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Sample records for co-morbid alcohol abuse

  1. Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder co-morbidity in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneier, F R; Foose, T E; Hasin, D S; Heimberg, R G; Liu, S-M; Grant, B F; Blanco, C

    2010-06-01

    To assess the prevalence and clinical impact of co-morbid social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD, i.e. alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Data came from a large representative sample of the US population. Face-to-face interviews of 43093 adults residing in households were conducted during 2001-2002. Diagnoses of mood, anxiety, alcohol and drug use disorders and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV version. Lifetime prevalence of co-morbid AUD and SAD in the general population was 2.4%. SAD was associated with significantly increased rates of alcohol dependence [odds ratio (OR) 2.8] and alcohol abuse (OR 1.2). Among respondents with alcohol dependence, SAD was associated with significantly more mood, anxiety, psychotic and personality disorders. Among respondents with SAD, alcohol dependence and abuse were most strongly associated with more substance use disorders, pathological gambling and antisocial personality disorders. SAD occurred before alcohol dependence in 79.7% of co-morbid cases, but co-morbidity status did not influence age of onset for either disorder. Co-morbid SAD was associated with increased severity of alcohol dependence and abuse. Respondents with co-morbid SAD and alcohol dependence or abuse reported low rates of treatment-seeking. Co-morbid lifetime AUD and SAD is a prevalent dual diagnosis, associated with substantial rates of additional co-morbidity, but remaining largely untreated. Future research should clarify the etiology of this co-morbid presentation to better identify effective means of intervention.

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  3. Aggression in war veterans suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder with co-morbid alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Dragan; Martinac, Marko; Bjelanović, Vedran; Babić, Romana; Sutović, Alija; Sinanović, Osman

    2010-03-01

    For thousands of years it has been known that aggression as a symptom appears in numerous psychiatric disorders and diseases. During the last decade the appearance of the aggressive behavior related to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been frequently investigated, often associated with war trauma. The goal of this study is to analyze the impact of alcoholism on a way war veterans suffering from chronic PTSD express and control aggression. The sample included 240 war veterans with chronic PTSD. The subjects were divided in two groups. PTSD group (n=147) and controlled group composed of those suffering from alcoholism in addition to PTSD (n=93). In this study, the following psychological instruments were used: The Harvard trauma questionnaire for PTSD diagnosis (HTQ); the questionnaire for self-evaluation of aggression (STAXI); The Profile Index Emotion (PIE); questionnaire for auto-diagnosis of alcoholism (CAGE). The obtained results indicate that subjects who have PTSD with co-morbid alcoholism are more deprived, aggressive (p alcoholism (PIE). The aggression is statistically more expressed in subjects with PTSD who have also been diagnosed with alcoholism on all subscales in comparison to subjects with PTDS who have not been diagnosed with alcoholism: the current state of aggression, the general state of aggression, aggression towards an unfair treatment, aggression directed inwards and outwards (p alcoholism show a higher degree of aggression in comparison to subjects with PTDS who are not diagnosed with alcoholism.

  4. The effect of co-morbid depression and anxiety on the course and outcome of alcohol outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Nielsen, Bent; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies examining the effect of alcohol treatment among patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and co-morbid depression and/or anxiety are few and show inconsistent, but mainly negative drinking outcomes. Aims: To describe the prevalence of anxiety and depression among Danish....... No difference was found between patients with and without co-morbidity. Conclusion: In contrast to the majority of prior studies, this study provides evidence that depression and anxiety do not have an effect on alcohol treatment. However, because of the naturalistic setting, a number of limitations should...

  5. Substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidities: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Child Abuse and Psychiatric Co-morbidity Among Chinese Adolescents: Emotional Processing as Mediator and PTSD from Past Trauma as Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Chen, Zhuo Sheng

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity in a group of Chinese adolescents, and whether this association would be mediated by emotional processing difficulties and moderated by the severity of PTSD from other traumas in the past. Four hundred seventy-four adolescents participated in the study. They completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, General Health Questionnaire-28, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Emotional processing scale-25. The results showed that after adjusting for the total number of traumatic events and how long ago the most traumatic event occurred, child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. This association was not moderated by the severity of PTSD from past traumas but mediated by emotion processing difficulties. To conclude, adolescents who experience child abuse can develop emotional processing difficulties which in turn impact on psychiatric symptoms. Experience of past trauma does not influence these psychological processes.

  7. Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Co-morbidity as Predictors of Premature Mortality in Swedish Drug Abusers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study 1970-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyhlén, Anna; Fridell, Mats; Bäckström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates...... with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had...... and barbiturate abusers over the observed period of 37 years, while stimulant abuse did not have any impact. Alcohol contributed to non drug related death. Keywords: drug related death; risk factor; gender; competing risks Cox regression; cohort study; Predictors...

  8. Conscious knowledge influences decision-making differently in substance abusers with and without co-morbid antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellentin, Angelina I; Skøt, Lotte; Teasdale, Thomas W; Habekost, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Decision-making impairment, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), is a consistent finding among individuals with substance use disorder (SUD). We studied how this impairment is influenced by co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and conscious knowledge of the task. Three groups were investigated: SUD individuals without co-morbid ASPD (n = 30), SUD individuals with co-morbid ASPD (n = 16), and healthy controls (n = 17). Both SUD and SUD+ASPD participants had poor overall IGT performance. A block-by-block analysis revealed that SUD participants exhibited slow but steady improvement across the IGT, whereas SUD+ASPD participants exhibited initial normal improvement, but dropped off during the last 40 trials. Conscious knowledge of the task was significantly correlated to performance for controls and SUD participants, but not for SUD+ASPD participants. Our findings suggest that decision-making proceeds differently in SUD and SUD+ASPD individuals due to differences in acquisition and application of conscious knowledge. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  9. HTR3B is associated with alcoholism with antisocial behavior and alpha EEG power--an intermediate phenotype for alcoholism and co-morbid behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; White, Kenneth V; Hodgkinson, Colin; Albaugh, Bernard; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) with co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been associated with serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction. 5-HT3 receptors are potentiated by ethanol and appear to modulate reward. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of early-onset alcoholics with co-morbid ASPD. Low-voltage alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) power, a highly heritable trait, has been associated with both AUD and ASPD. A recent whole genome linkage scan in one of our samples, Plains American Indians (PI), has shown a suggestive linkage peak for alpha power at the 5-HT3R locus. We tested whether genetic variation within the HTR3A and HTR3B genes influences vulnerability to AUD with comorbid ASPD (AUD+ASPD) and moderates alpha power. Our study included three samples: 284 criminal alcoholic Finnish Caucasians and 234 controls; two independent community-ascertained samples with resting EEG recordings: a predominantly Caucasian sample of 191 individuals (Bethesda) and 306 PI. In the Finns, an intronic HTR3B SNP rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD (P=.004). In the Bethesda sample, the same allele predicted lower alpha power (P=7.37e(-5)). Associations between alpha power and two other HTR3B SNPs were also observed among PI (P=.03). One haplotype in the haplotype block at the 3' region of the gene that included rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD in the Finns (P=.02) and with reduced alpha power in the Bethesda population (P=.00009). Another haplotype in this block was associated with alpha power among PI (P=.03). No associations were found for HTR3A. Genetic variation within HTR3B may influence vulnerability to develop AUD with comorbid ASPD. 5-HT3R might contribute to the imbalance between excitation and inhibition that characterize the brain of alcoholics.

  10. Treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder – predictors for the outcomes with memantine and escitalopram medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol dependence comorbid with major depressive disorder poses a major challenge in the clinical setting. The results in the treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have been conflicting. Thus, we compared in alcohol-dependent patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor escitalopram to a compound that acts on different transporter system and may reduce craving, the glutamate receptor antagonist memantine. Methods Eighty alcohol-dependent patients comorbid with major depressive disorder in municipal alcohol clinics were randomized 1:1 to receive memantine 20 mg or escitalopram 20 mg in a double-blind manner. During the 26-week study period patients continued their routine treatment at the clinics. Abstinence was not required but encouraged. The patients attended visits weekly during the first month, and then at 3 and at 6 months. Outcome measures were Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS and Drinking Diary. Results The completion rate was high in both groups, especially among the patients who had been abstinent at the beginning of the study. However, among those patients who were not abstinent at baseline, 47% in both groups discontinued the study. Numbers of abstinent days were high in both groups throughout the study. Alcohol consumption measured by the AUDIT QF (quantity-frequency score was significantly reduced in both groups, as was the craving for alcohol measured by the OCDS. Early age at first alcohol intoxication predicted poor treatment outcomes in patients treated with escitalopram, and the same was seen with the early onset of the first depressive episode. The same predictive effects were not found in patients treated with memantine. Conclusion Our results indicate that both memantine and escitalopram are useful adjunct medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence co-morbid with major

  11. DoD Alcohol and Substance Abuse Consortium Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    formerly ORG 34517) in Veterans with Co-morbid PTSD/AUD” (Principal Investigator: Dewleen G. Baker, MD) The primary objective of this study is to...test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a novel GR antagonist PT150 (formerly ORG 34517) for AUD/PTSD dual diagnosis treatment in veterans. The...Pharmacotherapies for Alcohol and Substance Abuse (PASA) Consortium PI: Rick Williams, PhD & Thomas Kosten, MD Org : RTI International Study Research Planning

  12. Integrated psychological therapy for people with bipolar disorder and co-morbid alcohol use: A feasibility and acceptability randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jones

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Co-morbid substance misuse, particularly alcohol, is common in bipolar disorder (BD and associated with worse treatment outcomes. Research into psychological interventions for substance misuse in BD is at an early stage and no studies have specifically targeted problematic alcohol use. This paper describes the context and protocol for a feasibility and acceptability randomised controlled trial (RCT evaluating a novel intervention combining motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy (MI-CBT for participants with BD and problematic alcohol use, developed in collaboration with people with lived experience of both issues. Methods and design: An RCT will assess the feasibility and acceptability of MI-CBT in addition to treatment as usual (TAU compared with TAU alone. Participants will be recruited from across the North West of England through NHS services and self-referral. The primary outcomes will be the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention assessed by recruitment to target, adherence to intervention, retention rate at follow-up, absence of adverse events and qualitative analysis of participants' reported experiences of intervention. The effect size of the impact of the intervention on alcohol use and mood outcomes will also be estimated. In addition, we will explore a number of potential process variables in therapy. Discussion: This is the first RCT evaluating MI-CBT for BD and problematic alcohol use. Given the prevalence and impact of alcohol problems in BD this novel integrated intervention may have potential to offer important improvements in clinical and functional outcomes. Keywords: Bipolar, Alcohol, Substance, Motivational interviewing, Trial registration number: ISRCTN14774583

  13. Interaction between ALDH2*1*1 and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A1A1 genes may be associated with antisocial personality disorder not co-morbid with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ru-Band; Lee, Jia-Fu; Huang, San-Yuan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Wei-Wen; Wu, Pei-Lin; Ko, Huei-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies on acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) focused on drinking behavior or alcoholism because the ALDH2*2 allele protects against the risk of developing alcoholism. The mechanism provides that the ALDH2 gene's protective effect is also involved in dopamine metabolism. The interaction of the ALDH2 gene with neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, is suggested to be related to alcoholism. Because alcoholism is often co-morbid with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), previous association studies on antisocial alcoholism cannot differentiate whether those genes relate to ASPD with alcoholism or ASPD only. This study examined the influence of the interaction effect of the ALDH2*1*1, *1*2 or *2*2 polymorphisms with the dopamine 2 receptor (DRD2) Taq I polymorphism on ASPD. Our 541 Han Chinese male participants were classified into three groups: antisocial alcoholism (ASPD co-morbid with alcohol dependence, antisocial ALC; n = 133), ASPD without alcoholism (ASPD not co-morbid with alcohol dependence, antisocial non-ALC; n = 164) and community controls (healthy volunteers from the community; n = 244). Compared with healthy controls, individuals with the DRD2 A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1/*1 genotypes were at a 5.39 times greater risk for antisocial non-ALC than were those with other genotypes. Our results suggest that the DRD2/ANKK1 and ALDH2 genes interacted in the antisocial non-ALC group; a connection neglected in previous studies caused by not separating antisocial ALC from ASPD. Our study made this distinction and showed that these two genes may be associated ASPD without co-morbid alcoholism. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd and co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeta Ličanin

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD very often occurs accompanied with other psychiatric disorders such as: Alcohol and Drug abuse, Personality Disorder, General Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Schizophrenia etc. Sometimes it might be a problem for clinicians to differ PTSD symptoms from symptoms of coexisting psychic disorders. The aim of this study was to present the most common PTSD coexisting psycho-disorders. This research was conducted during the period from April 1998 to October 1999. Participants were divided in two groups each containing 30 examinees. The first group consisted of 30 participants with symptoms of PTSD only while the second group included participants who suffered from both PTSD and other psychic disorders (co-morbidity. Both groups were quite similar regarding participants gender and age. The scientific tools used in the research were: Standard Psychiatric Interview, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Drug and Alcohol Abuse Checklist. Our research results are indicating that PTSDsymptoms are most common in middle-aged persons, regardless of their gender and age. We have found following coexisting psychic disorders: personality disorder 46.6% (from which 13.3% is permanent personality disorder after the traumatic experience; depression 29.9% (depression without psychotic symptoms 23.3% and depression with coexisting psychotic symptoms 6.6%; drug abuse 13.3; alcohol abuse 6.7% and dissociative (conversion disorder 3.3%. The results of our work are suggesting that co-morbid psychic symptoms have significant regressive influence on PTSD course and prognosis.

  15. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  16. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....

  17. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared with th...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...

  18. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  19. Co-morbidity in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    for the clinic to be able to recognize such co-morbidities. Areas covered: This is a review of studies investigating and discussing co-morbidities of psoriasis and screening. Literature was retrieved by searching on the PubMed database using individual and combined search terms related to relevant co...

  20. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ..., HHS). (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  1. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Alcohol Facts » Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock. ...

  2. Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and ; Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Page Content Alison Kulas Executive Director If you, a family Kulas Begins Tenure as Executive Director The Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, The Alaska

  3. 77 FR 69869 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board... Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and...

  4. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ... and other substance use disorders are defined as psychiatric disorders. Many individuals who misuse alcohol also abuse ...

  5. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... to curb college alcohol abuse. NIAAA Tools You Can Use The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and ...

  6. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  7. Co-morbid disorders in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette Marinette Monique

    2013-01-01

    in persons with TS. Both in clinical cohorts and in population-based cohorts the prevalence of co-morbidities is high. The presence of co-morbid ADHD and/or OCD has an impact on psychosocial, educational, and neuropsychological consequences of TS and it is associated with higher rates of other co......-morbid disorders, like rage, anxiety, and conduct disorders. The symptoms of a co-morbid disorder might appear prior to the time that tics reach clinical attention. The TS phenotype probably changes during the course of the disease. The exact aetiology of the co-occurrence of co-morbid disorders and TS...

  8. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance limited to space available...

  9. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA-AA-11-02 Alcohol Induced Metabolic and Hepatic...: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  10. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Warninghoff, Jan C; Bayer, Otmar; Ferrari, Uta; Straube, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease (MD), vestibular migraine and phobic vertigo (PPV)) have also different spectrums of co-morbidities. Methods All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co-morbidities hypertension, diabetes ...

  11. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  12. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods: We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result: The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion: The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries. PMID:21731272

  13. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; AA-2 Deferred Grant Application Review. Date...: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852...

  14. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Branch, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  15. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Strong Family Relationships Can Prevent Alcohol and Drug Use Among Teens - دری (Dari) MP3 Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota What Is Addiction? - English PDF What Is Addiction? - دری (Dari) PDF ...

  16. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the... Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD...

  17. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the... evaluate Laboratory of Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  18. Gene-environment interplay in alcoholism and other substance abuse disorders: expressions of heritability and factors influencing vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Tomas; Kostrzewa, R M; Beninger, R J; Archer, T

    2004-01-01

    Factors that confer predisposition and vulnerability for alcoholism and other substance abuse disorders may be described usefully within the gene-environment interplay framework. Thus, it is postulated that heritability provides a major contribution not only to alcohol but also to other substances of abuse. Studies of evoked potential amplitude reduction have provided a highly suitable and testable method for the assessment of both environmentally-determined and heritable characteristics pertaining to substance use and dependence. The different personal attributes that may co-exist with parental influence or exist in a shared, monozygotic relationship contribute to the final expression of addiction. In this connection, it appears that personality disorders are highly prevalent co-morbid conditions among addicted individuals, and, this co-morbidity is likely to be accounted for by multiple complex etiological relationships, not least in adolescent individuals. Co-morbidity associated with deficient executive functioning may be observed too in alcohol-related aggressiveness and crimes of violence. The successful intervention into alcohol dependence and craving brought about by baclofen in both human and animal studies elucidates glutamatergic mechanisms in alcoholism whereas the role of the dopamine transporter, in conjunction with both the noradrenergic and serotonergic transporters, are implicated in cocaine dependence and craving. The role of the cannabinoids in ontogeny through an influence upon the expression of key genes for the development of neurotransmitter systems must be considered. Finally, the particular form of behaviour/characteristic outcome due to childhood circumstance may lie with biological, gene-based determinants, for example individual characteristics of monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity levels, thereby rendering simple predictive measures both redundant and misguiding.

  19. Avoidable cost of alcohol abuse in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Gnam, William H; Sarnocinska-Hart, Anna; Popova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    To estimate avoidable burden and avoidable costs of alcohol abuse in Canada for the year 2002. A policy effectiveness approach was used. The impact of six effective and cost-effective alcohol policy interventions aimed to reduce alcohol consumption was modeled. In addition, the effect of privatized alcohol sales that would increase alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable costs was also modeled. The effects of these interventions were compared with the baseline (aggregate) costs obtained from the second Canadian Study of Social Costs Attributable to Substance Abuse. It was estimated that by implementing six cost-effective policies from about 900 million to two billion Canadian dollars per year could be saved in Canada. The greatest savings due to the implementation of these interventions would be achieved in the lowering of productivity losses, followed by health care, and criminality. Substantial increases in burden and cost would occur if Canadian provinces were to privatize alcohol sales. The implementation of proven effective population-based interventions would reduce alcohol-attributable burden and its costs in Canada to a considerable degree. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Re-offending in forensic patients released from secure care: the role of antisocial/borderline personality disorder co-morbidity, substance dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rick; McCarthy, Lucy; Huband, Nick; Duggan, Conor

    2013-07-01

    Research suggests that a particular externalising phenotype, manifested in a developmental trajectory from severe childhood conduct disorder through early-onset substance abuse to adult antisocial/borderline personality disorder co-morbidity, may increase risk of antisocial behaviour in general and criminal recidivism in particular. This study aims to test the hypothesis that antisocial/borderline co-morbidity together with the triad of substance dependence, severe conduct disorder and borderline pathology would result in an increased risk of criminal recidivism. Fifty-three men who had been assessed and treated in a secure hospital unit were followed up after they had returned to the community. They were assessed for severity of the following: (i) antisocial personality disorder; (ii) borderline personality disorder; (iii) drug/alcohol dependence; and (iv) high Psychopathy Checklist Revised scores (factors 1 and 2). Patients with antisocial/borderline co-morbidity took significantly less time to re-offend compared with those without such co-morbidity. Both Psychopathy Checklist Revised factor 2 and the tripartite risk measure significantly predicted time to re-offence; the former largely accounted for the predictive accuracy of the latter. Risk of criminal recidivism can be adequately assessed without recourse to the pejorative term 'psychopath'. It is sufficient to assess the presence of the three elements of our risk measure: borderline and antisocial personality disorders in the context of drug/alcohol dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder. Practical implications of the study are as follows. (i) Sound assessment of personality, inclusive of a detailed history of childhood conduct disorder as well as adolescent and adult substance misuse, yields good enough information about risk of recidivism without recourse to the pejorative concept of 'psychopathy'. (ii) Given the high risk of alcohol-related violence in individuals with antisocial/borderline co-morbidity

  1. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, ``Review of the Prenatal Alcohol in Sudden Infant Death... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  2. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Alcohol Resource Grant Applications. Date: April 6...: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  3. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA AA13-001, Specialized Alcohol Research Centers. Date... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  4. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Alcohol Center Grants--Parent Committee. Date: August 10, 2012...: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  5. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Program Projects on Alcohol-Related Research. August...: Richard A Rippe, PhD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  6. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda P. Dasanayake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95%  CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95%  CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.

  7. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warninghoff, Jan C; Bayer, Otmar; Ferrari, Uta; Straube, Andreas

    2009-07-07

    Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease (MD), vestibular migraine and phobic vertigo (PPV)) have also different spectrums of co-morbidities. All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co-morbidities hypertension, diabetes mellitus, BMI (body mass index), migraine, other headache, and psychiatric diseases in general and the likelihood of a depression in particular. We noted hypertension in 29.0% of the cohort, diabetes mellitus in 6.1%, migraine in 8.4%, other headache in 32.1%, psychiatric diseases in 16.0%, overweight and obesity in 33.6% and 13.7% respectively, as well as a clinical indication for depression in 15.9%. In general, we did not detect an increased prevalence of the co-morbidities diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, migraine, other headache and obesity compared to the general population. There was an increased prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with PPV, and the prevalence of hypertension was elevated in patients with MD.

  8. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Uta

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD, vestibular migraine and phobic vertigo (PPV have also different spectrums of co-morbidities. Methods All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co-morbidities hypertension, diabetes mellitus, BMI (body mass index, migraine, other headache, and psychiatric diseases in general and the likelihood of a depression in particular. Results We noted hypertension in 29.0% of the cohort, diabetes mellitus in 6.1%, migraine in 8.4%, other headache in 32.1%, psychiatric diseases in 16.0%, overweight and obesity in 33.6% and 13.7% respectively, as well as a clinical indication for depression in 15.9%. Conclusion In general, we did not detect an increased prevalence of the co-morbidities diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, migraine, other headache and obesity compared to the general population. There was an increased prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with PPV, and the prevalence of hypertension was elevated in patients with MD.

  9. Psychological Co-morbidity in Children with Specific Learning Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Manoj K; Biswas, Haritha; Padhy, Susanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Children under 19 years of age constitute over 40% of India's population and information about their mental health needs is a national imperative. Children with specific learning disorders (SLDs) exhibit academic difficulties disproportionate to their intellectual capacities. Prevalence of SLD ranges from 2% to 10%. Dyslexia (developmental reading disorder) is the most common type, affecting 80% of all SLD. About 30% of learning disabled children have behavioral and emotional problems, which range from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (most common) to depression, anxiety, suicide etc., to substance abuse (least common). Co-occurrence of such problems with SLD further adds to the academic difficulty. In such instances, diagnosis is difficult and tricky; improvement in academics demands comprehensive holistic treatment approach. SLD remains a large public health problem because of under-recognition, inadequate treatment and therefore merits greater effort to understand the co-morbidities, especially in the Indian population. As the literature is scarce regarding co-morbid conditions in learning disability in Indian scenario, the present study has tried to focus on Indian population. The educational concessions (recent most) given to such children by Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi are referred to. The issues to be addressed by the family physicians are: Low level of awareness among families and teachers, improper dissemination of accurate information about psychological problems, available help seeking avenues, need to develop service delivery models in rural and urban areas and focus on the integration of mental health and primary care keeping such co-morbidity in mind.

  10. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  11. Disability associated with alcohol abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse, are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is because of disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for AUD. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. Systematic literature review and expert interviews. There is heterogeneity in experts' descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with AUD. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to AUD and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  13. Addiction: Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Judaism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Miriam Loewenthal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a history of rulings and beliefs about addiction in Judaism, covering alcohol and substance use and addiction, in the context of a brief account of the development of the status of addiction. It examines the prevalence of alcohol and substance use and abuse among Jews, including a discussion of some of the difficulties in estimating prevalence and of factors involved in changing patterns of use and abuse. Community beliefs and attitudes are examined, using published material and interviews with community leaders and members. Some conclusions are suggested about the impact of religious rulings and of other factors on addiction among Jews. Attention is given to the phenomenon of denial. Therapeutic practices and organisations are described. The scope for further research is identified.

  14. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: October 22, 2013... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  15. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Basic Sciences. Date...: National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855...

  16. 76 FR 15989 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, RFA on AIDS Consortium. Date: April 21-22, 2011. Time: 8 a.m..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  17. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Resource Grant Applications (R24). Date: November 3, 2010. Time..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  18. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June 13, 2012. Time: 8 a.m... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  19. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June 7-8, 2010. Time: 8 a.... Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  20. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel ZAA1 HH01--AA3 Member Conflicts. Date: July 30, 2010. Time: 11 a... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities...

  1. 76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June 9-10, 2011. Time: 8:30 a.m. to..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  2. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, P01 Application Reviews. Date: October 5, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  3. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review Branch, 5635...

  4. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism; Initial Review Group; Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: March 15-16, 2011... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-443-2861, marmillotp...

  5. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville...

  6. 78 FR 55088 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Date: October 28, 2013. Time: 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  7. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: November 2-3, 2010. Time..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  8. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, Review of RFA AA10-007 & AA10- 008 Gut-Liver-Brain... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  9. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: March 6, 2013. Time: 8:00... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081...

  10. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA--R34 & T32 Reviews. Date: December 17, 2010. Time: 11 a.m. to 1 p.m..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  11. 77 FR 43603 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Date: September 25, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Agenda... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  12. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Clinical Treatment and Health Services Research Review Subcommittee. Date..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  13. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: March 13, 2014. Time: 8... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, T508, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Beata Buzas...

  14. 78 FR 75927 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of PAR-11-169 NIAAA U34 applications. Date: January 7... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852. Contact...

  15. 75 FR 10807 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, Member Conflicts SEP. Date: April 22, 2010. Time: 12 p.m. to 2... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review Branch, 5635...

  16. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol...

  17. 75 FR 64733 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA Member Conflict Applications. Date: October 26, 2010. Time: 11 a.m..., Chief, Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  18. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes Of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037...

  19. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, T32 Institutional Training Grants. Date: November 9, 2010. Time... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  20. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: November 5, 2013. Time: 8..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  1. 76 FR 59709 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA Member Conflict Application Review. Date: October 26...: Richard A Rippe, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  2. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...

  3. Trends in sociodemographic and drug abuse variables in patients with alcohol and drug use disorders in a Nigerian treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, T A; Onifade, P O; Ogunwale, A

    2010-01-01

    Globally, patterns of the use of psychoactive substances have been changing. To evaluate the trend in two five year periods, 1992 to 1997 versus 2002 to 2007, of alcohol and substance use disorders and associated variables in patients admitted to a drug abuse treatment facility. This was a comparative cross-sectional study involving all patients admitted into Drug Abuse Treatment, Education, and Research (DATER), Unit of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro, Nigeria within the study period. All subjects had a structured psychiatric interview, a physical examination, laboratory investigations and DATER Questionnaire protocols that elicited socio-demographic, drug and family variables. The patients in 2002 to 2007 versus those of 1992 to 1997 were younger (chi squared 13.29; p,0.01). More last borns were using drugs by 2002 to 2007 (chi squared, 11.37; p,0.01). Cannabis was the most abused drug in 2002 to 2007 (53.5%) as compared to cocaine (44%) in 1992 to 1997 (chi squared 35.5; p,0.001). Polydrug abuse was high in the two periods but significantly the drug combination changed to cannabis in combination with alcohol in 2002 to 2007 as against cocaine in combination with opiates in 1992 to 1997 chi squared 45.3, p 0.001). More patients had co-morbid psychiatric disorders in 2000 to 2007 (67.6% as against 38.5% in 1992 to 1999 chi squared 28.32, p,0.001). In both periods, co-morbidity associated with cannabis use rather than any other drug of abuse as the odds ratio was greater than one. The findings in the trend in the two five year periods underscore the imperatives of continuous evaluation of the drug abuse patient population in treatment which may help drive changes in treatment inputs.

  4. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  6. Co-morbid substance use behaviors among youth: any impact of school environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mary Jean E; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ahmed, Rashid; Church, Dana L; Cunningham, John A

    2012-03-01

    Substance use is common among youth; however, our understanding of co-morbid tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use remains limited. The school-environment may play an important role in the likelihood a student engages in high risk substance use behaviors, including co-morbid use. This study aims to: (i) describe the prevalence of co-morbid substance use behaviors among youth; (ii) identify and compare the characteristics of youth who currently use a single substance, any two substances, and all three substances; (iii) examine if the likelihood of co-morbid use varies by school and; (iv) examine what factors are associated with co-morbid use. This study used nationally representative data collected from students in grades 9 to 12 (n = 41,886) as part of the 2006-2007 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Demographic and behavioral data were collected including, current cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use. Results. 6.5% (n = 107,000) reported current use of all three substances and 20.3% (n = 333,000) of any two substances. Multi-level analysis revealed significant between school variability in the odds a student used all three substances and any two substances; accounting for 16.9% and 13.5% of the variability, respectively. Co-morbid use was associated with sex, grade, amount of available spending money and perceived academic performance. Co-morbid substance use is high among youth; however, not all schools share the same prevalence. Knowing the school characteristics that place particular schools at risk for student substance use is important for tailoring drug and alcohol education programs. Interventions that target the prevention of co-morbid substance use are required.

  7. Forensic aspects of alcohol abuse and homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Kovacević, Drazen; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Mustapić, Jelena

    2009-09-01

    Numerous investigations indicate a close link between violent behavior, homicide (murder) and alcohol intoxication. With increased frequency of drinking and the chronic consummation of alcohol, the risk of the fatal outcome or homicide and victimization caused by violence is more likely to occur. Studies conducted on convicted murderers suggested that about half of them were under the heavy influence of alcohol at the time of perpetration of murder. The sample in this survey consisted of 177 male offenders which committed criminal act of murder in Croatia from the year of 1990 until 2007 (capital murder and attempted murder). All were assigned for the forensic psychiatric evaluation by the Criminal Justice System (Court of Law) at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Popovaca, Croatia. For the purpose of this work the sample is divided in two groups of subjects: 1) offenders which were intoxicated at the time of murder and committed offence on intoxicated victim 2) offenders who were sober and committed offence on sober victims. Groups are compared according to the variables of crime and history of alcohol abuse. On the basis of obtained results we can conclude that there are significant differences in relation to the variables and modalities of criminal offence between two groups of offenders and victims. We could conclude that alcohol intoxication in offenders and victims at the time of murder could strongly affect the modalities of murder.

  8. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301...

  9. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: June 12, 2012. Time... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-443-2861, [email protected

  10. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, November 3, 2010, 2...

  11. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, March 28, 2012, 4 p...

  12. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review Branch, 5635 Fishers...

  13. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037, Rockville, MD 20852, 301...

  14. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037, Rockville, MD 20852...

  15. 77 FR 39713 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA AA-12-010. Date: July 18, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m... Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member conflict SEP-- Neurosciences. Date: July 25...

  16. 75 FR 36660 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Review of Member Conflict R21 Applications...

  17. 77 FR 47654 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the... and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076. (Catalogue of Federal...

  18. 77 FR 61769 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIIAAA Member Conflict Applications: Epidemiology...

  19. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: March 13, 2012... Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 443-2861, [email protected

  20. 76 FR 51378 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, September 12, 2011, 3:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m...

  1. 78 FR 63483 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Epidemiology and...

  2. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  3. Co-morbidities in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma represent a minority of the total asthma population, but carry a majority of the morbidity and healthcare costs. Achieving better asthma control in this group of patients is therefore of key importance. Systematic assessment of patients with possible severe asthma...... to identify treatment barriers and triggers of asthma symptoms, including co-morbidities, improves asthma control and reduces healthcare costs and is recommended by international guidelines on management of severe asthma. This review provides the clinician with an overview of the prevalence and clinical...... impact of the most common co-morbidities in severe asthma, including chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, dysfunctional breathing, vocal cord dysfunction, anxiety and depression, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD...

  4. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA AA-1 Member Conflict Applications. Date: October 9, 2012..., National Institute [[Page 59406

  5. The relationship between prenatal care, personal alcohol abuse and alcohol abuse in the home environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREKIN, EMILY R.; ONDERSMA, STEVEN J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been inconsistent, perhaps because (a) alcohol use during pregnancy is substantially under-reported and (b) studies have not considered the wider social network in which maternal alcohol use takes place. The current study attempts to clarify relationships between personal alcohol use, alcohol use in the home environment, and prenatal care in a sample of post-partum women. Methods Participants were 107 low-income, primarily African-American women. All participants completed a computer-based screening which assessed personal and environmental alcohol use, prenatal care and mental health. Findings Environmental alcohol use was related to delayed prenatal care while personal alcohol use was not. More specifically, after controlling for demographic variables, the presence of more than three person-episodes of binge drinking in a woman’s home environment increased the odds of seriously compromized prenatal care by a factor of seven. Conclusions Findings suggest the need to further assess environmental alcohol use and to examine the reliability of personal alcohol use measures. PMID:24391354

  6. Psychological co-morbidity in children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children under 19 years of age constitute over 40% of India′s population and information about their mental health needs is a national imperative. Children with specific learning disorders (SLDs exhibit academic difficulties disproportionate to their intellectual capacities. Prevalence of SLD ranges from 2% to 10%. Dyslexia (developmental reading disorder is the most common type, affecting 80% of all SLD. About 30% of learning disabled children have behavioral and emotional problems, which range from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (most common to depression, anxiety, suicide etc., to substance abuse (least common. Co-occurrence of such problems with SLD further adds to the academic difficulty. In such instances, diagnosis is difficult and tricky; improvement in academics demands comprehensive holistic treatment approach. SLD remains a large public health problem because of under-recognition, inadequate treatment and therefore merits greater effort to understand the co-morbidities, especially in the Indian population. As the literature is scarce regarding co-morbid conditions in learning disability in Indian scenario, the present study has tried to focus on Indian population. The educational concessions (recent most given to such children by Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi are referred to. The issues to be addressed by the family physicians are: Low level of awareness among families and teachers, improper dissemination of accurate information about psychological problems, available help seeking avenues, need to develop service delivery models in rural and urban areas and focus on the integration of mental health and primary care keeping such co-morbidity in mind.

  7. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  8. Attribution of Blame for Wife Abuse by Alcoholics and Nonalcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Bernardo J.; McNeely, Judith A.

    Several researchers have explored the role of alcohol in domestic violence and attributions of blame. To compare the amount of blame attributed to an incident of wife abuse, alcoholic (N=52) and nonalcoholic (N=159) subjects read an account of wife abuse and distributed a percentage of the blame to the man, the woman, and the situation.…

  9. Isoforms of transferrin in psoriasis patients abusing alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hoefkens (Peter); E.M. Higgins; R.J. Ward (Roberta); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe different isoforms of transferrin have been quantified by isoelectric focusing in the sera of psoriasis patients with and without a history of abusing alcohol. In both male and female psoriasis subjects abusing alcohol, there were significant increases in the

  10. Symptomatic Correlates of Alcohol Abuse as a Presenting Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturo, Douglas J.; LeSure, Kenneth B.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of self-reported symptoms of psychopathology to self-reported alcohol abuse. Participants (N=72) completed a questionnaire. Findings identified several psychopathological areas related to alcohol abuse: social skill deficits, anxiety, addiction proneness, impulse discontrol, and self-destructive ideation. These results…

  11. 76 FR 36930 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse; Notice of Joint Meeting Pursuant... given of a joint meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with...

