or impossible, this option is likely to be viewed less favorably. (5) What unintended consequences might there be from fertilizing the ocean with iron? If these are severe enough, they will be a significant impact on policy decisions. Most research on carbon sequestration by fertilization has focused on the first of these issues. Although a number of in situ fertilization experiments have successfully demonstrated that the addition of iron leads to a dramatic increase in ocean productivity, the question of whether this results in enhanced export remains an open one. The primary focus of the research was on the

  16. Ultra-low fertility in South Korea: The role of the tempo effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hyun Yoo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The total fertility rate (TFR in South Korea has fallen below 1.3 since 2001. The role of the rapid shift toward a late-childbearing pattern in driving Korean fertility decline to this ultra-low level has been little explored until now. Objective: We provide an in-depth analysis of period fertility trends by birth order in South Korea from 1981 to 2015, when the period TFR fell from 2.57 to extremely low levels. Methods: We combine census and birth registration data to estimate period and cohort fertility indicators by birth order. We compare changes in conventional TFR with tempo- and parity-adjusted total fertility rate (TFRp* and their birth-order-specific components. Results: The tempo effect linked to the shift toward delayed childbearing has had a strong and persistent negative influence on period TFRs in South Korea since the early 1980s. Without the shift to later childbearing, period fertility rates in South Korea would consistently stay higher and decline more gradually, reaching a threshold of very low fertility, 1.5, only in 2014. The postponement of childbearing and the resulting tempo effect were strongest in the early 2000s, when Korean TFR reached the lowest levels. More recently, Korean fertility has been characterized by a diminishing tempo effect and falling first and second birth rates. This trend marks a break with the previous pattern of almost universal fertility and a strong two-child family model. Contribution: Our study demonstrates the importance of the tempo effect in explaining the shift to ultra-low fertility in South Korea and in East Asia

  17. Evaluation of the anti-fertility effect of Garcinia Kola Seeds on male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, West Africa, Garcinia Kola seed is widely use for social, therapeutic and nutritional purposes. In recent times, there have been reports about its negative effects on male fertility. In view of this, a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Garcinia Kola seed on male fertility indices. 2Kg of the Garcinia Kola seed ...

  18. Clinical effects of CO2 laser on equine diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Arne; Svensson, Ulf; Collinder, Eje

    2002-10-01

    CO2 lasers has been used for five years at Malaren Equine Hospital, as an alternative treatment of some equine diseases. The application of CO2 laser has been studied for evaluation of its appropriateness for treatment of the equine diseases sarcoids, lameness in fetlock joints or pulmonary haemorrhage. During the last five years, above 100 equine sarcoids have been removed by laser surgery (CO2 laser) and so far resulting in significantly few recurrences compared with results from usual excision surgery. In one study, acute traumatic arthritis in fetlock joints was treated three times every second day with defocalised CO2 laser. The therapeutic effectiveness of CO2 laser in this study was better than that of the customary therapy with betamethasone plus hyaluronan. During one year, chronic pulmonary bleeders, namely exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage, has been treated with defocalised CO2 laser. Six race horses have been treated once daily during five days. Until now, three of these horses have subsequently been successfully racing and no symptoms of pulmonary haemorrhage have been observed. These studies indicate that CO2 laser might be an appropriate therapy on sarcoids and traumatic arthritis, and probably also on exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Other treatments for this pulmonary disease are few.

  19. Effect of Somatic Cell Types and Culture Medium on in vitro Maturation, Fertilization and Early Development Capability of Buffalo Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jamil*, H. A. Samad, N. Rehman, Z. I. Qureshi and L. A. Lodhi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of different somatic cell types and media in supporting in vitro maturation (IVM, in vitro fertilization (IVF and early embryonic development competence of buffalo follicular oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes were collected for maturation from follicles (>6mm of buffalo ovaries collected at the local abattoir. Oocytes were co-cultured in tissue culture medium (TCM-199 with either granulosa cells, cumulus cells, or buffalo oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC @ 3x106 cells/ml or in TCM-199 without helper cells (control at 39°C and 5%CO2 in humidified air. Fresh semen was prepared in modified Ca++ free Tyrode medium. Fertilization was carried out in four types of media: i Tyrode lactate albumin pyruvate (TALP, ii TALP+BOEC, iii modified Ca++ free Tyrode and iv modified Ca++ free Tyrode+BOEC. Fertilized oocytes were cultured for early embryonic development in TCM-199 with and without BOEC. Higher maturation rates were observed in the granulosa (84.24% and cumulus cells (83.44% than BOEC co culture system (73.37%. Highest fertilization rate was obtained in modified Ca++ free Tyrode with BOEC co culture (70.42%, followed by modified Ca++ free Tyrode alone (63.77%, TALP with BOEC (36.92% and TALP alone (10.94%. Development of early embryos (8-cell stage improved in TCM-199 with BOEC co culture than TCM-199 alone. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that addition of somatic cells (granulosa cells, cumulus cells results in higher maturation rates of buffalo follicular oocytes than BOEC co culture system, while fertilization rate improved in modified Ca++ free Tyrode with and without BOEC. Addition of BOEC to TCM-199 improved the developmental capacity of early embryo.

  20. NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, C.; Mielniczuk, J.; Bohnen, H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on he foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. Effect of fertilizer application on yield of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eksomtramage, T.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fertilizer application rates on leaf nutrient contents and yield of oil palm were investigated at the Agricultural and Technological College Plantation in Trang province during May 1998 - June 2001. A five-year-old oil palm plantation, planted on the Na Tham soil series (Fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic Oxic Plinthudults with spacing 9x9x9 m, was selected for study. A randomized complete block designwith three replications with 20 palms/replication was used. The treatments included six different rates of fertilizer application. The rates of fertilizer were as follows: T1 (farmer practice, T2 (40% of application rate in T4, T3 (70% of application rate in T4, T4 (urea 2,750 g/plant; triple super phosphate 1,500 g/plant; potassium chloride 4,000 g/plant; kieserite 1,000 g/plant; borate 80 g/plant, T5 (130% of application rate in T4 and T6 (170% of application rate in T4. The high leaf nutrient contents of N, P and K at the range of 2.6-2.8%, 0.16-0.18% and 1.13-1.18%, respectively, were found in the high nutrient application rate treatments (T5, T6. However, the amounts of leaf Ca and Mg in T5 and T6 decreased from 0.75-0.80% and 0.33- 0.37% at the beginning of experiment to 0.65-0.70% and 0.22-0.24%, respectively, at the end of the experiment. Small increases of leaf sulphur and boron up to about 0.20-0.22% and 16-19 mg/kg were also found in the high rate of fertilizer treatments. Accumulated fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB increased according to increasing rate of fertilizer application. Accumulated FFB yield of 268.4 kg/plant in the low fertilizer rate (T1 (farmer practice and 278.8 kg/plant in T2 were found compared with the highest yield of 370.2 kg/plant in the highest fertilizer application treatment (T6 for the 3 years experiment. Regarding the economic return, the medium rate of fertilizer application (T3 which achieved an accumulated FFB yield of 338.0 kg/ plant gave the highest profit with the VCR (Value: Cost ratio of 2.53.

  2. Elevated atmospheric CO2 negatively impacts photosynthesis through radiative forcing and physiology-mediated climate feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Ciais, Philippe; Welp, Lisa; Li, Wenyu; Xin, Qinchuan

    2017-02-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 affects photosynthesis involving directly increasing leaf carboxylation rates, stomatal closure, and climatic effects. The direct effects are generally thought to be positive leading to increased photosynthesis, while its climatic effects can be regionally positive or negative. These effects are usually considered to be independent from each other, but they are in fact coupled through interactions between land surface exchanges of gases and heat and the physical climate system. In particular, stomatal closure reduces evapotranspiration and increases sensible heat emissions from ecosystems, leading to decreased atmospheric moisture and precipitation and local warming. We use a coupled earth system model to attribute the influence of the increase in CO2 on gross primary productivity (GPP) during the period of 1930-2011. In our model, CO2 radiative effects cause climate change that has only a negligible effect on global GPP (a reduction of 0.9 ± 2% during the last 80 years) because of opposite responses between tropical and northern biomes. On the other hand, CO2 physiological effects on GPP are both positive, by increased carboxylation rates and water use efficiency (7.1 ± 0.48% increase), and negative, by vegetation-climate feedback reducing precipitation, as a consequence of decreased transpiration and increased sensible heat in areas without water limitation (2.7 ± 1.76% reduction).When considering the coupled atmosphere-vegetation system, negative climate feedback on photosynthesis and plant growth due to the current level of CO2 opposes 29-38% of the gains from direct fertilization effects.

  3. The Effect Different Fertilizers, on Germination, Yield, of Vicia vilosa Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the interaction of germination, yield of Vicia vilosa Roth to use of biological fertilizer, chemical, and manure, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications at Research greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013-2014 growing season. The experimental treatments was included three kinds of bio fertilizers and their integration with each other and vermicompost and chemical fertilizer as following : 1- mycorhhizaarbuscular species Glomus mosseae+vermicompost2- mycorhhiza+Nitrocsin (included bacteries Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. 3- mycorhhiza arbuscular+ Rhizobium (Rhizobium sp. 4-mycorhhiza arbuscular + Chemical fertilizer NPK 5- mycorhhizaarbuscular (Glomus moseae 6-control. The results showed that, although the treatments has not significant effects on height of stem , it has significant effects on characteristics of root length colonization percent, number the root node, Root dry weight, soggy yield, yield dry and protein Percent. The results showed that the highest percent of root length colonization(76 percent, number the root node (20, Root dry weight (.94 g, soggy yield (1894.5 g m-2, yield dry (473.63 g m-2 and protein Percent (27.33 percent was gained in integrated mycorhhiza and nitrocsine treatment. On the basis of results, the integration of mycrhhoriza and biological rhizobium is suggested as the best fertilizer treatment for Vicia vilosa Roth.

  4. Warming and pCO2 effects on Florida stone crab larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravinese, Philip M.; Enochs, Ian C.; Manzello, Derek P.; van Woesik, Robert

    2018-05-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions are increasing ocean temperatures and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), resulting in more acidic waters. It is presently unknown how elevated temperature and pCO2 will influence the early life history stages of the majority of marine coastal species. We investigated the combined effect of elevated temperature (30 °C control and 32 °C treatment) and elevated pCO2 (450 μatm control and 1100 μatm treatment) on the (i) growth, (ii) survival, (iii) condition, and (iv) morphology of larvae of the commercially important Florida stone crab, Menippe mercenaria. At elevated temperature, larvae exhibited a significantly shorter molt stage, and elevated pCO2 caused stage-V larvae to delay metamorphosis to post-larvae. On average, elevated pCO2 resulted in a 37% decrease in survivorship relative to the control; however the effect of elevated temperature reduced larval survivorship by 71%. Exposure to both elevated temperature and pCO2 reduced larval survivorship by 80% relative to the control. Despite this, no significant differences were detected in the condition or morphology of stone crab larvae when subjected to elevated temperature and pCO2 treatments. Although elevated pCO2 could result in a reduction in larval supply, future increases in seawater temperatures are even more likely to threaten the future sustainability of the stone-crab fishery.

  5. Effect of inorganic fertilizer on the growth of freshwater Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardini, R. A.; Helmiati, S.; Triyatmo, B.

    2018-03-01

    One of the alternative nutrient sources in the culture of Chlorella sp. is inorganic fertilizer. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of inorganic fertilizer composition in the culture medium on the growth of Chlorella sp. This research was conducted by using the 2.5 L transparent containers containing 2 L freshwater. The culture was carried out in laboratory facilitated with an air conditioner, fluorescent light and continuous aeration for 14 days of culture. The treatments consisted of fertilizer composition of Urea:ZA:TSP i.e. P1 (1:1:0,50), P2 (2:2:0,70), P3 (3:3:1), P4 (4:4:1,25) and P0 (Walne medium) as a positive control. Each treatment was performed in triplicates and arranged based on the Completely Randomized Design. Chlorella sp. was inoculated with the initial density of 30 × 104 cells·mL-1. The results of this study showed that the inorganic fertilizer composition of 3:3:1 provided the highest growth rate of 25.9 %/day, and the highest population density reached 2.348 × 104 cells·mL-1. The doubling time was not affected by the inorganic fertilizer treatments.

  6. Mechanisms of glacial-to-future atmospheric CO2 effects on plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alex; Pétriacq, Pierre; Schwarzenbacher, Roland E; Beerling, David J; Ton, Jurriaan

    2018-04-01

    The impacts of rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations on plant disease have received increasing attention, but with little consensus emerging on the direct mechanisms by which CO 2 shapes plant immunity. Furthermore, the impact of sub-ambient CO 2 concentrations, which plants have experienced repeatedly over the past 800 000 yr, has been largely overlooked. A combination of gene expression analysis, phenotypic characterisation of mutants and mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling was used to determine development-independent effects of sub-ambient CO 2 (saCO 2 ) and elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) on Arabidopsis immunity. Resistance to the necrotrophic Plectosphaerella cucumerina (Pc) was repressed at saCO 2 and enhanced at eCO 2 . This CO 2 -dependent resistance was associated with priming of jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent gene expression and required intact JA biosynthesis and signalling. Resistance to the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) increased at both eCO 2 and saCO 2 . Although eCO 2 primed salicylic acid (SA)-dependent gene expression, mutations affecting SA signalling only partially suppressed Hpa resistance at eCO 2 , suggesting additional mechanisms are involved. Induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) at saCO 2 corresponded to a loss of resistance in glycolate oxidase mutants and increased transcription of the peroxisomal catalase gene CAT2, unveiling a mechanism by which photorespiration-derived ROS determined Hpa resistance at saCO 2 . By separating indirect developmental impacts from direct immunological effects, we uncover distinct mechanisms by which CO 2 shapes plant immunity and discuss their evolutionary significance. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. PTK2b function during fertilization of the mouse oocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jinping; McGinnis, Lynda K.; Carlton, Carol; Beggs, Hilary E.; Kinsey, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PTK2b is expressed in oocytes and is activated following fertilization. • PTK2b suppression in oocytes prevents fertilization, but not parthenogenetic activation. • PTK2b suppression prevents the oocyte from fusing with or incorporating bound sperm. • PTK2b suppressed oocytes that fail to fertilize do not exhibit calcium oscillations. - Abstract: Fertilization triggers rapid changes in intracellular free calcium that serve to activate multiple signaling events critical to the initiation of successful development. Among the pathways downstream of the fertilization-induced calcium transient is the calcium-calmodulin dependent protein tyrosine kinase PTK2b or PYK2 kinase. PTK2b plays an important role in fertilization of the zebrafish oocyte and the objective of the present study was to establish whether PTK2b also functions in mammalian fertilization. PTK2b was activated during the first few hours after fertilization of the mouse oocyte during the period when anaphase resumption was underway and prior to the pronuclear stage. Suppression of PTK2b kinase activity in oocytes blocked sperm incorporation and egg activation although sperm-oocyte binding was not affected. Oocytes that failed to incorporate sperm after inhibitor treatment showed no evidence of a calcium transient and no evidence of anaphase resumption suggesting that egg activation did not occur. The results indicate that PTK2b functions during the sperm-egg fusion process or during the physical incorporation of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and is therefore critical for successful development

  8. PTK2b function during fertilization of the mouse oocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jinping [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); McGinnis, Lynda K. [Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Carlton, Carol [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Beggs, Hilary E. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kinsey, William H., E-mail: wkinsey@kumc.edu [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • PTK2b is expressed in oocytes and is activated following fertilization. • PTK2b suppression in oocytes prevents fertilization, but not parthenogenetic activation. • PTK2b suppression prevents the oocyte from fusing with or incorporating bound sperm. • PTK2b suppressed oocytes that fail to fertilize do not exhibit calcium oscillations. - Abstract: Fertilization triggers rapid changes in intracellular free calcium that serve to activate multiple signaling events critical to the initiation of successful development. Among the pathways downstream of the fertilization-induced calcium transient is the calcium-calmodulin dependent protein tyrosine kinase PTK2b or PYK2 kinase. PTK2b plays an important role in fertilization of the zebrafish oocyte and the objective of the present study was to establish whether PTK2b also functions in mammalian fertilization. PTK2b was activated during the first few hours after fertilization of the mouse oocyte during the period when anaphase resumption was underway and prior to the pronuclear stage. Suppression of PTK2b kinase activity in oocytes blocked sperm incorporation and egg activation although sperm-oocyte binding was not affected. Oocytes that failed to incorporate sperm after inhibitor treatment showed no evidence of a calcium transient and no evidence of anaphase resumption suggesting that egg activation did not occur. The results indicate that PTK2b functions during the sperm-egg fusion process or during the physical incorporation of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and is therefore critical for successful development.

  9. The greenhouse effect and the amount of CO2 emissions in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, Gh.

    1992-01-01

    In order to reduce the CO 2 emissions, responsible by the greenhouse effect on Terra, an international control for monitoring them is to be instated. The development of methods for reducing the CO 2 emissions, implies the identification and evaluation of the CO 2 sources, the forecasting of probable evolution of the CO 2 emissions, and also the assessment of the economic impact. This paper tries to accomplish such an evaluation and to draft several scenarios for reduction of the CO 2 emissions. Also considerations about the suitability of the Romanian adhesion to the international treaties regarding the greenhouse effect monitoring are presented. (author). 7 tabs

  10. Fertility Effects on Female Labor Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundborg, Petter; Plug, Erik; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF induced fertility variation in childless families to estimate the causal effect of having children on female labor supply using IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of IVF success do not depend on labor market histories, IVF...... treatment success provides a plausible instrument for childbearing. Our IV estimates indicate that fertility effects are: (a) negative, large and long lasting; (b) much stronger at the extensive margin than at the intensive margin, and (c) similar for mothers, not treated with IVF, which suggests that IVF...

  11. Beneficial effects of CO2 enrichment to field-grown soybeans under ozone stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Mulchi, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Damage from gaseous air pollution [e.g. ozone (O 3 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 )] on crops in the US has been estimated to exceed several billion dollars annually. Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations have increased from about 290 ppm in the late 1800's to current levels of 350 ppm. The combined effects of increased CO 2 and O 3 stress have not been studied under field conditions. The present study was conducted to determine the interactive effects of CO 2 enrichment and O 3 stress on the growth and physiology of 'Clark' soybean, testing the hypothesis that elevated CO 2 will ameliorate the effects of O 3 stress. Experiments with soybeans in open-top field chambers showed that increasing CO 2 levels to 400 parts per million (ppm) negated current ambient ozone harmful effects on soybean yields. When ambient O 3 levels were doubled, it was necessary to increase the atmospheric CO 2 concentration to 500 ppm to negate O 3 damage. Rising CO 2 counteracts O 3 pollution. Reduced stomatal conductance and decreased photosynthesis appear to reverse the CO 2 stimulation

  12. A comparison of cellulosic fuel yields and separated soil-surface CO2 fluxes in maize and prairie biofuel cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Virginia A.

    It has been suggested that strategic incorporation of perennial vegetation into agricultural landscapes could provide ecosystem services while maintaining agricultural productivity. To evaluate potential use of prairie as a Midwestern cellulosic feedstock, we investigated theoretical cellulosic fuel yields, as well as soil-surface carbon dioxide emissions of prairie-based biofuel systems as compared to maize-based systems on fertile soils in Boone County, IA, USA. Investigated systems were: a maize-soybean rotation grown for grain only, continuous maize grown for grain and stover both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and a 31-species reconstructed prairie grown with and without spring nitrogen fertilization for fall-harvested biomass. From 2009-2013, the highest producing system was N-fertilized prairie, averaging 10.4 Mg ha -1 yr-1 above-ground biomass with average harvest removals of 7.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The unfertilized prairie produced 7.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1, averaging harvests of 5.3 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Lowest cellulosic biomass harvests were realized from continuous maize systems, averaging 3.5 Mg ha -1 yr-1 when grown with, and 3.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1 when grown without a winter rye cover crop, respectively. Un-fertilized prairie biomass and maize stover had equivalent dietary conversion ratios at 330 g ethanol kg-1 dry biomass, but N-fertilized prairie was lower at 315. Over four years prairie systems averaged 1287 L cellulosic ethanol ha-1 yr-1 more than maize systems, with fertilization increasing prairie ethanol production by 865 L ha-1 yr-1. Harvested biomass accounted for >90% of ethanol yield variation. A major hurdle in carbon cycling studies is the separation of the soil-surface CO2 flux into its respective components. From 2012-2013 we used a shading method to separate soil-surface CO2 resulting from oxidation of soil organic matter and CO2 derived from live-root activity in three systems: unfertilized prairie, N-fertilized prairie, and continuous maize

  13. Crybb2 deficiency impairs fertility in female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Qian; Sun, Li-Li; Xiang, Fen-Fen; Gao, Li; Jia, Yin; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Tao, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Li, Wen-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Crybb2 deletion impaired female fertility. • Crybb2 deletion dramatically affected the production of reproduction-related hormones and hormone response. • Crybb2 deletion impaired follicular development and inhibited the proliferation of granulosa cells. • Crybb2 deletion promoted follicular atresia and apoptosis in granulosa cells. - Abstract: Beta-B2-crystallin (CRYBB2), encoded by Crybb2 gene, is a major protein in the mammalian eye lens that plays an important role in maintaining the transparency of the ocular lens. However, CRYBB2 also plays important roles in many extra-lenticular tissues and organs such as the retina, brain and testis. Our previous studies demonstrated that male Crybb2 deficient (Crybb2 −/− ) mice have reduced fertility compared with wild-type (WT) mice, while female Crybb2 −/− mice exhibited reduced ovary weights and shorter estrous cycle percentages. Here we specifically investigated the role of CRYBB2 in the female reproductive system. Our studies revealed that ovaries from female Crybb2 −/− mice exhibited significantly reduced numbers of primordial, secondary and pre-ovulatory follicles when compared with WT mice, while the rate of atretic follicles was also increased. Additionally, fewer eggs were collected from the oviduct of Crybb2 −/− female mice after superovulation. Estrogen levels were higher in the metestrus and diestrus cycles of female Crybb2 −/− mice, while progesterone levels were lower in diestrus cycles. Furthermore, the expression of survival and cell cycle genes, Bcl-2, Cdk4 and Ccnd2, were significantly decreased in granulosa cells isolated from female Crybb2 −/− mice, consistent with the predominant expression of CRYBB2 in ovarian granulosa cells. Our results reveal a critical role for CRYBB2 in female fertility and specific effects on the proliferation and survival status of ovarian granulosa cells

  14. Crybb2 deficiency impairs fertility in female mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qian [Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, Li-Li [Aviation Medical Evaluation and Training Center of Airforce in Dalian, Dalian, Liaoning Province 116013 (China); Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiang, Fen-Fen [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Putuo Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200062 (China); Gao, Li [Department of Pathology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jia, Yin; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Tao, Hai-Bo [Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, Jun-Jie, E-mail: zhangjj910@163.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Wen-Jie, E-mail: wenjieli@pku.org.cn [Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Crybb2 deletion impaired female fertility. • Crybb2 deletion dramatically affected the production of reproduction-related hormones and hormone response. • Crybb2 deletion impaired follicular development and inhibited the proliferation of granulosa cells. • Crybb2 deletion promoted follicular atresia and apoptosis in granulosa cells. - Abstract: Beta-B2-crystallin (CRYBB2), encoded by Crybb2 gene, is a major protein in the mammalian eye lens that plays an important role in maintaining the transparency of the ocular lens. However, CRYBB2 also plays important roles in many extra-lenticular tissues and organs such as the retina, brain and testis. Our previous studies demonstrated that male Crybb2 deficient (Crybb2{sup −/−}) mice have reduced fertility compared with wild-type (WT) mice, while female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice exhibited reduced ovary weights and shorter estrous cycle percentages. Here we specifically investigated the role of CRYBB2 in the female reproductive system. Our studies revealed that ovaries from female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice exhibited significantly reduced numbers of primordial, secondary and pre-ovulatory follicles when compared with WT mice, while the rate of atretic follicles was also increased. Additionally, fewer eggs were collected from the oviduct of Crybb2{sup −/−} female mice after superovulation. Estrogen levels were higher in the metestrus and diestrus cycles of female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice, while progesterone levels were lower in diestrus cycles. Furthermore, the expression of survival and cell cycle genes, Bcl-2, Cdk4 and Ccnd2, were significantly decreased in granulosa cells isolated from female Crybb2{sup −/−} mice, consistent with the predominant expression of CRYBB2 in ovarian granulosa cells. Our results reveal a critical role for CRYBB2 in female fertility and specific effects on the proliferation and survival status of ovarian granulosa cells.

