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Sample records for co-morbid alcohol abuse

  1. Co-morbid PTSD and suicidality in individuals with schizophrenia and substance and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Picken, Alicia

    2011-11-01

    Suicide risk is high in schizophrenic patients and is further elevated in dual diagnosis patients. Suicide behaviour is a continuum from ideation, plans to attempts. Exposure to traumatic stress and co-morbid PTSD is elevated in schizophrenic patients. Suicide behaviour is also common in non-psychotic PTSD patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of trauma and co-morbid PTSD on suicide behaviour in dual diagnosis patients and whether co-morbid PTSD would further elevate suicide risk. This was a cross-sectional study in which suicide behaviour was compared in those with and without co-morbid PTSD in 110 patients suffering schizophrenia and alcohol and/or substance abuse. 100 (91%) reported at least one traumatic event with an average of 4.3 events. 31 (28%) patients met criteria for full PTSD. Current suicidal ideation was reported by 39 (35%) and 23 (21%) reported plans and ideation, 69 (63%) reported at least one previous suicide attempt. Suicide behaviour was significantly associated with an increasing number of traumatic events. Suicidality was significantly associated and elevated with co-morbid PTSD. Analysis indicated that the effect of trauma on suicide behaviour appeared to be mediated by hopelessness. Suicide behaviour was not associated with exposure to trauma per se but was associated with incremental exposure to traumatic experiences. Consistent with the study hypotheses, co-morbid PTSD further adds to the risk of suicide behaviour in an already vulnerable group.

  2. Psychiatric co-morbidity associated with pheniramine abuse and dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Hemraj; Kumar, Rajesh; Bhushan, Shashi; Berry, Neeraj

    2005-01-01

    The abuse of cough syrups containing antihistamines and codeine is being increasingly noted. The abuse of antihistamines alone has also been reported. The use of antihistamines alone or in combination with other substances of abuse may predispose individuals to develop psychiatric symptoms or syndromes as a part of intoxication, withdrawal or as co-morbid conditions. We present two case reports to highlight the occurrence of co-morbid psychopathology in association with antihistamine abuse and dependence. Case I used high doses of pheniramine for about 2 years and became suspicious of his wife; he even doubted the paternity of his yet-to-be-born child. The associated behavioural abnormalities suggested that he was acting out on the delusion. He also had seizures associated with the intake of a high dose of pheniramine. Case II had multiple substance use, and dependence on alcohol and pheniramine. He demonstrated abnormal behaviour suggestive of psychosis and organic brain syndrome that persisted for a few days and remitted on discontinuation of the substances. These two cases demonstrate the occurrence of psychotic syndromes associated with heavy pheniramine use. The psychopathology can vary from an independent psychotic syndrome to an organic brain syndrome-like disorder.

  3. Substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidities: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was high co-morbidity of alcohol abuse/dependence with opiate, sedative and 'khat' use, as well as with mood and other psychotic disorders. Substance abuse disorders correlated significantly with other psychiatric disorders. Only 12 patients were in a drug rehabilitation unit, all of whom had a dual psychiatric ...

  4. Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder co-morbidity in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneier, F R; Foose, T E; Hasin, D S; Heimberg, R G; Liu, S-M; Grant, B F; Blanco, C

    2010-06-01

    To assess the prevalence and clinical impact of co-morbid social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD, i.e. alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Data came from a large representative sample of the US population. Face-to-face interviews of 43093 adults residing in households were conducted during 2001-2002. Diagnoses of mood, anxiety, alcohol and drug use disorders and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV version. Lifetime prevalence of co-morbid AUD and SAD in the general population was 2.4%. SAD was associated with significantly increased rates of alcohol dependence [odds ratio (OR) 2.8] and alcohol abuse (OR 1.2). Among respondents with alcohol dependence, SAD was associated with significantly more mood, anxiety, psychotic and personality disorders. Among respondents with SAD, alcohol dependence and abuse were most strongly associated with more substance use disorders, pathological gambling and antisocial personality disorders. SAD occurred before alcohol dependence in 79.7% of co-morbid cases, but co-morbidity status did not influence age of onset for either disorder. Co-morbid SAD was associated with increased severity of alcohol dependence and abuse. Respondents with co-morbid SAD and alcohol dependence or abuse reported low rates of treatment-seeking. Co-morbid lifetime AUD and SAD is a prevalent dual diagnosis, associated with substantial rates of additional co-morbidity, but remaining largely untreated. Future research should clarify the etiology of this co-morbid presentation to better identify effective means of intervention.

  5. Co-morbid anxiety disorders predict early relapse after inpatient alcohol treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol dependence and anxiety disorders often co-occur. Yet, the effect of co-morbid anxiety disorders on the alcohol relapse-risk after treatment is under debate. This study investigated the effect of co-morbid anxiety disorders on relapse rates in alcohol dependence. We hypothesized

  6. Co-morbid anxiety disorders predict early relapse after inpatient alcohol treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Alcohol dependence and anxiety disorders often co-occur. Yet, the effect of co-morbid anxiety disorders on the alcohol relapse-risk after treatment is under debate. This study investigated the effect of co-morbid anxiety disorders on relapse rates in alcohol dependence. We hypothesized

  7. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  8. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...

  9. The effect of co-morbid depression and anxiety on the course and outcome of alcohol outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Nielsen, Bent; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies examining the effect of alcohol treatment among patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and co-morbid depression and/or anxiety are few and show inconsistent, but mainly negative drinking outcomes. Aims: To describe the prevalence of anxiety and depression among Danish....... No difference was found between patients with and without co-morbidity. Conclusion: In contrast to the majority of prior studies, this study provides evidence that depression and anxiety do not have an effect on alcohol treatment. However, because of the naturalistic setting, a number of limitations should...

  10. Co-morbidity of eating disorders and alcohol use among female patients in the Psychiatric Hospital Bohnice

    OpenAIRE

    Vycpálková, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Co-morbidity of eating disorders and alcohol use among women is topical, because eating disorders can be seen as a disease of modern women and alcohol use as a very frequent and tolerated by society. Despite the seriousness of this issue there are not enough studies on this topic. Unfortunately, interest in this issue is not large in Czech Republic and literature comprehensively addressing this subject is not available. This work defines the basic terms important in the field of eating disord...

  11. Substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidities: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Child Abuse and Psychiatric Co-morbidity Among Chinese Adolescents: Emotional Processing as Mediator and PTSD from Past Trauma as Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Chen, Zhuo Sheng

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity in a group of Chinese adolescents, and whether this association would be mediated by emotional processing difficulties and moderated by the severity of PTSD from other traumas in the past. Four hundred seventy-four adolescents participated in the study. They completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, General Health Questionnaire-28, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Emotional processing scale-25. The results showed that after adjusting for the total number of traumatic events and how long ago the most traumatic event occurred, child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. This association was not moderated by the severity of PTSD from past traumas but mediated by emotion processing difficulties. To conclude, adolescents who experience child abuse can develop emotional processing difficulties which in turn impact on psychiatric symptoms. Experience of past trauma does not influence these psychological processes.

  13. Conscious knowledge influences decision-making differently in substance abusers with and without co-morbid antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellentin, Angelina I; Skøt, Lotte; Teasdale, Thomas W; Habekost, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Decision-making impairment, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), is a consistent finding among individuals with substance use disorder (SUD). We studied how this impairment is influenced by co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and conscious knowledge of the task. Three groups were investigated: SUD individuals without co-morbid ASPD (n = 30), SUD individuals with co-morbid ASPD (n = 16), and healthy controls (n = 17). Both SUD and SUD+ASPD participants had poor overall IGT performance. A block-by-block analysis revealed that SUD participants exhibited slow but steady improvement across the IGT, whereas SUD+ASPD participants exhibited initial normal improvement, but dropped off during the last 40 trials. Conscious knowledge of the task was significantly correlated to performance for controls and SUD participants, but not for SUD+ASPD participants. Our findings suggest that decision-making proceeds differently in SUD and SUD+ASPD individuals due to differences in acquisition and application of conscious knowledge. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  14. The role of drug and alcohol abuse in recent increases in depression in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerman, G L; Leon, A C; Wickramaratne, P; Warshaw, M G; Mueller, T I; Weissman, M M; Akiskal, H

    1996-03-01

    Previous studies have reported an increase in depression among recent birth cohorts. Concurrent with the increase in rates of depression, there have been increases in rates of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence. This study sought to determine if the recent increase in rates of depression could be attributed to co-morbid alcohol and drug abuse. The data derived from two studies: (1) a sample of relatives of probands with affective disorder; and (2) a community survey of the US population. The piecewise exponential statistical model was applied to evaluate the association of gender, age, period and birth cohort with rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) separately for those with, and without, diagnoses of alcohol or drug abuse. Elevated rates of MDD occurred among those with co-morbid drug and alcohol abuse in both the family and community samples. However, there were also temporal increases in rates of MDD in those with no such co-morbidity. Specifically there were effects of age and gender for both studies; in addition, there was a period effect in the family study and a birth cohort effect in the community sample. The recent increases in depression in the US cannot be accounted for solely by concurrent increases in co-morbid drug and alcohol abuse. Temporal (period and cohort) effects on rates of depression occur in addition to the contribution of co-morbid drug and alcohol abuse or dependence.

  15. HTR3B is associated with alcoholism with antisocial behavior and alpha EEG power--an intermediate phenotype for alcoholism and co-morbid behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; White, Kenneth V; Hodgkinson, Colin; Albaugh, Bernard; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) with co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been associated with serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction. 5-HT3 receptors are potentiated by ethanol and appear to modulate reward. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of early-onset alcoholics with co-morbid ASPD. Low-voltage alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) power, a highly heritable trait, has been associated with both AUD and ASPD. A recent whole genome linkage scan in one of our samples, Plains American Indians (PI), has shown a suggestive linkage peak for alpha power at the 5-HT3R locus. We tested whether genetic variation within the HTR3A and HTR3B genes influences vulnerability to AUD with comorbid ASPD (AUD+ASPD) and moderates alpha power. Our study included three samples: 284 criminal alcoholic Finnish Caucasians and 234 controls; two independent community-ascertained samples with resting EEG recordings: a predominantly Caucasian sample of 191 individuals (Bethesda) and 306 PI. In the Finns, an intronic HTR3B SNP rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD (P=.004). In the Bethesda sample, the same allele predicted lower alpha power (P=7.37e(-5)). Associations between alpha power and two other HTR3B SNPs were also observed among PI (P=.03). One haplotype in the haplotype block at the 3' region of the gene that included rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD in the Finns (P=.02) and with reduced alpha power in the Bethesda population (P=.00009). Another haplotype in this block was associated with alpha power among PI (P=.03). No associations were found for HTR3A. Genetic variation within HTR3B may influence vulnerability to develop AUD with comorbid ASPD. 5-HT3R might contribute to the imbalance between excitation and inhibition that characterize the brain of alcoholics.

  16. Substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidity as predictors of premature mortality in Swedish drug abusers a prospective longitudinal study 1970 - 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates, stimulants, cannabis, sedatives/hypnotics, hallucinogens and alcohol over several decades. Methods Follow-up study of a consecutive cohort of 561 substance abusers, admitted to a detoxification unit January 1970 to February 1978 in southern Sweden, and followed up in 2006. Demographic and clinical data, substance diagnoses and three groups of psychiatric diagnoses were identified at first admission. Causes of death were coded according to ICD-10 and classified as drug related deaths or non drug related deaths. To identify the incidence of some probable risk factors of drug related premature death, the data were subjected to a competing risks Cox regression analysis. Results Of 561 patients in the cohort, 11 individuals had either emigrated or could not be located, and 204/561 patients (36.4% were deceased by 2006. The cumulative risk of drug related death increased more in the first 15 years and leveled out later on when non drug related causes of death had a similar incidence. In the final model, male gender, regular use of opiates or barbiturates at first admission, and neurosis were associated with an increased risk of drug related premature death, while cannabis use and psychosis were associated with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had an increased risk of premature death to the age of 69. Drug related premature death was predicted by male gender, the use of opiates or barbiturates

  17. Treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder – predictors for the outcomes with memantine and escitalopram medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol dependence comorbid with major depressive disorder poses a major challenge in the clinical setting. The results in the treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have been conflicting. Thus, we compared in alcohol-dependent patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor escitalopram to a compound that acts on different transporter system and may reduce craving, the glutamate receptor antagonist memantine. Methods Eighty alcohol-dependent patients comorbid with major depressive disorder in municipal alcohol clinics were randomized 1:1 to receive memantine 20 mg or escitalopram 20 mg in a double-blind manner. During the 26-week study period patients continued their routine treatment at the clinics. Abstinence was not required but encouraged. The patients attended visits weekly during the first month, and then at 3 and at 6 months. Outcome measures were Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS and Drinking Diary. Results The completion rate was high in both groups, especially among the patients who had been abstinent at the beginning of the study. However, among those patients who were not abstinent at baseline, 47% in both groups discontinued the study. Numbers of abstinent days were high in both groups throughout the study. Alcohol consumption measured by the AUDIT QF (quantity-frequency score was significantly reduced in both groups, as was the craving for alcohol measured by the OCDS. Early age at first alcohol intoxication predicted poor treatment outcomes in patients treated with escitalopram, and the same was seen with the early onset of the first depressive episode. The same predictive effects were not found in patients treated with memantine. Conclusion Our results indicate that both memantine and escitalopram are useful adjunct medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence co-morbid with major

  18. Treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder--predictors for the outcomes with memantine and escitalopram medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, Leea H; Lahti, Jari; Sinclair, David; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Alho, Hannu

    2008-10-03

    Alcohol dependence comorbid with major depressive disorder poses a major challenge in the clinical setting. The results in the treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have been conflicting. Thus, we compared in alcohol-dependent patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor escitalopram to a compound that acts on different transporter system and may reduce craving, the glutamate receptor antagonist memantine. Eighty alcohol-dependent patients comorbid with major depressive disorder in municipal alcohol clinics were randomized 1:1 to receive memantine 20 mg or escitalopram 20 mg in a double-blind manner. During the 26-week study period patients continued their routine treatment at the clinics. Abstinence was not required but encouraged. The patients attended visits weekly during the first month, and then at 3 and at 6 months. Outcome measures were Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) and Drinking Diary. The completion rate was high in both groups, especially among the patients who had been abstinent at the beginning of the study. However, among those patients who were not abstinent at baseline, 47% in both groups discontinued the study. Numbers of abstinent days were high in both groups throughout the study. Alcohol consumption measured by the AUDIT QF (quantity-frequency) score was significantly reduced in both groups, as was the craving for alcohol measured by the OCDS. Early age at first alcohol intoxication predicted poor treatment outcomes in patients treated with escitalopram, and the same was seen with the early onset of the first depressive episode. The same predictive effects were not found in patients treated with memantine. Our results indicate that both memantine and escitalopram are useful adjunct medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence co-morbid with major depression. Memantine was at least as effective with regard to

  19. Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Co-morbidity as Predictors of Premature Mortality in Swedish Drug Abusers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study 1970-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyhlén, Anna; Fridell, Mats; Bäckström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had...... an increased risk of premature death to the age of 69. Drug related premature death was predicted by male gender, the use of opiates or barbiturates and depression and anxiety disorders at first admission. The predicted cumulative incidence of drug related death was significantly higher in opiate...

  20. Interaction between ALDH2*1*1 and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A1A1 genes may be associated with antisocial personality disorder not co-morbid with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ru-Band; Lee, Jia-Fu; Huang, San-Yuan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Wei-Wen; Wu, Pei-Lin; Ko, Huei-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies on acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) focused on drinking behavior or alcoholism because the ALDH2*2 allele protects against the risk of developing alcoholism. The mechanism provides that the ALDH2 gene's protective effect is also involved in dopamine metabolism. The interaction of the ALDH2 gene with neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, is suggested to be related to alcoholism. Because alcoholism is often co-morbid with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), previous association studies on antisocial alcoholism cannot differentiate whether those genes relate to ASPD with alcoholism or ASPD only. This study examined the influence of the interaction effect of the ALDH2*1*1, *1*2 or *2*2 polymorphisms with the dopamine 2 receptor (DRD2) Taq I polymorphism on ASPD. Our 541 Han Chinese male participants were classified into three groups: antisocial alcoholism (ASPD co-morbid with alcohol dependence, antisocial ALC; n = 133), ASPD without alcoholism (ASPD not co-morbid with alcohol dependence, antisocial non-ALC; n = 164) and community controls (healthy volunteers from the community; n = 244). Compared with healthy controls, individuals with the DRD2 A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1/*1 genotypes were at a 5.39 times greater risk for antisocial non-ALC than were those with other genotypes. Our results suggest that the DRD2/ANKK1 and ALDH2 genes interacted in the antisocial non-ALC group; a connection neglected in previous studies caused by not separating antisocial ALC from ASPD. Our study made this distinction and showed that these two genes may be associated ASPD without co-morbid alcoholism. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Co-morbidity in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disorder. The disease is associated with several co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and psychiatric disorders. It is important to identify and treat these co-morbidities because they have...... a strongly negative effect on the overall health of patients with psoriasis. Unfortunately, these co-morbidities are often overlooked and/or left untreated. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of how co-morbidities are associated with psoriasis as well as implications...... for the clinic to be able to recognize such co-morbidities. Areas covered: This is a review of studies investigating and discussing co-morbidities of psoriasis and screening. Literature was retrieved by searching on the PubMed database using individual and combined search terms related to relevant co...

  2. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  3. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  4. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....

  5. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock.com/ KatarzynaBialasiewicz People who drink too ... Ysbrand Cosijn Peter is recovering from an alcohol addiction. The addiction grew slowly over many years. Read ...

  6. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  7. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes Of...

  8. Verbal learning and memory in alcohol abusers and polysubstance abusers with concurrent alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, M W; Drake, A I; Grant, I

    1998-07-01

    To define the combined effects of drug and alcohol abuse on verbal learning and memory, 70 alcoholic and 80 polysubstance abuse (PSA) individuals with concurrent alcohol abuse were compared on a list learning task, the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Despite demonstrating similar learning strategies, response styles, and error patterns, the PSA group nontheless exhibited significantly greater recall deficits than the alcoholic group on the CVLT. These deficits were particularly evident in those who were heaviest abusers of cocaine. PSA participants did not, however, evidence greater recognition memory deficits. This pattern of greater deficits on recall than on recognition memory, as well as poor consolidation, is consistent with the initiation-retrieval difficulties of patient groups with subcortical dysfunction. It is concluded that the combined use of alcohol and drugs, cocaine in particular, may compound memory difficulties beyond what is typically observed in alcoholic individuals.

  9. 77 FR 69869 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board... Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and...

  10. Drug and alcohol abuse: general physician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debasish; Singh, Jaspreet

    2005-02-01

    Epidemiology, definitions, concepts and various other relevant aspects including management of drug and alcohol abuse are reviewed. The role of general/primary care physicians has been highlited in the persepctive of substance-abuse disorders.

  11. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    significantly more frequently than expected (RR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.8). The risk of melanomas (RR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.8) was significantly lower than expected. The relative risks of cancer of the stomach, pancreas, kidney and endocrine system were only slightly increased. The study group did not develop more......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...

  12. Co-morbidities in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    ), bronchiectasis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and eosinophilic granulomatous with polyangiitis (EGPA). Furthermore, the review offers a summary of recommended diagnostic and management approaches for each co-morbidity. Finally, the review links co-morbid conditions to specific phenotypes...

  13. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues of alcohol abuse and depression among teenagers, noting co-occurrence of these two problems and the special challenge co-occurrence poses for clinicians who must treat both problems aggressively. Looks at prevention of alcohol use and abuse among adolescents, considers assessment issues, and distinguishes between primary and…

  14. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Warninghoff, Jan C; Bayer, Otmar; Ferrari, Uta; Straube, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease (MD), vestibular migraine and phobic vertigo (PPV)) have also different spectrums of co-morbidities. Methods All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co-morbidities hypertension, diabetes ...

  15. Drug and alcohol abuse and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G A

    1994-01-01

    An uncontrolled, retrospective study of 58 consecutive patients admitted to a hospital substance abuse unit assessed the effects of alcohol consumption on cholesterol levels. From the dietary histories completed by 54 of the patients, it was found that the alcoholics consumed a high-calorie diet containing a high percentage of foods with a high cholesterol content, but in small quantities. Most of their caloric intake was derived from the alcohol. Abusers of substances other than alcohol had a low-calorie intake of the same quality as alcoholics. It appears that low consumption of alcohol rather than something intrinsic in alcohol or other drugs is related to low levels of total cholesterol in persons consuming a high cholesterol-containing diet. The author also suggests that an unexplained relationship between low cholesterol levels and some gastrointestinal malignancies may be due to the effects of alcohol on the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Tooth decay in alcohol abusers compared to alcohol and drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K; Cooper, Derek J; Peters, Timothy J; Gelbier, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 "alcohol only" abusers to 300 "alcohol and drug" abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the "alcohol and drug" group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the "alcohol only" group (P tooth decay among "alcohol only" abusers is significantly lower compared to "alcohol and drug" abusers.

  17. Dealing with alcohol abuse in general practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . They are then faced with further guilt, and drink again in response. Patients should be assisted to break this cycle. Alcohol abuse is a chronic disease, and relapse is part of the condition. Patients should be encouraged to seek help.

  18. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance limited to space available...

  19. Co-morbidities in established rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Nicola J; Scott, David L

    2011-08-01

    Co-morbid conditions are common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although the presence of co-morbid conditions can be assessed using standardised indexes such as the Charlson index, most clinicians prefer to simply record their presence. Some co-morbidities are causally associated with RA and many others are related to its treatment. Irrespective of their underlying pathogenesis, co-morbidities increase disability and shorten life expectancy, thereby increasing both the impact and mortality of RA. Cardiac co-morbidities are the most crucial, because of their frequency and their negative impacts on health. Treatment of cardiac risk factors and reducing RA inflammation are both critical in reducing cardiac co-morbidities. Gastrointestinal and chest co-morbidities are both also common. They are often associated with drug treatment, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and disease-modifying drugs. Osteoporosis and its associated fracture risk are equally important and are often linked to long-term glucocorticoid treatment. The range of co-morbidities associated with RA is increasing with the recognition of new problems such as periodontal disease. Optimal medical care for RA should include an assessment of associated co-morbidities and their appropriate management. This includes risk factor modification where possible. This approach is essential to improve quality of life and reduce RA mortality. An area of genuine concern is the impact of treatment on co-morbidities. A substantial proportion is iatrogenic. As immunosuppression with conventional disease-modifying drugs and biologics has many associated risks, ranging from liver disease to chest and other infections, it is essential to balance the risks of co-morbidities against the anticipated benefits of treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Co-morbidities in heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Vincent M.; Damman, Kevin; van der Meer, Peter; Wijkstra, Peter J.; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; van Beek, Andre; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    Heart failure is a clinical syndrome characterized by poor quality of life and high morbidity and mortality. Co-morbidities frequently accompany heart failure and further decrease in both quality of life and clinical outcome. We describe that the prevalence of co-morbidities in patients with heart

  1. 78 FR 20932 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... 20933

  2. Helping Schools Prevent Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…

  3. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, Km; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  4. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Foster, PhD, Scientific Review officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  5. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635...

  6. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  7. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  8. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-8599...

  9. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June... Buzas, PhD. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  10. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National...

  11. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  12. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  13. 76 FR 59709 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD...

  14. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2017, Bethesda...

  15. 77 FR 2304 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Special Emphasis..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  16. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance Level...

  17. 76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-8599...

  18. 75 FR 43534 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  19. 77 FR 64117 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852, 301...

  20. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-8599...

  1. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081...

  2. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Extramural...

  3. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  4. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review Branch...

  5. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  6. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  7. 75 FR 42756 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date... Person: Abraham P. Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  8. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  9. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081...

  10. 75 FR 9421 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville, MD 20852...

  11. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  12. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861. marmillotp...

  13. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  14. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural...

  15. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  16. 77 FR 39713 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA AA-12-010. Date: July 18, 2012. Time: 1... . Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA...

  17. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  18. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-8599...

  19. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2081...

  20. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 18-19, 2013. Closed...

  1. 77 FR 24726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June 6-7, 2012. Closed: June 6...

  2. 76 FR 78015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Date: February 8-9, 2012. Closed...

  3. 75 FR 20852 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June 9-10, 2010. Closed: June 9...

  4. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting. Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June 8-9, 2011. Closed: June 8...

  5. 77 FR 68135 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. [[Page 68136

  6. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; AA-2 Deferred Grant Application Review. Date...: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852...

  7. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Branch, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  8. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: February 4-5, 2014. Closed...

  9. 77 FR 43604 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 19-20, 2012. Closed...

  10. 76 FR 39406 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 12-13, 2011. Closed...

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Substance Abuse or Dependence - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Substance ...

  12. Co-morbid disorders in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette Marinette Monique

    2013-01-01

    -morbid disorders, like rage, anxiety, and conduct disorders. The symptoms of a co-morbid disorder might appear prior to the time that tics reach clinical attention. The TS phenotype probably changes during the course of the disease. The exact aetiology of the co-occurrence of co-morbid disorders and TS...... is not known, but they probably all are neurotransmitter disorders. European guidelines recommend first-choice pharmacological treatment, but randomised double-blinded trials are needed. Professionals need to be aware of the close relationship between TS and co-morbidities in order to give the patients......Tourette syndrome (TS) is often accompanied by other symptoms and syndromes. The two best-known co-morbidities are Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), but also other conditions like rage-attacks, depression, and sleeping disturbances are frequent...

  13. Alcohol and drug abusers subtyped by antisocial personality and primary or secondary depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, E E; Ginsburg, B E; Hesselbrock, V M; Schwarz, J C

    1994-02-28

    Our data show that when substance abusers are subtyped simultaneously by antisocial personality disorder and the onset of depression relative to alcohol or drug abuse, groups of people with unique personality and affective profiles are identified. The profiles are represented by measures of affect-related personality variables such as trait anxiety, trait depression, histrionic traits, sensation seeking, and novelty seeking. These measures were chosen in an attempt to show that a "low arousal" personality type may be associated with antisocial personality and may thus indirectly be linked to a certain type (i.e., ASP/nondepressed) of substance abuser. By using a multi-symptomatic typological schema (i.e., a constellation of diagnostic categories rather than just one), we can show that different personality or affective profiles are indeed associated with certain subtypes of substance abusers and that depressed people who use drugs or alcohol are different affectively from antisocial types. We also show that the relationship between "low" and "high" arousal personality profile and subtypes based on co-morbid psychopathology is highlighted even more when we take into account the onset of dysthymia or depression that is primary versus secondary to substance abuse. Our findings are in accord with others' descriptions of the "affective arousal" dimensions of personality and are the first to link these dimensions with subtypes based on ASP and depression.

  14. Re-offending in forensic patients released from secure care: the role of antisocial/borderline personality disorder co-morbidity, substance dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rick; McCarthy, Lucy; Huband, Nick; Duggan, Conor

    2013-07-01

    Research suggests that a particular externalising phenotype, manifested in a developmental trajectory from severe childhood conduct disorder through early-onset substance abuse to adult antisocial/borderline personality disorder co-morbidity, may increase risk of antisocial behaviour in general and criminal recidivism in particular. This study aims to test the hypothesis that antisocial/borderline co-morbidity together with the triad of substance dependence, severe conduct disorder and borderline pathology would result in an increased risk of criminal recidivism. Fifty-three men who had been assessed and treated in a secure hospital unit were followed up after they had returned to the community. They were assessed for severity of the following: (i) antisocial personality disorder; (ii) borderline personality disorder; (iii) drug/alcohol dependence; and (iv) high Psychopathy Checklist Revised scores (factors 1 and 2). Patients with antisocial/borderline co-morbidity took significantly less time to re-offend compared with those without such co-morbidity. Both Psychopathy Checklist Revised factor 2 and the tripartite risk measure significantly predicted time to re-offence; the former largely accounted for the predictive accuracy of the latter. Risk of criminal recidivism can be adequately assessed without recourse to the pejorative term 'psychopath'. It is sufficient to assess the presence of the three elements of our risk measure: borderline and antisocial personality disorders in the context of drug/alcohol dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder. Practical implications of the study are as follows. (i) Sound assessment of personality, inclusive of a detailed history of childhood conduct disorder as well as adolescent and adult substance misuse, yields good enough information about risk of recidivism without recourse to the pejorative concept of 'psychopathy'. (ii) Given the high risk of alcohol-related violence in individuals with antisocial/borderline co-morbidity

  15. Nationally recognized alcohol abuse prevention speaker on campus Dec. 10

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Meghan

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol abuse prevention is a hot topic on college campuses across the nation and Virginia Tech's Division of Student Affairs and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Task Force is committed to addressing the issue as it relates to Virginia Tech campus community.

  16. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice....C. App), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Closed: February 16, 2011, 5:30 p.m. to...

  17. 75 FR 8726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Person: Lorraine Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And...

  18. 75 FR 47819 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....C. App), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 22-23, 2010. Closed: September 22, 2010, 5:30 p.m...

  19. 76 FR 44596 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and...

  20. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Person: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and...

  1. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the... Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD...

  2. Alcohol Use / Abuse in Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sogi Uematzu, Cecilia; Perales Cabrera, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of alcohol use/abuse, its distribution by gender and age and associated risk factors in undergraduate medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A mental health survey data base from 1115 medical students on a public university of Lima City was used. RESULTS: The frequency of CAGE positive, indicator of drinking problem, was 13,7%. The alcohol consumption onset mean age was earlier in the younger students, especially in women. Multivariate analysis showed signif...

  3. Personality Variables in Alcohol Abuse in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mark L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Studied the relationship between personality variables and alcohol abuse in college students. Results indicated that these personality variables were not strong predictors of alcohol abuse. However, subjects identified as being highly trait anxious or trait angry were more likely to abuse alcohol than subjects low on these variables. (Author)

  4. The long-term consequences of parental alcohol abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    unemployment is seen in families with evidence of alcohol abuse. In some respects mothers who are alcohol abusers seem to have a different effect on their children than fathers who are alcohol abusers. So, for example, there is a higher occurence of violence-related crimes and convictions for sexual offences...