  12. Co-morbidities of Interstitial Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela eChelimsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/BPS with systemic dysfunction associated co-morbidities such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and fibromyalgia (FM. Material and Methods: Two groups of subjects with IC/BPS were included: 1 Physician diagnosed patients with IC/BPS and 2 Subjects meeting NIDDK IC/PBS criteria based on a questionnaire (ODYSA. These groups were compared to healthy controls matched for age and socio-economic status. NIDDK criteria required: pain with bladder filling that improves with emptying, urinary urgency due to discomfort or pain, polyuria > 11 times/24 hrs, and nocturia > 2 times/night. The ODYSA instrument evaluates symptoms pertaining to a range of disorders including chronic fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, syncope, IBS, dyspepsia, cyclic vomiting syndrome, headaches and migraines, sleep, Raynaud’s syndrome and chronic aches and pains. Results: IC/BPS was diagnosed in 26 subjects (mean age 47 +/- 16 yrs, 92% females, 58 had symptoms of IC/BPS by NIDDK criteria, (mean age 40 +/- 17 yrs, 79% females and 48 were healthy controls (mean age 31+/- 14 yrs, mean age 77%. Co-morbid complaints in the IC/BPS groups included gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of IBS and dyspepsia, sleep abnormalities with delayed onset of sleep, feeling poorly refreshed in the morning, waking up before needed, snoring, severe chronic fatigue and chronic generalized pain, migraines and syncope. Discussion: Patients with IC/BPS had co-morbid central and autonomic nervous system disorders. Our findings mirror those of others in regard to IBS, symptoms suggestive of FM, chronic pain and migraine. High rates of syncope and functional dyspepsia found in the IC/BPS groups merit further study to determine if IC/BPS is part of a diffuse disorder of central, autonomic and sensory processing affecting multiple organs outside the bladder.

  13. STUDY ON PSYCHIATRIC CO - MORBIDITY IN PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is relatively common , chronic inflammatory and hyper - proliferative skin disease that affects 1.4% to 2.0% of the population. Presence of itching , chronic recurrent course of disease and incomplete cure may contribute to great deal of psychiatric co - morbidity in these patients. the most persuasive indications of a link between stress and psoriasis comes from patients themselves , with studies illustrating that the majority of patients believe that stress or psychological distress is a factor in the manifestations of their condition . Depression and anxiety are the most common disorders that are associated with psoriasis , but the proportion of patient also having other psychiatric co - morbid diseases which include social phobia , generalize anxiety disorder , panic disorder , psychotic diso rder , etc. Moreover , symptoms of psoriasis , especially pruritus , are related to depression. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate different psychiatric illnesses their prevalence and severity in psoriasis patients. METHODOLOGY : This was cross - sectional observational stu dy comprised of 70 consecutive patients of psoriasis attending the out - patient department of Dermatology. All the patients were subjected to detailed examinations including the elicitation of dermatological and psychiatric profile after getting written con sent for study . Data was collected using self - developed , pre tested , semi structured Pro format by interview method. RESULTS : The profile of psychiatric diagnoses obtained in the present study depressive disorder 31.4% {18.57% depression , 12.85% Depression with anxiety symptoms} , anxiety disorder 25.7% (7.14% GAD , 8.17% panic disorder , 5.71% social phobia , 4.28 specific phobia. Severity of major depressive disorder was determined with HAM - D score 53.8% had mild depression , 30.7% moderate depression and 15. 5% severe depression. Similarly when HAM - A scale was used to determined severity of generalized

  14. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  15. Co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Muideen O

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders and determined associated factors of sexual risk behavior among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Methods Socio-demographic information was obtained from the adolescents using socio-demographic questionnaire. Clinical interview, physical examination and laboratory investigations were employed to establish co-morbid disorders in these adolescents during the outpatient follow up visits over a one year period. Results A total of forty six (46 adolescents with bipolar disorder were followed up over a one year period. Twenty two (47.8% of the adolescents had co-morbid disorders with cannabis use disorders, alcohol use disorders, conduct disorder with or without other psychoactive substance use accounting for 23.9%, 8.7%, 13.0% respectively and HIV infection, though a chance finding accounting for 2.2%. Twenty one (45.7% of the adolescents had positive history of sexual risk behavior, which was significantly associated with presence of co-morbid disorders (p = 0.003, level of religion activities in the adolescents (p = 0.000, and marital status of the parents (p = 0.021. Conclusion When planning interventions for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, special attention may need to be focused on group of adolescents with co-morbid disorders and propensity towards impulsivity and sexual risk behavior. This may help in improving long term outcome in this group of adolescents.

  16. Postoperative delirium in patients with history of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, G; Pinho, C; Santos, A; Abelha, F J

    2017-04-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) is an acute confusional state characterized by changes in consciousness and cognition, which may be fluctuating, developing in a small period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol abuse and the development of POD. We prospectively evaluated consecutively all postoperative patients admitted in the Post-anesthesia Care Unit over a 1-month period for delirium, using the Portuguese versions of the the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale. Before surgery, alcohol consumption was inquired and alcohol abuse was assessed by the CAGE (Cutting Down, Annoyance, Guilt and Eye-opener) questionnaire; a score ≥2 defined alcohol abuse. Fischer exact test or chi-square was applied for comparisons. Risk factors were analyzed in a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Two hundred twenty-one patients were enrolled. Delirium was seen in 11% patients. The incidence of alcohol abuse was 10%. Patients with alcohol abuse were more frequently men (P<.001) and had a higher ASA physical status III/IV (P=.021). POD was more frequent in patients with alcohol abuse (30% vs. 9%; P=.002). Age (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.2-15.9; P<.001 for patients ≥65years), ASA physical statusIII/IV (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.7-10.7; P=.002) and alcohol abuse (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.4-12.9; P=.013) were found to be independent predictors for POD. Older patients, higher ASA physical status and alcohol abuse were more frequent in patients with POD. Alcohol abuse was considered an independent risk factor for POD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple spontaneous bone infarcts secondary to alcohol abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol induced spontaneous osteonecrosis is part of the differential diagnosis in patients with history of alcohol abuse and diffuse bone pain. Usually patients have a longer than 10 year history of alcohol abuse prior to the development of osteonecrosis. The femoral head is the commonest site involved, however, involvement of the long bones is also seen. Facial involvement is rarely seen. Fat embolism secondary to coexisting hyperlipidemia has been postulated as a possible cause of osteonecrosis in alcoholics. A case of multifocal spontaneous bone infarction with facial bone involvement in a 34 year old female alcoholic is described. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. Alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify the association between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends socio-demographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population

  19. Kleptomania and Co-morbid addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun S; Christianini, Aparecida Rangon; Bertoni, Daniela; de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Medeiros; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2017-04-01

    We examined the association between kleptomania and addictive disorders, including behavioral addictions. Fifty-three individuals with a diagnosis of kleptomania completed measures of kleptomania severity, semi-structured clinical interviews to assess co-morbid diagnosis of addictive disorders, and the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) assessing an array of addictive behaviors. 20.75% of the sample met criteria for an addictive disorder; four for a substance use disorder and four for a behavioral addiction. Kleptomania severity was significantly associated with compulsive work and shopping measured by the SPQ. The results suggest the need to assess a wide array of addictive behaviors in individuals with kleptomania. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between alcohol abuse, childhood adverse events and suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Ana Politakis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Negative life events present a risk for suicidal behaviour. The occurrence of suicidal behaviour also depends on type of negative life events, time of their appearance and the support person has in their environment, and can be part of a process triggered by a stressful event. the aim of the study was to investigate adverse childhood events, parental alcoholism and alcohol abuse in association with suicidal behaviour of suicide victims. Methods: A case-control study was conducted involving 90 individuals from Slovenian population who committed suicide and 90 age-sex matched controls drawn from the living population. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews with key informants by the principles of psychological autopsy. Results: Alcohol abuse was reported more ofen for suicide victims than for controls. The same was true for severe deprivation in childhood and alcoholism of one or both parents. Differences between groups in separation from one or both parents, death of one or both parents, reported parental divorce in childhood or sexual abuse in childhood were not observed. Conclusions: We should conclude that negative events in childhood and alcohol abuse in adulthood of suicide victims could be related to suicidal behaviour in population with higher suicide rate. When planning measures for the prevention of suicidal behaviour, adverse events in childhood and alcohol abuse should not be neglected to plan measures to prevent such events accordingly and to raise awareness about the dangers of alcohol abuse for suicidal behaviour.

  1. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review Subcommittee... & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM. 3037, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-3037...

  2. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-4032...

  3. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group. Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Alcoholism, Extramural Project Review Branch, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-451-2067...

  4. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, (301) 443-4032...

  5. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-4032...

  6. Trace Elements Profile among Alcohol Abusers in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This showed that Mn, Fe and Cu were significantly increased while Zn was reduced significantly in alcohol abusers when compared with the control group of total abstainers. Excessive consumption of burukutu seems to significantly alter the trace elements status in abusers. Duration of intake and excessive use of burukutu ...

  7. 3 R's in the Marital Treatment of Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Stephen E.

    Alcohol abuse imposes financial, social, and emotional burdens on drinkers and their families. Couples suffering from alcohol-related problems who seek therapy often have expectations of retribution, restitution, and refuge. Although thoughts of retribution are difficult to elicit in therapy, non-drinking spouses often expect to inflict pain on…

  8. The long-term consequences of parental alcohol abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    , drug addiction) among adolescents from 14 to 27 years old with alcoholic parents. Hospitalisation of adolescents because of psychological disturbances is also seen relatively more often among cases where the parents are alcohol abusers. Similarly, an increased risk of teenage motherhood and youth...

  9. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  10. Alcohol in America: taking action to prevent abuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Steve; Gerstein, Dean R

    1985-01-01

    ... on Alternative Policies Affecting the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D. C. 1985 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific ...

  11. Association between alcohol abuse during pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ivelissa da; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Oliveira, Sandro Schreiber de; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2011-10-01

    To assess the association between alcohol abuse during gestation and low birth weight. Cross-sectional, population-based nested study from a cohort of 957 pregnant women who received prenatal assistance through Sistema Único de Saúde (National Health System) in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, and delivered their babies between September 2007 and September 2008. The mothers were interviewed at two distinct moments: prenatal and postpartum periods. In order to verify alcohol abuse, the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed by criticism, Guilty and Eye-opener) scale was used. Bivariate analyses were carried out, as well as multiple logistic regression adjusted by the variables prematurity and alcohol abuse. The level of significance that was adopted was 95%. Of the women who participated in the study, 2.1% abused alcohol during pregnancy and, among these, 26.3% had low birth weight children. There was an association between alcohol abuse and low birth weight (palcohol abuse during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight.

  12. Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Co-morbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n    "nObjective: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common disorder with prevalence rate of approximately 30%; its concurrence with psychiatric symptoms will make it a disabling condition that resists usual treatment. Objective: This study was enrolled to assess the co-morbidity of PMS and psychiatric disorders in a sample of girls with PMS compared to those without PMS. "n    "nMaterial and method : This study was conducted through a cross sectional method with 362 participants (166 with PMS and 196 healthy girls who were selected randomly and completed the demographic questionnaire, premenstrual syndrome symptom daily record scale and the symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. "n    "nResult: According to the result of the independent t test, the mean score of all the psychiatric symptoms in the PMS group was significantly higher than those in healthy group (P<0.001. According to SCL-90-R measurement, most of the participants in the PMS group were categorized as extremely sick for somatization (44% ,obsessive-compulsive (59%, depression (58.4%, anxiety (64.5%, hostility (47% and psychoticism (69.3%; most of the participants were diagnosed as having borderline severity of disorders for interpersonal sensitivity (44.6% and paranoid (42.8% and most of the respondents with PMS (46.4% were diagnosed as healthy only for phobic anxiety. "n    "nConclusion: There is a considerable relationship between PMS and different psychiatric symptoms that can complicate the diagnosis of PMS and its treatment for the health care providers. Therefore, all health care providers who are in contact with women in their reproductive age should be sensitive to mental health status in women with PMS.

  13. Federalizing medical campaigns against alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-03-01

    The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. © 2013 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  14. Federalizing Medical Campaigns against Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-01-01

    Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713

  15. When abuse primes addiction - automatic activation of alcohol concepts by child maltreatment related cues in emotionally abused alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2015-09-01

    Recent research indicates that there is a link between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD), but the underlying mechanisms still need to be clarified. There is reason to assume that maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcohol-related responses. The current study aimed to examine this network in AD patients who experienced emotional abuse using a priming paradigm. A specific priming effect in emotionally abused AD subjects was hypothesized for maltreatment related words that preceded alcohol related words. 49 AD subjects (n=14 with emotional abuse vs. n=35 without emotional abuse) and 34 control subjects performed a priming task with maltreatment related and neutral prime words combined with alcohol related and neutral target words. Maltreatment related words consisted of socially and physically threatening words. As hypothesized, a specific priming effect for socially threatening and physically threatening cues was found only in AD subjects with emotional abuse. The present data are the first to provide evidence that child maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network in alcoholics with emotional abuse experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 77 FR 26770 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA AA-12-008. Date: May 23-24, 2012. Time: 9:00 a.m...

  17. 77 FR 39716 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of RFA AA-12-009. Date: July 17-19, 2012. Time: 10:00 a...

  18. 76 FR 22717 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Date: May 25-26, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Agenda: To review...

  19. 78 FR 10185 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict applications--Neuroscience. Date: March...

  20. 77 FR 28889 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA AA-12-011. Date: June 8, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m. to...

  1. 78 FR 13361 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA Member Conflict SEP. Date: March 18, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m...

  2. 77 FR 14024 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict application reviews Treatment...

  3. 76 FR 59708 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Systems Biology of HIV/AIDS and Substance Use--RFA DA12-009...

  4. 78 FR 37835 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict applications--Epidemiology, Prevention (1...

  5. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict application reviews--Biosciences. Date...

  6. 78 FR 37837 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT oF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Neurosciences. Date: July...

  7. 75 FR 37818 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA Fellowship & Training Member Conflict Applications. Date...

  8. 78 FR 63484 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Behavioral Sciences. Date...

  9. 76 FR 32978 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Epidemiology and Behavioral...

  10. 78 FR 37836 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Metabolism and Health...

  11. 78 FR 12072 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA--Member Conflict Applications. Date: March 26, 2013. Time...

  12. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Date: June 6-7, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Agenda: To review...

  13. 78 FR 17680 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA Member Conflict Applications. Date: April 4, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m...

  14. Co-Morbidities in psoriatic versus non-psoriatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Omar Al Houssien

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients with psoriasis were found to have an increased risk of developing major co-morbid disorders including diabetes, liver and renal function profile abnormalities. This indicates the importance of checking if this group of patients have co-morbid disorders.

  15. Interventions to cope with alcohol abuse: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jorge Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world, which could generate social and health problems, affecting users, people living with them and the society in general. The aim was to identify the best evidence of interventions to reduce alcohol abuse. An integrative review of the literature, conducted on LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED and SCOPUS, through the descriptors “intervention studies” and “alcoholism”. Nineteen articles were selected, most of them classified as two regarding level of evidence. They involved interventions with alcohol users, the most efficient were short interventions, internet-based interventions and counselling. Although cessation of alcohol use was not proved through the interventions, results point to a significant reduction in consumption, increase of the availability to change drinking habit and effective impact of short interventions when compared to usual treatments. Short interventions constitute the best interventions to reduce alcohol abuse.

  16. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  17. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  18. Creativity, alcohol and drug abuse: the pop icon Jim Morrison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M; Bertolino, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse is frequent among performers and pop musicians. Many of them hope that alcohol and drugs will enhance their creativity. Scientific studies are scarce and conclusions limited for methodological reasons. Furthermore, extraordinary creativity can hardly be grasped by empirical-statistical methods. Thus, ideographic studies are necessary to learn from extraordinarily creative persons about the relationship of creativity with alcohol and drugs. The pop icon Jim Morrison can serve as an exemplary case to investigate the interrelation between alcohol and drug abuse and creativity. Morrison's self-assessments in his works and letters as well as the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of creativity research. In the lyrics of Jim Morrison and in biographical descriptions, we can see how Jim Morrison tried to cope with traumatic events, depressive moods and uncontrolled impulses through creative activities. His talent, skill and motivation to write creatively were independent from taking alcohol and drugs. He used alcohol and drugs to transgress restrictive social norms, to broaden his perceptions and to reinforce his struggle for self-actualization. In short, his motivation to create something new and authentic was reinforced by alcohol and drugs. More important was the influence of a supportive group that enabled Morrison's talents to flourish. However, soon the frequent use of high doses of alcohol and drugs weakened his capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is an exemplary case showing that heavy drinking and the abuse of LSD, mescaline and amphetamines damages the capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is typical of creative personalities like Amy Winehouse, Janis Joplin, Brian Jones and Jimmy Hendrix who burn their creativity in early adulthood through alcohol and drugs. We suppose that the sacrificial ritual of their decay offers some benefits for the excited spectators. One of these is the

  19. Features and challenges of alcohol abuse treatment in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of the Minnesota model not withstanding treatment providers are faced with inadequate skills and facilities rendering them unable to meet the ever increasing demand. Research into culturally adopted treatment intervention strategies is necessary to enhance the effectiveness and treatment of alcohol abuse in ...

  20. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...

  1. Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane

    2010-01-01

    Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

  2. 78 FR 66023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review Subcommittee, October 15, 2013, 08:00...

  3. [Domestic violence, alcohol and substance abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Monica L; Blume, Sheila B

    2005-10-01

    Domestic violence and substance abuse are common in primary care patients. Although these problems are associated with severe physical and psychological sequelae, they are often undiagnosed. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of these problems, the health-related consequences for adults, children and elderly, as well as the challenges for clinicians in screening, assessment and referral.

  4. Obsessive–compulsive disorder: subclassification based on co-morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestadt, G.; Di, C. Z.; Riddle, M. A.; Grados, M. A.; Greenberg, B. D.; Fyer, A. J.; McCracken, J. T.; Rauch, S. L.; Murphy, D. L.; Rasmussen, S. A.; Cullen, B.; Pinto, A.; Knowles, J. A.; Piacentini, J.; Pauls, D. L.; Bienvenu, O. J.; Wang, Y.; Liang, K. Y.; Samuels, J. F.; Roche, K. Bandeen

    2011-01-01

    Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is probably an etiologically heterogeneous condition. Many patients manifest other psychiatric syndromes. This study investigated the relationship between OCD and co-morbid conditions to identify subtypes. Method Seven hundred and six individuals with OCD were assessed in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (OCGS). Multi-level latent class analysis was conducted based on the presence of eight co-morbid psychiatric conditions [generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depression, panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), tics, mania, somatization disorders (Som) and grooming disorders (GrD)]. The relationship of the derived classes to specific clinical characteristics was investigated. Results Two and three classes of OCD syndromes emerge from the analyses. The two-class solution describes lesser and greater co-morbidity classes and the more descriptive three-class solution is characterized by: (1) an OCD simplex class, in which major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most frequent additional disorder; (2) an OCD co-morbid tic-related class, in which tics are prominent and affective syndromes are considerably rarer; and (3) an OCD co-morbid affective-related class in which PD and affective syndromes are highly represented. The OCD co-morbid tic-related class is predominantly male and characterized by high conscientiousness. The OCD co-morbid affective-related class is predominantly female, has a young age at onset, obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) features, high scores on the ‘taboo’ factor of OCD symptoms, and low conscientiousness. Conclusions OCD can be classified into three classes based on co-morbidity. Membership within a class is differentially associated with other clinical characteristics. These classes, if replicated, should have important implications for research and clinical endeavors. PMID:19046474

  5. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10-13 ye...... increased amounts later developed the disease (p less than 0.005). Semiquantitative assessment of the amount of parenchymal fibronectin at an early stage of alcoholic liver disease is of definite predictive value for the development of cirrhosis.......In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...

  6. Recent Advances in Nicotinic Receptor Signaling in Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic-cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Fractures and alcohol abuse - patient opinion of alcohol intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette; Alva-Jørgensen, Peter; Raffing, Rie

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To clarify patient opinions about alcohol intervention in relation to surgery before investigating the effect in a Scandinavian multi-centre randomized trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study. Thirteen consecutive alcohol patients with fractures participated after informed consent....... They were interviewed during their hospital stay. The number of participants was based on the criteria of data-saturation. The analysis followed the applied qualitative framework model aimed at evaluation of specific participant needs within a larger overall project. RESULTS: All patients regarded alcohol...

  8. Child physical and sexual abuse: a comprehensive look at alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence from the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in

  9. Depression, suicidality and alcohol abuse among medical and business students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curran, T A

    2012-02-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95\\/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.

  10. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22 of...

  11. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and associated hepatic co-morbidities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, M.C.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that drives the -development of obesity-related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease. This metabolic inflammation is thought to originate

  12. [Tuberculosis and diabetes co-morbidity: an unresolved problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Gil, César; Moore, David A J

    2014-01-01

    Co-morbidity between tuberculosis and diabetes has been described since the early 20th century. In developed countries, where there has been a decrease of infectious diseases with an increase of non-communicable diseases, as well as those countries who still have a high prevalence of infectious diseases but an increase of non-communicable diseases, it is observed that the prevalence of co-morbidity between tuberculosis and diabetes is increasing, making clinical management and control at the public health level a new challenge for health systems. This review aims to show the current available evidence that can inform research lines being developed to understand the problem. In countries like Peru, where there is an epidemiological transition, further research could allow us to understand and describe in a better way the characteristics and impact of this co-morbidity.

  13. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

  14. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  15. Alcohol and drug problems and sexual and physical abuse at three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Alcohol is the most important substance of abuse in South Africa. There are, however, reports of an increase in the use of other drugs among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse and their association with physical or sexual abuse in three urban high ...

  16. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  17. Adult antisocial syndrome co-morbid with borderline personality disorder is associated with severe conduct disorder, substance dependence and violent antisociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Mark; Howard, Rick; Coid, Jeremy W; Ullrich, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that syndromal adult antisocial behaviour (AABS) co-morbid with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a syndrome that emerges from severe conduct disorder (CD) in childhood and adolescence and is strongly associated, in adulthood, with both violence and substance dependence. In a sample of 8 580 community-resident adults screened for the presence of personality disorders, the following predictions arising from this hypothesis were tested: first, that those with AABS co-morbid with BPD would, in comparison with those showing AABS or BPD only, show a high level of antisocial outcomes, including violence; second, that adjusting for co-morbid alcohol dependence would attenuate group differences in many of the antisocial outcomes, and violence in particular; and third, that the AABS/BPD group would show both a high prevalence and a high severity of CD, and that adjusting for co-morbid CD would attenuate any association found between AABS/BPD co-morbidity and violence. Results confirmed these predictions, suggesting that AABS/BPD co-morbidity mediates the relationship between childhood CD and a predisposition to adult violence. The triad of AABS/BPD co-morbidity, alcohol dependence and severe CD is likely associated with the risk of criminal recidivism in offenders with personality disorder following release into the community. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Tourette syndrome, co-morbidities and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Snedden, Corina; Črnčec, Rudi; Pick, Anna; Sachdev, Perminder

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome is often associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and other co-morbidities, the presence of which can reduce health-related quality of life. The relationship between the number and type of co-morbidities and tic severity upon health-related quality of life has been insufficiently examined in Tourette syndrome populations and not at all in the Australian context. We hypothesised that an increased number of co-morbid diagnoses would be inversely related to health-related quality of life and that the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder in particular would negatively impact health-related quality of life. In all, 83 people with a previously established diagnosis of Tourette syndrome, who responded to a letter of invitation sent to the Tourette Syndrome Association of Australia past-member database, formed the study sample. Participants completed the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome-Quality of Life Scale and a short form of the National Hospital Interview Schedule to assess tics and related behaviours. Participants with pure-Tourette syndrome had significantly better health-related quality of life than those with Tourette syndrome and three or more co-morbid diagnoses. Few differences were observed between the pure-Tourette syndrome and Tourette syndrome and one or two co-morbid diagnoses groups. Analysis of the impact of individual co-morbid disorders and Tourette syndrome symptoms on health-related quality of life indicated that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder exerted a significant negative effect, as did the presence of complex tics, especially coprolalia and copropraxia. When these variables were examined in multiple regression analysis, number of co-morbidities and the presence of coprophenomena emerged as significant predictors of health-related quality of life. While tics are the defining feature of Tourette syndrome, it appears to be the

  19. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Profile of Co-morbidities in the Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salati SA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the profile of co-morbidities in obese patients reporting for bariatric surgical procedures. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at the Bariatric Surgery Unit of Department of Surgery of the College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The records of all the obese patients (with Body Mass Index greater than 30, evaluated in the department over the period of two years from Jan 2012 to Dec 2014, were studied and co-morbidities were sought in all subjects. Results: Of the 172 subjects, 76.2% (n=131 were female and 23.8% (n=41 male. The age ranged from 17–49 years (Mean 29.9 years; Mode 28 years. The weight ranged from 82 kg–146kg and BMI ranged from 33–54 (mean BMI 44.7 kg/m. Out of the total of 172 patients, 96 (56 % including 72 females and 24 males had one or more co-morbidities. Conclusion: A wide range of co-morbidities occur in obese patients that have the potential to decrease the quality of life and the life span.

  1. Management of co-morbidity of depression and chronic non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The study used an action research design involving a research team of 14 health care professionals to collaboratively identify existing protocols or interventions for managing co-morbidity of depression and NCDs in Rwanda. Focus group discussion using a structured interview guide was used to collect qualitative ...

  2. Major depressive disorder as a co-morbid diagnosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to focus on the importance of depressive symptoms in patients suffering from schizophrenia, and the dilemma posed by hierarchical classification methods, which exclude co-morbid diagnoses such as Major Depressive Disorder in patients with schizophrenia. The question arises that if Major ...

  3. A study of geriatric depression and co- morbidities among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression in the elderly is very common but diagnostic rates among primary care physicians is poor. This is attributed to both patient and physician related factors. The patient factors include co-morbidities, aging and psychological mindedness which is culture related. Generally, there's paucity of psychological complaints ...

  4. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Eloah Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.

  5. 24 CFR 5.857 - When must I prohibit admission of alcohol abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse Denying... right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents. Terminating Tenancy ...

  6. 24 CFR 5.860 - When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federally Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse... of alcohol threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other...

  7. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....

  8. The effects of residential dual diagnosis treatment on alcohol abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Fried, Lyle; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Modestino, Edward J.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p treatment of both disorders and explained their effectiveness. Co-occurring DSM IV mood disorders such as anxiety and depression as well as drug abuse involving opioids or cocaine fell between 66 and 95% at months one, six, and twelve. PMID:28868159

  9. Co-morbidity and cannabis use in a mental health trust in South East England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trathen, Bruce; O'gara, Colin; Sarkhel, Arghya; Sessay, Mohammed; Rao, Harish; Luty, Jason

    2007-10-01

    The prevalence of co-morbidity (severe mental illness and substance) may be less in rural and semi-rural areas than inner cities. The aims were therefore to measure the prevalence of co-morbidity among patients of attending a mental health service in a semi-rural area South East England. Cross-sectional prevalence survey of 1,808 patients with detailed assessments from a representative sample of 373 patients identified as having a combination of severe mental illness and substance misuse. Interviews with key workers were performed using validated methods from the COSMIC study. The response rates equalled or exceeded 90% for the various parts of the study. One-tenth of patients attending the Community Mental Health Teams (CMHTs) reported problematic use of illicit drugs and 17% reported alcohol problems in the past year. 22% of Community Drug and Alcohol Service (CDAS) clients reported a severe mental illness and 46% reported some other form of psychiatric disorder. Of patients with a combined diagnosis of mental illness and substance misuse, cannabis use was 4-fold more common amongst patients attending the CMHT than CDAS (33% vs. 8%) while use of amphetamine was five-fold higher in the CMHT group (10% vs. 2%). Patients with concurrent psychiatric and substance misuse problems represent a similar proportion of the aggregate caseload of both treatment services with observed prevalence amongst the CDAS and CMHT patients with a diagnosis for anxiety disorder (18% vs. 26%), minor depression (42% vs. 32%), personality disorders (32% vs. 36%), histories of self-harm (52% vs. 46%) and violence (33% vs. 30%) respectively. Co-morbidity is common in clients amongst CMHT and CDAS clients although use of cannabis was significantly more common in CMHT clients than in CDAS clients.

  10. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of alcohol abuse and transition from long-term unemployment to disability pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmela, Kirsti; Heikkinen, Virpi; Hokkanen, Risto; Ylinen, Aarne; Uitti, Jukka; Mattila, Aino; Joukamaa, Matti; Virtanen, Pekka

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal potential gaps and inconsistencies in the identification of alcohol abuse in health care and in employment services and to analyse the granting of disability pensions with respect to the alcohol abuse identification pattern. The material consisted of documentary information on 505 long-term unemployed subjects with low employability sent to the development project entitled 'Eligibility for a Disability Pension' in 2001-2006 in Finland. The dichotomous variables 'Alcohol abuse identified in employment services' and 'Alcohol abuse identified in health care' were cross-tabulated to obtain a four-class variable 'Alcohol abuse identification pattern'. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to ascertain the association of alcohol abuse identification pattern with the granting of disability pensions. Alcohol abuse was detected by both health care and employment services in 47% of those identified as abusers (41% of examinees). Each service systems also identified cases that the other did not. When alcohol abuse was identified in health care only, the OR for a disability pension being granted was 2.8 (95% CI 1.5-5.2) compared with applicants without identified alcohol abuse. The result remained the same and statistically significant after adjusting for confounders. Alcohol abuse identified in health care was positively associated with the granting of a disability pension. Closer co-operation between employment services and health care could help to identify those long-term unemployed individuals with impaired work ability in need of thorough medical examination. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Influence of pretreatment coping strategies on the outcome of outpatient treatment of Danish alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette

    2006-01-01

    An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study...

  13. Alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and aggression : The quest for a common underlying mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Wright, Aidan G.C.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and personality disorders are often comorbid, and their co-occurrence is associated with worse rognostic expectations, poor therapeutic outcomes, as well as deleterious behavioral and interpersonal consequences. The current review aims at untangling the association among alcohol abuse,

  14. Socio-demographic characteristics of alcohol abusers in a rural Ijaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no significant age difference between the alcohol abusers and abstainers/social drinkers (P > 0.05), but alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to be males (P < 0.001), in polygamous marriages (P < 0.00001), had lower educational status (P < 0.0001), likely to be practitioners of the traditional religion (P ...

  15. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  16. Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge; Boitt, Monicah Lydia; Othieno, Caleb; Obondo, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  17. The Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  18. Buss-Durkee Assessment and Validation with Violent versus Nonviolent Chronic Alcohol Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, Gisele J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abusers who had been violent while intoxicated and nonviolent alcohol abusers were administered the Buss-Durkee Inventory. Violence was documented. Violent drinkers scored significantly higher than control subjects on the inventory total hostility score and on subscales measuring assault, irritability, verbal hostility, indirect…

  19. Screening Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse the Psychometric Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Mohamad Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and

  20. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among U.S. Veterans: Comparing Associations with Intimate Partner Substance Abuse and Veteran Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433

  1. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  2. PREVALENCE OF OCCULT DEPRESSION IN ELDERLY WITH CHRONIC CO - MORBIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth in elderly population has led to an increase in age related diseases and mainly depression which is affecting the quality of life. Depression is more prevalent amongst elderly individuals with medical illnesses and emerging public health problem leading to increased morbidity and disability worldwide. AIMS AND OBJE CTIVES: To assess the prevalence of occult depression in elderly patients with chronic co - morbid medical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross - sectional study conducted in tertiary hospital. Total 100 elderly patients with underlying chronic me dical illnesses were included. Depression in study population was assessed by geriatric depression scale and analyzed. RESULT: Out of 100 patients 23(23% had depression. Females 12/39(30.76% were affected more than males 11/61 (18.03%. Depression was mo re prevalent among patients with 3 or more co - morbid conditions (45.4% as compared to <3 (11.9%. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with multiple chronic medical illnesses may have associated occult depression. Screening of these patients for depression couple d with appropriate psychiatric referral should be an integral part of Geriatric service

  3. PSYCHIATRIC CO - MORBIDITY IN PERSONS WITH HANSEN’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of psychiatric co - morbidity and its effect on quality of life in persons with Hansen’s disease. METHOD: The study was conducted on around 80 persons above 18 year age with Hansen’s disease in out - patient department dermatology and i n leprosy home. Participants were diagnosed cases of Hansen’s disease, selected randomly and were evaluated with socio demographic questionnaire, Duke’s general health questionnaire, DSM - 5 self rated level 1 cross cutting symptom measure – adult and WHO - QO L - BREF. The period of data collection was from October 2014 to March 2015. RESULTS: The assessment showed that prevalence of at least one psychiatric co morbidity was 83.75% (67/80 patients and of these 67 patients 18(26.86% have one diagnosis, 26(38.80% have two diagnoses and 23(34.32% have 3 or more psychiatric diagnoses. Among all depression was most prevalent (28.35% mental disorder; followed by anxiety disorder (23.88%. Quality of life was significantly impaired in almost all persons with Hansen’ s disease. CONCLUSION: Persons with Hansen’s disease have significantly high prevalence of mental disorders which have much impact on their quality of life which were under diagnosed and thus remained untreated

  4. Psychiatric co-morbidity in chronic pain disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, N.; Sharif, A.; Shoaib, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with chronic pain disorder in hospital setting. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and duration of study: This study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Okara from June 2011 to May 2012. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 400 patients (males=117; females=283) gathered from pain clinic and other outpatient departments of the hospital and were interviewed in detail and Present State Examination was carried out. Demographic variables were scored using descriptive statistics and results were analyzed using correlation methods. Results: It was revealed that psychiatric illness in overall sample prevailed among 266 participants (67%). Among which 164 participants (62%) were diagnosed with depression, 67 patients (25.2%) of chronic pain were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 28 patients (11%) with adjustment disorder and 1.5% and 1.1% diagnosed with drug dependence and somatization disorder, respectively. Conclusion: Psychiatric co-morbidity especially the incidence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders were high amongst patients suffering from chronic pain disorder. (author)

  5. Sensory symptom profiles and co-morbidities in painful radiculopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Mahn

    Full Text Available Painful radiculopathies (RAD and classical neuropathic pain syndromes (painful diabetic polyneuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia show differences how the patients express their sensory perceptions. Furthermore, several clinical trials with neuropathic pain medications failed in painful radiculopathy. Epidemiological and clinical data of 2094 patients with painful radiculopathy were collected within a cross sectional survey (painDETECT to describe demographic data and co-morbidities and to detect characteristic sensory abnormalities in patients with RAD and compare them with other neuropathic pain syndromes. Common co-morbidities in neuropathic pain (depression, sleep disturbance, anxiety do not differ considerably between the three conditions. Compared to other neuropathic pain syndromes touch-evoked allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia are relatively uncommon in RAD. One distinct sensory symptom pattern (sensory profile, i.e., severe painful attacks and pressure induced pain in combination with mild spontaneous pain, mild mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, was found to be characteristic for RAD. Despite similarities in sensory symptoms there are two important differences between RAD and other neuropathic pain disorders: (1 The paucity of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia might be explained by the fact that the site of the nerve lesion in RAD is often located proximal to the dorsal root ganglion. (2 The distinct sensory profile found in RAD might be explained by compression-induced ectopic discharges from a dorsal root and not necessarily by nerve damage. These differences in pathogenesis might explain why medications effective in DPN and PHN failed to demonstrate efficacy in RAD.

  6. Socio-demographic characteristics of alcohol abusers in a rural Ijaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... There is no significant age difference between the alcohol abusers and abstainers/social drinkers (P > 0.05), but alcohol ..... International Council for Alcoholism and Addiction had found that ... The male gender was also positively associated .... Using any mobile or other hand-held device with camera and.