  15. Effect of Promoter Concentration on CO2 Separation Using K2CO3 With Reactive Absorption Method in Reactor Packed Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monde Junety

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of carbon dioxide (CO2 in the gas is not expected because CO2 can reduce heating value and CO2 is the major emission contributor into the atmosphere. Various separation technologies can be used to reduce CO2 content and improve quality of gas. Chemical or reactive absorption is most widely used because it provides higher removal rate. This paper will study the effect of the addition di ethanolamine (DEA concentration into aqueous 30wt.% potassium carbonate(K2CO3 with reactive absorption method in a reactor packed column at temperature from 40°C to 80°C, DEA concentration range of (1% - 3% and absorbent flow rate (0.5, 0.75 and 1 L. min1. Contacting the gas and absorbent are countercurrent flow in packed column with 1.5 m high and 50 mm in diameter. The absorption column was randomly packed with a packing material raschig rings 5 mm in diameter. The CO2 loading in the liquid samples was determined by titration. It is found that the best result of CO2 loading is 0.065594 mole/mole K2CO3 and CO2 removal 28%. The result show that the loading capacity (mole CO2/mole K2CO3 and CO2 removal increased with the increase of DEA concentration.

  16. Effects of Supercritical CO 2 Conditioning on Cross-Linked Polyimide Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kratochvil, Adam M.

    2010-05-25

    The effects of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditioning on high-performance cross-linked polyimide membranes is examined through gas permeation and sorption experiments. Under supercritical conditions, the cross-linked polymers do not exhibit a structural reorganization of the polymer matrix that was observed in the non-cross-linkable, free acid polymer. Pure gas permeation isotherms and mixed gas permeabilities and selectivities show the cross-linked polymers to be much more stable to scCO2 conditioning than the free acid polymer. In fact, following scCO2 conditioning, the mixed gas CO2 permeabilities of the cross-linked polymers increased while the CO2/CH4 separation factors remained relatively unchanged. This response highlights the stability and high performance of these cross-linked membranes in aggressive environments. In addition, this response reveals the potential for the preconditioning of cross-linked polymer membranes to enhance productivity without sacrificing efficiency in practical applications which, in effect, provides another tool to \\'tune\\' membrane properties for a given separation. Finally, the dual mode model accurately describes the sorption and dilation characteristics of the cross-linked polymers. The changes in the dual mode sorption model parameters before and after the scCO2 exposure also provide insights into the alterations in the different glassy samples due to the cross-linking and scCO2 exposure. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. Effect of fertilization methods on growth of pear trees, yielding and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Lipa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the commercial orchard near Lublin on five-year old pear trees of two cultivars: ‘Conference’and ‘Lukasowka’, planted on Quince MA. The objective of the study was evaluated the reaction of pear on the method of application of fertilizers. In the early spring the surface broadcasting of fertilizers was used (N – 71,5 kg, P 2O5 – 33,0 kg, K 2 O – 114,0 kg and from the May to the middle of August the fertigation was applied (N – 76,4 kg, P 2O5 – 49,5 kg, K 2 O – 84,2 kg. Method of fertilizer’s applications had no significant effect on the growth of evaluated trees. There were no differences in quantity of yield in dependence on the method of fertilization. In the case of cv. ‘Lukasowka’the beneficial influence of the way of fertilization on morphology of fruits (their diameter, height and mass was stated. Such an effect was not observed in the case of the ‘Conference’.

  18. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumyeast extract then for those growing on glucose, i.e. the effect of elevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. This indicates the increased activity of microorganisms, which leads to accelerated C turnover in soil under elevated CO2. Our results clearly showed that the functional characteristics of the soil microbial community (i.e. specific growth rates and enzymes activity) rather than total microbial biomass

  19. Modification of the 137Cs, 90Sr, and 60Co transfer to wheat plantlets by NH4+ fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, J; Muñoz-Muñoz, G; Baeza, A; Salas, A; Mocanu, N

    2017-03-01

    Inorganic fertilizers are used as agricultural countermeasures intended to inhibit the soil to plant transfer of radionuclides after a radioactive fallout. Two NH 4 + fertilizers, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and NPK, were applied to soil contaminated with a mixture of radionuclides to analyze whether they modify the transfer of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 60 Co and stable elements (K, Na, Ca, and Mg) to wheat plantlets grown under controlled laboratory conditions. DAP introduced NH 4 + in the soil, which can increase 137 Cs transfer, while NPK also introduced K + , which can decrease it. The application of DAP increased the accumulation of 137 Cs in wheat plantlets with increasing application rate, so did the 137 Cs/K in plantlets. Regarding the NPK application, the 137 Cs increased in all treatments, but at maximum rate, the available K introduced by the fertilizer was probably able to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of the wheat plantlet and the 137 Cs decreased relative to the recommended rate. The 137 Cs/K ratio in plantlet decreased with increasing NPK rates. The transfer of 90 Sr increased with increasing DAP rate and only at the maximum NPK rate. The 60 Co transfer only increased at the maximum application rates for DAP and NPK. These modifications should be considered when using these fertilizers as agricultural countermeasures.

  20. Utilisation of CO2, fixation of nitrogen and exhaust gas cleaning in electric discharge with electrode catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcela, M.; Imrich, M.; Mario, J.

    2001-01-01

    The method reported here provides a contribution to CO 2 utilisation, nitrogen fixation and combustion exhaust cleaning using synergetic effect of electric discharge with heterogeneous catalysis on electrodes. The efficiency of CO 2 removal is about 40-65%. The process of CO 2 removal is always accompanied by NO x , VOC, SX and other component removal and is connected with O 2 formation. The final product of process is powder with fractal microstructure, low specific weight, water insoluble suitable for use as nitrogen containing fertilizer. The main component (95%) of solid product is amorphous condensate of amino acids with about 5% of metal organic compound with catalytic properties. The condensate has character of statistical proteinoid. Its creation seems to play important role during formation of life in pre-biotic Earth

  1. Efeito da adubação potássica na qualidade pós-colheita de maçãs 'Fuji' Effect of potassium fertilization on the postharvest quality of 'Fuji' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Hunsche

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação potássica na composição mineral, qualidade e armazenabilidade de maçãs da cultivar Fuji. Os frutos utilizados foram provenientes de um experimento em que, durante nove anos, aplicaram-se doses crescentes de K2O no solo. As maçãs foram coletadas na safra 1999/2000 e armazenadas em atmosfera controlada (AC nas condições de 1 kPa O2/The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil K fertilization on fruit mineral composition, quality and storability of 'Fuji' apples. Fruits from a longterm trial that evaluated apple response to annual soil applications of K2O for nine years were harvested in the 1999/2000 growing season and stored in controlled atmosphere (CA of 1 kPa O2/<0.3 kPa CO 2 or 1 kPa O2/2.0 kPa CO 2. Apples were analyzed for quality and ripening parameters at harvest, after eight months of CA storage, and after seven days at 20ºC after harvest and after CA storage. The increase on soil K fertilization raised fruit mass, diameter, titratable acidity, red color, and K contents while decreased flesh firmness. There was a significant interaction between K fertilization and storage atmospheres only for internal breakdown: when fruits were stored under 1 kPa O2/<0.3 kPa CO 2 no differences were determined between treatments. However, storing apples under 1 kPa O2/2.0 kPa CO 2 resulted in higher breakdown in fruits with lower K concentrations. Fruit weight losses during storage, ground color and rot incidence were not affected by soil K fertilization in the previous nine years.

  2. Rechargeable Al-CO2 Batteries for Reversible Utilization of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenqing; Liu, Xizheng; Li, Chao; Yin, Huiming; Xi, Wei; Liu, Ruirui; He, Guang; Zhao, Xian; Luo, Jun; Ding, Yi

    2018-05-21

    The excessive emission of CO 2 and the energy crisis are two major issues facing humanity. Thus, the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 and its utilization in metal-CO 2 batteries have attracted wide attention because the batteries can simultaneously accelerate CO 2 fixation/utilization and energy storage/release. Here, rechargeable Al-CO 2 batteries are proposed and realized, which use chemically stable Al as the anode. The batteries display small discharge/charge voltage gaps down to 0.091 V and high energy efficiencies up to 87.7%, indicating an efficient battery performance. Their chemical reaction mechanism to produce the performance is revealed to be 4Al + 9CO 22Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 + 3C, by which CO 2 is reversibly utilized. These batteries are envisaged to effectively and safely serve as a potential CO 2 fixation/utilization strategy with stable Al. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2 in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334% and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264% and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature.

  4. Effect of Co crystallinity on Co/CNT catalytic activity in CO/CO{sub 2} hydrogenation and CO disproportionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyak, Sergei A., E-mail: chernyak.msu@gmail.com [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Leninskiye Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Physical Chemistry, Leninsky Avenue 31, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Suslova, Evgeniya V.; Egorov, Alexander V.; Maslakov, Konstantin I. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Leninskiye Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Savilov, Serguei V.; Lunin, Valery V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Leninskiye Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Physical Chemistry, Leninsky Avenue 31, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-30

    Highlights: • Amorphous and crystalline Co supported on CNTs were obtained by tuning of CNT surface. • CO and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation does not occur on amorphous Co particles. • Thermal activation of amorphous Co led to crystallization of metal. • Amorphous Co promotes CO disproportionation. • Carbon shells around the amorphous metal particles after the CO hydrogenation. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different degree of surface oxidation were used as supports for 5 wt.% Co catalysts. CNTs and Co/CNT catalysts were analyzed by XPS, nitrogen adsorption, TEM and electron diffraction to reveal their structure. High oxidation degree of CNT surface (8.6 at.% of O) and low Co loading led to predominantly amorphous Co species. This resulted in the absence of catalytic activity in both CO and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation in opposite to the catalyst supported on less oxidized CNTs (5.4 at.% of O) where Co species were found to be crystalline. Thermal treatment of inactive catalyst in H{sub 2} and He led to the formation of Co crystal phase which was active in catalysis. Co particle size in catalyst supported on strongly oxidized CNTs was unchanged during CO hydrogenation in opposite to Co supported on less oxidized CNTs. Carbon shell formation on the surface of amorphous Co particles during CO hydrogenation was revealed, which testified CO disproportionation. Qualitative mechanism of CO hydrogenation on small Co particles was proposed.

  5. Effects of Fertilization on Tomato Growth and Soil Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhen; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-qing

    2015-04-01

    To study the effects of different fertilizer applications on soil enzyme activity, tomato plant growth and tomato yield and quality, a field experiment on tomato cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai. Three fertilizer treatments, chemical fertilizer (CF) (N, 260 g/kg; P, 25.71g/kg; K, 83.00g/kg), rapeseed cake manure (CM) (N, 37.4 g/kg; P, 9.0 g/kg; K, 8.46 g/kg), crop-leaf fermenting manure (FM) (N, 23.67 g/kg; P, 6.39 g/kg; K 44.32 g/kg), and a control without using any fertilizers (CK), were designed. The total amounts of fertilizer application to each plot for the CF, CM, FM and CK were 0.6 kg, 1.35 kg, 3.75 kg and 0 kg, respectively, 50% of which were applied as base fertilizer, and another 50% were applied after the first fruit picking as top dressing. Each experimental plot was 9 m2 (1 m × 9 m) in area. Each treatment was replicated for three times. No any pesticides and herbicides were applied during the entire period of tomato growth to prevent their disturbance to soil microbial activities. Soil enzyme activities at each plot were constantly tested during the growing period; the tomato fruit quality was also constantly analyzed and the tomato yield was calculated after the final harvesting. The results were as follows: (1) Urease activity in the soils treated with the CF, CM and FM increased quickly after applying base fertilizer. That with the CF reached the highest level. Sucrase activity was inhibited by the CF and CM to some extent, which was 32.4% and 11.2% lower than that with the CK, respectively; while that with the FM was 15.7% higher than that with the CK. Likewise, catalase activity with the CF increased by 12.3% - 28.6%; that with the CM increased by 87.8% - 95.1%; that with the FM increased by 86.4% - 93.0%. Phosphatase activity with the CF increased rapidly and reached a maximum 44 days after base fertilizer application, and then declined quickly. In comparison, that with the CM and FM increased slowly and reached a maximum

  6. 8293 EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION AND HARVESTING TIME ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    without the use of fertilizer, as well as the assessment of the effect of fertilizer on their nutritional value. ... positive correlations were observed between the total phenolic compounds content ..... Habanero Chili Pepper (Capsicum chinense).

  7. Effects of Pig Slurry as Basal and Panicle Fertilizer on Trace Element Content and Grain Quality in Direct-Seeding Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct-seeding rice has grown in popularity in recent years and is widespread in China. This study focused on the effects of pig slurry (PS on grain quality and safety in direct-seeding rice. Application of more than 210 m3·hm−2 increased rice yield and dry matter accumulation, compared with conventional chemical fertilizer treatment (CK2. At the heading and maturing stage, a high dosage of PS (T6, T8 and T9 treatments promoted uptake of Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn by rice plants and grain, but retarded uptake of Cr, Co and Ni, indicating an ability to alleviate toxicity of some heavy metals. Compared with CK2, PS alleviated the transfer of Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and Cu from straw to grain, but enhanced the transport of Zn, Fe and Mn. Although PS application slightly diminished the processing quality, including brown rice, milled rice and head milled rice, it significantly decreased the amylose content, optimized the starch profile, and improved the overall quality. The results confirmed the feasibility and safety of PS application to direct-seeding rice, and determined that PS basal and panicle fertilizer could increase yield and improve the rice quality when applied between 210 and 240 m3·hm−2.

  8. Effectiveness of Indoor Plant to Reduce CO2 in Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimi Mohd Mahathir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern country strongly emphasizes on indoor air quality (IAQ because it can effect on human health and productivity. Numerous efforts were performed to make sure that sustainability of IAQ is guaranteed. In the last 4th decade, researchers discover that indoor plants have abilities to reduce indoor air pollution. Generally, plants, carbon dioxide (CO2, light, and temperature involve in the photosynthesis process. This paper intends to study the effectiveness of seven indoor plants (Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plant, Spider Plant, and Syngonium to reduce CO2 with different light level. This study was conducted in one cubic meter of chamber, and each plant was put into the chamber individually with CO2 concentration in the chamber is set at 1000±50ppm, and light intensities is set at 300 and 700 lux, while temperature were fixed at 25±1°C. Based on the results, only the Spider Plant was not able to absorb CO2 during the test at 300 lux of light intensity. Meanwhile, Prayer Plant performed well when tested at 300 or 700 lux of light intensity compare to other investigates plants. This study can conclude that light intensity play an important role for the plant to absorb CO2 effectively. All the indoor plants absorbed more CO2, when the light intensity is increased.

  9. Interactive effect of temperature and CO2 increase in Arctic phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eCoello-Camba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was performed in order to analyze the effects of the increase in water temperature and CO2 partial pressure expected for the end of this century in a present phytoplankton community inhabiting the Arctic Ocean. We analyzed both factors acting independently and together, to test possible interactions between them. The arctic planktonic community was incubated under 6 different treatments combining three experimental temperatures (1 ºC, 6 ºC and 10 ºC with two different CO2 levels of 380 ppm or 1000 ppm, at the UNIS installations in Longyearbyen (Svalbard, in summer 2010. Under warmer temperatures, a decrease in chlorophyll a concentration, biovolume and primary production was found, together with a shift in community structure towards a dominance of smaller cells (nano-sized. Effects of increased pCO2 were more modest, and although interactions were weak, our results suggest antagonistic interactive effects amongst increased temperature and CO2 levels, as elevated CO2 compensated partially the decrease in phytoplankton biomass induced by temperature in some groups. Interactions between the two stressors were generally weak, but elevated CO2 was observed to lead to a stepper decline in primary production with warming. Our results also suggest that future increases in water temperature and pCO2 would lead to a decrease in the community chl a concentration and biomass in the Arctic phytoplankton communities examined, leading to communities dominated by smaller nano-phytoplankton groups, with important consequences for the flow of carbon and food web dynamics.

  10. Long-term effects of ozone on CO2 exchange in peatland microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapala, JK; Mörsky, SK; Rinnan, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Effects of elevated tropospheric ozone concentration on the CO2 exchange of peatland microcosms and the photosynthetic capacity of the dominating sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum, were studied in a four-year open-field experiment. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange and the dark respiration rate of the mic......Effects of elevated tropospheric ozone concentration on the CO2 exchange of peatland microcosms and the photosynthetic capacity of the dominating sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum, were studied in a four-year open-field experiment. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange and the dark respiration rate...... exchange of the peatland microcosms....

  11. Sustainable treatment of different high-strength cheese whey wastewaters: an innovative approach for atmospheric CO2 mitigation and fertilizer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier; Paulo, Úrsula; Ruas, Filipa; Carvalho, Fátima

    2016-07-01

    Raw cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has been treated by means of FeCl3 coagulation-flocculation, NaOH precipitation, and Ca(OH)2 precipitation. Three different types of CWW were considered: without cheese whey recovery (CWW0), 60 % cheese whey recovery (CWW60), and 80 % cheese whey recovery (CWW80). Cheese whey recovery significantly influenced the characteristics of the wastewater to be treated: organic matter, solids, turbidity, conductivity, sodium, chloride, calcium, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. Initial organic load was reduced to values in the interval of 60-70 %. Application of FeCl3, NaOH, or Ca(OH)2 involved additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) depletions regardless of the CWW used. Under optimum conditions, the combination of 80 % cheese whey recovery and lime application led to 90 % reduction in COD. Turbidity (99.8%), total suspended solids (TSS) (98-99 %), oils and fats (82-96 %), phosphorus (98-99 %), potassium (96-97 %), and total coliforms (100 %) were also reduced. Sludge generated in the latter process showed excellent settling properties. This solid after filtration and natural evaporation can be used as fertilizer with limitations due to its saline nature. In an innovative, low-cost, and environmentally friendly technology, supernatant coming from the Ca(OH)2 addition was naturally neutralized in 4-6 days by atmospheric CO2 absorption without reagent addition. Consequently, a final aerobic biodegradation step can be applied for effluent polishing. This technology also allows for some atmospheric CO2 mitigation. Time requirement for the natural carbonation depends on the effluent characteristics. A precipitate rich in organic matter and nutrients and depletions of solids, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, Kjeldahl, and ammoniacal nitrogen were also achieved during the natural carbonation.

  12. Ocean iron fertilization in the context of the Kyoto protocol and the post-Kyoto process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Ocean iron fertilization is currently discussed as a potential measure to mitigate climate change by enhancing oceanic CO 2 uptake. Its mitigation potential is not yet well explored, and carbon offsets generated through iron fertilization activities could currently not be traded on regulated carbon markets. Still, commercial interests in ocean iron fertilization already exist, which underlines the need to investigate a possible regulatory framework for it. To this end, I first discuss important basic aspects of ocean iron fertilization, namely its scientific background, quantitative potential, side effects, and costs. In a second step, I review regulatory aspects connected to ocean iron fertilization, like its legal status and open access issues. Moreover, I analyze how the regulations for afforestation and reforestation activities within the framework of the Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be applied to ocean iron fertilization. Main findings are that the quantitative potential of ocean iron fertilization is limited, that costs are higher than initially hoped, and that potential adverse side effects are severe. Moreover, the legal status of ocean iron fertilization is currently not well defined, open access might cause inefficiencies, and the CDM regulations could not be easily applied to ocean iron fertilization.