  5. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warninghoff, Jan C; Bayer, Otmar; Ferrari, Uta; Straube, Andreas

    2009-07-07

    Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease (MD), vestibular migraine and phobic vertigo (PPV)) have also different spectrums of co-morbidities. All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co-morbidities hypertension, diabetes mellitus, BMI (body mass index), migraine, other headache, and psychiatric diseases in general and the likelihood of a depression in particular. We noted hypertension in 29.0% of the cohort, diabetes mellitus in 6.1%, migraine in 8.4%, other headache in 32.1%, psychiatric diseases in 16.0%, overweight and obesity in 33.6% and 13.7% respectively, as well as a clinical indication for depression in 15.9%. In general, we did not detect an increased prevalence of the co-morbidities diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, migraine, other headache and obesity compared to the general population. There was an increased prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with PPV, and the prevalence of hypertension was elevated in patients with MD.

  6. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Uta

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD, vestibular migraine and phobic vertigo (PPV have also different spectrums of co-morbidities. Methods All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co-morbidities hypertension, diabetes mellitus, BMI (body mass index, migraine, other headache, and psychiatric diseases in general and the likelihood of a depression in particular. Results We noted hypertension in 29.0% of the cohort, diabetes mellitus in 6.1%, migraine in 8.4%, other headache in 32.1%, psychiatric diseases in 16.0%, overweight and obesity in 33.6% and 13.7% respectively, as well as a clinical indication for depression in 15.9%. Conclusion In general, we did not detect an increased prevalence of the co-morbidities diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, migraine, other headache and obesity compared to the general population. There was an increased prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with PPV, and the prevalence of hypertension was elevated in patients with MD.

  7. Attention deficit disorder, alcoholism, and drug abuse: MMPI correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, J M; Horton, A M; Ahadpour, M

    1992-03-01

    Earlier research had demonstrated that alcoholics with attention deficit disorder residual type (ADDRT) differ from other alcoholics on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of drug abuse on the relationship of ADDRT and alcoholism as reflected on the MMPI. Groups of 48 male alcoholics, 28 ADDRT alcoholics, 25 ADDRT alcohol and drug abusers and 18 alcohol and drug abusers were all administered the MMPI. Significant differences were found between the alcoholic and ADDRT alcoholic groups on scales Pd, Sc, Si, F, and K. For the ADDRT alcohol and drug abusers versus the alcohol and drug abuser groups, they differed on scales K, Hs, D, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc, Si, F, K, and L.

  8. 77 FR 26770 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272, Alcohol...

  9. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA AA13-001, Specialized Alcohol Research Centers. Date... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  10. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda P. Dasanayake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95%  CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95%  CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.

  11. Peer counseling: Drug and alcohol abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, R A

    1983-12-01

    A peer counseling program was developed as a method for preventing drug and alcohol abuse among high school juniors and seniors. The program was implemented and the results were monitored to evaluate the impact of the program on the students. An analysis of the data showed that the students were able to learn and utilize peer counseling skills but that the prevention of drug abuse could not be documented in this study. Subjective reports, however, were found to support the effects of the program.

  12. Ocular manifestations of drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peragallo, Jason; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to review commonly encountered adverse ocular effects of illicit drug use. Drug and alcohol abuse can produce a variety of ocular and neuro-ophthalmic side effects. Novel, so-called 'designer', drugs of abuse can lead to unusual ocular disorders. Legal substances, when used in manners for which they have not been prescribed, can also have devastating ophthalmic consequences. In this review, we will systematically evaluate each part of the visual pathways and discuss how individual drugs may affect them.

  13. Circulating cytokines as biomarkers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achur, Rajeshwara N; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2010-03-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules. Long-term alcohol consumption leads to altered inflammatory cell and adaptive immune responses with associated pathologies and increased incidence of infections. This has led researchers to focus attention on identifying cytokine biomarkers in models of alcohol abuse. Alcohol is known to alter cytokine levels in plasma and a variety of tissues including lung, liver, and very importantly brain. A number of cytokine biomarker candidates have been identified, including: tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. This is an emerging and potentially exciting avenue of research in that circulating cytokines may contribute to diagnostic biomarker panels, and a combination of multiple biomarkers may significantly increase the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical tests aiding reliable and accurate detection of excessive alcohol intake.

  14. Co-Morbidity of Conditions among Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkfield, Alison J.; Graffam, J.; Meneilly, Sharn

    2009-01-01

    Eighty seven adult prisoners (58 males, 29 females) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a questionnaire on current health in order to examine both the prevalence of co-morbid conditions and the relation of depression and anxiety to ill-health and prior substance use. High prevalence rates of…

  15. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  16. Disability associated with alcohol abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse, are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is because of disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for AUD. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. Systematic literature review and expert interviews. There is heterogeneity in experts' descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with AUD. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to AUD and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Trends in sociodemographic and drug abuse variables in patients with alcohol and drug use disorders in a Nigerian treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, T A; Onifade, P O; Ogunwale, A

    2010-01-01

    Globally, patterns of the use of psychoactive substances have been changing. To evaluate the trend in two five year periods, 1992 to 1997 versus 2002 to 2007, of alcohol and substance use disorders and associated variables in patients admitted to a drug abuse treatment facility. This was a comparative cross-sectional study involving all patients admitted into Drug Abuse Treatment, Education, and Research (DATER), Unit of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro, Nigeria within the study period. All subjects had a structured psychiatric interview, a physical examination, laboratory investigations and DATER Questionnaire protocols that elicited socio-demographic, drug and family variables. The patients in 2002 to 2007 versus those of 1992 to 1997 were younger (chi squared 13.29; p,0.01). More last borns were using drugs by 2002 to 2007 (chi squared, 11.37; p,0.01). Cannabis was the most abused drug in 2002 to 2007 (53.5%) as compared to cocaine (44%) in 1992 to 1997 (chi squared 35.5; p,0.001). Polydrug abuse was high in the two periods but significantly the drug combination changed to cannabis in combination with alcohol in 2002 to 2007 as against cocaine in combination with opiates in 1992 to 1997 chi squared 45.3, p 0.001). More patients had co-morbid psychiatric disorders in 2000 to 2007 (67.6% as against 38.5% in 1992 to 1999 chi squared 28.32, p,0.001). In both periods, co-morbidity associated with cannabis use rather than any other drug of abuse as the odds ratio was greater than one. The findings in the trend in the two five year periods underscore the imperatives of continuous evaluation of the drug abuse patient population in treatment which may help drive changes in treatment inputs.

  18. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  19. Abusive Consumption Of Alcohol By Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Danielle Bezerra Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the abusive consumption of alcohol in the elderly in the municipality of Santa Cruz - PB. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study, with quantitative approach with a sample of 170 elderly. To perform the study, three instruments were used: the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test - Geriatric Version (MAST-G. The data were analyzed in the program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS - version 21. Results: 14.7% of the elderly were classified by the MAST-G score as elderly individuals presenting problems related to alcohol abuse, the majority of whom were male, single, with education above 05 years, who reside alone, and present some pathology and make use of medications. Conclusion: the research points out the need for multiprofessional work in health in Primary Care, in order to develop health actions that include the prevention of alcohol consumption and minimize the deleterious effects of consumption, in order to reduce the number of undesirable events arising from the use of that substance. Keywords: Primary health care; Alcohol; Old man.

  20. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...

  1. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, ``Review of the Prenatal Alcohol in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome And Stillbirth (PASS) Network...

  2. 77 FR 72873 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS...

  3. 77 FR 16246 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... 20852. Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol...

  4. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... 20892. Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol...

  5. 75 FR 36660 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272...

  6. 76 FR 22717 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists...

  7. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists...

  8. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: March 6, 2013. Time: 8:00... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081...

  9. 78 FR 75927 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of PAR-11-169 NIAAA U34 applications. Date: January 7... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852. Contact...

  10. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Basic Sciences. Date...: National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855...

  11. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: March 13, 2014. Time: 8... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, T508, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Beata Buzas...

  12. 78 FR 55088 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Date: October 28, 2013. Time: 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  13. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: October 22, 2013... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  14. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: November 5, 2013. Time: 8..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  15. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville...

  16. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol...

  17. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Features and challenges of alcohol abuse treatment in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inadequate skills and facilities rendering them unable to meet the ever increasing demand. Research into culturally adopted treatment intervention strategies is necessary to enhance the effectiveness and treatment of alcohol abuse in Uganda. Keywords: Alcohol abuse, addiction treatment, Uganda, alcohol dependence, ...

  19. Prevalance of Alcohol Abuse in Calabar South Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the prevalence of alcohol abuse in Calabar South, Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Unlike earlier studies of alcohol use in Nigeria, the study focused on a segment of the population that is difficult to reach and probably at high risk of alcohol and drug abuse. In addition, the focus of ...

  20. Drug and alcohol abuse by bulimic women and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulik, C M

    1987-12-01

    The author studied patterns of drug and alcohol abuse in 35 bulimic women, 35 healthy control subjects, and their first- and second-degree relatives. The bulimic women and their families had significantly higher rates of substance abuse disorders.

  1. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  2. [Migraine with psychiatric co-morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radat, F

    2005-07-01

    Investigation of migraine co-morbidity has confirmed a strong association between depression, anxiety disorders (particularly panic and phobia) and migraine. However, research into the possible mechanisms underlying these associations remains limited. The literature also indicates that migrainers are at reduced risk of suffering from anxiety, mood disorders and substance-related disorders compared with medication overuse headache sufferers. Patients suffering from medication overuse headache sometimes exhibit addictive behavior for acute migraine drugs. Finally, migrainers show increased non-specific neurotic suffering.

  3. Psychological co-morbidity in children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children under 19 years of age constitute over 40% of India′s population and information about their mental health needs is a national imperative. Children with specific learning disorders (SLDs exhibit academic difficulties disproportionate to their intellectual capacities. Prevalence of SLD ranges from 2% to 10%. Dyslexia (developmental reading disorder is the most common type, affecting 80% of all SLD. About 30% of learning disabled children have behavioral and emotional problems, which range from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (most common to depression, anxiety, suicide etc., to substance abuse (least common. Co-occurrence of such problems with SLD further adds to the academic difficulty. In such instances, diagnosis is difficult and tricky; improvement in academics demands comprehensive holistic treatment approach. SLD remains a large public health problem because of under-recognition, inadequate treatment and therefore merits greater effort to understand the co-morbidities, especially in the Indian population. As the literature is scarce regarding co-morbid conditions in learning disability in Indian scenario, the present study has tried to focus on Indian population. The educational concessions (recent most given to such children by Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi are referred to. The issues to be addressed by the family physicians are: Low level of awareness among families and teachers, improper dissemination of accurate information about psychological problems, available help seeking avenues, need to develop service delivery models in rural and urban areas and focus on the integration of mental health and primary care keeping such co-morbidity in mind.

  4. Forensic aspects of alcohol abuse and homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Kovacević, Drazen; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Mustapić, Jelena

    2009-09-01

    Numerous investigations indicate a close link between violent behavior, homicide (murder) and alcohol intoxication. With increased frequency of drinking and the chronic consummation of alcohol, the risk of the fatal outcome or homicide and victimization caused by violence is more likely to occur. Studies conducted on convicted murderers suggested that about half of them were under the heavy influence of alcohol at the time of perpetration of murder. The sample in this survey consisted of 177 male offenders which committed criminal act of murder in Croatia from the year of 1990 until 2007 (capital murder and attempted murder). All were assigned for the forensic psychiatric evaluation by the Criminal Justice System (Court of Law) at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Popovaca, Croatia. For the purpose of this work the sample is divided in two groups of subjects: 1) offenders which were intoxicated at the time of murder and committed offence on intoxicated victim 2) offenders who were sober and committed offence on sober victims. Groups are compared according to the variables of crime and history of alcohol abuse. On the basis of obtained results we can conclude that there are significant differences in relation to the variables and modalities of criminal offence between two groups of offenders and victims. We could conclude that alcohol intoxication in offenders and victims at the time of murder could strongly affect the modalities of murder.

  5. 77 FR 39716 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93...

  6. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, November 3, 2010, 2 p.m. to November 3, 2010, 5 p.m...

  7. 77 FR 61769 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIIAAA Member Conflict Applications: Epidemiology...

  8. 78 FR 63483 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Epidemiology and...

  9. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037, Rockville, MD 20852, 301...

  10. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  11. Co-morbidities of Interstitial Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela eChelimsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/BPS with systemic dysfunction associated co-morbidities such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and fibromyalgia (FM. Material and Methods: Two groups of subjects with IC/BPS were included: 1 Physician diagnosed patients with IC/BPS and 2 Subjects meeting NIDDK IC/PBS criteria based on a questionnaire (ODYSA. These groups were compared to healthy controls matched for age and socio-economic status. NIDDK criteria required: pain with bladder filling that improves with emptying, urinary urgency due to discomfort or pain, polyuria > 11 times/24 hrs, and nocturia > 2 times/night. The ODYSA instrument evaluates symptoms pertaining to a range of disorders including chronic fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, syncope, IBS, dyspepsia, cyclic vomiting syndrome, headaches and migraines, sleep, Raynaud’s syndrome and chronic aches and pains. Results: IC/BPS was diagnosed in 26 subjects (mean age 47 +/- 16 yrs, 92% females, 58 had symptoms of IC/BPS by NIDDK criteria, (mean age 40 +/- 17 yrs, 79% females and 48 were healthy controls (mean age 31+/- 14 yrs, mean age 77%. Co-morbid complaints in the IC/BPS groups included gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of IBS and dyspepsia, sleep abnormalities with delayed onset of sleep, feeling poorly refreshed in the morning, waking up before needed, snoring, severe chronic fatigue and chronic generalized pain, migraines and syncope. Discussion: Patients with IC/BPS had co-morbid central and autonomic nervous system disorders. Our findings mirror those of others in regard to IBS, symptoms suggestive of FM, chronic pain and migraine. High rates of syncope and functional dyspepsia found in the IC/BPS groups merit further study to determine if IC/BPS is part of a diffuse disorder of central, autonomic and sensory processing affecting multiple organs outside the bladder.

  12. Co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Muideen O

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders and determined associated factors of sexual risk behavior among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Methods Socio-demographic information was obtained from the adolescents using socio-demographic questionnaire. Clinical interview, physical examination and laboratory investigations were employed to establish co-morbid disorders in these adolescents during the outpatient follow up visits over a one year period. Results A total of forty six (46 adolescents with bipolar disorder were followed up over a one year period. Twenty two (47.8% of the adolescents had co-morbid disorders with cannabis use disorders, alcohol use disorders, conduct disorder with or without other psychoactive substance use accounting for 23.9%, 8.7%, 13.0% respectively and HIV infection, though a chance finding accounting for 2.2%. Twenty one (45.7% of the adolescents had positive history of sexual risk behavior, which was significantly associated with presence of co-morbid disorders (p = 0.003, level of religion activities in the adolescents (p = 0.000, and marital status of the parents (p = 0.021. Conclusion When planning interventions for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, special attention may need to be focused on group of adolescents with co-morbid disorders and propensity towards impulsivity and sexual risk behavior. This may help in improving long term outcome in this group of adolescents.

  13. "Natural Recovery" from Alcohol Abuse among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    As they progress through college, a significant number of students reduce their abusive alcohol consumption without formal interventions on the part of the university, other agencies, or counseling/mental health services. Such "natural recovery" may offer important clues as to both the etiology and reduction of alcohol abuse on campus. The author…

  14. Isoforms of transferrin in psoriasis patients abusing alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hoefkens (Peter); E.M. Higgins; R.J. Ward (Roberta); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe different isoforms of transferrin have been quantified by isoelectric focusing in the sera of psoriasis patients with and without a history of abusing alcohol. In both male and female psoriasis subjects abusing alcohol, there were significant increases in the

  15. Symptomatic Correlates of Alcohol Abuse as a Presenting Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturo, Douglas J.; LeSure, Kenneth B.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of self-reported symptoms of psychopathology to self-reported alcohol abuse. Participants (N=72) completed a questionnaire. Findings identified several psychopathological areas related to alcohol abuse: social skill deficits, anxiety, addiction proneness, impulse discontrol, and self-destructive ideation. These results…

  16. Validity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-31

    drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace is probably about .30. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES94 Drug Abuse , Alcohol...8217Rev 2 89’ toyAS’I 0 13 zoo Integrity and Substance A-buseý Va-idity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and %Lcohol Abuse Frank L. Schmidt...nflegri’ty and S, c ,s EXECUTIVE SUMMARY STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Drug and alcohol abuse is a major problem in the workplace . In this report,

  17. Drug and alcohol abuse in patients with acute burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, J R; Dimsdale, J E; Rockwell, E; Carroll, W; Hansbrough, J

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed records of adult patients admitted to our burn unit who were reported to abuse drugs or alcohol from 1985 to 1988. The proportion of patients reported as abusing drugs increased significantly from 1987 to 1988, compared to previous years. However, there was no increase in the proportion of patients reported to abuse alcohol. Patients identified as abusing drugs had longer hospital stays, compared to patients who were not reported to abuse substances. Methamphetamine and cocaine were the drugs most often abused by patients who abused drugs or both drugs and alcohol. Mechanisms of burn injury in these patients included "accidental" burn injury related to acute intoxication, and self-injury due to psychosis or depression.

  18. 76 FR 36930 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse; Notice of Joint Meeting Pursuant... given of a joint meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with...

  19. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  20. 76 FR 51378 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse...

  1. Kleptomania and Co-morbid addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun S; Christianini, Aparecida Rangon; Bertoni, Daniela; de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Medeiros; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2017-04-01

    We examined the association between kleptomania and addictive disorders, including behavioral addictions. Fifty-three individuals with a diagnosis of kleptomania completed measures of kleptomania severity, semi-structured clinical interviews to assess co-morbid diagnosis of addictive disorders, and the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) assessing an array of addictive behaviors. 20.75% of the sample met criteria for an addictive disorder; four for a substance use disorder and four for a behavioral addiction. Kleptomania severity was significantly associated with compulsive work and shopping measured by the SPQ. The results suggest the need to assess a wide array of addictive behaviors in individuals with kleptomania. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Postoperative delirium in patients with history of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, G; Pinho, C; Santos, A; Abelha, F J

    2017-04-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) is an acute confusional state characterized by changes in consciousness and cognition, which may be fluctuating, developing in a small period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol abuse and the development of POD. We prospectively evaluated consecutively all postoperative patients admitted in the Post-anesthesia Care Unit over a 1-month period for delirium, using the Portuguese versions of the the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale. Before surgery, alcohol consumption was inquired and alcohol abuse was assessed by the CAGE (Cutting Down, Annoyance, Guilt and Eye-opener) questionnaire; a score ≥2 defined alcohol abuse. Fischer exact test or chi-square was applied for comparisons. Risk factors were analyzed in a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Two hundred twenty-one patients were enrolled. Delirium was seen in 11% patients. The incidence of alcohol abuse was 10%. Patients with alcohol abuse were more frequently men (P<.001) and had a higher ASA physical status III/IV (P=.021). POD was more frequent in patients with alcohol abuse (30% vs. 9%; P=.002). Age (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.2-15.9; P<.001 for patients ≥65years), ASA physical statusIII/IV (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.7-10.7; P=.002) and alcohol abuse (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.4-12.9; P=.013) were found to be independent predictors for POD. Older patients, higher ASA physical status and alcohol abuse were more frequent in patients with POD. Alcohol abuse was considered an independent risk factor for POD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple spontaneous bone infarcts secondary to alcohol abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol induced spontaneous osteonecrosis is part of the differential diagnosis in patients with history of alcohol abuse and diffuse bone pain. Usually patients have a longer than 10 year history of alcohol abuse prior to the development of osteonecrosis. The femoral head is the commonest site involved, however, involvement of the long bones is also seen. Facial involvement is rarely seen. Fat embolism secondary to coexisting hyperlipidemia has been postulated as a possible cause of osteonecrosis in alcoholics. A case of multifocal spontaneous bone infarction with facial bone involvement in a 34 year old female alcoholic is described. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify the association between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends socio-demographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population

  5. Co-morbidity of select anxiety, affective, and psychotic disorders with cannabis dependence in Southwest California Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, David A; Lau, Philip; Dixon, Michelle; Corey, Linda; Phillips, Evelyn; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis dependence is co-morbid with psychiatric disorders in general population surveys, but whether co-morbidity exists in American Indian populations is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess co-morbidity between cannabis dependence and psychiatric disorders in a community sample of Southwest California (SWC) Indians. Demographic information and DSMIII- R diagnoses, including differentiation of independent and cannabis-induced psychiatric disorders, were obtained using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) developed for the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) from 513 SWC Indian adults residing on contiguous reservations. Although SWC Indians in this sample had high rates of cannabis dependence (43% in men and 24% in women), cannabis-induced psychiatric disorders each occurred in 1% or less of the sample. No significant co-morbidity with independent psychiatric disorders was found. In SWC Indians, cannabis dependence may be less etiologically related to psychiatric disorders than in the general population.

  6. Lifetime Alcohol Abuse in Institutionalized World War II Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran

    1996-01-01

    The authors document the lifetime prevalence and etiological correlates of alcohol abuse in a sample of elderly World War II veterans. Subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residing in a veterans' long-term care facility were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. A second investigator gave the Modified Combat Exposure Scale and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol abuse was 53%. There was no correlation between alcohol abuse and any other psychiatric diagnosis. There was a significant correlation between the severity of combat stress and subsequent alcohol abuse. Veterans with alcohol abuse also had significantly more wartime head injuries. There was also a trend for the alcoholic group to have experienced more pre-war stressors. Examination of pre-war variables and the severity of the combat stress might help to identify veterans at risk for development of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 1996 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between alcohol abuse, childhood adverse events and suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Ana Politakis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Negative life events present a risk for suicidal behaviour. The occurrence of suicidal behaviour also depends on type of negative life events, time of their appearance and the support person has in their environment, and can be part of a process triggered by a stressful event. the aim of the study was to investigate adverse childhood events, parental alcoholism and alcohol abuse in association with suicidal behaviour of suicide victims. Methods: A case-control study was conducted involving 90 individuals from Slovenian population who committed suicide and 90 age-sex matched controls drawn from the living population. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews with key informants by the principles of psychological autopsy. Results: Alcohol abuse was reported more ofen for suicide victims than for controls. The same was true for severe deprivation in childhood and alcoholism of one or both parents. Differences between groups in separation from one or both parents, death of one or both parents, reported parental divorce in childhood or sexual abuse in childhood were not observed. Conclusions: We should conclude that negative events in childhood and alcohol abuse in adulthood of suicide victims could be related to suicidal behaviour in population with higher suicide rate. When planning measures for the prevention of suicidal behaviour, adverse events in childhood and alcohol abuse should not be neglected to plan measures to prevent such events accordingly and to raise awareness about the dangers of alcohol abuse for suicidal behaviour.

  8. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-4032...

  9. Some childhood antecedents of drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, F S; Detels, R; Clark, V

    1975-11-01

    Unsatisfactory intrafamilial relationships and child-rearing practices have frequently been implicated as prime determinants of personalities that are susceptible to drug and alcohol abuse. Five thousand forty-four US Army soldiers were surveyed by anonymous questionnaires. The reported occurrence of a variety of activities, events and behaviors in childhood among drug and alcohol abusers were compared to non users. Childhood antecedents that were associated with non-use of illegal drugs and which showed as much as a 20% difference in reported occurrence between abusers and non-users of illegal drugs were: spanking, church attendance, first alcoholic drink after 15 years, and perceived "happy" parental marriage. These associations were found uithin white and non-white groups and in subjects with divorced or separated parents. There was no antecedent that showed as much as a 20% difference in reported occurrence between alcohol abusers and non-users.

  10. Socio-economic status and co-morbidity as risk factors for trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattström, Olof; Eriksson, Mikael; Larsson, Emma; Oldner, Anders

    2015-02-01

    Clinical experience and previous studies indicate that low socioeconomic positions are overrepresented in trauma populations. The reason for this social variation in injury risk is likely to be multifactorial. Both individual and environmental sources of explanation are plausible to contribute. We investigated the impact of the influence of socioeconomic factors and co-morbidity on the risk of becoming a trauma victim in a case-control study including 7,382 trauma patients matched in a one to five ratio with controls matched by age-, gender- and municipality from a level 1 trauma centre. Data from the trauma cohort were linked to national registries. Associations between socioeconomic factors and co-morbidity were estimated by conditional logistic regression. The trauma patients had been treated for psychiatric, substance abuse and somatic diagnoses to a higher extent than the controls. In the conditional logistic regression analysis a low level of education and income as well as co-morbidity (divided into psychiatric, substance abuse and somatic diagnoses) were all independent risk factors for trauma. Analysing patients with an injury severity score >15 separately did not alter the results, except for somatic diagnoses not being a risk factor. Recent treatment for substance abuse significantly increased the risk for trauma. Low level of education and income as well as psychiatric, substance abuse and somatic co-morbidity were all independent risk factors for trauma. Active substance abuse strongly influenced the risk for trauma and had a time dependent pattern. These insights can facilitate future implementation of injury prevention strategies tailored to specific risk groups.

  11. Cannabis use disorders in the USA: prevalence, correlates and co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Frederick S; Ruan, W June; Pickering, Roger; Grant, Bridget F

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to present 12-month and lifetime estimates of the prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and psychiatric co-morbidity of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence. Data were derived from a large nationally representative survey (n=43093) of US adults. The prevalence of 12-month and lifetime DSM-IV cannabis abuse (1.1% and 7.2%) exceeded the corresponding rates of cannabis dependence (0.3% and 1.3%). Being male, Native American, widowed/separated/divorced, and residing in the West increased the odds whereas being Black, Asian or Hispanic decreased the odds of cannabis abuse and dependence. Cannabis dependence was significantly associated with low income. Ages of onset for both cannabis use disorders occurred in adolescence and the majority of individuals with these disorders remained untreated. Co-morbidity was high between cannabis use disorders and other Axis I and II disorders. Cannabis use disorders continue to present a widespread and serious personal and public health problem. Native Americans were found to have high rates of cannabis use disorders, warranting closer attention to the mental health needs of this subgroup. Associations between cannabis abuse and dependence and Axis I and II disorders were strong, signaling the need for more comprehensive assessment of individuals with cannabis use disorders. Further controlled treatment studies are needed, especially among co-morbid individuals, in view of growing evidence of the adverse personal, medical and societal impacts of cannabis use disorders in the USA.

  12. Alcohol use in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conason, Alexis H; Sher, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders, in particular bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are associated with co-morbid alcohol and drug abuse. School-based studies have shown significant associations between bulimic behaviors and various measures of alcohol, cigarette and other drug use and abuse. Amongst bulimic adolescents, substance use is related to an increased likeliness of high risk behaviors such as attempted suicide, stealing and sexual intercourse. In contrast with bulimics and binge eaters, restricting anorexics have low rates of co-morbid substance abuse. It appears that restricting anorexics, binge eaters and bulimics represent distinct subgroups within the eating disordered population and binge eaters and bulimics are more prone to alcohol use. It is possible that individuals with eating disorders turn to alcohol use/abuse as a way of coping with the problems caused by their eating disorder. Researchers have proposed that an addictive personality is an underlying trait, which predisposes individuals to both eating disorders and alcohol abuse. Eating disorders are often conceptualized as an addictive disorder. Opioid antagonists, such as naltrexone, may be useful in treating both eating and alcohol use disorders. There is also evidence that serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which are traditionally used to treat major depression, may be an effective treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been effective in treating alcohol use and eating disorders individually and may be an effective combined treatment for co-morbid eating disorders and alcohol use. Teaching healthy ways to cope with the stressful situations may also help decrease alcohol use and disordered eating behaviors.

  13. Trace Elements Profile among Alcohol Abusers in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This showed that Mn, Fe and Cu were significantly increased while Zn was reduced significantly in alcohol abusers when compared with the control group of total abstainers. Excessive consumption of burukutu seems to significantly alter the trace elements status in abusers. Duration of intake and excessive use of burukutu ...

  14. Domestic violence, alcohol and child abuse through popular music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic violence and child abuses especially as perpetrated by men and linked to alcohol abuse is an issue well covered in what I term conventional liberal scholarship. In this I deploy Maria Lugones' decolonising feminism theory in which the position of the black women is at the bottom of the human hierarchy and the ...

  15. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  16. An Overview of Alcohol Use Abuse, and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    D.C.: National Defense University, 1989. 2 ibid. 3 Wrich, James. "The Impact of Substance Abuse at the Workplace ". Corporate Strategies for...25 ibid. 26 Axel, Helen. " Drugs of Abuse : Public Attitudes, Politics and Business". Corporate Strategies for Controlling Substance Abuse . 1986...Programming". Drug Abuse Services Research Series: Extent and Adeauacy of Insurance Coverage for Substance Abuse Services. Vol 2:154-165. Washington, D. C

  17. Prevalence patterns and predictors of alcohol use and abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence patterns and predictors of alcohol use and abuse among secondary school students in southern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: demographic factors and the influence of parents and peers. ... predictors and influence of peers and parents on students' alcohol use and binge drinking. Results: About 54% of students ...

  18. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…

  19. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  20. Alcohol in America: taking action to prevent abuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Steve; Gerstein, Dean R

    1985-01-01

    ... on Alternative Policies Affecting the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D. C. 1985 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific ...

  1. The Medical and Social Consequences of Alcohol Abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    The Medical and Social Consequences of Alcohol Abuse. First of Two Articles. Dr Eluzai Hakim, FRCP Consultant Physician,. St Mary's Hospital, Newport, Isle of Wight. PO30 5TG UK*. Introduction. The prevalence of alcohol related illness in the. Southern Sudan is unknown, though there is anecdotal information that ...