  7. Increased ethane exhalation, an in vivo index of lipid peroxidation, in alcohol-abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettéron, P; Duchatelle, V; Berson, A; Fromenty, B; Fisch, C; Degott, C; Benhamou, J P; Pessayre, D

    1993-01-01

    Ethane exhalation was measured in 42 control subjects, 52 patients with various non-alcoholic liver diseases, and 89 alcohol abusers who had been admitted to hospital for alcohol withdrawal and assessment of liver disease (six with normal liver tests, 10 with steatosis with or without fibrosis, six with alcoholic hepatitis, 29 with cirrhosis, 34 with both cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis, and four with both cirrhosis and a hepatocellular carcinoma). Ethane exhalation was similar in control subjects and in patients with non-alcoholic liver diseases, but was five times higher in alcohol abusers. Ethane exhalation in alcohol abusers was significantly, but very weakly, correlated with the daily ethanol intake before hospital admission, and the histological score for steatosis, but not with the inflammation or alcoholic hepatitis scores. Ethane exhalation was inversely correlated with the duration of abstinence before the test. In nine alcoholic patients, the exhalation of ethane was measured repeatedly, and showed slow improvement during abstinence. Ethane exhalation was significantly but weakly correlated with the Pugh's score in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. It is concluded that the mean ethane exhalation is increased in alcohol abusers. One of the possible mechanisms may be the presence of oxidizable fat in the liver. The weak correlation with the Pugh's score is consistent with the contribution of many other factors in the progression to severe liver disease. PMID:8472992

  8. Mental disorders in primary care: prevalence and co-morbidity among disorders. results from the functional illness in primary care (FIP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Tomas; Fink, Per; Oernboel, Eva; Christensen, Kaj; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Olesen, Frede

    2005-08-01

    Prevalence and co-occurrence of mental disorders is high among patients consulting their family general practitioner (GP) for a new health problem, but data on diagnostics and socio-demographics are sketchy. A cross-sectional two-phase epidemiological study. A total of 1785 consecutive patients with new complaints, aged 18-65 years, consulting 28 family practices during March-April 2000 in Aarhus County, Denmark were screened, in the waiting room, for mental and somatic symptoms with SCL-8 and SCL-Somatization questionnaires, for illness worry with Whitely-7 and for alcohol dependency with CAGE. In a stratified random sample of 701 patients, physician interviewers established ICD-10 diagnoses using the SCAN interview. Prevalence was calculated using weighted logistic regression, thus correcting for sample skewness. Half of the patients fulfilled criteria for an ICD-10 mental disorders and a third of these for more than one group of disorders. Women had higher prevalence of somatization disorder and overall mental disorders than men. Men had higher prevalence of alcohol abuse and hypochondriasis than women. Psychiatric morbidity tended to increase with age. Prevalence of somatoform disorders was 35.9% (95% CI 30.4-41.9), anxiety disorders 164% (95% CI 12.7-20.9), mood disorders 13.5% (95% CI 11.1-16.3), organic mental disorders 3.1% (95% CI 1.6-5.7) and alcohol abuse 2.2% (95% CI 1.5-3.1). Co-morbidities between these groups were highest for anxiety disorders, where 89% also had another mental diagnosis, and lowest for somatoform disorders with 39%. ICD-10 mental disorders are very prevalent in primary care and there is a high co-occurrence between most disorders. Somatoform disorders, however, more often than not exist without other mental disorders.

  9. [The characteristics of sexual offenders abusing alcohol in view of forensic-psychiatric assessments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Dariusz; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Czupryńska, Katarzyna; Furs, Maciej

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual crime appears to be unquestionable. However, the mechanisms that lead to violence and aggression under the influence of alcohol are not entirely understood in this group of offenders. The aim of this paper was to attempt answering the question: what are the features characterizing sexual offenders declaring alcohol abuse. The research material consisted of 180 forensic psychiatric- sexology assessments issued by experts from Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic in 10 Military Hospital Clinic in Bydgoszcz between 2004 to 2012. A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Sexual Activity" has been used. Relevant statistical dependences were observed. The obtained results show that, a alcohol abuse has a sexual criminogenic effect especially in the coincidence that there are sustainable personality abnormalities and organic CNS damage. The conducted study prove that the sexual perpetrators who abuse alcohol have a poor level of social functioning and brought up in dysfunction families having alcoholic problems. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  10. Burnout and Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Among U.S. Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eric R; Shanafelt, Tait D; Hasan, Omar; Satele, Daniel V; Dyrbye, Liselotte N

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between alcohol abuse/dependence with burnout and other forms of distress among a national cohort of medical students. In 2012, the authors completed a national survey of medical students from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile containing validated items assessing alcohol abuse/dependence, burnout, depression, suicidality, quality of life (QOL), and fatigue. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were computed, including chi-square and multivariate logistic regression, to determine relationships between variables. Of the 12,500 students, 4,402 (35.2%) responded. Of these, 1,411 (32.4%) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence. Students who were burned out (P = .01), depressed (P = .01), or reported low mental (P =.03) or emotional (P = .016) QOL were more likely to have alcohol abuse/dependence. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization domains of burnout were strongly associated with alcohol abuse/dependence. On multivariate analysis, burnout (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.37; P $100,000 (OR 1.27 versus dependence. Burnout was strongly related to alcohol abuse/dependence among sampled medical students and increased educational debt predicted a higher risk. A multifaceted approach addressing burnout, medical education costs, and alcohol use is needed.

  11. Alcohol abuse and involvement in traffic accidents in the Brazilian population, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Ribeiro, Lucas Sisinno; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2016-12-01

    Abstract This article aims to analyze alcohol abuse and frequent consumption according to sociodemographic characteristics and investigate the risk of greater involvement in traffic accidents, using data from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013, Brazil. Events investigated were alcohol abuse and frequent consumption and if the individual was involved in a traffic accident and sustained an injury in the last 12 months. We investigated both events according to sociodemographic characteristics and assessed the association among them through multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of alcohol abuse and frequent consumption was 6.1% for the population aged 18 years and over, 8.9% among men and 3.6% among women. The prevalence of involvement in traffic accidents was 3.1% in the general population and 6.1% among those who reported alcohol abuse. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, alcohol abuse and frequent consumption was significantly associated with traffic accidents. Considering a higher risk of involvement in traffic accidents among individuals who reported alcohol abuse and frequent consumption, monitoring blood alcohol concentration of drivers becomes a strategic possibility of intervention.

  12. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Associated Hepatic Co-Morbidities: A Comprehensive Review of Human and Rodent Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, M.C.; Kleemann, R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that drives the -development of obesity-related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease. This metabolic inflammation is thought to originate in

  13. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. 17... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse...

  14. Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Texas: 1997 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang Y.

    This report provides an update of the costs of alcohol and drug abuse for 1997. The 1997 costs were estimated by multiplying the percent changes in various socioeconomic factors from 1989 to 1997 by the cost estimates. The adverse health and social consequences of substance abuse extensively increased costs to the state. The total economic costs…

  15. Alcohol advertising, consumption and abuse: a covariance-structural modelling look at Strickland's data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlaf, E M; Kohn, P M

    1989-07-01

    Re-analysis employing covariance-structural models was conducted on Strickland's (1983) survey data on 772 drinking students from Grades 7, 9 and 11. These data bear on the relations among alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, association with drinking peers and exposure to televised alcohol advertising. Whereas Strickland used a just-identified model which, therefore, could not be tested for goodness of fit, our re-analysis tested several alternative models, which could be contradicted by the data. One model did fit his data particularly well. Its major implications are as follows: (1) Symptomatic consumption, negative consequences and self-rated severity of alcohol-related problems apparently reflect a common underlying factor, namely alcohol abuse. (2) Use of alcohol to relieve distress and frequency of intoxication, however, appear not to reflect abuse, although frequent intoxication contributes substantially to it. (3). Alcohol advertising affects consumption directly and abuse indirectly, although peer association has far greater impact on both consumption and abuse. These findings are interpreted as lending little support to further restrictions on advertising.

  16. Development of country-wide strategies to reduce the alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikfarjam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence shows that in Iran alcohol abuse rate may be of concern, especially among the youth. The mental and social health and addiction Department of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education has designed a plan to prevent, treat, and rehabilitate the patients abusing alcohol in a time period of 2011-2015. Methods: In a 6-month period, three guiding committees of experts in the field of alcohol abuse reviewed the literature. The meetings of the steering committee were held in order to collect the comments of the policy-makers in recognition of the problem, orientation, and administration procedures for the suggested strategies. The first input was discussed in the committee meeting. In the orientation phase, intervention strategies were suggested whose base was the evaluation of the previous international guidelines. In the final phase, the suggested strategies and challenges and their possible solutions were criticized. Finally, using these strategies, appropriate interventions were defined. Results: Preventing alcohol supply, school- and community-based prevention efforts, monitoring and vigilance were defined as primary prevention. While secondary and tertiary prevention are defined to be the treating and rehabilitating services for the alcohol abusers. Conclusions: We hope by using this strategy we will be able to control alcohol abuse in our country. The first step to reach this aim is done by breaking the taboo of giving alcohol-related information and news using media and educational programs especially to the young population.

  17. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Curriculum Guides for Pediatrics Faculty: Health Professions Education Curriculum Resources Series, Medicine 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Doris H.; And Others

    This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide…

  18. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse... sponsored residents to adjust to and maintain freedom from dependence on or involvement with alcohol or drug...

  19. Does comorbid alcohol and substance abuse affect electroconvulsive therapy outcome in the treatment of mood disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lori; Vaidya, Nutan

    2014-03-01

    Antidepressant medications remain the principal agents used to treat patients with mood disorders, although 30% to 40% of these patients do not improve. One of the factors associated with poor medication response is alcohol and substance abuse. Persons with mood disorders are at the greatest risk for suicide, and alcoholism is a significant additional risk factor. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is shown to be the most effective treatment for major depression especially when associated with psychosis, catatonia, and suicide intent. However, similar to most antidepressant trials, patients with depression and comorbid alcohol and substance abuse are excluded from ECT efficacy studies. Through a retrospective chart review, we compared response to ECT in patients with mood disorder and comorbid alcohol and drug abuse to those with mood disorder only. From 2004 to 2010, 80 patients with mood disorder received ECT. Fifty of these had comorbid alcohol or drug abuse. Using a 10-item psychopathology scale, we compared pre- and post-ECT symptom severity between the 2 groups. Outcome was determined by measuring a decrease in the pre-ECT and post-ECT score using Wilcoxon rank tests, with statistical significance at P = 0.05. There was no difference between the 2 groups in most demographics, ECT medication, or seizure quality. There was no difference in ECT outcome between those with comorbid alcohol abuse and those without based on percent decrease in pre- and post-ECT symptom scores (abuse: mean [SD], 0.89 [0.2] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 1332; P = 0.086). When we compared those who met the criteria for alcohol or drug dependence (19 patients) with those with no abuse, there was a trend for the dependence group to not do as well (dependence: mean [SD], 0.83 [0.25] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 405; P = 0.053). Those with combined drug and alcohol abuse (18 patients) did have a significantly worse outcome (combined: mean [SD], 0.82 [0

  20. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  1. Alcohol and drug abuse among U.S. veterans: comparing associations with intimate partner substance abuse and veteran psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Reardon, Annemarie F; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Hein, Christina L

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the relative influences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Are therapeutic vaccines an answer to the global problem of drug and alcohol abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Dick B S; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer.

  3. The relation of personality to alcohol abuse/dependence in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, A; Krull, J L; Chassin, L; Carle, A C

    2000-12-01

    The current study had two goals. The first goal was to test the mediational role of young adult personality in the relation between parental alcoholism and young adult alcoholism. The second was to examine the associations between personality and alcohol use motives and reasons to limit drinking in order to explore possible mechanisms by which personality may influence alcohol abuse/dependence. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to analyze data obtained from a community sample of young adult children of alcoholics and demographically matched controls. Results revealed that young adult neuroticism and agreeableness each, in part, mediated the effect of parental alcoholism on young adult alcoholism. Moreover, individuals high in neuloticism reported stronger coping motives to use alcohol, individuals low in agreeableness reported stronger coping motives and weaker upbringing reasons to limit drinking, and individuals low in conscientiousness reported stronger coping and enhancement motives to use alcohol, and weaker performance reasons to limit drinking.

  4. "ALS reversals": demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Daniel; Mehta, Paul; van Es, Michael A; Stommel, Elijah; Drory, Vivian E; Nefussy, Beatrice; van den Berg, Leonard H; Crayle, Jesse; Bedlack, Richard

    2018-04-02

    To identify differences in demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities between patients with "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) reversals" and those with typically progressive ALS. Cases of possible ALS reversals were found in prior publications, in the Duke ALS clinic, through self-referral or referral from other Neurologists, and on the internet. Of 89 possible reversals identified, 36 cases were included because chart or literature review confirmed their diagnosis and a robust, sustained improvement in at least one objective measure. Controls were participants in the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials database and the National ALS Registry. Cases and controls were compared using descriptive statistics. ALS reversals were more likely to be male, have limb onset disease, and initially progress faster. The prevalences of myasthenia gravis (MG) and purely lower motor neuron disease in cases were higher than estimates of these prevalences in the general population. The odds of taking curcumin, luteolin, cannabidiol, azathioprine, copper, glutathione, vitamin D, and fish oil were greater for cases than controls. When compared to patients with typically progressive ALS, patients with reversals differed in their demographics, disease characteristics, and treatments. While some of these patients may have had a rare antibody-mediated ALS mimicker, such as atypical myasthenia gravis, details of their exams, EMGs and family histories argue that this was unlikely. Instead, our data suggest that ALS reversals warrant evaluation for mechanisms of disease resistance and that treatments associated with multiple ALS reversals deserve further study.

  5. Death from seizures induced by chronic alcohol abuse--does it exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S

    2007-01-01

    aetiologies, but in police reports a person known to have seizures is most likely to be reported as suffering from epilepsy. It is a well-known fact that alcoholics have seizures either due to "alcohol-induced epilepsy" or due to withdrawal from drinking. It also seems to be generally accepted that alcoholics...... may die from these seizures. A literature study was performed of deaths due to alcohol-induced seizures, either during withdrawal or as late-onset seizures where the aetiology was established as long time alcohol abuse and a necropsy had shown no other possible cause of death than a seizure. RESULTS......: It was not possible to find any well-documented cases. It is, however, difficult to compare cases in the literature, as there is no generally accepted classification or nomenclature of seizures related to alcohol abuse....

  6. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.

  7. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-03-02

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.

  8. Use and Abuse of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs in US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, Joel; Burstein, Marcy; Case, Brady; Conway, Kevin P.; Dierker, Lisa; He, Jianping; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2013-01-01

    Context Comprehensive descriptions of substance use and abuse trajectories have been lacking in nationally representative samples of adolescents. Objective To examine the prevalence, age at onset, and sociodemographic correlates of alcohol and illicit drug use and abuse among US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey of adolescents using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Setting Combined household and school adolescent samples. Participants Nationally representative sample of 10 123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime estimates of alcohol and illicit substance use and DSM-IV diagnoses of abuse, with or without dependence. Results By late adolescence, 78.2% of US adolescents had consumed alcohol, 47.1% had reached regular drinking levels defined by at least 12 drinks within a given year, and 15.1% met criteria for lifetime abuse. The opportunity to use illicit drugs was reported by 81.4% of the oldest adolescents, drug use by 42.5%, and drug abuse by 16.4%. The median age at onset was 14 years for alcohol abuse with or without dependence, 14 years for drug abuse with dependence, and 15 years for drug abuse without dependence. The associations observed by age, sex, and race/ ethnicity often varied significantly by previous stage of use. Conclusions Alcohol and drug use is common in US adolescents, and the findings of this study indicate that most cases of abuse have their initial onset in this important period of development. Prevention and treatment efforts would benefit from careful attention to the correlates and risk factors that are specific to the stage of substance use in adolescents. PMID:22474107

  9. Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    alleviating problems related to alcohol and substance abuse, intimate partner violence, problem gambling , body image and eating disorders, and aggressive... alcohol over the past month. Typi- cal drinking was assessed by asking participants the average number of drinks consumed during a typical occasion in...Lewis,M.A., Lee, C.M., Desai, S., . . . Larimer, M. E. (2010). Group identification as a moderator of the relationship between social norms and alcohol

  10. The influence of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring risk of lifetime suicide attempt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Frequency of co-morbidities associated with spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, A.; Hashim, R.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequencies of comorbidities (dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) of duration > 1 year. Study Design: Case control. Place and Duration of Study: Spinal Cord Injury Department, Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM) Rawalpindi and Department of Chemical Pathology, Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), from October 2013 to March 2014. Patients and Methods: Thirty six patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI), level C5 to T12 were included by non-probability, convenience sampling. Control group consisted of age and sex matched healthy individuals. A detailed medical history was obtained. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for plasma glucose and serum lipid profile. Results: Out of thirty six patients, 31 (86.1%) were male and 5 (13.9%) were females; their mean age was 36.6 ± 11 years. Mean duration of injury was 6.04 ± 3.35 years. Among cases, dyslipidemias were detected in 25 (69.4%) patients while 7 (19.4%) patients had diabetes mellitus. Whereas in control group, frequency of dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus were significantly lower than cases i.e 13.8% and 5.5% respectively. Also no significant difference was found between blood pressures of study group when compared with control group. Conclusion: Individuals with chronic SCI had more frequent associated co-morbid conditions like dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus than normal individuals. Early screening is recommended in patients having SCI >6 months for better patient care and reduction in long term comorbidities in such patients. (author)

  12. Family history of alcohol and drug abuse, childhood trauma, and age of first drug injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Chris; Saddichha, Sahoo; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael R

    2014-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment may lead to development of future substance use; however the contributions of a family history of substance use is unclear. To better understand the relationship between childhood abuse, family history of alcohol and drug abuse, and injecting drug use initiation in a cohort of chronic opioid users. A cross-sectional survey of long-term and difficult to treat intravenous opiate users of the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) cohort was conducted in two Canadian cities (Vancouver and Montreal). For the analysis, we selected a subsample (n = 87) of the population reported experiencing childhood abuse and completed a 12-month follow up. The sample was 41.4% female and 14.9% First Nations, with a mean age of 38 years. This sample then completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) beside others. Maternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. Paternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood physical abuse. Increased severity of all types of childhood trauma was related to an earlier age of first injection. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Family history of drug and alcohol use is strongly associated with childhood trauma, which may, in turn, lead to an earlier initiation to the dangerous routes of drug injection.

  13. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. [The characteristics of offenders abusing alcohol in view of forensic-psychiatric assessments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Dariusz; Talarowska, Monika

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between alcohol consumption and crime appears to be unquestionable. However, the mechanisms that lead to violence and aggression under the influence of alcohol are not entirely understood. To attempt answering the question: what are the features characterizing offenders declaring alcohol abuse. The research material consisted of 581 forensic-psychiatric assessments issued by experts from Psychiatric Ward of 107 Military Hospital in Walcz between 1990 and 2000. A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Activity" has been used. Results. Relevant statistical dependencies were observed. (1) Alcohol consumption has a criminogenic effect and is characteristic for offences against life and health and family. (2) Alcohol abuse is a trigger mechanism for psychiatric disturbances, particularly those with underlying organic damage to CNS.

  15. Alcohol abuse and dependence criteria as predictors of a chronic course of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Carla; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria and the ICD-10 criterion for craving differentially predict a chronic course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the general population. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a large

  16. Co-morbidities of COPD in primary care: frequency, relation to COPD, and treatment consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Thys

    2010-12-01

    In the Western world, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly caused by long-term smoking, which results in pulmonary inflammation that is often associated with systemic inflammation. A number of co-morbid conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, muscle wasting, type 2 diabetes and asthma, may coexist with COPD; these and other co-morbidities not directly related to COPD are major causes of excess morbidity and mortality. This review sets out to explore the most frequent co-morbidities in COPD and their implications for treatment. Review of the literature on co-morbidities of COPD. Co-morbidities are frequent, but often remain undiagnosed in the COPD patient. In order to provide the best possible care for people with COPD, the physician should be aware of all potential co-morbidities that may arise, and the critical role that effective management of these co-morbidities can play in improving patient outcomes. Increased awareness of the potential co-morbidities of COPD, although potentially adding to the general practitioner's work burden, may provide insights into this difficult disease state and possibly improve each individual's prospects for effective management.

  17. Co-morbidity in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, P; Srinath, S; Girimaji, S; Seshadri, S; Sagar, J V

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at a tertiary care child and adolescent psychiatry centre. A total of 63 children and adolescents who were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were comprehensively assessed for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities. The tools used included the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS), Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. All except 1 subject had neurodevelopmental and / or psychiatric disorder co-morbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; 66.7% had both neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Specific learning disability was the most common co-existing neurodevelopmental disorder and oppositional defiant disorder was the most common psychiatric co-morbidity. The mean baseline ADHD-RS scores were significantly higher in the group with psychiatric co-morbidities, especially in the group with oppositional defiant disorder. Co-morbidity is present at a very high frequency in clinic-referred children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric co-morbidity, specifically oppositional defiant disorder, has an impact on the severity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Co-morbidity needs to be explicitly looked for during evaluation and managed appropriately.

  18. Abusive alcohol consumption among adolescents: a predictive model for maximizing early detection and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Ferreira, M; de Moraes, C L; Braga, J U; Reichenheim, M E; da Veiga, G V

    2018-03-17

    To present a predictive model of alcohol abuse among adolescents based on prevalence projections in various population subgroups. Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 785 adolescents enrolled in the second year of high school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Socio-economic, demographic, family, individuals, and school-related variables were examined as potential predictors. The logit model was used to estimate the prevalence projections. Model fitting was examined in relation to the observed data set, and in a subset, that was generated from 200 subsamples of individuals via a bootstrap process using general fit estimators, discrimination, and calibration measures. About 25.5% of the adolescents were classified as positive for alcohol abuse. Being male, being 17-19 years old, not living with mothers, presenting symptoms suggestive of binge eating, having used a strategy of weight reduction in the last 3 months, and, especially, being a victim of family violence were important predictors of abusive consumption of alcohol. While the model's prevalence projection in the absence of these features was 8%, it reaches 68% in the presence of all predictors. Knowledge of predictive characteristics of alcohol abuse is essential for screening, early detection of positive cases, and establishing interventions to reduce consumption among adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The association of perioperative dexamethasone, smoking and alcohol abuse with wound complications after laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Rikke M; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2014-01-01

    , and this was not statistically significant when adjusting for stratification variables originally used in the PROXI trial [OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.65-1.24)]. In smokers, the primary outcome occurred in 32%, compared with 23% of non-smokers (P = 0.0001). Smokers also had a higher frequency of SSI (25% vs 17%, P ... abdomen (3.8% vs 2.4%, P = 0.04). In alcohol abusers, the primary outcome occurred in 48%, compared with 25% in patients who did not abuse alcohol (P = 0.0006). Burst abdomen occurred more commonly in alcohol abusers (15% vs 2.3%, P 

  20. Polysubstance Abuse: Alcohol, Opioids and Benzodiazepines Require Coordinated Engagement by Society, Patients, and Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbu, Uzor C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR, benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:76–79.

  1. Workplace Discrimination Is Associated With Alcohol Abuse Among Ethnically Diverse Hospital Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...

  3. Patterns of alcohol, cigarette, and caffeine and other drug use in two drug abusing populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, L T; Henningfield, J E; Keenan, R M; Lei, H; Leigh, G; Jelinek, L C; Pope, M A; Haertzen, C A

    1993-01-01

    Relationships were explored among the frequencies of use of various drugs by a sample of drug-abusing clients of the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) in Toronto and by drug abusers volunteering to participate in research at the Addiction Research Center (ARC) in Baltimore. The two groups of drug-abusing individuals differed in a number of characteristics. Those from ARF were admitted primarily for diagnosis and possible treatment for alcohol and non-opioid drug problems, whereas those from the ARC were admitted for participation in research on other drugs of abuse, primarily involving opioids. Patterns of use of certain drugs tended to covary in both groups. Of particular interest was the finding that severity of alcoholism was directly related to various measures of tobacco and caffeinated beverage use. In contrast, there was little correlation between the frequency of use among other drugs of abuse (e.g., heroin, cannabis, glue) and the use of tobacco and caffeine. These findings suggest that dependence on nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol may be governed by the same factors and possibly should be considered jointly in the treatment of alcoholic persons. Frequency of use of other drugs examined may be controlled by other factors than those which determine level of use of tobacco and caffeine.

  4. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and...

  5. Lifestyle factors and co-morbidities associated with obesity and overweight in Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otang-Mbeng, Wilfred; Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2017-05-25

    Obesity is a global epidemic that affects 500 million people worldwide and is predicted to increase to one billion people by 2030. The prevalence of obesity is increasing across populations in South Africa. However, questions still remain surrounding the predisposing factors and obesity-related health problems especially in the rural areas. This study evaluated several lifestyle factors such as dietary habits, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, co-morbidities and their association with the prevalence of obesity and overweight in Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted among 118 residents in four rural/sub-urban townships of the study area. Measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dietary habits were determined using a validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 38 and 19%, respectively. The highest prevalence of obesity (70%) was observed among those who do not undertake any physical activity. Close to half (48.48%) of the respondents who eat fast foods always were obese, and 30.30% were overweight; when combined, the prevalence for obesity is 78.78%. A negative association with obesity was observed among regular smokers (26.92%) and consumers of alcohol (4.00%). Arthritis, hypertension and tuberculosis were co-morbidities significantly (P fast and fried foods, low fruit and vegetable consumption as well as arthritis, hypertension and tuberculosis were significant risk factors of obesity in Nkonkobe Municipality.

  6. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  7. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction and Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0126 TITLE: Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction and Relapse PRINCIPAL...10/27/2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2016 — 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for...insights into mechanism; (2) suppression of noradrenergic signaling decreases alcohol drinking in rats with a history of traumatic stress , but not in

  8. Stressful situations in life, use and abuse of alcohol and drugs by elderly in Monterrey, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo,Bertha Alicia Alonso; Marziale,Maria Helena Palucci; Castillo,Maria Magdalena Alonso; Facundo,Francisco Rafael Guzmán; Meza,Marco Vinicio Gómez

    2008-01-01

    This is a descriptive, qualitative, and correlation study with 112 elderly aged 60 years or older. This study aimed to identify differences in alcohol consumption according to gender and marital status, and differences in the consumption of medical drugs by gender. It also aims to determine differences in stressful life events by gender, and differences in stressful life events associated to alcohol and medical drugs use and abuse, as well as to know their perceptions on the most stressful li...

  9. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.

  10. The Medical and Social Consequences of Alcohol Abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    those structures. Relatively little alcohol enters fat tissue due to its poor solubility in fat. Compared with males, females have relatively higher fat content and hence blood and tissue concentrations of alcohol are higher in females5. ... Damage to peripheral nerves manifesting as foot drop, burning sensation in the feet and.

  11. prevalance of alcohol abuse in calabar south local government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyamba

    sample consisted of 400 respondents aged 10-50 years resident in Calabar South. Life time ... easily brand it as a norm to drink alcohol across the whole social spectrum with the student population constituting a .... TABLE 5: Ranking of the various brands of Alcoholic beverages according to order of preference by gender.

  12. Women's Softball Players' Attitudes toward Alcohol Use & Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Shirley A.; Schell, Robert E.

    In some communities, alcohol becomes a part of socialization early in life. In one such community, softball for women has become a popular pastime. Twenty-seven of 48 teams in the community were sponsored by local taverns, bars, or restaurants where alcohol was served. Teams sponsored by taverns were encouraged to meet at the taverns before or…

  13. Dealing with alcohol abuse in general practice | Rodseth | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The excessive use of alcohol is a significant problem in South Africa. The consequences are far-reaching, both for the health of the individual, and for society as a whole. This article examines the role of the family physician in the identification and management of patients with alcohol-use disorders.

  14. [Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in Adults With Social Phobia in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Salas, Gabriel Felipe; Bareño, José; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira; Gaviria, Silvia L

    2014-01-01

    Having a social phobia may lead to consuming alcohol for greater social assertiveness, running the risk of leading to an abuse disorder or alcohol dependence. The aim of the study was to estimate prevalence of pathological comorbidity between social phobia and alcohol consumption in adults of the city of Medellin, and the behavior of comorbidity by gender, age, presence of a father figure in childhood, and education. Secondary analysis of the database of the first Mental Health Population Survey conducted in the city of Medellin in 2011 and 2012 based on the methodology of the World Mental Health Survey guidelines and coordinated by WHO-HARVARD. The lifetime prevalence of abuse and dependence in people with social phobia was 24.1% and 11.2%, respectively. For people with social phobia the prevalence was 13% for abuse and 4.4% for dependence (OR=2.11 for abuse, OR=2.46 for dependence). Annual prevalence of people with social phobia who abused or were dependent on alcohol was 7.8% and 5.9%, respectively, compared to those who do not suffer from this disorder, with a prevalence of 3.4% and 1.7%, respectively (OR=2.39 for abuse and OR=3.57 for dependence). There was significant correlation in the annual and lifetime prevalence between social phobia and the pathological consumption of alcohol. Statistically significant relationships were found for the variables associated with social phobia, however, more work is needed to confirm or refute these associations. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Lower Frequency of co-Morbid Medical Disorders Related to Poor Impulse Control in Parkinson's than Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Erin K; Diaz, Natalie; Morrow, Julia; Chung, Julia; McMurtray, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is associated with progressive degeneration of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons that are involved in reward-based behavior learning, including rewarding effects of food consumption and drugs of abuse. The importance of this pathway in development of addictive behaviors led us to hypothesize that medical disorders related to poor impulse control may occur less frequently among patients with Parkinson's disease than those with other progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients treated for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease in a community based clinic during a two-year period. Associations were summarized using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) estimated from logistic regression models, adjusted for differences in gender distribution between the groups. A total of 106 patients with Parkinson's disease and 72 patients with Alzheimer's disease were included. Patients with Parkinson's disease were less likely to have either past substance use (adjusted OR = 0.035, 95% CI = 0.009 - 0.130) or presence of co-morbid medical conditions related to poor dietary choices (adjusted OR = 0.157, 95% CI = 0.062 - 0.397). Co-morbid medical conditions related to poor impulse control occur less frequently among those with Parkinson's disease than those with Alzheimer's disease. These findings are consistent with dysfunction of dopamine dependent pathways involved in addiction during the presymptomatic phase of Parkinson's disease and support a biological basis for addiction.

  16. Pharmacological and clinical dilemmas of prescribing in co-morbid adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de los Cobos, José; Siñol, Núria; Pérez, Víctor; Trujols, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The present article reviews whether available efficacy and safety data support the pharmacological treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with concurrent substance use disorders (SUD). Arguments for and against treating adult ADHD with active SUD are discussed. Findings from 19 large open studies and controlled clinical trials show that the use of atomoxetine or extended-release methylphenidate formulations, together with psychological therapy, yield promising though inconclusive results about short term efficacy of these drugs in the treatment of adult ADHD in patients with SUD and no other severe mental disorders. However, the efficacy of these drugs is scant or lacking for treating concurrent SUD. No serious safety issues have been associated with these drugs in patients with co-morbid SUD-ADHD, given their low risk of abuse and favourable side effect and drug–drug interaction profile. The decision to treat adult ADHD in the context of active SUD depends on various factors, some directly related to SUD-ADHD co-morbidity (e.g. degree of diagnostic uncertainty for ADHD) and other factors related to the clinical expertise of the medical staff and availability of adequate resources (e.g. the means to monitor compliance with pharmacological treatment). Our recommendation is that clinical decisions be individualized and based on a careful analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of pharmacological treatment for ADHD on a case-by-case basis in the context of active SUD. PMID:23216449

  17. Corporal Punishment of Adolescents by Parents: A Risk Factor in the Epidemiology of Depression, Suicide, Alcohol Abuse, Child Abuse, and Wife Beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Murray A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    1994-01-01

    Studied large national sample of U.S. adults, finding that almost one-half recalled having been corporally punished during adolescence. Data analysis revealed that children who experienced corporal punishment in adolescence had increased risk later in life of depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, alcohol abuse, physical abuse of children, and…

  18. The performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in a population of depressed or anxious persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it

  19. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction.... (B) To qualified personnel for the purpose of conducting scientific research, management audits, financial audits, or program evaluation, but such personnel may not identify, directly or indirectly, any...

  20. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  1. An Exploratory Study of the Nature of Family Resilience in Families Affected by Parental Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, James P.; Nochajski, Thomas; Maguin, Eugene; Safyer, Andrew; DeWit, David; Macdonald, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Resilient families are able to adapt to adversities, but the nature of family resilience is not well understood. This study examines patterns of family functioning that may protect families from the negative impact of alcohol abuse. Naturally occurring patterns of family functioning are identified and associations between these patterns and…

  2. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  3. Alcohol Abuse Increases Rebleeding Risk and Mortality in Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M; Miilunpohja, Sami; Rantanen, Tuomo; Koskela, Jenni M; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Hartikainen, Juha; Paajanen, Hannu

    2015-12-01

    No current data are available on rebleeding and mortality risk in patients who use alcohol excessively and are admitted for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). This information could help in planning interventions and follow-up protocols for these patients. This study provides contemporary data on the long-term outcome after first-time NVUGIB in alcohol abusers (AAs) compared to non-abusers (NAs). Consecutive patients hospitalized for their first acute gastrointestinal bleeding from 2009 through 2011 were retrospectively recorded and categorized as AA or NA. Risk factors for one-year mortality and rebleeding were identified, and patients were further monitored for long-term mortality until 2015. Alcohol abuse was identified in 19.7% of patients with NVUGIB (n = 518). The one-year rebleeding rate was 16.7% in AAs versus 9.1% in NAs (P = 0.027). Alcohol abuse was associated with a twofold increase in rebleeding risk (P = 0.025); the risk especially increased 6 months after the initial bleeding. The study groups did not differ significantly in 30-day (6.0%) or one-year mortality rates (20.5%). However, there was a tendency for higher overall mortality in AAs than NAs after adjustment of comorbidities. AAs with NVUGIB are at high risk of rebleeding, and mortality is increased in AA patients. A close follow-up strategy and long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are recommended for AA patients with peptic ulcer or esophagitis.

  4. Co-morbidity of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with focus on personality traits and related disorders in a tertiary referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Christian P; Romanos, Jasmin; Dempfle, Astrid; Heine, Monika; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Kruse, Anja; Reif, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Romanos, Marcel; Strobel, Alexander; Brocke, Burkhard; Schäfer, Helmut; Schmidtke, Armin; Böning, Jobst; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2007-09-01

    The prevalence and consequences of co-morbid axis-I and axis-II disorders as well as personality traits were examined in a large cohort of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AADHD) at a tertiary referral center. In- and outpatients referred for diagnostic assessment of AADHD were screened. 372 affected probands were examined by means of the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV axis-I/II disorders, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Lifetime co-morbidity with mood disorders was 57.3%, with anxiety disorders 27.2%, and with substance use disorders 45.0%. The histrionic personality disorder (35.2%) was the most frequent personality disorder. AADHD patients exhibited significantly altered scores on most of the NEO-PI-R and TPQ personality dimensions. The extent of substance abuse and dependence, as well as the presence of antisocial personality disorder alone or the cumulative number of other specific personality disorders was associated with lower psychosocial status (pdisorders was remarkably prevalent. In AADHD co-morbid mood, anxiety, and personality disorders as well as substance abuse/dependence is likely to be predictive of poor outcome.

  5. Alcohol and illicit Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, demographic. Characteristics of the study population and type of substance abused among children and adolescents below the age of 18 years. Method :1160 patients below the age of 18 years who had attended psychiatric care between December 1980 and ...

  6. Handbook of the medical consequences of alcohol and drug abuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brick, John

    2008-01-01

    ... consequences and effects of drug abuse. An asset for health care professionals and the general public because of its easy-to-follow structure, index, and extensively researched com- prehensive sections. . . . A very useful guide for medical and other health professions students who need to have this type of information at their fingertips as...