  13. Effects of CO2 Enrichment on Growth and Development of Impatiens hawkeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan-Fan; Wang, Yan-Li; Huang, Zhi-Zhe; Zhu, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Chen, Fa-Di; Fang, Wei-Min; Teng, Nian-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The effects of CO2 enrichment on growth and development of Impatiens hawkeri, an important greenhouse flower, were investigated for the purpose of providing scientific basis for CO2 enrichment to this species in greenhouse. The plants were grown in CO2-controlled growth chambers with 380 (the control) and 760 (CO2 enrichment) μmol·mol−1, respectively. The changes in morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and leaf ultrastructure of Impatiens were examined. Results showed that CO2 enrichment increased flower number and relative leaf area compared with the control. In addition, CO2 enrichment significantly enhanced photosynthetic rate, contents of soluble sugars and starch, activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), but reduced chlorophyll content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Furthermore, significant changes in chloroplast ultrastructure were observed at CO2 enrichment: an increased number of starch grains with an expanded size, and an increased ratio of stroma thylakoid to grana thylakoid. These results suggest that CO2 enrichment had positive effects on Impatiens, that is, it can improve the visual value, promote growth and development, and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:22536147

  14. Pleistocene atmospheric CO2 change linked to Southern Ocean nutrient utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, M.; Diz, P.; Hall, I. R.; Zahn, R.

    2011-12-01

    Biological uptake of CO2 by the ocean and its subsequent storage in the abyss is intimately linked with the global carbon cycle and constitutes a significant climatic force1. The Southern Ocean is a particularly important region because its wind-driven upwelling regime brings CO2 laden abyssal waters to the surface that exchange CO2 with the atmosphere. The Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) is a CO2 sink and also drives global primary productivity as unutilized nutrients, advected with surface waters from the south, are exported via Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) as preformed nutrients to the low latitudes where they fuel the biological pump in upwelling areas. Recent model estimates suggest that up to 40 ppm of the total 100 ppm atmospheric pCO2 reduction during the last ice age were driven by increased nutrient utilization in the SAZ and associated feedbacks on the deep ocean alkalinity. Micro-nutrient fertilization by iron (Fe), contained in the airborne dust flux to the SAZ, is considered to be the prime factor that stimulated this elevated photosynthetic activity thus enhancing nutrient utilization. We present a millennial-scale record of the vertical stable carbon isotope gradient between subsurface and deep water (Δδ13C) in the SAZ spanning the past 350,000 years. The Δδ13C gradient, derived from planktonic and benthic foraminifera, reflects the efficiency of biological pump and is highly correlated (rxy = -0.67 with 95% confidence interval [0.63; 0.71], n=874) with the record of dust flux preserved in Antarctic ice cores6. This strongly suggests that nutrient utilization in the SAZ was dynamically coupled to dust-induced Fe fertilization across both glacial-interglacial and faster millennial timescales. In concert with ventilation changes of the deep Southern Ocean this drove ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange and, ultimately, atmospheric pCO2 variability during the late Pleistocene.

  15. Isotope effect in the photochemical decomposition of CO{sub 2} (ice) by Lyman-{alpha} radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2013-04-21

    The photochemical decomposition of CO{sub 2}(ice) at 75 K by Lyman-{alpha} radiation (10.2 eV) has been studied using transmission infrared spectroscopy. An isotope effect in the decomposition of the CO{sub 2} molecule in the ice has been discovered, favoring {sup 12}CO{sub 2} photodecomposition over {sup 13}CO{sub 2} by about 10%. The effect is caused by electronic energy transfer from the excited CO{sub 2} molecule to the ice matrix, which favors quenching of the heavier electronically-excited {sup 13}CO{sub 2} molecule over {sup 12}CO{sub 2}. The effect is similar to the Menzel-Gomer-Redhead isotope effect in desorption from adsorbed molecules on surfaces when electronically excited. An enhancement of the rate of formation of lattice-trapped CO and CO{sub 3} species is observed for the photolysis of the {sup 12}CO{sub 2} molecule compared to the {sup 13}CO{sub 2} molecule in the ice. Only 0.5% of the primary photoexcitation results in O-CO bond dissociation to produce trapped-CO and trapped-CO{sub 3} product molecules and the majority of the electronically-excited CO{sub 2} molecules return to the ground state. Here either vibrational relaxation occurs (majority process) or desorption of CO{sub 2} occurs (minority process) from highly vibrationally-excited CO{sub 2} molecules in the ice. The observation of the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotope effect in the Lyman-{alpha} induced photodecomposition of CO{sub 2} (ice) suggests that over astronomical time scales the isotope enrichment effect may distort historical information derived from isotope ratios in space wherever photochemistry can occur.

  16. Rapid adaptation of the stimulatory effect of CO2 on brain norepinephrine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E A

    1983-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of exposure of rats to elevated environmental levels of CO2 on norepinephrine metabolism in the hypothalamus and other regions of the brain. In confirmation of previous findings by others CO2 at 10 or 15% was found to elevate both dopa accumulation after dopa decarboxylase inhibition and norepinephrine utilization after tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition. These effects however were found to be transient occurring only during the first 30 min of 2.5 h exposure. In this regard CO2 differs from another form of stress, restraint which produces a sustained 2.5 h increase of dopa accumulation and NE accumulation. Restraint was also more effective than CO2 in depleting endogenous stores of hypothalamic NE. The factor responsible for the adaptation of the catecholamine response to CO2 was not identified although it was shown not to be hypothermia and it was reversed by a 2 h CO2-free recovery period.

  17. Oral administration of supplementary biotin differentially influences the fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in low- and high-fertility broiler line hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Mianji, G Rahimi; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2015-02-01

    Probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sperm viability in the sperm storage tubules of turkeys has been suggested. The high affinity of biotin to avidin and its analogs is also well documented. The present study aimed to determine the effect of oral biotin on reproductive performance and oviductal mRNA expression of avidin and AVR2 in 2 broiler hen lines with different fertility rates. Low-fertility (line B) and high-fertility (line D) hens (n=144) were randomly allotted to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg/L biotin in drinking water from 30 through 33 wk of age. The reproductive performance of the hens was evaluated using artificial insemination. At the end of the treatment period, 24 hens per line were killed to assay the expression of avidin and AVR2 in the uterovaginal junction. Supplementary biotin increased egg production from 73.5% for T0 to 87.8% for T2. Hens administered with biotin in line B, but not in line D, showed an increase (8.4%) in fertility rate. Hatchability, chick quality, and overall embryonic mortality were not different among the experimental groups. Real-time PCR data showed that both avidin (P=0.0013) and AVR2 (Pbiotin×line interaction effect, where low-fertility line B hens receiving the high biotin level recorded respectively a 3.9 and 15.3% increase in avidin and AVR2 mRNA expression, although biotin did not affect these traits in line D hens. Control hens in line D had a dramatically higher AVR2 expression record (7.4-fold) compared with the control hens in line B. The correlation coefficients of fertility rate and avidin expression were 0.73 and 0.66 in lines B and D, respectively. However, the correlation of fertility and AVR2 (r=0.65) was significant for line D hens only. Overall, fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 were dichotomously affected by oral biotin in low- and high-fertility line hens, where only low-fertility birds showed improvements in these attributes.

  18. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F; Ferreira, W P M

    2009-01-01

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO 2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO 2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO 2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  19. Carbonate counter pump stimulated by natural iron fertilization in the Polar Frontal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Ian; Schiebel, Ralf; Ziveri, Patrizia; Movellan, Aurore; Lampitt, Richard; Wolff, George A.

    2014-12-01

    The production of organic carbon in the ocean's surface and its subsequent downward export transfers carbon dioxide to the deep ocean. This CO2 drawdown is countered by the biological precipitation of carbonate, followed by sinking of particulate inorganic carbon, which is a source of carbon dioxide to the surface ocean, and hence the atmosphere over 100-1,000 year timescales. The net transfer of CO2 to the deep ocean is therefore dependent on the relative amount of organic and inorganic carbon in sinking particles. In the Southern Ocean, iron fertilization has been shown to increase the export of organic carbon, but it is unclear to what degree this effect is compensated by the export of inorganic carbon. Here we assess the composition of sinking particles collected from sediment traps located in the Polar Frontal Zone of the Southern Ocean. We find that in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions that are characterized by naturally high iron concentrations, fluxes of both organic and inorganic carbon are higher than in regions with no iron fertilization. However, the excess flux of inorganic carbon is greater than that of organic carbon. We estimate that the production and flux of carbonate in naturally iron-fertilized waters reduces the overall amount of CO2 transferred to the deep ocean by 6-32%, compared to 1-4% at the non-fertilized site. We suggest that an increased export of organic carbon, stimulated by iron availability in the glacial sub-Antarctic oceans, may have been accompanied by a strengthened carbonate counter pump.

  20. Influence of sustainable irrigation regimes and agricultural practices on the soil CO2 fluxes from olive groves in SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Serrano-Ortíz, Penelope; Vicente-Vicente, Jose Luis; Chamizo, Sonia; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2017-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) is the dominant agriculture plantation in Spain and its main product, olive oil, is vital to the economy of Mediterranean countries. Given the extensive surface dedicated to olive plantations, olive groves can potentially sequester large amounts of carbon and contribute to mitigate climate change. Their potential for carbon sequestration will, however, largely depend on the management and irrigation practices in the olive grove. Although soil respiration is the main path of C release from the terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere and a suitable indicator of soil health and fertility, the interaction of agricultural management practices with irrigation regimes on soil CO2 fluxes have not been assessed yet. Here we investigate the influence of the presence of herbaceous cover, use of artificial fertilizers and their interaction with the irrigation regime on the CO2 emission from the soil to the atmosphere. For this, the three agricultural management treatments were established in replicated plots in an olive grove in the SE of Spain: presence of herbaceous cover ("H"), exclusion of herbaceous cover by using herbicides ("NH"), and exclusion of herbaceous cover along with addition of artificial fertilizers (0.55 kg m-2 year-1 of N, P, K solid fertilizer in the proportion 20:10:10, "NHF"). Within each management treatment, three irrigation regimes were also implemented in a randomized design: no-irrigation ("NO") or rain fed, full irrigation (224 l week-1 per olive tree, "MAX"), and a 50% restriction (112 l week-1 per olive tree, "MED"). Soil respiration was measured every 2-3 weeks at 1, 3, and 5 meters from each olive tree together with soil temperature and soil moisture in order to account for the spatial and seasonal variability over the year. Soil respiration was higher when herbaceous cover was present compared to the herbaceous exclusion, whereas the addition of fertilizer did not exert any significant effect. Although the different

  1. The carbon fertilization effect over a century of anthropogenic CO2 emissions: higher intracellular CO2 and more drought resistance among invasive and native grass species contrasts with increased water use efficiency for woody plants in the US Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Brandon L; Hanson, David T; Lowrey, Timothy K; Sharp, Zachary D

    2017-02-01

    From 1890 to 2015, anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions have increased atmospheric CO 2 concentrations from 270 to 400 mol mol -1 . The effect of increased carbon emissions on plant growth and reproduction has been the subject of study of free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. These experiments have found (i) an increase in internal CO 2 partial pressure (c i ) alongside acclimation of photosynthetic capacity, (ii) variable decreases in stomatal conductance, and (iii) that increases in yield do not increase commensurate with CO 2 concentrations. Our data set, which includes a 115-year-long selection of grasses collected in New Mexico since 1892, is consistent with an increased c i as a response to historical CO 2 increase in the atmosphere, with invasive species showing the largest increase. Comparison with Palmer Drought Sensitivity Index (PDSI) for New Mexico indicates a moderate correlation with Δ 13 C (r 2  = 0.32, P < 0.01) before 1950, with no correlation (r 2  = 0.00, P = 0.91) after 1950. These results indicate that increased c i may have conferred some drought resistance to these grasses through increased availability of CO 2 in the event of reduced stomatal conductance in response to short-term water shortage. Comparison with C 3 trees from arid environments (Pinus longaeva and Pinus edulis in the US Southwest) as well as from wetter environments (Bromus and Poa grasses in New Mexico) suggests differing responses based on environment; arid environments in New Mexico see increased intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) in response to historic elevated CO 2 while wetter environments see increased c i . This study suggests that (i) the observed increases in c i in FACE experiments are consistent with historical CO 2 increases and (ii) the CO 2 increase influences plant sensitivity to water shortage, through either increased WUE or c i in arid and wet environments, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Impacts of elevated CO2 on exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and transgene expression in transgenic rice under different levels of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shoulin; Lu, Yongqing; Dai, Yang; Qian, Lei; Muhammad, Adnan Bodlah; Li, Teng; Wan, Guijun; Parajulee, Megha N; Chen, Fajun

    2017-11-07

    Recent studies have highlighted great challenges of transgene silencing for transgenic plants facing climate change. In order to understand the impacts of elevated CO 2 on exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and transgene expression in transgenic rice under different levels of N-fertilizer supply, we investigated the biomass, exogenous Bt toxins, Bt-transgene expression and methylation status in Bt rice exposed to two levels of CO 2 concentrations and nitrogen (N) supply (1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2 N). It is elucidated that the increased levels of global atmospheric CO 2 concentration will trigger up-regulation of Bt toxin expression in transgenic rice, especially with appropriate increase of N fertilizer supply, while, to some extent, the exogenous Bt-transgene expression is reduced at sub-N levels (1/4 and 1/2N), even though the total protein of plant tissues is reduced and the plant growth is restricted. The unpredictable and stochastic occurrence of transgene silencing and epigenetic alternations remains unresolved for most transgenic plants. It is expected that N fertilization supply may promote the expression of transgenic Bt toxin in transgenic Bt rice, particularly under elevated CO 2 .

  3. Interactive effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on coral physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, A. G.; Cai, W.; Warner, M.; Melman, T.; Schoepf, V.; Baumann, J.; Matsui, Y.; Pettay, D. T.; Hoadley, K.; Xu, H.; Wang, Y.; Li, Q.; Hu, X.

    2011-12-01

    Increases in ocean acidification and temperature threaten coral reefs globally. However, the interactive effect of both lower pH and higher temperature on coral physiology and growth are poorly understood. Here, we present preliminary findings from a replicated controlled experiment where four species of corals (Acorpora millepora, Pocillopora damicornis, Montipora monasteriata, Turbinaria reniformis) were reared under the following six treatments for three weeks: 1) 400ppm CO2 and ambient temperature, 2) 400ppm CO2 and elevated temperature, 3) 650ppm CO2 and ambient temperature, 4) 650ppm CO2 and elevated temperature, 5) 800ppm CO2 and ambient temperature, 6) 800ppm CO2 and elevated temperature. Initial findings of photophysiological health (Fv/Fm), calcification rates (as measured by both buoyant weight and the total alkalinity methods), and energy reserves will be presented.

  4. High CO/sub 2/ partial pressure effects on dark and light CO/sub 2/ fixation and metabolism in Vicia faba leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudret, A.; Ferron, F.; Laffray, D.

    1985-01-01

    Stomatal opening on Vicia faba can be induced by high CO/sub 2/ partial pressures (10.2%) in dark as well as in light. Stomatal aperture was measured in both cases with a hydrogen porometer. The distribution of /sup 14/C among early products of photosynthesis was studied. Comparisons are made with carboxylations occurring when stomata were open in the dark with CO/sub 2/-free air and in light with 0.034% CO/sub 2/. Results showed that in high CO/sub 2/ partial pressure in light, less radioactivity was incorporated in Calvin cycle intermediates and more in sucrose. ..beta.. carboxylations and photorespiration seemed to be inhibited. In the dark in both CO/sub 2/ conditions, /sup 14/C incorporation was found in malate and aspartate but also in serine and glycerate in high CO/sub 2/ conditions. In light these changes in metabolic pathways may be related with the deleterious effects recorded on leaves after long-term expositions to high partial pressure of CO/sub 2/.

  5. Physiological effects on fishes in a high-CO2 world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimatsu, Atsushi; Hayashi, Masahiro; Lee, Kyoung-Seon; Kikkawa, Takashi; Kita, Jun

    2005-09-01

    Fish are important members of both freshwater and marine ecosystems and constitute a major protein source in many countries. Thus potential reduction of fish resources by high-CO2 conditions due to the diffusion of atmospheric CO2 into the surface waters or direct CO2 injection into the deep sea can be considered as another potential threat to the future world population. Fish, and other water-breathing animals, are more susceptible to a rise in environmental CO2 than terrestrial animals because the difference in CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) of the body fluid of water-breathing animals and ambient medium is much smaller (only a few torr (1 torr = 0.1333 kPa = 1316 μatm)) than in terrestrial animals (typically 30-40 torr). A survey of the literature revealed that hypercapnia acutely affects vital physiological functions such as respiration, circulation, and metabolism, and changes in these functions are likely to reduce growth rate and population size through reproduction failure and change the distribution pattern due to avoidance of high-CO2 waters or reduced swimming activities. This paper reviews the acute and chronic effects of CO2 on fish physiology and tries to clarify necessary areas of future research.

  6. The growth response of Alternanthera philoxeroides in a simulated post-combustion emission with ultrahigh [CO2] and acidic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chengyuan; Griffin, Kevin L.; Blazier, John C.; Craig, Elizabeth C.; Gilbert, Dominique S.; Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Anderson, O. Roger; Castaldi, Marco J.; Beaumont, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Although post-combustion emissions from power plants are a major source of air pollution, they contain excess CO 2 that could be used to fertilize commercial greenhouses and stimulate plant growth. We addressed the combined effects of ultrahigh [CO 2 ] and acidic pollutants in flue gas on the growth of Alternanthera philoxeroides. When acidic pollutants were excluded, the biomass yield of A. philoxeroides saturated near 2000 μmol mol -1 [CO 2 ] with doubled biomass accumulation relative to the ambient control. The growth enhancement was maintained at 5000 μmol mol -1 [CO 2 ], but declined when [CO 2 ] rose above 1%, in association with a strong photosynthetic inhibition. Although acidic components (SO 2 and NO 2 ) significantly offset the CO 2 enhancement, the aboveground yield increased considerably when the concentration of pollutants was moderate (200 times dilution). Our results indicate that using excess CO 2 from the power plant emissions to optimize growth in commercial green house could be viable. - Diluted post-combustion emission gas from fossil fuel fired power plants stimulate the growth of C 3 plant.

  7. Effects of Supercritical CO 2 Conditioning on Cross-Linked Polyimide Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kratochvil, Adam M.; Koros, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditioning on high-performance cross-linked polyimide membranes is examined through gas permeation and sorption experiments. Under supercritical conditions, the cross-linked polymers do not exhibit a

  8. Effect of Banana Stalk Organic Fertilizer on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheli; DING; Lina; HAN; Zhiqiang; JIN; Bizun; WANG; Huicai; ZENG; Wei; ZHENG; Yingdui; HE; Xiaoping; ZANG

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of waste disposal after banana harvest,we use banana stalk to produce banana stalk organic fertilizer,through a plot experiment. We compare the influence of normal organic fertilizer( Wanlubao) and banana stalk organic fertilizer as base fertilizers on Chinese cabbage growth,and evaluate the economic benefits of banana stalk organic fertilizer. The results show that organic fertilizer has little effect on water content and nutrient content of Chinese cabbage,but has significant effect on plant height and leaf width. Using organic fertilizer can increase the production of Chinese cabbage by 22. 50%- 43. 10%. With 6750 kg / ha normal organic fertilizer,Chinese cabbage gets the highest yield,which reaches 30135 kg / ha,followed by the treatment of 6750 kg / ha stalk organic fertilizer. At farmers’ conventional fertilization level( 4500 kg / ha),stalk organic fertilizer can increase the yield by more than 3. 50% in comparison with the normal organic fertilizer,and the economic benefit increases by 1800 yuan / ha. As a kind of banana waste cycling product,banana stalk organic fertilizer is of low cost and good effect,and can be used instead of normal organic fertilizer.

  9. Influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the dynamics of CO2 emissions from chernozems soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syabruk, Olesia

    2017-04-01

    Twentieth century marked a significant expansion of agricultural production. Soil erosion caused by human activity, conversion of forests and grasslands to cropland, desertification, burning nutrient residues, drainage, excessive cultivation led to intense oxidation of soil carbon to the atmosphere and allocation of additional amounts of CO2. According to the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, agriculture is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere. The thesis reveals main patterns of the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on CO2 emissions in the chernozems typical and podzolized in a Left-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, seasonal and annual dynamics. New provisions for conducting monitoring CO2 emissions from soil were developed by combining observations in natural and controlled conditions, which allows isolating the impact of hydrological, thermal and trophic factors. During the research, the methods for operational monitoring of emission of carbon losses were improved, using a portable infrared gas analyzer, which allows receiving information directly in the field. It was determined that the volumes of emission losses of carbon chernozems typical and podzolized Left-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine during the growing season are 480-910 kg/ha and can vary depending on the soil treatment ±( 4,0 - 6,0) % and fertilizer systems ± (3,8 - 7,1) %. The significant impact of long application of various fertilizer systems and soil treatment on the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions was investigated. It was found that most emission occurs in organic- mineral fertilizers systems with direct seeding. The seasonal dynamics of the potential capacity of the soil to produce CO2 were researched. Under identical conditions of humidity and temperature it has maximum in June and July and the gradual extinction of the autumn. It was determined that the intensity of the CO2 emission from the surface of chernozem fluctuates daily from

  10. The Effects of Mixed Source Fertilizer Application on Vertisol Fertility and Growth of Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhari Syamsiyah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is a crucial factor determining the growth and yield of plants. The increase of nutrient content and availability in soil can be achieved by fertilization. A field experiment was conducted using a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with two factors and three replications in order to study the effects of Mixed Source of Fertilizer (MSF application on the nutrient contents in Vertisol and its relationship to the growth and yield of mustard. The first factor was the three MSF formulas (F1, F2, F3 and second factor was the doses of MSF (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10 Mg ha-1 applied to the soil. At the end of the experiment, the soil pH, CEC, organic-C, total-N, available-P and exchangeable-K contents were measured. The results show that there are no significant differences on the soil chemical characteristics, such as pH, organic-C content, available-P, exchangeable-K, -Ca and -Mg measured after application of different MSF formulas to the soil. Meanwhile, the increase of MSF doses applied to the soil significantly increases organic-C content, total-N, available-P and exchangeable-K in the soil. The significant increase of available-P (by 29.13% and total-N (by 24.1% occured after application of MSF at 5.0 Mg ha-1 and the increase of exchangeable-K (by 50% is achieved after application of 7.5 Mg ha-1, in comparison to that without MSF application. The height and fresh weight of mustard increase in accordance with the increase of MSF doses applied. The application of 10.0 Mg ha-1 MSF results in the highest height and fresh weight of the mustard up to 63.9% and 620%, respectively. The height and fresh weight of mustard are positively correlated to the total-N, available-P and exchangeable-K in the soil. The MSF is an alternative fertilizer that can be used to improve Vertisol fertility and plant growth.