  2. Cannabis and Alcohol Abuse Among First Psychotic Episode Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gregory; Kunyvsky, Yehuda; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipi; Raskin, Sergey; Abramowitz, Moshe Z

    2016-01-01

    Psychoactive substance abuse, which includes abuse of alcohol and street drugs, is common among first-episode psychosis patients, but the prevalence of cannabis abuse is particularly high. However, there have been very few reported studies concerning the occurrence of psychoactive substance abuse among first-episode psychotic individuals using standard toxicological testing. We study the prevalence of cannabis and alcohol abuse among first-psychoticepisode inpatients as well as compare the demographic, diagnostic, and psychopathological profiles of substance abusers versus nonusers. Subjects were recruited from the Jerusalem Mental Health Center between 2012 and 2014. Ninety-one consecutively admitted psychiatric patients diagnosed using the DSM-IV criteria with a first psychotic episode due to schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, bipolar disorder, brief psychotic episode, and psychosis NOS disorder entered the study. The diagnoses of schizophrenia (all types), psychosis NOS disorder, brief psychotic episode, and schizophreniform disorder were categorized as "only psychosis" and those of bipolar disorder manic episode with psychotic features (congruent and incongruent) and severe depression with psychotic features were categorized as "predominantly affective symptoms." Urine tests for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were performed during the first 48 hours of admission, and likewise self-report questionnaires were administered. Alcohol abuse and dependence were diagnosed by self-report. Of the 91 subjects in the study, 49 (53.8%) did not abuse any illegal psychoactive substance. Twenty patients (22%) abused only cannabis; 14 (15.4%) abused cannabis and another psychoactive substance; 54 (59.3%) of the subjects reported no alcohol abuse; 33 (36.3%) reported occasional drinking (between two and ten times a month); and 4 (4.4%) reported continuous repeated drinking (more than ten times a month). There was no correlation between the demographic characteristics and the

  3. Alcohol Abuse and the Elderly: Comparison of Early & Late-Life Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; And Others

    Two types of elderly alcohol abusers are described. Early onset or long-term alcohol abusers are abusers with long-standing behavioral problems considered well known to the social service delivery system. Late-life onset elderly alcohol abusers are those whose drinking problems began in the later years, after age 50, often in response to stresses…

  4. 24 CFR 5.857 - When must I prohibit admission of alcohol abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse Denying... a household member's abuse or pattern of abuse of alcohol interferes with the health, safety, or... alcohol abusers? 5.857 Section 5.857 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of...

  5. Substance abuse vulnerability in offspring of alcohol and drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, M E

    1998-03-01

    Epidemiological research has clearly demonstrated the importance of a family history as a determinant of future alcohol and, possibly, drug use in offspring of alcoholics. Laboratory studies have examined a wide range of potential markers both in the presence and absence of alcohol challenge, which may predict those subjects at high risk for the future development of alcoholism. While this body of research has yielded several replicable differences in FHP and FHN subjects, it also has been marked by many discrepancies in outcomes across studies. Future refinements in subject ascertainment and laboratory methodologies may help to bring greater procedural uniformity and consistency in study outcomes.

  6. Federalizing Medical Campaigns against Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-01-01

    Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713

  7. Federalizing medical campaigns against alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-03-01

    The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. © 2013 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  8. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  9. 78 FR 37835 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict applications--Epidemiology, Prevention (1...

  10. 78 FR 12072 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA--Member Conflict Applications. Date: March 26, 2013. Time...

  11. 78 FR 17680 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA Member Conflict Applications. Date: April 4, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m...

  12. 78 FR 37837 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT oF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Neurosciences. Date: July...

  13. 78 FR 10185 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict applications--Neuroscience. Date: March...

  14. 78 FR 37836 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Metabolism and Health...

  15. 78 FR 13361 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA Member Conflict SEP. Date: March 18, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m...

  16. 78 FR 63484 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Behavioral Sciences. Date...

  17. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  18. DOES ALCOHOL OUTLET DENSITY MODERATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVELS OF ALCOHOL USE AND CHILD PHYSICAL ABUSE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Parental alcohol use and alcohol outlet density are both associated with child abuse. Guided by alcohol availability theory, this paper examines whether alcohol outlet density moderates the relationship between parental alcohol use and child physical abuse. Methods A general population telephone survey of 3,023 parents or legal guardians 18 years or older was conducted across 50 California cities, while densities of alcohol outlets were measured for by zip code. Data were analyzed via overdispersed multilevel Poisson models. Results Ex-drinkers, light drinkers, and heavy drinkers use physical abuse more often than lifetime abstainers. Moderate drinking was not related to child physical abuse. Proportion of bars was negatively related to frequency of physical abuse. Moderating relationships between alcohol outlet density and drinking categories were found for all drinking patterns. Conclusion Different types of alcohol outlets may be differentially related to drinking patterns, indicating that the interaction of drinking patterns and the drinking environment may place children at greater risk for being physically abused. PMID:27642071

  19. Interventions to cope with alcohol abuse: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jorge Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world, which could generate social and health problems, affecting users, people living with them and the society in general. The aim was to identify the best evidence of interventions to reduce alcohol abuse. An integrative review of the literature, conducted on LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED and SCOPUS, through the descriptors “intervention studies” and “alcoholism”. Nineteen articles were selected, most of them classified as two regarding level of evidence. They involved interventions with alcohol users, the most efficient were short interventions, internet-based interventions and counselling. Although cessation of alcohol use was not proved through the interventions, results point to a significant reduction in consumption, increase of the availability to change drinking habit and effective impact of short interventions when compared to usual treatments. Short interventions constitute the best interventions to reduce alcohol abuse.

  20. [Alcohol Abuse and Associated Factors in Student Children and Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Jaimes, Germán Eduardo; Ramírez, Jessica Liliana Pinto; Martínez-Villalba, Andrés Mauricio Rangel; López, Paul Anthony Camacho

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have confirmed high prevalence of alcohol abuse in adolescent students from Bucaramanga, Colombia. However, few studies on the associated factors have been carried out. Assessment of prevalence of alcohol abuse and associated factors in student children and adolescents from Bucaramanga. A random sample of adolescent students completed an anonymous questionnaire about the consumption of alcohol, illegal and legal substances, together with the CAGE questionnaire and a series of scales and questionnaires assessing risk factors for alcohol abuse. To adjust for confusing variables, a multivariate analysis was performed using a logistic regression model. 2916 students were surveyed with an average age between 10 and 22, and a mean of 14.4 years (SD 1.65), 51.1% were female, 36% were in the last two years of high school (10(th) and 11(th) grades), and 17.66% were in private schools. The alcohol abuse pattern as measured by the CAGE scale was 14.6% (95% CI, 13.3 - 16.0%). The associated factors were: age (OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.27), having a smoking or consuming alcohol sibling (OR: 1.48, 95% CI, 1.01 - 1.17) antisocial behavior (OR 3.03, 95% CI, 2.12 - 4.32) and best friend who uses illicit substances (OR 1.71, 95% CI, 1.06 - 2.76), best friend who smokes or drinks alcohol (OR 2.01, 95% CI, 1.40 - 2.88). One out of 7 students showed a pattern of alcohol abuse. The associated factors were the influence of friends, family, age and antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  2. Depressed and a co-morbid condition: more psychotropics prescribed!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, M.; Laurant, M.; Rijswijk, E. van; Mulder, J.; Braspenning, J.; Verhaak, P.; Wensing, M.; Grol, R.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression often occurs simultaneously with a variety of somatic, psychiatric, and social conditions. Knowledge about differences in the pharmacological treatment of depressed patients with and without co-morbidity is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare GPs' pharmacological treatment of

  3. Borderline personality disorder co-morbidity: relationship to the internalizing-externalizing structure of common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, N R; Krueger, R F; Keyes, K M; Skodol, A E; Markon, K E; Grant, B F; Hasin, D S

    2011-05-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) shows high levels of co-morbidity with an array of psychiatric disorders. The meaning and causes of this co-morbidity are not fully understood. Our objective was to investigate and clarify the complex co-morbidity of BPD by integrating it into the structure of common mental disorders. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on diagnostic interview data from a representative US population-based sample of 34 653 civilian, non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥18 years. We modeled the structure of lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses of BPD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, marijuana dependence, and any other drug dependence. In both women and men, the internalizing-externalizing structure of common mental disorders captured the co-morbidity among all disorders including BPD. Although BPD was unidimensional in terms of its symptoms, BPD as a disorder showed associations with both the distress subfactor of the internalizing dimension and the externalizing dimension. The complex patterns of co-morbidity observed with BPD represent connections to other disorders at the level of latent internalizing and externalizing dimensions. BPD is meaningfully connected with liabilities shared with common mental disorders, and these liability dimensions provide a beneficial focus for understanding the co-morbidity, etiology and treatment of BPD.

  4. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by section 333 of the Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and... connection with the performance of any program or activity relating to alcoholism or alcohol abuse education... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol...

  5. Creativity, alcohol and drug abuse: the pop icon Jim Morrison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M; Bertolino, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse is frequent among performers and pop musicians. Many of them hope that alcohol and drugs will enhance their creativity. Scientific studies are scarce and conclusions limited for methodological reasons. Furthermore, extraordinary creativity can hardly be grasped by empirical-statistical methods. Thus, ideographic studies are necessary to learn from extraordinarily creative persons about the relationship of creativity with alcohol and drugs. The pop icon Jim Morrison can serve as an exemplary case to investigate the interrelation between alcohol and drug abuse and creativity. Morrison's self-assessments in his works and letters as well as the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of creativity research. In the lyrics of Jim Morrison and in biographical descriptions, we can see how Jim Morrison tried to cope with traumatic events, depressive moods and uncontrolled impulses through creative activities. His talent, skill and motivation to write creatively were independent from taking alcohol and drugs. He used alcohol and drugs to transgress restrictive social norms, to broaden his perceptions and to reinforce his struggle for self-actualization. In short, his motivation to create something new and authentic was reinforced by alcohol and drugs. More important was the influence of a supportive group that enabled Morrison's talents to flourish. However, soon the frequent use of high doses of alcohol and drugs weakened his capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is an exemplary case showing that heavy drinking and the abuse of LSD, mescaline and amphetamines damages the capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is typical of creative personalities like Amy Winehouse, Janis Joplin, Brian Jones and Jimmy Hendrix who burn their creativity in early adulthood through alcohol and drugs. We suppose that the sacrificial ritual of their decay offers some benefits for the excited spectators. One of these is the

  6. 24 CFR 5.860 - When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federally Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse Terminating Tenancy § 5.860 When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers? The lease must provide... to evict alcohol abusers? 5.860 Section 5.860 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...

  7. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  8. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...

  9. Genetic moderators and psychiatric mediators of the link between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William E; Magnusson, Asa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus A

    2011-06-01

    This study used a case-control female sample to test psychiatric mediators and genetic moderators of the effect of sexual abuse on later alcohol dependence. The study also tested differences between alcohol dependent women with or without a history of sexual abuse on variables that might affect treatment planning. A case-control design compared 192 treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with 177 healthy population controls. All participants were assessed for alcohol-related behaviors, sexual abuse history, psychiatric problems, and personality functioning. Markers were genotyped in the CRHR1, MAO-A and OPRM1 genes. The association of sexual abuse with alcohol dependence was limited to the most severe category of sexual abuse involving anal or vaginal penetration. Of the five psychiatric disorders tested, anxiety, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia met criteria as potential mediators of the abuse-alcohol dependence association. Severe sexual abuse continued to have an independent effect on alcohol dependence status even after accounting for these potential mediators. None of the candidate genetic markers moderated the association between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. Of alcohol dependent participants, those with a history of severe abuse rated higher on alcoholism severity, and psychiatric comorbidities. Sexual abuse is associated with later alcohol problems directly as well as through its effect on psychiatric problems. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with a history of abuse have distinct features as compared to other alcohol dependent women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol Abuse Prevention: A Comprehensive Guide for Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boys' Clubs of America, New York, NY.

    This guide, the culmination of a three year Project TEAM effort by the Boys' Clubs of America, describes numerous strategies for developing an alcohol abuse prevention program. The core of this guide consists of program models developed by the Boys' Club project at seven pilot sites. The models presented cover the following areas: peer leadership,…

  11. Drug and Alcohol Abuse in the Workplace: Consequences and Countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Behrouz

    1985-01-01

    The numerous company programs in North America that have developed countermeasures against drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace, ranging from prevention, health promotion and education, to treatment and rehabilitation, provide instructive examples of an effective approach that in most cases has more than paid for its cost. (Author/CT)

  12. Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane

    2010-01-01

    Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

  13. Alcohol abuse among patients with and without HIV infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol abuse among patients with and without HIV infection attending public clinics in Western Kenya. DN Shaffer, R Njeri, AC Justice, WW Odero, WM Tierney. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...

  15. 78 FR 66023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Clinical, Treatment and Health...

  16. Co-morbidities in severe asthma: Clinical impact and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Patients with severe asthma represent a minority of the total asthma population, but carry a majority of the morbidity and healthcare costs. Achieving better asthma control in this group of patients is therefore of key importance. Systematic assessment of patients with possible severe asthma to identify treatment barriers and triggers of asthma symptoms, including co-morbidities, improves asthma control and reduces healthcare costs and is recommended by international guidelines on management of severe asthma. This review provides the clinician with an overview of the prevalence and clinical impact of the most common co-morbidities in severe asthma, including chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, dysfunctional breathing, vocal cord dysfunction, anxiety and depression, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), bronchiectasis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and eosinophilic granulomatous with polyangiitis (EGPA). Furthermore, the review offers a summary of recommended diagnostic and management approaches for each co-morbidity. Finally, the review links co-morbid conditions to specific phenotypes of severe asthma, in order to guide the clinician on which co-morbidities to look for in specific patients. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Drug and alcohol abuse by doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serry, N; Bloch, S; Ball, R; Anderson, K

    1994-04-04

    To determine whether doctors who abuse substances differ from controls in terms of their physical and psychological well-being, and their marital and occupational functioning. The 44 doctors concerned in all cases of substance abuse which came before the Medical Board of Victoria between 1984 and 1990 were invited to complete a demographic questionnaire, psychological tests and a semi-structured interview. A control group of 42 doctors, obtained from the Medical Register, was also invited, and the groups were compared. The study was carried out at St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, under the auspices of the Medical Board of Victoria. Questionnaires were returned by 70% of the drug-dependent doctors and 83% of the controls. However, interviews were given by only 20% of the drug-dependent doctors. The groups differed significantly in terms of marital status (P < 0.002), overall health (P < 0.003), general wellbeing (P < 0.0009), and having experienced physical illness (P < 0.02) and psychiatric illness (P < 0.006) since graduation. No differences were found on the standardised questionnaires; this may reflect successful treatment. Substance abuse in medical practitioners is a major problem and is associated with considerable morbidity. Prevention and early intervention are crucial.

  18. Recent Advances in Nicotinic Receptor Signaling in Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic-cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Education, Alcohol Use and Abuse among Young Adults in Britain. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week's birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of alcohol abuse include alcohol consumption above NHS…

  20. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and associated hepatic co-morbidities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, M.C.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that drives the -development of obesity-related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease. This metabolic inflammation is thought to originate

  1. Fractures and alcohol abuse - patient opinion of alcohol intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette; Alva-Jørgensen, Peter; Raffing, Rie

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To clarify patient opinions about alcohol intervention in relation to surgery before investigating the effect in a Scandinavian multi-centre randomized trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study. Thirteen consecutive alcohol patients with fractures participated after informed consent....... They were interviewed during their hospital stay. The number of participants was based on the criteria of data-saturation. The analysis followed the applied qualitative framework model aimed at evaluation of specific participant needs within a larger overall project. RESULTS: All patients regarded alcohol...... intervention in relation to surgery as a good idea. They did not consider quit drinking as a major problem during their hospital stay and had all remained abstinent in this period. About half of the patients were ready or partly ready to participate in an alcohol intervention. Patient opinions...

  2. Suicidal behavior in adolescents with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, D; Sher, L

    2009-06-01

    Depression, alcohol abuse and suicidality each continue to threaten adolescent populations throughout the world. The comorbidity between these diseases has been found to be up to 73% with consistent positive correlations between adolescent drinking, depression and suicidality. Alcohol abuse, depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents have also been found to have biochemical and genetic correlates. This article explores the contributing and causative factors and directional models underlying such prevalent comorbidities. Alcohol use is shown to be both a distal and proximal cause of suicide attempts in adolescent populations. Individuals with both alcoholism and depression who attempt or complete suicide often present with significantly high levels of aggression and impulsivity. These factors may be caused or nuanced by poor or underdeveloped coping skills as well as other comorbid psychiatric conditions. Such behaviors, alone or in comorbidity, may be a consequence of childhood abuse, social pressures, low self-esteem and/or delinquency- all of which may be particularly salient among adolescent populations. Such adolescent stressors are implicated as the cause for the self-medication model. Some studies suggest that depression encourages alcohol use as self-medication and then leads to suicidality, while others imply that the initial alcohol consumption is responsible for increasing depressive and suicidal symptoms in adolescents. This article discusses the social stigma associated with alcoholism, depression and suicidality, and how that may serve to enhance these disorders in adolescent populations. Many directional models are presented based on past research and as suggestions for future research. There is a lot that can be done by clinicians, legal and educational professionals and society at large that may help to prevent and treat such problems.

  3. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly ...

  4. Adult antisocial syndrome co-morbid with borderline personality disorder is associated with severe conduct disorder, substance dependence and violent antisociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Mark; Howard, Rick; Coid, Jeremy W; Ullrich, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that syndromal adult antisocial behaviour (AABS) co-morbid with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a syndrome that emerges from severe conduct disorder (CD) in childhood and adolescence and is strongly associated, in adulthood, with both violence and substance dependence. In a sample of 8 580 community-resident adults screened for the presence of personality disorders, the following predictions arising from this hypothesis were tested: first, that those with AABS co-morbid with BPD would, in comparison with those showing AABS or BPD only, show a high level of antisocial outcomes, including violence; second, that adjusting for co-morbid alcohol dependence would attenuate group differences in many of the antisocial outcomes, and violence in particular; and third, that the AABS/BPD group would show both a high prevalence and a high severity of CD, and that adjusting for co-morbid CD would attenuate any association found between AABS/BPD co-morbidity and violence. Results confirmed these predictions, suggesting that AABS/BPD co-morbidity mediates the relationship between childhood CD and a predisposition to adult violence. The triad of AABS/BPD co-morbidity, alcohol dependence and severe CD is likely associated with the risk of criminal recidivism in offenders with personality disorder following release into the community. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Depression, suicidality and alcohol abuse among medical and business students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curran, T A

    2012-02-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95\\/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.

  6. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22 of...

  7. Ethnic differences in the predictors of drug and alcohol abuse in hospitalized adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M

    2007-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial correlates of drug and alcohol abuse in hospitalized adolescents and the extent to which these associations may be affected by ethnicity. Four hundred fifty-eight psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-19, completed measures of psychological functioning, environmental stress, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse. Multiple regression analyses examined the joint and independent predictors of drug and alcohol abuse for European Americans, Latino Americans, and African Americans separately. Seven variables--age, depression, impulsivity, low self-esteem, delinquent predisposition, low peer insecurity, and history of child abuse--jointly predicted drug abuse for all groups, and predicted alcohol abuse for European Americans and Latino Americans. However, several differences were noted with respect to which variables made independent contributions to the model. Such differences may reflect distinct risk factors for drug and alcohol abuse in these three ethnic groups and may also have implications for prevention and treatment programs.

  8. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...... increased amounts later developed the disease (p less than 0.005). Semiquantitative assessment of the amount of parenchymal fibronectin at an early stage of alcoholic liver disease is of definite predictive value for the development of cirrhosis....

  9. Major depressive disorder as a co-morbid diagnosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to focus on the importance of depressive symptoms in patients suffering from schizophrenia, and the dilemma posed by hierarchical classification methods, which exclude co-morbid diagnoses such as Major Depressive Disorder in patients with schizophrenia. The question arises that if Major ...

  10. Tinnitus and the prevalence of co-morbid psychological stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tinnitus is a symptom of unknown pathophysiology with few therapeutic measures and may present with co-morbid psychological stresses necessitating psychiatric treatment. This study aims at determining the prevalence of depression and anxiety in tinnitus sufferers in our environment. Method: This is a one ...

  11. Profile of Co-morbidities in the Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salati SA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the profile of co-morbidities in obese patients reporting for bariatric surgical procedures. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at the Bariatric Surgery Unit of Department of Surgery of the College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The records of all the obese patients (with Body Mass Index greater than 30, evaluated in the department over the period of two years from Jan 2012 to Dec 2014, were studied and co-morbidities were sought in all subjects. Results: Of the 172 subjects, 76.2% (n=131 were female and 23.8% (n=41 male. The age ranged from 17–49 years (Mean 29.9 years; Mode 28 years. The weight ranged from 82 kg–146kg and BMI ranged from 33–54 (mean BMI 44.7 kg/m. Out of the total of 172 patients, 96 (56 % including 72 females and 24 males had one or more co-morbidities. Conclusion: A wide range of co-morbidities occur in obese patients that have the potential to decrease the quality of life and the life span.

  12. Management of co-morbidity of depression and chronic non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus group discussion using a structured interview guide was used to collect qualitative data, followed by qualitative content analysis using inductive approach. Results: We found no particular protocols or interventions in place to manage the co-morbidity of depression and chronic NCDs. Depression and chronic NCDs ...

  13. A study of geriatric depression and co- morbidities among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression in the elderly is very common but diagnostic rates among primary care physicians is poor. This is attributed to both patient and physician related factors. The patient factors include co-morbidities, aging and psychological mindedness which is culture related. Generally, there's paucity of psychological complaints ...

  14. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of drug and alcohol abuse in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E

    1996-01-01

    The major reasons why women abuse drugs and alcohol are presented with a focus on societal and psychologic bases. A structured format is provided for eliciting a history while motivating the patient to obtain adequate treatment. A workable treatment contract is presented. A three-stage method of treatment is described, which focuses on the following: (1) achieving abstinence, (2) maintaining abstinence, and (3) achieving sobriety (advanced recovery).

  16. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  17. Alcohol and drug problems and sexual and physical abuse at three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Alcohol is the most important substance of abuse in South Africa. There are, however, reports of an increase in the use of other drugs among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse and their association with physical or sexual abuse in three urban high ...

  18. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  19. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Fat distribution and steroid hormones in women with alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, P; Ellsinger, B M; Sjöberg, C; Björntorp, P

    1990-10-01

    Anthropometric, hormonal and liver function parameters were examined in 18 premenopausal women with a history of early alcohol abuse, and compared with the data for randomly selected controls of the same age. The alcoholic women showed slightly elevated levels of transaminases, but no clinical or laboratory signs of advanced liver damage. These women were characterized by an increased waist-to-hip ratio, due to enlarged waist circumference. Several endocrine abnormalities were found, including irregular or absent menses as well as low oestrogen, progesterone and delta-4-androstendione levels. The concentration of free testosterone was high and that of sex-hormone-binding globulin was low. These data suggest abdominal distribution of body fat, as well as hyperandrogenicity in alcoholic, premenopausal women. It is postulated that the endocrine abnormalities might be responsible for the abdominal fat distribution.

  1. Alcohol drinking by parents and risk of alcohol abuse by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipkin, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE(S: To investigate associations between alcohol drinking by parents at different time of their life and alcohol use by adolescents.DESIGN: The longitudinal epidemiological study design was used to answer the proposed research questions. This study is based on the data of the Family and Children of Ukraine Study (FCOU, which is a prospective cohort study of women and children. PARTICIPANTS: Recruited subjects were pregnant women with last menstrual period (LMP between 25 December 1992 and 23 July 1994. Self-completed questionnaires and the medical record data were collected at the first antenatal clinic visit and at the delivery. The sample in the city of Dniprodzerzhynsk consists of 2148 women, their children and partners (if any, but at 15-17-years-old follow-up only data about 1020 participants were available. MAIN EXPOSURES: Use of alcohol by mother/father before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and at 15-17 years of child’s age.OUTCOME MEASURE: Use of alcohol by 15-17-year-old adolescent.RESULTS: Use of alcohol more than once a week by mother before pregnancy was associated with alcohol abuse by adolescents, unlike father’s use of alcohol before and during pregnancy. Use of alcohol both by mother and father during adolescence of their offspring was strongly associated with alcohol abuse by the child. In the multivariate analysis only alcohol use by mother during adolescence of the child was significantly associated with alcohol use by the adolescent.CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis that concurrent social factors influence regular alcohol use among adolescents more intensively than early life factors.

  2. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ..., National Institutes of Health, Shady Grove West, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20892, 240-276..., HHS). (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research...

  3. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Eloah Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.

  4. Adolescents at risk for drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, J

    1985-12-01

    Although all children have the potential for becoming destructively involved with psychoactive drugs, there is considerable evidence that youngsters with particular kinds of psychologic and family problems are at high risk for chemical dependency. These include youngsters with developmental deficiencies that interfere with their capacity to master the environment. Children with a strong family history of alcoholism or drug abuse also seem to be at high risk. Obviously, there is some overlap between these two groups, not only because parental drug abuse and alcoholism may damage the fetus, but because chemically dependent parents are more likely to abuse or neglect their children because of the impact of their own illness on their functioning as parents. In addition, families in which drug use is modeled as a typical behavior are more likely to produce adolescents who use drugs, although rigid rules against drug use are relatively ineffective in preventing adolescents from experimenting with drugs. Finally, certain behavior patterns in young childhood--particularly severe aggressiveness, rebelliousness, and learning problems at school--seem to be correlated with the development of chemical dependency during adolescence.

  5. Co-morbidity and cannabis use in a mental health trust in South East England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trathen, Bruce; O'gara, Colin; Sarkhel, Arghya; Sessay, Mohammed; Rao, Harish; Luty, Jason

    2007-10-01

    The prevalence of co-morbidity (severe mental illness and substance) may be less in rural and semi-rural areas than inner cities. The aims were therefore to measure the prevalence of co-morbidity among patients of attending a mental health service in a semi-rural area South East England. Cross-sectional prevalence survey of 1,808 patients with detailed assessments from a representative sample of 373 patients identified as having a combination of severe mental illness and substance misuse. Interviews with key workers were performed using validated methods from the COSMIC study. The response rates equalled or exceeded 90% for the various parts of the study. One-tenth of patients attending the Community Mental Health Teams (CMHTs) reported problematic use of illicit drugs and 17% reported alcohol problems in the past year. 22% of Community Drug and Alcohol Service (CDAS) clients reported a severe mental illness and 46% reported some other form of psychiatric disorder. Of patients with a combined diagnosis of mental illness and substance misuse, cannabis use was 4-fold more common amongst patients attending the CMHT than CDAS (33% vs. 8%) while use of amphetamine was five-fold higher in the CMHT group (10% vs. 2%). Patients with concurrent psychiatric and substance misuse problems represent a similar proportion of the aggregate caseload of both treatment services with observed prevalence amongst the CDAS and CMHT patients with a diagnosis for anxiety disorder (18% vs. 26%), minor depression (42% vs. 32%), personality disorders (32% vs. 36%), histories of self-harm (52% vs. 46%) and violence (33% vs. 30%) respectively. Co-morbidity is common in clients amongst CMHT and CDAS clients although use of cannabis was significantly more common in CMHT clients than in CDAS clients.

  6. Bipolar disorder and co-occurring cannabis use disorders: characteristics, co-morbidities and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ran, Shaul; Le Foll, Bernard; McKenzie, Kwame; George, Tony P; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-10-30

    This study examines rates of co-morbid mental disorders and indicators of the course of illness among individuals with bipolar disorder and cannabis use disorders (CUD). Data were drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC Wave 1, 2001-2002), a nationally representative sample of adults living in the United States. Among individuals with lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder (N=1905) rates of CUD in the past 12 months were 7.2%, compared to 1.2% in the general population. Logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic variables indicated that individuals with bipolar disorder and co-occurring CUD were at increased risk for nicotine dependence (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=3.8), alcohol (AOR=6.6) and drug (AOR=11.9) use disorders, as well as antisocial personality disorder (AOR=2.8) compared to those without CUD. Among individuals with co-occurring CUD, age of onset of bipolar disorder was significantly lower and median number of manic, hypomanic and depressive episodes per year was significantly greater compared to individuals without CUD. Co-occurring CUD is associated with significant co-morbidities and a more severe course of illness among individuals with bipolar disorder. Comprehensive evaluation of patients with bipolar disorder should include a systematic assessment of CUD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug and alcohol abuse intervention in American Indian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S

    1985-01-01

    American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use

  8. The effects of residential dual diagnosis treatment on alcohol abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Fried, Lyle; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Modestino, Edward J.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p treatment of both disorders and explained their effectiveness. Co-occurring DSM IV mood disorders such as anxiety and depression as well as drug abuse involving opioids or cocaine fell between 66 and 95% at months one, six, and twelve. PMID:28868159

  9. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....

  10. Chronic hydrocephalus and alcohol abuse in a young male suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montisci, Massimo; Terranova, Claudio; Snenghi, Rossella; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2006-12-01

    The paper describes a case of suicide in a young man affected by compensated chronic hydrocephalus who was subject to alcohol abuse. The case was studied by means of a complex set of analyses, including circumstantial and clinical data, anatomohistopathological findings, and chemicotoxicologic tests. What clearly emerges in the case is the importance of a continuing neuropsychological follow-up in patients with shunted hydrocephalus. The forensic interest in the case is due to the peculiar autopsy findings discussed in relation to the possible causes of sudden death in subjects with hydrocephalus.

  11. Screening for drug and alcohol abuse in a general medical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, F S; Day, C M; Ungerleider, J T

    1979-08-10

    One hundred fifty consecutive, first-visit, general medical patients were simply and inexpensively screened by questionnaire, personal inquiry, and physical examination for drug and alcohol abuse. Seventeen (11.3%) currently used psychoactive drugs, excluding alcohol, and ten (6.7%) used drugs or alcohol on a daily basis to the point that the patient considered it an abuse problem. The majority of the drug and alcohol users recognized their problem on a short questionnaire that was part of a medical intake form. Almost all of the recognized abusers of drugs or alcohol subsequently entered treatment of their problem.

  12. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms: A Multidimensional Model of Common and Specific Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Carey, Kate B.; Wills, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model hypothesizing differential pathways from five predictors to alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The participants were college students (N= 2,270) surveyed on two occasions in a 6-month prospective design. Social norms, perceived utility of alcohol use, and family history of alcohol problems were indirectly associated with Time 2 (T2) abuse and dependence symptoms through influencing level of alcohol consumption. Poor behavioral control had a direct eff...

  13. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized...

  14. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.223 Alcohol...