  7. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  8. Epidemiology of ocular allergy and co-morbidities in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Geraldini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis (AC has not been established. Estimates suggest that ocular allergies affect 15% to 20% of the worldwide population, yet most epidemiological studies encompass nasal and ocular allergy symptoms and have not been specific to AC. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of ocular allergy symptoms, co-morbidities, and their impact on adolescents. Methods: Adolescents were selected from a sample of schools, and completed in classrooms a previously validated questionnaire on symptoms of AC. AC diagnosis was considered when more than three episodes of ocular itching were reported in the past 12 months. Related symptoms such as tearing, photophobia, foreign body sensation, impact on daily activities, and diagnosis of AC were analyzed. Results: Questionnaires were obtained from 3,120 adolescents (mean age 13.3 ± 1.1 years. Ocular itching in the past 12 months occurred in 1,592 (51%. The most frequently associated symptom was tearing (74%, followed by photophobia (50.1% and foreign body sensation (37.1%. The prevalence of AC was 20.7%, affecting more females than males (56.1% versus 45.9%; p = 0.01. The risks of an adolescent with ocular allergy to present asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema were (OR = 5.7; 95% CI: 4.5 to 7.1, (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 3.0 to 4.3, and (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 2.0 to 3.5, respectively. Severe interference in daily activities was reported by 30.5%. Conclusions: Symptoms of ocular allergy are common, frequently associated to other allergic diseases, and impact the daily activities of adolescents. Resumo: Objetivo: A prevalência de conjuntivite alérgica (CA não foi estabelecida. Estimativas sugerem que alergias oculares afetam de 15 a 20% da população mundial, ainda que a maioria dos estudos epidemiológicos abranjam sintomas de alergia nasal e ocular e não sejam específicos a respeito da CA. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de sintomas

  9. Associations between vascular co-morbidities and depression in insulin-naive diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopmans, B; Pouwer, F; de Bie, Rob A

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression in insulin-naive diabetes patients and to investigate the associations between different forms of vascular co-morbidity and depression. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were used from a primary-care sample of 1......,269 insulin-naive (i.e. not using insulin therapy) diabetes patients participating in the DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study. Demographics, vascular co-morbidities, clinical and lifestyle characteristics, and psychosocial factors were assessed. Depression symptoms were measured with the Edinburgh Depression.......2% vs 10.0%). Single vascular co-morbidities were not associated with increased rates of depression. The final model predicting depression included: having multiple vascular co-morbidities compared with none; having less social support; having experienced a recent stressful life event; female sex...

  10. Prevention of adolescent reoccurring violence and alcohol abuse: a multiple site evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, John S

    2010-07-01

    "Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple

  11. Meconium indicators of maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy and association with patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecke, Tamme W; Burger, Pascal; Fasching, Peter A; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Voigt, Franziska; Faschingbauer, Florian; Raabe, Eva; Maass, Nicolai; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pragst, Fritz; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Identification of women with moderate alcohol abuse during pregnancy is difficult. We correlated self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy and patient characteristics with objective alcohol indicators measured in fetal meconium. A total of 557 women singleton births and available psychological tests, obstetric data and meconium samples were included in statistical analysis. Alcohol metabolites (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG)), were determined from meconium and correlated with patient characteristics. We found that 21.2% of the 557 participants admitted low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Of the parameters analyzed from meconium, only EtG showed an association with alcohol history (P alcohol consumption, who obviously denied having consumed alcohol during pregnancy. No other associations between socioeconomic or psychological characteristics and the drinking status (via meconium alcohol metabolites) could be found. Women who drink higher doses of ethanol during pregnancy, according to metabolite measures in meconium, might be less likely to admit alcohol consumption. No profile of socioeconomic or psychological characteristics of those women positively tested via meconium could be established.

  12. Cardiovascular manifestations of substance abuse: part 2: alcohol, amphetamines, heroin, cannabis, and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishman, William H; Del Vecchio, Alexander; Sanal, Shirin; Ismail, Anjum

    2003-01-01

    The abuse of alcohol is associated with chronic cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and arrhythmia. Abstinence or using alcohol in moderation can reverse these cardiovascular problems. Alcohol is also distinguished among the substances of abuse by having possible protective effects against coronary artery disease and stroke when used in moderate amounts. Amphetamines (eg, speed, ice, ecstasy) have many of the cardiovascular toxicities seen with cocaine, including acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Heroin and other opiates can cause arrhythmias and noncardiac pulmonary edema, and may reduce cardiac output. Cardiovascular problems are less common with cannabis (marijuana) than with opiates, but major cognitive disorders may be seen with its chronic use. It is still controversial whether caffeine can cause hypertension and coronary artery disease, and questions have been raised about its safety in patients with heart failure and arrhythmia.

  13. Traumatic brain injury and alcohol/substance abuse: A Bayesian meta-analysis comparing the outcomes of people with and without a history of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, David J; Mathias, Jane L

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol and substance (drugs and/or alcohol) abuse are major risk factors for traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, it remains unclear whether outcomes differ for those with and without a history of preinjury abuse. A meta-analysis was performed to examine this issue. The PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched for research that compared the neuroradiological, cognitive, or psychological outcomes of adults with and without a documented history of alcohol and/or substance abuse who sustained nonpenetrating TBIs. Data from 22 studies were analyzed using a random-effects model: Hedges's g effect sizes measured the mean difference in outcomes of individuals with/without a history of preinjury abuse, and Bayes factors assessed the probability that the outcomes differed. Patients with a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse had poorer neuroradiological outcomes, including reduced hippocampal (g = -0.82) and gray matter volumes (g = -0.46 to -0.82), and enlarged cerebral ventricles (g = -0.73 to -0.80). There were limited differences in cognitive outcomes: Executive functioning (g = -0.51) and memory (g = -0.39 to -0.43) were moderately affected, but attention and reasoning were not. The findings for fine motor ability, construction, perception, general cognition, and language were inconclusive. Postinjury substance and alcohol use (g = -0.97 to -1.07) and emotional functioning (g = -0.29 to -0.44) were worse in those with a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse (psychological outcomes). This study highlighted the type and extent of post-TBI differences between persons with and without a history of alcohol or substance abuse, many of which may hamper recovery. However, variation in the criteria for premorbid abuse, limited information regarding the history of abuse, and an absence of preinjury baseline data prevented an assessment of whether the differences predated the TBI, occurred as a result of ongoing alcohol/substance abuse, or

  14. Childhood trauma among individuals with co-morbid substance use and post traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Philippa L; Mills, Katherine L; Barrett, Emma; Back, Sudie E; Teesson, Maree; Baker, Amanda; Sannibale, Claudia; Hopwood, Sally; Rosenfeld, Julia; Merz, Sabine; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of childhood trauma (CT) on the clinical profile of individuals with co-occurring substance use disorder (SUD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Aims To compare the clinical characteristics of individuals with SUD+PTSD who have a history of CT with SUD+PTSD individuals who have experienced trauma during adulthood only. Method Data were collected on 103 individuals as part of a randomised controlled trial examining the efficacy of an integrated psychosocial treatment for SUD+PTSD. Participants were recruited from substance use treatment services, community referrals and advertising. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, substance use and treatment histories, lifetime trauma exposure, and current physical and mental health functioning. Results The vast majority (77%) of the sample had experienced at least one trauma before the age of 16, with 55% of those endorsing childhood sexual abuse. As expected individuals with a CT history, as compared to without, evidenced significantly longer duration of PTSD. Those with a CT history also had more extensive lifetime trauma exposure, an earlier age of first intoxication, and reported more severe substance use (e.g., a greater number of drug classes used in their lifetime, higher severity of dependence scores and greater number of drug treatment episodes). Conclusion Individuals with co-morbid SUD+PTSD who have experienced CT present with a more severe and chronic clinical profile in relation to a number of trauma and substance use characteristics, when compared to individuals with adulthood only trauma histories. It is therefore important for SUD+PTSD treatment planning that CT be carefully assessed. PMID:21984884

  15. Traumatic Brain Injuries during Development: Implications for Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary M. Weil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injuries are strongly related to alcohol intoxication as by some estimates half or more of all brain injuries involve at least one intoxicated individual. Additionally, there is mounting evidence that traumatic brain injuries can themselves serve as independent risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorders, particularly when injury occurs during juvenile or adolescent development. Here, we will review the epidemiological and experimental evidence for this phenomenon and discuss potential psychosocial mediators including attenuation of negative affect and impaired decision making as well as neurochemical mediators including disruption in the glutamatergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic signaling pathways and increases in inflammation.

  16. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth Allison; Ireland, Lana; Forsyth, Alasdair; Godwin, Jon; Laxton, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Scotland has a particular problem with alcohol, and the links between intimate partner abuse (IPA) and alcohol appear stronger here than elsewhere across Europe. This study explored differences in alcohol use, related aggression and relationship conflict across a number of groups: men convicted for intimate partner abuse, men convicted of general offences and men recruited from community sports teams. Participants (n = 64) completed three questionnaires exploring their experiences of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT); alcohol and aggression (Alcohol Related Aggression Questionnaire, ARAQ-28), and relationship conflict (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, CTS-2). There were significant differences across the groups in terms of AUDIT and ARAQ-28 scores, IPA and general offenders scored higher than the community sample. CTS-2 scores showed significant differences: both offender groups reported more use of negotiation and psychological abuse, than the community men, and IPA offenders reported causing more physical harm than either general offenders or the community sample. ARAQ-28 scores correlated with psychological abuse for general offenders. Alcohol use was very high across all groups, but the community group did not endorse an aggression-precipitating view of alcohol and did not report high IPA. Discussed is the need for cross-cultural research to explore putative mediators and moderators in the relationship between alcohol, aggressiveness and IPA. [Gilchrist EA, Ireland L, Forsyth A, Godwin J, Laxton T. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:20-23]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  18. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Glozah, Franklin N.

    2014-01-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The resu...

  19. Using Motivational Interviewing to Address College Client Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Mark B.; Schmitt, Dorothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI; W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick, 2002) is presented as a potentially effective counseling strategy for assisting traditionally aged college students in reducing their problematic, heavy alcohol use. MI's congruence with two developmental theories--Self-Determination Theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and…

  20. Symbolic Policy and Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In Canada, the prevalence of alcohol use among school-age students has emerged as a leading public health issue. Though governments at all levels have called for inter-organizational collaboration to address the issue, the representation of youth interests by key community groups is critical to the efficacy of those initiatives. This article…

  1. Prevalance of Alcohol Abuse in Calabar South Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decreased work performance 77.25%, increase in violence and crime 77%, poverty 50.75%, wife and childbearing 73.75%, increase in accident rate 80.5%, children inability to continue schooling 83.5% Nigerian culture, it appears that there is a culture of alcohol implicitly institutionalized that one could easily brand it as a ...

  2. Alcohol abuse and docosahexaenoic acid: Effects on cerebral circulation and neurosurvival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Collins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are major and yet surprisingly unacknowledged worldwide causes of brain damage, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Chronic abuse of alcohol is likely to elicit significant changes in essential polyenoic fatty acids and the membrane phospholipids (PLs that covalently contain them in brain membranes. Among the fatty acids of the omega-3 polyenoic class, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which is relatively concentrated in mammalian brain, has proven particularly important for proper brain development as well as neurosurvival and protection. DHA losses in brains of chronic alcohol-treated animals may contribute to alcohol′s neuroinflammatory and neuropathological sequelae; indeed, DHA supplementation has beneficial effects, including the possibility that its documented augmenting effects on cerebral circulation could be important. The neurochemical mechanisms by which DHA exerts its effects encompass several signaling routes involving both the membrane PLs in which DHA is esterified as well as unique neuroactive metabolites of the free fatty acid itself. In view of indications that brain DHA deficits are a deleterious outcome of human alcoholism, increasing brain DHA via supplementation during detoxification of alcoholics could potentially fortify against dependence-related neuroinjury.

  3. Epigenetic Modulation of Brain Gene Networks for Cocaine and Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Farris

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS. Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpected biochemical relationships. Clustering analysis of variation from whole-genome sequencing of gene expression (RNA-Seq and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3 events (ChIP-Seq revealed the underlying structure of the transcriptional and epigenomic landscape within hippocampal postmortem brain tissue of drug abusers and control cases. Distinct sets of interrelated networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse were determined for each abusive substance. The network approach identified subsets of functionally related genes that are regulated in agreement with H3K4me3 changes, suggesting cause and effect relationships between this epigenetic mark and gene expression. Gene expression networks consisted of recognized substrates for addiction, such as the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein PPP1R1B / DARPP-32 and the vesicular glutamate transporter SLC17A7 / VGLUT1 as well as potentially novel molecular targets for substance abuse. Through a systems biology based approach our results illustrate the utility of integrating epigenetic and transcript expression to establish relevant biological networks in the human brain for addiction. Future work with laboratory models may clarify the functional relevance of these gene networks for cocaine and alcohol, and provide a framework for the development of medications for the treatment of addiction.

  4. The effect of intimate exposure to alcohol abuse on the acquisition of knowledge about drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, J P

    1994-01-01

    This study explored how an alcohol education program might be structured to effectively educate college students about the consequences of alcohol use. The primary hypothesis tested stated that individuals would vary significantly in the amount of knowledge learned from a structured alcohol education workshop, based on the degree of familial or social exposure s/he has had to alcohol abuse. Social learning variables of locus of control, dogmatism, and expectancy for risk were tested for interaction with degree of exposure, to determine their influence on learning. A pretest-posttest control group was employed with a sample of 66 undergraduate college students. A four hour alcohol education program was administered to teach cognitive information and fact about alcohol, with a goal of facilitating responsible use/nonuse of alcohol. The Student Drinking Questionnaire measured acquisition of knowledge. The Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal/External Scale measured locus of control, and Schultze's Short Dogmatism Scale measured dogmatism. The researcher developed an instrument for expectancy for risk. Multiple regression analyses yielded prediction equations for the variables under study. For the sample group, results demonstrated that a significant portion of the variance in the residualized posttest scores was accounted for by level of exposure and dogmatism. When the sample was blocked according to intimate or social exposure, dogmatism was the only construct entering the regression equation at a significant level for the intimate exposure group. None of the constructs were able to predict any of the residualized posttest scores for the social exposure group. It was concluded that: (1) Students in the sample learned differentially based on the degree of intimate exposure of alcohol; (2) Dogmatism is a moderating variable with acquisition of knowledge for those intimately exposed to alcohol abuse, but locus of control and expectancy for risk are not; and (3) Further

  5. Personality traits in alcohol-dependent individuals in the context of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhant, Aneta; Olajossy, Marcin

    2016-10-31

    The aim of this study was to identify groups of alcohol-dependent individuals differing in the severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse and to find the personality variables that discriminate between those groups. The study included 90 individuals dependent on alcohol. The following questionnaires were used: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Coping Inventory (COPE), the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), Cattell's IPAT Anxiety Scale, and the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI). Two groups of subjects addicted to alcohol were identified: group 1 with high and group 2 with low childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse indices. The subjects in Group 1 had significantly higher scores than the subjects in Group 2 on the TCI Temperament scales of NS and HA and lower scores on the TCI character scales of SD, C2 and C4. Group 1 subjects were significantly more likely than those from Group 2 to use avoidant coping strategies; they were also less likely to use problem-focused strategies and had significantly higher scores on general anxiety, overt anxiety, latent anxiety, level of aggression, physical aggression, hostility and anger. The higher severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse in alcoholics is associated with those personality traits that seem to be crucial for maintaining abstinence and the quality of cooperation in therapy.

  6. Alcohol abuse as the strongest risk factor for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudumija Slijepcevic, Marija; Jukic, Vlado; Novalic, Darko; Zarkovic-Palijan, Tija; Milosevic, Milan; Rosenzweig, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    To determine predictive risk factors for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia in Croatia. The cross-sectional study including male in-patients with paranoid schizophrenia with (N=104) and without (N=102) history of physical violence and violent offending was conducted simultaneously in several hospitals in Croatia during one-year period (2010-2011). Data on their sociodemographic characteristics, duration of untreated illness phase (DUP), alcohol abuse, suicidal behavior, personality features, and insight into illness were collected and compared between groups. Binary logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of violent offending. Predictors of violent offending were older age, DUP before first contact with psychiatric services, and alcohol abuse. Regression model showed that the strongest positive predictive factor was harmful alcohol use, as determined by AUDIT test (odds ratio 37.01; 95% confidence interval 5.20-263.24). Psychopathy, emotional stability, and conscientiousness were significant positive predictive factors, while extroversion, pleasantness, and intellect were significant negative predictive factors for violent offending. This study found an association between alcohol abuse and the risk for violent offending in paranoid schizophrenia. We hope that this finding will help improve public and mental health prevention strategies in this vulnerable patient group.

  7. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse.

  8. Increased detection of co-morbidities with evaluation at a dedicated adult Turner syndrome clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, A J; Nguyen, H H; Ranasinha, S; Vollenhoven, B

    2017-10-01

    Turner syndrome (TS), resulting from complete/partial X chromosomal monosomy, is associated with multiple co-morbidities and increased mortality. Although multidisciplinary management is recommended, TS women's health care is sub-optimal. This study evaluates a multidisciplinary adult TS service. Retrospective cohort study of 82 patients attending the quarterly TS clinic from December 2003 to December 2014. Evaluation included (1) demographics, (2) TS standardized co-morbidity screening, and (3) estrogen therapy use. Data analysis involved frequency statistics, T tests and polychoric correlation analysis. Median age at TS diagnosis was 14 years (range 0-65 years), with 12% of women aged >18 years. Median age at initial consultation was 31 years (range 16-65 years). Only 14% of patients were transition program referrals. XO karyotype occurred in 30%. Primary amenorrhea predominated; however, 37% of TS women were not taking estrogen therapy. The proportion of patients not previously screened (44-76%) and those with positive screening diagnoses (5-53%) varied according to co-morbidity. The mean (± standard deviation) number of co-morbidities identified increased following TS clinic screening (7.0 ± 2.6 post-screening vs. 4.4 ± 2.3 pre-screening; p < 0.0001). Polychoric correlation analysis identified particular co-morbidity groupings (including metabolism-related) and increased co-morbidities with primary amenorrhea. A multidisciplinary adult TS clinic improves health surveillance with increased identification of co-morbidities and initiation of estrogen therapy.

  9. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  10. Study of Personality Factors in Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    has ever been on an alcoholism treatment unit can attest to the high rate of nicotine and caffeine consumption in this population. More empirically...administrations of cannabis . Moreover, despite the crucial role of learning in substance use, people still choose and perceive their learning...Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45’, 609-611. Bachman, J., & Jones, R. Personality correlates of cannabis dependence. Addictive Behaviors

  11. Reminder: Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    You are reminded that: - the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; - the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events (Operational Circular No. 8); - failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him/her to abandon the vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he/she submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade. They will also stop and question any obviously intoxicate...

  12. Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...

  13. Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard; Finn, Peter; Jose, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer

    2011-12-16

    This study tested the hypothesis that adolescent-onset alcohol abuse (AOAA) would both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder on antisocial behaviour in late adolescence and early adulthood. A sample comprising 504 young men and women strategically recruited from the community were grouped using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA), as follows: neither childhood conduct disorder (CCD) nor alcohol abuse/dependence; CCD but no alcohol abuse or dependence; alcohol abuse/dependence but no CCD; both CCD and alcohol abuse/dependence. The outcome measure was the sum of positive responses to 55 interview items capturing a variety of antisocial behaviours engaged in since age 15. Severity of lifetime alcohol-related and CCD problems served as predictor variables in regression analysis. Antisocial behaviour problems were greatest in individuals with a history of co-occurring conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol abuse/dependence. While CCD was strongly predictive of adult antisocial behaviour, this effect was both mediated and moderated (exacerbated) by AOAA.

  14. Estudo comparativo das habilidades sociais de dependentes e não dependentes de álcool Comparative study of social skills among alcohol abusers and non abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Patrício Aliane

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar e comparar diferenças nas habilidades sociais (HS de dependentes e não dependentes de álcool. Foram pesquisados 80 sujeitos, entre dependentes e não-dependentes, usuários do SUS, e usados dois instrumentos para coleta dos dados: Inventário de Habilidades Sociais (IHS e AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Foi realizado um estudo comparativo das HS entre os grupos de dependentes e não-dependentes de álcool e álcool e outras drogas (AOD. Os resultados obtidos mostraram não existir diferença no escore do IHS entre dependentes e não-dependentes. Os homens obtiveram maior média nas habilidades de conversação e desenvoltura social e autocontrole da agressividade que as mulheres e, na amostra masculina, dependentes de álcool apresentaram maior média na habilidade de autocontrole da agressividade que dependentes de AOD. Apesar de a literatura sobre o tema discutir os déficits de HS entre dependentes, este estudo não confirmou esta hipótese.This research aims to evaluate and compare differences in Social Skills of alcohol abusers and non-abusers. Eighty people were interviewed, among alcohol abusers and non-abusers, patients of a Health Care Center (SUS. Two instruments were used to collect the data: Social Skills Inventory (ISS and AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. A Comparative study between the alcohol abusers and non-abusers including other drugs was carried out. The results showed that there is no difference between the alcohol abusers and non-abusers ISS scores. Men showed a better score in conversation and social abilities also in self-control of the aggressiveness than women did. In addiction, men addicted to alcohol showed a better score in self-control of the aggressiveness than men addicted to alcohol and other drugs. Although literature about this topic shows that the alcohol abuse have an decrease of these social skills, this research does not

  15. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.

  16. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES USED TO ADDRESS ALCOHOL ABUSE IN THE NORTH WEST PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setlalentoa, Marilyn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the purposes of the Alcohol Sub-Study of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE study was to identify the socio-economic effects of binge drinking from the perspective of community support networks and assess their intervention efforts to address the alcohol abuse problem in the selected areas of study. Emphasis was placed on implementation of plans and legislation; however, eradication of the problem seems to be insignificant for various reasons. This article reports on these identified challenges and proposes appropriate intervention strategies that take cognisance of the nature of the communities for which intervention efforts are intended

  17. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

  18. Association between alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit substance abuse and risk of developing schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M

    2017-01-01

    .04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.84-6.26]. Cannabis (HR 5.20, 95% CI 4.86-5.57) and alcohol (HR 3.38, 95% CI 3.24-3.53) presented the strongest associations. Abuse of hallucinogens (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.43-2.41), sedatives (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.49-1.90), and other substances (HR 2.85, 95% CI 2.58-3.15) also...

  19. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sharqi, Abdullah Mohammed; Sherra, Khaled Saad; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-...

  20. Mood disorder, anxiety, and suicide risk among subjects with alcohol abuse and/or dependence: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina D. Wiener

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Results: Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60% individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men. Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. Conclusion: These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  1. Mood disorder, anxiety, and suicide risk among subjects with alcohol abuse and/or dependence: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Carolina D; Moreira, Fernanda P; Zago, Alethea; Souza, Luciano M; Branco, Jeronimo C; Oliveira, Jacqueline F de; Silva, Ricardo A da; Portela, Luis V; Lara, Diogo R; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean P

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60%) individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  2. Alcohol and drug abusers' reasons for seeking treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J A; Sobell, L C; Sobell, M B; Gaskin, J

    1994-01-01

    Clients at two different treatment facilities were asked at assessment how influential each of 10 possible reasons were in their decision to change their alcohol or drug use. Clients at both facilities most often endorsed "weighing the pros and cons of drinking or drug use" and a "warning from spouse." Client's reasons for seeking treatment were also examined in relation to treatment compliance. Three reasons--"weighing the pros and cons," "hitting rock bottom," and experiencing a "major lifestyle change"--were predictive of treatment compliance. Clients who rated any of these reasons as influential were more likely to enter and complete treatment. Although more research is needed, knowledge of clients' reasons for seeking treatment might be useful in treatment matching.

  3. Association between sleep bruxism and alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and drug abuse: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzo-Silveira, Eduardo; Kruger, Cristian Maikel; Porto De Toledo, Isabela; Porporatti, André Luís; Dick, Bruce; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to answer the focused question, "In adults, is there any association between sleep bruxism (SB) and alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, or drug abuse?" This systematic review included studies in which the investigators assessed SB diagnosis by using questionnaires, clinical assessment, or polysomnography and evaluated its association with alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, or drug abuse. The authors graded SB as possible, probable, or definitive. The authors developed specific search strategies for Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science. The authors searched the gray literature by using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The authors evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies by using the Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument. From among 818 studies, the authors selected 7 for inclusion in which samples ranged from 51 through 10,229 participants. SB was associated highly with alcohol and tobacco use. In 1 study, the investigators noted a positive and weak association for heavy coffee drinkers. The odds for SB seem to increase almost 2 times for those who drank alcohol, almost 1.5 times for those who drank more than 8 cups of coffee per day, and more than 2 times for those who were current smokers. The abuse of methylenedioxymethamphetamine associated with SB remained without sufficient evidence. On the basis of limited evidence, SB was associated positively with alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco. The association between the studied drugs could not be discredited; however, there is still a need for stronger evidence based on studies with greater methodological rigor. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N

    2014-11-06

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.

  5. Exploring the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin N. Glozah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.

  6. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N.

    2014-01-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951

  7. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: rate of referral for neurorehabilitation and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Herlihy, D

    2012-04-01

    Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients continue to present with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) which may be associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. We audited our patients with HAND referred for psychiatric assessment against the National Service Framework guidelines that they should receive neurorehabilitation. We found that despite these patients posing a risk to themselves and others due to poor insight and medication adherence, high rates of psychiatric co-morbidity and severely challenging behaviour, few were referred for neurorehabilitation. We recommend that clear referral pathways for psychiatric intervention and neurorehabilitation are established in HIV treatment centres.

  8. Impact of pre-existing co-morbidities on mortality in granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    of pre-existing co-morbidities among the patients was quantified according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Each patient was matched with five age- and gender-matched population controls with no pre-existing co-morbidities captured by the CCI (CCI score = 0). The study subjects were followed...... throughout 2010. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate mortality rate ratios (MRRs). RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up in the GPA cohort was 5.8 years (interquartile range 2.3-10.0). Compared with their matched population controls, the MRR for patients presenting with a CCI score of 0 (n...

  9. Pathophysiology of the Effects of Alcohol Abuse on the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue. Alcohol abuse disrupts all of these systems and causes hormonal disturbances that may result in various disorders, such as stress intolerance, reproductive dysfunction, thyroid problems, immune abnormalities, and psychological and behavioral disorders. Studies in both humans and animal models have helped shed light on alcohol's effects on various components of the endocrine system and their consequences.

  10. Harm Reduction as “Continuum Care” in Alcohol Abuse Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icro Maremmani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention.

  11. PTSD symptom presentation among people with alcohol and drug use disorders: Comparisons by substance of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Wanklyn, Sonya; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Coffey, Scott F

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accounted for the presence of comorbidity across types of SUDs in understanding symptom patterns. Thus, in the current study, we use a treatment-seeking sample of people with elevated symptoms of PTSD and problem alcohol use to explore differential associations between past-year SUDs with active use and PTSD symptoms, while accounting for the presence of multiple SUDs. When comparing alcohol and drug use disorders, avoidance symptoms were elevated in those with alcohol use disorder, and hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in those who had a drug use disorder. In the subsample with alcohol use disorder, hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring cocaine use disorders and numbing symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic use disorder. These findings provide evidence for different symptom cluster patterns between PTSD and various types of SUDs and highlight the importance of examining the functional relationship between specific substances of abuse when understanding the interplay between PTSD and SUDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol and drug abuse in the workplace - managing the human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKibbon, D.; Glass, H. [Kelly Luttmer and Associates Ltd., (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    The impact of drugs and alcohol in the workplace was reviewed. The policies and procedures which are required to ensure that employers meet due diligence requirements were discussed. Under the Canadian human rights legislation an employer cannot terminate an employee for having a medical illness including alcoholism or drug addiction. The implementation of a comprehensive drug and alcohol policy was said to be important to demonstrate to employees that the organization is ready to take a proactive and supportive role in addressing this health concern. The issue of drug testing and when to drug screen was also discussed. It was suggested that addressing substance abuse in the workplace through policies, procedures and practices can reduce costs related to lost productivity, absenteeism, workers` compensation claims, staff turnover, health benefit premiums and legal liabilities.

  13. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspring lifetime suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increase likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. However, when experienced together, only parental alcohol abuse significantly increased odds of suicide attempt. It is unclear to what extent differences in the effect of maternal versus paternal alcohol use exist on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt risk. This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt. The sample consisted of participants from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The simultaneous effect of childhood or adolescent parental divorce and maternal and paternal history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime suicide attempt was estimated using a logistic regression model with an interaction term for demographics and parental history of other emotional and behavioural problems. Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems nearly doubled the likelihood of suicide attempt. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Individuals who experienced parental divorce as children or adolescents and who have a parent who abuses alcohol are at elevated risk for lifetime suicide attempt. These problem areas should become a routine part of assessment to better identify those at risk for lifetime suicide attempt and to implement early and targeted intervention to decrease such risk. [Thompson RG Jr,Alonzo D, Hu M-C, Hasin DS. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspringlifetime suicide attempt. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:408-414]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. The role of distress intolerance in the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and problematic alcohol use among Latin American MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Biello, Katie B; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Novak, David S; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and its well-documented association with substance use in adulthood, little research has examined the psychological mechanisms underlying this association. The current study utilized a large, multinational sample of MSM in Latin America to examine the role of distress intolerance (i.e., decreased capacity to withstand negative psychological states) in the relationship between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. As part of an online survey conducted among members of the largest social/sexual networking website for MSM in Latin America, participants (n=19,451) completed measures of childhood sexual abuse history, distress intolerance, and problematic alcohol use (CAGE score>=2). Participants who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse indicated higher levels of distress intolerance, which was in turn associated with greater odds of engaging in problematic alcohol use. A mediation analysis further showed that distress intolerance partially accounted for the significant association between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. These findings provide initial evidence for the role of distress intolerance as a process through which early trauma shapes MSM health later in life. These findings also underscore the potential utility of addressing distress intolerance in alcohol use prevention and intervention efforts that target MSM with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying effective components of alcohol abuse prevention programs: effects of fear appeals, message style, and source expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, R D; Rogers, R W

    1983-04-01

    Despite the importance of alcohol abuse prevention programs, the effectiveness of many components of these programs has not been demonstrated empirically. An experiment tested the efficacy of three components of many prevention programs: fear appeals, one- versus two-sided message style, and the expertise of the source. The persuasive impact of this information was examined on 113 ninth-grade students' intentions to abstain from drinking alcohol while they are teenagers. The results reveal that fear appeals are successful in strengthening students' intentions to refrain from drinking. Implications are discussed for implementing these principles and for designing future investigations of alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  16. Epilepsy and Intellectual Disability: Does Epilepsy Increase the Likelihood of Co-Morbid Psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Saadia; Winterhalder, Robert; Underwood, Lisa; Kelesidi, Katerina; Chaplin, Eddie; Kravariti, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Although epilepsy is particularly common among people with intellectual disability (ID) it remains unclear whether it is associated with an increased likelihood of co-morbid psychopathology. We therefore investigated rates of mental health problems and other clinical characteristics in patients with ID and epilepsy (N=156) as compared to patients…

  17. Challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jane; Hemmings, Colin; Kravariti, Eugenia; Dworzynski, Katharina; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (N=124) as compared to adults with ID only (N=562). All participants were first time referrals to specialist mental health services and were living in community settings. Clinical diagnoses were based on ICD-10 criteria and presence of challenging behavior was assessed with the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS-B). The analyses showed that ASD diagnosis was significantly associated with male gender, younger age and lower level of ID. Challenging behavior was about four times more likely in adults with ASD as compared to non-ASD adults. In those with challenging behavior, there were significant differences in co-morbid psychopathology between ASD and non-ASD adults. However, after controlling for level of ID, gender and age, there was no association between co-morbid psychopathology and presence of challenging behavior. Overall, the results suggest that presence of challenging behavior is independent from co-morbid psychopathology in adults with ID and ASD. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Myocardial infarction and other co-morbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is nominally the most important co-morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the one with the greatest potential for treatment and prevention to improve the overall prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. We assessed the extent...

  19. Gender Differences in Co-Morbid Psychopathology and Clinical Management in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Kravariti, Eugenia; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined rates of co-morbid psychopathology and clinical management/care pathways in adult females (N = 50) and males (N = 100) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) living in community settings. We also compared a sub-sample (N = 60) with ASD to an age-, gender- and ID-matched control group (N =…

  20. Relationships between indices of obesity and its co-morbidities in multi-ethnic Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Chew, S.K.; Lin, V.F.; Tan, B.Y.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2001-01-01

    Paper Relationships between indices of obesity and its co-morbidities in multi-ethnic Singapore M Deurenberg-Yap1, S K Chew2, V F P Lin1, B Y Tan2, W A van Staveren3 and P Deurenberg3,4 1Research and Information Management, Health Promotion Board, Singapore 2Department of Epidemiology and Disease

  1. Co-morbidity and treatment outcomes of elderly pharyngeal cancer patients : A matched control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Thomas T. A.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Plaat, Boudewijn; Wedman, Jan; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; van Dijk, Boukje A. C.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Halmos, Gyorgy

    2011-01-01

    Treatment choice in elderly pharyngeal cancer patient is disputed. This study was aimed to asses association of co-morbidity, complications and survival in different treatment modalities of pharyngeal cancer patients. Retrospective analysis of pharyngeal cancer patients, diagnosed between 1997 and

  2. Mortality in COPD patients discharged from hospital: the role of treatment and co-morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, G; Gislason, T; Lindberg, E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse mortality and associated risk factors, with special emphasis on health status, medications and co-morbidity, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that had been hospitalized for acute exacerbation. METHODS: This prospective ...

  3. Co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis and celiac disease in Scandinavian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, Gjermund; Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Giljam, Marita

    2009-01-01

    Background: The co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and celiac disease (CD) has been reported sporadically since the 1960s. To our knowledge, this is the first time a systematic screening is performed in a large cohort of CF patients. Methods: Transglutaminase-IgA (TGA), endomysium-IgA (EMA...

  4. Disease management for co-morbid depression and anxiety in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoop, Corinne H; Spek, Viola R M; Pop, Victor J M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common co-morbid health problems in patients with type 2 diabetes. Both depression and anxiety are associated with poor glycaemic control and increased risk of poor vascular outcomes and higher mortality rates. Results of previous studies have shown that in ...

  5. Recreational Substance Use Patterns and Co-Morbid Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Eddie; Gilvarry, Catherine; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2011-01-01

    There is very limited evidence on the patterns of recreational substance use among adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) who have co-morbid mental health problems. In this study we collected clinical and socio-demographic information as well as data on substance use patterns for consecutive new referrals (N = 115) to specialist mental health…

  6. Co-morbidities of COPD in primary care : frequency, relation to COPD, and treatment consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molena, Thys

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In the Western world, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly caused by long-term smoking, which results in pulmonary inflammation that is often associated with systemic inflammation. A number of co-morbid conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, muscle

  7. Effects of Malnutrition as a Co-Morbid Factor on Neurocognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of malnutrition as a co-morbid factor on neurocognitive functioning in HIV positive adults in Lusaka. Design: A cross- sectional study consisting of 263 participants. The sample comprised of 109 (40.2 %) males and 162 (59.8%) females with an age range of between 20 and 65 years.

  8. Whiplash(-like) injury diagnoses and co-morbidities – both before and after the injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Tom; Kjellberg, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    at the same time-points. Methods: From a hospital patient registry over a 12-year period, we identified those with the diagnosis 'cervical-column distortion' and matched four controls for each of them on sex, age, marital status and county of residence. For calculations of co-morbidity, those with an injury...

  9. The impact of co-morbidity burden on appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Anne Christine; Vinther, Michael; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    -ICD indication-related co-morbidities including atrial fibrillation, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal disease, liver disease, cancer, chronic psychiatric disease, and peripheral and/or cerebrovascular disease, and divided into four groups (co-morbidity burden 0, 1, 2, and ≥3......). Through Cox models, we assessed the impact of co-morbidity burden on appropriate ICD therapy and mortality. Increasing co-morbidity burden was not associated with increased risk of appropriate therapy, irrespective of implant indication [all hazard ratios (HRs) 1.0-1.4, P = NS]. Using no co...