  11. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  12. Fertilization effects on the electrical conductivity measured by EMI, ERT, and GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihermueller, L.; Kaufmann, M.; Steinberger, P.; Pätzold, S.; Vereecken, H.; Van Der Kruk, J.

    2017-12-01

    Near surface geophysics such as electromagnetic induction (EMI), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and ground penetrating radar (GPR) are widely used for field characterization, to delineate soil units, and to estimate soil texture, bulk densities and/or soil water contents. Hereby, the measured soil apparent conductivity (ECa) is often used. Soil ECa is governed by horizontal and vertical changes in soil texture, mineralogy, soil water content, and temperature, and the single contributions are not easy to disentangle. Within single fields and between fields fertilization management may vary spatially, which holds especially for field trials. As a result, ECa might vary due to differences in electrolyte concentration and subsequent pore fluid conductivity, but secondary fertilization effects might also play a major role in ECa differences such as differences in soil water uptake by growing plants. To study the direct effect of mineral fertilization on ECa, a field experiment was performed on 21 bare soil plots each of a size of 9 m2, where 7 different fertilization treatments were established in triplicates. As mineral fertilizers, commercial calcium ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride were chosen and applied in dosages of 200, 400, and 2000 kg ha-1 N equivalent. Additionally, soil water, soil temperature, and EC were recorded in a pit at different depths using commercial sensors. Changes in ECa were measured every 10 days using EMI and monthly using GPR and ERT. Additionally, soil samples were monthly taken at all plots and nitrate, chloride, and potassium contents were measured in the lab. The poster will show the effect of ECa changes due to fertilization and corresponding leaching of the fertilized elements over time. The experimental results provide information of how fertilization is influencing ECa readings and how long the fertilizers are influencing ECa measurements with geophysical instruments. This study helps to overcome restricted

  13. Comment: Distinguishing Cohort Effects from Age*Period Effects on Non-Marital Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In the article "Cohort Effects on Non-marital Fertility," in this issue of "Social Forces," Jean Stockard employs a novel strategy for disentangling cohort, period, and age effects on the non-marital fertility ratio. In a model with fixed-effect controls for age and for time period, the author documents evidence for three cohort-specific factors…

  14. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14

    The problem in CO{sub 2} flooding lies with its higher mobility causing low conformance or sweep efficiency. This is an issue in oilfield applications where an injected fluid or gas used to mobilize and produce the oil in a marginal field has substantially higher mobility (function of viscosity and density and relative permeability) relative to the crude oil promoting fingering and early breakthrough. Conformance is particularly critical in CO{sub 2} oilfield floods where the end result is less oil recovered and substantially higher costs related to the CO{sub 2}. The SPI-CO{sub 2} (here after called “SPI”) gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a technically effective solution to the conformance problem with CO{sub 2} floods. This SPI gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an external initiator (CO{sub 2}) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current technologies where the gels set up as a function of time, regardless of where it is placed in the reservoir. In those current systems, the internal initiator is included in the injected fluid for water shut off applications. In this new research effort, the CO{sub 2} is an external initiator contacted after SPI gel solution placement. This concept ensures in the proper water wet reservoir environment that the SPI gel sets up in the precise high permeability path followed by the CO{sub 2}, therefore improving sweep efficiency to a greater degree than conventional systems. In addition, the final SPI product in commercial quantities is expected to be low cost over the competing systems. This Phase I research effort provided “proof of concept” that SPI gels possess strength and may be formed in a sand pack reducing the permeability to brine and CO{sub 2} flow. This SPI technology is a natural extension of prior R & D and the Phase I effort that together show a high potential for success in a Phase II follow-on project. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a major by-product of

  15. Coupled nutrient cycling determines tropical forest trajectory under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouskill, N.; Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests have a disproportionate capacity to affect Earth's climate relative to their areal extent. Despite covering just 12 % of land surface, tropical forests account for 35 % of global net primary productivity and are among the most significant of terrestrial carbon stores. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase over the next century, the capacity of tropical forests to assimilate and sequester anthropogenic CO2 depends on limitation by multiple factors, including the availability of soil nutrients. Phosphorus availability has been considered to be the primary factor limiting metabolic processes within tropical forests. However, recent evidence points towards strong spatial and temporal co-limitation of tropical forests by both nitrogen and phosphorus. Here, we use the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALMv1-ECA-CNP) to examine how nutrient cycles interact and affect the trajectory of the tropical forest carbon sink under, (i) external nutrient input, (ii) climate (iii) elevated CO2, and (iv) a combination of 1-3. ALMv1 includes recent theoretical advances in representing belowground competition between roots, microbes and minerals for N and P uptake, explicit interactions between the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles (e.g., phosphatase production and nitrogen fixation), the dynamic internal allocation of plant N and P resources, and the integration of global datasets of plant physiological traits. We report nutrient fertilization (N, P, N+P) predictions for four sites in the tropics (El Verde, Puerto Rico, Barro Colorado Island, Panama, Manaus, Brazil and the Osa Peninsula, Coast Rica) to short-term nutrient fertilization (N, P, N+P), and benchmarking of the model against a meta-analysis of forest fertilization experiments. Subsequent simulations focus on the interaction of the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles across the tropics with a focus on the implications of coupled nutrient cycling and the fate of the tropical

  16. Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from fields fertilized with digestate from an agricultural biogas plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubaszek, Robert; Wysocka-Czubaszek, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Digestate from biogas plants can play important role in agriculture by providing nutrients, improving soil structure and reducing the use of mineral fertilizers. Still, less is known about greenhouse gas emissions from soil during and after digestate application. The aim of the study was to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from a field which was fertilized with digestate. The gas fluxes were measured with the eddy covariance system. Each day, the eddy covariance system was installed in various places of the field, depending on the dominant wind direction, so that each time the results were obtained from an area where the digestate was distributed. The results showed the relatively low impact of the studied gases emissions on total greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Maximum values of the CO2 and CH4 fluxes, 79.62 and 3.049 µmol s-1 m-2, respectively, were observed during digestate spreading on the surface of the field. On the same day, the digestate was mixed with the topsoil layer using a disc harrow. This resulted in increased CO2 emissions the following day. Intense mineralization of digestate, observed after fertilization may not give the expected effects in terms of protection and enrichment of soil organic matter.

  17. Evaluating Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions that Affect Fertility and Childbearing: How Health Effects are Measured Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Brandeau, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for economic evaluations of health interventions define relevant outcomes as those accruing to individuals receiving interventions. Little consensus exists on counting health impacts on current and future fertility and childbearing. Objective To characterize current practices for counting such health outcomes. Design We developed a framework characterizing health interventions with direct and/or indirect effects on fertility and childbearing and how such outcomes are reported. We identified interventions spanning the framework and performed a targeted literature review for economic evaluations of these interventions. For each article, we characterized how the potential health outcomes from each intervention were considered, focusing on QALYs associated with fertility and childbearing. Results We reviewed 108 studies, identifying seven themes: 1) Studies were heterogeneous in reporting outcomes. 2) Studies often selected outcomes for inclusion that tend to bias toward finding the intervention to be cost-effective. 3) Studies often avoided the challenges of assigning QALYs for pregnancy and fertility by instead considering cost per intermediate outcome. 4) Even for the same intervention, studies took heterogeneous approaches to outcome evaluation. 5) Studies employed multiple, competing rationales for whether and how to include fertility-related QALYs and whose QALYs to include. 6) Studies examining interventions with indirect effects on fertility typically ignored such QALYs. 7) Even recent studies had these shortcomings. Limitations The review was targeted rather than systematic. Conclusions Economic evaluations inconsistently consider QALYs from current and future fertility and childbearing in ways that frequently appear biased towards the interventions considered. As the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine updates its guidelines, making the practice of cost-effectiveness analysis more consistent is a priority. Our

  18. Risky future for Mediterranean forests unless they undergo extreme carbon fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo; Nicault, Antoine; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Dorado-Liñán, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Ribas, Montserrat; Guiot, Joel

    2017-07-01

    Forest performance is challenged by climate change but higher atmospheric [CO 2 ] (c a ) could help trees mitigate the negative effect of enhanced water stress. Forest projections using data assimilation with mechanistic models are a valuable tool to assess forest performance. Firstly, we used dendrochronological data from 12 Mediterranean tree species (six conifers and six broadleaves) to calibrate a process-based vegetation model at 77 sites. Secondly, we conducted simulations of gross primary production (GPP) and radial growth using an ensemble of climate projections for the period 2010-2100 for the high-emission RCP8.5 and low-emission RCP2.6 scenarios. GPP and growth projections were simulated using climatic data from the two RCPs combined with (i) expected c a ; (ii) constant c a  = 390 ppm, to test a purely climate-driven performance excluding compensation from carbon fertilization. The model accurately mimicked the growth trends since the 1950s when, despite increasing c a , enhanced evaporative demands precluded a global net positive effect on growth. Modeled annual growth and GPP showed similar long-term trends. Under RCP2.6 (i.e., temperatures below +2 °C with respect to preindustrial values), the forests showed resistance to future climate (as expressed by non-negative trends in growth and GPP) except for some coniferous sites. Using exponentially growing c a and climate as from RCP8.5, carbon fertilization overrode the negative effect of the highly constraining climatic conditions under that scenario. This effect was particularly evident above 500 ppm (which is already over +2 °C), which seems unrealistic and likely reflects model miss-performance at high c a above the calibration range. Thus, forest projections under RCP8.5 preventing carbon fertilization displayed very negative forest performance at the regional scale. This suggests that most of western Mediterranean forests would successfully acclimate to the coldest climate change scenario

  19. Analysis of the effectiveness of fertilizer subsidy policy and its effect on rice production in Karanganyar Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyadiana, A. T.; Marwanti, S.; Rahayu, W.

    2018-03-01

    The research aims to know the factors which affecting rice production, and to know the effectiveness of fertilizer subsidy policy on rice production in Karanganyar Regency. The fertilizer subsidy policy was based on four indicators of fertilizer subsidy namely exact price, exact place, exact time, and exact quantity. Data was analyzed using descriptive quantitative and qualitative and multiple linear regression. The result of research showed that fertilizer subsidy policy in Karanganyar Regency evaluated from four indicators was not effective because the distribution of fertilizer subsidy to farmers still experience some mistakes. The result of regression analysis showed that production factors such as land area, use of urea fertilizer, use of NPK fertilizer, and effectiveness of fertilizer subsidy policy had positive correlation and significant influence on rice production, while labor utilization and use of seeds factors had no significant effect on rice production in Karanganyar Regency. This means that if the fertilizer subsidy policy is more effective, rice production is also increased.

  20. Effects of digestate from anaerobically digested cattle slurry and plant materials on soil microbial community and emission of CO2 and N2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Jensen, Erik S.

    2013-01-01

    ) anaerobically digested cattle slurry/grass-clover, or (5) fresh grass-clover was applied to soil at arable realistic rates. Experimental unites were sequentially sampled destructively after 1, 3 and 9 days of incubation and the soil assayed for content of mineral N, available organic C, emission of CO2 and N2O......, microbial phospholipid fatty acids (biomass and community composition) and catabolic response profiling (functional diversity). Fertilizing with the anaerobically digested materials increased the soil concentration of NO3− ca. 30–40% compared to when raw cattle slurry was applied. Grass-clover contributed...... with four times more readily degradable organic C than the other materials, causing an increased microbial biomass which depleted the soil for mineral N and probably also O2. Consequently, grass-clover also caused a ∼10 times increase in emissions of CO2 and N2O greenhouse gasses compared to any...

  1. Interactive Effects of CO2 Concentration and Water Regime on Stable Isotope Signatures, Nitrogen Assimilation and Growth in Sweet Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Serret

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet pepper is among the most widely cultivated horticultural crops in the Mediterranean basin, being frequently grown hydroponically under cover in combination with CO2 fertilization and water conditions ranging from optimal to suboptimal. The aim of this study is to develop a simple model, based on the analysis of plant stable isotopes in their natural abundance, gas exchange traits and N concentration, to assess sweet pepper growth. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for near 6 weeks. Two [CO2] (400 and 800 μmol mol−1, three water regimes (control and mild and moderate water stress and four genotypes were assayed. For each combination of genotype, [CO2] and water regime five plants were evaluated. Water stress applied caused significant decreases in water potential, net assimilation, stomatal conductance, intercellular to atmospheric [CO2], and significant increases in water use efficiency, leaf chlorophyll content and carbon isotope composition, while the relative water content, the osmotic potential and the content of anthocyanins did change not under stress compared to control conditions support this statement. Nevertheless, water regime affects plant growth via nitrogen assimilation, which is associated with the transpiration stream, particularly at high [CO2], while the lower N concentration caused by rising [CO2] is not associated with stomatal closure. The stable isotope composition of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen (δ13C, δ18O, and δ15N in plant matter are affected not only by water regime but also by rising [CO2]. Thus, δ18O increased probably as response to decreases in transpiration, while the increase in δ15N may reflect not only a lower stomatal conductance but a higher nitrogen demand in leaves or shifts in nitrogen metabolism associated with decreases in photorespiration. The way that δ13C explains differences in plant growth across water regimes within a given [CO2], seems to be mediated through its direct

  2. Fertility preservation 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing. PMID:25283571

  3. Elevated CO2 Increases Nitrogen Fixation at the Reproductive Phase Contributing to Various Yield Responses of Soybean Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen deficiency limits crop performance under elevated CO2 (eCO2, depending on the ability of plant N uptake. However, the dynamics and redistribution of N2 fixation, and fertilizer and soil N use in legumes under eCO2 have been little studied. Such an investigation is essential to improve the adaptability of legumes to climate change. We took advantage of genotype-specific responses of soybean to increased CO2 to test which N-uptake phenotypes are most strongly related to enhanced yield. Eight soybean cultivars were grown in open-top chambers with either 390 ppm (aCO2 or 550 ppm CO2 (eCO2. The plants were supplied with 100 mg N kg−1 soil as 15N-labeled calcium nitrate, and harvested at the initial seed-filling (R5 and full-mature (R8 stages. Increased yield in response to eCO2 correlated highly (r = 0.95 with an increase in symbiotically fixed N during the R5 to R8 stage. In contrast, eCO2 only led to small increases in the uptake of fertilizer-derived and soil-derived N during R5 to R8, and these increases did not correlate with enhanced yield. Elevated CO2 also decreased the proportion of seed N redistributed from shoot to seeds, and this decrease strongly correlated with increased yield. Moreover, the total N uptake was associated with increases in fixed-N per nodule in response to eCO2, but not with changes in nodule biomass, nodule density, or root length.

  4. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Support and cobalt cluster size effects on kinetics over Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Co/SiO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenping Ma; Gary Jacobs; Dennis E. Sparks; Muthu K. Gnanamani; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala; Chia H. Yen; Jennifer L.S. Klettlinger; Thomas M. Tomsik; Burtron H. Davis [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2011-02-15

    The influence of support type and cobalt cluster size (i.e., with average diameters falling within the range of 8-40 nm) on the kinetics of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) were investigated by kinetic tests employing a CSTR and two Co/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts having different average pore sizes, and two Co/SiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared on the same support but having different loadings. A kinetic model -r{sub CO}=kP{sup a}{sub co}P{sup b}{sub H2}/(1 + mP{sub H2O}/P{sub H2}) that contains a water effect constant 'm' was used to fit the experimental data obtained with all four catalysts. Kinetic parameters suggest that both support type and average Co particle size impact FT behavior. Cobalt cluster size influenced kinetic parameters such as reaction order, rate constant, and the water effect parameter.Decreasing the average Co cluster diameter by about 30% led to an increase in the intrinsic reaction rate constant k, defined on a per g of catalyst basis, by 62-102% for the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}-supported cobalt catalysts. Moreover, less inhibition by adsorbed CO and greater H{sub 2} dissociation on catalysts having smaller Co particles was suggested by the higher a and lower b values obtained for the measured reaction orders. Irrespective of support type, the catalysts having smaller average Co particles were more sensitive to water. Comparing the catalysts having strong interactions between cobalt and support (Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to the ones with weak interactions (Co/SiO{sub 2}), the water effect parameters were found to be positive (indicating a negative influence on CO conversion) and negative (denoting a positive effect on CO conversion), respectively. Greater a and a/b values were observed for both Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Co catalysts, implying greater inhibition of the FT rate by strongly adsorbed CO on Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to Co/SiO{sub 2}. 78 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Effect of NPK fertilization and elemental sulphur on growth and yield of lowbush blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. STARAST

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of fertilizers on the pH of former arable soils and on the growth and the yield of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.. Lowbush blueberry fertilization experiments were established in 1999 at two locations – at Kärla, Saaremaa, West Estonia and at Vasula, Tartu County, South Estonia. Experimental sites were situated on different soils: soil pHKCl at Kärla was 5.5 and at Vasula 6.2. Elemental sulphur and acidifying fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and superphosphate were used in both plantations. Fertilizers were applied based on nutrient in the soil and sulphur was applied at 100 g m–2. Plant growth was recorded in 2001, 2002 and 2003. A positive influence of NPK fertilization on yield was found in both Kärla and Vasula, and yield were 336 g and 41 g higher compared to the control, respectively. The vegetative growth and yield of blueberry depended significantly on soil pH. Elemental sulphur increased soil acidity and on loamy sand soil did not increase plant productivity. The sulphur effect on soil pH began to decrease three years after application. Sulphur can be recommended to increase soil acidity in nutrient-rich soil but, not nutrient poor soil with light texture, where only NPK fertilizers were effective.;

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Valdez, F.; Fernández-Luqueño, F.; Luna-Suárez, S.; Dendooven, L.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO 2 and N 2 O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO 2 and N 2 O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N 2 O emissions but not CO 2 emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  7. Wollastonite Carbonation in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2: Effects of Particle Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun; Voltolini, Marco; Kneafsey, Timothy; Jun, Young-Shin

    2017-11-07

    The performance of geologic CO 2 sequestration (GCS) can be affected by CO 2 mineralization and changes in the permeability of geologic formations resulting from interactions between water-bearing supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2 ) and silicates in reservoir rocks. However, without an understanding of the size effects, the findings in previous studies using nanometer- or micrometer-size particles cannot be applied to the bulk rock in field sites. In this study, we report the effects of particle sizes on the carbonation of wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ) at 60 °C and 100 bar in water-bearing scCO 2 . After normalization by the surface area, the thickness of the reacted wollastonite layer on the surfaces was independent of particle sizes. After 20 h, the reaction was not controlled by the kinetics of surface reactions but by the diffusion of water-bearing scCO 2 across the product layer on wollastonite surfaces. Among the products of reaction, amorphous silica, rather than calcite, covered the wollastonite surface and acted as a diffusion barrier to water-bearing scCO 2 . The product layer was not highly porous, with a specific surface area 10 times smaller than that of the altered amorphous silica formed at the wollastonite surface in aqueous solution. These findings can help us evaluate the impacts of mineral carbonation in water-bearing scCO 2 .

  8. Trace/Heavy Metal Impact on Agricultural Soils from Commonly used Fertilizers of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, A.; Jolly, Y. N.

    2005-01-01

    On investigation of seven commonly used fertilizers of Bangladesh for evaluation of their trace/heavy metal impact on the agricultural soils it was observed that TSP, SSP and Cow-dung were more potential in supplying a broad range of these elements including toxin ones such as, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Pb, Cd. In phosphate fertilizers, the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb ranged from 106-129, 21.1-124, 12.2-16.1, 8.6-27.1, 8.2-12.5, 93.5-245, 8.4-12.1 mgkg -1 respectively. In cow-dung the respective contents of the same elements except Cd were 8.1, 820, 11.1, 6.1, 12.4, 72.2, 12.1 mg kg -1 . Zinc sulphate was also found to be a potential fertilizer capable of supplying Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, containing 182, 311, 63, 10.5, 300, 27.5, 28.1 mg kg -1 respectively. MP and Gypsum has shown to be of less potential in adding trace/heavy elements in soils. MP contained Mn, Fe, Br, Sr and its Mn concentration was 13.2 mg kg -1 . The elements, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr were measured in Gypsum where Cu and Fe concentrations were 15.3 and 13.2 mg kg -1 respectively. Urea was found to contain Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr at low levels in comparison with other fertilizers. The trace/heavy metals load from chemical fertilizers per hectare of agricultural land per year was also calculated. The Maximum input of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were 14.8, 23.2, 22.3, 646, 2.9, 4.9, 3.9, 2816, 2.2 and 4.5 g respectively.(author)

  9. Cadmium, Copper and Tributyltin effects on fertilization of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Vazzana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are continuously being threatened by a large number of xenobi- otics from anthropogenic sources. The effect of chemical pollution on living organisms are numerous and may impair reproductive success of adults species of marine invertebrate and vertebrate through effects on gamete quality. Echinoderms are characterized by external fertilizzation and gametes, free of any type of protection, may be in contact with toxic substances so the reproductive success depends largely on the environment conditions. The purpose of this work is to assess the effects on the in vitro fertiliza- tion of exposure of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus gametes to xenobiotic substances as CuSO4, CdCl2 and TBTCl. The effect of contaminant were assessed by two experimental set in which gametes were treated with different concentration (0, 10-3, 10-5 10-7 10-9 M of different substances as CdCl2, CuSO4 and TBTCl. The effects were evaluated as percentage of fertilization. The results showed that the gametes exposure to xenobiotic decreased the percentage of fertilization and that more sensitive to treatment were the sperm cells, propably because the toxic effect affected the motility of the sperm. In conclusion, the absence of fertilization (spermiotoxicity may submit the toxic effects of these substances to the level of body and may candidate the sea urchis as biosensors for the evaluation of environmental quality.

  10. Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Zooplankton Production | Orji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Zooplankton Production. ... Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... The aquaria were thoroughly washed, filled with 20litres of bore-hole water, fertilized with the respective organic manures after 4 days fermentation and inoculated with zooplankton samples collected from an earthen fish ...