  15. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction of drug and alcohol abuse in hospitalized adolescents: comparisons by gender and substance type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M

    2006-10-01

    The authors examined psychosocial correlates of drug and alcohol abuse in 462 hospitalized adolescents, and the extent to which these associations may be affected by gender or by substance type. Participants completed a battery of psychometrically-sound, self-report measures of psychological functioning, environmental stress, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse. Four multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the joint and independent predictors of drug abuse and alcohol abuse, for males and for females. Multiple regression analysis revealed that seven variables--age, depression, impulsivity, low self-esteem, delinquent predisposition, low peer insecurity, and history of child abuse--jointly predicted both drug and alcohol abuse, for both males and females. However, several differences were found with respect to which variables made independent contributions to the predictive models--with only delinquent predisposition making a significant independent contribution for all four conditions. We found distinct patterns of psychosocial predictor variables for drug and alcohol abuse, as well as distinct patterns for males and females. These results may reflect differing risk factors for drug abuse and alcohol abuse in adolescent psychiatric patients--and differing risk factors for males and females. Such differences have potential implications for prevention and treatment.

  17. Identification of alcohol abuse and transition from long-term unemployment to disability pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmela, Kirsti; Heikkinen, Virpi; Hokkanen, Risto; Ylinen, Aarne; Uitti, Jukka; Mattila, Aino; Joukamaa, Matti; Virtanen, Pekka

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal potential gaps and inconsistencies in the identification of alcohol abuse in health care and in employment services and to analyse the granting of disability pensions with respect to the alcohol abuse identification pattern. The material consisted of documentary information on 505 long-term unemployed subjects with low employability sent to the development project entitled 'Eligibility for a Disability Pension' in 2001-2006 in Finland. The dichotomous variables 'Alcohol abuse identified in employment services' and 'Alcohol abuse identified in health care' were cross-tabulated to obtain a four-class variable 'Alcohol abuse identification pattern'. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to ascertain the association of alcohol abuse identification pattern with the granting of disability pensions. Alcohol abuse was detected by both health care and employment services in 47% of those identified as abusers (41% of examinees). Each service systems also identified cases that the other did not. When alcohol abuse was identified in health care only, the OR for a disability pension being granted was 2.8 (95% CI 1.5-5.2) compared with applicants without identified alcohol abuse. The result remained the same and statistically significant after adjusting for confounders. Alcohol abuse identified in health care was positively associated with the granting of a disability pension. Closer co-operation between employment services and health care could help to identify those long-term unemployed individuals with impaired work ability in need of thorough medical examination. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  18. The Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  19. Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge; Boitt, Monicah Lydia; Othieno, Caleb; Obondo, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  20. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  1. Alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and aggression : The quest for a common underlying mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Wright, Aidan G.C.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and personality disorders are often comorbid, and their co-occurrence is associated with worse rognostic expectations, poor therapeutic outcomes, as well as deleterious behavioral and interpersonal consequences. The current review aims at untangling the association among alcohol abuse,

  2. Screening Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse the Psychometric Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Mohamad Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and

  3. Trends in Sociodemographic and Drug Abuse Variables in Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polydrug abuse was high in the two periods but significantly the drug combination changed to cannabis in combination with alcohol in 2002–2007 as against cocaine in combination with opiates in 1992–1997 (c2 45.3, p<0.001). More patients had co-morbid psychiatric disorders in 2000-2007 [67.6% as against 38.5% in ...

  4. Sensory symptom profiles and co-morbidities in painful radiculopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Mahn

    Full Text Available Painful radiculopathies (RAD and classical neuropathic pain syndromes (painful diabetic polyneuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia show differences how the patients express their sensory perceptions. Furthermore, several clinical trials with neuropathic pain medications failed in painful radiculopathy. Epidemiological and clinical data of 2094 patients with painful radiculopathy were collected within a cross sectional survey (painDETECT to describe demographic data and co-morbidities and to detect characteristic sensory abnormalities in patients with RAD and compare them with other neuropathic pain syndromes. Common co-morbidities in neuropathic pain (depression, sleep disturbance, anxiety do not differ considerably between the three conditions. Compared to other neuropathic pain syndromes touch-evoked allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia are relatively uncommon in RAD. One distinct sensory symptom pattern (sensory profile, i.e., severe painful attacks and pressure induced pain in combination with mild spontaneous pain, mild mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, was found to be characteristic for RAD. Despite similarities in sensory symptoms there are two important differences between RAD and other neuropathic pain disorders: (1 The paucity of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia might be explained by the fact that the site of the nerve lesion in RAD is often located proximal to the dorsal root ganglion. (2 The distinct sensory profile found in RAD might be explained by compression-induced ectopic discharges from a dorsal root and not necessarily by nerve damage. These differences in pathogenesis might explain why medications effective in DPN and PHN failed to demonstrate efficacy in RAD.

  5. Psychiatric co-morbidity in chronic pain disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, N.; Sharif, A.; Shoaib, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with chronic pain disorder in hospital setting. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and duration of study: This study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Okara from June 2011 to May 2012. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 400 patients (males=117; females=283) gathered from pain clinic and other outpatient departments of the hospital and were interviewed in detail and Present State Examination was carried out. Demographic variables were scored using descriptive statistics and results were analyzed using correlation methods. Results: It was revealed that psychiatric illness in overall sample prevailed among 266 participants (67%). Among which 164 participants (62%) were diagnosed with depression, 67 patients (25.2%) of chronic pain were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 28 patients (11%) with adjustment disorder and 1.5% and 1.1% diagnosed with drug dependence and somatization disorder, respectively. Conclusion: Psychiatric co-morbidity especially the incidence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders were high amongst patients suffering from chronic pain disorder. (author)

  6. PSYCHIATRIC CO - MORBIDITY IN PERSONS WITH HANSEN’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of psychiatric co - morbidity and its effect on quality of life in persons with Hansen’s disease. METHOD: The study was conducted on around 80 persons above 18 year age with Hansen’s disease in out - patient department dermatology and i n leprosy home. Participants were diagnosed cases of Hansen’s disease, selected randomly and were evaluated with socio demographic questionnaire, Duke’s general health questionnaire, DSM - 5 self rated level 1 cross cutting symptom measure – adult and WHO - QO L - BREF. The period of data collection was from October 2014 to March 2015. RESULTS: The assessment showed that prevalence of at least one psychiatric co morbidity was 83.75% (67/80 patients and of these 67 patients 18(26.86% have one diagnosis, 26(38.80% have two diagnoses and 23(34.32% have 3 or more psychiatric diagnoses. Among all depression was most prevalent (28.35% mental disorder; followed by anxiety disorder (23.88%. Quality of life was significantly impaired in almost all persons with Hansen’ s disease. CONCLUSION: Persons with Hansen’s disease have significantly high prevalence of mental disorders which have much impact on their quality of life which were under diagnosed and thus remained untreated

  7. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among U.S. Veterans: Comparing Associations with Intimate Partner Substance Abuse and Veteran Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433

  8. Do general practitioners record alcohol abuse in the electronic medical records? : A comparison of survey and medical record data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abidi, L.; Oenema, A.; van den Akker, M.; van de Mheen, D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Primary care professionals are encouraged to screen patients for alcohol abuse. However, patients with alcohol abuse are often under-diagnosed as well as under-registered in medical records in general practices. This study aims to report on the registration rates of alcohol abuse

  9. Patterns of alcohol use and abuse among aging Civil War veterans, 1865-1920.

    OpenAIRE

    Achenbaum, W. A.; Howell, J. D.; Parker, M.

    1993-01-01

    Given the extent of alcoholism among elderly people, it is remarkable how little is known about the biomedical and social dimensions of alcohol use and abuse in late life. In the absence of compelling longitudinal data drawn from contemporary sources, a historical perspective may help to illuminate the incidence and consequences of alcohol abuse among the elderly. Based on a study of 370 case histories drawn from the National Military Home in Dayton, Ohio, which around the turn of the century...

  10. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Associated With Problematic Drinking Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH−same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more dr...

  11. What can we expect from treatment of adolescent drug and alcohol abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peele, S

    1987-01-01

    Our fears about youthful substance abuse and our faith in popular treatments are misdirected. Most illicit substance use by the young is not pathologic or compulsive. Excessive substance use among the young most often involves alcohol. Youthful substance abusers tend to abuse many substances--therefore an understanding of substance abuse requires an awareness of individual motivation and of the person's social circumstances. Therapy lacking this understanding has proven fruitless. Our best hope for the young--whether or not they have significant histories of substance abuse--lies in engaging the natural processes of maturation, real-world rewards, and the creation of a world worth living in.

  12. Alcohol abuse and traffic safety : a study of fatalities, DWI offenders, alcoholics, and court-related treatment approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-06-26

    Author's abstract: Methodology and conclusions on the role of the abusive use of alcohol in traffic safety were developed through three related projects. Project I is a case-history investigation of 616 traffic fatalities from metropolitan Wayne Coun...

  13. Drug and alcohol abuse inpatients' attitudes about smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, L M; Seidner, A L; Burling, T A; Thomas, R G; Brenner, G F

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes about quitting cigarette smoking were assessed at admission to a substance abuse treatment program for homeless veterans. The majority were interested in quitting smoking, believed that inpatient drug/alcohol treatment was the best time to quit, and that quitting would not threaten their sobriety. Using cluster analysis, four subgroups of inpatients with different levels of interest, confidence, and motivation regarding quitting smoking were identified. Our inpatients' positive attitudes about quitting smoking stand in contrast with previously reported attitudes of many health professionals, and suggest that inpatient treatment could be an opportune time to provide stop-smoking interventions. Findings also suggest that different treatment approaches may be needed for subgroups of inpatients with varying attitudes about quitting.

  14. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  15. Profiling leucocyte subsets in tuberculosis-diabetes co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Moideen, Kadar; Dhakshinraj, Sharmila D; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Nair, Dina; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Babu, Subash

    2015-10-01

    The immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis-type 2 diabetes mellitus (PTB-DM) co-morbidity. However, the phenotypic profile of leucocyte subsets at homeostasis in individuals with active or latent tuberculosis (LTB) with coincident diabetes is not known. To characterize the influence of diabetes on leucocyte phenotypes in PTB or LTB, we examined the frequency (Fo ) of leucocyte subsets in individuals with TB with (PTB-DM) or without (PTB) diabetes; individuals with latent TB with (LTB-DM) or without (LTB) diabetes and non-TB-infected individuals with (NTB-DM) or without (NTB) diabetes. Coincident DM is characterized by significantly lower Fo of effector memory CD4(+) T cells in LTB individuals. In contrast, DM is characterized by significantly lower Fo of effector memory CD8(+) T cells and significantly higher Fo of central memory CD8(+) T cells in PTB individuals. Coincident DM resulted in significantly higher Fo of classical memory B cells in PTB and significantly higher Fo of activated memory and atypical B cells in LTB individuals. Coincident DM resulted in significantly lower Fo of classical and intermediate monocytes in PTB, LTB and NTB individuals. Finally, DM resulted in significantly lower Fo of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in PTB, LTB and NTB individuals. Our data reveal that coincident diabetes alters the cellular subset distribution of T cells, B cells, dendritic cells and monocytes in both individuals with active TB and those with latent TB, thus potentially impacting the pathogenesis of this co-morbid condition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  17. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Associated Hepatic Co-Morbidities: A Comprehensive Review of Human and Rodent Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, M.C.; Kleemann, R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that drives the -development of obesity-related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease. This metabolic inflammation is thought to originate in

  18. Childhood obesity and its physical and psychological co-morbidities: a systematic review of Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ross H; Han, Ahreum; Baker, Julien S; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Australia is predicted to have the highest overweight/obesity rate in the world by 2022 outranking the USA and UK. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the associations between childhood obesity and physical and psychological health co-morbidities. Therefore, a systematic literature search was conducted from six databases (2004-2014). Studies were included if they investigated obesity-related co-morbidities with participants residing in Australia aged 0-18 years. Forty-seven studies fulfilled selection criteria. Evidence suggests that overweight/obese Australian children and adolescents, compared to normal-weight peers, had more cardio-metabolic risk factors and higher risk factors of non-alcohol fatty liver disease and were experiencing more negative psychological outcomes (depression, low self-esteem and lower scores of health-related quality of life). Many other health consequences have either not been investigated in Australia, or as frequently as in other countries. Given Australia's current overweight/obesity prevalence and trajectory, Australia-based studies are needed to identify the suspected co-morbidities, understand the range of individual, social and environmental mechanisms driving obesity, and help identify policies, interventions and strategies that will change the future trajectory and 'disease burden' both in Australia and internationally. • Trend analyses have shown that obesity prevalence in Australia is increasing and will outrank UK and the USA by 2022. • Every third Australian child/adolescent between 5 and 19 years old is predicted to be classified as overweight or obese by 2025. • Childhood obesity is associated with multiple immediate physical and psychological health co-morbidities as well as co-morbidities in adulthood. These have often been identified and examined individually. What is New: • This paper presents a holistic picture of childhood obesity and the associated multiple co-morbidities in Australia.

  19. Burnout and Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Among U.S. Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eric R; Shanafelt, Tait D; Hasan, Omar; Satele, Daniel V; Dyrbye, Liselotte N

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between alcohol abuse/dependence with burnout and other forms of distress among a national cohort of medical students. In 2012, the authors completed a national survey of medical students from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile containing validated items assessing alcohol abuse/dependence, burnout, depression, suicidality, quality of life (QOL), and fatigue. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were computed, including chi-square and multivariate logistic regression, to determine relationships between variables. Of the 12,500 students, 4,402 (35.2%) responded. Of these, 1,411 (32.4%) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence. Students who were burned out (P = .01), depressed (P = .01), or reported low mental (P =.03) or emotional (P = .016) QOL were more likely to have alcohol abuse/dependence. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization domains of burnout were strongly associated with alcohol abuse/dependence. On multivariate analysis, burnout (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.37; P $100,000 (OR 1.27 versus dependence. Burnout was strongly related to alcohol abuse/dependence among sampled medical students and increased educational debt predicted a higher risk. A multifaceted approach addressing burnout, medical education costs, and alcohol use is needed.

  20. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction, and Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    basis for a potential approach to prospectively identifying individuals - including individuals with PTSD - at increased risk for future alcohol use...responses to 90, 95 and 100 decibel (dB) white noise stimuli presented in counterbalanced semi-randomized order were tested in alcohol -naYve young adult ...Davis et al., 1997) that is common to many alcoholics (Cloninger, 1987; Kushner et al., 2000) and that is a major risk factor for alcohol abuse (Koob

  1. Influence of pretreatment coping strategies on the outcome of outpatient treatment of Danish alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette

    2006-01-01

    An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study...... investigated the role of pretreatment coping strategies in outcome of outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse. The pretreatment coping strategies of 136 clients receiving outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse were examined as a predictor of drinking pattern after treatment. The pretreatment coping strategies...... were assessed by the COPE questionnaire. Drinking pattern after treatment was assessed at follow-up one year after treatment was entered. Results indicated that some pretreatment coping strategies are identifiable as adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, respectively, regarding successful...

  2. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction, and Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0126 TITLE: Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction , and Relapse...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction ...system in pathological anxiety: a focus on panic with relevance to generalized anxiety and phobias. Biol Psychiatry 46:1205-18. Stevens DR

  3. Screening for drug and alcohol abuse among older adults using a modified version of the CAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkin, C H; Castellon, S A; Dickson-Fuhrman, E; Daum, G; Jaffe, J; Jarvik, L

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves of a modified version of the CAGE, a screening measure used in the detection of older alcohol- and drug-abusing individuals. In a retrospective review of clinical records of 976 patients screened by a geriatric substance abuse program, the authors examined patients' responses on a modified version of the CAGE that included queries regarding drug use. The CAGE was administered to individuals age 50 or over draw from three diagnostic groups: alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, and normal controls. Analysis of variance and discriminant function analyses revealed that the modified CAGE was able to discriminate both alcohol and drug abusers from controls. Analyses examining test sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curves revealed the CAGE to demonstrate excellent sensitivity but poor specificity. Omitting the "cut down'' item from the CAGE significantly improved specificity with only a modest drop in sensitivity. Given the ease of administration and sensitivity to both alcohol and drug abuse, these data suggest that the modified CAGE is well suited as a screening instrument for geriatric drug and alcohol abuse.

  4. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Background Information for Security Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    problems. About 10% of adult Americans have a serious alcohol problem. Excessive alcohol consumption may impair judgment and increase the risk of...no family history of alcoholism . The risk is far greater for children of alcoholic mothers than alcoholic fathers. The child of an alcoholic father...is at greater risk if the mother instilled in the child high esteem for the father. One characteristic of alcohol dependence is increasing tolerance

  5. "ALS reversals": demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Daniel; Mehta, Paul; van Es, Michael A; Stommel, Elijah; Drory, Vivian E; Nefussy, Beatrice; van den Berg, Leonard H; Crayle, Jesse; Bedlack, Richard

    2018-04-02

    To identify differences in demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities between patients with "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) reversals" and those with typically progressive ALS. Cases of possible ALS reversals were found in prior publications, in the Duke ALS clinic, through self-referral or referral from other Neurologists, and on the internet. Of 89 possible reversals identified, 36 cases were included because chart or literature review confirmed their diagnosis and a robust, sustained improvement in at least one objective measure. Controls were participants in the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials database and the National ALS Registry. Cases and controls were compared using descriptive statistics. ALS reversals were more likely to be male, have limb onset disease, and initially progress faster. The prevalences of myasthenia gravis (MG) and purely lower motor neuron disease in cases were higher than estimates of these prevalences in the general population. The odds of taking curcumin, luteolin, cannabidiol, azathioprine, copper, glutathione, vitamin D, and fish oil were greater for cases than controls. When compared to patients with typically progressive ALS, patients with reversals differed in their demographics, disease characteristics, and treatments. While some of these patients may have had a rare antibody-mediated ALS mimicker, such as atypical myasthenia gravis, details of their exams, EMGs and family histories argue that this was unlikely. Instead, our data suggest that ALS reversals warrant evaluation for mechanisms of disease resistance and that treatments associated with multiple ALS reversals deserve further study.

  6. Discrimination, historical loss and enculturation: culturally specific risk and resiliency factors for alcohol abuse among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les Whitbeck, B; Chen, Xiaojin; Hoyt, Dan R; Adams, Gary W

    2004-07-01

    This report investigates the effects of discrimination, historical loss and enculturation on meeting diagnostic criteria for 12-month alcohol abuse among American Indians who share a common culture in the upper Midwest. We introduce an empirical measure of historical loss and hypothesize that historical loss will mediate the effects of discrimination on meeting 12-month diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse. We also hypothesize that enculturation will be negatively associated with 12-month alcohol abuse and mediate or moderate the effects of discrimination. A sample of 452 (351 women) American-Indian parents/caretakers (mean age: women = 39 years, men = 42 years) of children ages 10 to 12 years participated in diagnostic interviews for lifetime and 12-month alcohol abuse. The subjects' perceptions of discrimination, historical loss and enculturation were also measured. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate direct and potential mediating effects of latent constructs of enculturation (a resiliency factor) and historical loss (a risk factor) on the relationship between discrimination and meeting criteria for 12-month alcohol abuse. Historical loss mediated the effects of discrimination on 12-month alcohol abuse among women. Enculturation neither mediated nor moderated the effects of discrimination but had an independent negative effect on alcohol abuse. In a combined model comprising both enculturation and historical loss, the effects of discrimination on 12-month alcohol abuse were mediated. This study presents important new evidence that historical loss affects American-Indian alcohol abuse. It also provides evidence for the resiliency effects of enculturation on alcohol abuse.

  7. The dual nature of alcohol use and abuse in Mongolia: reflections through policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sean C; Tsogtbaatar, Byamba

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol abuse has become recognized by numerous organizations in Mongolia as one of their primary public health challenges. Despite the crisis of alcohol abuse in Mongolia, the dominance of narcology in shaping the health system's response has allowed the alcohol industry to control the debate. The Mongolian population largely interprets the World Health Organization's (WHO) "standard drink" as a consumption guideline rather than a measure of abuse. In addition, the focus on high levels of dependence, as defined by narcology, has allowed the WHO to officially write off the problem, stating that less than 1% of the adult population can be categorized as "alcoholics." As the government focuses on new policy-based approaches to the issue, the rhetoric undermines participation and support, while the industry finds new ways to learn from narcology in their efforts to grow. However, by reinvesting profits from alcohol and a public health-focused approach, solutions can be found.

  8. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  9. [Natural recovery and treatment recovery from drug and alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gómez, Augusto; Sierra Acuña, Diana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the concept of natural recovery (without formal treatment) from problems associated with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and heroin abuse, each one alone or in any combination. Two groups of males (40 Ss between 18 and 60 years of age) and two groups of females (19 Ss between 18 and 55 years of age) with at least one year of abstinence were studied. The main issues considered were: reason for attending treatment or ceasing the use of substances, factors related to maintenance of abstinence, and difficulties and threats associated with abstinence. Several significant differences were found between groups with and without treatment, as well as between males and females, particularly regarding factors related to the maintenance of abstinence. In both cases family and affective links appear as the most relevant factors in the decision to stop using substances. On the other hand, commitment to one's goals and life project are the principal motives for maintaining abstinence or moderate consumption. This reflects the progressive transition from cognitive and emotional processes with external referents to processes with internal referents, associated with personal achievement.

  10. Development of country-wide strategies to reduce the alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikfarjam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence shows that in Iran alcohol abuse rate may be of concern, especially among the youth. The mental and social health and addiction Department of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education has designed a plan to prevent, treat, and rehabilitate the patients abusing alcohol in a time period of 2011-2015. Methods: In a 6-month period, three guiding committees of experts in the field of alcohol abuse reviewed the literature. The meetings of the steering committee were held in order to collect the comments of the policy-makers in recognition of the problem, orientation, and administration procedures for the suggested strategies. The first input was discussed in the committee meeting. In the orientation phase, intervention strategies were suggested whose base was the evaluation of the previous international guidelines. In the final phase, the suggested strategies and challenges and their possible solutions were criticized. Finally, using these strategies, appropriate interventions were defined. Results: Preventing alcohol supply, school- and community-based prevention efforts, monitoring and vigilance were defined as primary prevention. While secondary and tertiary prevention are defined to be the treating and rehabilitating services for the alcohol abusers. Conclusions: We hope by using this strategy we will be able to control alcohol abuse in our country. The first step to reach this aim is done by breaking the taboo of giving alcohol-related information and news using media and educational programs especially to the young population.

  11. Professionals' Perceptions of Drug and Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B. Bradford

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed perceptions of the causes, severity, and treatment of elderly substance abuse as reported by 30 drug-abuse, health care, and social service practitioners. Perceptions differed as a function of both the basic type of services an agency provided and its specific response to older abusers. (Author)

  12. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Curriculum Guides for Pediatrics Faculty: Health Professions Education Curriculum Resources Series, Medicine 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Doris H.; And Others

    This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide…

  13. Drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly: is being alone the key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B B; Chiang, C P

    Despite the rising incidence of drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly, information concerning the social and psychological factors fostering such abuse is scanty and potentially biased toward the limited number of older abusers who obtain professional help. Using a brief interview with carefully selected samples, the present study compares characteristics of social background and social support among 21 older clients (age 55 and over) of drug treatment facilities, 30 older abusers not in treatment, and 155 elderly nonabusers. Analyses suggest that age and gender affect the likelihood of receiving treatment for substance abuse more than the likelihood of being an abuser. Controlling for age and gender effects, substance abuse appeared more prevalent among single and divorced elderly and among respondents who lived alone; presence or absence of living companions was more influential than relationships with nearby social supports. Implications for health and social service programs as well as for further research are discussed.

  14. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse...

  15. Executive Policy--Administration: E11.201, Illegal Drug and Substance Abuse. Executive Policy E11.203, Illegal Drugs and Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu.

    This document includes two statements of policy for the University of Hawaii's drug and alcohol abuse prevention program. The first, "Illegal Drugs and Substance Abuse," opens with an introduction stating the University's general mission and that mission's incompatibility with substance abuse. A second section details the University's…

  16. Does comorbid alcohol and substance abuse affect electroconvulsive therapy outcome in the treatment of mood disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lori; Vaidya, Nutan

    2014-03-01

    Antidepressant medications remain the principal agents used to treat patients with mood disorders, although 30% to 40% of these patients do not improve. One of the factors associated with poor medication response is alcohol and substance abuse. Persons with mood disorders are at the greatest risk for suicide, and alcoholism is a significant additional risk factor. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is shown to be the most effective treatment for major depression especially when associated with psychosis, catatonia, and suicide intent. However, similar to most antidepressant trials, patients with depression and comorbid alcohol and substance abuse are excluded from ECT efficacy studies. Through a retrospective chart review, we compared response to ECT in patients with mood disorder and comorbid alcohol and drug abuse to those with mood disorder only. From 2004 to 2010, 80 patients with mood disorder received ECT. Fifty of these had comorbid alcohol or drug abuse. Using a 10-item psychopathology scale, we compared pre- and post-ECT symptom severity between the 2 groups. Outcome was determined by measuring a decrease in the pre-ECT and post-ECT score using Wilcoxon rank tests, with statistical significance at P = 0.05. There was no difference between the 2 groups in most demographics, ECT medication, or seizure quality. There was no difference in ECT outcome between those with comorbid alcohol abuse and those without based on percent decrease in pre- and post-ECT symptom scores (abuse: mean [SD], 0.89 [0.2] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 1332; P = 0.086). When we compared those who met the criteria for alcohol or drug dependence (19 patients) with those with no abuse, there was a trend for the dependence group to not do as well (dependence: mean [SD], 0.83 [0.25] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 405; P = 0.053). Those with combined drug and alcohol abuse (18 patients) did have a significantly worse outcome (combined: mean [SD], 0.82 [0

  17. Alcohol and drug abuse among U.S. veterans: comparing associations with intimate partner substance abuse and veteran psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Reardon, Annemarie F; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Hein, Christina L

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the relative influences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Alcohol Detoxification Completion, Acceptance of Referral to Substance Abuse Treatment, and Entry into Substance Abuse Treatment Among Alaska Native People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ursula Running; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K.; Manson, Spero M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about factors associated with detoxification treatment completion and the transition to substance abuse treatment following detoxification among Alaska Native people. This study examined 3 critical points on the substance abuse continuum of care (alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, entry into substance abuse treatment following detoxification). Methods The retrospective cohort included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to a tribally owned and managed inpatient detoxification unit. Three multiple logistic regression models estimated the adjusted associations of each outcome separately with demographic/psychosocial characteristics, clinical characteristics, use related behaviors, and health care utilization. Results Seventy-five percent completed detoxification treatment. Higher global assessment functioning scores, longer lengths of stay, and older ages of first alcohol use were associated with completing detoxification. A secondary drug diagnosis was associated with not completing detoxification. Thirty-six percent accepted a referral to substance abuse treatment following detoxification. Men, those with legal problems, and those with a longer length of stay were more likely to accept a referral to substance abuse treatment. Fifty-eight percent had a confirmed entry into a substance abuse treatment program at discharge. Length of stay was the only variable associated with substance abuse treatment entry. Conclusions Services like motivational interviewing, counseling, development of therapeutic alliance, monetary incentives, and contingency management are effective in linking patients to services after detoxification. These should be considered, along with the factors associated with each point on the continuum of care when linking patients to follow-up services. PMID:27705843

  19. neo K Morojele1, & chitra ranchod2 1Alcohol and Drug Abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, South Africa. 2School of Health Systems and ... the past decade, numerous studies have pointed to alcohol's potential role in sexual risk behaviours and HIV infection. Consequently ..... baseline differences with the experimental group having had higher ...

  20. Nearly Half of College Student Treatment Admissions Were for Primary Alcohol Abuse. Data Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many students, and the public in general, believe that drinking alcohol is a normal part of the college experience. Unfortunately, students' efforts to "be sociable" or "fit in" can escalate into substance use behavior that puts their health and well-being at risk: One in four full-time college students have experienced past year alcohol abuse or…

  1. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  2. Socio-demographic characteristics of alcohol abusers in a rural Ijaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... is seen in several communities as an emblem of male superiority.[18] Men also take alcohol to enhance sexual performance, for social acceptance, and to overcome societal stresses.[19] This study also recorded a high prevalence of female alcohol abusers at 35.51%, which is not consistent with the finding ...

  3. Frequency of co-morbidities associated with spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, A.; Hashim, R.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequencies of comorbidities (dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) of duration > 1 year. Study Design: Case control. Place and Duration of Study: Spinal Cord Injury Department, Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM) Rawalpindi and Department of Chemical Pathology, Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), from October 2013 to March 2014. Patients and Methods: Thirty six patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI), level C5 to T12 were included by non-probability, convenience sampling. Control group consisted of age and sex matched healthy individuals. A detailed medical history was obtained. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for plasma glucose and serum lipid profile. Results: Out of thirty six patients, 31 (86.1%) were male and 5 (13.9%) were females; their mean age was 36.6 ± 11 years. Mean duration of injury was 6.04 ± 3.35 years. Among cases, dyslipidemias were detected in 25 (69.4%) patients while 7 (19.4%) patients had diabetes mellitus. Whereas in control group, frequency of dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus were significantly lower than cases i.e 13.8% and 5.5% respectively. Also no significant difference was found between blood pressures of study group when compared with control group. Conclusion: Individuals with chronic SCI had more frequent associated co-morbid conditions like dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus than normal individuals. Early screening is recommended in patients having SCI >6 months for better patient care and reduction in long term comorbidities in such patients. (author)

  4. Are therapeutic vaccines an answer to the global problem of drug and alcohol abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Dick B S; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer.

  5. Death from seizures induced by chronic alcohol abuse--does it exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S

    2007-01-01

    may die from these seizures. A literature study was performed of deaths due to alcohol-induced seizures, either during withdrawal or as late-onset seizures where the aetiology was established as long time alcohol abuse and a necropsy had shown no other possible cause of death than a seizure. RESULTS......: It was not possible to find any well-documented cases. It is, however, difficult to compare cases in the literature, as there is no generally accepted classification or nomenclature of seizures related to alcohol abuse....... aetiologies, but in police reports a person known to have seizures is most likely to be reported as suffering from epilepsy. It is a well-known fact that alcoholics have seizures either due to "alcohol-induced epilepsy" or due to withdrawal from drinking. It also seems to be generally accepted that alcoholics...