  10. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sharqi AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of self-harming behavior in patients with alcohol or drug abuse problems.Methods: This was a one-year study that recruited a convenience sample of 736 outpatients and inpatients identified with alcohol or drug abuse, and was conducted at Al-Amal mental health hospitals in three major cities. All consecutively selected patients were interviewed on five working days for data collection on a semistructured sociodemographic form using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Risk Assessment version.Results: In addition to the socioclinical profile revealed, 50.7% of respondents reported any suicidal ideation, while 6.9% reported self-injurious behavior without intent to die. Any suicidal and self-injurious behavior was reported by 13.1% of participants. A total of 71.3% of respondents reported any recent negative activating events. In addition to any treatment history, observed correlates were hopelessness (60.7%, perceived burden on family (29.5%, refusing a safety plan (26.1%, and sexual abuse (11%. Conversely, reasons for living (64.9%, fear of death or dying due to pain and suffering (64.3%, and spirituality (92% were largely endorsed as protective factors. There were multiple significant odds ratios (P ≤ 0.01 revealed when independent socioclinical variables were compared with dependent variables in terms of suspected risk and protective factors. In an adjusted logistic regression model

  11. Increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules and endotoxemia in patients with chronic alcohol abuse in different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Schütz, Tanja

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: No information is yet available about the influence of alcohol abuse on the translocation of larger molecules (Mr>1200) through the intestinal mucosa in man. The present study aimed to determine the intestinal permeability to macromolecules in patients with chronic alcohol abuse...... and mild to more advanced stages of liver disease, and to measure the concentration of endotoxins in the plasma, as these compounds derive from the intestinal flora and are suspected to contribute to the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: The permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400......, Mr 1500, Mr 4000, and Mr 10,000 and endotoxin plasma concentrations were measured in 54 patients with alcoholic liver disease, 19 of them with cirrhosis, and in 30 non-alcoholic healthy controls. RESULTS: Permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400 was found to be unchanged in patients with ALD...

  12. Oxytocin receptor gene variation rs53576 and alcohol abuse in a longitudinal population representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaht, Mariliis; Kurrikoff, Triin; Laas, Kariina; Veidebaum, Toomas; Harro, Jaanus

    2016-12-01

    Oxytocin is an important regulator of social relationships and has been implicated in development of substance use and addiction. We examined the association of a variance in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576 polymorphism) with alcohol use in a population-representative sample, and potential moderation by social functioning. The analysis was carried out on the older birth cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (ECPBHS), a cohort of initially 15 years old children (original n=593) recalled at ages 18 and 25. In all data collection waves the participants reported the frequency of consuming alcoholic beverages. Psychiatric interview was carried out at age 25 to assess the lifetime prevalence of substance use disorders. Adverse social interactions with teachers, classmates and family members were self-reported at ages 15 and 18. The minor (A) allele frequency was 0.37. Males homozygous for the A allele (suggested to be associated with less efficient oxytocinergic functioning) were more frequent alcohol consumers at ages 15 and 18 and also more likely to have had alcohol abuse or addiction by age 25 compared to male G allele carriers. Alcohol use was not associated with the OXTR genotype in females. Both male and female AA homozygotes who had reported less favourable relations with their teachers at age 15 more likely had alcohol use disorder. OXTR rs53576 polymorphism is associated with alcohol use and prevalence of alcohol use disorders in males, and this may be moderated by inferior interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Co-morbidities, social impact and quality of life in Tourette syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamma eEapen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is more than having motor and vocal tics, and this review will examine the varied co-morbidities as well as the social impact and Quality of Life (QoL in individuals with TS. The relationship between any individual and his/her environment is complex and this is further exaggerated in the case of a person with TS. For example, tics may play a significant role in shaping the person’s experiences, perceptions and interactions with the environment. Further, associated clinical features, co-morbidities and co-existing psychopathologies may compound or alter this relationship. The common co-morbidities in this regard include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and disruptive behaviours, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, and co-existent problems include anxiety, depression and low self esteem, which can all lead to poorer psychosocial functioning and QoL. Thus, the symptoms of TS and the associated co-morbid conditions may interact to result in a vicious cycle or a downward spiralling of negative experiences and poor QoL. The stigma and social maladjustment in TS and the social exclusion, bullying and discrimination is considered to be caused in large part by misperceptions of the disorder by teachers, peers, and the wider community. Improved community and professional awareness about TS and related co-morbidities & other psychopathologies as well as the provision of multidisciplinary services to meet the complex needs of this clinical population are critical. Future research to inform the risk and resilience factors for successful long term outcomes is also warranted.

  14. HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes among alcohol and drug abusers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, I I; Kotb, N K; Hemeda, S A; Zaki, F

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice towards HIV/AIDS among alcohol and drug abusers and the effect of health education (HE) on their knowledge and attitudes. Participants were 265 substance abusers, recruited from 8 addiction rehabilitation centers. A base line study preceding HE was done using a questionnaire composed of five sections. Three scores were developed to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge. The base line study indicates that addicts with good knowledge scores > or =75%) regarding modes of transmission were significantly higher among males than females. About 70% of the addicts had negative attitudes towards dealing with HIV/AIDS patients, while 55.5% felt sympathy for them. Eleven percent of the injection drug abusers were sharing needle with others, while 38% of the participating females were previously convicted of prostitution. Logistic analysis showed that high level of education was the best predictive variable for good knowledge scores (> or =75%). Evaluation of the health education program revealed a highly significant increase in the knowledge scores among both males and females compared to the pretest scores. An increase in the percentages of male and female addicts with improved attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients was also noted after HE. So, HE was found to be a successful tool in improving the knowledge and attitudes of substance abusers towards HIV/AIDS.

  15. [Gender and accessibility barriers to treatment in alcohol abuse patients in the Autonomous Region of Valencia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Dols, Sofía; Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos; Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Samper-Gras, Teresa; Hernández-Martínez, Ma Carmen; Torrijo-Rodrigo, Ma José

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the factors that contribute to delaying the access of alcohol abuse patients to specific treatment centres in the Autonomous Region of Valencia (Spain). 563 patients from Addictive Behaviours Units (UCA) and Alcohology Units (UA) were interviewed. A survey was conducted which included items on previous requested treatment in other centres and on barriers of accessibility to treatment in specific ambulatory centres. A descriptive analysis and t-student and ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc tests were carried out. 59.7% of respondents said they had requested previous treatment in non-specific resources due to physical or psychical trouble that they now relate to their alcohol use although they did not do so at the time, in addition to being motivated by their own alcohol abuse (42.8%). The most attended resources were Primary Care and Specialist Unit Care. Women showed a higher demand for treatment in Mental Health Services (p gender differences in barriers that delay access to treatment do exist. It is necessary to build gender-adapted intervention guidelines to be used in Primary Care and Mental Health services to reduce the accessibility barriers to treatment.

  16. The Role of Orexins/Hypocretins in Alcohol Use and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Leigh C; Lawrence, Andrew J

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and drug taking despite negative consequences. Alcohol abuse and addiction have major social and economic consequences and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available therapeutics are inadequate, outlining the need for alternative treatments. Detailed knowledge of the neurocircuitry and brain chemistry responsible for aberrant behavior patterns should enable the development of novel pharmacotherapies to treat addiction. Therefore it is important to expand our knowledge and understanding of the neural pathways and mechanisms involved in alcohol seeking and abuse. The orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptide system is an attractive target, given the recent FDA and PMDA approval of suvorexant for the treatment of insomnia. Orexin is synthesized exclusively in neurons located in the lateral (LH), perifornical (PEF), and dorsal medial (DMH) hypothalamus. These neurons project widely throughout the neuraxis with regulatory roles in a wide range of behavioral and physiological responses, including sleep-wake cycle neuroendocrine regulation, anxiety, feeding behavior, and reward seeking. Here we summarize the literature to date, which have evaluated the interplay between alcohol and the orexin system.

  17. Definition of Terms in Mental Health, Alcohol Abuse, Drug Abuse, and Mental Retardation: Methodology Reports. Mental Health Statistics Series C, No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This report seeks to define basic terms for use in mental health, alcoholism, drug abuse and mental retardation programs in order to achieve some progress toward a long-range goal of improved communication and exchange of information among concerned disciplines in these fields. While the report does represent the most complete and developed work…

  18. Alcohol myopia and sexual abdication among women: examining the moderating effect of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Jennifer M; George, William H; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2015-02-01

    HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship. This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there must be high conflict, meaning the strength of the instigatory cues and inhibitory cues are both high. Recent research indicates that the degree to which cues are experienced as high in instigation or inhibition is subject to individual difference factors. One individual difference factor associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking is child sexual abuse (CSA) history. The current study examined the influence of acute alcohol intoxication, CSA, and inhibition conflict on sexual abdication with 131 women (mean age 25) randomized into a 2 (alcohol, control)×2 (high conflict, low conflict) experimental design. Regression analyses yielded a significant 3-way interaction, F (1,122)=8.15, R(2)=.14, psexual decision making among women with CSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol abuse management in primary care: an e-learning course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Celina Andrade; Wen, Chao Lung; Tavares, Hermano

    2015-03-01

    The mental health knowledge gap challenges public health. The Alcohol Abuse Management in Primary Care (AAMPC) is an e-learning course designed to cover alcohol-related problems from the primary care perspective. The goal of this study was to verify if the AAMPC was able to enhance healthcare professionals' alcohol-related problems knowledge. One hundred subscriptions for the AAMPC were offered through the federal telehealth program. The course was instructor-led and had nine weekly classes, delivered synchronously or asynchronously, at the students' convenience, using a varied array of learning tools. At the beginning, students took a test that provided a positive score, related to critical knowledge for clinical management, and a negative score, related to misconceptions about alcohol-related problems. The test was repeated 2 months after course completion. Thirty-three students completed the course. The positive score improved significantly (pE-learning was highly appreciated as a learning tool, especially by students with the least frequency of Internet use. Nonetheless, it worked better for those previously familiar with e-courses. The AAMPC e-course provided effective knowledge transmission and retention. Complementary strategies to reduce misconceptions about alcohol-related problems must be developed for the training of primary care staff.

  20. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood: do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-12-01

    To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. We analyzed data from the first, third, and fourth wave of a population-based prospective cohort study of 2230 adolescents conducted between 2001 and 2010 (mean ages: 11.1, 16.3, and 19.1, respectively). Alcohol use and abuse were measured at T4 by self-report questionnaires and by the Composite International Diagnostics Interview (CIDI), respectively. Peer alcohol use, self-control, and parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends were measured at T3. We adjusted for gender, age, socioeconomic-status, parental alcohol use, and adolescent baseline alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence was related to young adults' alcohol use and abuse [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.31 (1.11-1.54) and 1.50 (1.20-1.87), respectively]. Neither parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends nor self-control modified this relationship. Alcohol abusers were more likely to have low self-control than alcohol users. No differences were found between alcohol users and abusers regarding their parents' perception of their friends and peer alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence affects young adults' alcohol use and abuse. We found that self-control was only related to alcohol abuse. Peer influence was not modified by parents' perception of peers or by self-control. Peer alcohol use and self-control should thus be separate targets in the prevention of alcohol use/abuse. © 2013.

  1. 76 FR 78015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...

  2. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and...

  3. 76 FR 39406 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...

  4. 77 FR 24726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; 93.701, ARRA Related Biomedical Research and...

  5. 75 FR 47819 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and...

  6. 77 FR 43604 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; 93.701, ARRA...

  7. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs, National Institutes...

  8. 78 FR 20932 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 2...

  9. Lights! Camera! Action Projects! Engaging Psychopharmacology Students in Service-based Action Projects Focusing on Student Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus "alcohol culture." Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one's community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course.

  10. [Diagnostics and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome patients with an alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria; Sonne, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition with high morbidity and mortality and occurs as a consequence of thiamine deficiency. Clinical symptoms are often ambiguous and post-mortem examinations show that the syndrome is underdiagnosed and probably undertreated. There is sparse clinical evidence concerning optimal dosage and duration of treatment. This article reviews the current literature and concludes that all patients with a history of alcohol abuse should be treated with high dosage IV thiamine for an extended period of time, albeit further research is needed.

  11. Treatment seeking adults with autism or ADHD and co-morbid Substance Use Disorder: Prevalence, risk factors and functional disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, Bram; van den Brink, Wim; Koeter, Maarten; Gorissen van Eenige, Marielle; van Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in adults, especially not about ASD with co-morbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). We wanted to examine how adults with ASD compare to adults with ADHD on prevalence and risk factors for co-morbid SUD, and on disability levels associated

  12. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol and substance abuse among motorcycle drivers in Fars province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Taghi Heydari; Mehrdad Vossoughi; Armin Akbarzadeh; Kamran B.Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani; Kazem Javanmardi; Ali Akbary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers.Methods:This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran.Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the dayThe data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some of the risky behaviors during driving.Results:A total of 414 drivers with a mean ± SD age of(27.0 + 9.3) years participated in the study.Alcohol or substance consumptions two hours before driving was significantly associated with risky driving behaviors such as using mobile phone during driving,poor maneuvering,and driving over the speed limit (both p < 0.001).It was also associated with carelessness about safety such as driving with technical defects (p < 0.001) and not wearing a crash helmet (p =0.008).Conclusion:Screening for alcohol and substance consumption among motorcycle drivers is an efficient way to identifiy drivers that are at a greater risk for road traffic accidents.

  14. Chronic alcohol abuse and endosseous implants: Linkage of in vitro osteoblast dysfunction to titanium osseointegration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torricelli, Paola; Fini, Milena; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Rimondini, Lia; Tschon, Matilde; Rimondini, Roberto; Carrassi, Antonio; Giardino, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with pathological effects on bone, and it is correlated with the increasing risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The negative effects of alcohol intake also influence bone repair processes and the osseointegration of implants. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the proliferation and synthetic activity of osteoblasts isolated from the trabecular bone of rats previously exposed to 7-week intermittent exposure to ethanol vapour (EE-OB), and sham-aged rats (SA-OB), when cultured on standard commercially pure Ti (cpTi). Osteoblast proliferation (WST-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), collagen type I (CICP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured at 1, 7, and 14 days of culture. Our results showed a decrease in the cell viability and synthetic activity of osteoblasts exposed to ethanol when cultured on cpTi. Moreover, the release of local regulatory factors from osteoblasts was imbalanced: TGF-β1 production was reduced and TNF-α and IL-6 were up-regulated. These in vitro data suggest that alcohol abuse affects bone repair and decreases the ability to form bone around standard cpTi. Innovative surfaces and adjuvant therapies could be useful when implants are required in alcoholics

  15. Elevated ACE activity is not associated with asthma, COPD, and COPD co-morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Julie; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Dahl, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is a potential candidate gene for risk of asthma, COPD, and COPD co-morbidity. In 9034 Danish adults, we determined whether individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the ACE D allele are at greater risk of asthma, COPD, or COPD co-morbidity compared...... with ACE II homozygous individuals. In the general population, serum ACE activity increased with the number of D alleles (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA: II vs. ID, p....4-1.2). The results were similar upon adjustment for sex, age, smoking status, body mass index, total cholesterol, and ACE inhibitor/angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker use. These data suggest that lifelong genetically elevated ACE activity is not a major risk factor for asthma or COPD, or for ischemic heart...

  16. Could the improvement of obesity-related co-morbidities depend on modified gut hormones secretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Carmine; Padula, Maria Carmela; Martelli, Giuseppe; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated diseases are a worldwide epidemic disease. Usual weight loss cures - as diets, physical activity, behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy - have been continuously implemented but still have relatively poor long-term success and mainly scarce adherence. Bariatric surgery is to date the most effective long term treatment for morbid obesity and it has been proven to reduce obesity-related co-morbidities, among them nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and mortality. This article summarizes such variations in gut hormones following the current metabolic surgery procedures. The profile of gut hormonal changes after bariatric surgery represents a strategy for the individuation of the most performing surgical procedures to achieve clinical results. About this topic, experts suggest that the individuation of the crosslink among the gut hormones, microbiome, the obesity and the bariatric surgery could lead to new and more specific therapeutic interventions for severe obesity and its co-morbidities, also non surgical. PMID:25469034

  17. [Application of operant conditioning techniques to forensic toxicology: experimental studies on alcohol and abusable drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishida, S

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes some experiments that apply the operant conditioning techniques to forensic toxicological research. These techniques may be useful in investigating the mechanisms of action, toxic symptoms, legal competence and drug metabolism associated with substance abuse such as abuse of alcohol, psychotropic drugs, narcotics, stimulants, and organic solvents. 1) Genetic research on alcohol preference in rats. We applied operant conditioning to investigate alcohol preference in rats and constructed an apparatus for the measurement of discriminated operate responses for water or alcohol reinforcement in rat. This apparatus is a modified Skinner box with a one-lever two-liquid system. Fixed ratio-10 (FR-10) schedules of reinforcement are used to increase the work of the rat before it obtains the reinforcement. The voluntary choice of water or 10% ethanol by the rat can be assessed quantitatively by measuring the lever-pushing responses. It is an extremely useful method for measuring the real alcohol preference of rats. A rat was kept in a Skinner box overnight. The numbers of responses and reinforcement for water and ethanol and the volumes of the two liquids consumed were recorded. The ratio of ethanol reinforcement was defined as the number of ethanol reinforcement to the total number of ethanol and water reinforcement. The ratio of ethanol intake was defined as the volume of ethanol consumed to the volume of water and ethanol consumed. Ethanol consumption per g body weight was calculated from the volume of ethanol consumed by the rat. We used this apparatus to investigate alcohol preference of more than 300 Wistar Albino Rats, and divided them into a high alcohol preference (HAP) group and a low alcohol preference (LAP) group. Inbreeding between littermates was conducted in each of the HAP and LAP groups. The liver tissue of each offspring was obtained and the cytosol fraction was collected and subjected to isoelectric focusing using polyacrylamide gel

  18. Discriminability of Personality Profiles in Isolated and Co-Morbid Marijuana and Nicotine Users

    OpenAIRE

    Ketcherside, Ariel; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Baine, Jessica L.; Filbey, Francesca M

    2016-01-01

    Specific personality traits have been linked with substance use disorders (SUDs), genetic mechanisms, and brain systems. Thus, determining the specificity of personality traits to types of SUD can advance the field towards defining SUD endophenotypes as well as understanding the brain systems involved for the development of novel treatments. Disentangling these factors is particularly important in highly co-morbid SUDs, such as marijuana and nicotine use, so treatment can occur effectively fo...

  19. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S.; Requi?o, Marinalva G.; Marasaldi, Renata F.; Filomensky, Tatiana Z.; Hodgins, David C.; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the ...

  20. Pharmacological management of co-morbid conditions at the end of life: is less more?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLean, S

    2013-03-01

    Co-morbid conditions (CMCs) are present in over half of patients with cancer over 50 years of age. As life-limiting illnesses progress, the benefits and burdens of treatments for CMCs become unclear. Relevant issues include physiological changes in advanced illness, time-to-benefit of medications, burden of medications, and psychological impact of discontinuing medications. Optimal prescribing is unclear due to lack of evidence.

  1. Sodium pentothal hypnosis: a procedure for evaluating medical patients with suspected psychiatric co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M B; Brooks, F R; Fontenot, J P; Dopler, B M; Neely, E T; Halliday, A W

    1997-03-01

    The cases presented here were patients referred for neurologic disability evaluations. They met the three selection criteria presented and underwent the four-phase pentothal hypnosis procedure described and at the conclusion were diagnosed as having psychiatric morbidity. We recommend that the sodium pentothal hypnosis procedure be considered for use whenever there is concern for psychiatric co-morbidity in a patient with presumed physiologic disease.

  2. Vocal cord paralysis post patent ductus arteriosus ligation surgery: risks and co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukholm, Gavin; Farrokhyar, Forough; Reid, Diane

    2012-11-01

    1. To determine the prevalence of left vocal cord paralysis (LVCP) post patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation at a Tertiary Care Centre. 2. To identify risk factors associated with LVCP. 3. To identify co-morbidities associated with LVCP. 4. To determine the frequency of pre- and post-operative nasopharyngolaryngoscopic (NPL) examination in this patient population. Retrospective chart review of all infants who underwent PDA ligation surgery at a tertiary care academic hospital between July 2003 and July 2010. Data on patient age, gender, weight, method of PDA ligation, and results of NPL scoping were collected, as well as patient co-morbidities post PDA ligation. One hundred and fifteen patients underwent PDA ligation surgery. Four patients were excluded due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Of the remaining 111 patients, nineteen patients (17.1%) were found to have LVCP. Low birth weight was identified as a significant risk factor for LVCP (p=0.002). Gastroesophageal reflux was identified as a significant co-morbidity associated with LVCP post PDA ligation (p=0.002). Only 0.9% of patients were scoped pre-operatively, and 27.9% were scoped postoperatively. LVCP is associated with multiple morbidities. The authors strongly recommend routine post-operative scoping of all patients post PDA ligation surgery, and preoperative scoping when possible. A prospective study is warranted, in order to confirm the prevalence of LVCP as well as risk factors and associated co-morbidities. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The anxiety disorders and suicidal ideation: accounting for co-morbidity via underlying personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragon-Gainey, K; Watson, D

    2011-07-01

    The anxiety disorders are robust correlates/predictors of suicidal ideation, but it is unclear whether (a) the anxiety disorders are specifically associated with suicidal ideation or (b) the association is due to co-morbidity with depression and other disorders. One means of modeling co-morbidity is through the personality traits neuroticism/negative emotionality (N/NE) and extraversion/positive emotionality (E/PE), which account for substantial shared variance among the internalizing disorders. The current study examines the association between the internalizing disorders and suicidal ideation, after controlling for co-morbidity via N/NE and E/PE. The sample consisted of 327 psychiatric out-patients. Multiple self-report and interview measures were collected for internalizing disorders [depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety, panic and specific phobia] and suicidal ideation, as well as self-report measures for N/NE and E/PE. A model was hypothesized in which each disorder and suicidal ideation was regressed on N/NE, and depression and social anxiety were regressed on E/PE. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the unique association of suicidality with each disorder, beyond shared variance with N/NE and E/PE. The hypothesized model was an acceptable fit to the data. Although zero-order analyses indicated that suicidal ideation was moderately to strongly correlated with all of the disorders, only depression and PTSD remained significantly associated with suicidal ideation in the SEM analyses. In a latent variable model that accounts for measurement error and a broad source of co-morbidity, only depression and PTSD were uniquely associated with suicidal ideation; panic, GAD, social anxiety and specific phobia were not.

  4. Socio-demographic characteristics associated with cigarettes smoking, drug abuse and alcohol drinking among male medical university students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Ataee, Mari; Ahmadi Jouybari, Touraj; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is one of the most complicated social problems. Understanding socio-demographic characteristics of those who abuse substances could help deal with this problem more efficiently. The main objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics associated with alcohol drinking, cigarettes smoking and drug abuse among a sample of male medical university students in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 425 male medical college students randomly selected with the proportional to size among different faculties in Isfahan and Kermanshah medical universities in Iran. A self-report written questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by the SPSS-20. Mean age of the respondents was 19.9 yr (ranging from 18 to 22 yr). About 19.4%, 3.9%, and 10.1% of the respondents had history of cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol drinking during the past three months, respectively. Logistic regression showed that mother's educational level, living place, economic status, and parents' divorce were the most influential predictive factors on substance abuse. Considering the high prevalence of substance abuse (especially smoking and alcohol drinking), it seems essential to design educational interventions to prevent substance abuse, paying attention to predictive factors mentioned above, among college students.

  5. Epilepsy and quality of life: socio-demographic and clinical aspects, and psychiatric co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Maria de Almeida Souza Tedrus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study socio-demographic and clinical aspects, as well as psychiatric co-morbidity that influence the quality of life of adult epileptic patients. Methods One hundred and thirty-two individuals diagnosed with epilepsy were evaluated from neurological/clinical and psychiatric points of view and by the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31. Predictive factors for the QOLIE-31 scores were studied. Results The regression analyses indicated the existence of psychiatric co-morbidity (total score, seizure worry, emotional well-being, energy/fatigue, social function and cognitive function and a greater seizure frequency (total score, cognitive function and energy/fatigue as predictive factors for lower scores in the total QOLIE-31 score and in various dimensions. Abnormalities in the neurological exam and poly-therapy with anti-epileptic drugs were negative factors limited to one of the dimensions cognitive function and social function, respectively. Conclusion The presence of psychiatric co-morbidity and a greater seizure frequency were the main factors influencing the quality of life in epileptic patients as evaluated by QOLIE-31.

  6. Treatment outcome of schizophrenia co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.S.; Arshad, N.; Naeem Ullah

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological treatment outcome of schizophrenia, co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder by comparing the effects of typical neuroleptic, atypical neuroleptic and a combination of typical with anti-obsessional drugs on positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and obsessional symptoms. Subjects and Methods: The sample consisted of 39 patients suffering from schizophrenia co-morbid with obsessive- compulsive disorder. They were divided in three groups according to the pharmacological treatment given by the treating psychiatrists. Sample was assessed at the start of treatment and twelve weeks later. Results: Patients receiving typical neuroleptics and anti-obsessional drugs showed better outcome (p < .05) both in psychotic (pre-intervention mean scores of positive scale of PANSS 26.90 as compared to postinterventional mean scores 19.00) and obsessional symptoms (pre-intervention mean scores on Padua Inventory 165.00 compared to 84.00 postinterventional mean scores) than those receiving typical and atypical neuroleptics alone. Conclusion: Treatment outcome of schizophrenia co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder shows better results if anti-obsessional drugs are added to the neuroleptics. (author)

  7. Developing a successful treatment for co-morbid insomnia and sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Alexander M; Lack, Leon C; Catcheside, Peter G; Antic, Nick A; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; Smith, Simon S; Douglas, James A; McEvoy, R Doug

    2017-06-01

    Insomnia and sleep apnoea are the two most common sleep disorders, found in 6% and 23-50% of the general population respectively. These disorders also frequently co-occur, with 39-58% of sleep apnoea patients reporting symptoms indicative of co-morbid insomnia. When these disorders co-occur, clinicians are faced with difficult treatment decisions, patients experience the additive detrimental impacts of both disorders, and the effectiveness of discrete treatments for each disorder may be impaired. A common finding is that co-morbid insomnia and sleep apnoea (COMISA) is more difficult to treat than either disorder presenting alone. Co-morbid insomnia reduces the initial acceptance of, and later adherence to, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea. This has resulted in recent recommendations that treatment approaches should initially target COMISA patients' insomnia to remove this barrier to CPAP treatment, and improve patient outcomes. However, no randomised controlled trial outcomes investigating this treatment approach currently exist. The current article aims to review and integrate recent research examining the prevalence, characteristics, and theoretical mechanistic relationships between co-occurring insomnia and OSA, and discuss previous treatment attempts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Co-morbid anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder and major depression: familial aggregation and clinical characteristics of co-morbid panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, F S; McCusker, M G; Bienvenu, O J; Mackinnon, D F; Mondimore, F M; Schweizer, B; Depaulo, J R; Potash, J B

    2012-07-01

    Co-morbidity of mood and anxiety disorders is common and often associated with greater illness severity. This study investigates clinical correlates and familiality of four anxiety disorders in a large sample of bipolar disorder (BP) and major depressive disorder (MDD) pedigrees. The sample comprised 566 BP families with 1416 affected subjects and 675 MDD families with 1726 affected subjects. Clinical characteristics and familiality of panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were examined in BP and MDD pedigrees with multivariate modeling using generalized estimating equations. Co-morbidity between mood and anxiety disorders was associated with several markers of clinical severity, including earlier age of onset, greater number of depressive episodes and higher prevalence of attempted suicide, when compared with mood disorder without co-morbid anxiety. Familial aggregation was found with co-morbid panic and OCD in both BP and MDD pedigrees. Specific phobia showed familial aggregation in both MDD and BP families, although the findings in BP were just short of statistical significance after adjusting for other anxiety co-morbidities. We found no evidence for familiality of social phobia. Our findings suggest that co-morbidity of MDD and BP with specific anxiety disorders (OCD, panic disorder and specific phobia) is at least partly due to familial factors, which may be of relevance to both phenotypic and genetic studies of co-morbidity.

  9. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse in American Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document is the text of a Congressional hearing called to examine prevention of alcohol abuse in American families. In her opening statement, Representative Lindy Boggs states that alcohol abuse is related to many problems confronting families including divorce, violence, and behavioral emotional problems and that the purpose of this hearing…

  10. Liver Transplantation and Abuse of Drugs and Alcohol: A Correlation Between Scales of the MMPI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, M; Prinzi, G; Campagna, E; Battaglia, T; Barucco, T; Polchi, S; Kisialiou, A; Colasanti, M; Felli, E; Lepiane, P; Santoro, R; Vennarecci, G; Ettorre, G M

    2016-03-01

    Clinical practice requires an accurate psychological assessment of subjects with clinical history of alcohol abuse and/or substance abuse (abuse history [AH]) for therapeutic choice. This study aims to identify significant correlations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 scales in patients awaiting liver transplantation. We evaluated a personality questionnaire containing MMPI-2 scales in the sample of 308 patients (81.8% males and 18.2% females) awaiting liver transplantation. The AH group composed 44.49% of patients and in the abuse free (AF) group, 55.51%. Scales were compared using Shapiro-Wilk test and Mann-Whitney U test. Interrelationships were examined using Spearman's correlation. This analysis found 27 scales of the MMPI-2 that were statistically different between 2 groups (AF and AH). In the AH group, we found a significant correlation between the following pairs of scales: Schizophrenia Scale (Sc) with the Addictions Potential Scale, Social Introversion scale (Si) with the Psychopathic Deviate scale (Pd), and Social Discomfort scale with Pd; the ES scale was negatively correlated with the Sc and Si scales. This interim study showed that the understanding of these indicators is crucial both for the assessment accuracy and for a prediction of the degree of therapy compliance after the transplantation. The scales of the MMPI-2 indicated a marked tendency to emotional rigidity, a lack of self-esteem and susceptibility judgment. Social introversion and social discomfort trends lead to impulsive behavior and deviant actions that combine poorly with good compliance with treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse and Social Network Patterns on Social Media: Associations With Alcohol Use and Problems Among Young Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Himelboim, Itai; Kwon, Josephine A; Sutton, Tara E; Mackillop, James

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the links between severities of child abuse (physical vs. sexual), and alcohol use versus problems via social media (Facebook) peer connection structures. A total of 318 undergraduate female students at a public university in the United States reported severity of child abuse experiences and current alcohol use and problems. Social network data were obtained directly from the individuals' Facebook network. Severity of childhood physical abuse was positively linked to alcohol use and problems via eigenvector centrality, whereas severity of childhood sexual abuse was negatively linked to alcohol use and problems via clustering coefficient. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were linked positively and negatively, respectively, to online social network patterns associated with alcohol use and problems. The study suggests the potential utility of these online network patterns as risk indices and ultimately using social media as a platform for targeted preventive interventions.

  12. Perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Mothiba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a problem in South Africa and it has negative effects on the wellbeing of individuals, families, friends, work associates and neighbours. Alcohol produces both psychological and physical dependence. Gillies (1999:112 indicated that alcoholism usually interferes with the ability to socialize, work and may lead to much other destructive behaviour. It was further stated that people who are addicted to alcohol often have a low self-esteem, immaturity, are easily frustrated, and have difficulty in solving personal problems. This study investigated the perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol and identified, among others, anti-social behaviour, poor interpersonal relationships, family disorganization, poor integration with family members and physical damage as the major concerns. An attempt was also made to develop strategies that can be used to overcome the problems of alcohol abuse by youth. Design and Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed in this study for the participants to describe their perceptions regarding the phenomenon in question (Brink, 2006:113. Data were collected through individual unstructured interviews in one village of the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. The researchers employed the principles of Guba and Lincoln (1993 cited in De Vos (1998:331 relating to trustworthiness and adhered to the ethical standards as set by the Democratic Nurses Association of South Africa (DENOSA, 1998:2.3.2. Findings: Five themes and seven categories emerged from the data analysis, using Tech’s open coding approach (1990, as outlined in De Vos (1998:343, namely, antisocial behaviour, poor interpersonal behaviour, physical damage, poor progress in life processes and effects of alcohol on the body. To address the problem of alcohol abuse by youth in one village (the study area of the Capricorn District in the Limpopo Province and other villages the

  13. Managed alcohol as a harm reduction intervention for alcohol addiction in populations at high risk for substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Wendy; Muckle, Jamie; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2012-12-12

    at high risk for alcohol abuse attending MAP, defined as a structured programme that provided clients with controlled amounts of alcohol on a daily schedule, comparing no treatment, moderate drinking, brief intervention or 12-step variants. All study citations were collated into a single database. Two review author independently screened titles and abstracts and selected references potentially relevant to the review. Differences between selection lists were resolved by discussion. Two review authors independently evaluated whether studies should be included or excluded according to the eligibility criteria. In the event of a disagreement, a third author was consulted. No studies were included in the review. This systematic review was intended to assess the effectiveness of a brief MAP on the reduction of incidence of harmful behaviour; however, no evidence was available to make this comparison; 22 articles were considered possibly relevant and all were excluded. Most articles were excluded because they failed to compare or consider managed alcohol as the experimental or control intervention, as well as one study (Baker 2010), which was also excluded because study participants were under 18 years of age. No study reviewed offered an intervention that was compared with managed alcohol or considered it as the intervention of interest, providing insufficient evidence to address the objectives of the review. Four studies (Aalto 2001; Baker 2010; Bertholet 2005; Tracy 2007) considered alcohol reduction as an outcome of interest, while four engaged interventions in a shelter setting or targeted vulnerable people (Baker 2010; Bradford 2005; Lapham 1993; McGlynn 1993); only one study (Kidd 2011) offered a qualitative assessment of a participant being admitted to MAP, but offered no analysis of the programme itself. These results accurately reflect the use of MAPs in current practice as existing programmes are ongoing only in a small number of sample pilot projects that target

  14. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This…

  15. Patterns of Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Intimate Partner Violence Among Township Mothers in South Africa Over 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Emily C; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weichle, Thomas W; Rezai, Roxana; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In South Africa, alcohol abuse is hypothesized to correlate with women's HIV status, mental health, and partner relationships over time. All pregnant women in 12 urban, low-income, Cape Town neighborhoods were interviewed at baseline, post-birth, and at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months following delivery with retention rates from 82.5 to 94%. Women were assessed for any alcohol use, problematic drinking, depression, intimate partner violence, and HIV status. Prior to pregnancy discovery and 5 years after giving birth, alcohol use was 25.8 and 24.7%, respectively. Most women decreased their alcohol use during pregnancy. Twenty-one percent reported alcohol use on two or more assessments, and only 15% of the mothers drinking alcohol at 5 years were also drinking at baseline. Mothers with depression had a higher likelihood of drinking alcohol compared to mothers who were not depressed only at baseline and 6 months post-birth. Mothers who experienced IPV had more than twice the likelihood of drinking alcohol compared to non-IPV mothers at all assessments. HIV positive mothers were more likely to drink alcohol compared to mothers without HIV prior to pregnancy discovery and at 5 years post-birth. These longitudinal trends in alcohol use among young women in South Africa represent a large economic, social, and health burden and must be addressed in a comprehensive manner.

  16. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...

  17. Risk factors for out-of-home custody child care among families with alcohol and substance abuse problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkola, Taisto; Kahila, Hanna; Gissler, Mika; Halmesmäki, Erja

    2007-11-01

    To study the risk of children to mothers with alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for early childhood out-of-home care in Finland. A population-based cross-sectional retrospective analysis of 526 pregnant women attending special outpatient clinics during 1992-2001 and their 626 offspring, with out-of-home care data until 2003 provided by the National Child Welfare Register. Fifty percent (95% confidence interval 46-54%) were at some point and 38% (34-42%) by the age of two years, in out-of-home care. Out-of-home care was associated with maternal care for substance abuse after delivery, nonemployment, housing, daily smoking during pregnancy, increasing number of previous births, mother in custody in her childhood, maternal education, previous child in custody, drug in urine during pregnancy, unplanned pregnancy, partner with significant abuse, regular health-care contact for abuse, daily alcohol consumption before and/or during pregnancy, newborn not discharged with mother, neonatal abstinence symptoms (NAS), intensified perinatal surveillance or NICU, and delayed discharge from hospital. There is a substantial risk of children born to mothers with significant alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for out-of-home care during early childhood. Factors identified during the pre- and perinatal period are associated with this risk.