  11. Effect of addition of nitrate fertilizers on the efficient use of ammonium fertilizers uptake in salty soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Zidan, A

    1993-01-01

    The effect of addition of nitrate fertilizers on the efficient use of ammonium fertilizers was studies using N 15 method, in pot experiment using salt affected alluvial soil, the objective of this study was to determine the ideal ratio of No 3 /NH 4 which enhance the efficiency of ammonium fertilizers. The results showed that the fresh and dry weights of maize (variety LG11) responded significantly to each type of fertilizer alone. Furthermore, the N-NO 3 fertilizer showed superiority over N-NH 4 Fertilizer. Wherever, the highest yield was obtained with a mixture of both (N-NO 3 and N-NH 4 ) with NO 3 /NH 4 ratio 1/8, in spite of the fact that the equivalent amounts of N were employed in all treatments. Under the given circumstances it has been recommended in salt affected soil in dry area, to use the above mentioned ratio for nitrogen fertilizer to obtain optimum yield. (author)

  12. Fertilizers in cereals crops. Effect of fertilization in grain quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaj, Mariana

    1997-01-01

    In the last years the yields of the maize cultivation in the Pampeana production region have constantly increased, foreseeing higher increases of yield in the next years. Such increase is due, between other motives, to the use of hybrids of higher potential yield. There is a direct relation between the yield potential of a genotype and the nutrients demand, fact that constitutes one of the geneticists concerns. Maize hybrids reach its maximum expression when the plant is cultivated in good supplied soils with balanced quantities of nutrients that in several cases are reached with the practice of fertilization. The quantitative and qualitative vegetal response to the use of phosphate fertilizers depend of soils, of the environmental conditions, of fertilizer and the way of its application as well as of the maize hybrid that was used. To direct the practice of fertilization towards the reposition of the soil nutrients extracted by genotypes of high yield without producing excesses that increase costs and put in danger the environment, it is necessary to know the real coefficient used by the plants of the phosphorus available in the soils. The isotopic methodology allows to distinguish the phosphorus coming from two nutrient sources: soil and fertilizer, even in the juvenile phase of vegetal development and to evaluate the efficiency of fertilizers in plant nutrition. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the use of phosphorus coming from one of the phosphorus source available (soil, fertilizer), that should allow to increase and make more specific the knowledge's level of the different maize hybrids. This is obtained by determination of the grade of use of nutrient (of the soil) and of the nutrient of fertilizers, evaluating the qualitative and quantitative responses to fertilization

  13. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Part 3. Survey on biological CO2 fixation utilizing arid regions and oligotrophic sea areas; 1999 nendo kansochi, hin'eiyokaiiki wo riyoshita seibutsuteki CO{sub 2} kotei ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With objectives to elucidate whether CO2 fixation quantity can be increased by utilizing the features of ecological systems, and know what degree the increasing possibility is at, surveys were performed on (1) the 'possibility of carbon fixation by means of afforestation in arid regions', and (2) the possibility of carbon fixation by applying fertilizers into oceans'. With respect to the (1) afforestation in arid regions, surveys were performed mainly in the West Australian Province to elucidate the current status of carbon fixation quantity, its possibility for increase, water balance, importance of soil structures, and effects of salts (including nutritious salt) on vegetation. Regarding the (2) fertilizer application into oceans, elucidation was made on circulation of organic matters in oceans, effects of applying ferrous fertilizers on the carbon fixation, and the importance of supplying inorganic nitrogen during the fertilizer application. The material cost for scattering irons at this time was calculated as two dollars per ton of carbon fixation quantity. Surveys were also carried out on processes of decomposition of particulate organic matters, and the change in the C/N ratio during the processes. Proposals were presented on preparing the platform that can calculate the carbon fixation quantity when water, soil, nutritious salt, afforestation, and climate are changed, and on preparing the scenario that can increase the carbon fixation quantity in the order of 1Gt-C/y. (NEDO)

  14. Effect of high temperature deposition on CoSi2 phase formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comrie, C. M.; Ahmed, H.; Smeets, D.; Demeulemeester, J.; Vantomme, A.; Turner, S.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Detavernier, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the nucleation behaviour of the CoSi to CoSi 2 transformation from cobalt silicide thin films grown by deposition at elevated substrate temperatures ranging from 375 °C to 600 °C. A combination of channelling, real-time Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, real-time x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the effect of the deposition temperature on the subsequent formation temperature of CoSi 2 , its growth behaviour, and the epitaxial quality of the CoSi 2 thus formed. The temperature at which deposition took place was observed to exert a significant and systematic influence on both the formation temperature of CoSi 2 and its growth mechanism. CoSi films grown at the lowest temperatures were found to increase the CoSi 2 nucleation temperature above that of CoSi 2 grown by conventional solid phase reaction, whereas the higher deposition temperatures reduced the nucleation temperature significantly. In addition, a systematic change in growth mechanism of the subsequent CoSi 2 growth occurs as a function of deposition temperature. First, the CoSi 2 growth rate from films grown at the lower reactive deposition temperatures is substantially lower than that grown at higher reactive deposition temperatures, even though the onset of growth occurs at a higher temperature, Second, for deposition temperatures below 450 °C, the growth appears columnar, indicating nucleation controlled growth. Elevated deposition temperatures, on the other hand, render the CoSi 2 formation process layer-by-layer which indicates enhanced nucleation of the CoSi 2 and diffusion controlled growth. Our results further indicate that this observed trend is most likely related to stress and changes in microstructure introduced during reactive deposition of the CoSi film. The deposition temperature therefore provides a handle to tune the CoSi 2 growth mechanism.

  15. Fertility desires and fertility outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracher, M; Santow, G

    1991-05-01

    An Australian 1-in-1000 national probability sample conducted in 1986 yielded 2547 women aged 20-59 who provided detailed life histories on marital unions, childbearing, and contraception. Age specific fertility rates, desired family size, differentials in desired family size, desired fertility and achieved fertility, and sequential family building are examined. The results indicate that the desired family size at 1st marriage has declined only slightly over the past 30 years. 3 children are generally desired, and ver few desire 2. The constance of fertility desires in contrasted with the fertilitydecline to below replacement levels. Several reasons are suggested for the desired family size: the desire is for a family size within the family tradition and modified by the desire to have 1 of each sex, the desire reflects less on intentions but more on normative pressure to become a parent. Marrying is self selecting on the desire for a traditional family of at least 2 children. There is a rising age at marriage as well as a decline in marriages. Desired family size exceeds completed fertility. Period factors and personal circumstances affect fertility intentions. Future inquires should explore the multiple factors relating to fertility, rather than in comparing fertility desires and actual fertility. The data collected on age specific fertility were comparable to official estimates. The fertility decline was evidenced in all groups except teenagers. The decline was nearly 50% for those 20-24 years between the 1050's-80's, 33% for ages 25-29. Marriage patterns explain this decline in part. Between 1971-76, women aged 20-25 were married 37 months out of 60 months in 1971-76 versus 25 out of 60 months in 1981-86. Within the 25 year age group, marital fertility has declined and unmarried fertility, which is low, has risen, Women in a marital union of any kind has remained stable. Fertility within de facto unions, which is lower than within marriage, is higher than

  16. CO2 effect on porous concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauman, Zdenek

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Not availableDebido a la acción del CO2 y de la humedad sobre un hormigón poroso, la tobermorita 11 A se descompone en vaterita, calcita y SÍO2 gel. A causa de la pseudomorfosis, la morfología de los cristales de la fase cementante no sufre cambios notables. La menor resistencia a la compresión se obtuvo después de 30 días de conservación en atmósferas de un 10 y un 30% de CO2. Después de un año de conservación, las resistencias no bajaron más de un 10%. En lo que respecta a la retracción de un hormigón poroso, la principal influencia fue la ejercida por la acción del CO2 y solamente en segundo lugar figura la acción ejercida por la humedad ambiente. Los hormigones porosos expuestos al aire (con su 0,03% de CO2 a h. r. de 50, 70 y 100% sufrieron al cabo de un año una expansión muy ligera.

  17. Growing Azolla to produce sustainable protein feed: the effect of differing species and CO2 concentrations on biomass productivity and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Paul; Schluepmann, Henriette; Nierop, Klaas Gj; Elderson, Janneke; Bijl, Peter K; van der Meer, Ingrid; de Visser, Willem; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Smeekens, Sjef; van der Werf, Adrie

    2018-03-24

    Since available arable land is limited and nitrogen fertilizers pollute the environment, cropping systems ought to be developed that do not rely on them. Here we investigate the rapidly growing, N 2 -fixing Azolla/Nostoc symbiosis for its potential productivity and chemical composition to determine its potential as protein feed. In a small production system, cultures of Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides were continuously harvested for over 100 days, yielding an average productivity of 90.0-97.2 kg dry weight (DW) ha -1  d -1 . Under ambient CO 2 levels, N 2 fixation by the fern's cyanobacterial symbionts accounted for all nitrogen in the biomass. Proteins made up 176-208 g kg -1 DW (4.9 × total nitrogen), depending on species and CO 2 treatment, and contained more essential amino acids than protein from soybean. Elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (800 ppm) significantly boosted biomass production by 36-47%, without decreasing protein content. Choice of species and CO 2 concentrations further affected the biomass content of lipids (79-100 g kg -1 DW) and (poly)phenols (21-69 g kg -1 DW). By continuous harvesting, high protein yields can be obtained from Azolla cultures, without the need for nitrogen fertilization. High levels of (poly)phenols likely contribute to limitations in the inclusion rate of Azolla in animal diets and need further investigation. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degrades soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dania, S.O.; Fagbola, O.; Isitekhale, H.H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1:1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  19. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degraded soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dania, S.O.; Fagbola, O.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1: 1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  20. Experiment and simulation study on the effects of cement minerals on the water-rock-CO2 interaction during CO2 geological storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.; Cheng, J.

    2016-12-01

    The CO2 geological storage is one of the most promising technology to mitigate CO2 emission. The fate of CO2 underground is dramatically affected by the CO2-water-rock interaction, which are mainly dependent on the initial aquifer mineralogy and brine components. The cement minerals are common materials in sandstone reservoir but few attention has been paid for its effects on CO2-water-rock interaction. Five batch reactions, in which 5% cement minerals were assigned to be quartz, calcite, dolomite, chlorite and Ca-montmorillonite, respectively, were conducted to understanding the cement minerals behaviors and its corresponding effects on the matrix minerals alterations during CO2 geological storage. Pure mineral powders were selected to mix and assemble the 'sandstone rock' with different cement components meanwhile keeping the matrix minerals same for each group as 70% quartz, 20% K-feldspar and 5% albite. These `rock' reacted with 750ml deionized water and CO2 under 180° and 18MPa for 15 days, during which the water chemistry evolution and minerals surface micromorphology changes has been monitored. The minerals saturation indexes calculation and phase diagram as well as the kinetic models were made by PHREEQC to uncover the minerals reaction paths. The experiment results indicated that the quartz got less eroded, on the contrary, K-feldspar and albite continuously dissolved to favor the gibbsite and kaolinite precipitations. The carbonates cement minerals quickly dissolved to reach equilibrium with the pH buffered and in turn suppressed the alkali feldspar dissolutions. No carbonates minerals precipitations occurred until the end of reactions for all groups. The simulation results were basically consistent with the experiment record but failed to simulate the non-stoichiometric reactions and the minerals kinetic rates seemed underestimated at the early stage of reactions. The cement minerals significantly dominated the reaction paths during CO2 geological

  1. Residual Effect Of Organic Fertilizer And Addition Inorganik Fertilizer To Nutrient Uptake Growth And Productions Of Black Soy Bean Glycine Max L. Merr At Rainfed Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elli Afrida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research that have theme Residual Effect of Organic Fertilizer and Addition Anorganik Fertilizer to Nutrient Uptake Growth and pruductions of Black Soy Bean Glycine max L. Merr at Rainfed Wetland. Research was conducted at Suka Makmur village sub-distric Binjai Distric Langkat. Research was arranged in split plot design main plot is applications of phonska fertilizerwith 4 level i.e 0 t ha-1 A0 0.20 t ha-1 A1 0.25 t ha-1 A2 dan 0.30 t ha-1 A3 and sub plot is residual effect from first research with 16 combinations. Research was replicated 3 times. Result of research was showed application organic fertilizer that was combinated with anorganic fertilizer can increased N and K uptake. Application organic and anorganic fertilizer as single factor showed significantly effect of number of pods and soy bean productions but at interaction treatment not significantly effect however generally occurs increased production at O33A3 tratment until 80 comparison with control.

  2. Effects of different organic materials and chemical fertilizers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... 2The Chamber of Agricultural Engineers, Gaziantep, Turkey. Accepted 5 July, 2010. This study was conducted under greenhouse conditions to investigate the effects of applied nutrients such as ... Key words: Organic material, chemical fertilizer, Pistacia vera L., soil ... systematic approach of soil and plant.

  3. Adolescent contraceptive use and its effects on fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Antonio Sánchez-Páez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent reproductive health is part of internationally agreed development goals. Unmarried adolescents are not commonly included in global monitoring of contraceptive usedespite the more severe consequences of unintended childbearing for them. Objective: We document levels and trends of contraceptive prevalence and demand for married and sexually active unmarried adolescent women aged 15-19 in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. We estimate the effect of adolescent contraceptive use and marital status on fertility and the impact of meeting current demand. Methods: We propose a fertility model informed by the proximate determinants framework separating adolescents by marital status. Linear Mixed Model estimates are based on aggregate data from 120 DHS surveys for 34 developing countries. Results: Increasing contraceptive prevalence has already reduced adolescent fertility by 6.8Š in Latin America and 4.1Š in sub-Saharan Africa. Meeting the total demand for contraceptives of unmarried adolescents would lead to an additional decrease in fertility of 8.9Š and 17.4Š respectively. Conclusions: Contraceptive demand and prevalence are generally higher for sexually active unmarried adolescent women than for those married. Increasing prevalence has already had an impact in declining fertility, but there is a potentially larger effect if high levels of unmet need are eliminated, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Such reduction would have a significant impact on adolescent health. Contribution: We provide evidence of the importance of contraceptive use of unmarried sexually active adolescent women in explaining trends in adolescent fertility. We estimate the potential effect of meeting the contraceptive needs of married and unmarried adolescents on unintended childbearing.

  4. LIME EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME FERTILIZERS IN A TROPICAL ACID ALFISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Omogbohu Anetor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Liming increases production costs and environmentally unfriendly. Effectiveness of crystalliser (CRYS, single super phosphate (SSP and organic fertilizer (OF for liming was evaluated by determining pH and phosphorus- (P- availability in an acid alfisol incubated with the amendments, Ca(OH2 being reference. Treatments were replicated thrice in completely randomised design. Un-amended soil remained acidic (pH 4.8 but liming raised pH (6.1-6.6, enhancing maximum (15.09-17.33 mg kg-1 P–release (un-amended having 4.24-7.09 mg P kg-1. Lime (L and L+P treatments resulted in maximum pH increases (7.0-7.2, decreasing with incubation. Fertilizer treatments also raised pH (5.0-5.5 for OF, CRYS or SSP; 5.6-5.8 for CRYS +SSP, CRYS+OF and OF+SSP relative to control (5.2. Acid soil infertility-ameliorating potential of CRYS and OF was revealed. They could be used multi-purposely as lime and P fertilizers by poor-resource farmers challenged by acid soil infertility factors.

  5. Effects of CO2 and temperature on growth and resource use of co-occurring C3 and C4 annuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.S.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors examined how CO 2 concentrations and temperature interacted to affect growth, resource acquisition, and resource allocation of two annual plants that were supplied with a single pulse of nutrients. Physiological and growth measurements were made on individuals of Abutilon throphrasti (C 3 ) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C 4 ) grown in environments with atmospheric CO 2 levels of 400 or 700 μL/L and with light/dark temperatures of 28 degree/22 degree or 38 degree/31 degree C. Elevated CO 2 and temperature treatments had significant independent and interactive effects on plant growth, resource allocation, and resource acquisition, and the strength and direction of these effects were often dependent on plant species. For example, final biomass of Amaranthus was enhanced by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree but was depressed at 38 degree. For Abutilon, elevated CO 2 increased initial plant relative growth rates at 28 degree but not at 38 degree, and had no significant effects on final biomass at either temperature. These results are interpreted in light of the interactive effects of CO 2 and temperature on the rates of net leaf area production and loss, and on net whole-plant nitrogen retention. At 28 degree C, elevated CO 2 stimulated the initial production of leaf area in both species, which led to an initial stimulation of biomass accumulation at the higher CO 2 level. However, in elevated CO 2 at 28 degree, the rate of net leaf area loss for Abutilon increased while that of Amaranthus decreased. Furthermore, high CO 2 apparently enhanced the ability of Amaranthus to retain nitrogen at this temperature, which may have helped to enhance photosynthesis, whereas nitrogen retention was unaffected in Abutilon

  6. Effectiveness of liquid organic-nitrogen fertilizer in enhancing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ever increasing price of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers coupled with the deleterious effects of imbalanced N fertilizers on the environment necessitates the enhancement of N use efficiency of plants. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Evaluate the uptake of selected nutrients due to application of liquid organic-N ...

  7. Size effect on the adsorption and dissociation of CO{sub 2} on Co nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haiyan; Cao, Dapeng; Fisher, Adrian [International Research Center for Soft Matter, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Johnston, Roy L. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Cheng, Daojian, E-mail: chengdj@mail.buct.edu.cn [International Research Center for Soft Matter, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Co{sub 13}, Co{sub 38} and Co{sub 55} nanoclusters were predicted as the high-symmetry structures. • CO{sub 2} dissociation on the size-selected Co{sub 13}, Co{sub 38} and Co{sub 55} nanoclusters was studied. • Co{sub 55} nanocluster possesses the highest activity relevant to CO{sub 2} dissociation. • A non-monotonous behavior of the dissociation barrier of CO{sub 2} with the size was found. - Abstract: Spin-polarized density functional theory calculations were carried out to study the adsorption and dissociation properties of CO{sub 2} on size-selected Co{sub 13}, Co{sub 38} and Co{sub 55} nanoclusters. Based on genetic algorithm method, Co{sub 13}, Co{sub 38} and Co{sub 55} nanoclusters were predicted as the most stable high-symmetry structures among these Co{sub n} (n = 2–58) nanoclusters from the Gupta potential. For the adsorption of CO{sub 2}, CO and O on size-selected Co{sub 13}, Co{sub 38} and Co{sub 55} nanoclusters, the lowest adsorption strength is found for all the different adsorbates on Co{sub 55} nanocluster. For the dissociation of CO{sub 2} on these size-selected Co nanoclusters, the largest Co{sub 55} nanocluster possesses the greatest catalytic activity for the dissociation of CO{sub 2}, with the smallest reaction barrier of 0.38 eV. Our results reveal a non-monotonous behavior of the catalytic activities of Co nanoclusters on size, which is of fundamental interest for the design of new Co catalysts for the conversion of CO{sub 2}.

  8. Hydrogen purification by selective methanation of CO in CO/CO2/H2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Mette; Johannessen, Tue; Livbjerg, Hans

    down through the reactor and inside the catalyst pellets/particles. The small particles, which have a rather high effectiveness factor with respect to methanation of CO, have a high CO selectivity, whereas the larger pellets have very low selectivity even at high CO inlet concentrations. Negative...... of reaction kinetics and pore diffusion is crucial for interpreting the experimental data. We have found that the selectivity decreases by increasing the reactor temperature or catalyst particle size and when the CO inlet concentration is reduced. As a result, the selectivity drops significantly...... in an integral reactor operating at high CO-conversion. The lower limit of CO concentration in the outlet is determined by the quasi-equilibrium between CO removal and CO production from CO2....

  9. Phase equilibrium of (CO2 + 1-aminopropyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide + water) electrolyte system and effects of aqueous medium on CO2 solubility: Experiment and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Guo, Kaihua; Bi, Yin; Zhou, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase and chemical equilibrium data for (CO 2 + [APMIm]Br + H 2 O) electrolyte system. • A modified eNRTL model for CO 2 solubility in the amino-based IL aqueous solution. • Effects of aqueous medium on both chemical and physical dissolution of CO 2 . • The correlative coefficient, R s ∗ , for the Henry’s constant of the solution. • New parameters for the segments interaction and the chemical equilibrium constants. - Abstract: New experimental data for solubility of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the aqueous solution of 1-aminopropyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([APMIm]Br) with four different water mass fractions (0.559, 0.645, 0.765 and 0.858) at T = (278.15–348.15) K with an interval of T = 10 K and p = (0.1237–6.9143) MPa were presented. The electrolyte nonrandom two-liquid (eNRTL) model was modified to be applicable for an ionic liquid (IL) aqueous solution system, by introducing an idle factor β to illustrate the association effect of IL molecules. A solution Henry’s constant for CO 2 solubility in the IL aqueous solution was defined by introducing a correlative coefficient R s ∗ . The vapor-liquid phase equilibrium of the [APMIm]Br-H 2 O-CO 2 ternary system was successfully calculated with the modified eNRTL model. The chemical and physical mechanisms for the ionized CO 2 formation and the molecular CO 2 dissolved in the solution were identified. The effects of aqueous medium on both chemical and physical dissolution of CO 2 in the [APMIm]Br aqueous solution were studied, and a considerable enhancement of the solubility of CO 2 with increase of the water content in the solution was observed.

  10. Therapeutic and fertility restoration effects of Ionidium suffruticosum on sub-fertile male albino Wistar rats: effects on testis and caudal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenniappan, Kuppusamy; Murugan, Kadarkari

    2017-12-01

    Ionidium suffruticosum (L.) Ging (Violaceae) is an important medicinal plant widely used as a herbal traditional medicine in Ayurveda for the treatment of infertility. Currently, little pharmacological information is available on its male fertility properties following prolonged use. To investigate I. suffruticosum leaf extracts for male fertility parameters. The ethanol lyophilized fraction was administered orally on carbendazim-induced sub-fertility rats (250 mg/kg body weight for 28 days). The effects of fractions on rat's fertility parameters i.e., body and testes weight, sperm motility, sperm vitality, epididymal sperm counts, its morphology, enzyme and antioxidant stress and histopathology were studied and compared with clomiphene citrate. The sub-fertile male rats treated with I. suffruticosum leaf extract increased the body weight of 7 g, testis weight of 97 mg, increased cauda epididymal sperm counts of 34.2 × 10 6 sperm/mL, motility of sperm 46% and vitality 28% also increased and normal sperm morphology also improved up to 32%. The carbendazim-treated group showed loss in body weight of 33 g, testis weight of 851 mg, decreased epididymal sperm counts of 15 × 10 6 sperm/mL, with sluggish motility and a highly significant fall in the live sperms of about 57%. The leaf fraction of I. suffructicosum increased the testicular weight, spermatogenesis, sperm counts, lessened sperm agglutination, and increased testicular oxidative biomarkers, SOD, and CAT. This study therefore supports the usage of I. suffructicosum in traditional medicine for infertility.