  6. Use and Abuse of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs in US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, Joel; Burstein, Marcy; Case, Brady; Conway, Kevin P.; Dierker, Lisa; He, Jianping; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2013-01-01

    Context Comprehensive descriptions of substance use and abuse trajectories have been lacking in nationally representative samples of adolescents. Objective To examine the prevalence, age at onset, and sociodemographic correlates of alcohol and illicit drug use and abuse among US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey of adolescents using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Setting Combined household and school adolescent samples. Participants Nationally representative sample of 10 123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime estimates of alcohol and illicit substance use and DSM-IV diagnoses of abuse, with or without dependence. Results By late adolescence, 78.2% of US adolescents had consumed alcohol, 47.1% had reached regular drinking levels defined by at least 12 drinks within a given year, and 15.1% met criteria for lifetime abuse. The opportunity to use illicit drugs was reported by 81.4% of the oldest adolescents, drug use by 42.5%, and drug abuse by 16.4%. The median age at onset was 14 years for alcohol abuse with or without dependence, 14 years for drug abuse with dependence, and 15 years for drug abuse without dependence. The associations observed by age, sex, and race/ ethnicity often varied significantly by previous stage of use. Conclusions Alcohol and drug use is common in US adolescents, and the findings of this study indicate that most cases of abuse have their initial onset in this important period of development. Prevention and treatment efforts would benefit from careful attention to the correlates and risk factors that are specific to the stage of substance use in adolescents. PMID:22474107

  7. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.

  8. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-03-02

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.

  9. Co-morbidity of 'clinical trial' versus 'real-world' patients using cardiovascular drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, N.F.; Vos, Reinder; van der Werf, G.T.; van der Veen, W.J.; de Graeff, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose - To examine discrepancies between co-morbidity of patients included in pre marketing clinical trials of cardiovascular drugs and patients from daily practice, representing the actual users after marketing, and to investigate the availability of data regarding co-morbidity in registration

  10. Prevalence of Co-morbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Clinic Sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Co-morbid psychiatric disorders may mask or be masked by Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thereby confounding the clinical assessment ... awareness of these co-morbid disorders, which could become targets for interventions that may reduce the overall morbidity profile of children with ADHD.

  11. The influence of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring risk of lifetime suicide attempt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Glutathione S-Transferase activity and total thiol status in chronic alcohol abusers before and 30 days after alcohol abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha S Muttigi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glutathione S Transferase (GST has been involved in detoxification process in the liver and its activity has been shown to be increased in alcohol abusers. In the current work we measured the GST activity, total thiol status, AST, ALT, and direct bilirubin in chronic alcohol abusers before and 30 days after alcohol abstinence and lifestyle modification. Methods: Serum and urine GST activity and total thiol status were determined using spectrophotometric methods and serum transaminases were determined using clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: We found,significant increase in serum and urine GST (p<0.001, AST (p<0.001, ALT (p<0.001, and decrease in total thiol status (p<0.001 in chronic alcohol abusers. GST activity significantly decreased (p<0.001 and total thiol status were improved significantly (p<0.001 30 days after alcohol abstinence and lifestyle modification. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary data to suggest the role of GST as prognostic indicator of alcohol abstinence with possible trend towards an improvement in liver function.

  13. Family history of alcohol and drug abuse, childhood trauma, and age of first drug injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Chris; Saddichha, Sahoo; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael R

    2014-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment may lead to development of future substance use; however the contributions of a family history of substance use is unclear. To better understand the relationship between childhood abuse, family history of alcohol and drug abuse, and injecting drug use initiation in a cohort of chronic opioid users. A cross-sectional survey of long-term and difficult to treat intravenous opiate users of the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) cohort was conducted in two Canadian cities (Vancouver and Montreal). For the analysis, we selected a subsample (n = 87) of the population reported experiencing childhood abuse and completed a 12-month follow up. The sample was 41.4% female and 14.9% First Nations, with a mean age of 38 years. This sample then completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) beside others. Maternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. Paternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood physical abuse. Increased severity of all types of childhood trauma was related to an earlier age of first injection. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Family history of drug and alcohol use is strongly associated with childhood trauma, which may, in turn, lead to an earlier initiation to the dangerous routes of drug injection.

  14. Alcohol and drug abuse in men who sustain intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M

    2012-01-01

    Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25-50% of all IPV victims in a given year. This study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism-a form of IPV that is characterized by much violence and controlling behavior-from their female partners and sought help. The community sample is composed of 520 men, 16% of whom sustained common couple violence, a lower level of more minor reciprocal IPV. Analyses showed that among both groups of men who sustained IPV, the prevalence and frequency of alcohol/drug abuse was significantly higher than in men who did not sustain IPV. However, a dose-response relationship between sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse was found only among men in the community sample. Path modeling showed that, for the community sample, the best fitting models were ones that showed that the alcohol/drug abuse predicted IPV victimization, an association that was fully mediated by their use of IPV. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Alcohol abuse and dependence criteria as predictors of a chronic course of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Carla; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria and the ICD-10 criterion for craving differentially predict a chronic course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the general population. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a large

  16. The effect of alcohol and nicotine abuse on gene expression in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilce, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol intake at levels posing an acute heath risk is common amongst teenagers. Alcohol abuse is the second most common mental disorder worldwide. The incidence of smoking is decreasing in the Western world but increasing in developing countries and is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Considering the longstanding history of alcohol and tobacco consumption in human societies, it might be surprising that the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol and smoking dependence are still incompletely understood. Effective treatments against the risk of relapse are lacking. Drugs of abuse exert their effect manipulating the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system. In this brain region, alcohol has many potential targets including membranes and several ion channels, while other drugs, for example nicotine, act via specific receptors or binding proteins. Repeated consumption of drugs of abuse mediates adaptive changes within this region, resulting in addiction. The high incidence of alcohol and nicotine co-abuse complicates analysis of the molecular basis of the disease. Gene expression profiling is a useful approach to explore novel drug targets in the brain. Several groups have utilised this technology to reveal drug-sensitive pathways in the mesocorticolimbic system of animal models and in human subjects. These studies are the focus of the present review.

  17. Factors predicting psychiatric co-morbidity in gender-dysphoric adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Seishi; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Sato, Toshiki; Okabe, Nobuyuki; Kishimoto, Yuki; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2012-12-30

    Persons with gender identity disorder (GID) often suffer from psychiatric co-morbidity, and it is an important prognostic factor for long-term psychosocial adjustment in GID. However, previous research has not addressed the risk factors of psychiatric co-morbidity. In this study, we tried to clarify the risk factors among individuals with GID in Japan. A total of 326 consecutive GID persons were evaluated independently by two senior psychiatrists at the GID clinic using personal clinical interviews and results of examinations. The prevalence of current psychiatric co-morbidity was 17.8% of the total sample. School refusal was significantly associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. Sexual attraction to neither males nor females among GID persons and sexual attraction to females among male-to-female (MtF) GID persons were also significantly related to psychiatric co-morbidity. This is the first report to demonstrate a close relationship between patterns of sexual orientation and psychiatric co-morbidity among GID persons. We should pay more attention to psychiatric co-morbidity, especially among GID persons with non-homosexual sexual orientations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polysubstance Abuse: Alcohol, Opioids and Benzodiazepines Require Coordinated Engagement by Society, Patients, and Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbu, Uzor C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR, benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:76–79.

  19. Workplace Discrimination Is Associated With Alcohol Abuse Among Ethnically Diverse Hospital Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Polysubstance abuse: alcohol, opioids and benzodiazepines require coordinated engagement by society, patients, and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, Uzor C; Lotfipour, Shahram; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR), benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse.

  1. Culture and environment as predictors of alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms in American Indian youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin

    2007-10-01

    This study utilizes Bronfenbrenner's ecological model (1979) to examine multiple and interactive environmental (familial, social, and cultural) predictors of adolescent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. A stratified random sample of 401 American Indian youths was interviewed in 2001. The findings showed that family members' substance problems, peer misbehaviors, and participation in generic cultural activities positively predicted adolescent alcohol symptoms. Conversely, cultural pride/spirituality predicted fewer alcohol symptoms, and, importantly, religious affiliation moderated the effects of problematic peers and family members on adolescent alcohol symptoms. The findings suggest further study of intervention and prevention efforts regarding the benefits from consideration of the complex relationships among multiple environmental variables.

  2. Nocturia in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: evaluating the significance of ageing, co-morbid illnesses, lifestyle and medical therapy in treatment outcome in real life practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Ho, Christopher; Hee, Tan Guan; Jasman, Hafidzul; Inn, Fam Xeng; Bahadzor, Badrulhisham; Tamil, Azmi; Zainuddin, Zulkifli

    2015-06-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the influence of ageing, lifestyle, and co morbid illnesses on treatment outcome of nocturia among men with BPH. Patients with BPH on medical therapy of least 6 months and up to 48 months were interviewed. Nocturia episodes, co morbid illnesses, beverage intake frequency, medications and work history were documented. Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), prostate volume, and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were recorded. Treatment failure is defined as persistent nocturia despite on medical therapy for BPH. In 156 patients, the prevalence of nocturia was 96.7% while nocturia of 2 or more was 85.9%. Factors associated with treatment failure was older age (p coffee intake (p = 0.02) were associated with nocturia improvement. Co-morbid illnesses, obesity, WC, alcohol intake, PSA, prostate volume, and use of BPH medical therapy did not influence treatment outcome. Advancing age has a significance negative outcome on nocturia treatment, while standard BPH medical therapy and co morbid illnesses have an insignificant impact. However, alleviation of bothersome symptoms is possible with the understanding of its patho-physiology and individual-based approach to treatment and expected outcome.

  3. Is access to alcohol associated with alcohol/substance abuse among people diagnosed with anxiety/mood disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A L; Bowie, C; Thornton, L E

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between access to off-license alcohol outlets and areas with dual treatment for alcohol/drug abuse and anxiety/mood disorder compared to areas with anxiety/mood disorder only in an urban setting in New Zealand. Ecologic study. Within small areas (2840 meshblocks, mean size 0.05 km(2)) in the city of Auckland, New Zealand, counts of adults receiving anxiety/mood disorder treatment (2008-9) were identified and the proportions of these individuals also receiving treatment for alcohol/drug abuse were generated. Access to off-license alcohol outlets were defined as: 1) shortest road distance from the population-weighted centroid of each small area to an outlet; 2) count of outlets within a 3 km road network buffer; and 3) relative density of outlets across Auckland (determined through kernel density estimates). To test for the relationship between access to alcohol outlets and dual diagnosis, meshblocks without any cases of anxiety/mood disorder were excluded from analyses. Remaining meshblocks were dichotomized into any or no dual diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between access to alcohol outlets and treatment for the dual conditions. Neighbourhoods with dual diagnosis were generally similar to those with anxiety/mood disorder only, in terms of ethnic and gender/age composition. Regression analyses indicated statistically significant decreased risk of dual diagnosis for those areas with the lowest density (using a buffer) of alcohol outlets (OR = 0.75, P-value = 0.027) compared with areas with the highest density, after adjustment for deprivation and population density. All access measures also indicated significant linear trends where dual diagnosis was more likely in areas with greater access. Generally, decreased access to alcohol outlets was associated with decreased odds of dual diagnosis of alcohol/drug abuse and anxiety/mood disorder. Measures to control access to alcohol outlets may be an

  4. Pharmacological and clinical dilemmas of prescribing in co-morbid adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de los Cobos, José; Siñol, Núria; Pérez, Víctor; Trujols, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The present article reviews whether available efficacy and safety data support the pharmacological treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with concurrent substance use disorders (SUD). Arguments for and against treating adult ADHD with active SUD are discussed. Findings from 19 large open studies and controlled clinical trials show that the use of atomoxetine or extended-release methylphenidate formulations, together with psychological therapy, yield promising though inconclusive results about short term efficacy of these drugs in the treatment of adult ADHD in patients with SUD and no other severe mental disorders. However, the efficacy of these drugs is scant or lacking for treating concurrent SUD. No serious safety issues have been associated with these drugs in patients with co-morbid SUD-ADHD, given their low risk of abuse and favourable side effect and drug–drug interaction profile. The decision to treat adult ADHD in the context of active SUD depends on various factors, some directly related to SUD-ADHD co-morbidity (e.g. degree of diagnostic uncertainty for ADHD) and other factors related to the clinical expertise of the medical staff and availability of adequate resources (e.g. the means to monitor compliance with pharmacological treatment). Our recommendation is that clinical decisions be individualized and based on a careful analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of pharmacological treatment for ADHD on a case-by-case basis in the context of active SUD. PMID:23216449

  5. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5–6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24721195

  6. Lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence and novelty seeking in eating disorders: comparison study of eating disorder subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Isabel; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Bulik, Cynthia; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Masuet, Cristina; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    To assess lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence, and novelty seeking in three different eating disorder groups (anorexia nervosa-restrictive; anorexia nervosa-binge eating/purging; anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa). A total sample of 371 eating disorder patients participated in the current study. Assessment measures included the prevalence of substance abuse and family history of alcohol abuse/dependence as well as the novelty-seeking subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Significant differences across groups were detected for lifetime substance abuse, with anorexia nervosa-restrictive individuals exhibiting a significant lower prevalence than the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa-binge eating/ purging patients (P family history of alcohol abuse/dependence the same pattern was observed (P = 0.04). Novelty seeking was associated with substance abuse (P = 0.002), with the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa group exhibiting significantly higher scores on the novelty-seeking scale than the other two groups (P family history of alcohol abuse/dependence was not related to novelty seeking (P = 0.092). Lifetime substance abuse appears to be more prevalent in anorexia nervosa patients with bulimic features. Higher novelty-seeking scores may be associated with diagnosis cross-over.

  7. Counseling Latino alcohol and other substance users/abusers. Cultural considerations for counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, A M; Peregoy, J J

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a sociocultural alcohol/drug counseling model for counselors working with Latino users/abusers. Intended to supplement different treatment models, this model addresses pre-treatment issues of Latino users/abusers. A demographic overview of Latinos and a discussion of selected Latino cultural values and issues as they relate to substance use/abuse are included. These cultural values include Simpatía, Personalismo, Familismo, Gender Roles (Machismo and Hembrismo/Marianisimo), Vergüenza, and Espiritismo. Along with identifying misperceptions and issues that may occur within the counseling session, specific recommendations and interventions for counselors are provided.

  8. 76 FR 47597 - Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Memorandum of Agreement Between U.S. Department of Health and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Agreement (MOA), pursuant to the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Act of 1986 (the Act), as... villages, as well as alcohol and substance abuse treatment professionals in developing an MOA. The MOA... Native individuals and families and the need for holistic approaches to address these issues. In response...

  9. Predicting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for People with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence: An Application of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickham, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…

  10. 24 CFR 882.518 - Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... member is engaged in criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right of peaceful enjoyment... of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. 882.518 Section 882.518 Housing and Urban... Operation § 882.518 Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. (a...

  11. 24 CFR 982.553 - Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents. (c) Evidence of criminal activity. The... of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. 982.553 Section 982.553 Housing and Urban... Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. (a) Denial of...

  12. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and...

  13. Co-morbidity of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with focus on personality traits and related disorders in a tertiary referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Christian P; Romanos, Jasmin; Dempfle, Astrid; Heine, Monika; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Kruse, Anja; Reif, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Romanos, Marcel; Strobel, Alexander; Brocke, Burkhard; Schäfer, Helmut; Schmidtke, Armin; Böning, Jobst; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2007-09-01

    The prevalence and consequences of co-morbid axis-I and axis-II disorders as well as personality traits were examined in a large cohort of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AADHD) at a tertiary referral center. In- and outpatients referred for diagnostic assessment of AADHD were screened. 372 affected probands were examined by means of the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV axis-I/II disorders, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Lifetime co-morbidity with mood disorders was 57.3%, with anxiety disorders 27.2%, and with substance use disorders 45.0%. The histrionic personality disorder (35.2%) was the most frequent personality disorder. AADHD patients exhibited significantly altered scores on most of the NEO-PI-R and TPQ personality dimensions. The extent of substance abuse and dependence, as well as the presence of antisocial personality disorder alone or the cumulative number of other specific personality disorders was associated with lower psychosocial status (pdisorders was remarkably prevalent. In AADHD co-morbid mood, anxiety, and personality disorders as well as substance abuse/dependence is likely to be predictive of poor outcome.

  14. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    Substance use is the most common health risk behavior among adolescents and is one of the greatest threats to their current and future health. Universal screening of adolescents in general medical settings can be instrumental in identifying substance use early, before further problems develop and when BIs are more likely to be effective. Screening in and of itself may have some therapeutic effect. Brief screening tools feasible for use by busy medical offices to quickly and reliably assess adolescent risk for a substance use disorder now are available. A recent study found that a physician-conducted CRAFFT screen interview required an average of 74 seconds to complete, whereas a computer self-administered version took an average of 49 seconds. The CRAFFT and AUDIT tools currently have the most evidence for validity among adolescents, whereas the validity of other widely used tools such as DAST-10, NIDA-modified ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test), and ultra-brief screens (AUDIT-C, single-item screens) has yet to be established for adolescents. Studies are needed to identify effective strategies to promote universal adolescent screening and the use of valid screening tools in general medical settings. One statewide (Massachusetts) study found that although most (86%) primary care physicians seeing adolescents reported screening adolescents for substance use annually, only 1 in 3 reported using a validated tool (the CRAFFT). The remaining physicians reporting using informal screening procedures, their own questionnaire, or the CAGE. Computerization of screening and integration into the electronic health record appear to be promising strategies to promote universal screening and standardized use of valid screening tools. Increasing adolescent screening rates necessitates supporting physicians' ability to respond effectively to the screen results. To that end, recent evidence-informed practice guides from the AAP and NIAAA provide a

  15. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  16. Associations between vascular co-morbidities and depression in insulin-naive diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopmans, B; Pouwer, F; de Bie, Rob A

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression in insulin-naive diabetes patients and to investigate the associations between different forms of vascular co-morbidity and depression. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were used from a primary-care sample of 1.......2% vs 10.0%). Single vascular co-morbidities were not associated with increased rates of depression. The final model predicting depression included: having multiple vascular co-morbidities compared with none; having less social support; having experienced a recent stressful life event; female sex......,269 insulin-naive (i.e. not using insulin therapy) diabetes patients participating in the DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study. Demographics, vascular co-morbidities, clinical and lifestyle characteristics, and psychosocial factors were assessed. Depression symptoms were measured with the Edinburgh Depression...

  17. Stressful situations in life, use and abuse of alcohol and drugs by elderly in Monterrey, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo,Bertha Alicia Alonso; Marziale,Maria Helena Palucci; Castillo,Maria Magdalena Alonso; Facundo,Francisco Rafael Guzmán; Meza,Marco Vinicio Gómez

    2008-01-01

    This is a descriptive, qualitative, and correlation study with 112 elderly aged 60 years or older. This study aimed to identify differences in alcohol consumption according to gender and marital status, and differences in the consumption of medical drugs by gender. It also aims to determine differences in stressful life events by gender, and differences in stressful life events associated to alcohol and medical drugs use and abuse, as well as to know their perceptions on the most stressful li...

  18. Epigenetic Modulation of Brain Gene Networks for Cocaine and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sean P Farris; Robert Adron Harris; Igor ePonomarev

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS). Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpec...

  19. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.

  20. [Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in Adults With Social Phobia in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Salas, Gabriel Felipe; Bareño, José; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira; Gaviria, Silvia L

    2014-01-01

    Having a social phobia may lead to consuming alcohol for greater social assertiveness, running the risk of leading to an abuse disorder or alcohol dependence. The aim of the study was to estimate prevalence of pathological comorbidity between social phobia and alcohol consumption in adults of the city of Medellin, and the behavior of comorbidity by gender, age, presence of a father figure in childhood, and education. Secondary analysis of the database of the first Mental Health Population Survey conducted in the city of Medellin in 2011 and 2012 based on the methodology of the World Mental Health Survey guidelines and coordinated by WHO-HARVARD. The lifetime prevalence of abuse and dependence in people with social phobia was 24.1% and 11.2%, respectively. For people with social phobia the prevalence was 13% for abuse and 4.4% for dependence (OR=2.11 for abuse, OR=2.46 for dependence). Annual prevalence of people with social phobia who abused or were dependent on alcohol was 7.8% and 5.9%, respectively, compared to those who do not suffer from this disorder, with a prevalence of 3.4% and 1.7%, respectively (OR=2.39 for abuse and OR=3.57 for dependence). There was significant correlation in the annual and lifetime prevalence between social phobia and the pathological consumption of alcohol. Statistically significant relationships were found for the variables associated with social phobia, however, more work is needed to confirm or refute these associations. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of Personality Factors in Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Witkin, Lewis, Hertzman, Machover , Meissner & Wapner, 1954), these instruments were designed to measure the construct of field-dependence/independence in...Dependence in alcoholics. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1959, 20, 493-504. Witkin, H., Lewis, H., Hertzman, M., Machover , K., Meissner, P

  2. prevalance of alcohol abuse in calabar south local government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyamba

    sample consisted of 400 respondents aged 10-50 years resident in Calabar South. Life time ... easily brand it as a norm to drink alcohol across the whole social spectrum with the student population constituting a .... TABLE 5: Ranking of the various brands of Alcoholic beverages according to order of preference by gender.

  3. The Professor at Risk: Alcohol Abuse in Academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreson, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    The academic environment, trends in higher education, and issues in adult development create an ideal environment for alcohol misuse. A typology for the professors at risk, the impact of alcohol misuse upon their performance, and means of dealing with the problem are proposed. (Author/MLW)

  4. Dealing with alcohol abuse in general practice | Rodseth | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The excessive use of alcohol is a significant problem in South Africa. The consequences are far-reaching, both for the health of the individual, and for society as a whole. This article examines the role of the family physician in the identification and management of patients with alcohol-use disorders.

  5. Effects of Alcohol Abuse on Proliferating Cells, Stem/Progenitor Cells, and Immature Neurons in the Adult Human Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maître, Tara Wardi; Dhanabalan, Gopalakrishnan; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Alkass, Kanar; Druid, Henrik

    2018-03-01

    In animal studies, impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with behavioral pathologies including addiction to alcohol. We hypothesize that alcohol abuse may have a detrimental effect on the neurogenic pool of the dentate gyrus in the human hippocampus. In this study we investigate whether alcohol abuse affects the number of proliferating cells, stem/progenitor cells, and immature neurons in samples from postmortem human hippocampus. The specimens were isolated from deceased donors with an on-going alcohol abuse, and from controls with no alcohol overconsumption. Mid-hippocampal sections were immunostained for Ki67, a marker for cell proliferation, Sox2, a stem/progenitor cell marker, and DCX, a marker for immature neurons. Immunoreactivity was counted in alcoholic subjects and compared with controls. Counting was performed in the three layers of dentate gyrus: the subgranular zone, the granular cell layer, and the molecular layer. Our data showed reduced numbers of all three markers in the dentate gyrus in subjects with an on-going alcohol abuse. This reduction was most prominent in the subgranular zone, and uniformly distributed across the distances from the granular cell layer. Furthermore, alcohol abusers showed a more pronounced reduction of Sox2-IR cells than DCX-IR cells, suggesting that alcohol primarily causes a depletion of the stem/progenitor cell pool and that immature neurons are secondarily affected. These results are in agreement with observations of impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis in animal studies and lend further support for the association between hippocampal dysfunction and alcohol abuse.

  6. Contextual Factors Related to Alcohol Abuse Among Intimate Partner Violence Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Lila, Marisol; Oliver, Amparo; Vivo, Juana-María; Galiana, Laura; Gracia, Enrique

    2017-02-23

    The association between alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence (IPV) has been reiterated in numerous studies. Some authors have found higher levels of risk factors in intimate partner violence offenders (IPVOs) with alcohol problems than in IPVOs without such problems. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship of contextual variables with harmful alcohol use in a sample of IPVOs. This cross-sectional research analyzes data from 231 IPVOs. In addition to demographic data, information was collected on alcohol use, ethnicity, accumulation of stressful life events and perceived social support and rejection. The sample was divided into hazardous and nonhazardous alcohol users, according to the AUDIT test scale. No differences were found between groups on demographic variables. The results of a hierarchical logistic regression analysis supplemented with ROC curves revealed that Latin American immigrants as opposed to Spanish nationality, accumulating stressful life events, and perceiving low social support significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol abuse, with adequate predictive power. Contextual variables such as ethnicity, accumulation of stressful life events, and lack of social support may explain harmful alcohol consumption. These variables should be taken into account in batterer intervention programs in order to reduce one of the most relevant risk factors of IPV: alcohol abuse.

  7. Integrated psychological treatment for substance use and co-morbid anxiety or depression vs. treatment for substance use alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus in favour of integrated treatment of substance use disorders and co-morbid conditions, such as depression or anxiety. However, up till now no systematic reviews have been published. Methods Based on a systematic search of MedLine and PsychInfo, 10 trials...... of integrated treatment for depression or anxiety plus substance use disorder were identified. Where possible, meta-analyses were carried out, using random effects models. Results Meta-analyses were carried out for integrated treatment for depression and substance use disorders on a number of outcomes. No meta......-analysis could be carried out for integrated treatment for anxiety and substance use disorders, due to multivariate reporting of outcomes in original articles. Integrated treatment for depression and substance abuse produced significant effects on percent days abstinent at follow-up. Differences in retention...

  8. More Likely to Dropout, but What if They Don't? Partner Violence Offenders With Alcohol Abuse Problems Completing Batterer Intervention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lila, Marisol; Gracia, Enrique; Catalá-Miñana, Alba

    2017-03-01

    There is general consensus that alcohol abuse is a risk factor to be considered in batterer intervention programs. Intimate partner violence perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems are more likely to dropout of batterer intervention programs. However, there is little research on intimate partner violence perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems completing batterer intervention programs. In this study, we analyze drop-out rates among perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems and explore whether perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems completing a batterer intervention program differ from those who do not have alcohol abuse problems in a number of outcomes. The sample was 286 males convicted for intimate partner violence against women, attending a community-based batterer intervention program. Final (i.e., recidivism) and proximal (i.e., risk of recidivism, responsibility attributions, attitudes toward violence, sexism, psychological adjustment, and social integration) intervention outcomes were analyzed. Chi-square test, binary logistic regression, and one-way ANOVA were conducted. Results confirmed higher dropout rates among perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems. Results also showed a reduction in alcohol abuse among perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems completing the batterer intervention program. Finally, results showed that, regardless of alcohol abuse problems, perpetrators who completed the batterer intervention program showed improvements in all intervention outcomes analyzed. Perpetrators both with and without alcohol abuse problems can show positive changes after completing an intervention program and, in this regard, the present study highlights the need to design more effective adherence strategies for intimate partner violence perpetrators, especially for those with alcohol abuse problems.

  9. Alcohol abuse, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections in women in Moshi urban district, northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla

    2009-02-01

    To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Two thousand and nineteen women aged 20 to 44 were randomly selected in a 2-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant's demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.06-3.98) and sexual violence (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.05-2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01-2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08-2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.46-4.00) compared to women with 1 sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.55-1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs.

  10. Childhood trauma among individuals with co-morbid substance use and post traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Philippa L; Mills, Katherine L; Barrett, Emma; Back, Sudie E; Teesson, Maree; Baker, Amanda; Sannibale, Claudia; Hopwood, Sally; Rosenfeld, Julia; Merz, Sabine; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of childhood trauma (CT) on the clinical profile of individuals with co-occurring substance use disorder (SUD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Aims To compare the clinical characteristics of individuals with SUD+PTSD who have a history of CT with SUD+PTSD individuals who have experienced trauma during adulthood only. Method Data were collected on 103 individuals as part of a randomised controlled trial examining the efficacy of an integrated psychosocial treatment for SUD+PTSD. Participants were recruited from substance use treatment services, community referrals and advertising. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, substance use and treatment histories, lifetime trauma exposure, and current physical and mental health functioning. Results The vast majority (77%) of the sample had experienced at least one trauma before the age of 16, with 55% of those endorsing childhood sexual abuse. As expected individuals with a CT history, as compared to without, evidenced significantly longer duration of PTSD. Those with a CT history also had more extensive lifetime trauma exposure, an earlier age of first intoxication, and reported more severe substance use (e.g., a greater number of drug classes used in their lifetime, higher severity of dependence scores and greater number of drug treatment episodes). Conclusion Individuals with co-morbid SUD+PTSD who have experienced CT present with a more severe and chronic clinical profile in relation to a number of trauma and substance use characteristics, when compared to individuals with adulthood only trauma histories. It is therefore important for SUD+PTSD treatment planning that CT be carefully assessed. PMID:21984884

  11. The performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in a population of depressed or anxious persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it

  12. The Gay Addict in a Drug and Alcohol Abuse Therapeutic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberger, Herbert J.

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of gay addicts in a drug and alcohol abuse therapeutic community. Suggestions are made to improve the situation so that gay addicts need not be devious in their actions or scorned by other members of the therapeutic community. (EJT)

  13. Student Drug and Alcohol Abuse. How Schools Can Help Combat Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Richard L.

    This book was written to help school personnel combat drug and alcohol abuse among students. It gives readers a basic understanding of drugs and their effects on the mind and body. The stages of chemical dependency and the vocabulary of the drug scene are reviewed and reasons that children and adolescents take drugs are discussed. Signs of student…

  14. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Drug and Alcohol Abuse Classroom Course 17-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These teaching guides and student study guides and workbooks for a secondary-postsecondary-level course for drug and alcohol abuse program personnel are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Purpose stated for the 292-hour course…

  15. Catalog of Selected Federal Publications on Illegal Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    A concise collection of federal publications in the area of illegal drug and alcohol abuse, this catalog begins with a listing of seven federal clearinghouse, with information on services, user audience, and a contact provided for each. The main part of the document provides briefly annotated information on federal publications organized into the…

  16. Day Caregivers: A Forgotten Link in the Prevention of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Danny L.; Walker, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined effects of training of day caregivers in drug and alcohol abuse prevention skills. Found significant improvement in participant learning and skill application over mere provision of training materials without accompanying training sessions. Act of attending sessions appeared to increase participant feelings of responsibility for…

  17. Boys' Clubs of America Alcohol Abuse Prevention Project, 1977-78. Final Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insight Associates, Great Neck, NY.

    This report evaluates this prevention program's effectiveness in producing social change in the area of alcohol abuse among Boys' Club participants. Concentrating on the program's third year, this paper presents summative evaluations for seven Boys' Club pilot sites. Each summation concentrates on the site's ability to translate models developed…

  18. Boys' Clubs of America Alcohol Abuse Prevention Project, 1976-77. Final Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insight Associates, Great Neck, NY.