  18. Are Outness and Community Involvement Risk or Protective Factors for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among Sexual Minority Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; London, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk for substance abuse compared to heterosexual women. Two psychosocial factors that have been implicated in SMW's substance abuse are outness and LGBT community involvement, but findings have been mixed as to whether these are risk or protective factors. One possible explanation is that they may have different consequences for subgroups of SMW (lesbians, bisexual women, and queer women). While being open about one's sexual orientation and involved in the community may be protective for lesbians, discrimination against bisexual women may lead these same factors to contribute to substance abuse for bisexual women. It is unclear how these associations will operate for queer women, given limited research on this subpopulation. The current study examined whether sexual identity moderated the associations between outness and community involvement with alcohol and drug abuse. We also examined whether perceived discrimination would help explain why these associations may be different for subgroups of SMW. A sample of 288 self-identified SMW (113 lesbians, 106 bisexual women, and 69 queer women) completed an online survey. Higher outness was associated with higher alcohol and drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Similarly, higher community involvement was associated with higher drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Among bisexual women, the association between community involvement and drug abuse was mediated by perceived discrimination. Further, the association between outness and drug abuse was mediated by both community involvement and perceived discrimination. Findings demonstrate that outness and community involvement function as risk factors for substance abuse for bisexual women, in part due to their associations with discrimination.

  19. Validation of key behaviourally based mental health diagnoses in administrative data: suicide attempt, alcohol abuse, illicit drug abuse and tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Smith, Eric G; Stano, Claire M; Ganoczy, Dara; Zivin, Kara; Walters, Heather; Valenstein, Marcia

    2012-01-23

    Observational research frequently uses administrative codes for mental health or substance use diagnoses and for important behaviours such as suicide attempts. We sought to validate codes (International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, clinical modification diagnostic and E-codes) entered in Veterans Health Administration administrative data for patients with depression versus a gold standard of electronic medical record text ("chart notation"). Three random samples of patients were selected, each stratified by geographic region, gender, and year of cohort entry, from a VHA depression treatment cohort from April 1, 1999 to September 30, 2004. The first sample was selected from patients who died by suicide, the second from patients who remained alive on the date of death of suicide cases, and the third from patients with a new start of a commonly used antidepressant medication. Four variables were assessed using administrative codes in the year prior to the index date: suicide attempt, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence and tobacco use. Specificity was high (≥ 90%) for all four administrative codes, regardless of the sample. Sensitivity was ≤75% and was particularly low for suicide attempt (≤ 17%). Positive predictive values for alcohol dependence/abuse and tobacco use were high, but barely better than flipping a coin for illicit drug abuse/dependence. Sensitivity differed across the three samples, but was highest in the suicide death sample. Administrative data-based diagnoses among VHA records have high specificity, but low sensitivity. The accuracy level varies by different diagnosis and by different patient subgroup.

  20. Association between alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit substance abuse and risk of developing schizophrenia: a nationwide population based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M; Hjorthøj, C

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have examined whether use of substances can cause schizophrenia. However, due to methodological limitations in the existing literature (e.g. selection bias and lack of adjustment of co-abuse) uncertainties still remain. We aimed to investigate whether substance abuse increases the risk of developing schizophrenia, addressing some of these limitations. The longitudinal, nationwide Danish registers were linked to establish a cohort of 3 133 968 individuals (105 178 673 person-years at risk), identifying 204 505 individuals diagnosed with substance abuse and 21 305 diagnosed with schizophrenia. Information regarding substance abuse was extracted from several registers and did not include psychotic symptoms caused by substance abuse in the definition. This resulted in a large, generalizable sample of exposed individuals. The data was analysed using Cox regression analyses, and adjusted for calendar year, gender, urbanicity, co-abuse, other psychiatric diagnosis, parental substance abuse, psychiatric history, immigration and socioeconomic status. A diagnosis of substance abuse increased the overall risk of developing schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR) 6.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.84-6.26]. Cannabis (HR 5.20, 95% CI 4.86-5.57) and alcohol (HR 3.38, 95% CI 3.24-3.53) presented the strongest associations. Abuse of hallucinogens (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.43-2.41), sedatives (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.49-1.90), and other substances (HR 2.85, 95% CI 2.58-3.15) also increased the risk significantly. The risk was found to be significant even 10-15 years subsequent to a diagnosis of substance abuse. Our results illustrate robust associations between almost any type of substance abuse and an increased risk of developing schizophrenia later in life.

  1. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  2. When Parents Have Problems: A Book for Teens and Older Children with an Abusive, Alcoholic, or Mentally Ill Parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan B.

    This book was written for teenagers and older children who have abusive, alcoholic, or mentally ill parents. Emphasis is placed on young people in such situations using their intelligence, understanding that parents are fallible, viewing the future with optimism, facing reality, and seeing the good in other people rather than assuming everyone…

  3. HIV-TB Coinfection among 57 Million Pregnant Women, Obstetric Complications, Alcohol Use, Drug Abuse, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Dorian; Salami, Imoleayo; Davis, Janelle; Mbah, Florence; Kazeem, Aisha; Ash, Abreah; Babino, Justin; Carter, Laquiesha; Salemi, Jason L; Spooner, Kiara K; Olaleye, Omonike A; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2018-01-01

    HIV and tuberculosis represent diseases of major public health importance worldwide. Very little is known about HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant women, especially from industrialized settings. In this study, we examined the association between TB, HIV, and HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant mothers and obstetric complications, alcohol use, drug abuse, and depression. We examined inpatient hospital discharges in the United States from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014. We employed multivariable survey logistic regression to generate adjusted estimates for the association between infection status and study outcomes. We analyzed approximately 57 million records of pregnant women and their delivery information. HIV-TB coinfection was associated with the highest risks for several obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The risk for alcohol abuse was more than twice as high among HIV-monoinfected as compared to TB-monoinfected mothers. That risk gap more than doubled with HIV-TB coinfection. Both HIV-monoinfected and HIV-TB coinfected mothers experienced similarly increased risks for depression. Mothers with HIV-TB coinfection experienced relatively heightened risks for obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The findings of this study underscore the importance of augmenting and enhancing social and structural support systems for HIV-TB coinfected pregnant women.

  4. The Effect of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and School Experiences on Depression: A National Study of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…

  5. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  6. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  7. Heroin and cocaine abusers have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than alcoholics or non-drug-using controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kris N; Petry, Nancy M

    2004-04-01

    To test a prediction of the discounting model of impulsiveness that discount rates would be positively associated with addiction. The delay-discount rate refers to the rate of reduction in the present value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. We estimated participants' discount rates on the basis of their pattern of choices between smaller immediate rewards ($11-80) and larger, delayed rewards ($25-85; at delays from 1 week to 6 months) in a questionnaire format. Participants had a one-in-six chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Heroin (n = 27), cocaine (n = 41) and alcohol (n = 33) abusers and non-drug-using controls (n = 44) were recruited from advertisements. They were tested in a drug abuse research clinic at a medical school. On average, the cocaine and heroin groups had higher rates than controls (both P rates for heroin abusers (P = 0.03), but not for cocaine or alcohol abusers (both P > 0.50). These data suggest that discount rates vary with the preferred drug of abuse, and that high discount rates should be considered in the development of substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts.

  8. Discriminability of personality profiles in isolated and Co-morbid marijuana and nicotine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcherside, Ariel; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Baine, Jessica L; Filbey, Francesca M

    2016-04-30

    Specific personality traits have been linked with substance use disorders (SUDs), genetic mechanisms, and brain systems. Thus, determining the specificity of personality traits to types of SUD can advance the field towards defining SUD endophenotypes as well as understanding the brain systems involved for the development of novel treatments. Disentangling these factors is particularly important in highly co morbid SUDs, such as marijuana and nicotine use, so treatment can occur effectively for both. This study evaluated personality traits that distinguish isolated and co-morbid use of marijuana and nicotine. To that end, we collected the NEO Five Factor Inventory in participants who used marijuana-only (n=59), nicotine-only (n=27), both marijuana and nicotine (n=28), and in non-using controls (n=28). We used factor analyses to identify personality profiles, which are linear combinations of the five NEO Factors. We then conducted Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis to test accuracy of the personality factors in discriminating isolated and co-morbid marijuana and nicotine users from each other. ROC curve analysis distinguished the four groups based on their NEO personality patterns. Results showed that NEO Factor 2 (openness, extraversion, agreeableness) discriminated marijuana and marijuana+nicotine users from controls and nicotine-only users with high predictability. Additional ANOVA results showed that the openness dimension discriminated marijuana users from nicotine users. These findings suggest that personality dimensions distinguish marijuana users from nicotine users and should be considered in prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Review: An Australian model of care for co-morbid diabetes and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Clement; Zimbudzi, Edward; Teede, Helena; Cass, Alan; Fulcher, Greg; Gallagher, Martin; Kerr, Peter G; Jan, Stephen; Johnson, Greg; Mathew, Tim; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Russell, Grant; Usherwood, Tim; Walker, Rowan; Zoungas, Sophia

    2018-02-05

    Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are two of the most prevalent co-morbid chronic diseases in Australia. The increasing complexity of multi-morbidity, and current gaps in health-care delivery for people with co-morbid diabetes and CKD, emphasise the need for better models of care for this population. Previously, proposed published models of care for co-morbid diabetes and CKD have not been co-designed with stake-holders or formally evaluated. Particular components of health-care shown to be effective in this population are interventions that: are structured, intensive and multifaceted (treating diabetes and multiple cardiovascular risk factors); involve multiple medical disciplines; improve self-management by the patient; and upskill primary health-care. Here we present an integrated patient-centred model of health-care delivery incorporating these components and co-designed with key stake-holders including specialist health professionals, general practitioners and Diabetes and Kidney Health Australia. The development of the model of care was informed by focus groups of patients and health-professionals; and semi-structured interviews of care-givers and health professionals. Other distinctives of this model of care are routine screening for psychological morbidity; patient-support through a phone advice line; and focused primary health-care support in the management of diabetes and CKD. Additionally, the model of care integrates with the patient-centred health-care home currently being rolled out by the Australian Department of Health. This model of care will be evaluated after implementation across two tertiary health services and their primary care catchment areas. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. The epidemiology of vertigo, dizziness and unsteadiness and its links to co-morbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eBisdorff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo, dizziness and unsteadiness (VDU are common symptoms traditionally considered to result from different kinds of vestibular and non-vestibular dysfunctions. The epidemiology of each symptom and how they relate to each other and to migraine, agoraphobia, motion sickness susceptibility (MSS, vaso-vagal episodes (VVE and anxiety-depression (AD was the object of this population-based study in north-eastern France. A self-administered questionnaire was returned by 2987 adults (age span 18-86 years, 1471 women. The 1-year prevalence for vertigo was 48.3%, for unsteadiness 39.1% and for dizziness 35.6%. The three symptoms were correlated with each other, occurred mostly (69.4% in various combinations rather than in isolation, less than once per month, and 90% of episodes lasted ≤ 2 minutes. The three symptoms were similar in terms of female predominance, temporary profile of the episodes and their link to falls and nausea. Symptom episodes of >1 hour increase the risk of falls. VDU are much more common than the known prevalence of vestibular disorders. The number of drugs taken increase VDU even when controlling for age. Each VDU symptom was correlated with each co-morbidity in Chi2 tests. The data suggest that the three symptoms are more likely to represent a spectrum resulting from a range of similar — rather than from different, unrelated — mechanisms or disorders. Logistic regressions controlling for each vestibular symptom showed that vertigo correlated with each co-morbidity but dizziness and unsteadiness did not, suggesting that vertigo is certainly not a more specific symptom than the other two. A logistic regression using a composite score of VDU, controlling for each co-morbidity showed a correlation of VDU to migraine and VVE but not to MSS and not to agoraphobia in men, only in women.

  11. Hypertension Control and co-morbidities in primary health care centers in Riyadh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Tuwijri, Abdulmohsin A [Dept. of Family Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Rukban, Mohammed Othman [Dept. of Family and Community Medicine, Coll. of Medicine, King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)

  12. Hypertension Control and co-morbidities in primary health care centers in Riyadh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tuwijri, Abdulmohsin A.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed Othman

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)

  13. Is rotator cuff repair worthwhile in patients with co-morbidities?

    OpenAIRE

    Yash Kishore Shah; Rohan Kiran Khavte; Parag Kishore Munshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff tears are a common source of shoulder pain. The incidence increases with age and is most frequently due to degeneration of the tendon, rather than injury. This study is done to see whether in patients having established rotator cuff tears with co-morbidities like hypertension diabetes, epilepsy, etc. a surgical repair is worthwhile or whether it is better to leave such patients alone in order to give them a better quality of life. Methods: A total of 35 patients w...

  14. Co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis and celiac disease in Scandinavian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, G; Olesen, H V; Gilljam, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and celiac disease (CD) has been reported sporadically since the 1960s. To our knowledge, this is the first time a systematic screening is performed in a large cohort of CF patients. METHODS: Transglutaminase-IgA (TGA), endomysium-IgA (EMA...... patients were detected in the Danish CF cohort. Patients diagnosed with untreated CD reported symptoms typical of both CF and CD (poor weight gain, loose and/or fatty stools, fatigue, irritability, abdominal pain). They improved after introduction of a gluten-free diet. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic screening...

  15. Child attention deficit hyperactive disorder co morbidities on family stress: effect of medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Desiree; Houghton, Stephen; Hagemann, Erika; Jacoby, Peter; Jongeling, Brad; Bower, Carol

    2015-04-01

    We examined the degree of parental and child mental health in a community sample of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder and the effect on family stress prior to and during treatment using a community retrospective questionnaire study. In total 358 questionnaires were returned for analysis where 92 % of children had at least one co-morbid condition and mental health conditions in parents was common. Overall, the Family Strain Index was significantly reduced after commencement of medication (p disorders or autism spectrum disorder.

  16. Suicide risk and alcohol and drug abuse in outpatients with HIV infection and Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Patrícia M; Passos, Sonia R; Calvet, Guilherme A; Hökerberg, Yara H; Lessa, José L; Andrade, Carlos A de

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate psychiatric comorbidities in outpatients receiving care for HIV and Chagas disease at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 125 patients referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic from February to December 2010. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used. Factors associated with more frequent mental disorders were estimated by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) by multiple logistic regression. Seventy-six (60.8%) patients with HIV, 40 (32%) patients with Chagas disease, and nine (7.2%) patients with human T-lymphotropic virus were interviewed. The majority were women (64%), with up to 8 years of formal education (56%), and unemployed (81.6%). The median age was 49 years. Suicide risk (n=71) (56%), agoraphobia (n=65) (52%), major depressive episode (n=56) (44.8%), and alcohol/drug abuse (n=43) (34.4%) predominated, the latter being directly associated with lower family income (OR = 2.64; 95%CI 1.03-6.75) and HIV infection (OR = 5.24; 95%CI 1.56-17.61). Suicide risk was associated with non-white skin color (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.03-4.75), unemployment (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.01-7.34), and diagnosis of major depression (OR = 3.34; 95%CI 1.54-7.44). Measures targeting adverse socioeconomic conditions and psychiatric and psychological monitoring and care should be encouraged in this population, considering the association with abuse of alcohol/other psychoactive drugs and suicide risk.

  17. Suicide risk and alcohol and drug abuse in outpatients with HIV infection and Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Guimarães

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate psychiatric comorbidities in outpatients receiving care for HIV and Chagas disease at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 125 patients referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic from February to December 2010. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used. Factors associated with more frequent mental disorders were estimated by odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI by multiple logistic regression. Results: Seventy-six (60.8% patients with HIV, 40 (32% patients with Chagas disease, and nine (7.2% patients with human T-lymphotropic virus were interviewed. The majority were women (64%, with up to 8 years of formal education (56%, and unemployed (81.6%. The median age was 49 years. Suicide risk (n=71 (56%, agoraphobia (n=65 (52%, major depressive episode (n=56 (44.8%, and alcohol/drug abuse (n=43 (34.4% predominated, the latter being directly associated with lower family income (OR = 2.64; 95%CI 1.03-6.75 and HIV infection (OR = 5.24; 95%CI 1.56-17.61. Suicide risk was associated with non-white skin color (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.03-4.75, unemployment (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.01-7.34, and diagnosis of major depression (OR = 3.34; 95%CI 1.54-7.44. Conclusion: Measures targeting adverse socioeconomic conditions and psychiatric and psychological monitoring and care should be encouraged in this population, considering the association with abuse of alcohol/other psychoactive drugs and suicide risk.

  18. The influence of specific chronic somatic conditions on the care for co-morbid depression in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyen, J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.; Dijk, L. van; Bos, G.A.M. van den; Groenewegen, P.P.; Schellevis, F.G.

    Background. Limited information exists on the relationship between specific chronic somatic conditions and care for co-morbid depression in primary care settings. Therefore, the present prospective, general practice-based study examined this relationship. Method. Longitudinal data on morbidity,

  19. Uncovering Genomic Causes of Co-Morbidity in Epilepsy: Gene-Driven Phenotypic Characterization of Rare Microdeletions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperavičiūtė, D.; Catarino, C.B.; Chinthapalli, K.; Clayton, L.M.S.; Thom, M.; Martinian, L.; Cohen, H.; Adalat, S.; Bockenhauer, D.; Pope, S.A.; Lench, N.; Koltzenburg, M.; Duncan, J.S.; Hammond, P.; Hennekam, R.C.M.; Land, J.M.; Sisodiya, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with epilepsy often suffer from other important conditions. The existence of such co-morbidities is frequently not recognized and their relationship with epilepsy usually remains unexplained. Methodology/Principal Findings: We describe three patients with common, sporadic,

  20. Association of Physical Activity with Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in a Nationally-Representative U.S. Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, April Joy; Mendelson, Tamar

    2017-11-10

    Alcohol use is a pervasive and costly public health problem in the United States. Relapse rates from alcohol use disorders are high. Although exercise has been proposed as a strategy to prevent relapse, lifestyle modification is the least studied aspect of relapse prevention programs, especially among racial/ethnic minority populations. The current study assessed whether being physically active was associated with remission from alcohol abuse or dependence among Black (African American and Afro Caribbean) adults in the U.S. We utilized data on Black adult participants (n = 4,828) from the nationally representative National Survey of American Life (NSAL) conducted in 2001-2003. Logistic regression models were estimated to assess the odds of being in 12-month remission or currently meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence based on level of physical activity, adjusting for socio-demographic and neighborhood characteristics. People who endorsed being physically active had higher odds of being in 12-month remission from alcohol use problems (OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.28, 2.17) than people who were physically inactive, adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level characteristics. People who were physically active did not differ significantly from those who were inactive with respect to odds of currently meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Conclusions/Importance: Physical activity was positively associated with being in 12-month remission from alcohol use problems. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish temporal ordering and to explore exercise as a potential relapse prevention strategy for alcohol use problems.

  1. Improved accuracy of co-morbidity coding over time after the introduction of ICD-10 administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januel, Jean-Marie; Luthi, Jean-Christophe; Quan, Hude; Borst, François; Taffé, Patrick; Ghali, William A; Burnand, Bernard

    2011-08-18

    Co-morbidity information derived from administrative data needs to be validated to allow its regular use. We assessed evolution in the accuracy of coding for Charlson and Elixhauser co-morbidities at three time points over a 5-year period, following the introduction of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), coding of hospital discharges. Cross-sectional time trend evaluation study of coding accuracy using hospital chart data of 3'499 randomly selected patients who were discharged in 1999, 2001 and 2003, from two teaching and one non-teaching hospital in Switzerland. We measured sensitivity, positive predictive and Kappa values for agreement between administrative data coded with ICD-10 and chart data as the 'reference standard' for recording 36 co-morbidities. For the 17 the Charlson co-morbidities, the sensitivity - median (min-max) - was 36.5% (17.4-64.1) in 1999, 42.5% (22.2-64.6) in 2001 and 42.8% (8.4-75.6) in 2003. For the 29 Elixhauser co-morbidities, the sensitivity was 34.2% (1.9-64.1) in 1999, 38.6% (10.5-66.5) in 2001 and 41.6% (5.1-76.5) in 2003. Between 1999 and 2003, sensitivity estimates increased for 30 co-morbidities and decreased for 6 co-morbidities. The increase in sensitivities was statistically significant for six conditions and the decrease significant for one. Kappa values were increased for 29 co-morbidities and decreased for seven. Accuracy of administrative data in recording clinical conditions improved slightly between 1999 and 2003. These findings are of relevance to all jurisdictions introducing new coding systems, because they demonstrate a phenomenon of improved administrative data accuracy that may relate to a coding 'learning curve' with the new coding system.

  2. Are elderly people with co-morbidities involved adequately in medical decision making when hospitalised? : A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ekdahl, Anne W; Andersson, Lars; Wiréhn, Ann-Britt; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Medical decision making has long been in focus, but little is known of the preferences and conditions for elderly people with co-morbidities to participate in medical decision making. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the preferred and the actual degree of control, i.e. the role elderly people with co-morbidities wish to assume and actually had with regard to information and participation in medical decision making during their last stay in hospita...

  3. Taking It One Day at a Time: African American Women Aging with HIV and Co-Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52–65. Topics...

  4. Pathway from child sexual and physical abuse to risky sex among emerging adults: the role of trauma-related intrusions and alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Latzman, Natasha E; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-04-01

    Some evidence suggests that risk reduction programming for sexual risk behaviors (SRB) has been minimally effective, which emphasized the need for research on etiological and mechanistic factors that can be addressed in prevention and intervention programming. Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked with SRB among older adolescents and emerging adults; however, pathways to SRB remain unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing a model specifying that traumatic intrusions after early abuse may increase risk for alcohol problems, which in turn may increase the likelihood of engaging in various types of SRB. Participants were 1,169 racially diverse college students (72.9% female, 37.6% black/African-American, and 33.6% white) who completed anonymous questionnaires assessing child abuse, traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and sexual risk behavior. The hypothesized path model specifying that traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems account for associations between child abuse and several aspects of SRB was a good fit for the data; however, for men, stronger associations emerged between physical abuse and traumatic intrusions and between traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems, whereas for women, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with intent to engage in risky sex. Findings highlight the role of traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems in explaining paths from childhood abuse to SRB in emerging adulthood, and suggest that risk reduction programs may benefit from an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and SRB for individuals with abuse experiences. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of co-morbidity and its relationship to treatment among unselected patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 1993-1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, DJ; Janssen-Heijnen, MLG; Breed, WPM; Coebergh, JWW

    A population-based series of patients with cancer is likely to comprise more patients with serious co-morbidity than clinical trials because of restrictive eligibility criteria for the latter. Since co-morbidity may influence decision-making, we studied the age-specific prevalence of co-morbidity

  6. Prognostic information in administrative co-morbidity data following coronary artery bypass grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Hvelplund, Anders; Rasmussen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic information obtainable from administrative data with respect to 30-day mortality following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and to compare it with the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) recorded ...... was equal to that of the EuroSCORE (c-statistic 0.79). Conclusions: A standard co-morbidity index based on administrative data as well as on clinical data has proven equally useful for prediction of mortality amongst CABG patients.......Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic information obtainable from administrative data with respect to 30-day mortality following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and to compare it with the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) recorded...... in a clinical database. Methods: We used a co-morbidity index calculated from administrative data in the Danish National Patient Register by means of all admissions 1 year prior to CABG. In addition, each CABG was categorised as being isolated or not, and acute or not. The prognostic power of the co...

  7. Social skills: differences among adults with intellectual disabilities, co-morbid autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly R M; Matson, Johnny L

    2010-01-01

    Assessing social skills is one of the most complex and challenging areas to study because behavioral repertoires vary depending on an individual's culture and context. However, researchers have conclusively demonstrated that individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have impaired social skills as well as those with co-morbid autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy. However, it is unknown how these groups differ. Assessment of social skills was made with the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills for Individuals with Severe Retardation. One hundred participants with ID were matched and compared across four equal groups comprising 25 participants with ID, 25 participants with epilepsy, 25 participants with ASD, and 25 participants with combined ASD and epilepsy. When controlling for age, gender, race, level of ID, and hearing and visual impairments, significant differences were found among the four groups on the MESSIER, Wilks's Λ=.58, F(18, 257)=3.05, psocial skills than the ID only or groups containing only a single co-morbid factor with ID (ASD or epilepsy only). Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Management of Co-Morbidities in Patients with Heart Failure – Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Stewart Coats

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF patients are older and frequently present with multiple co-morbidities. Co- morbidities worsen patient symptoms and may contribute to the progression of heart failure, increase mortality or limit the therapeutic response to treatment. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA affects 2–4% of the adult population world-wide and is associated with similar risk factors to HF, meaning it is a frequent finding in HF patients, including HFrEF, HFmrEF and HFpEF. OSA has consistently been shown to be associated with hypertension, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, heart failure, and stroke. A thorough understanding of the diagnosis and treatment options of OSA is of paramount importance to the practising HF clinician. Patients may present to the HF specialist having been diagnosed by a formal sleep study or may be suspected of OSA because of symptoms of snoring, reports of obstructed breathing by the sleep partner or day-time sleepiness. The mainstay of treatment for OSA is a positive airway pressure mask which can be used in mild moderate and severe OSA. The need for therapy should be discussed with the patient and if the AHI is above 15/ hr then treatment is indicated to reduce this to below 15. This is a consensus recommendation and no adequately powered clinical trials have shown this improves either mortality or the risk of disease progression. Other options are discussed

  9. Mortality in COPD patients discharged from hospital: the role of treatment and co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieminen Markku M

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyse mortality and associated risk factors, with special emphasis on health status, medications and co-morbidity, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD that had been hospitalized for acute exacerbation. Methods This prospective study included 416 patients from each of the five Nordic countries that were followed for 24 months. The St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ was administered. Information on treatment and co-morbidity was obtained. Results During the follow-up 122 (29.3% of the 416 patients died. Patients with diabetes had an increased mortality rate [HR = 2.25 (1.28–3.95]. Other risk factors were advanced age, low FEV1 and lower health status. Patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids and/or long-acting beta-2-agonists had a lower risk of death than patients using neither of these types of treatment. Conclusion Mortality was high after COPD admission, with older age, decreased lung function, lower health status and diabetes the most important risk factors. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators may be associated with lower mortality in patients with COPD.

  10. Co-morbid medical conditions and medical complications of prostate cancer in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapira, Monday Komene; Onwuchekwa, Arthur Chukwubike; Onwuchekwa, Chinwe Regina

    2012-08-01

    Prostate cancer often co-exists with other diseases. It accounts for 11% of all cancers in Nigerian men, and it is the commonest cause of mortality due to cancer in elderly males in Nigeria. To present co-morbid medical conditions and medical complications of prostate cancer in patients with the disease in Southern Nigeria. The study was carried out prospectively (2002 to 2003) at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), and Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi- both in Southern Nigeria. Using common proforma, patients who presented to the urology units of the two teaching hospitals were evaluated clinically and with relevant investigations for prostate cancer and other diseases. Those with histologically confirmed prostate cancer were included in this study. Data was also collected retrospectively by using the same proforma to obtain information from case files of 37 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at UPTH. Data from the two institutions were collated and analysed. Of 189 cases analysed, 73.4% had significant medical co-morbid diseases/complications. These included anaemia (69.8%), urinary tract infection (56.1%), chronic renal failure (33.9%), hypertension (41.8%), diabetes mellitus (9.5%), paraplegia (9.5%), congestive cardiac failure (9.0%) and cerebrovascular disease (5.3%). These patients had high disease burden. Improved health education and well coordinated interdisciplinary team work are suggested in managing this malignancy.

  11. Thiamine for prevention and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in people who abuse alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ed; Bentham, Peter W; Callaghan, Rhiannon; Kuruvilla, Tarun; George, Sanju

    2013-07-01

    Autopsy studies suggest that Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is not a rare disorder, particularly in individuals who abuse alcohol. Thiamine has been established as the treatment of choice for over 50 years, but uncertainty remains about appropriate dosage and duration. Current practice guidelines are based on case reports and clinical experience. This is an update of a review first published in 2004 and last updated in 2008. • To assess the efficacy of thiamine in preventing and treating the manifestations of WKS due to excess alcohol consumption. • To determine the optimum form, dose and duration of thiamine treatment for this indication. ALOIS, the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG), The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS were searched on 6 September 2012 using the term thiamine OR aneurine. ALOIS contains records from all major health care databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS) as well as from many trial databases and grey literature sources. Any randomised trials comparing thiamine with alternative interventions or comparing different thiamine regimens (varying in formulation, dose or duration of administration). All abstracts were independently inspected by two reviewers (ED and PWB), and relevant articles were retrieved and assessed for methodological quality using criteria provided in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria, but only one contained sufficient data for quantitative analysis. Ambrose (2001) randomly assigned participants (n = 107) to one of five doses of intramuscular thiamine and measured outcomes after 2 days of treatment. We compared the lowest dose (5 mg/day) with each of the other four doses. A significant difference favoured 200 mg/day compared with the 5-mg/day dose in determining the number of trials needed to meet inclusion criteria

  12. The negative impact of the disturb of the use and abuse of the alcohol in the family coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de Miranda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The use and abuse of the alcohol progress in a slow and insidious way developing for chronic disease carting immeasurable problems in the individual's process health-disease and of the family all over the world. The present research study analyzed the negative impact in the family coexistence related to the upset of the use and alcohol abuse. It is treated of a field research with qualitative approach centered in the relatives' relieves uttered spontaneously in the act of the admission of a service of psychiatric urgency in the metropolitan area of Natal City/RN. The technician-methodological instrument of the data collection was based on the active listening research. Starting from the explanatory models where the relieves were contained, prevailing the morals associated to the ethical-legal. The discoveries reveal that the model explanatory morals of the use and abuse of alcohol is better explained by the relatives, although the moralize sense is also captured in the speeches that illustrate the other models. We verified one it refuses in accepting the patient condition, even if the relief of the current tensions of taking care of the alcoholic is the hospital. Many are the explanatory and therapeutic proposals for the problem, though we cannot lose of view the need to promote permanent educational actions that guarantee to the bearers and family a larger understanding of the lived problems and a better adaptation of the years lived adjusted the lost capacity by virtue of all the alterations happened in the continuation of the use and abuse of the alcohol in your process health-disease.

  13. The Influence of Co-Morbidity and Other Health Measures on Dental and Medical Care Use among Medicare beneficiaries 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Moeller, John; Manski, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of co-morbidity and other health measures on the use of dental and medical care services among the community-based Medicare population with data from the 2002 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Methods A co-morbidity index is the main independent variable of our study. It includes oral cancer as a co-morbidity condition and was developed from Medicare claims data. The two outcome variables indicate whether a beneficiary had a dental visit during the year and whether the beneficiary had an inpatient hospital stay during the year. Logistic regressions estimated the relationship between the outcome variables and co-morbidity after controlling for other explanatory variables. Results High scores on the co-morbidity index, high numbers of self-reported physical limitations, and fair or poor self-reported health status were correlated with higher hospital use and lower dental care utilization. Similar results were found for other types of medical care including medical provider visits, outpatient care, and prescription drugs. A multiple imputation technique was used for the approximate 20% of the sample with missing claims, but the resulting co-morbidity index performed no differently than the index constructed without imputation. Conclusions Co-morbidities and other health status measures are theorized to play either a predisposing or need role in determining health care utilization. The study’s findings confirm the dominant role of these measures as predisposing factors limiting access to dental care for Medicare beneficiaries and as need factors producing higher levels of inpatient hospital and other medical care for Medicare beneficiaries. PMID:21972460

  14. Association of psychiatric co-morbidity and efficacy of treatment in chronic daily headache in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients of chronic daily headache (CDH and compare the efficacy of treatment between various type of headache associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. Materials and Methods: Prospective case control cohort study, 92 consecutive patients of CDH meeting eligibility criteria. The diagnosis of various subtypes of CDH was made according to the IHS criteria. Age, sex, educational, marital and socioeconomic status, matched controls were also selected. Patients were evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI scale at the time of enrolment and at 3 months. Results: CDH accounted for 28% of all headache patients. The mean age of presentation was 30.2 ± 10.3 years, male: Female ratio of 28:64 and mean duration of 4.56 ± 0.56 years. Chronic migraine (CM accounted for 59 patients, chronic tension type headache (CTTH 22 patients, new daily persistent headache (NDPH 3 patients and miscellaneous 8 patients. Psychiatric co-morbidity was present in 53.3% patients with CDH, and was more common in CM (62.7% as compared to CTTH (36.4%. Single psychiatric co-morbidity was seen in 26 patients, while 23 patients had multiple co-morbidity. Major depressive episode, anxiety disorder, agoraphobia and dysthymia were significant psychiatric co-morbidities. Patients with CM were treated with topiramate or divalproex sodium ER and CTTH were treated with amitriptyline. 55 patients came for follow up at 3 months, improvement in headache was seen in 29 patients. Conclusion: Psychiatric co-morbidity was present in more than 50% patients with CDH and its presence along with a duration of ≥2 years was associated with a poor response to treatment.

  15. Quality of diabetes care in Dutch care groups: no differences between diabetes patients with and without co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R de Bruin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between presence and nature of co-morbidity and quality of care for diabetes patients enrolled in diabetes disease management programmes provided by care groups.Methods: We performed an observational study within eight Dutch diabetes care groups. Data from patient record systems of care groups and patient questionnaires were used to determine quality of care. Quality of care was measured as provision of the recommended diabetes care, patients’ achievement of recommended clinical outcomes and patients’ perception of coordination and integration of care.Results: 527 diabetes patients without and 1187 diabetes patients with co-morbidity were included. Of the co-morbid patients, 7.8% had concordant co-morbid conditions only, 63.8% had discordant co-morbid diseases only and 28.4% had both types of conditions. Hardly any differences were observed between patients with and without co-morbidity in terms of provided care, achievement of clinical outcomes and perceived coordination and integration of care.Conclusions: Our study implies that care groups are able to provide similar quality of diabetes care for diabetes patients with and without co-morbidity. Considering the expected developments regarding additional disease management programmes in care groups, it is of importance to monitor quality of care, including patient experiences, for all chronic diseases. It will then become clear whether accountable provider-led organisations such as care groups are able to ensure quality of care for the increasing number of patients with multiple chronic conditions.

  16. The impact of co-morbidity on health-related quality of life in breast cancer survivors and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoormans, Dounya; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was: 1) to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores of breast cancer survivors to matched controls; and 2) to examine the relative impact (explained variance) of the type and number of co-morbidities on HRQoL. Data from the KARMA project was used in this cross-sectional study. For each woman diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 2552) there were two healthy age- and geographically matched females (n = 5104). Breast cancer survivors were categorized according to time since diagnosis: recently diagnosed (0-1 year), short- (2-5 years), mid- (6-10 years), and long-term survivors (> 10 years). Women completed a questionnaire addressing demographics (age, educational level, and geographical location), lifestyle factors (body mass index (BMI) and smoking), co-morbidities, and HRQoL. The difference in explained variance in six HRQoL-domains between demographics, lifestyle factors, and co-morbidity in women with breast cancer and matched controls was examined by hierarchical regression analyses. Women recently diagnosed (n = 63), reported the worst HRQoL followed by short-term survivors (2-5 years, n = 863). Thereafter, HRQoL scores further improved (6-10 years, n = 726), and were comparable to healthy females after 10 years (n = 893). Co-morbidity has a negative impact on HRQoL, which increased with time after diagnosis. Cardiovascular disease and depression were the strongest associates. Breast cancer survivors report clinically significant improvement in HRQoL scores six years after diagnosis. Co-morbidity has a negative impact on HRQoL, which increases with time after diagnosis, even though the number of co-morbidities remains stable. In long-term survivors there should be increasing awareness of co-morbidity and its impact on HRQoL.