  11. The effects of 15N-fertilizer on the yields of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dechao

    1985-01-01

    By using 15 N-fertilizer, the effects of increasing yield and the utilization of nitrogen of N-fertilizer applied at different periods and by different methods on wheat were studied. The results were as follows: The utilization of N-fertilizer by winter wheat is dependent on the fertilizer of soil before or after winter. Strong seedlings were obtained in the high fertility soils and the application of N-fertilizer in spring is recommended. In soils of low fertility, however, application of a part of N-fertilizer before winter is recommded in order to get strong seedlings. Application of a part of N-fertilizer as base manure for spring wheat is more advantageous. Deep application of N-fertilizer losses less NH 3 than surface broadcast does

  12. Breastfeeding: patterns, correlates, and fertility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A K; Bongaarts, J

    1981-03-01

    Paper based on data generated by the World Fertility Survey in 8 countries: Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Jordan, Peru, Guyana, Colombia, and Panama. The authors address the following issues, among others: the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding; variations in the duration of breastfeeding among different subgroups, classified by age, parity, woman's education, etc,; the key determinants of breastfeeding; and the effect of breastfeeding on fertility. The large majority of women in all the countries breastfed their last 2 children, the number who did not ranging from 2 to 18%. Duration ranged from 9 months (Panama) to 29 months (Bangladesh). Key determinants were women's education, place of residence, husband's occupation, and survival status of the child--consistent for all 8 countries. Women with more education and those living in urban areas breastfeed for shorter periods. Sex of child, age and parity of mother, and mother's work experience showed no independent effect on duration of breastfeeding. Although breastfeeding is not used for family limitation, the possibility that it is used to prolong birth intervals cannot be ruled out. Average length of last closed birth interval increased with prolonged breastfeeding in all 8 countries. 1 month of breastfeeding adds an average of 0.4 months to the birth interval, although there was considerable variation among the countries. To what extent these variations may be due to differences in reporting errors or to other factors could not be determined.

  13. Effects of Simulated Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Radiation on Fertilization and Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Qu, Zaiqing; Liu, Wenhui

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of 935-MHz electromagnetic radiation (ER) on fertilization and subsequent embryonic development in mice. Ovulating mice were irradiated at three ER intensities for 4 h/day (d) or 2 h/d for three consecutive days; the ova were then harvested for in vitro fertilization to observe the 6-h fertilization rate (6-FR), 72-h morula rate (72-MR), and 110-h blastula rate (110-BR). Compared with the control group, the 6-FR, 72-MR, and 110-BR were decreased in the low ER intensity group, but the differences were not significant; in the mid- and high-intensity ER groups, 72-MR and 110-BR in the 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups were decreased, showing significant differences compared with the control group. Moreover, the comparison between 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups showed significant differences. Mid- and high-intensity ER at 935 MHz can reduce the fertilization rate in mice, and reduce the blastulation rate, thus reducing the possibility of embryo implantation.

  14. Well technologies for CO2 geological storage: CO2-resistant cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlet-Gouedard, V.; Rimmele, G.; Porcherie, O.; Goffe, B.

    2007-01-01

    Storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) underground is considered the most effective way for long-term safe and low-cost CO 2 sequestration. This recent application requires long-term well-bore integrity. A CO 2 leakage through the annulus may occur much more rapidly than geologic leakage through the formation rock, leading to economic loss, reduction of CO 2 storage efficiency, and potential compromise of the field for storage. The possibility of such leaks raises considerable concern about the long-term well-bore isolation and the durability of hydrated cement that is used to isolate the annulus across the producing/injection intervals in CO 2 -storage wells. We propose a new experimental procedure and methodology to study reactivity of CO 2 -Water-Cement systems in simulating the interaction of the set cement with injected supercritical CO 2 under downhole conditions. The conditions of experiments are 90 deg. C under 280 bars. The evolution of mechanical, physical and chemical properties of Portland cement with time is studied up to 6 months. The results are compared to equivalent studies on a new CO 2 -resistant material; the comparison shows significant promise for this new material. (authors)

  15. Effects of Chemical Fertilizer, Algea Compost and Zeolite on Green Bean Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Türkmen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study used chemical fertilizer, brown algae compost and zeolite carried out in the field of Giresun Hazelnut Research Center between May-November 2014 in pots according to randomized blog design as three replicate each. Treatment groups were consist of eight different combinations as follow; G1-Control, G2-Zeolite, G3-Compost, G4-Chemical Fertilizer, G5-Zeolite+Compost, G6-Zeolite+Chemical Fertilizer, G7-Compost+ Chemical Fertilizer, G8-Compost+Zeolite+ Chemical Fertilizer. The brown algae (Cystoseira sp. were used as compost material. These combinations were applied to green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. The green beans were seeded by hand to arrange planting depth of 5-6 cm and 20 seeds/m2. Except control group, each treatment was added fertilizers as 50 g zeolite, 50 g compost, and 25 g chemical according to treatment design. Half of the chemical fertilizers were added at seeding time and the rest after two weeks. Collected soil samples were analyzed right after harvest, the greatest values of treatment groups were determined as; Carbon% G1: 5.08, nitrogen G3: 0.09 ppm, sodium G5: 139 ppm, potassium G6 and G8: 5 ppm, magnesium G2: 1865 ppm, calcium G6: 8.33 ppm, manganese G2: 359 ppm, iron G6 : 16070 ppm, cobalt G6 and G7: 7.91 ppm, copper G2: 17.5 ppm, zinc G8: 28.0 ppm, selenium G7: 4.17 ppm, cadmium G5: 0.08 ppm, lead G4: 5.31 ppm. The greatest harvest value as g/m2 was obtained from zeolite only group G2 with 273 while the lowest was obtained from Compost only group G3 with 113 g/m2, obviously showing the effectiveness of zeolite only application moreover, also thinking that better results may get if the present study run for longer period.

  16. Effects of high CO2 levels on dynamic photosynthesis: carbon gain, mechanisms, and environmental interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Hajime; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the photosynthetic responses of terrestrial plants to environments with high levels of CO2 is essential to address the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. Most photosynthetic models used for global carbon issues are based on steady-state photosynthesis, whereby photosynthesis is measured under constant environmental conditions; however, terrestrial plant photosynthesis under natural conditions is highly dynamic, and photosynthetic rates change in response to rapid changes in environmental factors. To predict future contributions of photosynthesis to the global carbon cycle, it is necessary to understand the dynamic nature of photosynthesis in relation to high CO2 levels. In this review, we summarize the current body of knowledge on the photosynthetic response to changes in light intensity under experimentally elevated CO2 conditions. We found that short-term exposure to high CO2 enhances photosynthetic rate, reduces photosynthetic induction time, and reduces post-illumination CO2 burst, resulting in increased leaf carbon gain during dynamic photosynthesis. However, long-term exposure to high CO2 during plant growth has varying effects on dynamic photosynthesis. High levels of CO2 increase the carbon gain in photosynthetic induction in some species, but have no significant effects in other species. Some studies have shown that high CO2 levels reduce the biochemical limitation on RuBP regeneration and Rubisco activation during photosynthetic induction, whereas the effects of high levels of CO2 on stomatal conductance differ among species. Few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on effects of high levels of CO2 on dynamic photosynthesis. We identified several knowledge gaps that should be addressed to aid future predictions of photosynthesis in high-CO2 environments.

  17. Effect of Radioactive and Toxic Metals Constituent in Fertilizers on Soil and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quraishi, S.B.; Khan, M.M.K.; Akhter, S.

    2007-01-01

    Various types of fertilizers are being extensively used for crop production and other agricultural purposes in Bangladesh. Trace elements present in chemical and organic fertilizers could play an important role in crop production and human health. Eleven fertilizers samples were collected from local market and were analyzed for some heavy, essential and toxic elements like Fe,Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd with Atomic absorption Spectrometer (AAS) and Al, Ba, Mo, and U with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The fertilizers sampled contained below detection limit of Pb with the exception of TSP and Foly Boron (38.73 and 46.15 mg/kg). The concentration of Cd only in organic fertilizer was high (1621 mg/kg) among eleven samples. The levels of chromium in 50% of the samples were above the detection limit and organic fertilizer contents the highest amount of Cr (266.35 mg/kg). The level of uranium, which is an element of radioactive nature, was found to be below the detection limit (<50.00 mg/kg) in most of the cases with the excepton of TSP and organic fertilizer. To make a background data information, total flux of these elements into the cultivable soils was estimated from the analytical results obtained from this study.(author)

  18. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  19. Response of Quercus velutina growth and water use efficiency to climate variability and nitrogen fertilization in a temperate deciduous forest in the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Katie A; Guerrieri, Rossella; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew A; Asbjornsen, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition and changing climate patterns in the northeastern USA can influence forest productivity through effects on plant nutrient relations and water use. This study evaluates the combined effects of N fertilization, climate and rising atmospheric CO2on tree growth and ecophysiology in a temperate deciduous forest. Tree ring widths and stable carbon (δ(13)C) and oxygen (δ(18)O) isotopes were used to assess tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) ofQuercus velutinaLamb., the dominant tree species in a 20+ year N fertilization experiment at Harvard Forest (MA, USA). We found that fertilized trees exhibited a pronounced and sustained growth enhancement relative to control trees, with the low- and high-N treatments responding similarly. All treatments exhibited improved iWUE over the study period (1984-2011). Intrinsic water use efficiency trends in the control trees were primarily driven by changes in stomatal conductance, while a stimulation in photosynthesis, supported by an increase in foliar %N, contributed to enhancing iWUE in fertilized trees. All treatments were predominantly influenced by growing season vapor pressure deficit (VPD), with BAI responding most strongly to early season VPD and iWUE responding most strongly to late season VPD. Nitrogen fertilization increasedQ. velutinasensitivity to July temperature and precipitation. Combined, these results suggest that ambient N deposition in N-limited northeastern US forests has enhanced tree growth over the past 30 years, while rising ambient CO2has improved iWUE, with N fertilization and CO2having synergistic effects on iWUE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of increased CO2 on fish gill and plasma proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bresolin de Souza

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and warming are both primarily caused by increased levels of atmospheric CO2, and marine organisms are exposed to these two stressors simultaneously. Although the effects of temperature on fish have been investigated over the last century, the long-term effects of moderate CO2 exposure and the combination of both stressors are almost entirely unknown. A proteomics approach was used to assess the adverse physiological and biochemical changes that may occur from the exposure to these two environmental stressors. We analysed gills and blood plasma of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus exposed to temperatures of 12 °C (control and 18 °C (impaired growth in combination with control (400 µatm or high-CO2 water (1000 µatm for 14 weeks. The proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE followed by Nanoflow LC-MS/MS using a LTQ-Orbitrap. The high-CO2 treatment induced the up-regulation of immune system-related proteins, as indicated by the up-regulation of the plasma proteins complement component C3 and fibrinogen β chain precursor in both temperature treatments. Changes in gill proteome in the high-CO2 (18 °C group were mostly related to increased energy metabolism proteins (ATP synthase, malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase thermostable, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, possibly coupled to a higher energy demand. Gills from fish exposed to high-CO2 at both temperature treatments showed changes in proteins associated with increased cellular turnover and apoptosis signalling (annexin 5, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1γ, receptor for protein kinase C, and putative ribosomal protein S27. This study indicates that moderate CO2-driven acidification, alone and combined with high temperature, can elicit biochemical changes that may affect fish health.

  1. CO2 emissions vs. CO2 responsibility: An input-output approach for the Turkish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipek Tunc, G.; Tueruet-Asik, Serap; Akbostanci, Elif

    2007-01-01

    Recently, global warming (greenhouse effect) and its effects have become one of the hottest topics in the world agenda. There have been several international attempts to reduce the negative effects of global warming. The Kyoto Protocol can be cited as the most important agreement which tries to limit the countries' emissions within a time horizon. For this reason, it becomes important to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions of countries. The aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO 2 -the most important greenhouse gas-emissions, for the Turkish economy. An extended input-output model is estimated by using 1996 data in order to identify the sources of CO 2 emissions and to discuss the share of sectors in total emission. Besides, 'CO 2 responsibility', which takes into account the CO 2 content of imports, is estimated for the Turkish economy. The sectoral CO 2 emissions and CO 2 responsibilities are compared and these two notions are linked to foreign trade volume. One of the main conclusions is that the manufacturing industry has the first place in both of the rankings for CO 2 emissions and CO 2 responsibilities, while agriculture and husbandry has the last place

  2. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Powell, Kevin S.; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J.; Yen, Alan L.; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Luck, Jo E.

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production.

  3. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping, E-mail: jpyang@zju.edu.cn; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 kg N/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH{sub 4} mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO{sub 2} flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH{sub 4} flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N{sub 2}O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225 kg N/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO{sub 2}-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89 t/ha in paddy fields. - Highlights: • Exploiting co-benefits of rice yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. • Global warming potential and rice yield increased with nitrogen fertilizer rate up. • Emission peaks of CH{sub 4,} CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O appeared at vegetative and reproductive phase. • 225 kg N/ha rate benefits both rice yields and GWP reduction.

  4. Investigating the Effect of Soil Texture and Fertility on Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficient of Maize Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorbanian Kerdabadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Crop coefficient varies in different environmental conditions, such as deficit irrigation, salinity and intercropping. The effect of soil fertility and texture of crop coefficient and evapotranspiration of maize was investigated in this study. Low soil fertility and food shortages as a stressful environment for plants that makes it different evapotranspiration rates of evapotranspiration calculation is based on the FAO publication 56. Razzaghi et al. (2012 investigate the effect of soil type and soil-drying during the seed-filling phase on N-uptake, yield and water use, a Danish-bred cultivar (CV. Titicaca was grown in field lysimeters with sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam soil. Zhang et al (2014 were investigated the Effect of adding different amounts of nitrogen during three years (from 2010 to 2012 on water use efficiency and crop evapotranspiration two varieties of winter wheat. The results of their study showed. The results indicated the following: (1 in this dry land farming system, increased N fertilization could raise wheat yield, and the drought-tolerant Changhan No. 58 showed a yield advantage in drought environments with high N fertilizer rates; (2 N application affected water consumption in different soil layers, and promoted wheat absorbing deeper soil water and so increased utilization of soil water; and (3 comprehensive consideration of yield and WUE of wheat indicated that the N rate of 270 kg/ha for Changhan No. 58 was better to avoid the risk of reduced production reduction due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, the N rate of 180 kg/ha was more economic. Materials and Methods: The study was a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three soil texture treatment, including silty clay loam, loam and sandy-loam soil and three fertility treatment, including without fertilizer, one and two percent fertilizer( It was conducted at the experimental farm in

  5. Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on radiocesium absorption in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Hirose, Atsushi; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive materials that were released during the nuclear accident contaminated the soil and agricultural products. It has become clear that potassium fertilization is effective for the reduction of radiocesium concentrations in agricultural crops. However, apart from reports about potassium, few reports have examined how nitrogen, which has a large effect on crop growth, contributes to the radiocesium absorption. Focusing on this point, we studied the effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer on the radiocesium absorption in soybean seedlings. The concentration of radiocesium in the seed of soybean was higher in nitrogen-fertilized plants than in plants grown without fertilizer. The radiocesium concentration in the aboveground biomass increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilization increased. But the concentrations of radiocesium were higher in potassium-fertilized plants at high-N than in plants without added nitrogen and potassium. Further study is required to clarify the factors that incur an increase in radiocesium concentration in response to nitrogen fertilization. Special care is required to start farming soybean on fallow fields evacuated after the accident or on fields where rice has been grown before, which tend to have higher available nitrogen than the regularly cultivated fields. (author)

  6. Simulasi Numeris Karakteristik Pembakaran CH4/CO2/Udara dan CH4/CO2/O2 pada Counterflow Premixed Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangga Wicaksono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The high amount of CO2 produced in a conventional biogas reactor needs to be considered. A further analysis is needed in order to investigate the effect of CO2 addition especially in thermal and chemical kinetics aspect. This numerical study has been held to analyze the effect of CO2 in CH4/CO2/O­2 and CH4/CO2/Air premixed combustion. In this study one dimensional analisys in a counterflow burner has been performed. The volume fraction of CO2 used in this study was 0%-40% from CH4’s volume fraction, according to the amount of CO2 in general phenomenon. Based on the flammability limits data, the volume fraction of CH4 used was 5-61% in O2 environment and 5-15% in air environment. The results showed a decreasing temperature along with the increasing percentage of CO2 in each mixtures, but the effect was quite smaller especially in stoichiometric and lean mixture. CO2 could affects thermally (by absorbing heat due to its high Cp and also made the production of unburnt fuel species such as CO relatively higher.

  7. Fertility and social interaction at the workplace: Does childbearing spread among colleagues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Sebastian; Leopold, Thomas; Engelhardt, Henriette

    2014-09-01

    This research investigates whether colleagues' fertility influences women's transitions to parenthood. We draw on Linked-Employer-Employee data (1993-2007) from the German Institute for Employment Research comprising 33,119 female co-workers in 6579 firms. Results from discrete-time hazard models reveal social interaction effects on fertility among women employed in the same firm. In the year after a colleague gave birth, transition rates to first pregnancy double. This effect declines over time and vanishes after two years. Further analyses suggest that the influence of colleagues' fertility is mediated by social learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) of twelve ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Holger; Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kiese, Ralf; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the metabolic quotient qCO2 - as sensitive and important parameters for soil fertility and C turnover - are strongly affected by land-use changes all over the world. These effects are particularly distinct upon conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems due to very fast carbon (C) and nutrient cycles and high vulnerability, especially in the tropics. In this study, we used an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to investigate the effects of land-use change and elevation on Corg, MBC and qCO2. Down to a soil depth of 18 cm we compared 4 natural (Helichrysum, Erica forest, Podocarpus forest, Ocotea forest), 5 seminatural (disturbed Podocarpus forest, disturbed Ocotea forest, lower montane forest, grassland, savannah), 1 sustainably used (homegarden) and 2 intensively used ecosystems (coffee plantation, maize field) on an elevation gradient from 950 to 3880 m a.s.l.. Using an incubation device, soil CO2-efflux of 18 cm deep soil cores was measured under field moist conditions and mean annual temperature. MBC to Corg ratios varied between 0.7 and 2.3%. qCO2 increased with magnitude of the disturbance, albeit this effect decreased with elevation. Following the annual precipitation of the ecosystems, both, Corg and MBC showed a hum-shaped distribution with elevation, whereas their maxima were between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l.. Additionaly, Corg and MBC contents were significantly reduced in intensively used agricultural systems. We conclude that the soil microbial biomass and its activity in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems are strongly altered by land-use. This effect is more distinct in lower than in higher elevated ecosystems and strongly dependent on the magnitude of disturbance.

  9. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) reduces the inhibitory effect of soil nitrate on N2 fixation of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterly, Clayton R; Armstrong, Roger; Chen, Deli; Tang, Caixian

    2016-01-01

    Additional carbohydrate supply resulting from enhanced photosynthesis under predicted future elevated CO2 is likely to increase symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes. This study examined the interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and nitrate (NO3(-)) concentration on the growth, nodulation and N fixation of field pea (Pisum sativum) in a semi-arid cropping system. Field pea was grown for 15 weeks in a Vertosol containing 5, 25, 50 or 90 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) under either ambient CO2 (aCO2; 390 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2; 550 ppm) using free-air CO2 enrichment (SoilFACE). Under aCO2, field pea biomass was significantly lower at 5 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) than at 90 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) soil. However, increasing the soil N level significantly reduced nodulation of lateral roots but not the primary root, and nodules were significantly smaller, with 85% less nodule mass in the 90 NO3(-)-N kg(-1) than in the 5 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) treatment, highlighting the inhibitory effects of NO3(-). Field pea grown under eCO2 had greater biomass (approx. 30%) than those grown under aCO2, and was not affected by N level. Overall, the inhibitory effects of NO3(-) on nodulation and nodule mass appeared to be reduced under eCO2 compared with aCO2, although the effects of CO2 on root growth were not significant. Elevated CO2 alleviated the inhibitory effect of soil NO3(-) on nodulation and N2 fixation and is likely to lead to greater total N content of field pea growing under future elevated CO2 environments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Effect of mineral N fertilizer reduction and organic fertilizer substitution on soil biological properties and aggregate characteristics in drip-irrigated cotton field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Tai, Rui; Wang, Dan; Chu, Gui-Xin

    2017-10-01

    A four year field study was conducted to determine how soil biological properties and soil aggregate stability changed when organic fertilizer and biofertilizer were used to reduce chemical fertilizer application to a drip irrigated cotton field. The study consisted of six fertilization treatments: unfertilized (CK); chemical fertilizer (CF, 300 kg N·hm -2 ; 90 kg P2O5 · hm -2 , 60 kg K2 O·hm -2 ); 80% CF plus 3000 kg·hm -2 organic fertilizer (80%CF+OF); 60% CF plus 6000 kg·hm -2 organic fertilizer (60%CF+OF); 80% CF plus 3000 kg·hm -2 biofertilizer (80%CF+BF); and 60% CF plus 6000 kg·hm -2 biofertilizer (60%CF+BF). The relationships among soil organic C, soil biological properties, and soil aggregate size distribution were determined. The results showed that organic fertilizer and biofertilizer both significantly increased soil enzyme activities. Compared with CF, the biofertilizer treatments increased urease activity by 55.6%-84.0%, alkaline phosphatise activity by 53.1%-74.0%, invertase activity by 15.1%-38.0%, β-glucosidase activity by 38.2%-68.0%, polyphenoloxidase activity by 29.6%-52.0%, and arylsulfatase activity by 35.4%-58.9%. Soil enzyme activity increased as the amount of organic fertilizer and biofertilizer increased (i.e., 60%CF+OF > 80%CF+OF, 60%CF+BF > 80%CF+BF). Soil basal respiration decreased significantly in the order BF > OF > CF > CK. Soil microbial biomass C and N were 22.3% and 43.5% greater, respectively, in 60%CF+BF than in CF. The microbial biomass C:N was significantly lower in 60%CF+BF than in CF. The organic fertilizer and the biofertilizer both improved soil aggregate structure. Soil mass in the >0.25 mm fraction was 7.1% greater in 80%CF+OF and 8.0% greater in (60%CF+OF) than in CF. The geometric mean diameter was 9.2% greater in 80%CF+BF than in 80%CF+OF. Redundancy analysis and cluster analysis both demonstrated that soil aggregate structure and biological activities increased when organic fertilizer and biofertilizer were

  11. Effect of cover crops on greenhouse gas emissions in an irrigated field under integrated soil fertility management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia, Guillermo; Abalos, Diego; García-Marco, Sonia; Quemada, Miguel; Alonso-Ayuso, María; Cárdenas, Laura M.; Dixon, Elizabeth R.; Vallejo, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Agronomical and environmental benefits are associated with replacing winter fallow by cover crops (CCs). Yet, the effect of this practice on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions remains poorly understood. In this context, a field experiment was carried out under Mediterranean conditions to evaluate the effect of replacing the traditional winter fallow (F) by vetch (Vicia sativa L.; V) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; B) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the intercrop and the maize (Zea mays L.) cropping period. The maize was fertilized following integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) criteria. Maize nitrogen (N) uptake, soil mineral N concentrations, soil temperature and moisture, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and GHG fluxes were measured during the experiment. Our management (adjusted N synthetic rates due to ISFM) and pedo-climatic conditions resulted in low cumulative N2O emissions (0.57 to 0.75 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1), yield-scaled N2O emissions (3-6 g N2O-N kg aboveground N uptake-1) and N surplus (31 to 56 kg N ha-1) for all treatments. Although CCs increased N2O emissions during the intercrop period compared to F (1.6 and 2.6 times in B and V, respectively), the ISFM resulted in similar cumulative emissions for the CCs and F at the end of the maize cropping period. The higher C : N ratio of the B residue led to a greater proportion of N2O losses from the synthetic fertilizer in these plots when compared to V. No significant differences were observed in CH4 and CO2 fluxes at the end of the experiment. This study shows that the use of both legume and nonlegume CCs combined with ISFM could provide, in addition to the advantages reported in previous studies, an opportunity to maximize agronomic efficiency (lowering synthetic N requirements for the subsequent cash crop) without increasing cumulative or yield-scaled N2O losses.