    This report evaluates the alcohol abuse prevention program's effectiveness in producing social change among Boys' Club participants. Concentrating on the program's second year, this paper presents summative evaluations for nine Boys' Club pilot sites. Each summation concentrates on the site's ability to implement model programs developed during…

  19. Disability and Enabling: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines how family members, friends, and professionals sometimes enable individuals with disabilities to abuse alcohol and other drugs. The leaflet points out: that this enabling occurs because of overcompensation for the disability by others or because of others' feeling that the individual with a disability is entitled to use…

  20. Gentle knights: masculinity, teetotalism and aid for alcohol abuse c. 1900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, G.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1830 there have been Dutch organisations that were concerned with fighting alcohol abuse. The Drink Law of 1881, the result of their lobby, limited the sale of drink and made the punishment of public drunkenness obligatory. Around 1900 there was renewed fervour in the Dutch Temperance

  1. An Alternative Counseling Model for Alcohol Abuse in College: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, B. Grant; Curry, Jennifer; Freeman, Mark S.; Kuch, Tyson H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstinence education remains a prevailing approach for addressing college student alcohol abuse. This case study illustrates an alternative method of intervening that combines motivational interviewing, harm reduction, and a brief solution-focused model. The counseling approach illustrated emphasizes reduction in, rather than abstinence from,…

  2. Alcohol Abuse and Truancy among Spanish Adolescents: A Count-Data Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, R.; Escario, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and truancy are two widespread problems among the adolescent Spanish population. Given the negative consequences of both behaviours for human capital acquiring and their origin in adolescence, our study lies in analysing the relationship between these risk behaviours. From a methodological point of view, our contribution consists of…

  3. Getting a grip on drinking behavior: training working memory to reduce alcohol abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol abuse disrupts core executive functions, including working memory (WM)—the ability to maintain and manipulate goal-relevant information. When executive functions like WM are weakened, drinking behavior gets out of control and is guided more strongly by automatic impulses. This study

  4. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  5. Assessment of lifetime physical and sexual abuse in treated alcoholics Validity of the Addiction Severity Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeland, Willie; Draijer, Nel; van den Brink, Wim

    2003-01-01

    We examined the validity of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) regarding the identification of lifetime physical and sexual abuse histories using the Structured Trauma Interview (STI) as external criterion in alcohol-dependent patients (n = 144). Compared to the STI, the ASI showed a lower incidence

  6. Child sexual abuse, harmful alcohol use and age as determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child sexual abuse, harmful alcohol use and age as determinants of sexual risk behaviours among freshmen in a Nigerian University. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... Eight hundred and forty one (841), freshmen who attended a routine orientation program were asked to respond to a questionnaire. Results ...

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Nature of Family Resilience in Families Affected by Parental Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, James P.; Nochajski, Thomas; Maguin, Eugene; Safyer, Andrew; DeWit, David; Macdonald, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Resilient families are able to adapt to adversities, but the nature of family resilience is not well understood. This study examines patterns of family functioning that may protect families from the negative impact of alcohol abuse. Naturally occurring patterns of family functioning are identified and associations between these patterns and…

  8. Training Needs of Rehabilitation Counselors concerning Alcohol and Other Drugs Abuse Assessment and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lee Za; Cardoso, Elizabeth; Chan, Fong; Chronister, Julie; Chou, Chih Chin

    2007-01-01

    Forty-two rehabilitation counselors participated in a study regarding perceived training needs concerning alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) treatment and assessment. Participants reported that 85% of consumers with whom they worked had AODA issues, yet over half rated their graduate training in AODA treatment and assessment as poor, and their…

  9. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  10. Invisibility, Difference, and Disparity: Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Two-Year College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Colleen; Keeton, André

    2015-01-01

    The impact of alcohol and substance abuse on college students' behavior has become a ripe area of focus and research. However, interest and research has primarily been focused on traditional four- year college students. Thus, the four-year college experience is taken as the default against which two-year colleges are compared. Nearly 12 million…

  11. Acute neurologic complications of drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, J C

    1998-05-01

    Recreationally abused substances include both legal and illegal agents, broadly classified as opioids, psychostimulants, sedatives, cannabis (marijuana), hallucinogens, inhalants, dissociative anesthetics (phencyclidine), anticholinergics, ethanol, and tobacco. These substances are associated with an array of neurological emergencies resulting from overdose, withdrawal, and other medical and neurological complications.

  12. Experiencing Shame: Collegiate Alcohol Abuse, Religiosity, and Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Giordano, Amanda L.; Holm, Jessica M.; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Sender, Kristy M.; Ramsey, Zachary B.; Abernathy, Meagan R.

    2017-01-01

    Previous researchers have established the relationship between substance abuse and shame and religiosity/spirituality and shame. This study investigated the associations among shame, religiosity, spirituality, and drinking behavior in a college student sample (N = 310). Participants classified as hazardous drinkers reported higher levels of shame…

  13. Handbook of the medical consequences of alcohol and drug abuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brick, John

    2008-01-01

    ... consequences and effects of drug abuse. An asset for health care professionals and the general public because of its easy-to-follow structure, index, and extensively researched com- prehensive sections. . . . A very useful guide for medical and other health professions students who need to have this type of information at their fingertips as...

  14. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... P1700.24B). (c) Active duty Army personnel apprehended for drunk driving, on or off the installation... drug abuse facility. (d) Active duty Navy personnel apprehended for drunk driving on or off the... apprehended for drunk driving seek ASAP evaluation and assistance. (g) Navy and DLA civilian personnel charged...

  15. Alcohol and illicit Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, demographic. Characteristics of the study population and type of substance abused among children and adolescents below the age of 18 years. Method :1160 patients below the age of 18 years who had attended psychiatric care between December 1980 and ...

  16. Bariatric surgery - effects on obesity and related co-morbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Maria Saur; Madsbad, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the three most commonly performed bariatric procedures. Obesity responds well to bariatric surgery, with major long-lasting weight loss that is most pronounced...... hormone responses, especially a 10-fold increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which improves insulin secretion. After gastric banding, the remission of diabetes depends more on weight loss. Bariatric surgery reduces cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, lipid disturbances, non......-alcoholic fatty liver, musculoskeletal pain and reduces mortality of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Bariatric surgery also improves quality of life. The acute complications of surgery are infection, bleeding and anastomotic leak. Long-term complications are nutritional deficiencies, including...

  17. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  18. Multimethod Personality Profile Assessment Methodology: Alcohol Abusers versus Nonalcoholic Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    findings have been interpreted in terms of sociopathy and neurotic depression or anxiety. Machover et al. (123) interpreted elevated scale 5 (Mf)* findings...ics to scale 4 of the MMPI. Q J Stud Alcohol 24:23-38 (1963). 122. Machover , S., and F. S. Puzzo. Clinical and objective studies of per- sonality... Machover , S., F. S. Puzzo, K. Machover , and F. Plumeau. Clinical and objective studies of personality variables in alcoholism. III: An objective study of

  19. The association between anxiety and alcohol versus cannabis abuse disorders among adolescents in primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Nancy C; Lee, Sok S; Johnson, Jeffrey G; Williams, Janet B; Harris, Emily S

    2008-10-01

    Both clinical and population-based studies show that anxiety disorders and substance misuse frequently co-occur in adults, whereas among adolescents, less examination of this association has been done. Adolescence is frequently the time of substance use initiation and its subsequent interaction with anxiety disorders has not been fully explored. It is unknown in adolescents whether anxiety is more related to alcohol abuse versus cannabis abuse. In addition, as depression has been implicated in adolescents with both anxiety and substance misuse, its role in the association should also be considered. To test the association between current anxiety with alcohol versus cannabis abuse disorders. Cross-sectional, clinician-administered, structured assessment--using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders--to evaluate anxiety, mood and substance abuse disorders among 632 adolescents recruited from primary care settings. Results show a strong association between current anxiety and alcohol [odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-11.8], but not cannabis (odds ratio = 1.4; 95% CI 0.4-4.7) abuse. This association in adolescents reflects the importance for increased awareness of anxiety symptoms and alcohol use patterns in primary care. The lack of association of anxiety with cannabis abuse in this group may reflect differences in cannabis' anxiolytic properties or that this young group has had less exposure thus far. Given adolescence is a time of especially rapid psychosocial, hormonal and brain development, primary care may provide an opportunity for further investigation and, potentially, early screening and intervention.

  20. Alcohol and drug abuse and risky sexual behaviours in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Camil; Parera, Nuria; Mendoza, Nicolás; Pérez-Campos, Ezequiel; Lete, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    To assess alcohol abuse as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adult women, a high-risk population for unintended pregnancies. Totally 3163 adolescent and young adult women, 18-29 years, were assessed on sociodemographics, alcohol and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants answered a structured questionnaire on their leisure habits, drug and alcohol consumption, contraception and sexual behaviors. Most of the young adult women perceive that sexuality is an important part of their life but not a main concern (77.6%) and that alcohol removes the barriers to have sex (62.3%). Additionally, 77.0% claimed that contraception had "a lot" (53.4%) and "quite" (23.6%) influence on the quality of their sexuality. However, up to a 38.4% of the interviewed women had had sex without using any contraception and 29.6% of them acknowledged that had taken alcohol and of these, 40.7% said that alcohol was responsible for not using contraception. Alcohol abuse predicted an increase in risky sexual behaviours (4.45 CI: 2.01-9.75, p sexual risk behavior.

  1. Family history of alcohol abuse associated with problematic drinking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Joseph W; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R; Lac, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH- same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more drinks per week, and experienced more alcohol-related negative consequences. Further, FH+ females evaluated the negative effects of alcohol to be substantially worse than FH- females. An ANCOVA, controlling for age, GPA, race, and alcohol expectancies, resulted in family history main effects on both drinking and consequences. An interaction also emerged between gender and family history, such that FH+ males were especially vulnerable to high levels of alcohol consumption. Results reveal the scope of FH+ individuals in the college environment and the increased risk for these students, particularly male FH+ students, suggesting a need for researchers and college health personnel to focus attention and resources on this issue. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of water extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shati, Ali A; Elsaid, Fahmy G

    2009-08-01

    Alcohol abuse has many harmful effects on human body. This study aimed to investigate the role of water extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) as natural product extracts to detoxify the injuries of alcohol abuse on liver and brain of mice. Alcohol at a dose of 1.25 ml/50 ml water was orally administered at the first day of treatment with continuously increase of 1.25 ml per day to the end of experiment (14 days, 0.1 ml/45 g /d). Mice also were orally administered with alcohol and water extracts of thyme and ginger in concentration of 500 mg /kg body weight for 2 weeks. The results showed very highly significant increase in nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level in liver and brain and a very highly significant decrease in the total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activity in alcoholic group. In addition, the liver function enzymes such as L-gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and butyryl cholinesterase activities showed very highly significant increase in alcoholic group. In contrast, the water extracts of thyme and ginger showed significant amelioration on these changes both in liver and brain tissues. The water extracts of thyme and ginger has detoxifying and antioxidant effects. Therefore, it is recommended to use them to avoid alcohol toxicity.

  3. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Associated With Problematic Drinking Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH−same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more drinks per week, and experienced more alcohol-related negative consequences. Further, FH+ females evaluated the negative effects of alcohol to be substantially worse than FH− females. An ANCOVA, controlling for age, GPA, race, and alcohol expectancies, resulted in family history main effects on both drinking and consequences. An interaction also emerged between gender and family history, such that FH+ males were especially vulnerable to high levels of alcohol consumption. Results reveal the scope of FH+ individuals in the college environment and the increased risk for these students, particularly male FH+ students, suggesting a need for researchers and college health personnel to focus attention and resources on this issue. PMID:20359831

  4. Prevention of adolescent reoccurring violence and alcohol abuse: a multiple site evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, John S

    2010-07-01

    "Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple

  5. Associations of adverse childhood experiences with depression and alcohol abuse among Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ha

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated adverse childhood experiences of Korean college students and the impact such experiences have on students' depression and alcohol abuse. Using an online questionnaire, 939 college students were surveyed regarding their adverse childhood experiences, depressive symptoms and alcohol use habits. About half of the participants claimed to have experienced at least one adversity in their childhood. Eight percent of participants reported experiencing four or more categories of adversity. The correlations between adverse childhood experiences and depressive symptoms, alcohol abusive behaviors, and the comorbid condition of the two outcomes were significant when students' gender, geographical regions, maternal and paternal education, and family incomes were adjusted. Graded associations of cumulated adverse childhood experiences with the outcome variables were evident. These findings strengthen the link between child maltreatment and adult public health issues carrying socioeconomic burdens, two matters that have not been extensively studied in Korean contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Traumatic brain injury and alcohol/substance abuse: A Bayesian meta-analysis comparing the outcomes of people with and without a history of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, David J; Mathias, Jane L

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol and substance (drugs and/or alcohol) abuse are major risk factors for traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, it remains unclear whether outcomes differ for those with and without a history of preinjury abuse. A meta-analysis was performed to examine this issue. The PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched for research that compared the neuroradiological, cognitive, or psychological outcomes of adults with and without a documented history of alcohol and/or substance abuse who sustained nonpenetrating TBIs. Data from 22 studies were analyzed using a random-effects model: Hedges's g effect sizes measured the mean difference in outcomes of individuals with/without a history of preinjury abuse, and Bayes factors assessed the probability that the outcomes differed. Patients with a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse had poorer neuroradiological outcomes, including reduced hippocampal (g = -0.82) and gray matter volumes (g = -0.46 to -0.82), and enlarged cerebral ventricles (g = -0.73 to -0.80). There were limited differences in cognitive outcomes: Executive functioning (g = -0.51) and memory (g = -0.39 to -0.43) were moderately affected, but attention and reasoning were not. The findings for fine motor ability, construction, perception, general cognition, and language were inconclusive. Postinjury substance and alcohol use (g = -0.97 to -1.07) and emotional functioning (g = -0.29 to -0.44) were worse in those with a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse (psychological outcomes). This study highlighted the type and extent of post-TBI differences between persons with and without a history of alcohol or substance abuse, many of which may hamper recovery. However, variation in the criteria for premorbid abuse, limited information regarding the history of abuse, and an absence of preinjury baseline data prevented an assessment of whether the differences predated the TBI, occurred as a result of ongoing alcohol/substance abuse, or

  7. Court based civil commitment of alcoholics and substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, E A; Beck, J C

    1991-01-01

    Problem. To study court ordered substance abuse commitment (SAC) in one jurisdiction. We investigated who was evaluated, by whom, and with what outcome. Is SAC primarily a purely civil procedure as originally intended? Are men and women being treated equally? Questionnaire survey of court clinicians to determine demographic and clinical status of persons evaluated, the process of evaluation, and the disposition. SAC is common and more frequent in criminal cases than in purely civil ones. SAC of women is clearly influenced by the restricted choices for disposition: either state prison or an unlocked facility. SAC is an important public health procedure, which courts are using in highly variable and at times unintended ways. SAC has emerged as an alternative to other dispositions in criminal cases involving substance-abusing defendants.

  8. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  9. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun S.; Requião, Marinalva G.; Marasaldi, Renata F.; Filomensky, Tatiana Z.; Hodgins, David C.; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities. PMID:27907082

  10. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.

  11. Intellectual Disability and Multiple Co Morbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Child: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Priyanka; Rathi, Anubhav

    2014-01-01

    Comorbid psychiatric Disorders are seen commonly in people with intellectual disability and in fact they are at greater risk for developing other health disorders. Most prevalent chronic health conditions in children with intellectual disability are epilepsy, cerebral palsy,anxiety disorders, sleep disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Co morbidities multiply the problem of people with intellectual impairment to a great extent and hence an accurate psychological assessment of multiple diagnoses is useful in detecting the specific underlying processes differentiating the co morbid syndrome and in planning an appropriate management and rehabilitation program. This case report is presented to emphasize the fact that though. It is common for intellectually disabled children to have other co-morbid psychiatric disorders, it is important to have accurate, suitable assessment and recording of every co-morbid disorder as it has its own implication in course and outcome of the disability in the child. A comprehensive management approach involving people from various spheres would be required to improve the quality of life and for reduction of burden of care giver.We describe a child of intellectual disability with multiple co morbidities. PMID:25584292

  12. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Glozah, Franklin N.

    2014-01-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The resu...

  13. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...

  14. The role of mental illness in alcohol abuse and prescription drug misuse: gender-specific analysis of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Monge, Allison N; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether and how collegians' misuse of prescription drugs and alcohol abuse are associated with mental illness and with a lack of mental health care. Nationally representative data were derived from 5,241 full-time American college students who completed the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We observed the presence of alcohol abuse/dependence and the nonmedical use of prescription drugs to be associated with relatively serious mental illness and with lack of health care. In pursuing gender-specific results, we found that the association between alcohol abuse and mental illness was stronger among females than males.

  15. The Impact of Abuse Trauma on Alcohol and Drug Use: A Study of High-Risk Incarcerated Girls*

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, S. Lynne; Wilson, Janet K.; Robertson, Angela A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of abuse trauma (physical and sexual) on alcohol and drug use of high-risk girls (12–18 years of age) who were surveyed within the first two weeks of their incarceration. One-way ANOVA analyses and Tukey post-hoc tests indicate physical abuse with a weapon was associated with higher marijuana use and number of drugs used. Sexual abuse, especially within the past year increased marijuana use, alcohol use, number of drugs used, and alcohol and other drug (AOD) pro...

  16. Using Motivational Interviewing to Address College Client Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Mark B.; Schmitt, Dorothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI; W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick, 2002) is presented as a potentially effective counseling strategy for assisting traditionally aged college students in reducing their problematic, heavy alcohol use. MI's congruence with two developmental theories--Self-Determination Theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and…

  17. Trace Elements Profile among Alcohol Abusers in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    major occupation is farming and brewing of a local alcohol, burukutu from grains, usually guinea corn by fermentation for local consumption. It is predominantly a Christian ethnic group. There were 1,202 adults of ages 16 years and above with a total number of 320 families. Out of these 320 families, adults of 16 - 54 years ...

  18. The Medical and Social Consequences of Alcohol Abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Humans have drunk alcohol for at least twelve thousand years. It has been used in religious rituals, in ancient cultures as diverse as Samaria,. Babylon, Egypt, China and Anglo-Saxon Britain1. ... such as sexual gratification without thinking of the consequences of their actions - such as unplanned pregnancy, or engaging in.

  19. Exposure to traumatic events, prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse in Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadew, Gelaye T

    2012-10-01

    Generations of Aboriginal people have been exposed to strings of traumatic events with devastating psychosocial health consequences, including psychiatric morbidities and mortalities, and medical complications. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric morbidity directly linked to traumatic events. Despite research findings indicating traumatic exposure and resultant PTSD in Indigenous communities, little attention has been given to this condition in mental healthcare delivery. Consequently, clinical and psychosocial interventions are misguided and failed to deliver positive outcomes. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between exposure to traumatic events, prevalence of PTSD and alcohol abuse in remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. A combination of structured clinical interview and multiple survey questionnaires - Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), and Impact of Events Scale (IES), Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and Indigenous Trauma Profile (ITP) - were administered to 221 Indigenous participants aged 18 to 65 years. The overwhelming majority, 97.3% (n=215) of participants were exposed to traumatic events. Analysis of CIDI results using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria shows a life time prevalence of 55.2% (n=122) for PTSD, 20% (n=44) for major depression (recurrent) and 2.3% (n=5) for a single episode. A total of 96% (n=212) participants reported consuming a drink containing alcohol and 73.8% (n=163) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol use related disorders, abuse and dependence. Of participants who met the PTSD diagnostic criteria, 91% (n=111) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol use related disorders. Other impacts of trauma such as other anxiety disorders, dysthymic disorder and substances abuses were also identified. The rate of exposure to traumatic events and prevalence of PTSD are disproportionately higher in the communities studied than the national average and one of the

  20. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm.

  1. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5-6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epigenetic Modulation of Brain Gene Networks for Cocaine and Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Farris

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS. Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpected biochemical relationships. Clustering analysis of variation from whole-genome sequencing of gene expression (RNA-Seq and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3 events (ChIP-Seq revealed the underlying structure of the transcriptional and epigenomic landscape within hippocampal postmortem brain tissue of drug abusers and control cases. Distinct sets of interrelated networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse were determined for each abusive substance. The network approach identified subsets of functionally related genes that are regulated in agreement with H3K4me3 changes, suggesting cause and effect relationships between this epigenetic mark and gene expression. Gene expression networks consisted of recognized substrates for addiction, such as the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein PPP1R1B / DARPP-32 and the vesicular glutamate transporter SLC17A7 / VGLUT1 as well as potentially novel molecular targets for substance abuse. Through a systems biology based approach our results illustrate the utility of integrating epigenetic and transcript expression to establish relevant biological networks in the human brain for addiction. Future work with laboratory models may clarify the functional relevance of these gene networks for cocaine and alcohol, and provide a framework for the development of medications for the treatment of addiction.

  3. Lifestyle factors and co-morbidities associated with obesity and overweight in Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otang-Mbeng, Wilfred; Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2017-05-25

    Obesity is a global epidemic that affects 500 million people worldwide and is predicted to increase to one billion people by 2030. The prevalence of obesity is increasing across populations in South Africa. However, questions still remain surrounding the predisposing factors and obesity-related health problems especially in the rural areas. This study evaluated several lifestyle factors such as dietary habits, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, co-morbidities and their association with the prevalence of obesity and overweight in Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted among 118 residents in four rural/sub-urban townships of the study area. Measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dietary habits were determined using a validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 38 and 19%, respectively. The highest prevalence of obesity (70%) was observed among those who do not undertake any physical activity. Close to half (48.48%) of the respondents who eat fast foods always were obese, and 30.30% were overweight; when combined, the prevalence for obesity is 78.78%. A negative association with obesity was observed among regular smokers (26.92%) and consumers of alcohol (4.00%). Arthritis, hypertension and tuberculosis were co-morbidities significantly (P < 0.05) associated with obesity in the study area. The findings of this study reveal that lack of physical activity, overindulgence on fast and fried foods, low fruit and vegetable consumption as well as arthritis, hypertension and tuberculosis were significant risk factors of obesity in Nkonkobe Municipality.

  4. Estimate of the commercial value of underage drinking and adult abusive and dependent drinking to the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Susan E; Vaughan, Roger D; Foster, William H; Califano, Joseph A

    2006-05-01

    To document quantity and cash value of underage and adult Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined abusive and dependent drinking as well as underage drinking and adult DSM-IV-defined abusive and dependent drinking combined to the alcohol industry. Analysis of multiple cross-sectional national data sets. The 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, the 2000 US Census, the 2000 to 2001 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, and the 2001 Adams Business Research. A total of 260,580 persons aged 12 years and older across 4 data sources. Underage drinking or pathological drinking defined as meeting the DSM-IV criteria for abusive or dependent drinking. Total amount of alcohol consumed and the cash value for alcohol consumed among underage and adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence as well as all underage drinkers combined with adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence. The short-term cash value of underage drinking to the alcohol industry was 22.5 billion dollars in 2001-17.5% of total consumer expenditures for alcohol. The long-term commercial value of underage drinking is the contribution of underage drinking to maintaining consumption among adult drinkers with alcohol abuse and dependence, which was equal to at least 25.8 billion dollars in 2001. The combined value of illegal underage drinking and adult pathological drinking to the industry was at least 48.3 billion dollars, or 37.5% of consumer expenditures for alcohol, in 2001. Alternative estimates suggest that these costs may be closer to 62.9 billion dollars, or 48.8% of consumer expenditures for alcohol.

  5. Animal models for medications development targeting alcohol abuse using selectively bred rat lines: Neurobiological and pharmacological validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L.; Sable, Helen J.K.; Colombo, Giancarlo; Hyytia, Petri; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lumeng, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to present evidence that rat animal models of alcoholism provide an ideal platform for developing and screening medications that target alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus is on the 5 oldest international rat lines that have been selectively bred for a high alcohol-consumption phenotype. The behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes of these rat lines are reviewed and placed in the context of the clinical literature. The paper presents behavioral models for assessing the efficacy of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence in rodents, with particular emphasis on rats. Drugs that have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing alcohol/ethanol consumption and/or self-administration by these rat lines and their putative site of action are summarized. The paper also presents some current and future directions for developing pharmacological treatments targeting alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:22841890

  6. Prevalence and the factors associated with binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and alcohol dependence: a population-based study of Chinese adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean H; Lee, Sing; Chow, Julie; Lau, Joseph; Tsang, Adley; Choi, Jacqueline; Griffiths, Sian M

    2008-01-01

    To examine the patterns of drinking, the relationship between binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and dependence, and the sociodemographic factors associated with problem drinking among Hong Kong Chinese. An anonymous, random telephone survey was conducted on 9860 Hong Kong Chinese adults from April to June, 2006. The age-adjusted prevalence amongst men for binge drinking was 14.4% with 5.3% of males being alcohol abusers and 2.3% dependent on alcohol. The corresponding figures for women were all lower at 3.6%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Younger age groups showed the highest prevalence of these drinking problems. Among male binge drinkers, 18.7% were also alcohol abusers and 12.3% were alcohol dependent. Among female binge drinkers, 16% reported alcohol abuse and 9.9% reported dependence. Male binge drinkers were less likely to be older, less likely to be students but more likely to be employed in the service industry. Female binge drinkers were less likely to be over 60 years of age or married but more likely to be smokers. In both genders, smoking was significantly associated with the likelihood of binge drinking (OR = 3.6-12.3), alcohol abuse (OR = 3.0-12.1), and dependence (OR = 5.2-20.6). Although binge drinking has been well tolerated in Chinese culture, it is strongly associated with alcohol abuse and dependence in both genders in Hong Kong. Our findings suggest that prevalence of problematic alcohol consumption warrants greater promotion of alcohol harms awareness. Higher rates of heavy drinking in younger-aged individuals may reflect changing lifestyle behaviors and herald higher future levels of alcohol-related health and social problems.

  7. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  8. Influence of alcohol abuse of the father on the intensity of clinical picture of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezić, Slobodanka; Mihanović, Mate; Zilić-Dzeba, Jadranka; Sain, Ivica

    2005-12-01

    The subject of the study is the influence of alcohol abusing father on the clinical picture of PTSD patient. The father plays an important identification role in the psychological development of his son. Therefore it is to be expected that an alcohol abusing father will become a (negative) role model for his son and that he will also later on in stressful situations try to reduce the anxiety and depression by consuming larger quantities of alcoholic drinks. The aim of the study is to find out whether there are differences in PTSD clinical picture in patients whose fathers abused alcohol and in those whose fathers did not have such problem. The participating patients were from the Psychiatric hospital "Sveti Ivan". Mississippi and Watson scales were applied, as well as a questionnaire named "Early traumas" from which the variable "alcohol abuse of the father" was selected. The analysis shows that the participants who in their family histories had fathers who abused alcohol developed a milder clinical picture of PTSD, i.e. they reactions to the stress later on were less sensitive compared to the control group of participants whose fathers did not abuse alcohol and whose clinical pictures of the disorder were more severe.

  9. Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...

  10. Reminder: Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    You are reminded that: - the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; - the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events (Operational Circular No. 8); - failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him/her to abandon the vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he/she submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade. They will also stop and question any obviously intoxicate...

  11. Estudo comparativo das habilidades sociais de dependentes e não dependentes de álcool Comparative study of social skills among alcohol abusers and non abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Patrício Aliane

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar e comparar diferenças nas habilidades sociais (HS de dependentes e não dependentes de álcool. Foram pesquisados 80 sujeitos, entre dependentes e não-dependentes, usuários do SUS, e usados dois instrumentos para coleta dos dados: Inventário de Habilidades Sociais (IHS e AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Foi realizado um estudo comparativo das HS entre os grupos de dependentes e não-dependentes de álcool e álcool e outras drogas (AOD. Os resultados obtidos mostraram não existir diferença no escore do IHS entre dependentes e não-dependentes. Os homens obtiveram maior média nas habilidades de conversação e desenvoltura social e autocontrole da agressividade que as mulheres e, na amostra masculina, dependentes de álcool apresentaram maior média na habilidade de autocontrole da agressividade que dependentes de AOD. Apesar de a literatura sobre o tema discutir os déficits de HS entre dependentes, este estudo não confirmou esta hipótese.This research aims to evaluate and compare differences in Social Skills of alcohol abusers and non-abusers. Eighty people were interviewed, among alcohol abusers and non-abusers, patients of a Health Care Center (SUS. Two instruments were used to collect the data: Social Skills Inventory (ISS and AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. A Comparative study between the alcohol abusers and non-abusers including other drugs was carried out. The results showed that there is no difference between the alcohol abusers and non-abusers ISS scores. Men showed a better score in conversation and social abilities also in self-control of the aggressiveness than women did. In addiction, men addicted to alcohol showed a better score in self-control of the aggressiveness than men addicted to alcohol and other drugs. Although literature about this topic shows that the alcohol abuse have an decrease of these social skills, this research does not

  12. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: rate of referral for neurorehabilitation and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Herlihy, D

    2012-04-01

    Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients continue to present with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) which may be associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. We audited our patients with HAND referred for psychiatric assessment against the National Service Framework guidelines that they should receive neurorehabilitation. We found that despite these patients posing a risk to themselves and others due to poor insight and medication adherence, high rates of psychiatric co-morbidity and severely challenging behaviour, few were referred for neurorehabilitation. We recommend that clear referral pathways for psychiatric intervention and neurorehabilitation are established in HIV treatment centres.

  13. [The treatment of hypersexuality in a male with obsessive compulsive disorder as psychiatric co-morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairam, J; van Marle, H J C

    2008-01-01

    Patients with paraphilias often also have psychiatric co-morbidity. In this study of a case from an outpatient clinic we discuss the treatment of paraphilia not otherwise specified, characterised by hypersexuality, in a patient with paraphilia and psychiatric co-morbidity. After explaning the diagnosis and treatment plan we describe how the treatment proceeded. We begin by focusing on interventions to tackle the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder and then concentrate more on the patient's hypersexuality and treatment by means of pharmacology. Thereafter we make a more detailed study of the role played by libido-reducing drug in the treatment of the patient's hypersexuality.

  14. Exploring family and community involvement to protect Thai youths from alcohol and illegal drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2015-01-01

    Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.