  17. Sleep apnoea in Australian men: disease burden, co-morbidities, and correlates from the Australian longitudinal study on male health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamara Visanka Senaratna

    2016-10-01

    < 0.001, other anxiety disorders (p < 0.001, schizophrenia (p = 0.002, overweight/obesity (p < 0.001, insufficient physical activity (p = 0.006, smoking (p = 0.005, and high alcohol consumption (p < 0.001. Conclusion Health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea is relatively common, particularly in older males. Associations between sleep apnoea and cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory, and psychiatric disorders have important clinical and public health implications. As men are especially vulnerable to sleep apnoea as well as some of its chronic co-morbidities, they are potentially a priority group for health interventions. Modifiable lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, level of physical activity and BMI are possible key foci for interventions.

  18. The links between ethnicity, cultural identity and alcohol use, abuse and dependence in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Dannette; Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the role of ethnicity and cultural identity in alcohol use and misuse in a birth cohort of over 1000 young people. Data on ethnicity, cultural identification, alcohol use, alcohol abuse/dependence (AAD), socio-economic factors and childhood adversity were gathered as part of a longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort (the Christchurch Health and Development Study). Those reporting Māori ethnicity had rates of alcohol use and AAD that were 1.47-1.63 times higher than the rates found in the non-Māori people. However, there was little evidence to suggest that rates of alcohol use and AAD differed according to Māori cultural identity. Generalized estimating equation regression analyses adjusting for socio-economic disadvantage and childhood adversity slightly reduced the magnitude of these associations, but they remained statistically significant [AAD: odds ratio = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-2.10; consumption: incidence rate ratio = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.13-1.52]. (a) Māori ethnicity was found to be associated with modestly increased risks of alcohol use and AAD (b) the higher rates of alcohol use and AAD among the Māori members of the cohort could not be explained by a combination of socio-economic factors and greater exposure to environmental factors known to influence the risk of alcohol use and misuse.

  19. State of the art in hair analysis for detection of drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, Fritz; Balikova, Marie A

    2006-08-01

    Hair differs from other materials used for toxicological analysis because of its unique ability to serve as a long-term storage of foreign substances with respect to the temporal appearance in blood. Over the last 20 years, hair testing has gained increasing attention and recognition for the retrospective investigation of chronic drug abuse as well as intentional or unintentional poisoning. In this paper, we review the physiological basics of hair growth, mechanisms of substance incorporation, analytical methods, result interpretation and practical applications of hair analysis for drugs and other organic substances. Improved chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques with increased selectivity and sensitivity and new methods of sample preparation have improved detection limits from the ng/mg range to below pg/mg. These technical advances have substantially enhanced the ability to detect numerous drugs and other poisons in hair. For example, it was possible to detect previous administration of a single very low dose in drug-facilitated crimes. In addition to its potential application in large scale workplace drug testing and driving ability examination, hair analysis is also used for detection of gestational drug exposure, cases of criminal liability of drug addicts, diagnosis of chronic intoxication and in postmortem toxicology. Hair has only limited relevance in therapy compliance control. Fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair have proven to be suitable markers for alcohol abuse. Hair analysis for drugs is, however, not a simple routine procedure and needs substantial guidelines throughout the testing process, i.e., from sample collection to results interpretation.

  20. The impaired driver: hospital and police detection of alcohol and other drugs of abuse in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsay, E M; Doan-Wiggins, L; Lewis, R; Lucke, R; RamaKrishnan, V

    1994-07-01

    To determine the incidence of drugs of abuse and alcohol use in admitted drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and to determine the rate of police detection of alcohol and drug use in these motorists. Retrospective chart review of hospitalized drivers involved in MVCs and review of corresponding police reports. Two Level I trauma centers in a large metropolitan region. All MVC drivers/motorcycle operators admitted to the trauma service from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1990. The records of 634 injured motorists were reviewed; 200 (32% of the 625 patients with serum alcohol levels) were legally drunk (serum alcohol of 100 mg/dL or more), and 132 (22.6% of the 585 urine drug screens) had positive urine drug screens. Cocaine was the most prevalent drug of abuse, present in 51 patients (8.7%). Two hundred eighty-five patients (45.0%) were considered impaired (alcohol of 100 mg/dL or more and/or positive drug screen), representing almost half of all motorists admitted. The impaired motorists were younger, more often male, less likely to use a seat belt or helmet, and had higher Injury Severity Scores than their unimpaired counterparts. Police reports were available for 446 patients, 139 (31.2%) of whom were legally drunk and 67 (15%) of whom had positive drug screens, yielding an overall impairment rate of 46.2%. Only 34 (16.5%) patients were cited for driving under the influence. An exceedingly high rate of impairment existed in this population of seriously injured motorists in a metropolitan region, the majority of whom were not charged by the police. Although alcohol is the most prevalent source of driver impairment, other drugs of abuse are also important contributors to this problem.

  1. Validation of key behaviourally based mental health diagnoses in administrative data: suicide attempt, alcohol abuse, illicit drug abuse and tobacco use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyungjin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observational research frequently uses administrative codes for mental health or substance use diagnoses and for important behaviours such as suicide attempts. We sought to validate codes (International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, clinical modification diagnostic and E-codes entered in Veterans Health Administration administrative data for patients with depression versus a gold standard of electronic medical record text ("chart notation". Methods Three random samples of patients were selected, each stratified by geographic region, gender, and year of cohort entry, from a VHA depression treatment cohort from April 1, 1999 to September 30, 2004. The first sample was selected from patients who died by suicide, the second from patients who remained alive on the date of death of suicide cases, and the third from patients with a new start of a commonly used antidepressant medication. Four variables were assessed using administrative codes in the year prior to the index date: suicide attempt, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence and tobacco use. Results Specificity was high (≥ 90% for all four administrative codes, regardless of the sample. Sensitivity was ≤75% and was particularly low for suicide attempt (≤ 17%. Positive predictive values for alcohol dependence/abuse and tobacco use were high, but barely better than flipping a coin for illicit drug abuse/dependence. Sensitivity differed across the three samples, but was highest in the suicide death sample. Conclusions Administrative data-based diagnoses among VHA records have high specificity, but low sensitivity. The accuracy level varies by different diagnosis and by different patient subgroup.

  2. Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Co-morbidity in a cystic fibrosis population attending a regional clinic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, F

    2010-11-01

    Pulmonary disease remains the major cause of morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, of 115 patients attending a regional CF clinic we noted 16 cases (14%) with co-morbid conditions. Of this group, 4 of 115 patients (3.5%) had renal problems including both structural and functional defects and 4 (3.5%) had neurological disorders, 3 of which were types of epilepsy. Notably, 3 of 115 patients (2.6%) had different forms of neoplasia, all of which required significant surgical and\\/or chemotherapeutic intervention. There is now increasing evidence of the association between digestive tract malignancy and CF, which further complicates management of these already complex cases.

  4. A genome-wide linkage study of bipolar disorder and co-morbid migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oedegaard, K. J.; Greenwood, T. A.; Lunde, Asger

    2010-01-01

    Migraine and Bipolar Disorder (BPAD) are clinically heterogeneous disorders of the brain with a significant, but complex, genetic component. Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated a high degree of co-morbidity between migraine and BPAD. Several genomewide linkage studies in BPAD...... that using migraine comorbidity to look at subsets of BPAD families in a genetic linkage analysis would prove useful in identifying genetic susceptibility regions in both of these disorders. We used BPAD with comorbid migraine as an alternative phenotype definition in a re-analysis of the NIMH Bipolar...... osome 4 (not co-segregating with BPAD) in a sample of BPAD families with comorbid migraine, and suggest a susceptibility locus on chromosome 20, harboring a gene for the migraine/BPAD phenotype. Together these data suggest that some genes may predispose to both bipolar disorder and migraine....

  5. [Psychiatric co-morbidity, body image problems and psychotherapeutic interventions for burn survivors: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Stefanie; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; de Zwaan, Martina

    2013-11-01

    Due to progress in burn treatment, more patients even with severe burn injuries survive. Despite this positive development, however, there are still negative somatic and mental consequences. These include the life-long care of scars and pain. In addition, posttraumatic-stress disorder and depression are common consequences. Also distress due to disfigurement and body image problems have to be considered, since this is likely to result in social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and reduction of quality of life. Overall, the impact of mental strain on burn victims is quite high. Therefore, psychotherapeutic treatment approaches should be integrated into the care of patients with burns. This might be helpful for both coping and compliance with long-term treatment. This paper provides a review of the mental co-morbidity of burn victims and of psychotherapeutic treatment approaches focusing on changes in body image and the respective social consequences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Rates and risks for co-morbid depression in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Nijpels, G

    2003-01-01

    factors of co-morbid depression in a community-based sample of older adults, comparing Type 2 diabetic patients with healthy control subjects. METHODS: A large (n=3107) community-based study in Dutch adults (55-85 years of age) was conducted. Pervasive depression was defined as a CES-D score greater than...... could play an essential role in the development of depression in Type 2 diabetes. These findings can enable clinicians and researchers to identify high-risk groups and set up prevention and treatment programs.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: There is accumulating evidence that depression is common in people with Type 2 diabetes. However, most prevalence-studies are uncontrolled and could also be inaccurate from selection-bias, as they are conducted in specialized treatment settings. We studied the prevalence and risk...

  7. Mathematical difficulties in nonverbal learning disability or co-morbid dyscalculia and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C; Bomba, Monica; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Neri, Francesca; Lucangeli, Daniela; Nacinovich, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the weaknesses of children with different profiles of mathematical difficulties, testing children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), co-morbid dyscalculia and dyslexia (D&D), or typical development (TD). Sixteen children with NLD, 15 with D&D, and 16 with TD completed tasks derived from Butterworth (2003 ) and divided into: a capacity subscale (i.e., a number-dots comparison task, a number comparison task, and a dots comparison task); and an achievement subscale (i.e., mental calculations and arithmetical fact retrieval). Children with NLD were impaired in the dots comparison task, children with D&D in the mental calculation and arithmetical facts.

  8. Psychological and physical co-morbidity among urban South African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Mendenhall

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence for the links between poverty and both physical and mental health; but limited research on the relationship of physical and mental health problems exists in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and co-morbidity of psychological distress among women with common physical diseases in a socio-economically disadvantaged urban area of South Africa.Women enrolled in the Birth to twenty (Bt20 cohort study were evaluated for this paper. Bt20 was founded in 1990 and has followed more than 3,000 children and their caregivers since birth; this study evaluates the health of the caregivers (average age 44 of these children. Psychological distress was evaluated by administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and we evaluated the presence of physical disease by self-report.Forty percent of the sample presented with psychological distress using the GHQ scoring method. More than half of the women who reported a history of a physical disease, including diabetes, heart attack, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, epilepsy, and tuberculosis, reported psychological disorder. Presence of one physical disease was not associated with increased rates of psychological distress. However, women who reported two diseases had increased rates of psychological symptoms, and this upward trend continued with each additional physical disease reported (measured to five.These data indicate high prevalence rates of co-morbid psychological distress among women with physical disease. This argues for the need of greater mental health support for women living with physical diseases.

  9. Proteolytic receptor cleavage in the pathogenesis of blood rheology and co-morbidities in metabolic syndrome. Early forms of autodigestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Rafi; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal blood rheological properties seldom occur in isolation and instead are accompanied by other complications, often designated as co-morbidities. In the metabolic syndrome with complications like hypertension, diabetes and lack of normal microvascular blood flow, the underlying molecular mechanisms that simultaneously lead to elevated blood pressure and diabetes as well as abnormal microvascular rheology and other cell dysfunctions have remained largely unknown. In this review, we propose a new hypothesis for the origin of abnormal cell functions as well as multiple co-morbidities. Utilizing experimental models for the metabolic disease with diverse co-morbidities we summarize evidence for the presence of an uncontrolled extracellular proteolytic activity that causes ectodomain receptor cleavage and loss of their associated cell function. We summarize evidence for unchecked degrading proteinase activity, e.g. due to matrix metalloproteases, in patients with hypertension, Type II diabetes and obesity, in addition to evidence for receptor cleavage in the form of receptor fragments and decreased extracellular membrane expression levels. The evidence suggest that a shift in blood rheological properties and other co-morbidities may in fact be derived from a common mechanism that is due to uncontrolled proteolytic activity, i.e. an early form of autodigestion. Identification of the particular proteases involved and the mechanisms of their activation may open the door to treatment that simultaneously targets multiple co-morbidities in the metabolic syndrome.

  10. Co-morbidity and patterns of care in stimulant-treated children with ADHD in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Adrianne; Kalverdijk, Luuk J; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; Minderaa, Ruud B; Tobi, Hilde

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed at investigating the use of psychosocial interventions and psychotropic co-medication among stimulant-treated children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in relation to the presence of psychiatric co-morbidity. Stimulant users younger than 16 years were identified in 115 pharmacies and a questionnaire was sent to their stimulant prescribing physician. Of 773 questionnaires sent out, 556 were returned and were suitable for analysis (72%). The results are based on 510 questionnaires concerning stimulant-treated children for whom a diagnosis of ADHD was reported. Of the 510 children diagnosed with ADHD, 31% had also received one or more other psychiatric diagnoses, mainly pervasive developmental disorder or oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder. We found an association between the presence of co-morbidity and the use of psychosocial interventions for the child (P parents (P receive any form of additional interventions, while psychosocial interventions varied from 8 to 18% in children with ADHD and psychiatric co-morbidity. The presence of diagnostic co-morbidity was also associated with the use of psychotropic co-medication (overall, P = 0.012) and antipsychotics (P received more psychosocial interventions and psychotropic co-medication than children with ADHD-only. The type of psychosocial interventions and psychotropic co-medication received by the children and their parents, depended on the specific co-morbid psychiatric disorder being present.

  11. Bipolaris spicifera : An unusual cause of non-healing cutaneous ulcers in a patient with diabetes and alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of Bipolaris spicifera, a dematiaceous fungus commonly found in soil and as a plant pathogen, isolated from culture of the lesions and from an excisional biopsy pecimen in a patient with diabetes and alcohol abuse.This case highlights the importance of considering Bipolaris as a differential diagnosis in patients with cutaneous lesions and the need for vigorous management for complete cure. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1: 33-35

  12. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  13. The association between an abusive father-son relationship, quantity of alcohol consumption, and male-to-male alcohol-related aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Hargreaves, Jessica; Curtis, Ashlee; Zinkiewicz, Lucy

    2013-09-01

    While alcohol consumption and heavy episodic (binge) drinking are well-established predictors of male-to-male alcohol-related aggression (MMARA), the role of the father-son relationship in MMARA has yet to be explored. This study therefore examined whether fathering by the biological father rather than another father figure, negative fathering, and gender role modeled by the father figure were significant predictors of involvement in MMARA, once drinking frequency and quantity and heavy episodic drinking were controlled for. A total of 121 university students aged 18 to 25 years (M = 20.63, SD = 1.77 years) voluntarily completed the online questionnaire. The only significant predictors of perpetration of MMARA were a more abusive paternal relationship and drinking quantity (number of standard drinks usually consumed when drinking). Negative father-son relationships may play a role in fostering young men's perpetration of MMARA in the barroom context. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. The mediating role of parent-child bonding to prevent adolescent alcohol abuse among Asian American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Miller, Arlene M

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe unique culturally-based factors that may increase the vulnerability of Asian American adolescents to engage in alcohol use and abuse and the role of parent-child bonding as a protective factor. In particular, this paper addresses the interactions among acculturation, alcohol use, and parent-child bonding and the challenges Asian American families face in strengthening parent-child bonds. We begin by examining likely causes for alienation that occur as a result of immigration to the United States. We then present the cultural context of Asian American families that can also serve to create distance between parent and child, including the contrasting cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism, Asian traditional values, differences in Eastern and Western parenting styles, and intergenerational cultural dissonance. Next, we present a review of the research that has examined acculturation as a risk factor for alcohol use and abuse among Asian American adolescents, with special attention to the mediating role of parent-child bonding. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research on the risk and protective factors for adolescent substance abuse, as well as other risky health behaviors among the growing population of Asian Americans in the United States.

  15. Neuropsychology of perpetrators of domestic violence: the role of traumatic brain injury and alcohol abuse and/or dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological impairments of the executive functions, memory, attention, intelligence quotient, and empathy have been found in perpetrators of domestic violence (intimate partner violence). These impairments could be partially explained by alcohol abuse, dependence, or traumatic brain injuries. This study reviews the neuropsychological deficits of perpetrators of intimate partner violence. At the same it seeks to integrate and relate these main points with their neuroanatomical correlates. We have also established the relationship between alcohol abuse, dependence, brain damage (including traumatic brain injuries) and those deficits. Scientific literature has been reviewed by means of Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge. Perpetrators of domestic violence present high mental rigidity, as well as low levels of inhibition, processing speed, verbal and attention skills, and abstract reasoning. Additionally, perpetrators show working and long play memory impairments. Moreover, those deficits could be impaired by traumatic brain injuries and alcohol abuse and/or dependence. Nonetheless, these both variables are not enough to explain the deficits. Functional abnormalities on the prefrontal and occipital cortex, fusiform gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, thalamus and amygdala could be associated with these impairments. An analysis of these mechanisms may assist in the development of neuropsychological rehabilitation programmes that could help improve current therapies.

  16. Evaluation of an Initiative to Reduce Youth Alcohol Abuse in the “Bourbon Country” of Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Stone

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the program evaluation results of the “STARS for Families” alcohol abuse prevention program implemented in the three school districts of Nelson County, Kentucky, an area known as the location for bourbon whiskey production in Kentucky and in the United States. All 9th grade students in these three school districts were invited to participate in the program. The baseline survey included questions related to their alcohol use, to the alcohol use in their family, and that of their peers. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 6-month, 18-month and respectively 30-month from the pretest. The survey data is compared to the county figures available from a statewide annual survey conducted by the Kentucky Incentives for Prevention Project (KIP. “STARS for Families” program uses a validated curriculum and was applied by many school districts across the United States. Overall, its implementation in Nelson County was successful, even though there were significant differences across the three school districts. The rate of increase in the number of students who used or planned to use alcohol in the near future was significantly reduced between pretest and the last follow-up. Our findings confirm that alcohol use behavior occurs in stages, and that the alcohol use habits of family and friends are strong correlates with alcohol drinking in youth.

  17. Serotonin-Related Gene Polymorphisms and Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Alcohol Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Villalba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals continue to experience neurocognitive deterioration despite virologically successful treatments. While the cause remains unclear, evidence suggests that HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND may be associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction. Genetic variants have been explored to identify risk markers to determine neuropathogenesis of neurocognitive deterioration. Memory deficits and executive dysfunction are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults. These conditions can affect their quality of life and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes may affect the activity of serotonin and increase the risk of HAND. The present study explored the relationship between SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected alcohol abusers. A total of 267 individuals were genotyped for polymorphisms in SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, TPH2 rs4570625, and GALM rs6741892. To assess neurocognitive functions, the Short Category and the Auditory Verbal Learning Tests were used. TPH2 SNP rs4570625 showed a significant association with executive function in African American males (odds ratio 4.8, 95% CI, 1.5–14.8; P=0.005. Similarly, GALM SNP rs6741892 showed an increased risk with African American males (odds ratio 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2–4.9; P=0.02. This study suggests that TPH2 rs4570625 and GALM rs6741892 polymorphisms may be risk factors for HAND.

  18. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Rhabdomyolysis is a severe and life-threatening condition in which skeletal muscle is damaged. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis has been widely described and its main pathophysiological mechanisms are renal vasoconstriction, intraluminal cast formation and direct myoglobin toxicity. OBJECTIVE: To report on a case of acute renal failure (ARF induced by rhabdomyolysis due to strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse and to describe the pathophysiology of this type of ARF. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old man arrived at the hospital emergency service with swollen legs and lower extremity compartment syndrome. He was oliguric and had serum creatinine and urea levels of 8.1 mg/dl and 195 mg/dl, respectively. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made through clinical and laboratory findings (creatine kinase activity of 26320 IU/l. The initial treatment consisted of fluid replacement and forced diuresis. The specific treatment for compartment syndrome, such as fasciotomy, was avoided in order to prevent infection. Partial recovery of renal function was recorded, after ten hemodialysis sessions. Complete recovery was observed after two months of follow-up.

  19. Uncovering genomic causes of co-morbidity in epilepsy: gene-driven phenotypic characterization of rare microdeletions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Kasperavičiūtė

    Full Text Available Patients with epilepsy often suffer from other important conditions. The existence of such co-morbidities is frequently not recognized and their relationship with epilepsy usually remains unexplained.We describe three patients with common, sporadic, non-syndromic epilepsies in whom large genomic microdeletions were found during a study of genetic susceptibility to epilepsy. We performed detailed gene-driven clinical investigations in each patient. Disruption of the function of genes in the deleted regions can explain co-morbidities in these patients.Co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy can be part of a genomic abnormality even in the absence of (known congenital malformations or intellectual disabilities. Gene-driven phenotype examination can also reveal clinically significant unsuspected condition.

  20. Taking it one day at a time: African American women aging with HIV and co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-07-01

    Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52-65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies.

  1. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood: do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. METHODS: We analyzed data from the first, third, and

  2. Prevalence of systemic co-morbidities in patients with various grades of diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Though diabetes affects multiple organs, most studies highlight the occurence of only one complication in isolation. We conducted a hospital-based study to estimate the co-existence of significant systemic co-morbid conditions in patients with varying grades of diabetic retinopathy. Methods : A total of 170 consecutive patients with diabetic retinopathy were prospectively recruited for the study between June 2009 to June 2010 at a tertiary care eye centre in north India. Retinopathy was graded by fundus biomicroscopy and fundus photography and classified into three categories (mild-moderate nonproliferative retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy requiring only laser and proliferative retinopathy requiring surgery. Nephropathy was classified by calculating the six variable estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR for all patients. Nerve conduction studies and clinical assessment were used to determine presence of neuropathy. Co-existence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease was also ascertained. Results : The percentages of patients with overt nephropathy in the three groups were 19.2, 38.0 and 41.2, respectively. Significant linear trends were observed for serum creatinine (P=0.004, albumin (P=0.017 and eGFR (P=0.030. A higher per cent had abnormal nerve conduction on electrophysiology than that diagnosed clinically (65.4 vs. 44.2, 76.0 vs. 40.0 and 64.8 vs. 48.6, respectively. The odds ratio (95% CI for co-existence of nephropathy, neuropathy, CVA (cerebrovascular accidents and PVD (peripheral vascular disease was 2.9, 0.9, 4.8 and 3.5, respectively. Independent of retinopathy severity, patients with clinically significant macular oedema (CSME had a higher percentage of nephropathy ( p0 < 0.005. Interpretation & conclusions : The co-existence of overt nephropathy, nerve conduction based neuropathy and macrovascular co-morbidity in patients with early grades of diabetic retinopathy was significant

  3. Are there any potentially dangerous pharmacological effects of combining ADHD medication with alcohol and drugs of abuse? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Xanthe M; McArdle, Paul A; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2015-10-30

    Among young people up to 18 years of age, approximately 5% have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), many of whom have symptoms persisting into adulthood. ADHD is associated with increased risk of co-morbid psychiatric disorders, including substance misuse. Many will be prescribed medication, namely methylphenidate, atomoxetine, dexamphetamine and lisdexamfetamine. If so, it is important to know if interactions exist and if they are potentially toxic. Three databases (Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO) from a 22 year period (1992 - June 2014) were searched systematically. Key search terms included alcohol, substance related disorders, methylphenidate, atomoxetine, dexamphetamine, lisdexamfetamine, and death, which identified 493 citations (344 after removal of duplicates). The eligibility of each study was assessed jointly by two investigators, leaving 20 relevant articles. We identified only a minimal increase in side-effects when ADHD medication (therapeutic doses) was taken with alcohol. None of the reviewed studies showed severe sequelae among those who had overdosed on ADHD medication and other coingestants, including alcohol. The numbers across all the papers studied remain too low to exclude uncommon effects. Also, studies of combined effects with novel psychoactive substances have not yet appeared in the literature. Nevertheless, no serious sequelae were identified from combining ADHD medication with alcohol/illicit substances from the pre-novel psychoactive substance era.

  4. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction and Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    excessive prolonged alcohol intake . The study is underway; initial results are illustrated in Fig. 5. Rats which had chronically consumed liquid diet...subsequent alcohol intake and preference which are highly correlated with acoustic startle amplitude determined before the initial access to alcohol ...exhibiting high acoustic startle response (which is associated with increased anxiety- like behavior) develop increased subsequent alcohol intake and

  5. Assessing Whether Religious Behaviors and Positive and Negative Affect are Associated with Alcohol Use and Abuse Among a Sample of College Students Living in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Chakema C; Lewis, Rhonda K

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use and abuse are a problem on college campuses. Religious behaviors (religious attendance, prayer, and importance) have been shown to be a protective factor against alcohol use among college students. This study examined the role religious behaviors and positive and negative affect had on drinking (alcohol use and alcohol to intoxication). College students (765) completed an online survey. The results showed that college students who attended religious services were less likely to use alcohol than those who did not attend religious services. The results have important implications for college administrators and policy makers. Limitations and future research will be discussed.

  6. Reducing Sex under the Influence of Drugs or Alcohol for Patients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Song, Yong S.; Coyer, Susan; Pelta, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Aims In a previous report, the effectiveness of the Real Men Are Safe (REMAS) intervention in reducing the number of unprotected sexual occasions among male drug abuse treatment patients was demonstrated. A secondary aim of REMAS was to reduce the frequency with which men engage in sex under the influence (SUI) of drugs or alcohol. Design Men in methadone maintenance (n=173) or outpatient psychosocial treatment (n=104) completed assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-months post intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to attend either REMAS (five sessions containing information, motivational exercises and skills training, including one session specifically targeting reducing SUI), or HIV education (HIV-Ed; one session containing HIV prevention information). SUI during the most recent sexual event served as the primary outcome in a repeated measures logistic regression model. Findings Men assigned to the REMAS condition reporting SUI at the most recent sexual event decreased from 36.8% at baseline to 25.7% at 3 months compared to a increase from 36.9% to 38.3% in the HIV-Ed condition (tintervention=−2.16, p=.032). No difference between the treatment groups was evident at 6-month follow-up. At each assessment time point, sex with a casual partner versus a regular partner, and being in methadone maintenance versus psychosocial outpatient treatment, were associated with engaging in SUI. Conclusions Overall a motivational and skills training HIV prevention intervention designed for men was associated with greater reduction in SUI than standard HIV education at the 3-month follow-up. PMID:20078464

  7. Cardiovascular and musculskeletal co-morbidities in patients with alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockcroft John R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the presence and extent of co-morbidities is fundamental in assessing patients with chronic respiratory disease, where increased cardiovascular risk, presence of osteoporosis and low muscle mass have been recognised in several disease states. We hypothesised that the systemic consequences are evident in a further group of subjects with COPD due to Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (A1ATD, yet are currently under-recognised. Methods We studied 19 patients with PiZZ A1ATD COPD and 20 age, sex and smoking matched controls, all subjects free from known cardiovascular disease. They underwent spirometry, haemodynamic measurements including aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, an independent predictor or cardiovascular risk, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine body composition and bone mineral density. Results The aPWV was greater in patients: 9.9(2.1 m/s than controls: 8.5(1.6 m/s, p = 0.03, despite similar mean arterial pressure (MAP. The strongest predictors of aPWV were age, FEV1% predicted and MAP (all p Conclusions Patients with A1ATD related COPD have increased aortic stiffness suggesting increased risk of cardiovascular disease and evidence of occult musculoskeletal changes, all likely to contribute hugely to overall morbidity and mortality.

  8. Co-morbid pain and opioid addiction: long term effect of opioid maintenance on acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachholtz, Amy; Gonzalez, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Medication assisted treatment for opioid dependence alters the pain experience. This study will evaluate changes pain sensitivity and tolerance with opioid treatments; and duration of this effect after treatment cessation. 120 Individuals with chronic pain were recruited in 4 groups (N = 30): 1-methadone for opioid addiction; 2-buprenorphine for opioid addiction; 3-history of opioid maintenance treatment for opioid addiction but with prolonged abstinence (M = 121 weeks; SD = 23.3); and 4-opioid naïve controls. Participants completed a psychological assessment and a cold water task including, time to first pain (sensitivity) and time to stopping the pain task (tolerance). Data analysis used survival analyses. A Kaplan-Meier-Cox survival analysis showed group differences for both pain sensitivity (log rank = 15.50; p opioid maintenance resulted in differing pain sensitivity compared to opioid naïve (p's opioid maintenance compared to active methadone patients (p opioid naïve control group participants (p's opioid abstinence increased (R = .37; p opioid maintenance, there appears to be long-term differences in pain sensitivity that do not resolve with discontinuation of opioid maintenance. Although pain sensitivity does not change, pain tolerance does improve after opioid maintenance cessation. Implications for treating co-morbid opioid addiction and pain (acute and chronic) are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Type of presentation of dissociative disorder and frequency of co-morbid depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Tabassum; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2009-02-01

    To determine the frequency distribution of various types of dissociative disorders, along with existing co-morbid depression and its level of severity in patients with dissociative disorder. Observational, cross-sectional study. The Institute of Psychiatry, Rawalpindi General Hospital from October 2004 to March 2005. Fifty consecutive patients were included in the study through non-probable purposive sampling technique. Encounter form included socio-demographic profile and brief psychiatric history. ICD 10 diagnostic criteria for research were administered for determining the presentation of dissociative disorder. Present state examination was applied to make diagnosis of depressive disorder in the studied patients. Descriptive statistics for frequency analysis of sociodemographic variables, type of presentation of dissociative disorder and the frequency of depressive disorder in patients of dissociative disorder. The mean age was 23.6+/-8.67 years with female preponderance (n=40, 80% patients). Most of them were single, unemployed and belonged to urban population. Main stress was primary support group issue. Mixed category of dissociative disorder was highest (n=18, 38%) followed by unspecified and motor symptoms (n=13, 26%) in each group. Depression was present in 42 (84%) patients. Moderate depression was most frequent (n=19, 38%). Mixed dissociative symptoms were found in 38%, while 26% had motor and unspecified category of dissociative symptoms respectively. Depressive disorder was present in 42 (84%) cases of dissociative disorder with 38% having moderate depression.

  10. IL-17 in psoriasis: Implications for therapy and cardiovascular co-morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Jackelyn B.; McCormick, Thomas S.; Ward, Nicole L.

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a prevalent, chronic inflammatory disease of the skin mediated by cross-talk occurring between epidermal keratinocytes, dermal vascular cells and immunocytes, including activated antigen presenting cells (APCs), monocytes/macrophages, and Th1 and Th17 cells. Increased proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells in conjunction with immune cell infiltration leads to the distinct epidermal and vascular hyperplasia that is characteristic of lesional psoriatic skin. Interaction of activated T cells with monocytes/macrophages occurs via the Th17/IL-23 axis and is crucial for maintaining the chronic inflammation. Recent epidemiological evidence has demonstrated that psoriasis patients have an increased risk of developing and dying of cardiovascular disease. Similar pathology between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease, including involvement of key immunologic cell populations together with release of common inflammatory mediators such as IL-17A suggest a mechanistic link between the two diseases. This review will focus on concepts critical to psoriasis pathogenesis, systemic manifestations of psoriasis, the role of IL-17 in psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and the potential role for IL-17 in mediating cardiovascular co-morbidities in psoriasis patients. PMID:23562549

  11. Co-morbidities in children presenting with chronic suppurative otitis media--a South African study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallbauer, Ute M; Atkins, Mark D; Tiedt, Nicholas J; Butler, Iain R T; Pieters, Madeleine; Elliott, Eugene; Joubert, Gina; Seedat, Riaz Y

    2014-06-01

    Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is common among children in southern Africa. Managing associated co-morbidities may result in earlier disease resolution. Children 4 weeks were recruited to the study. Each child underwent a full clinical examination, a blood count, an HIV test and CD4 cell count, if found to be infected. The study included 86 children, and the median age was 4.6 years. HIV infection was present in 45 of 83 children (54.2%), of which 23 (51.1%) were receiving antiretroviral treatment at the time of presentation. Underweight was present in 22 of 85 (25.9%) children and in 17 of the 45 (37.8%) HIV-infected children. One or more clinical signs (not aural-related) were found in 46 of 86 (53.4%) children. Cholesteatoma was found in 23 of 113 (20.4%) ears, and 9 of 86 (10.5%) children had serious associated aural or intracranial complications. A high percentage of children with CSOM have associated pathology that needs to be diagnosed to optimally manage CSOM. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Resource Utilization Associated with Extracardiac Co-morbid Conditions Following Congenital Heart Surgery in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomela, Krista E; Gordon, John B; Cassidy, Laura D; Johaningsmeir, Sarah; Ghanayem, Nancy S

    2017-06-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is often associated with chronic extracardiac co-morbid conditions (ECC). The presence of ECC has been associated with greater resource utilization during the operative period; however, the impact beyond hospital discharge has not been described. This study sought to understand the scope of chronic ECC in infants with CHD as well as to describe the impact of ECC on resource utilization after discharge from the index cardiac procedure. IRB approved this retrospective study of infants Whitney Rank Sum Test with p < 0.05 considered significant. ECC occurred in 55% (481/876) of infants. Median STAT score was higher in the group with ECC (3 vs. 2, p < 0.001). Resource utilization after discharge from the index procedure as defined by median hospital charges (78 vs. 10 K, p < 0.001 and unplanned hospital days 4 vs. 0, p < 0.001) was higher in those with ECC, and increased with the greater number of ECC, even after accounting for surgical complexity. STAT score and the presence of multiple ECC were associated with higher resource utilization following the index cardiac surgical procedure. These data may be helpful in deciding which children might benefit from a cardiac complex care program that partners families and providers to improve health and decrease healthcare costs.

  13. [Clinical features and risk factors of co-morbid tic disorder in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke-Ying; Xiao, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Yan-Zhao; Zhang, Zhao-Xia; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Yang, Chun-He; Gao, Mei-Hao

    2014-09-01

    To study the clinical features and risk factors of co-morbid tic disorder (TD) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 312 children with ADHD were involved in this study. Subtypes of co-morbid TD, incidences of TD in different subtypes of ADHD (ADHD-I, ADHD-HI and ADHD-C) were observed. Thirteen potential factors influencing the comorbidity rate of TD in ADHD were evaluated by univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis. Forty-two of 312 children with ADHD suffered from co-morbid TD (13.5%). Comorbidity rate of TD in children with ADHD-C (24.1%) was significantly higher than in those with ADHD-HI (10.9%) and ADHD-I (8.8%) (P<0.05). There were 21 cases (50.0%) of transient TD, 12 cases (28.6%) of chronic TD, and 9 cases (21.4%) of Tourette syndrome. The univariate analysis revealed 6 factors associated with comorbidity: addiction to mobile phone or computer games, poor eating habits, infection, improper family education, poor relationship between parents and poor relationship with schoolmates. Multiple logistic analysis revealed two independent risk factors for comorbidity: improper family education (OR=7.000, P<0.05) and infection (OR=2.564, P<0.05). The incidence of co-morbid TD in children with ADHD is influenced by many factors, and early interventions should be performed based on the main risk factors.