  12. Simulation of CO2 Injection in Porous Media with Structural Deformation Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is one of the most attractive methods to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by injecting it into the geological formations. Furthermore, it is also an effective mechanism for enhanced oil recovery

  13. Effects of Co{sup 2+} doping on physicochemical behaviors of hierarchical NiO nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Caihua [Beijing Key Laboratory of Construction Tailorable Advanced Functional Materials and Green Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Gao, WenChao [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Zhao, Yongjie, E-mail: zhaoyjpeace@gmail.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Construction Tailorable Advanced Functional Materials and Green Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Zhao, Yuzhen; Zhou, Heping [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Li, Jingbo; Jin, Haibo [Beijing Key Laboratory of Construction Tailorable Advanced Functional Materials and Green Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A series of Co{sup 2+} doped NiO materials were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. • Co{sup 2+} doping would bring about a series influence to the as-obtained NiO products. • Hierarchical NiO nanostructure transformed from nanosheets to nanoneedles with Co{sup 2+} doping. • The catalytic properties of NiO were significantly improved via the introduction of Co{sup 2+}. • Excellent catalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effect between Co{sup 2+} and NiO. - Abstract: A series of Co{sup 2+} doped NiO materials (Ni{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O with x = 0, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5) were synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method followed by a calcination process. The effects of Co{sup 2+} doping on the structural, morphological, magnetic and catalytic properties of NiO were systematically investigated. The results indicated that Co{sup 2+} doping would bring about a series influence to the as-obtained NiO product. The XRD results indicated that within the region of 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25 the doped products revealed a pure NiO phase. The elementary unit for the hierarchy NiO gradually transformed from nanosheets to nanoneedles with the increase of Co{sup 2+} doping content. As-obtained Co{sup 2+} doped NiO products showed ferromagnetism at room temperature and the magnetization value was increased with the increase of Co{sup 2+} doping content. The catalytic properties of NiO concerning the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) were significantly improved via the introduction of Co{sup 2+}. The Ni{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O products with x = 0.25 showed the best catalytic performance to AP, which could decrease the beginning and ending decomposition temperature of AP by 44 and 108 °C. The change of morphology, enhancement of electrical conductivity and the synergistic effect between Co{sup 2+} and NiO were the main factors responsible for the improvement of physicochemical behaviors.

  14. Effect of different phosphorus fertilizer rates on N-uptake, N-efficiency and zea maize yield in irrigated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of different rates of P fertilizer on N-uptake, N-efficiency and zea mays (C.V.Lg 11) were studied by use of 15 N technique. The main objectives of this study were to study effect of different level of P on N-utilization and determine the interaction between P and N on zea mays yield, and the efficiency of N-fertilizer during different stages of plant growth. The field experiment was conducted for two years 1985 and 1986. The treatments were 0, 80, 160 Kg N, as urea Co( 15 NH 2 ) 2 and 0, 40, 80, 160 Kg P 2 O 5 as triplsuperphophate. The experiment design was randomized block of four replicates for each treatment. Yield (grain and dry matter), utilization of urea, N-uptake, total N, N-yield, Ndff%, NDF% and A-values were determined. All results indicate that zea mays responds to the addition of nitrogen and the yield increases with the increase of added nitrogen. The highest yield was for N 2 (160 Kg) level during two seasons. Also zea mays responds clearly to phosphorus especially at stages 1 and 2, where dry matter yield increases with the increase of phosphorus rate. The highest yield was for P 3 (160 Kg) rate. While in grain stage the response was for rate P 1 (40 Kg) and P 2 (80 Kg) in comparison with control. However P 1 , rate was dominant over P 2 and P 3 . The effect of P 2 rate on grain yield was very little in comparison with P 1 , while P 3 decreases the grain yield during two seasons in comparison with control. There is an effect of N and P when added both or separately. There is also effect for interaction between them on the yield (grain and dry matter). Generally, from the previous data we can conclude that the rate 160 Kg N/ha and 40 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha were optimum rate for zea mays fertilization in Deir-Ezzor (Syria) and similar areas for grain yield. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  15. Effect of fertilization on the physiological maturation of sesame seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivan Isídio Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization and harvest time may influence the formation and maturation processes, as well as the physiological quality of seeds. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of fertilization on the physiological maturation of sesame seeds. The following variables were evaluated: fruit color, dry mass and water content of fruits and seeds, germination, first germination count, germination speed, emergence and emergence speed. No significant fertilization effect was observed on fruit maturation for water content or dry mass. However, there was significance for these variables in the seeds. The harvest time had a significant effect on water content and dry mass of fruits and seeds. For the variables that evaluated the seed viability and vigor, both the fertilization and harvest time influenced the physiological maturation. The physiological maturity of the sesame seeds, whose plants were grown with and without fertilization, was reached between 52 and 54 days after anthesis, when the fruits were classified as yellow-greenish 7.5 Y 8/6 and yellow to yellow-red 10.R 4/6.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Valdez, F., E-mail: flopez2072@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, C.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, F. [Natural and Energetic Resources, Cinvestav-Saltillo, C.P. 25900, Coahuila (Mexico); Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Luna-Suarez, S. [Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, C.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Dendooven, L. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N{sub 2}O emissions but not CO{sub 2} emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valdez, F; Fernández-Luqueño, F; Luna-Suárez, S; Dendooven, L

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO(2) and N(2)O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO(2) and N(2)O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N(2)O emissions but not CO(2) emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Elevated CO2 can modify the response to a water status gradient in a steppe grass: from cell organelles to photosynthetic capacity to plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanling; Xu, Zhenzhu; Zhou, Guangsheng; Liu, Tao

    2016-07-12

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration is rising continuously, and abnormal precipitation may occur more frequently in the future. Although the effects of elevated CO2 and drought on plants have been well reported individually, little is known about their interaction, particularly over a water status gradient. Here, we aimed to characterize the effects of elevated CO2 and a water status gradient on the growth, photosynthetic capacity, and mesophyll cell ultrastructure of a dominant grass from a degraded grassland. Elevated CO2 stimulated plant biomass to a greater extent under moderate changes in water status than under either extreme drought or over-watering conditions. Photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance were also enhanced by elevated CO2 under moderate drought, but inhibited with over-watering. Severe drought distorted mesophyll cell organelles, but CO2 enrichment partly alleviated this effect. Intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) and total biomass water use efficiency (WUEt) were increased by elevated CO2, regardless of water status. Plant structural traits were also found to be tightly associated with photosynthetic potentials. The results indicated that CO2 enrichment alleviated severe and moderate drought stress, and highlighted that CO2 fertilization's dependency on water status should be considered when projecting key species' responses to climate change in dry ecosystems.

  19. Effect of CO_2 dilution on combustion and emissions characteristics of the hydrogen-enriched gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuofeng; Ji, Changwei; Zhang, Bo; Cong, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    CO_2 (Carbon dioxide) dilution is a feasible way for controlling NOx (Nitrogen oxides) emissions and loads of the internal combustion engines. This paper investigated the effect of CO_2 dilution on the combustion and emissions characteristics of a hydrogen-enriched gasoline engine. The experiment was conducted on a 1.6 L spark-ignition engine with electronically controlled hydrogen and gasoline injection systems. At two hydrogen volume fractions of 0 and 3%, the CO_2 volume fraction in the intake was gradually increased from 0 to 4%. The fuel-air mixtures were kept at the stoichiometric. The experimental results demonstrated that brake mean effective pressure of the gasoline engine was quickly reduced after adopting CO_2 dilution. Comparatively, Bmep (Brake mean effective pressure) of the 3% hydrogen-enriched engine was gently decreased with the increase of CO_2 dilution level. Thermal efficiency of the 3% hydrogen-enriched gasoline engine was raised under properly increased CO_2 dilution levels. However, thermal efficiency of the pure gasoline engine was generally dropped after the CO_2 dilution. The addition of hydrogen could shorten flame development and propagation durations under CO_2 diluent conditions for the gasoline engine. Increasing CO_2 fraction in the intake caused the dropped NOx and raised HC (Hydrocarbon) emissions. Increasing hydrogen fraction in the intake could effectively reduce HC emissions under CO_2 diluent conditions. - Highlights: • CO_2 dilution reduces cooling loss and NOx of H_2-enriched gasoline engines. • H_2-blended gasoline engine gains better efficiency after CO_2 dilution. • CoVimep of H_2-blended gasoline engine is kept at low level after CO_2 addition. • CO_2 dilution has small effect on reducing Bmep of H_2-blended gasoline engine.

  20. Effects of wood ash fertilization on forest floor greenhouse gas emissions and tree growth in nutrient poor drained peatland forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernfors, M.; Sikstroem, U.; Nilsson, M.; Klemedtsson, L.

    2010-01-01

    Wood ash (3.1, 3.3 or 6.6 tonnes dry weight ha -1 ) was used to fertilize two drained and forested peatland sites in southern Sweden. The sites were chosen to represent the Swedish peatlands that are most suitable for ash fertilization, with respect to stand growth response. The fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from the forest floor, measured using opaque static chambers, were monitored at both sites during 2004 and 2005 and at one of the sites during the period 1 October 2007-1 October 2008. No significant (p > 0.05) changes in forest floor greenhouse gas exchange were detected. The annual emissions of CO 2 from the sites varied between 6.4 and 15.4 tonnes ha -1 , while the CH 4 fluxes varied between 1.9 and 12.5 kg ha -1 . The emissions of N 2 O were negligible. Ash fertilization increased soil pH at a depth of 0-0.05 m by up to 0.9 units (p 2 ha -1 year -1 and 0.52 m 2 ha -1 year -1 , respectively). The stand biomass, which was calculated using tree biomass functions, was not significantly affected by the ash treatment. The groundwater levels during the 2008 growing season were lower in the high ash dose plots than in the corresponding control plots (p < 0.05), indicating increased evapotranspiration as a result of increased tree growth. The larger basal area increment and the lowered groundwater levels in the high ash dose plots suggest that fertilization promoted tree growth, while not affecting greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. The Effects of Biological Fertilizers, Chemical Fertilizers and Manure Application on Some Qualitative Characteristics of Vicia villosa Roth Forage under Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fertilizer management plays an important role in successful crop production. The biological fertilizers have been suggested not only to elimination or significant reduction of chemical fertilizer dependency but also increase of soil fertility and improvement of crop yield and quality. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications at the Research Greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The experimental treatments included 1- mycorrhizae arbuscular (Glomus mosseae, 2- mycorrhizae arbuscular (Glomus mosseae + vermicompost (M+V, 3- mycorrhizae + nitroxein (included bacteria Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. (M+N, 4- mycorrhizae arbuscular + Rhizobium (R. legominuzarum (M+R, 5-mycorrhizae arbuscular + NPK Chemical fertilizer (40-40-20 (M+NPK and 6- Control (without fertilizer, C. In bio-fertilizer treatments, seeds were inoculated by mycorrhizae and Rhizobium immediately before planting, according the standard conditions and company recommendations. Chemical fertilizer and vermicompost were applied directly into the soil. The first irrigation was done immediately after planting and an additional irrigation was also done 4 days after planting to improve the seedling emergence. Subsequent irrigations were conducted at 10-days interval. Forage samples were collected at stage of 10% open bud. The samples were oven-dried in 70°C for 48 h and then weighed before being ground to pass through a 1-mm sieve. Both chemical analysis and in vitro digestibility assessments were performed in triplicate. Crud protein (CP, Ash, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF content of forages were measured by standard methods. An in vitro gas production method was conducted to determine the dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility. All data were subjected to ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS 9.1 and means were compared by using LSD-test at 5

  2. The Rule of Organic Fertilizer on Fertilizer Efficiency and Requirement Rate for Vegetable Crop on Inceptisols Ciherang, Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladiyani Retno Widowati

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of organic fertilizer is an alternative to increase soil health and supply a small amount of plant nutrient. Meanwhile agricultural soil in Indonesia commonly have low organic carbon content (<2% therefore application of organic fertilizer is recommended. Based on that, the aim of the research is to measure the effectiveness of organic fertilizer on caisim (Brassica chinensis L. growth, to measure the release of N-NO3- and N-NH4+, to determine the recommendation of organic fertilizer for caisim on Incentisols Ciherang, Bogor. The research had been conducted at Research and Soil Testing Laboratory and green house of Soil Research Institute, Laladon – Bogor on April to July 2008 using soil sample of Inceptisols Ciherang, Bogor. The treatments were: Control (no fertilizer, NPK, NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ¾ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ½ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ¼ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, organic fertilizer 500kg, organic fertilizer 1000 kg, NPK + 750 kg organic fertilizer, and NPK + 250 kg organic fertilizer. The five replications research had been conducted with Completely Randomized Design. The result indicated thats: (1 NPK fertilizer increased with addition of organic fertilizer approved by the evidence of increasing of plant high 2-10%, leaves number 1-2%, and crop production 16-36%. The relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of treatment NPK+various rate of organic fertilizer were higher than NPK alone with value of 136-181%. (2 The release of NH4+-N and NO3--N from anorganic fertilizer (NPK treatment in four weeks incubation period showed balance proportion with N rate. Nitrogen released from organic fertilizer in the same incubation period are 5.39 mg NH4+-N kg-1 and 12.39 mg NO3- -N kg-1. (3 The best organic fertilizer rate based on fertilizer curve for Inceptisols Cicadas-Bogor having low C and N-organic is 560 kg organic fertilizer + NPK (300 kg Urea ha-1; 50 kg SP-36 ha-1; 50 kg KCl ha-1 produce

  3. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2016-01-01

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000 mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F 0 and F 1 Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100 mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F 0 Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000 mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F 2 total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000 mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F 2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F 2 progeny of irradiated F 0 Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. - Highlights: • Viability of irradiated daphnids and their F 1 progeny is compromised. • Viability of the F 2 progeny of irradiated parents is not affected. • Total fertility of irradiated daphnids and their F 1 progeny declines with the dose. • Total fertility of the F 2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is compromised. • The decreased fertility among the F 2 progeny is transgenerational phenomenon.

  4. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I. [Department of Biology, Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering NRNU MEPhI, Studgorodok,1, Obninsk, Kaluga Region 249040 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Kashirskoe Highway, 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkina Str. 3, 11933 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000 mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F{sub 0} and F{sub 1}Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100 mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F{sub 0}Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000 mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F{sub 2} total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000 mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F{sub 2} progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F{sub 2} progeny of irradiated F{sub 0}Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. - Highlights: • Viability of irradiated daphnids and their F{sub 1} progeny is compromised. • Viability of the F{sub 2} progeny of irradiated parents is not affected. • Total fertility of irradiated daphnids and their F{sub 1} progeny declines with the dose. • Total fertility of the F{sub 2} progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is compromised. • The decreased fertility among the F{sub 2} progeny is transgenerational phenomenon.

  5. Numerical analysis of capillary entrapment for effective CO{sub 2} aquifer storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uelker, B.; Pusch, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik; May, F. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    The success of underground CO{sub 2} sequestration projects relies on the ability of keeping CO{sub 2} immobilized. The risk of CO{sub 2} leakage into the atmosphere through faults, cap rock formations or wellbore must be evaluated for the long term safety of storage. In case of CO{sub 2} sequestration in a saline aquifer capillary trapping of CO{sub 2} is one of the essential mechanisms controlling the upward and lateral migration of CO{sub 2} plumes after the injection phase. Therefore, assessment of CO{sub 2} immobilization requires accurate modelling of multi phase flow performance. A generic reservoir model was created to examine the impact of the relative permeabilities and capillary forces on capillary trapping. This study reveals how the mechanism of capillary trapping is affected by varying the CO{sub 2} injection rate, hysteresis between drainage and imbibition processes and residual phase saturations. The leakage risk of injected CO{sub 2} in vertical and horizontal wells was also compared to identify the effective injection geometry. Vertical injection across the entire storage formation interval leads to extensive contact with cap rock and leakage through it. Horizontal wells located in the lower part of the formation both increase the aquifer utilization and eliminate contact with cap rock immediately. Thus horizontal wells can be an alternative to inject more CO{sub 2} and minimize leakage. (orig.)

  6. Effect of foliar fertilization on Ananas comosus L. Merr. cv. `Cayena lisa' acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortelio Hurtado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The low survival and slow growth of in vitro pineapple plants (Ananas comosus L. Merr. in acclimatization stage limit the use of biotechnological techniques for it propagation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of foliar fertilization in the acclimatization of pineapple plants cv. `Smooth Cayenne'. Two variants of foliar fertilization were compared. The first, plants were fertilized daily after the last irrigation with a minimum dose increased until three months of culture. The second included the same fertilizer at maximum dose with daily dose foliar applications after the last irrigation 10 days from planting to three months of cultivation. As a control, unfertilized plants were included. Every 20 days to three months of culture height (cm of plants was measured, the number of leaves per plant was quantified and the length and width of the leaves was measured. It was observed that fertilization had effect under the experimental conditions tested on the plants variables. After 90 days of culture plants obtained in the treatment with daily fertilization at maximun dose (option 2, met the requirements of height, length and width of the leaf for transplantation to field conditions. Key words: pineapple, propagation, zeolite

  7. CO2 emissions and mitigation potential in China's ammonia industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenji; Zhu Bing; Li Qiang; Ma Tieju; Hu Shanying; Griffy-Brown, Charla

    2010-01-01

    Significant pressure from increasing CO 2 emissions and energy consumption in China's industrialization process has highlighted a need to understand and mitigate the sources of these emissions. Ammonia production, as one of the most important fundamental industries in China, represents those heavy industries that contribute largely to this sharp increasing trend. In the country with the largest population in the world, ammonia output has undergone fast growth spurred by increasing demand for fertilizer of food production since 1950s. However, various types of technologies implemented in the industry make ammonia plants in China operate with huge differences in both energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. With consideration of these unique features, this paper attempts to estimate the amount of CO 2 emission from China's ammonia production, and analyze the potential for carbon mitigation in the industry. Based on the estimation, related policy implications and measures required to realize the potential for mitigation are also discussed.

  8. Towards CO2 sequestration and applications of CO2 hydrates: the effects of tetrahydrofuran on the phase equilibria of CO2 hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalik, M.S.; Peters, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing quantity of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere has caused widespread global concerns. Capturing CO 2 from its sources and stored it in the form of gas hydrates and application of CO 2 hydrates are among the proposed methods to overcome this problem. In order to make hydrate-based process more attractive, the use of cyclic ethers as promoters is suggested to reduce the required hydrate formation pressure and enhancing the corresponding kinetic rate. In the present work, tetrahydrofuran (THF) is chosen as a hydrate promoter, participating in forming hydrates and produces mixed hydrate together with CO 2 . The pressure and temperature ranges of hydrate stability region are carefully determined through phase equilibrium measurement of the ternary CO 2 , tetrahydrofuran (THF) and water systems. From the experimental results, it is confirmed that the presence of THF in CO 2 + water systems will extend the hydrate formation region to higher temperature at a constant pressure. The extension of the hydrate stability region is depended on the overall concentration of the ternary system. Moreover, four-phase equilibrium of H-Lw-Lv-V is observed in the system, which may be due to a liquid phase split. In the region where the four-phase equilibrium exists, the ternary system loses its concentration dependency of the hydrate equilibrium conditions. (Author)

  9. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO[sub 2], PaCO[sub 2], HCO[sub 3][sup -], PH and cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatani, Akio; Akutsu, Tooru; Yoshida, Michihiko; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Seo, Hiroshi (Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-09-01

    To estimate the quantitative reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO[sub 2], arterial partial pressure of CO[sub 2] (PaCO[sub 2]), HCO[sub 3][sup -], pH and CBF were examined. The CBF was measured by [sup 133]Xe inhalation method with ring type SPECT (HEADTOME). Activation study with sodium bicarbonate administration was performed after 30 minutes of resting study, and the reactivity of each parameters was investigated. The arterial HCO[sub 3][sup -] and pH increased with similar reactivity, but PaCO[sub 2], end-tidal CO[sub 2] and CBF in the non-injured hemisphere changed with irregular reactivity. The excellent correlation between PaCO[sub 2] and end-tidal CO[sub 2] was vanished by the administration of sodium bicarbonate. The reactivity of CBF did not correlate with reactivity of PaCO[sub 2] and end-tidal CO[sub 2], but correlated with arterial HCO[sub 3][sup -] and pH. Thus the measurement of arterial HCO[sub 3][sup -] and pH may be indispensable to estimate the CBF reactivity with the administration of sodium bicarbonate. (author).