  15. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

  16. A culturally adapted drug and alcohol abuse prevention program for aboriginal children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydala, Lola T; Sewlal, Betty; Rasmussen, Carmen; Alexis, Kathleen; Fletcher, Fay; Letendre, Liz; Odishaw, Janine; Kennedy, Merle; Kootenay, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    In response to substance abuse within their community, the Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation invited the University of Alberta (UofA) to partner in a collaborative effort to establish a school-based substance abuse prevention program. An evidence-based substance abuse prevention program was reviewed and adapted by the community to ensure that it incorporated their cultural beliefs, values, language, and visual images. The adapted program was delivered to students at Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation School and changes in student participants' knowledge, attitudes, refusal skills, and self-beliefs were measured. Benefits and challenges of adapting the program were documented. The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the Canadian Institute for Health Research, Guidelines for Research Involving Aboriginal People, provided a frame of reference for the work throughout the research process. A pre-/posttest questionnaire was used to measure changes in student participants' drug and alcohol refusal skills, self-beliefs, and knowledge of the negative effects of drug and alcohol use. Focus groups (FGs) documented community members' experiences of and responses to the program adaptations and delivery. Results included (1) positive changes in students' drug and alcohol refusal skills, self-beliefs, and knowledge of the negative effects of drug and alcohol use, (2) ownership of and investment in the program by the community, (3) teaching approaches that correspond with the learning contexts, worldview, and relationships of the community, and (4) participation of community Elders. Quantitative and qualitative measures provide evidence for the importance, benefits, and challenges of employing a culturally adapted evidence-based substance abuse prevention program with Aboriginal students attending a First Nations school.

  17. COMMON MENTAL DISORDER AMONG ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Lucchese, Roselma; Silva, Paloma Cinthia Duarte; Denardi, Tainara Catozzi; Felipe, Rodrigo Lopes de; Vera, Ivânia; Castro, Paulo Alexandre de; Bueno, Alexandre de Assis; Fernandes, Inaina Lara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to estimate the prevalence of the probability of common mental disorders among abusers of alcohol and other drugs. Method: a cross-sectional study. The sample was made up of 234 individuals undergoing treatment and rehabilitation for chemical dependence in private clinics and in a Psychosocial Care Center in the Southeast area of the state of Goiás, Brazil. Instruments on sociodemographic profile, use of licit and/or illicit drugs, and a questionnaire that tracks common...

  18. Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    intervention. The group-based intervention used mindfulness meditation and cognitive behavioral therapy techniques to increase emotional regulatory...Normative Misperceptions of Alcohol Use Among Substance Abusing Army Personnel. 8. Manuscript: Spicing up the military: Use and effects of synthetic...Coordinator was hired and trained . In August of 2010, our counselors and research assistants were hired and began training . Over Year 2, we experienced

  19. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sharqi, Abdullah Mohammed; Sherra, Khaled Saad; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-...

  20. Testing the assumption of measurement invariance in the SAMHSA mental health and alcohol abuse stigma assessment in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King-Kallimanis, B.L.; Oort, F.J.; Lynn, N.; Schonfeld, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a

  1. Testing the Assumption of Measurement Invariance in the SAMHSA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L.; Oort, Frans J.; Lynn, Nancy; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a

  2. New horizons for therapeutics in drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Bianca; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug dependence represents a serious health and social issue within the community. As drug dependence has become more widely recognized as a clinical disorder and the severity of the problem been fully realized, options available for treatment have grown along with our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development and persistence of addiction. Treatment has progressed from purely social and behavioral approaches to now encompass pharmacotherapy to attempt to disrupt the mechanisms underlying these disorders. Despite these advances, many forms of addiction lack effective therapeutics and the prevalence of this disorder remains unacceptably high. As a result, a significant effort within the research community has been dedicated to the identification of novel targets for the development of therapeutics based upon our understanding of the pathological processes underlying addiction. The current review aims to provide an overview of existing and clinically trialed pharmacotherapies for alcohol, opiate, psychostimulant, nicotine, cannabis and inhalant addictions. Further, we discuss some of the potential targets that have been recently indentified from basic studies that may hold promise for the development of novel treatments.

  3. Occupational trauma and mental illness--combat, peacekeeping, or relief work and the national co-morbidity survey replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connorton, Ellen; Perry, Melissa J; Hemenway, David; Miller, Matthew

    2011-12-01

    Peacekeepers, relief workers, and military members experience multiple traumas, and trauma is believed to increase risk for psychiatric distress. We examined whether combat and/or peacekeeping or relief work was associated with subsequent mental illness. Using data from the US National Co-morbidity Survey Replication (n = 2383), we estimated whether combat, peacekeeping, or relief work was associated with increased prevalence of mental illness through bivariate cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression. Combat was associated with increased subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol or drug issues more than peacekeeping or relief work. Combat, alone or combined with peacekeeping/relief work, appears to be a risk factor for subsequent PTSD and issues with drugs and alcohol. Peacekeeping/relief work without combat does not appear to be associated with these diagnoses. We found an association between combat and subsequent PTSD and drug and alcohol issues. Absent combat, peacekeeping, or relief work were not associated with mental illness. Previous diagnoses and trauma exposure may increase potential for subsequent mental health problems.

  4. Do general practitioners record alcohol abuse in the electronic medical records? A comparison of survey and medical record data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, L; Oenema, A; van den Akker, M; van de Mheen, D

    2018-03-01

    Primary care professionals are encouraged to screen patients for alcohol abuse. However, patients with alcohol abuse are often under-diagnosed as well as under-registered in medical records in general practices. This study aims to report on the registration rates of alcohol abuse diagnoses in general practices in comparison to patients' self-reported rates of alcohol use disorder. Data of a total number of 2,349 patients were analyzed from the SMILE study, a large prospective cohort study conducted in The Netherlands. Two data collection strategies were combined: (1) Patient self-report data on alcohol consumption as well as other sociodemographic characteristics; (2) Medical record (ICPC codes) data of diagnoses of chronic and acute alcohol abuse of the same patients. GPs' registrations of diagnoses were compared with the self-report data using descriptive statistics. Based on the results of the patient reported data, 179 (14.8%) male participants had an alcohol use disorder. Of the total number of female patients, 82 (7.2%) had an alcohol use disorder. One of the male and none of the female patients with an alcohol use disorder were registered as such by the GP. This study found that 11.1% of the total patient sample reported an alcohol use disorder, of which a strikingly low number of patients were recorded as such by their GP. It is likely that low recognition due to barriers related to alcohol screening as well as registration avoidance due to the stigma around alcohol abuse play a role in low registration.

  5. MAOA genotype, family relations and sexual abuse in relation to adolescent alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kent W; Comasco, Erika; Åslund, Cecilia; Nordquist, Niklas; Leppert, Jerzy; Oreland, Lars

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate MAOA gene-environment (G*E) interactions in relation to adolescent alcohol consumption. In the county of Västmanland, Sweden, all 17-18-year-old students were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire and provide a saliva sample during class hours. A total of 2263 students completed the questionnaire (77.4%) and a saliva sample was provided by 2131 participants. Failed MAOA u-variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotype analyses and internal non-responses left 851 boys and 735 girls (total n=1586) to be investigated. Alcohol use disorder identification test was used to measure hazardous alcohol consumption. MAOA u-VNTR was used to measure biological risk in interaction with poor family relations and experience of sexual abuse. The model was also adjusted for non-independent socioeconomic variables, separated parents, type of housing and parental unemployment. Results showed that the MAOA u-VNTR, in interaction with psychosocial risk factors, such as the quality of family relations and sexual abuse, was related to high alcohol consumption among adolescents. Girls, carrying the long MAOA u-VNTR variant showed a higher risk of being high alcohol consumers, whereas among boys, the short allele was related to higher alcohol consumption. The present study supports the hypothesis that there is a relation between MAOA u-VNTR and alcohol consumption and that this relation is modulated by environmental factors. Furthermore, the present study also supports the hypothesis that there is a sex difference in the G*E interaction. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Association between sleep bruxism and alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and drug abuse: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzo-Silveira, Eduardo; Kruger, Cristian Maikel; Porto De Toledo, Isabela; Porporatti, André Luís; Dick, Bruce; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to answer the focused question, "In adults, is there any association between sleep bruxism (SB) and alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, or drug abuse?" This systematic review included studies in which the investigators assessed SB diagnosis by using questionnaires, clinical assessment, or polysomnography and evaluated its association with alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, or drug abuse. The authors graded SB as possible, probable, or definitive. The authors developed specific search strategies for Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science. The authors searched the gray literature by using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The authors evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies by using the Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument. From among 818 studies, the authors selected 7 for inclusion in which samples ranged from 51 through 10,229 participants. SB was associated highly with alcohol and tobacco use. In 1 study, the investigators noted a positive and weak association for heavy coffee drinkers. The odds for SB seem to increase almost 2 times for those who drank alcohol, almost 1.5 times for those who drank more than 8 cups of coffee per day, and more than 2 times for those who were current smokers. The abuse of methylenedioxymethamphetamine associated with SB remained without sufficient evidence. On the basis of limited evidence, SB was associated positively with alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco. The association between the studied drugs could not be discredited; however, there is still a need for stronger evidence based on studies with greater methodological rigor. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships between indices of obesity and its co-morbidities in multi-ethnic Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Chew, S.K.; Lin, V.F.; Tan, B.Y.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2001-01-01

    Paper Relationships between indices of obesity and its co-morbidities in multi-ethnic Singapore M Deurenberg-Yap1, S K Chew2, V F P Lin1, B Y Tan2, W A van Staveren3 and P Deurenberg3,4 1Research and Information Management, Health Promotion Board, Singapore 2Department of Epidemiology and Disease

  8. Disease management for co-morbid depression and anxiety in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoop, Corinne H; Spek, Viola R M; Pop, Victor J M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common co-morbid health problems in patients with type 2 diabetes. Both depression and anxiety are associated with poor glycaemic control and increased risk of poor vascular outcomes and higher mortality rates. Results of previous studies have shown that in ...

  9. Co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis and celiac disease in Scandinavian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, Gjermund; Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Giljam, Marita

    2009-01-01

    Background: The co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and celiac disease (CD) has been reported sporadically since the 1960s. To our knowledge, this is the first time a systematic screening is performed in a large cohort of CF patients. Methods: Transglutaminase-IgA (TGA), endomysium-IgA (EMA...

  10. Co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis and celiac disease in Scandinavian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, G; Olesen, H V; Gilljam, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and celiac disease (CD) has been reported sporadically since the 1960s. To our knowledge, this is the first time a systematic screening is performed in a large cohort of CF patients. METHODS: Transglutaminase-IgA (TGA), endomysium-IgA (EMA...

  11. Mortality in COPD patients discharged from hospital: the role of treatment and co-morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, G; Gislason, T; Lindberg, E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse mortality and associated risk factors, with special emphasis on health status, medications and co-morbidity, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that had been hospitalized for acute exacerbation. METHODS: This prospective ...

  12. A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

  13. Effects of Malnutrition as a Co-Morbid Factor on Neurocognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of malnutrition as a co-morbid factor on neurocognitive functioning in HIV positive adults in Lusaka. Design: A cross- sectional study consisting of 263 participants. The sample comprised of 109 (40.2 %) males and 162 (59.8%) females with an age range of between 20 and 65 years.

  14. Myocardial infarction and other co-morbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is nominally the most important co-morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the one with the greatest potential for treatment and prevention to improve the overall prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. We assessed the extent...

  15. Cannabis and Depression: A Twin Model Approach to Co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolkina, M; Morley, K I; Rijsdijk, F; Agrawal, A; Bergin, J E; Nelson, E C; Statham, D; Martin, N G; Lynskey, M T

    2017-07-01

    Cannabis use disorder (CUD) co-occurs with major depressive disorder (MDD) more frequently than would be expected by chance. However, studies to date have not produced a clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying this co-morbidity. Genetically informative studies can add valuable insight to this problem, as they allow the evaluation of competing models of co-morbidity. This study uses data from the Australian Twin Registry to compare 13 co-morbidity twin models initially proposed by Neale and Kendler (Am J Hum Genet 57:935-953, 1995). The analysis sample comprised 2410 male and female monozygotic and dizygotic twins (average age 32) who were assessed on CUD and MDD using the SSAGA-OZ interview. Data were analyzed in OpenMx. Of the 13 different co-morbidity models, two fit equally well: CUD causes MDD and Random Multiformity of CUD. Both fit substantially better than the Correlated Liabilities model. Although the current study cannot differentiate between them statistically, these models, in combination, suggest that CUD risk factors may causally influence the risk to develop MDD, but only when risk for CUD is high.

  16. Gender Differences in Co-Morbid Psychopathology and Clinical Management in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Kravariti, Eugenia; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined rates of co-morbid psychopathology and clinical management/care pathways in adult females (N = 50) and males (N = 100) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) living in community settings. We also compared a sub-sample (N = 60) with ASD to an age-, gender- and ID-matched control group (N =…

  17. Co-morbidities of COPD in primary care : frequency, relation to COPD, and treatment consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molena, Thys

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In the Western world, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly caused by long-term smoking, which results in pulmonary inflammation that is often associated with systemic inflammation. A number of co-morbid conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, muscle

  18. Epilepsy and Intellectual Disability: Does Epilepsy Increase the Likelihood of Co-Morbid Psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Saadia; Winterhalder, Robert; Underwood, Lisa; Kelesidi, Katerina; Chaplin, Eddie; Kravariti, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Although epilepsy is particularly common among people with intellectual disability (ID) it remains unclear whether it is associated with an increased likelihood of co-morbid psychopathology. We therefore investigated rates of mental health problems and other clinical characteristics in patients with ID and epilepsy (N=156) as compared to patients…

  19. Recreational Substance Use Patterns and Co-Morbid Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Eddie; Gilvarry, Catherine; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2011-01-01

    There is very limited evidence on the patterns of recreational substance use among adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) who have co-morbid mental health problems. In this study we collected clinical and socio-demographic information as well as data on substance use patterns for consecutive new referrals (N = 115) to specialist mental health…

  20. Co-morbidities in Chinese children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chih; Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa

    2017-12-22

    The co-morbidity of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disorder (RD) is more frequent than expected. This investigation assessed the potential uniqueness of the co-morbidity of ADHD and RD and extended existing findings to the Chinese language. A parallel group design with a post hoc analysis of group differences was employed to compare 4 groups of children (30 with ADHD, 33 with RD, 28 with ADHD + RD, and 30 typically developing) regarding their reading comprehension, attention, reading-related abilities, and cognitive abilities. The findings indicated that children with RD and/or ADHD symptom(s) exhibited diverse cognitive profiles, and the distinguishing factor contributed to different inhibitions. Additionally, Chinese-speaking children with the co-morbid symptoms of RD and ADHD demonstrated greater deficits in auditory working memory and rapid naming than did the pure-deficit groups. Furthermore, although problems with phonological awareness were similar between the 2 groups, the deficiency of orthographic knowledge was more severe in children with RD than in the co-morbid group. The ADHD + RD group's cognitive and reading-related abilities displayed a relatively complicated pattern that should be considered in the diagnosis of either RD or ADHD and their remediation design. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The impact of co-morbidity burden on appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Anne Christine; Vinther, Michael; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    -ICD indication-related co-morbidities including atrial fibrillation, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal disease, liver disease, cancer, chronic psychiatric disease, and peripheral and/or cerebrovascular disease, and divided into four groups (co-morbidity burden 0, 1, 2, and ≥3......). Through Cox models, we assessed the impact of co-morbidity burden on appropriate ICD therapy and mortality. Increasing co-morbidity burden was not associated with increased risk of appropriate therapy, irrespective of implant indication [all hazard ratios (HRs) 1.0-1.4, P = NS]. Using no co...

  2. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N

    2014-11-06

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.

  3. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N.

    2014-01-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951

  4. Exploring the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin N. Glozah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.

  5. Co-morbidities, social impact and quality of life in Tourette syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamma eEapen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is more than having motor and vocal tics, and this review will examine the varied co-morbidities as well as the social impact and Quality of Life (QoL in individuals with TS. The relationship between any individual and his/her environment is complex and this is further exaggerated in the case of a person with TS. For example, tics may play a significant role in shaping the person’s experiences, perceptions and interactions with the environment. Further, associated clinical features, co-morbidities and co-existing psychopathologies may compound or alter this relationship. The common co-morbidities in this regard include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and disruptive behaviours, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, and co-existent problems include anxiety, depression and low self esteem, which can all lead to poorer psychosocial functioning and QoL. Thus, the symptoms of TS and the associated co-morbid conditions may interact to result in a vicious cycle or a downward spiralling of negative experiences and poor QoL. The stigma and social maladjustment in TS and the social exclusion, bullying and discrimination is considered to be caused in large part by misperceptions of the disorder by teachers, peers, and the wider community. Improved community and professional awareness about TS and related co-morbidities & other psychopathologies as well as the provision of multidisciplinary services to meet the complex needs of this clinical population are critical. Future research to inform the risk and resilience factors for successful long term outcomes is also warranted.

  6. A case-control study on alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for drug abuse pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Claudia S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults. Cases (drug abusers and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI. Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other drugs. Logistic conditional regression showed that alcohol dependence was strongly associated with pattern of drug abuse/dependence. Thus, compared to the "no drug abuse group", the odds ratio for association with diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs was 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9-21.2, whereas for abuse/dependence on cannabis only, the odds ratio was 1.0. For affective disorders, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64 for the group that received a diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs, whereas no association was found for those with abuse/dependence on cannabis only. In conclusion, there is not a homogeneous group of "drug users", and the role of risk factors depends on the drug use pattern.

  7. A case-control study on alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for drug abuse pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Lopes

    Full Text Available We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults. Cases (drug abusers and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI. Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other drugs. Logistic conditional regression showed that alcohol dependence was strongly associated with pattern of drug abuse/dependence. Thus, compared to the "no drug abuse group", the odds ratio for association with diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs was 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9-21.2, whereas for abuse/dependence on cannabis only, the odds ratio was 1.0. For affective disorders, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64 for the group that received a diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs, whereas no association was found for those with abuse/dependence on cannabis only. In conclusion, there is not a homogeneous group of "drug users", and the role of risk factors depends on the drug use pattern.

  8. Longitudinal outcomes of an alcohol abuse prevention program for urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven P; Schwinn, Traci M; Fang, Lin

    2010-05-01

    This randomized clinical trial examined longitudinal outcomes from an alcohol abuse prevention program aimed at urban youths. Study participants were an ethnically and racially heterogeneous sample of early adolescents, recruited from community-based agencies in greater New York City and its environs. Once they assented to study participation and gained parental permission, youths were divided into three arms: youth intervention delivered by CD-ROM (CD), the same youth intervention plus parent intervention (CD(P)), and control. Once all youths completed baseline measures, those in CD and CD(P) arms received a computerized 10-session alcohol abuse prevention program. Parents of youths in the CD(P) arm received supplemental materials to support and strengthen their children's learning. All youths completed postintervention and annual follow-up measures, and CD- and CD(P)-arm participants received annual booster intervention sessions. Seven years following postintervention testing and relative to control-arm youths, youths in CD and CD(P) arms reported less alcohol use, cigarette use, binge drinking, and peer pressure to drink; fewer drinking friends; greater refusal of alcohol use opportunities; and lower intentions to drink. No differences were observed between CD and CD(P) arms. Study findings lend support to the potential of computerized, skills-based prevention programs to help urban youth reduce their risks for underage drinking. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathophysiology of the Effects of Alcohol Abuse on the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue. Alcohol abuse disrupts all of these systems and causes hormonal disturbances that may result in various disorders, such as stress intolerance, reproductive dysfunction, thyroid problems, immune abnormalities, and psychological and behavioral disorders. Studies in both humans and animal models have helped shed light on alcohol's effects on various components of the endocrine system and their consequences.

  10. Harm Reduction as “Continuum Care” in Alcohol Abuse Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icro Maremmani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention.

  11. Gentle Knights: Masculinity, Teetotalism and Aid for Alcohol Abuse c. 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Blok

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1830 there have been Dutch organisations that were concerned with fighting alcohol abuse. The Drink Law of 1881, the result of their lobby, limited the sale of drink and made the punishment of public drunkenness obligatory. Around 1900 there was renewed fervour in the Dutch Temperance Movement: teetotallers came to dominate the movement and created a system for the care of drunkards. This change from a repressive approach to a focus on treatment was accompanied by two differing variants on ‘chivalrous’ masculinity. Nineteenth century campaigners put their idea of masculinity – controlled, militant, protective of women and children – in the service of state politics. The chivalry of the teetotallers was more personal. They showed their solidarity with problematic drinkers by completely abstaining from alcohol and attempted to save drunkards by setting a good example. The battle against King Alcohol became a fight, man to man, in civil society.

  12. Alcohol and drug abuse in the workplace - managing the human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKibbon, D.; Glass, H. [Kelly Luttmer and Associates Ltd., (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    The impact of drugs and alcohol in the workplace was reviewed. The policies and procedures which are required to ensure that employers meet due diligence requirements were discussed. Under the Canadian human rights legislation an employer cannot terminate an employee for having a medical illness including alcoholism or drug addiction. The implementation of a comprehensive drug and alcohol policy was said to be important to demonstrate to employees that the organization is ready to take a proactive and supportive role in addressing this health concern. The issue of drug testing and when to drug screen was also discussed. It was suggested that addressing substance abuse in the workplace through policies, procedures and practices can reduce costs related to lost productivity, absenteeism, workers` compensation claims, staff turnover, health benefit premiums and legal liabilities.

  13. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in homeless mentally ill persons: age-specific risks of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigerson, Holly G; Desai, Rani A; Liu-Mares, Wen; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2003-04-01

    Despite reports of high rates of suicidal behavior among mentally ill homeless persons, it remains unknown whether the well-established suicide risks of increased age and comorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders ("dual diagnosis") documented in the general population are also markers for increased suicide risk among homeless persons. Data from a multi-site outreach program (ACCESS) (N = 7,224) were used to investigate whether rates of serious suicidal ideation and recent suicide attempts varied with the age and substance abuse diagnosis(es) (drug abuse and/or alcohol abuse disorders) among homeless mentally ill clients. The prevalence of 30-day suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (37.5 % and 7.9 %, respectively) was extremely high. Although the risk of serious suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was greater among the younger compared with the older homeless mentally ill clients, risks were not significantly increased by co-morbid alcohol and/or drug abuse. However, a significant interaction between age and co-morbid substance abuse was observed showing that among older clients but not younger clients, those with drug and alcohol abuse were at significantly greater risk of suicidal ideation than those without substance use problems, controlling for confounding factors. Efforts to prevent suicide should recognize that among homeless people with mental illness, young-middle-aged (30- to 39-year-old) clients are at greatest risk of suicidal behavior. Among older clients the presence of both drug and alcohol abuse significantly increases suicide risk. These patterns are of special importance because they are quite different from those that are well documented in non-homeless populations.

  14. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspring lifetime suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increase likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. However, when experienced together, only parental alcohol abuse significantly increased odds of suicide attempt. It is unclear to what extent differences in the effect of maternal versus paternal alcohol use exist on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt risk. This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt. The sample consisted of participants from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The simultaneous effect of childhood or adolescent parental divorce and maternal and paternal history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime suicide attempt was estimated using a logistic regression model with an interaction term for demographics and parental history of other emotional and behavioural problems. Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems nearly doubled the likelihood of suicide attempt. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Individuals who experienced parental divorce as children or adolescents and who have a parent who abuses alcohol are at elevated risk for lifetime suicide attempt. These problem areas should become a routine part of assessment to better identify those at risk for lifetime suicide attempt and to implement early and targeted intervention to decrease such risk. [Thompson RG Jr,Alonzo D, Hu M-C, Hasin DS. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspringlifetime suicide attempt. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:408-414]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Chronic-Alcohol-Abuse-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol ingestion increases the risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, a severe form of acute lung injury, characterized by alveolar epithelial and endothelial barrier disruption and intense inflammation. Alcohol abuse is also associated with a higher incidence of sepsis or pneumonia resulting in a higher rate of admittance to intensive care, longer inpatient stays, higher healthcare costs, and a 2–4 times greater mortality rate. Chronic alcohol ingestion induced severe oxidative stress associated with increased ROS generation, depletion of the critical antioxidant glutathione (GSH, and oxidation of the thiol/disulfide redox potential in the alveolar epithelial lining fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Across intracellular and extracellular GSH pools in alveolar type II cells and alveolar macrophages, chronic alcohol ingestion consistently induced a 40–60 mV oxidation of GSH/GSSG suggesting that the redox potentials of different alveolar GSH pools are in equilibrium. Alcohol-induced GSH depletion or oxidation was associated with impaired functions of alveolar type II cells and alveolar macrophages but could be reversed by restoring GSH pools in the alveolar lining fluid. The aims of this paper are to address the mechanisms for alcohol-induced GSH depletion and oxidation and the subsequent effects in alveolar barrier integrity, modulation of the immune response, and apoptosis.

  16. [Use and abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive substances among Polish university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellibruda, Jerzy; Nikodemska, Sabina; Fronczyk, Krzysztof

    2003-01-01

    The results of country-wide research on alcohol and psychoactive substances use among Polish students are presented. The survey was carried out in the year 2000 and included 9446 students from 8 major academic centres in Poland. Negative events linked with the use of alcohol and drugs were discovered - 40% of students (42% of men and 37% of women) during the last two weeks exceeded the limit of dangerous drinking. Large range of harmful consequences of binge drinking has been found - one in three men and one in four women committed acts under the influence of alcohol, which they regretted after. One in four men under influence of alcohol was involved in aggressive fights with peers and one in six has had serious trouble with studying and bad assessments. The scope of drug use was much smaller but also alarming. During the last 30 days 7% of the studied population reported use of marijuana and 1.5% amphetamine. Abuse of alcohol was correlated with use of drugs. This creates a serious risk of cross addiction and shows an important role of alcohol drinking as a gateway to drug use.

  17. The role of distress intolerance in the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and problematic alcohol use among Latin American MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Biello, Katie B; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Novak, David S; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and its well-documented association with substance use in adulthood, little research has examined the psychological mechanisms underlying this association. The current study utilized a large, multinational sample of MSM in Latin America to examine the role of distress intolerance (i.e., decreased capacity to withstand negative psychological states) in the relationship between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. As part of an online survey conducted among members of the largest social/sexual networking website for MSM in Latin America, participants (n=19,451) completed measures of childhood sexual abuse history, distress intolerance, and problematic alcohol use (CAGE score>=2). Participants who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse indicated higher levels of distress intolerance, which was in turn associated with greater odds of engaging in problematic alcohol use. A mediation analysis further showed that distress intolerance partially accounted for the significant association between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. These findings provide initial evidence for the role of distress intolerance as a process through which early trauma shapes MSM health later in life. These findings also underscore the potential utility of addressing distress intolerance in alcohol use prevention and intervention efforts that target MSM with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Alcohol Abuse of the Father on the Intensity of Clinical Picture of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kezić, Slobodanka; Mihanović, Mate; Žilić-Džeba, Jadranka; Šain, Ivica

    2005-01-01

    The subject of the study is the influence of alcohol abusing father on the clinical picture of PTSD patient. The father plays an important identification role in the psychological development of his son. Therefore it is to be expected that an alcohol abusing father will become a (negative) role model for his son and that he will also later on in stressful situations try to reduce the anxiety and depression by consuming larger quantities of alcoholic drinks. The aim of the study is to find out...

  19. Alcohol drinking by parents and risk of alcohol abuse by adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Iakunchykova, Olena P; Andreeva, Tatiana I; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava; Zvinchuk, Alexander; Chislovska, Natalia; Antipkin, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE(S): To investigate associations between alcohol drinking by parents at different time of their life and alcohol use by adolescents. DESIGN: The longitudinal epidemiological study design was used to answer the proposed research questions. This study is based on the data of the Family and Children of Ukraine Study, which is a prospective cohort study of women and children. PARTICIPANTS: Recruited subjects were pregnant women with last menstrual period between 25 December 1992 and 23 J...

  20. Lights! Camera! Action Projects! Engaging Psychopharmacology Students in Service-based Action Projects Focusing on Student Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus “alcohol culture.” Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol a...

  1. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sharqi AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of self-harming behavior in patients with alcohol or drug abuse problems.Methods: This was a one-year study that recruited a convenience sample of 736 outpatients and inpatients identified with alcohol or drug abuse, and was conducted at Al-Amal mental health hospitals in three major cities. All consecutively selected patients were interviewed on five working days for data collection on a semistructured sociodemographic form using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Risk Assessment version.Results: In addition to the socioclinical profile revealed, 50.7% of respondents reported any suicidal ideation, while 6.9% reported self-injurious behavior without intent to die. Any suicidal and self-injurious behavior was reported by 13.1% of participants. A total of 71.3% of respondents reported any recent negative activating events. In addition to any treatment history, observed correlates were hopelessness (60.7%, perceived burden on family (29.5%, refusing a safety plan (26.1%, and sexual abuse (11%. Conversely, reasons for living (64.9%, fear of death or dying due to pain and suffering (64.3%, and spirituality (92% were largely endorsed as protective factors. There were multiple significant odds ratios (P ≤ 0.01 revealed when independent socioclinical variables were compared with dependent variables in terms of suspected risk and protective factors. In an adjusted logistic regression model

  2. Co-morbidities in patients with heart failure : an analysis of the European Heart Failure Pilot Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Vincent M.; Urso, Renato; Laroche, Cecile; Damman, Kevin; Dahlstrom, Ulf; Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    Aims Co-morbidities frequently accompany heart failure (HF), contributing to increased morbidity and mortality, and an impairment of quality of life. We assessed the prevalence, determinants, regional variation, and prognostic implications of co-morbidities in patients with chronic HF in Europe.