  14. Long term complications of diabetes and co-morbidities contributing to atherosclerosis in diabetic population of Mirpur, Azad Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, C.; Afzal, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its chronic complications along with co-morbidities contributing to atherosclerosis in the diabetic population of Mirpur, Azad Kashmir. Methods: The cross-sectional study and was carried out at the Divisional Headquarter Hospital, Mirpur, Azad Kashmir, between January and August 2012. The patients selected were established diabetics. Data was collected through special questionnaire. SPSS version 14 was used to analyse the data. Results: A total 3602 patients were interviewed initially. Of them 318 were diabetics; the prevalence rate being 8.83%. Of the 318 study subjects, 24 (7.3%) had a history of stroke; 4 (1.3%) had history of transient ischaemic attack; 17 (5.3%) had history of myocardial infarction; 27 (8.5%) and had a history of angina. Foot ulcers were present in 22 (6.9%) and 3 (0.9%) had an amputation. Diabetic retinopathy was found in 95 (29.9%), diabetic nephropathy in 25 (7.9%) and diabetic neuropathy in 126 (39.6%). Co-morbid hypertension was found in 153 (48.1%) of cases whereas co-morbid hypercholesterolaemia was found in 66 (20.8%) and 56.9% had family history of diabetes mellitus. Overall, 34 (10.7%) were smokers. Conclusion: Diabetes is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Co-morbidities like hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia must be aggressively treated to prevent coronary heart disease. (author)

  15. Integrated psychological treatment for substance use and co-morbid anxiety or depression vs. treatment for substance use alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus in favour of integrated treatment of substance use disorders and co-morbid conditions, such as depression or anxiety. However, up till now no systematic reviews have been published. Methods Based on a systematic search of MedLine and PsychInfo, 10 trials of...

  16. Is co-morbidity taken into account in the antibiotic management of elderly patients with acute bronchitis and COPD exacerbations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, Jettie; Hak, Eelko; Birkhoff, Christine E; Hoes, Arno W; Verheij, Theo J M

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines on acute lower respiratory tract infections recommend restrictive use of antibiotics, however, in patients with relevant co-morbid conditions treatment with antibiotics should be considered. Presently, it is unknown whether GPs adhere to these guidelines and target antibiotic

  17. Prevalence and co-morbidity among anxiety disorders in a national cohort of psychiatrically referred children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hoeyer, Mette; Dyrborg, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from a data...... as routine to increase the precision in recognizing and reporting on childhood anxiety disorders.......The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from...... a database containing 83% of all youth referred from 2004 to 2007 (N=13,241). A prevalence of 5.7% of anxiety disorder was found in the sample. Homotypic co-morbidity was found in only 2.8%, whereas heterotypic co-morbidity was found in 42.9% of the cohort. A total of 73.6% had a principal anxiety disorder...

  18. Co-morbidity and patterns of care in stimulant-treated children with ADHD in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Adrianne; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde

    This study aimed at investigating the use of psychosocial interventions and psychotropic co-medication among stimulant-treated children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in relation to the presence of psychiatric co-morbidity. Stimulant users younger than 16 years were identified

  19. Co-morbidity and patterns of care in stimulant-treated children with ADHD in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, A.; Kalverdijk, L.J.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.; Hugtenburg, J.G.; Minderaa, R.B.; Tobi, H.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the use of psychosocial interventions and psychotropic co-medication among stimulant-treated children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in relation to the presence of psychiatric co-morbidity. Stimulant users younger than 16 years were identified

  20. Developmental Coordination Disorder in children with specific language impairment : Co-morbidity and impact on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, Boudien C.T.; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    Co-morbidity of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and the impact of DCD on quality-of-life (QOL) was investigated in 65 5-8 year old children with SLI (43 boys, age 6.8 +/- 0.8; 22 girls, age 6.6 +/- 0.8). The prevalence of DCD was assessed

  1. Uncovering genomic causes of co-morbidity in epilepsy: gene-driven phenotypic characterization of rare microdeletions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperavičiūtė, Dalia; Catarino, Claudia B.; Chinthapalli, Krishna; Clayton, Lisa M. S.; Thom, Maria; Martinian, Lillian; Cohen, Hannah; Adalat, Shazia; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Pope, Simon A.; Lench, Nicholas; Koltzenburg, Martin; Duncan, John S.; Hammond, Peter; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Land, John M.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy often suffer from other important conditions. The existence of such co-morbidities is frequently not recognized and their relationship with epilepsy usually remains unexplained. We describe three patients with common, sporadic, non-syndromic epilepsies in whom large genomic

  2. Conscious knowledge influences decision making differently in substance use disorder adults with or without co-morbid antisocial personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina; Skot, Lotte; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making impairment, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), is a consistent finding among individuals with substance use disorder (SUD). We studied how this impairment is influenced by co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and conscious knowledge of the task. Three groups...

  3. Psychological treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with co-morbid personality disorder: A scoping study of trial evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, L R M; Turner, K M; Dawson, S; Moran, P

    2017-05-01

    It is unclear what the best psychological treatment is for depression and anxiety in people with co-morbid personality disorder. Trials of different psychological treatment options for this patient group have been conducted, but this evidence has not previously been systematically reviewed or critically appraised. We set out to conduct a scoping review in order to describe which psychological therapies appear most effective in treating depression and/or anxiety in patients with co-morbid personality disorder. PsycINFO, Cochrane library trials, Medline and Embase databases were searched for studies involving randomized, controlled, experimental, parallel-arm comparisons, examining any well-defined, psychotherapeutic intervention for adults, in an outpatient setting, with a clearly defined diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety, and co-morbid personality disorder. A total of 1662 papers were identified. Fifteen met criteria for inclusion and were reviewed. There was weak evidence to support the use of cognitive behavioural therapy as a psychological treatment for depression in patients with co-morbid personality disorder. However, the literature is characterized by considerable methodological heterogeneity, and further research is needed before there is sufficient evidence to indicate which psychological treatment would be most effective in treating anxiety and/or depression in this patient group. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of peer-delivered interventions for cocaine and alcohol abuse among women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prah Ruger

    Full Text Available To determine whether the additional interventions to standard care are cost-effective in addressing cocaine and alcohol abuse at 4 months (4 M and 12 months (12 M from baseline.We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomized controlled trial with three arms: (1 NIDA's Standard intervention (SI; (2 SI plus a Well Woman Exam (WWE; and, (3 SI, WWE, plus four Educational Sessions (4ES.To obtain an additional cocaine abstainer, WWE compared to SI cost $7,223 at 4 M and $3,611 at 12 M. Per additional alcohol abstainer, WWE compared to SI cost $3,611 and $7,223 at 4 M and 12 M, respectively. At 12 M, 4ES was dominated (more costly and less effective by WWE for abstinence outcomes.To our knowledge, this is the first cost-effectiveness analysis simultaneously examining cocaine and alcohol abuse in women. Depending on primary outcomes sought and priorities of policy makers, peer-delivered interventions can be a cost-effective way to address the needs of this growing, underserved population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01235091.

  5. Mechanisms and genetic factors underlying co-use of nicotine and alcohol or other drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah J; Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Leslie, Frances M

    2017-03-01

    Concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol or psychostimulants represents a major public health concern, with use of one substance influencing consumption of the other. Co-abuse of these drugs leads to substantial negative health outcomes, reduced cessation, and high economic costs, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Epidemiological data suggest that tobacco use during adolescence plays a particularly significant role. Adolescence is a sensitive period of development marked by major neurobiological maturation of brain regions critical for reward processing, learning and memory, and executive function. Nicotine exposure during this time produces a unique and long-lasting vulnerability to subsequent substance use, likely via actions at cholinergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems. In this review, we discuss recent clinical and preclinical data examining the genetic factors and mechanisms underlying co-use of nicotine and alcohol or cocaine and amphetamines. We evaluate the critical role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors throughout, and emphasize the dearth of preclinical studies assessing concurrent drug exposure. We stress important age and sex differences in drug responses, and highlight a brief, low-dose nicotine exposure paradigm that may better model early use of tobacco products. The escalating use of e-cigarettes among youth necessitates a closer look at the consequences of early adolescent nicotine exposure on subsequent alcohol and drug abuse.

  6. The 4-H Health Rocks! Program in Florida: Outcomes on Youth Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusami Kumaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse is a serious concern in the State of Florida, as well as across the nation. 4-H Health Rocks! is a positive youth development prevention program that utilizes experiential learning methods and youth-adult partnerships. The program and supporting curriculum were designed to foster personal and social skills to better equip adolescents to overcome pressures to participate in substance use. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of Health Rocks! in Florida and program evaluation including its impact on participants’ drug knowledge, drug beliefs and attitudes, and drug resistance skills. Program evaluation indicates that 4-H Health Rocks! resulted in statistically significant improvement in each of these categories for hundreds of youth reached in 2009-2012. The importance of program components in preventing and influencing adolescent substance abuse are discussed.

  7. Contributions of Child Sexual Abuse, Self-Blame, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Alcohol Use to Women's Risk for Forcible and Substance-Facilitated Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self

  8. Evaluation of direct and indirect ethanol biomarkers using a likelihood ratio approach to identify chronic alcohol abusers for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladio, Eugenio; Martyna, Agnieszka; Salomone, Alberto; Pirro, Valentina; Vincenti, Marco; Zadora, Grzegorz

    2017-02-01

    The detection of direct ethanol metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), in scalp hair is considered the optimal strategy to effectively recognize chronic alcohol misuses by means of specific cut-offs suggested by the Society of Hair Testing. However, several factors (e.g. hair treatments) may alter the correlation between alcohol intake and biomarkers concentrations, possibly introducing bias in the interpretative process and conclusions. 125 subjects with various drinking habits were subjected to blood and hair sampling to determine indirect (e.g. CDT) and direct alcohol biomarkers. The overall data were investigated using several multivariate statistical methods. A likelihood ratio (LR) approach was used for the first time to provide predictive models for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, based on different combinations of direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers. LR strategies provide a more robust outcome than the plain comparison with cut-off values, where tiny changes in the analytical results can lead to dramatic divergence in the way they are interpreted. An LR model combining EtG and FAEEs hair concentrations proved to discriminate non-chronic from chronic consumers with ideal correct classification rates, whereas the contribution of indirect biomarkers proved to be negligible. Optimal results were observed using a novel approach that associates LR methods with multivariate statistics. In particular, the combination of LR approach with either Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) proved successful in discriminating chronic from non-chronic alcohol drinkers. These LR models were subsequently tested on an independent dataset of 43 individuals, which confirmed their high efficiency. These models proved to be less prone to bias than EtG and FAEEs independently considered. In conclusion, LR models may represent an efficient strategy to sustain the diagnosis of chronic alcohol consumption

  9. Usefulness of hair analysis and psychological tests for identification of alcohol and drugs of abuse consumption in driving license regranting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendoiro, Elena; de Castro, Ana; Jiménez-Morigosa, Cristian; Gomez-Fraguela, Xosé A; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Cruz, Angelines

    2018-05-01

    The implementation of the points-based driving license helps to change the drivers' behavior and is related to a reduction of traffic accidents and fatalities. In Spain, when a driver loses all points, the driving license is revoked, so the driver must enroll on a Driver Awareness and Re-education (DARE) course. However, at the moment offenders are not submitted to any test to confirm absence of alcohol or drugs of abuse consumption, even when 9% of Spanish drivers lose their driving license for driving under the influence (DUI). The objective of this pilot study was the comparison of the usefulness of psychological tests and hair analysis to identify those individuals with a chronic consumption of alcohol and drugs of abuse among drivers performing DARE courses. Volunteers were submitted to the AUDIT and DAST-10 tests. Also a hair sample was collected and analyzed for ethylglucuronide (EtG) (LOQ 5pg/mg) and 35 licit and illicit drugs (LOQ 5-50pg/mg) by LC-MS/MS. Sixty-one participants with a mean age of 37.2±11.6years, and mainly men (90.2%), were recruited and performed AUDIT and DAST-10 tests. All hair samples were analyzed for EtG and 17 samples for licit and illicit drugs. Mean AUDIT score was 9.6 (SD=7.5), showing a value ≥8 (indicator of hazardous and harmful alcohol use) in 52.4% of cases. Mean DAST-10 score was 2.9 (SD=3.3), but a score ≥6 was detected in 21.3% of cases (indicating drug abuse or dependence). Twenty-two samples were positive for EtG, 8 for drugs of abuse (8 cocaine, 2 opioids, 1 amphetamines, 1 cannabis), and 3 for medicines. EtG concentration (20.7-1254.1pg/mg) was higher than the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) cut-off for chronic alcohol consumption (≥30pg/mg) in 21 cases. All positive cases for methadone and cannabis, and half of positive cases for opioids and cocaine presented higher concentrations than SoHT cut-offs for chronic consumption. Higher AUDIT score and higher EtG concentration in hair were statistically associated

  10. Custos dos problemas causados pelo abuso do álcool The cost of problems caused by alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Donatti Gallassi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O abuso de álcool é considerado atualmente um dos maiores problemas de saúde devido ao impacto mundial que esta problemática gera em termos sociais e financeiros. OBJETIVOS: Discutir, a partir do referencial econômico, as conseqüências sociais do abuso do álcool e introduzir os conceitos relacionados à economia da saúde. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura com base nos sistemas Medline, LILACS e Scielo de artigos publicados nas línguas, portuguesa e inglesa no período de 1987 a 2007, e posterior busca manual com base na bibliografia de interesse dos artigos selecionados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 50 artigos sobre estudos econômicos e conceitos econômicos em diversas áreas; desses, 15 diretamente relacionados ao custo social do abuso do álcool. O método de apuração dos custos e a composição dos itens de custos foram semelhantes em todos os estudos. CONCLUSÕES: Os estudos econômicos se apresentam incipientes no Brasil e avançados nos países desenvolvidos. A necessidade de pesquisas nacionais que abordem o custo social do abuso do álcool tem como uma das finalidades promover subsídios para se pensar e efetivar a construção de políticas públicas mais consistentes e que estejam em consonância com o perfil epidemiológico e socioeconômico do país.BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is currently considered one of the largest worldwide health problems due to its social and financial impact. OBJECTIVES: To discuss the economic and social impact of alcohol abuse and to introduce concepts related to health economics. METHODS: Literature review of articles written in Portuguese and in English (published between 1987 and 2007 stored in the MEDLINE, LILACS and Scielo databases was carried out. RESULTS: Fifty articles on economic studies and economic concepts in various areas were found, among which 15 were directly related to the social costs of alcohol abuse. The costs assessment methods and the composition of cost items

  11. Childhood Obesity: A Review of Increased Risk for Physical and Psychological Co-morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgarón, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide estimates of childhood overweight/obesity are as high as 43 million and rates continue to increase each year. Researchers have taken interest in the childhood obesity epidemic and the impact of this condition across health domains. The consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity are extensive, including both medical and psychosocial comorbidities. Objective The purpose of this review was to consolidate and highlight the recent literature on the comorbidities associated with childhood obesity, both nationally and internationally. Methods PubMed and PsychINFO searches were conducted on childhood obesity and co-morbidities. Results The initial search of the terms “obesity” and “comorbidity” yielded over 5000 published articles. Limits were set to include studies on children and adolescents that were published in peer-reviewed journals from 2002 to 2012. These limits narrowed the search to 938. Review of those articles resulted in 79 that are included in this review. The major medical comorbidities associated with childhood obesity in the current literature are metabolic risk factors, asthma, and dental health issues. Major psychological comorbidities include internalizing and externalizing disorders, ADHD, and sleep problems. Conclusions The high prevalence rates of childhood obesity have resulted in extensive research in this area. Limitations to the current childhood obesity literature include differential definitions of weight status and cut off levels for metabolic risk factors across studies. Additionally, some results are based on self-report of diagnoses rather than chart reviews or physician diagnosis. Even so, there is substantial support for metabolic risk factors, internalizing disorders, ADHD, and decreased health related quality of life as comorbidities to obesity in childhood. Additional investigations on other diseases and conditions that may be associated with childhood obesity are warranted and intervention research

  12. Co-morbidity and polypharmacy in Parkinson's disease: insights from a large Scottish primary care database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Gary; Hindle, John V; Guthrie, Bruce; Mercer, Stewart W

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease is complicated by comorbidity and polypharmacy, but the extent and patterns of these are unclear. We describe comorbidity and polypharmacy in patients with and without Parkinson's disease across 31 other physical, and seven mental health conditions. We analysed primary health-care data on 510,502 adults aged 55 and over. We generated standardised prevalence rates by age-groups, gender, and neighbourhood deprivation, then calculated age, sex and deprivation adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for those with PD compared to those without, for the prevalence, and number of conditions. Two thousand six hundred forty (0.5%) had Parkinson's disease, of whom only 7.4% had no other conditions compared with 22.9% of controls (adjusted OR [aOR] 0.43, 95% 0.38-0.49). The Parkinson's group had more conditions, with the biggest difference found for seven or more conditions (PD 12.1% vs. controls 3.9%; aOR 2.08 95% CI 1.84-2.35). 12 of the 31 physical conditions and five of the seven mental health conditions were significantly more prevalent in the PD group. 44.5% with Parkinson's disease were on five to nine repeat prescriptions compared to 24.5% of controls (aOR 1.40; 95% CI 1.28 to 1.53) and 19.2% on ten or more compared to 6.2% of controls (aOR 1.90; 95% CI 1.68 to 2.15). Parkinson's disease is associated with substantial physical and mental co-morbidity. Polypharmacy is also a significant issue due to the complex nature of the disease and associated treatments.

  13. Brief Report: Children with ADHD without Co-Morbid Autism Do Not Have Impaired Motor Proficiency on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; Rinehart, Nicole; Bradshaw, John L.; McGinley, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Motor proficiency was investigated in a sample of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined type (ADHD-CT) without autism. Accounting for the influence of co-morbid autistic symptoms in ADHD motor studies is vital given that motor impairment has been linked to social-communication symptoms in children who have co-morbid ADHD…

  14. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-06-17

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures.

  15. Integrating co-morbid depression and chronic physical disease management: identifying and resolving failures in self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler-Bedell, Jerusha B; Friedman, Michael A; Leventhal, Howard; Miller, Ivan W; Leventhal, Elaine A

    2008-12-01

    Research suggests that treatments for depression among individuals with chronic physical disease do not improve disease outcomes significantly, and chronic disease management programs do not necessarily improve mood. For individuals experiencing co-morbid depression and chronic physical disease, demands on the self-regulation system are compounded, leading to a rapid depletion of self-regulatory resources. Because disease and depression management are not integrated, patients lack the understanding needed to prioritize self-regulatory goals in a way that makes disease and depression management synergistic. A framework in which the management of co-morbidity is considered alongside the management of either condition alone offers benefits to researchers and practitioners and may help improve clinical outcomes.

  16. Disordered gambling and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders among college students: an examination of problem drinking, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders.

  17. The role of co-morbid personality pathology in predicting self-reported aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personality pathology affects behavioral patterns in patients with schizophrenia notwithstanding psychotic symptomatology. An investigation of the role of co-morbid personality pathology in the occurrence of aggression in schizophrenia is explored using both categorical and dimensional...... approaches to personality pathology. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study we evaluate, in 97 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, the effect of personality pathology on the occurrence of aggression in schizophrenia using both a categorical approach, as described in DSM-IV-TR Axis II, and a dimensional...... approach, as operationalized in the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). We also employ mediation analyses to explore the extent to which dimensions within the DAPP mediate the relationship between co-morbid personality disorders and aggression. RESULTS...

  18. Influence of alcohol abuse on development and course of vibration disease among miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, V.G.; Balan, G.M.

    1987-12-01

    Examines effect of alcohol use on the development of vibration disease among tunnellers, facemen and machine drill operators, miners exposed to dangerous amounts of vibration. Men were investigated using clinical-psychiatric and experimental psychological methods (memory tests, comprehension and scales of anxiety). Results of investigation demonstrated extent alcohol use affects time period during which vibration disease develops: occasional users developed disease in 12 years, moderate and heavy users in 9 1/2 years and chronic alcoholics in 7 1/2 years. With heavy use of alcohol, severity of vibration disease increased. Progressive tendency of disease continued among alcoholics even though contact with vibration ceased. In addition to vibration disease, frequency of psychopathological syndromes increased with alcohol use (occasional, moderate, heavy and chronic alcoholism). Increase in asthenic affective and psycho-organic syndromes paralleled degree of alcohol use from occasional to chronic alcoholism. With increased use, anxieties increase, ability to recall on memory tests declines, facility in switching from one task to another decreases. Results of study make clear need for better methods of preventing and treating drunkeness and alcoholism among miners in occupations subject to hazardous amounts of vibration. 10 refs.

  19. The relationship between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior is partially mediated by early-onset alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Howard, Rick; Lumsden, John

    2012-10-01

    Early-onset alcohol abuse (EOAA) was previously found to both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder (CD) on adult antisocial behavior (ASB) in an American community sample of young adults (Howard, R., Finn, P. R., Gallagher, J., & Jose, P. (2011). Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behavior. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/14789949.2011.641996). This study tested whether this result would generalize to a British forensic sample comprising 100 male forensic patients with confirmed personality disorder. Results confirmed that those in whom EOAA co-occurred with CD showed the highest level of personality pathology, particularly Cluster B traits and antisocial/borderline comorbidity. Those with co-occurring CD with EOAA, compared with those showing only CD, showed more violence in their criminal history and greater recreational drug use. Regression analysis showed that both EOAA and CD predicted adult ASB when covariates were controlled. Further analysis showed that EOAA significantly mediated but did not moderate the effect of CD on ASB. The failure to demonstrate an exacerbating effect of EOAA on the relationship between CD and ASB likely reflects the high prevalence of CD in this forensic sample. Some implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. College Students' Responses to Emotional Anti-Alcohol Abuse Media Messages: Should We Scare or Amuse Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J

    2018-05-01

    This study examined college students' responses to emotional anti-alcohol abuse media messages (i.e., fear vs. humor appeal) aimed at discouraging heavy/binge drinking. An experiment was conducted with 94 college students. As expected, college students generally expressed higher levels of interest in anti-alcohol abuse media messages when watching fear appeal than those watching humor appeal. However, college binge drinkers who watched the fear appeal reported lower levels of readiness to change their drinking behavior than those who watched the humor appeal. This pattern was the opposite among college nonbinge drinkers, in that college nonbinge drinkers were more likely to say they would change their drinking behaviors when exposed to fear appeal than those who were exposed to humor appeal or those who did not watch any media messages. Conventional fear appeal to scare college binge drinkers seems ineffective and even counterproductive while humor appeal, if well designed, could offer alternative ways to communicate with college binge drinkers.

  1. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  2. PATTERN OF PSYCHIATRIC CO-MORBIDITY IN CHILDREN, AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY, AT SIR C. J. INSTITUTE OF PSYCHIATRY, HYDERABAD.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Syed Qalb-I-Hyder Naqvi*, Dr. Aysha Nighat, Dr. Nisar Ahmed Shah, Summaiya Shahid, Dr. Moin Ahmed Ansari, Syeda Maryam Hyder Naqvi, Dr.Zulfiqar Siddiqui

    2018-01-01

    Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), now a day’s mental health disorders are the leading causes of disability worldwide. Most of the psychiatric disorders start in child hood and adolescent. In general population 9.3% of the children had mental health problem and presence of comorbidity complicate the diagnosis and treatment. Objective: This study was aimed to determine the frequency of psychiatric co-morbidity in children and to identify the common Socio demographic ...

  3. Management of Chronic Daily Headache and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities by Lifestyle Modification: Participatory Action Research Combining New Communication Media

    OpenAIRE

    Faizi, Fakhrudin; Tavallaee, Abbas; Rahimi, Abolfazl; Saghafinia, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifestyle modification has a significant role in chronic daily headache (CDH) management. Participatory action research (PAR) can play an important role in managing chronic medical conditions. However, it has been scarcely used in CDH management. Objectives This study aimed to empower patients with CDH to modify their lifestyle in order to reduce both their headache and related psychiatric co-morbidities in a multidisciplinary headache clinic at Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran, IR Ir...

  4. Physician styles of decision-making for a complex condition: Type 2 diabetes with co-morbid mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Pober, David M; Welch, Lisa C; McKinlay, John B

    Variation in physician decisions may reflect personal styles of decision-making, as opposed to singular clinical actions and these styles may be applied differently depending on patient complexity. The objective of this study is to examine clusters of physician decision-making for type 2 diabetes, overall and in the presence of a mental health co-morbidity. This randomized balanced factorial experiment presented video vignettes of a "patient" with diagnosed, but uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. "Patients" were systematically varied by age, sex, race and co-morbidity (depression, schizophrenia with normal or bizarre affect, eczema as control). Two hundred and fifty-six primary care physicians, balanced by gender and experience level, completed a structured interview about clinical management. Cluster analysis identified 3 styles of diabetes management. "Minimalists" (n=84) performed fewer exams or tests compared to "middle of the road" physicians (n=84). "Interventionists" (n=88) suggested more medications and referrals. A second cluster analysis, without control for co-morbidities, identified an additional cluster of "information seekers" (n=15) who requested more additional information and referrals. Physicians ranking schizophrenia higher than diabetes on their problem list were more likely "minimalists" and none were "interventionists" or "information seekers". Variations in clinical management encompass multiple clinical actions and physicians subtly shift these decision-making styles depending on patient co-morbidities. Physicians' practice styles may help explain persistent differences in patient care. Training and continuing education efforts to encourage physicians to implement evidence-based clinical practice should account for general styles of decision-making and for how physicians process complicating comorbidities.

  5. A study of phenomenology, psychiatric co-morbidities, social and adaptive functioning in children and adolescents with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Yaduvanshi, Rakesh; Arya, Amit; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Sitholey, Prabhat

    2016-08-01

    To study the phenomenology, social, adaptive and global functioning of children and adolescents with OCD. Studies have shown varying prevalence of paediatric OCD ranging from 1% to 4%. Childhood-onset OCD have some important differences in sex distribution, presentation, co-morbidities and insight. 25 subjects (6 to ≤18 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of OCD were included in this study. Subjects were evaluated using K-SADS-PL, Children's Y-BOCS, HoNOSCA, C-GAS and VABS-II. The mean age of the sample was 14.9±2.2 years. Obsession of contamination was commonest (68%) followed by aggressive obsession (60%); commonest compulsions were washing and cleaning (72%) followed by checking (56%). Most distressing obsessions were obsession of doubt about their decision (28%), having horrible thoughts about their family being hurt (20%) and thought that something terrible is going to happen and it will be their fault (16%). Most subjects rate spending far too much time in washing hands (60%) as most distressing compulsion, followed by rewriting and checking compulsions (both 12%). 76% subjects have co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis. Anxiety disorders (24%), depression (16%), and dissociative disorder (16%) were common co-morbidities. Mean C-GAS score of the sample was 53.2±9.9. 44% of subjects had below average adaptive functioning. The study shows that, most frequent obsessions and compulsions may be different from most distressing ones and this finding might have clinical implication. Most of the children and adolescent with OCD have co-morbidities. Children also had problems in adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, homicide-related posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Di, Xiaohu; Wan, King Hung

    2016-09-30

    This study investigated the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following homicide and psychiatric co-morbidity. One hundred and fifty male homicide perpetrators and 156 male perpetrators of non-violent crime completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (except for non-violent perpetrators), the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Defense Styles Questionnaire, the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. The results showed that 44% of homicide perpetrators met the criteria for PTSD. No significant differences were found between groups in alexithymia, defense style and psychiatric co-morbidity. Homicide perpetrators suppressed depression significantly more than the non-violent group. PLS analyses showed that alexithymia was significantly correlated with defense style. Defense styles were significantly correlated with emotional suppression which, in turn, was associated with homicide-related PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. To conclude, perpetrators can experience PTSD reactions following the act of homicide. The severity of these reactions and other psychological problems were related to difficulty getting in touch with distressing emotions, the defenses they used to protect themselves psychologically and the way they suppressed their emotion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. The impact of trauma exposure characteristics on post-traumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung Chung, Man; AlQarni, Nowf; AlMazrouei, Mariam; Al Muhairi, Shamsa; Shakra, Mudar; Mitchell, Britt; Al Mazrouei, Sara; Al Hashimi, Shurooq

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of trauma exposure characteristics on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees. One thousand one hundred and ninety-seven refugees residing in Turkey and Sweden participated in the research. They completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire-28. Forty-three percent of refugees met the cutoff for PTSD. After adjusting for location of residence, witnessing horror and exposure to life threat and assault were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity respectively. Death of, or life threat to family members or friends were significantly correlated with both distress outcomes. Refugees residing in Turkey had significantly higher levels of PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and trauma characteristics than those living in Sweden. To conclude, Syrian refugees who witnessed horror, life threat or had family or friends die, tended to have elevated psychological distress. Levels of distress among resettled refugees can vary depending on country of resettlement. We recommend systematic mental health screening and implementation of psychotherapeutic interventions to address issues pertaining to subjective experience of resettlement and trauma exposure for Syrian refugees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Back to basics: informing the public of co-morbid physical health problems in those with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahire, Mrinalini; Sheridan, Judith; Regbetz, Shane; Stacey, Phillip; Scott, James G

    2013-02-01

    Those with mental illness are at increased risk of physical health problems. The current study aimed to examine the information available online to the Australian public about the increased risk and consequences of physical illness in those with mental health problems and the services available to address these co-morbidities. A structured online search was conducted with the search engine Google Australia (www.google.com.au) using generic search terms 'mental health information Australia', 'mental illness information Australia', 'depression', 'anxiety', and 'psychosis'. The direct content of websites was examined for information on the physical co-morbidities of mental illness. All external links on high-profile websites [the first five websites retrieved under each search term (n = 25)] were examined for information pertaining to physical health. Only 4.2% of websites informing the public about mental health contained direct content information about the increased risk of physical co-morbidities. The Australian Government's Department of Health and Ageing site did not contain any information. Of the high-profile websites, 62% had external links to resources about physical health and 55% had recommendations or resources for physical health. Most recommendations were generic. Relative to the seriousness of this problem, there is a paucity of information available to the public about the increased physical health risks associated with mental illness. Improved public awareness is the starting point of addressing this health inequity.

  9. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Mantella

    Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are

  10. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantella, Nicole M; Youngentob, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  11. Perception among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, regarding alcohol and substance abuse in the community: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haqwi Ali I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early

  12. Use of abnormal and health psychology as topics in a classroom format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among college students at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, W M

    2001-12-01

    This study was done to assess whether classes containing topics derived from two college courses, Abnormal Psychology and Health Psychology, could be used in a class room format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among at-risk college students. Topics covered included stress and stress management, alcohol and other drug use and abuse, chronic illnesses and psychological disorders that develop from an unhealthy lifestyle, and factors that play a role in good health and well-being. Students were enrolled in a semester-long course for college credit as an alternative to punitive sanctions for on-campus alcohol violations and other drug violations. The Midwest Institute on Drug Use Survey and the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey were administered on the first and last days of class. Analysis indicated a significant self-reported reduction in drug use and associated negative symptoms and behavioral effects. Women were more likely to report reductions in drug use than men.

  13. Alcohol consumption and use of health care services in people with severe mental illness and stressful childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Andres R; Huber, Christian G; Seixas, Azizi; Muenzenmaier, Kristina H; Lang, Undine E; Castille, Dorothy; Larkin, Stefan; Link, Bruce G

    2017-01-01

    People who suffer from severe mental illness often present with histories of abuse during childhood. Alcohol use disorders is a common co-morbidity of survivors of childhood abuse and neglect. This study analyzes the effects of stressful childhood experiences, a proxy for trauma, on the frequency of alcohol consumption and the utilization of health care services in a population of people with severe mental illness. There were 111 men (mean age: 35 years) and 72 women (mean age: 40.0 years) with severe mental illness that were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. The analysis focused on lifetime prevalence of stressful childhood experiences, alcohol consumption, and utilization of health care services over time. The longitudinal data were analyzed over 12 months with a level-2 model (multilevel modeling). Out of the participants, 41.5% reported a history of more than four types of abusive experiences. There were 33.3% that had a DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol abuse and 27.3% qualified for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of alcohol dependence throughout their lives. Stressful childhood experiences predicted an increased frequency of alcohol consumption over time. People with histories of childhood abuse had more often been to outpatient clinics and 12-step programs, but at the same time showed lower frequency rates of psychiatrist visits and visits to outpatient clinics. Childhood abuse is prevalent in people with severe mental illness and is related to an increased alcohol consumption. Despite an increased need of health care services, affected persons might encounter more barriers to access them.

  14. Alcohol use and abuse among Ethiopian immigrants in Israel: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to cover the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from Ethiopia in Israel and to suggest recommendation for future activities. In addition, as a background, it attempts to describe the Ethiopian immigration to Israel and its problems, as well as some background characteristics of alcohol use in ...

  15. Disability and Health Implications: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines the impact of alcohol and other drug use in creating an unhealthy lifestyle for individuals with disabilities and placing them at risk for health and medical problems. The negative effects of even moderate amounts of alcohol are noted, and the hindering of rehabilitation efforts when a person with a disability is using…

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Abuse among College Students: Alarming Rates among the Best and the Brightest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Hoffman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption at two college campuses, a "dry" urban campus and a "wet" rural campus. We examined alcohol consumption as a function of students' membership in: Greek Organizations, NCAA Varsity Athletic teams, or as being Unaffiliated in these groups. Participants: Two hundred eighty-eight…

  17. Comparison of Family Therapy Outcome with Alcohol-Abusing, Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Prestopnik, Jillian L

    2009-01-01

    Treatment evaluation for alcohol problem, runaway adolescents and their families is rare. This study recruited primary alcohol problem adolescents (N = 119) and their primary caretakers from two runaway shelters and assigned them to (a) home-based ecologically based family therapy (EBFT), (b) office-based functional family therapy (FFT), or (c)…

  18. Prescription Stimulant Misuse, Alcohol Abuse, and Disordered Eating among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Oswald, Barbara B.; Galante, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The misuse of prescription stimulants (MPS), risky drinking, and drunkorexia are current public health concerns. The present study assessed the prevalence of MPS and drunkorexia using an online survey. Specifically, we examined alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol…

  19. Alcohol Abuse Curriculum Guide for Nurse Practitioner Faculty. Health Professions Education Curriculum Resources Series. Nursing 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselblad, Judith

    The format for this curriculum guide, written for nurse practitioner faculty, consists of learning objectives, content outline, teaching methodology suggestions, references and recommended readings. Part 1 of the guide, Recognition of Early and Chronic Alcoholism, deals with features of alcoholism such as epidemiological data and theories,…

  20. Methamphetamine-alcohol interactions in murine models of sequential and simultaneous oral drug-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, Elissa K; Martin, Douglas L; Hudson, Courtney N; Kippin, Tod E; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-08-01

    A high degree of co-morbidity exists between methamphetamine (MA) addiction and alcohol use disorders and both sequential and simultaneous MA-alcohol mixing increases risk for co-abuse. As little preclinical work has focused on the biobehavioral interactions between MA and alcohol within the context of drug-taking behavior, we employed simple murine models of voluntary oral drug consumption to examine how prior histories of either MA- or alcohol-taking influence the intake of the other drug. In one study, mice with a 10-day history of binge alcohol-drinking [5,10, 20 and 40% (v/v); 2h/day] were trained to self-administer oral MA in an operant-conditioning paradigm (10-40mg/L). In a second study, mice with a 10-day history of limited-access oral MA-drinking (5, 10, 20 and 40mg/L; 2h/day) were presented with alcohol (5-40% v/v; 2h/day) and then a choice between solutions of 20% alcohol, 10mg/L MA or their mix. Under operant-conditioning procedures, alcohol-drinking mice exhibited less MA reinforcement overall, than water controls. However, when drug availability was not behaviorally-contingent, alcohol-drinking mice consumed more MA and exhibited greater preference for the 10mg/L MA solution than drug-naïve and combination drug-experienced mice. Conversely, prior MA-drinking history increased alcohol intake across a range of alcohol concentrations. These exploratory studies indicate the feasibility of employing procedurally simple murine models of sequential and simultaneous oral MA-alcohol mixing of relevance to advancing our biobehavioral understanding of MA-alcohol co-abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.