  10. [Effects of plastic film mulching on soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration in an oasis cotton field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-xiang; Zhao, Cheng-yi; Jia, Hong-tao; Yu, Bo; Zhou, Tian-he; Yang, Yu-guang; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration between mulched and non-mulched cotton fields by using closed chamber method and diffusion chamber technique. Soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration exhibited a similar seasonal pattern, decreasing from July to October. Mulched field had a lower soil CO2 efflux but a higher CO2 concentration, compared to those of non-mulched fields. Over the measurement period, cumulative CO2 efflux was 1871.95 kg C . hm-2 for mulched field and 2032.81 kg C . hm-2 for non-mulched field. Soil CO2 concentration was higher in mulched field (ranging from 5137 to 25945 µL . L-1) than in non- mulched field (ranging from 2165 to 23986 µL . L-1). The correlation coefficients between soil CO2 concentrations at different depths and soil CO2 effluxes were 0.60 to 0.73 and 0.57 to 0.75 for the mulched and non-mulched fields, indicating that soil CO2 concentration played a crucial role in soil CO2 emission. The Q10 values were 2.77 and 2.48 for the mulched and non-mulched fields, respectively, suggesting that CO2 efflux in mulched field was more sensitive to the temperature.

  11. Effects of Corn Straw Returning and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Methods on N2O Emission from Wheat Growing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a wheat field experiment, the effect of four treatments such as no-straw returning (SN, straw returning (SR, control release fertilizer application(SRC and nitrogen drilling(SRR on N2O emission was studied using the static chamber method and the gas chromatographic technique. The results indicated that the wheat field was the sources of N2O emission. The N2O emission peaks followed each time of fertilizer application and irrigation, and usually continued for 1~2 weeks. N2O emissions accounted for more than 40% of total emissions during the N2O emission peak. The amount of N2O emission during three growing stage of wheat from high to low was arranged in turn pre-wintering period, post-wintering period and wintering period. N2O emission could be increased by straw returning. Compared with SN, N2O emission could be enhanced by 48.6% under SR. Both SRC and SRR could decrease the N2O emission, increase wheat yield and economic benefit, especially the latter. Nitrogen drilling is a good method for yield increment and N2O abatement.

  12. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND 03 ON RICE AND FLACCA TOMATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    All atmospheric concentrations of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (03) are increasing, with potentially dramatic effects on plants. This study was conducted to determine interactive effects of CO2 and 03 on rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR 74) and a 'wilty' mutant of tomato (Lyco...

  13. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Powell, Kevin S.; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J.; Yen, Alan L.; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Luck, Jo E.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production. PMID:26941044

  14. [Effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions and their global warming potentials in paddy fields with double-rice cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Shen, Jian-Lin; Zheng, Liang; Liu, Jie-Yun; Qin, Hong-Ling; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-Shui

    2014-08-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions, which were measured using the static chamber/gas chromatography method, and their global warming potentials in typical paddy fields with double-rice cropping in Hunan province. The results showed that the combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers did not change the seasonal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy soils, but significantly changed the magnitudes of CH4 and N2O fluxes in rice growing seasons as compared with sole application of chemical fertilizers. During the two rice growing seasons, the cumulative CH4 emissions for the pig manure and chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer each contributing to 50% of the total applied N (1/2N + PM) treatment were higher than those for the treatments of no N fertilizer (ON), half amount of chemical N fertilizer (1/2N) and 100% chemical N fertilizer (N) by 54.83%, 33.85% and 43.30%, respectively (P global warming potential (GWP) in both rice growing seasons, which contributed more than 99% to the integrated GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions for all the four treatments. Both GWP and yield-scaled GWP for the treatment of 1/2N + PM were significantly higher than the other three treatments. The yield-scaled GWP for the treatment of 1/2N + PM was higher than those for the N, 1/2N and ON treatments by 58.21%, 26.82% and 20. 63%, respectively. Therefore, combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers in paddy fields would increase the GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions during rice growing seasons and this effect should be considered in regional greenhouse gases emissions inventory.

  15. Food restriction but not fish oil increases fertility in hens: role of RARRES2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Namya; Ramé, Christelle; Delaveau, Joël; Rat, Christophe; Marchand, Maxime; Mercerand, Frédéric; Travel, Angélique; Brionne, Aurélien; Chartrin, Pascal; Ma, Linlin; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2018-04-01

    Overfed hens selected for their rapid growth become fatter and develop reproductive disorders. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that food restriction leading to a weight reduction and/or a supplementation with fish oil may be effective in preventing reproductive disorders through the regulation of adipokine expression in broiler hens. This study included four groups of food restricted (Rt) or ad libitum hens (Ad, feeding at a rate 1.7 times greater than Rt hens) supplemented or unsupplemented with fish oil (1%). The Rt diet significantly increased plasma chemerin (RARRES2) levels during the laying period, delayed sexual maturity by one week and improved egg quality and fertility. These effects were associated with higher progesterone production in response to IGF1 (or LH) in cultured granulosa cells and in vivo egg yolk, as compared with Ad hens. Fish oil supplementation had similar effects to the Rt diet on progesterone ( P  food restriction but not fish oil supplementation improved fertility, and this was associated with variations in RARRES2 plasma and ovarian expression in hens. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  16. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 2: Judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westling, O.; Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    1995-12-01

    The ecological effects of forest fertilization have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in an earlier report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), included the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part is presented here, and contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. The general consensus of this EIA is that the forest fertilization plans drawn up by STORA will not negatively affect the use of the forest as a natural resource in an ecologically sound way, taken into account that the guidelines included in the EIA are followed. The possible environmental effects of a 10 to 20 year period from onset of the plan were studied in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. The recommendations given in this EIA include the choice of forest stands for fertilization, environmental awareness, amount of fertilizer applied, frequency of applications, application procedures and effects follow up, communications, and documentation of the events. 69 refs, 14 tabs

  17. The effect of elevated CO2 on the vegetative and generative growth of Phalaenopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Kromwijk, J.A.M.; Meinen, E.; Dueck, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Phalaenopsis is a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant which absorbs and binds CO2 as malate during the night. During daytime the stomata close and the CO2 stored in the vacuole is released and used for photosynthesis. Because the CO2 taken up by CAM plants was assumed to be unaffected by the CO2 concentration in the air, additional CO2 for increased growth was generally not supplied in Phalaenopsis. However, a literature study indicated that elevated CO2 might have a positive effect in P...

  18. The Effect of Molybdenum Fertilization on Arachis Glabrata Biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of molybdenum fertilization on biomass and the number of nodules of Arachis glabrata was assessed at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Dschang in 2011 at different periods of mowing. A factorial design comparing four doses of molybdenum as ammonium molybdate (0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.25 ...

  19. Measurements of 27 elements in garden and lawn fertilizers using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Five locally available garden and lawn fertilizers were analyzed for elemental content using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The fertilizers were labeled as High Yield; Slow Release, 13-13-13; 16-8-4 and 28-4-4. The concentration ranges of the elements measured, in μg/g, were: Ba < 10-105; Br 0.55-272; Co 0.33-3.74; Cr 10.0-42.5; Cs 0.09-1.02; Eu 0.05-0.42; Fe 1840-9830; Ga < 1-4.6; Ge < 0.1-1.23; Hf 0.07-2.32; La 1.66-10.4; Na 57.6-3990; Nd < 9; Ni < 3-12.3; Rb 2.42-48.5; Sb 0.03-0.24; Sc 0.3-3.11; Se 2.68-10.2; Sm < 0.4-2.13; Sr 21.7-214; Ta < 0.01-0.052; Tb 0.05-0.28; Th 0.52-2.16; U 0.18-0.38; Zn 10.8-233 and Zr < 1-8.95. Some of these elements are recognized as micronutritiens (e.g., Fe and (Zn), and are necessary for plant growth. However, other elements may lead to undesirable environmental effects. The undiscriminating use of fertilizers, especially in home gardening, may result in the increase of toxic elements (Co, Cr, Se, Sb, Tb, U etc.) in the underground water supply. (author) 6 refs.; 1 tab

  20. The effect of plant population and nitrogen fertilizer on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad reza asgaripor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest has increased towards hemp (Cannabis sativa L. fibre production due to renewed demand for natural fibre in the world. A Study was conducted in 2005 at Shirvan in Northern Khorasan province, Iran, to determine the effects of three plant populations (30, 90 and 150 plant per m2 and three rates of nitrogen application (50, 150 and 250 kg N per ha on final stand, stalk height, basal stalk diameter, total stalk yield as well as fibre content from stalk and fibre yield in male and female plants. A split plot experimental with three replications was used. The result indicated that due to enhanced competition for light at higher population on density and N2 level plant mortality was higher than other treatment Morphological characteristics were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Highest stem, leaf and inflorescence yield were obtained at 250 plant m-2 when 150 kg N ha-1 was used. Lowest plant density did not show self-thinning but reduced above ground dry matter. Shoot dry matter increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen supply. Apparently, fibre content was greater at medium density and lowest nitrogen fertilizer, however, fibre yield was greatest at highest plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. In terms of fibre yield, approximate 31.7% of the fibre was located in the bottom parts, 22.4% in the middle and only 9.9% in the top part of the stem. The results suggest that hemp can yield large quantities of useful fibre at Shirvan when planted in proper plant densities and suitable nitrogen fertilizer.

  1. Reconciling top-down and bottom-up estimates of CO2 fluxes to understand increased seasonal exchange in Northern ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, A.; Ciais, P.; Zhu, D.; Maignan, F.; Wang, X.; Chevallier, F.; Ballantyne, A.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous atmospheric CO2 monitoring data indicate enhanced seasonal exchange in the high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (above 40oN), mainly attributed to terrestrial ecosystems. Whether this enhancement is mostly explained by increased vegetation growth due to CO2 fertilization and warming, or by changes in land-use and land-management practices is still an unsettled question (e.g. Forkel et al. (2016) and Zeng et al. (2013)). Previous studies have shown that models present variable performance in capturing trends in CO2 amplitude at CO2 monitoring sites, and that Earth System Models present large spread in their estimates of such trends. Here we integrate data of atmospheric CO2 exchange in terrestrial ecosystems by a set of atmospheric CO2 inversions and a range of land-surface models to evaluate the ability of models to reproduce changes in CO2 seasonal exchange within the observation uncertainty. We then analyze the factors that explain the model spread to understand if the trend in seasonal CO2 amplitude may indeed be a useful metric to constrain future changes in terrestrial photosynthesis (Wenzel et al., 2016). We then compare model simulations with satellite and other observation-based datasets of vegetation productivity, biomass stocks and land-cover change to test the contribution of natural (CO2 fertilization, climate) and human (land-use change) factors to the increasing trend in seasonal CO2 amplitude. Forkel, Matthias, et al. "Enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange caused by amplified plant productivity in northern ecosystems." Science 351.6274 (2016): 696-699. Wenzel, Sabrina, et al. "Projected land photosynthesis constrained by changes in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2." Nature 538, no. 7626 (2016): 499-501.Zeng, Ning, et al. "Agricultural Green Revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude." Nature 515.7527 (2014): 394.

  2. Effects of Red-mud and Organic Fertilizer on Cadmium and Lead Absorption and Distribution in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANG Ya-yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of red mud and organic fertilizer on distribution of cadmium(Cd and lead (Pb in soil-rice system were studied in field by orthogonal test. Results showed that after red mud and organic fertilizer added including single and combined, the soil pH value increased 0.36~1.90 units, contents of Cd and Pb in rice rhizosphere soil decreased 2.73%~26.25% and 7.15%~34.26% respectively and contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased 23.24%~55.90% and 11.76%~29.41% respectively. In all treatments, single red mud was best, followed by red mud and organic fertilizer combined, single organic fertilizer was worst. The content of Cd and Pb in different rice organs with addition of red mud and organic fertilizer decreased significantly, the contribution rate of Cd and Pb at different stages changed obviously, and influences of adding quantity and fertilizing method were also significant. Different treatments had different effects on contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice. Compared with CK, red mud (4 000 kg·hm-2 was the best for Cd, combination of red mud (4 000 kg·hm-2 and organic fertilizer (1 000 kg·hm-2was the best for Pb, the contents of which were 55.90% and 29.41% less than the control respectively. Although contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased significantly after red mud and organic fertilizer added, contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice were still higher than national food safety standards (GB 2762-2012 because of high polluted degree of Cd (65 times than standard and Pb(7 times than standard in soil. All results showed it was ineffective to control heavy metal pollution in brown rice only by red mud and organic fertilizer addition in high polluted degree soils.

  3. Nitrification and N2O production processes in soil incubations after ammonium fertilizer application at high concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of ammonium as they occur, e.g., after point-injection of ammonium fertilizer solution according to the CULTAN fertilization technique may retard nitrification. Potential advantages in comparison to conventional fertilization include a higher N efficiency of crops, reduced nitrate leaching, and lower N2O and N2 emissions. Dynamics of nitrification due to plant uptake and dilution processes, leading to decreasing ammonium concentrations in fertilizer depots, has only poorly been studied before. Furthermore, there is little information about the relative contribution of different N2O production processes under these conditions. To elucidate the process dynamics a laboratory incubation study was conducted. After fertilization with ammonium sulfate at 5 levels (from 0 to 5000 mg NH4+-N kg-1; 20mg NO3--N kg-1 each), sandy loam soil was incubated in dynamic soil microcosms for 21 days. N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes as well as isotope signatures of N2O and, at three dates, NO3- and NH4+ were measured. To identify N2O production processes, acetylene inhibition (0.01 vol.%), 15N tracer approaches, and isotopomer data (15N site preference and δ18O) were used. N2O emissions were highest at 450mg NH4+-N kg-1 and declined with further increasing concentrations. At 5000 mg NH4+-N kg-1 nitrification was completely inhibited. However, approximately 90% of N2O production was inhibited by acetylene application, and there was no change in the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O production with N level. Applying the non-equilibrium technique to our 15N tracer data revealed heterogeneous distribution of denitrification in soil, with at least two distinct NO3- pools, and spatial separation of NO3- formation and consumption. In comparison with the acetylene inhibition and 15N tracer approaches the results of the isotopomer approach were reasonable and indicated substantial contribution of nitrifier-denitrification (10-40%) to total N2O

  4. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Petit, Camille; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Response of biomass and nitrogen yield of white clover to radiation and atmospheric CO2 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderscheid, R.; Bender, J.; Schenk, U.; Weigel, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to test (i) whether the effect of season-long CO 2 enrichment on plant dry matter production of white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Karina) depends on the temperature or can solely be explained by changes in radiation use efficiency, and (ii) whether the atmospheric CO 2 concentration affects the relationship between tissue %N and plant biomass. Plants were grown in pots with adequate nutrient and water supply and were exposed to ambient and above ambient CO 2 concentrations (approximately +80 ppm, +160 ppm, +280 ppm) in open-top chambers for two seasons. Nitrogen fertilizer was given only before the experiment started to promote N 2 fixation. Plants were clipped to a height of 5 cm, when the canopy had reached a height of about 20 cm and when the CO 2 effect had not been diminished due to self-shading of the leaves. Photon exposure (400–700 nm) measured above the canopy was linearly related to the above ground biomass, the leaf area index and the nitrogen yield (r 2 > 0.94). The slopes of the curves depended on the CO 2 concentration. Since most of the radiation (>90%) was absorbed by the foliage, the slopes were used to calculate the CO 2 effect on the radiation use efficiency of biomass production, which is shown to increase curvilinearly between 380 and 660 ppm CO 2 from 2.7 g MJ −1 to 3.9 g MJ −1 . CO 2 enrichment increased above ground biomass by increasing the leaf number, the individual leaf weight and the leaf area; specific leaf weight was not affected. The relative CO 2 response varied between harvests; there was a slight but not significant positive relationship with mean daytime temperature. At the beginning of the season, plant nitrogen concentration in the above ground biomass was decreased by CO 2 enrichment. However, at later growth stages, when the plants depended solely on N 2 fixation, nitrogen concentration was found to be increased when the nitrogen concentration value was adjusted for the decrease

  7. Effects of CO2 gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Ravi; Colls, Jeremy J; Steven, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO2 leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response...... detection field facility developed at the University of Nottingham was used to inject CO2 gas at a controlled flow rate (1 l min-1) into soil to simulate build-up of soil CO2 concentrations and surface fluxes from two land use types: pasture grassland, and fallow followed by winter bean. Mean soil CO2....... This study showed adverse effects of CO2 gas on agro-ecosystem in case of leakage from storage sites to surface....

  8. Accelerated Rates of Nitrogen Cycling and N2O Production in Salt Marsh Sediments due to Long-Term Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X.; Ji, Q.; Angell, J.; Kearns, P.; Bowen, J. L.; Ward, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Intensified sedimentary production of nitrous oxide (N2O), one of the most potent greenhouse gases, is one of the many possible environmental consequences of elevated nitrogen (N) loading into estuarine ecosystems. This study investigates the response to over 40 years of fertilization of nitrogen removal processes in the sediments of the Great Sippewissett Marsh in Falmouth, MA. Sediment slurries were incubated (1.5 hr) with trace amounts (fertilized sediments (0.89 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight) was 30-fold higher than in unfertilized sediments. The ratio of N2O to N2 production was also significantly higher in fertilized sediments (2.9%) than in unfertilized sediments (1.2%). This highlights the disproportionally large effect of long-term fertilization on N2O production in salt marsh sediments. The reduced oxygen level and higher ammonium concentrations in situ probably contributed to the significant rise in N2O production as a result of long-term fertilization. When detected, anammox and coupled nitrification-denitrification accounted for 10% and 14% of the total N2 production in fertilized sediments (30.5 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight), respectively, whereas neither was detected in unfertilized sediments. Thus these experiments indicate that N loading has important effects on multiple N cycle processes that result in N loss and N2O production.

  9. Effect of Number of Spermatozoa, Oviduct Condition and Timing of Artificial Insemination on Fertility and Fertile Period of Kampung Rooster Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study was carried out to determine the optimum fertility and fertile period using the number of spermatozoa, oviduct condition and timing of insemination of native rooster spermatozoa. Ninety six commercial Isa brown pullets and nine kampung roosters were used in this study in a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement with one bird in a cage constituting a unit. The factor levels were the number of spermatozoa (50, 100 and 150 million/0.1 ml, oviduct condition (hard-shelled eggs and free hard-shelled eggs, and timing of artificial insemination (in the morning, at 7 AM and in the afternoon, at 4 PM.  The results showed that among the treatments there was no significant interaction to fertility and fertile period. Insemination with 50 million sperm number seemed to be the same result with the other 2 treatments. Oviduct condition had a highly significant difference on fertility and fertile period percentage, and timing of insemination did not differ between morning and afternoon.  In conclusion, the only oviduct condition (free hard-shelled eggs was the best results for insemination in terms of fertility and fertile period of native roosters.  It is recommended that for the maximum fertility and fertile period, hens should be inseminated with 50 million spermatozoa, free of hard-shelled eggs and insemination performed in the morning or in the afternoon.   Keywords: timing of artificial insemination, fertility, fertile period, semen dose, oviduct condition Animal Production 14(1:32-36, January 2012

  10. Development Of Silica Potassium Fertilizers From Trass Rock With Calcination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyusi, KN; Siswanto

    2018-01-01

    Rocks and sand mines have important benefits for life. With the many benefits of rocks, it is a pity if Indonesia has a lot of raw material reserves waste it. Examples of the benefits of rocks that can be converted into silica potassium fertilizer by reacting with potassium hydroxide. Examples of rocks that can be taken trass rock. The procedure for making silica potassium is by reacting 100 mesh trass rock with KOH and K2CO3 reagents whose composition is arranged by weight ratio, where the base of the trass rock is 100 gr. The process is carried out at a temperature of 1.250 °C with a reaction time of 1 hour. The results obtained are the best silica potassium fertilizer for K2CO3 reagent which is 500gr: 74gr with SiO2 content: 26.8% and K2O content: 27.3%, with water solubility 24.02%, while for silica potassium fertilizer product from The best trass rock for KOH reagent is with a mol ratio of 400 gr : 60 gr with SiO2 content : 23.6% and K2O content: 22.2%, with 25.65% water solubility. The pore size of silica potassium fertilizer product of this trass rock, the range 350 - 1000 nm.

  11. [Effects of different fertilization measures on N2O emission in oil sunflower field in irrigation area of upper Yellow River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Ji; Liu, Ru-liang; Yang, Zheng-li; Zhang, Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural soil has become the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20). To estimate the impacts of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on N20 emission in a typical winter wheat-oil sunflower cropping system in the Ningxia irrigation area, we measured N20 fluxes using the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method and monitored the seasonal dynamics of related factors. Our results showed that nitrogen addition in the previous crop field significantly stimulated N2O emissions during the following oil-sunflower cultivation, and the mean fluxes of N300-OM, N240-OM1/2, N300 and N240 were (34.16 ± 9.72), (39.69 ±10.70), (27.75 ±9.57) and (26.30 ± 8.52) µg . m-2 . h-1, respectively, which were 4.09, 4.75, 3.32 and 3.15 times of the control groups. The total cumulative N2O emissions of fertilizer treatments in growing season was as high as 796.7 to 1242.5 g . hm-2, which was 2.99 to 4.67 times of the control groups. During the growing season, the rates of N2O emission in each month organic and inorganic fertlizers combined treatments were similar at high levels. N2O emission in chemical fertilizer treatments gradually decreased, and the main period of N2O emission occurred at the beginning of growing season. Taking July for example, N2O emission accounted for 41.3% to 41. 8% of total cumulative amount. The amounts of N20 emission under organic and inorganic fertilizers combined treatments were significantly higher than under chemical fertilizer tre