  3. Oxytocin receptor gene variation rs53576 and alcohol abuse in a longitudinal population representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaht, Mariliis; Kurrikoff, Triin; Laas, Kariina; Veidebaum, Toomas; Harro, Jaanus

    2016-12-01

    Oxytocin is an important regulator of social relationships and has been implicated in development of substance use and addiction. We examined the association of a variance in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576 polymorphism) with alcohol use in a population-representative sample, and potential moderation by social functioning. The analysis was carried out on the older birth cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (ECPBHS), a cohort of initially 15 years old children (original n=593) recalled at ages 18 and 25. In all data collection waves the participants reported the frequency of consuming alcoholic beverages. Psychiatric interview was carried out at age 25 to assess the lifetime prevalence of substance use disorders. Adverse social interactions with teachers, classmates and family members were self-reported at ages 15 and 18. The minor (A) allele frequency was 0.37. Males homozygous for the A allele (suggested to be associated with less efficient oxytocinergic functioning) were more frequent alcohol consumers at ages 15 and 18 and also more likely to have had alcohol abuse or addiction by age 25 compared to male G allele carriers. Alcohol use was not associated with the OXTR genotype in females. Both male and female AA homozygotes who had reported less favourable relations with their teachers at age 15 more likely had alcohol use disorder. OXTR rs53576 polymorphism is associated with alcohol use and prevalence of alcohol use disorders in males, and this may be moderated by inferior interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules and endotoxemia in patients with chronic alcohol abuse in different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Schütz, Tanja

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: No information is yet available about the influence of alcohol abuse on the translocation of larger molecules (Mr>1200) through the intestinal mucosa in man. The present study aimed to determine the intestinal permeability to macromolecules in patients with chronic alcohol abuse...... and mild to more advanced stages of liver disease, and to measure the concentration of endotoxins in the plasma, as these compounds derive from the intestinal flora and are suspected to contribute to the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: The permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400......, Mr 1500, Mr 4000, and Mr 10,000 and endotoxin plasma concentrations were measured in 54 patients with alcoholic liver disease, 19 of them with cirrhosis, and in 30 non-alcoholic healthy controls. RESULTS: Permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400 was found to be unchanged in patients with ALD...

  5. HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes among alcohol and drug abusers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, I I; Kotb, N K; Hemeda, S A; Zaki, F

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice towards HIV/AIDS among alcohol and drug abusers and the effect of health education (HE) on their knowledge and attitudes. Participants were 265 substance abusers, recruited from 8 addiction rehabilitation centers. A base line study preceding HE was done using a questionnaire composed of five sections. Three scores were developed to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge. The base line study indicates that addicts with good knowledge scores > or =75%) regarding modes of transmission were significantly higher among males than females. About 70% of the addicts had negative attitudes towards dealing with HIV/AIDS patients, while 55.5% felt sympathy for them. Eleven percent of the injection drug abusers were sharing needle with others, while 38% of the participating females were previously convicted of prostitution. Logistic analysis showed that high level of education was the best predictive variable for good knowledge scores (> or =75%). Evaluation of the health education program revealed a highly significant increase in the knowledge scores among both males and females compared to the pretest scores. An increase in the percentages of male and female addicts with improved attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients was also noted after HE. So, HE was found to be a successful tool in improving the knowledge and attitudes of substance abusers towards HIV/AIDS.

  6. The Role of Orexins/Hypocretins in Alcohol Use and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Leigh C; Lawrence, Andrew J

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and drug taking despite negative consequences. Alcohol abuse and addiction have major social and economic consequences and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available therapeutics are inadequate, outlining the need for alternative treatments. Detailed knowledge of the neurocircuitry and brain chemistry responsible for aberrant behavior patterns should enable the development of novel pharmacotherapies to treat addiction. Therefore it is important to expand our knowledge and understanding of the neural pathways and mechanisms involved in alcohol seeking and abuse. The orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptide system is an attractive target, given the recent FDA and PMDA approval of suvorexant for the treatment of insomnia. Orexin is synthesized exclusively in neurons located in the lateral (LH), perifornical (PEF), and dorsal medial (DMH) hypothalamus. These neurons project widely throughout the neuraxis with regulatory roles in a wide range of behavioral and physiological responses, including sleep-wake cycle neuroendocrine regulation, anxiety, feeding behavior, and reward seeking. Here we summarize the literature to date, which have evaluated the interplay between alcohol and the orexin system.

  7. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood: do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-12-01

    To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. We analyzed data from the first, third, and fourth wave of a population-based prospective cohort study of 2230 adolescents conducted between 2001 and 2010 (mean ages: 11.1, 16.3, and 19.1, respectively). Alcohol use and abuse were measured at T4 by self-report questionnaires and by the Composite International Diagnostics Interview (CIDI), respectively. Peer alcohol use, self-control, and parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends were measured at T3. We adjusted for gender, age, socioeconomic-status, parental alcohol use, and adolescent baseline alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence was related to young adults' alcohol use and abuse [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.31 (1.11-1.54) and 1.50 (1.20-1.87), respectively]. Neither parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends nor self-control modified this relationship. Alcohol abusers were more likely to have low self-control than alcohol users. No differences were found between alcohol users and abusers regarding their parents' perception of their friends and peer alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence affects young adults' alcohol use and abuse. We found that self-control was only related to alcohol abuse. Peer influence was not modified by parents' perception of peers or by self-control. Peer alcohol use and self-control should thus be separate targets in the prevention of alcohol use/abuse. © 2013.

  8. Obesity and co-morbid psychiatric disorders as contraindications for bariatric surgery?-A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhänsel, C; Wagner, B; Dietrich, A; Kersting, A

    2014-01-01

    Many patients undergoing bariatric surgery report current or past psychiatric disorders and controversy exists regarding their outcome after bariatric surgery. We present a case of an obese patient with a borderline personality disorder, a recurrent depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress symptoms and binge eating episodes who underwent bariatric surgery. Although the psychiatric disorders remained, the procedure contributed to an improvement of the health status and well-being of the patient. Adequate psychological care after the surgical procedure is necessary to enable a long-term stabilization of patients with mental co-morbidities. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidities should not be excluded from the procedure if adequate post-operative support is provided. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Antipsychotic efficacy in psychosis with co-morbid cannabis misuse: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin P; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of cannabis use in patients with psychotic mental illness is known to be high and is suspected to exacerbate symptoms and worsen prognosis. We aimed to evaluate evidence of antipsychotic efficacy in reducing the burden of psychotic symptoms and cannabis use in individuals with psychotic mental illness and co-morbid cannabis use. A systematic review was conducted of antipsychotic treatment in those with psychotic mental illness and co-morbid cannabis use. Quality of evidence for each study and outcomes were rated using the 'GRADE' approach. Twenty-two studies were identified: 13 experimental and 9 observational, including a total sample of 1543 patients, 761 of whom had a diagnosed cannabis use disorder. The most frequent antipsychotics compared were risperidone, olanzapine and clozapine with olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol. No clear differences between antipsychotics were demonstrated. Future studies are needed to confirm whether clozapine is superior to other antipsychotics in reducing cannabis use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Prognostic information in administrative co-morbidity data following coronary artery bypass grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Hvelplund, Anders; Rasmussen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic information obtainable from administrative data with respect to 30-day mortality following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and to compare it with the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) recorded...... in a clinical database. Methods: We used a co-morbidity index calculated from administrative data in the Danish National Patient Register by means of all admissions 1 year prior to CABG. In addition, each CABG was categorised as being isolated or not, and acute or not. The prognostic power of the co......-morbidity index was compared to that achieved using EuroSCORE from a clinical database comprising information on all patients treated with CABG in Denmark. The outcome was all-cause mortality within 30 days after CABG and the prognostic power was evaluated using logistic regression analyses. Results: We...

  11. Mortality in COPD patients discharged from hospital: the role of treatment and co-morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, G; Gislason, T; Lindberg, E

    2006-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: Mortality was high after COPD admission, with older age, decreased lung function, lower health status and diabetes the most important risk factors. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators may be associated with lower mortality in patients with COPD.......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse mortality and associated risk factors, with special emphasis on health status, medications and co-morbidity, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that had been hospitalized for acute exacerbation. METHODS: This prospective...... study included 416 patients from each of the five Nordic countries that were followed for 24 months. The St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was administered. Information on treatment and co-morbidity was obtained. RESULTS: During the follow-up 122 (29.3%) of the 416 patients died. Patients...

  12. Discriminability of Personality Profiles in Isolated and Co-Morbid Marijuana and Nicotine Users

    OpenAIRE

    Ketcherside, Ariel; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Baine, Jessica L.; Filbey, Francesca M

    2016-01-01

    Specific personality traits have been linked with substance use disorders (SUDs), genetic mechanisms, and brain systems. Thus, determining the specificity of personality traits to types of SUD can advance the field towards defining SUD endophenotypes as well as understanding the brain systems involved for the development of novel treatments. Disentangling these factors is particularly important in highly co-morbid SUDs, such as marijuana and nicotine use, so treatment can occur effectively fo...

  13. Vocal cord paralysis post patent ductus arteriosus ligation surgery: risks and co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukholm, Gavin; Farrokhyar, Forough; Reid, Diane

    2012-11-01

    1. To determine the prevalence of left vocal cord paralysis (LVCP) post patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation at a Tertiary Care Centre. 2. To identify risk factors associated with LVCP. 3. To identify co-morbidities associated with LVCP. 4. To determine the frequency of pre- and post-operative nasopharyngolaryngoscopic (NPL) examination in this patient population. Retrospective chart review of all infants who underwent PDA ligation surgery at a tertiary care academic hospital between July 2003 and July 2010. Data on patient age, gender, weight, method of PDA ligation, and results of NPL scoping were collected, as well as patient co-morbidities post PDA ligation. One hundred and fifteen patients underwent PDA ligation surgery. Four patients were excluded due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Of the remaining 111 patients, nineteen patients (17.1%) were found to have LVCP. Low birth weight was identified as a significant risk factor for LVCP (p=0.002). Gastroesophageal reflux was identified as a significant co-morbidity associated with LVCP post PDA ligation (p=0.002). Only 0.9% of patients were scoped pre-operatively, and 27.9% were scoped postoperatively. LVCP is associated with multiple morbidities. The authors strongly recommend routine post-operative scoping of all patients post PDA ligation surgery, and preoperative scoping when possible. A prospective study is warranted, in order to confirm the prevalence of LVCP as well as risk factors and associated co-morbidities. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The anxiety disorders and suicidal ideation: accounting for co-morbidity via underlying personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragon-Gainey, K; Watson, D

    2011-07-01

    The anxiety disorders are robust correlates/predictors of suicidal ideation, but it is unclear whether (a) the anxiety disorders are specifically associated with suicidal ideation or (b) the association is due to co-morbidity with depression and other disorders. One means of modeling co-morbidity is through the personality traits neuroticism/negative emotionality (N/NE) and extraversion/positive emotionality (E/PE), which account for substantial shared variance among the internalizing disorders. The current study examines the association between the internalizing disorders and suicidal ideation, after controlling for co-morbidity via N/NE and E/PE. The sample consisted of 327 psychiatric out-patients. Multiple self-report and interview measures were collected for internalizing disorders [depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety, panic and specific phobia] and suicidal ideation, as well as self-report measures for N/NE and E/PE. A model was hypothesized in which each disorder and suicidal ideation was regressed on N/NE, and depression and social anxiety were regressed on E/PE. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the unique association of suicidality with each disorder, beyond shared variance with N/NE and E/PE. The hypothesized model was an acceptable fit to the data. Although zero-order analyses indicated that suicidal ideation was moderately to strongly correlated with all of the disorders, only depression and PTSD remained significantly associated with suicidal ideation in the SEM analyses. In a latent variable model that accounts for measurement error and a broad source of co-morbidity, only depression and PTSD were uniquely associated with suicidal ideation; panic, GAD, social anxiety and specific phobia were not.

  15. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S.; Requi?o, Marinalva G.; Marasaldi, Renata F.; Filomensky, Tatiana Z.; Hodgins, David C.; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the ...

  16. Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children: Clinical Profile and Co-morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, C.; Ravikumar, T.; Andal, A.; Virudhagirinathan, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical profile and co-morbidity in Indian children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and Methods: A prospective analytical study of 2 years duration at the Child Guidance Clinic of a pediatric tertiary care hospital in a south Indian city using Diagnostic and statistical manual of Mental Disorders-1V based questionnaires. Results: Of the 251 referrals, 51 (20.3%) children met the inclusion criteria for the diagnosis of ADHD. M:F ratio w...

  17. Pharmacological management of co-morbid conditions at the end of life: is less more?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLean, S

    2013-03-01

    Co-morbid conditions (CMCs) are present in over half of patients with cancer over 50 years of age. As life-limiting illnesses progress, the benefits and burdens of treatments for CMCs become unclear. Relevant issues include physiological changes in advanced illness, time-to-benefit of medications, burden of medications, and psychological impact of discontinuing medications. Optimal prescribing is unclear due to lack of evidence.

  18. A retrospective analysis of risk factors for meniscal co-morbidities in anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korula Mani Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The single factor that significantly affects incidence of meniscal co-morbidity in ACL injury is the delay in presentation (i.e. the time to surgery. The incidence of lateral meniscal tears as well as medial meniscal tears increased with delay in surgery. This should guide us toward recommending all patients irrespective of age, gender, or mode of injury to undergo early reconstruction, thereby reducing the likelihood of developing meniscal pathology.

  19. Effects of drug and alcohol abuse upon pituitary-testicular function in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, F; Ringenberg, L; MacDonald, D; Barnes, J; Hu, C S; Duckett, G; Sweetland, M; Root, A

    1986-01-01

    To assess the effects of drug and alcohol abuse (DAA) on the physical changes and hormones of puberty in adolescents, 26 males (13 5/12-22 years) enrolled in a drug rehabilitation program were examined. In 22 subjects four timed blood samples were obtained sequentially at 15 minute intervals for measurement of serum concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHAS). The mean duration of DAA was 3.7 years, with marijuana and alcohol being the most frequently abused substances. The study subjects were compared to a matched control group of non-substance-abusing teenagers. All heights and weights of the DAA subjects fell within two standard deviations of the mean on the Tanner Growth Charts and no statically significant differences in the Tanner stages of sexual maturation were found between the DAA and control groups. The mean (+/- SD) testosterone level of the DAA group (221 +/- 109 ng/dl) was less than half that of the control group (477 +/- 193 ng/dl, p less than 0.001). Mean LH concentration in the DAA group (3.9 +/- 3.0 mIU/ml) was significantly less than that of the control group (10 +/- 4.9 mIU/ml, p less than 0.01). In both the DAA and control populations there was a significant (p less than 0.01) correlation between serum concentrations of LH and testosterone. The mean FSH level of the DAA group (3.3 +/- 1.1 mIU/ml) was significantly less (p less than 0.02) than that of the control group (4.7 +/- 1.9 mIU/ml). To assess the effects of treatment, six boys underwent repeat blood sampling 7-12 months after drug and alcohol withdrawal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Problem gambling subtypes based on psychological distress, alcohol abuse and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Aino; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C

    2014-12-01

    The notion of comorbidities within problem gambling populations has important clinical implications, particularly for appropriate treatment matching. The comorbidities most commonly cited in problem gambling literature include depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse and impulsivity. Previous research shows evidence of patterns in multiple co-occurring comorbidities and that there may be different subtypes of gamblers based on these patterns. To further the current understanding of gambling subtypes, the aim of our study was to identify subtypes of gamblers currently in treatment. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis yielded four mutually exclusive groups of 202 gamblers: (1) gamblers with comorbid psychological problems (35%); (2) 'pure' gamblers without other comorbidities (27%); (3) gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse (25%); and (4) 'multimorbid' gamblers (13%). The four groups differed on demographic information, drug use and gambling behaviours including gambling activity and problem gambling severity. Gamblers with comorbid psychological problems were more likely to be older women on low income, more likely to report a family history of psychological problems and were more often electronic gaming machine players. As expected, 'pure' gamblers had lower problem gambling severity and were more likely to report current abstinence. Gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse were more likely to be young men who used stimulant drugs, endorsed a higher quality of life and worked full-time. 'Multimorbid' gamblers were elevated on all comorbidities, had general problems related to their health and wellbeing and reported high rates of hostility and aggression. These groups combine elements of existing conceptual models of gambling subtypes and may require different treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol abuse among university students from eastern Croatia: questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskulin, Maja; Petrović, Goranka; Miskulin, Ivan; Puntarić, Dinko; Milas, Josip; Dahl, Danielle; Rudan, Stjepan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of alcohol abuse among university students in Osijek, Croatia and its possible interconnections with gender, year of study, repetition of year of study, faculty subject area, sources of financing and type of residence during study. A validated questionnaire was self-administered to cross-faculty representative student sample of "J. J. Strossmayer" University of Osiek in June 2006. General demographic data, as well as data on academic features and student socio-economical status were obtained. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used for assessing the extent of alcohol consumption, with cut off value of 8 indicating possible alcohol problems. The majority of study participants 90.9% (755/831) had tried alcohol at least once in their life. Among this group, 43.8% (331/755) had an AUDIT total score of 8 or more: 69.2% (229/331) were males and 30.8% (102/331) were females. Among the study participants who screened positive, 70.4% (233/331) responded positively to simple advice focused on the reduction of hazardous drinking (AUDIT 8-15), 14.5% (48/331) needed brief counseling and continued monitoring (AUDIT 16-19), and 15.1% (50/331) clearly warranted further diagnostic evaluation for alcohol dependence (AUDIT 20 and above). Significantly different statistical data was found within the following factors: gender, repetition of year of study, faculty subject area and type of residence (chi2 = 76.232, p = 0.0000; Fisher exact test = 31.828, p = 0.0000; chi2 = 11.667, p = 0.0086 and chi2 = 6.639, p = 0.0362 respectively). Alcohol consumption resulting in risk behaviors is common among university students from eastern Croatia. These findings emphasize the need for comprehensive and effective preventative strategies directed towards student population.

  2. Treatment outcome of schizophrenia co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.S.; Arshad, N.; Naeem Ullah

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological treatment outcome of schizophrenia, co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder by comparing the effects of typical neuroleptic, atypical neuroleptic and a combination of typical with anti-obsessional drugs on positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and obsessional symptoms. Subjects and Methods: The sample consisted of 39 patients suffering from schizophrenia co-morbid with obsessive- compulsive disorder. They were divided in three groups according to the pharmacological treatment given by the treating psychiatrists. Sample was assessed at the start of treatment and twelve weeks later. Results: Patients receiving typical neuroleptics and anti-obsessional drugs showed better outcome (p < .05) both in psychotic (pre-intervention mean scores of positive scale of PANSS 26.90 as compared to postinterventional mean scores 19.00) and obsessional symptoms (pre-intervention mean scores on Padua Inventory 165.00 compared to 84.00 postinterventional mean scores) than those receiving typical and atypical neuroleptics alone. Conclusion: Treatment outcome of schizophrenia co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder shows better results if anti-obsessional drugs are added to the neuroleptics. (author)

  3. Epilepsy and quality of life: socio-demographic and clinical aspects, and psychiatric co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Maria de Almeida Souza Tedrus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study socio-demographic and clinical aspects, as well as psychiatric co-morbidity that influence the quality of life of adult epileptic patients. Methods One hundred and thirty-two individuals diagnosed with epilepsy were evaluated from neurological/clinical and psychiatric points of view and by the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31. Predictive factors for the QOLIE-31 scores were studied. Results The regression analyses indicated the existence of psychiatric co-morbidity (total score, seizure worry, emotional well-being, energy/fatigue, social function and cognitive function and a greater seizure frequency (total score, cognitive function and energy/fatigue as predictive factors for lower scores in the total QOLIE-31 score and in various dimensions. Abnormalities in the neurological exam and poly-therapy with anti-epileptic drugs were negative factors limited to one of the dimensions cognitive function and social function, respectively. Conclusion The presence of psychiatric co-morbidity and a greater seizure frequency were the main factors influencing the quality of life in epileptic patients as evaluated by QOLIE-31.

  4. Cognitive control functions in unipolar major depression (MDD with and without co-morbid anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Lyche

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired cognitive control functions have been demonstrated in both majordepression (MDD and anxiety disorder (A, but few studies have systematically examined theimpact of MDD with co-morbid A (MDDA, which is the main aim of this study. Method: Wecompared patients with MDD with (MDDA; n = 24 and without co-morbid A (n = 37 to a groupof healthy controls (HC; n = 92 on three subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological TestAutomated Battery; intra–extra dimensional, stop signal task, and spatial working memory. Thesetasks correspond to a theoretical model consisting of three separable but interrelated executivecontrol functions: Shifting, Inhibition, and Updating. A simple psychomotor speed measure wasalso included. Results: After controlling for age, gender, and education level, the results showed that the MDDA group displayed significantly impaired performance on the functions Shifting and Updating compared to HC. There emerged no significant differences between any of the patientgroups and HC regarding Inhibition. The pure MDD group did not display dysfunctions relative to the HC group on the main executive control variables, but displayed slowed psychomotor speed. Contrary to expectation there were no significant differences between the MDDA and the MDD groups. Conclusion: Co-morbid anxiety should be taken into account when studying cognitive control functions in major depression.

  5. Lights! Camera! Action Projects! Engaging Psychopharmacology Students in Service-based Action Projects Focusing on Student Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus "alcohol culture." Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one's community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course.

  6. [Diagnostics and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome patients with an alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria; Sonne, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition with high morbidity and mortality and occurs as a consequence of thiamine deficiency. Clinical symptoms are often ambiguous and post-mortem examinations show that the syndrome is underdiagnosed and probably undertreated. There is sparse clinical evidence concerning optimal dosage and duration of treatment. This article reviews the current literature and concludes that all patients with a history of alcohol abuse should be treated with high dosage IV thiamine for an extended period of time, albeit further research is needed.

  7. The association of perioperative dexamethasone, smoking and alcohol abuse with wound complications after laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Rikke M; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of perioperative risk factors may suppress the immune system and contribute to the development of post-operative complications. The association between surgical site infection (SSI) and other wound-related complications resulting from immunosuppression through either...... perioperative administration of dexamethasone, pre-operative smoking or alcohol abuse is, however, uncertain. METHODS: This study was a post hoc analysis of data from the PROXI randomized trial in 1386 patients who underwent emergency or elective laparotomy. We assessed the associations of use of dexamethasone...

  8. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or any sexual activity when the person is unable to understand, unwilling to consent, threatened or physically forced Willful deprivation: willfully denying ...

  9. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  10. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2011-10-01

    This is a prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the HIV Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19-0.67), as did identifying sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46, CI = 0.29-0.72) and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62, CI = 0.45-0.83). Positive associations with SAT include presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37, CI = 2.24-5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12, CI = 1.22-3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92, CI = 1.28-2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40, CI = 1.60-3.62), drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.88-3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08-2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g., drug dependence) are associated with receipt, nonneed factors (e.g., sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Dentato, Michael P.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    A prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol (HIV-LIVE) study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19, 0.67), as did identifying as a sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46; CI = 0.29, 0.72), and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62; CI = 0.45, 0.83). Positive associations with SAT include: presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37; CI = 2.24, 5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12; CI = 1.22, 3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92; CI = 1.28, 2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40; CI = 1.60, 3.62) drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64; CI = 1.88, 3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08, 2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g. drug dependence) are associated with receipt, non-need factors (e.g. sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified. PMID:21700412

  12. Lifestyle, health characteristics and alcohol abuse in young adults who are non-daily smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques da Rocha

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the decline in the prevalence of tobacco use in many countries, including Brazil, there are growing numbers of smokers who continue to smoke at a low daily rate, or less frequently (non-daily smokers. This group needs to be better characterized in order to direct preventive actions and public health policies. The aim here was to compare lifestyle, health characteristics and alcoholism problems among young adult smokers, non-daily smokers and non-smokers. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study in which volunteers from the university community and its surrounds in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were included between October 2007 and January 2008. METHODS: Out of 1240 volunteers initially contacted in a university cafeteria, a total of 728 participants of mean age 22.45 ± 3.32 years were selected for final analysis. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. RESULTS: In general, it was observed that the non-daily smokers showed intermediate characteristics in relation to the smokers and non-smokers. However, there was a significant association between non-daily smoking and alcohol abuse. The non-daily smokers presented an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-5.48 in relation to the daily smokers and an odds ratio of 3.3 (confidence interval: 1.7-6.5 in relation to the non-smokers, with regard to presenting a positive CAGE test, thereby indicating alcohol abuse or dependence. CONCLUSION: The study suggested that non-daily smoking and alcohol consumption were concomitant behaviors.

  13. Lifestyle, health characteristics and alcohol abuse in young adults who are non-daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques da; Barrio-Lera, Juan Pablo; Jardim, Gabriel Behr Gomes; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Cirolini, Luiza; Jung, Ivo Emilio da Cruz; Mânica-Cattani, Maria Fernanda; Silveira, Aron Ferreira da; Souza Filho, Olmiro Cezimbra de; Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da

    2010-12-01

    Despite the decline in the prevalence of tobacco use in many countries, including Brazil, there are growing numbers of smokers who continue to smoke at a low daily rate, or less frequently (non-daily smokers). This group needs to be better characterized in order to direct preventive actions and public health policies. The aim here was to compare lifestyle, health characteristics and alcoholism problems among young adult smokers, non-daily smokers and non-smokers. This was a cross-sectional study in which volunteers from the university community and its surrounds in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were included between October 2007 and January 2008. Out of 1240 volunteers initially contacted in a university cafeteria, a total of 728 participants of mean age 22.45 ± 3.32 years were selected for final analysis. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. In general, it was observed that the non-daily smokers showed intermediate characteristics in relation to the smokers and non-smokers. However, there was a significant association between non-daily smoking and alcohol abuse. The non-daily smokers presented an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-5.48) in relation to the daily smokers and an odds ratio of 3.3 (confidence interval: 1.7-6.5) in relation to the non-smokers, with regard to presenting a positive CAGE test, thereby indicating alcohol abuse or dependence. The study suggested that non-daily smoking and alcohol consumption were concomitant behaviors.

  14. Longitudinal assessment of the effects of drug and alcohol abuse on HIV-1 treatment outcomes in an urban clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Gregory M; Gebo, Kelly A; Chaisson, Richard E; Moore, Richard D

    2002-03-29

    To assess the temporal association of changes in substance abuse with antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, HIV-1 RNA suppression, and CD4 cell count changes in patients attending an urban clinic. Prospective cohort study. Six-hundred and ninety-five HIV-1-infected individuals, who completed two or more semi-annual standardized surveys and in whom antiretroviral therapy was indicated, were included in the analysis. Surveys addressed antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, and use of illicit drugs and alcohol. Substance abuse was defined as active heroin, cocaine, or heavy alcohol use in the 6 months preceding survey. The units of analysis were consecutive pairs of surveys (couplets) in individual participants. Couplets in which participants denied substance abuse in both surveys were compared to couplets in which participants switched from non-use to substance abuse, and couplets in which participants reported substance abuse in both surveys were compared to couplets where participants switched from substance abuse to non-use. Switching from non-use to substance abuse was strongly associated with worsening antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, less frequent HIV-1 RNA suppression, and blunted CD4 cell increases, compared to remaining free of substance abuse. Alternatively, switching from substance abuse to non-use was strongly associated with improvements in antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, and HIV-1 treatment outcomes, compared to persisting with substance abuse. This longitudinal study highlights the dynamic nature of substance abuse and its temporal association with the effectiveness of HIV-1 treatment in patients attending an inner-city clinic.

  15. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben; Odgaard, Anders; Vesterby, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone strength. It is questionable whether this per se increases fracture risk. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Quality of diabetes care in Dutch care groups: no differences between diabetes patients with and without co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R de Bruin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between presence and nature of co-morbidity and quality of care for diabetes patients enrolled in diabetes disease management programmes provided by care groups. Methods: We performed an observational study within eight Dutch diabetes care groups. Data from patient record systems of care groups and patient questionnaires were used to determine quality of care. Quality of care was measured as provision of the recommended diabetes care, patients’ achievement of recommended clinical outcomes and patients’ perception of coordination and integration of care. Results: 527 diabetes patients without and 1187 diabetes patients with co-morbidity were included. Of the co-morbid patients, 7.8% had concordant co-morbid conditions only, 63.8% had discordant co-morbid diseases only and 28.4% had both types of conditions. Hardly any differences were observed between patients with and without co-morbidity in terms of provided care, achievement of clinical outcomes and perceived coordination and integration of care. Conclusions: Our study implies that care groups are able to provide similar quality of diabetes care for diabetes patients with and without co-morbidity. Considering the expected developments regarding additional disease management programmes in care groups, it is of importance to monitor quality of care, including patient experiences, for all chronic diseases. It will then become clear whether accountable provider-led organisations such as care groups are able to ensure quality of care for the increasing number of patients with multiple chronic conditions.

  17. ALCOHOL ABUSE PROBLEMS AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING IN PERM REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petukhov Konstantin Alekseevich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify ways to reduce the impact of risk factors of national modernization associated with alcohol consumption. In study it is used a method of formalize poll of adult residents of Perm region based on a multi-stage sample reflecting the population distribution by territory, sex, age and education. The timing of the survey - June 2012. Sample size was 1000 respondents. As a result, it was detected the number of relationships between social well-being of the respondents, their attitude to their own health and socio-demographic characteristics, on the one hand, and the attitude to the problem of alcohol abuse, anti-alcoholic legislative initiatives on the other. The obtained results may contribute to the expansion of the methodological and theoretical framework of the concept of "risk society", the enrichment of prognostic tools used to assess risk factors for regional socio-cultural development. Practical results includes the recommendations for improving the regulation of consumption of alcohol and prevention programs risk behavior.

  18. ALCOHOL ABUSE PROBLEMS AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING IN PERM REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Константин Алексеевич Петухов

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify ways to reduce the impact of risk factors of national modernization associated with alcohol consumption. In study it is used a method of formalize poll of adult residents of Perm region based on a multi-stage sample reflecting the population distribution by territory, sex, age and education. The timing of the survey - June 2012. Sample size was 1000 respondents. As a result, it was detected the number of relationships between social well-being of the respondents, their attitude to their own health and socio-demographic characteristics, on the one hand, and the attitude to the problem of alcohol abuse, anti-alcoholic legislative initiatives on the other. The obtained results may contribute to the expansion of the methodological and theoretical framework of the concept of "risk society", the enrichment of prognostic tools used to assess risk factors for regional socio-cultural development. Practical results includes the recommendations for improving the regulation of consumption of alcohol and prevention programs risk behavior.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-5-33

  19. The 5-HT-7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheketha R. Hauser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed – including the mesocorticolimbic (MCL dopamine system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT-7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT-7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT-7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction.

  20. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Hedlund, Peter B; Roberts, Amanda J; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed-including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction.